United Nations

A/50/401


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

20 September 1995

ORIGINAL:
ARABIC/ENGLISH/
FRENCH/RUSSIAN/
SPANISH 


Fiftieth session
Item 27 of the provisional agenda*


                 NECESSITY OF ENDING THE ECONOMIC, COMMERCIAL AND
                 FINANCIAL EMBARGO IMPOSED BY THE UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA AGAINST CUBA

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................    1 - 3   4

II.  REPLIES RECEIVED FROM GOVERNMENTS ................................ 4

  Angola ...........................................................4

  Argentina ........................................................4

  Australia ........................................................ 5

  Bahrain ..........................................................5

  Bolivia ..........................................................5

  Brazil ...........................................................5

  Cambodia .........................................................6

  Canada ...........................................................6


________________________

  *  A/50/150.


95-26852 (E)   250995/...
*9526852*

 CONTENTS (continued)

                                                              Paragraphs
Page

  Colombia .........................................................7

  Congo ............................................................7

  Cuba .............................................................7

  Cyprus ...........................................................16

  Democratic People's Republic of Korea ............................17

  Ecuador ..........................................................17

  France ...........................................................18

  Ghana ............................................................18

  Guyana ...........................................................18

  India ............................................................19

  Iran (Islamic Republic of) .......................................19

  Iraq .............................................................19

  Kenya ............................................................20

  Lao People's Democratic Republic .................................20

  Lesotho ..........................................................20

  Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ...........................................20

  Mexico ...........................................................21

  Mongolia .........................................................22

  Myanmar ..........................................................22

  Namibia ..........................................................23

  Nicaragua ........................................................23

  Norway ...........................................................24

  Papua New Guinea .................................................24

  Paraguay .........................................................24

  CONTENTS (continued)

                                                              Paragraphs
Page

  Peru ............................................................. 24

  Russian Federation ...............................................25

  South Africa .....................................................25

  Spain ............................................................26

  Sri Lanka ........................................................26

  Trinidad and Tobago ..............................................26

  Ukraine ..........................................................26

  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland .............27

  United Republic of Tanzania ......................................27

  Uruguay ..........................................................28

  Viet Nam .........................................................28

  Zambia ...........................................................29

III.  REPLIES RECEIVED FROM ORGANS AND AGENCIES OF THE
  UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM ................................    4 - 2629

I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   On  26  October  1994, the  General Assembly  adopted  resolution 49/9,
entitled  "Necessity  of  ending  the  economic,  commercial  and  financial
embargo imposed by the  United States of America  against Cuba", in which it
requested the SecretaryGeneral, in consultation with the appropriate  organs
and  agencies of  the United  Nations system,  to  prepare  a report  on the
implementation  of  the  resolution  in  the   light  of  the  purposes  and
principles of  the Charter and international  law, and to  submit it to  the
Assembly at its fiftieth session.

2.  Pursuant to that request,  by a note  dated 8 March 1995 and a  reminder
dated 13  July 1995,  the Secretary-General  invited Governments and  organs
and  agencies  of  the  United  Nations  system  to  provide  him  with  any
information they might wish to contribute to the preparation of his report.

3.   The present  report reproduces the  replies from  Governments and  from
organs and agencies of  the United Nations system that had been received  as
at  19 September 1995.  Further replies will be reproduced as addenda to the
present report.


II.  REPLIES RECEIVED FROM GOVERNMENTS

ANGOLA

[Original:  English]

[6 June 1995]      

  The  Republic  of  Angola  notes  with  concern  that,  instead  of seeing
positive signs  leading us  to presume  that, through  dialogue between  the
interested parties, an end  would come to the blockade, the reality is  that
the Senate  of the  United States has  considered even  harsher measures  to
strengthen the wall that  has surrounded the  Republic of Cuba more than  35
years  in  flagrant  violation  of  the  norms  and  principles  that govern
relations between independent and sovereign States.


ARGENTINA

[Original:  Spanish]

[16 March 1995]    

  In the  Argentine legal  regime there  is no  law or  measure of  the kind

referred to in the preamble to the resolution in question.


 AUSTRALIA

[Original:  English]

[3 August 1995]    

  Australia  has refrained from  promulgating and applying laws and measures
of the  kind referred to in  the preamble to  resolution 49/9, namely,  laws
and regulations  whose extraterritorial  effects affect  the sovereignty  of
other  States and  the legitimate  interests  of  entities or  persons under
their jurisdiction, as well as the freedom of trade and navigation.


BAHRAIN

[Original:  English]

[22 August 1995]   

  The competent authorities in  the Government of  the State of Bahrain  are
not involved in any kind of embargo imposed against Cuba.


BOLIVIA

[Original:  Spanish]

[21 June 1995]     

  The  Government  of  the Republic  of Bolivia  has  not adopted  any legal
provisions  or  measures  of  the  kind  referred  to  in  General  Assembly
resolution 49/9.   Consequently, there are  no provisions,  measures or laws
which the Government of Bolivia would have to repeal in this regard.


BRAZIL

[Original:  English]

[27 June 1995]     

1.   Brazil  reiterates its  consistent position  that discriminatory  trade
practices  and extraterritorial application  of domestic laws run counter to
the need for promoting dialogue and ensuring respect  for the principles and
purposes of the Charter of the United Nations.

2.  In accordance  with resolution 49/9, Brazil did not promulgate or  apply
any law, regulation or measure the  extraterritorial effects of which  could
affect  the sovereignty  of other  States  and  the legitimate  interests of
entities or persons  under their jurisdiction  or the freedom  of trade  and
navigation.  Brazil's legal system  does not  recognize the  validity of the
application of  measures with extraterritorial  effects.  It is  to be noted
that  companies  located  in  Brazil are  subject  exclusively  to Brazilian
legislation.

3.  Measures by  any country that violate the provisions of resolution  49/9
and  that were  taken unilaterally  or  are  at present  under consideration
would affect the  interests of  the international community  as a whole  and
violate  generally accepted principles  of international  law.   They cannot
therefore  be considered in  a strictly bilateral  context.   They should be
reviewed  and  changed, where  appropriate,  in  order  to  bring them  into
conformity with international law.

CAMBODIA

[Original:  French]

[22 May 1995]     

  The  royal Government  of  Cambodia,  in  line with  the  position it  put
forward at the forty-ninth session of  the United Nations General  Assembly,
believes that  it is duty-bound to express its solidarity  with the innocent
people of  Cuba and its desire  to see them freed  from the embargo  imposed
against them for more than 30 years.


CANADA

[Original:  English]

[13 July 1995]     

1.   Canada  has not promulgated  or applied  laws or  measures of  the kind
referred to  in the preambular  part of resolution  49/9.   In October 1992,
Canada   issued  an   order  to   block   compliance   in  Canada   with  an
extraterritorial  measure of the  United States,  being section  1706 (A) of
the "Cuban  Democracy Act" (the National  Defence Authorization  Act for the
fiscal year  1993).   The Canadian  blocking order  remains in effect.   The
Government of Canada has advised the Government of the United States of  its
view that  the provisions of  section 1706 of  the Cuban  Democracy Act that
purport to regulate  the activities of companies in Canada should be amended
or repealed.

2.  The Government of  Canada has also advised the Government of the  United
States of  its concern  about the  provision of  section 1706  of the  Cuban
Democracy Act  that prohibits vessels that enter Cuba from engaging in trade
of goods or the  purchase or provision  of services from loading freight  in
the United States for 180 days after their departure from Cuba.

3.   The  Government  of  Canada also  strongly  objects to  two bills  (the
Helms/Burton bills) currently  before the United  States Congress that would
expand  the  application  of  the  United States  embargo  of  Cuba.   These
proposed measures, if  implemented, would violate United States  obligations
under  international   agreements  and   are  inconsistent  with   generally
recognized principles  of international  law.  Canada is  actively conveying
its concerns both to the US Administration and to Congress.


 COLOMBIA
[Original:  Spanish]

[17 August 1995]   

  The Government  of Colombia  has not  unilaterally promulgated or  applied
any laws or measures  against other States which would affect the freedom of
international trade and/or navigation.


CONGO
[Original:  French]

[23 August 1995]  

  The Congolese  Government  reaffirms  that  it has  always  supported  the
lifting of  any measure which violates  the principles  of the international
conventions to which the Congo is a party.


CUBA

[Original:  Spanish]

[9 June 1995]      

1.  In  three consecutive years  and at the  urging of a  growing number  of
countries, the  General Assembly  adopted resolutions  47/19 of 24  November
1992, 48/16 of 3 November 1993  and 49/9 of 26 October 1994 on the necessity
of ending  the economic,  commercial and  financial embargo  imposed by  the
United  States of  America against  Cuba  continuously  for more  than three
decades.

2.  In  each of these  resolutions the  General Assembly  also rejected  the
extraterritorial  nature of the  measures applied  by the  United States, in
violation of the Charter of the United Nations and international law.

3.   The  United  States  has ignored  the  call made  by the  international
community in these  resolutions and  is persisting in  its attempt to  break
down the clearly expressed will of the Cuban  people firmly to defend  their
inalienable right to independence and self-determination.

4.   The  United States  Government  is  continuing its  economic aggression
against Cuba  and is also  exerting political pressure and  making veiled or
open threats  against other nations to  induce them to  cut their ties  with
Cuba and join the United States  Government's policy of isolating  the Cuban
nation.

5.   In addition to the  complex conditions which  Cuba faced in striving to
achieve its  progressive reintegration  into the  international economy  and
the recovery of its economy, Cuba had to deal with the adverse  consequences
of the  so-called "Torricelli Act"  in all spheres  of national  life and in
its  international  relations, as  was  duly noted  in  the  reports  of the
SecretaryGeneral (A/48/448 and A/49/398 and Add.1) on the subject.

6.  On 20  August 1994, the United  States President adopted new regulations
placing  maximum restrictions  on travel  and  the  sending of  packages and
remittances by Cubans residing  in the United States  to their relatives  in
Cuba; these  regulations greatly aggravated the  effects of  the embargo for
Cuba  and also did much to obstruct normal relations between Cubans residing
abroad and their relatives on the island.

7.  Recently, the international community  learnt that new initiatives  have
been put  forward in the  United States  Congress which,  rather than  being
guided by  respect  for the  resolutions  adopted  by the  General  Assembly
calling for  the lifting of the  embargo unilaterally  imposed against Cuba,
include new measures to expand the embargo.

8.   The  Helms/Burton  bill,  which  has  the  objective,  inter  alia,  of
internationalizing the  embargo against  Cuba, only  goes to  show that  the
cold war  did  not  end  for all  in  an  equal manner  (document  A/50/172,
recently  circulated,   includes  an  analysis  in   extenso  of  the   main
implications of this bill).

9.  The General Assembly has  been kept informed of the adverse impact which
these aggressive  measures have had  on the Cuban  economy and  on the Cuban
population's standard  of living, and  of how the relocation  of markets has
led to a significant increase in  procurement costs, instability of supplies
and the destabilization of distribution and production flows.

10.   The  General  Assembly has  also been  informed  of how  the  measures
applied  against  Cuba by  the  United  States  of  America exacerbated  the
financial difficulties already in  existence by depriving  Cuba's economy of
sources of external financing.

11.   For  Cuba  the scarce  and costly  external  financing  received (even
though most  of it is guaranteed  by contracts for  sugar, nickel and  other
export products)  includes in its  cost, already high because  it comes from

commercial suppliers,  surcharges  of never  less  than  3 per  cent  merely
because of the "country risk" involved in negotiating with embargoed Cuba.

12.  This results  from the absence  of support from the main  international
financial institutions  and from  many private agencies  in anticipation  of
reprisals from the  United States of America, and from the general awareness
in the  business world  of the  restrictions of  all types under  which Cuba
trades because of the embargo.

13.    The  United  States  authorities,   through  their  control  over   a
significant  proportion  of  international  banking  operations,  have  also
frozen funds released by Cuban firms to make international payments.

14.   On 13  May 1994  the  Cuban fishing  fleet in  Canada transferred  US$
45,000 to the firm  SERVINAVES Panama in order  to guarantee the  payment of
services  requested by  the vessel  Golfo  de  Guahanacabibes   when passing
through the Panama Canal.   This transfer was processed by Toronto Bank  but
never reached its destination because the  Office of Foreign Assets  Control
of the United States Department of the Treasury seized the money.

15.  Maritime transport is another specific area in which the  repercussions
of the embargo on the development of Cuba's external trade are being felt.

16.  For each journey from Europe or Asia of a  vessel engaged in trade with
Cuba, the additional costs compared with those for  a similar operation from
the  United  States of  America  are  $215,800 from  Europe  to  Havana  and
$516,700 from Asia to Havana.

17.  Since  the entry into force of  the "Torricelli Act", many carriers are
demanding higher  freight charges on the  grounds that  after entering Cuban
ports, a vessel will not be admitted to United States ports for six months.

18.  These carriers have  cited examples such as the  specific case of  what
is taking place in  the state of  Virginia, United States of America,  where
the  authorities included in  the official  documentation required  for port
operations  for vessels a declaration that they had  not entered Cuban ports
during 180 days prior to arrival.

19.   The transportation  of grain, which Cuba is  forced to import, has had
to  be secured in  recent months  at $80  per metric ton,  while in previous
years it could be secured at about $40.

20.  In summary,  losses resulting from the surcharges for certain  imported
products and  higher freight costs for these products in 1994 alone amounted
to some $60 million,  a level similar to the  volume of losses from the same
cause in 1993.

21.  The losses may be broken down into the following main categories:

  (a)  Losses  in connection  with the import  of certain foodstuffs  (wheat
flour, soy  flour, wheat,  maize,  soya  beans, chicken  and milk):    $35.9
million;

  (b)  Losses  in connection with the  import of petroleum products  (crude,
fuel oil and gas oil, resulting from freight costs alone):  $8.4 million;

  (c)   Losses in connection  with the import  of raw  materials (PVC resin,
polyethylene resin,  cardboard waste, corrugated  cardboard, coke and  kraft
paper):  $2.2 million;

  (d)  Losses in  connection with the import  of medicines and public health
supplies (resulting from freight costs alone):  $3.8 million.

22.    The  embargo  has  been   aimed  particularly  at  hindering   export
production, one  of the  few sources  of foreign  exchange for  Cuba.   This
action has been particularly detrimental  to sugar production,  the mainstay

of Cuban industry.

23.   The progressive deterioration of sugar cane  cultivation over the past
four years  has  to  a  large extent  resulted  from  the lack  of  chemical
products (fertilizers,  pesticides and herbicides)  required for sugar  cane
production and of  fuel to  maintain the high  level of mechanization  which
had been attained.

24.   In addition  to being  in close  geographic proximity  with Cuba,  the
United States market is  also the most  competitive market in the world  for
chemical  products.   The additional  cost  incurred  in Cuban  purchases of
these products in 1994,  resulting from the higher prices and freight costs,
amounts to over $8 million.

25.   These additional  costs,  which are  not  the  only costs,  drain  the
limited financial resources  available to Cuba and contribute  significantly
to the  fact, of  cardinal importance for  Cuba, that its  main industry  is
producing at only 50 per cent of installed capacity.

26.   In  1994, as  in 1993,  business with  subsidiaries of  United  States
companies located  in third countries  was practically nil,  as a result  of
the  notorious effects  of  the  implementation  of  the  "Torricelli  Act",
particularly  because  of its  extraterritorial  implications,  a  situation
which had  already been  described in  the report  of the  Secretary-General
(A/49/398 and Add.1).

27.   The General  Assembly  was duly  informed  of  how the  United  States
Government  disregarded the  appeal by  the international community  and not
only  has failed  to lift  its  criminal and  illegal embargo  against Cuba,
thereby  violating  the  resolutions  already  adopted,  but  also  has  not
hesitated  to use  even  covert forms  of  aggression  through intimidation,
blackmail and  dirty dealings  with third parties  in order to  step up  its
policy of hostility against and isolation of the Cuban nation.

28.    The  United  States  Government  has  continued  its  meticulous  and
systematic  monitoring of  the initiation  and  progress of  all  commercial
negotiations and  of investments initiated by  Cuba with  capital from third
countries in order to thwart them.

29.   Last year the Government of  the Republic of Cuba was  informed by the
representatives  of two  large firms  from  developed countries  that  major
investment projects which each of them was negotiating  in Cuba in the  area
of tourism  would be halted as  a result of direct  pressure put  on them by
the United States authorities.

30.   A company  of Canadian  origin which  was making  large deliveries  of
paper and  wood to Cuba recently  announced that it  could not continue  its
operations because of the  strong pressure that was  being exerted on  it by
the  United States Government.  According to executives of the company, that
pressure resulted in heavy  losses, since 80 per cent of its operations  are
conducted in the United States.

31.  In the energy area this pressure has been particularly intense.

32.  A Mexican  company which was participating  in a major project designed
to bring into operation one of Cuba's main refineries was visited by  United
States officials, who told company executives  that their business with Cuba
violated  the  agreements made  between  Mexico  and  the  United States  of
America and could damage relations between the two countries.

33.  At the same time, the  United States Government continued to take steps
to  undermine the negotiations which  Cuba is conducting  for the purpose of
completing the construction  of its first nuclear  power plant.   The United
States Government  not only spread doubts about the safety  and viability of
this project but also contacted the parties involved in the negotiations  in
order  to  impose  conditions,  tried  to  block  the  authorization  of the

respective  Governments to  the participating companies and  made threats as
to the future of their ties with the United States.

34.  In early 1995, the United States  Government once again sent to a large
group  of  countries  a  document  in   which  it  warned  their  respective
Governments,  economic entities  and investors  about the  disadvantages  of
investing in Cuba and the  adverse consequences that could  result for their
business.

35.   We  have  learnt  that the  addressees  of these  letters include  the
Confederacion Espanola de Organizaciones Empresariales and the Instituto  de
Comercio Exterior of Venezuela.

36.  In February 1995, a  representative of a Netherlands firm in Cuba which
normally supplies spare  parts and other items  for the Cuban fishing  fleet
informed the head  office of  the tuna fleet that  it had been pressured  by
the United States authorities to stop trading with Cuba.

37.   In addition,  there are  the efforts  to influence the  Governments of
developing countries not to acquire the innovative and in  some cases unique
products  of the  Cuban  biotechnology  industry,  without concern  for  the
thousands  of children's  lives  which these  products  of  recognized value
could save.

38.    Further  examples  of  actions  of  this  nature  against  companies,
institutions or  Governments have  not been  given because,  in many  cases,
divulging them would involve risks and even higher penalties.

39.   According to  preliminary  estimates,  the total  costs to  the  Cuban
economy, taking  into account lost income  and additional  outlays caused by
the embargo in 1994,  amount to $1 billion,  a figure which represents about
50 per cent of Cuba's total imports that year.

40.    Without  the embargo,  Cuba would  not only  be able  to use  this $1
billion to increase  its imports by  a commensurate  amount, but would  also
have access to additional sources of financing which  today are denied to it
because of the adverse effects of the embargo.

41.  The  continuing aggressive measures  against Cuba by the  United States
and  its escalation  of  those  measures  in recent  years  are designed  to
produce a "whirlpool" effect  in the economy, i.e., to ruin it by  gradually
cutting off its resources.  According to the calculations  made by advocates
of  this  policy,  it would  cause  such  a  serious  deterioration  in  the
standards   of   living  of   the   population   that   spontaneous   public
demonstrations  of popular discontent  would occur,  bringing to  an end the
social revolutionary process begun 36 years  ago, and thereby fulfilling the
main objective of  the foreign policy towards Cuba  of the last nine  United
States administrations.

42.  In 1989  the daily per capita nutritional index of the Cuban population
compared favourably  with  that of  countries  of  similar and  even  higher
levels of development.

43.  As  a result of the factors described earlier and in  particular of the
effect of  the measures to intensify the United States embargo against Cuba,
there has been a progressive deterioration  in the consumption of  important
elements of the daily diet.   If we take consumption in  the year 1989  as a
base, for  the year 1993 there  was a decline in  the daily per capita  diet
equivalent to 40 per cent of  proteins, 64 per  cent of fats, 67 and 62  per
cent  of vitamins A and C respectively, 22 per cent of  iron and 19 per cent
of calcium.

44.  Nutritional deficiencies have a particular  impact on such segments  of
the  population  as pregnant  women  and children  under  the  age  of five.
Anaemia is increasingly  affecting pregnant women, and also children between
six months and five years of age.

45.  The incidence  of low birth weight  among newborn babies increased from
about 7.6 per cent  in 1990 to about 9 per  cent in 1993.  The incidence  of
low  weight among women  at the  beginning of  pregnancy, among  women under
nutritional monitoring, increased from  8.7 per cent in  1990 to 10 per cent
in 1993.

46.    The Government of Cuba has made considerable  efforts to mitigate the
traumatic  effects of  the criminal  blockade on  the  Cuban nation  and has
tried to  ensure, with the limited resources available to  the country, that
food and medicines are  equally distributed   among the people and that  the
levels  of  medical   care,  education,  security  and  social  welfare  are
maintained.

47.     Economic reforms  have been  undertaken  to  boost food  production,
revive the export potential and production  activity in various sectors  and
restore  to  an acceptable  level the  provision  of basic  services to  the
population; although the  results of these  changes are still modest  and do
not meet all needs, they are encouraging.

48.   Even though spending on food and medicines  accounts for a significant
proportion of total imports, the effect on the  country's ability to pay  is
such that it has  been impossible to  have enough resources to maintain  the
level of  health services, medicines and  nutrition attained  by our country
in previous decades.

49.    The shortage of foodstuffs and industrial raw materials caused by the
embargo  against Cuba  is having a  debilitating effect on  the physical and
mental  health of  our people.   Our  women are particularly  affected since
they  are forced to live by their wits and devise  ways and means of meeting
the  food requirements  of their  families,  improving their  nutrition, and
maintaining their  own personal hygiene and  that of  their households, thus
forgoing any rest and leisure.

 50.    It  is virtually  impossible under  current conditions for  our food
industry  to  produce  semi-processed  or  canned  foodstuffs,  since  women
workers  have to  put in  the equivalent  of  a day's  work at  home  making
preserves.

51.    The deteriorating economic situation and lack of access to markets as
a  result of the embargo  has created considerable  shortages of many inputs
that are crucial  to the operation of key  sectors that provide services  to
the Cuban public.

52.   One of  the most illustrative examples is in the health sector,  where
the shortage  of waste  disposal, sanitation and  vector control  facilities
has led to a deterioration in  the population's hygiene and health situation
and consequently  to a  greater likelihood  of the  outbreak  and spread  of
disease.

53.     Major pharmaceutical  firms and  suppliers of medical  equipment and
medical  equipment spare  parts,  which had  historically  maintained  trade
links with  Cuba, recently  informed the  Cuban authorities  officially that
since their  products  either contained  United  States  components or  were
manufactured under United States technological licences which were  affected
by  the  ban  imposed  by the  United  States  federal authorities,  it  was
impossible to proceed with the deliveries.  

54.   The companies that have been forced to take such decisions include:

  (a)  Wellcome (Diagnostic Division) (United  Kingdom).  This Division  was
taken over by its United States office, which cut off the supplies;

  (b)   Shuber  Seal (Denmark),  which  sells  rubber stoppers  for  medical
purposes,  advised that because  of United States Government regulations, it
would stop exporting to Cuba;

  (c)  Ohmeda (United  Kingdom).  This company,  which sells respirators and
anaesthesia machines,  said that  it could  not supply  equipment and  spare
parts  since  they  required  a  special  licence  from  the  United  States
authorities;

  (d)   Hospal  (Germany).   Asked  to  supply dialysis  and  plasmapherisis
equipment, this  firm replied that United  States regulations  did not allow
it to sell to our country;

  (e) Janssen (Belgium).   The firm advised that  in order to sell medicines
to  Cuba, they need  to apply  for an export licence  from the Government of
the United States of America, whose formalities take up to six months;

  (f)   Miramed  (Italy).   This company  sells  the  medical equipment  and
instruments for  the care of  patients with kidney  failure.   It refused to
sell to Cuba, citing reasons similar to those indicated above.

55.     It is Cuban  citizens whose  lives depend  on the  implantation of a
pacemaker who are in  the most difficult situation.  Cuba has been importing
pacemakers for a number  of years from two firms:  Teletronics of  Australia
and Siemens Elema of  Sweden.  In late  1993 Teletronics informed  Cuba that
it was  having problems in supplying the country with pacemakers, since they
contained components  manufactured in  the United States,  despite the  fact
that Teletronics had  been selling large  quantities of  the product to  the
island for a long time.

56.   In July 1994 the firm Siemens Elema informed  Cuba in writing that its
pacemakers division had  been sold to the firm St. Jude Medical  Inc. of St.
Paul,  Minnesota, United  States of  America, and  that we  should deal with
that firm  for future  purchases.   It is  common knowledge  that no  United
States-based firm can  sell its products to Cuba.   In other words, the  two
suppliers we used  to depend on have  stopped supplying us with  pacemakers,
which are vital to the patients concerned.

57.   Various  levels of education are also adversely affected because  they
lack  the essential  facilities required  for  their  proper operation.   No
educational  or  health  centres  have stopped  providing  services  to  the
public,  and it has been possible to keep the  main indexes of mortality and
morbidity  from rising, thanks  to the  considerable skills  and altruism of
teachers,  doctors,  nurses  and technicians  and  to  the  organization and
structure of the country's health and  education system.  However,  material
constraints  have  caused  a  general  decline  in  the  level  of services,
affecting  some  individuals  more  than  others,   and  have  led  to   the
interruption or postponement of some health programmes.

58.   The embargo policy also violates the inalienable  right of the peoples
of  Cuba  and the  United  States  to  maintain  sustained and  unrestricted
cultural exchanges.   Cuban artists  have been  systematically denied  entry
visas into  the United  States of  America despite  the fact that  they were
invited  by prestigious  United  States  institutions.   Cuban  artists  and
composers cannot  be paid copyright fees  for the  playing, broadcasting and
marketing of  their music  in the  United States  and other  countries as  a
result of the  extraterritorial application of  the embargo,  which violates
internationally  recognized  norms   on  the   protection  of   intellectual
property.

59.     The economic,  trade and  financial  embargo  imposed by  the United
States against Cuba affects not  only Cubans living in Cuba.  There are many
examples of  how  Cubans living  abroad,  especially  those who  decided  to
settle in  the United States itself,  have been  suffering increasingly from
the restrictions.    In  the  past few  years,  as  a result  of  increasing
shortages in  Cuba, Cubans  residing abroad  had been  making more  frequent
remittances of foreign  exchange and sending parcels containing  foodstuffs,
medicines and other personal effects to help their relatives  on the island.
Cubans residing in the United States who were on a visit to Cuba and  Cubans
who were  returning  to the  island after  visiting their  relatives in  the

United States were entitled  to carry up  to 10 kilogrammes of medicines  as
excess  luggage.   In  1993  most  of  the approximately  30,000  Cubans who
travelled  to the United States to visit their  families took medicines back
with them on their  return trip as did  some of  the resident Cubans in  the
United States  who visited Cuba.   It is  estimated that at  least some  300
tons of pharmaceutical products were brought into the island in 1993.

60.     From 20  August 1994  on, this  situation became  particularly  more
difficult when  the United  States Administration  imposed new  restrictions
which adversely affect the principles of  family reunification and the basic
right of  Cubans residing  in the United  States to travel  freely to  their
country of origin.   Such restrictions also  have a psychological impact  on
thousands of  Cuban families which have  settled in the  United States; they
are  no longer able to assist  their relatives in  Cuba and are beginning to
suffer from the stress of  being unable to do so in  view of the  hard times
facing the country.

61.     These measures  are contrary  to the  spirit and  letter of  General
Assembly  resolution 49/182, which  was adopted  with a  view to reaffirming
the  importance  of  family  reunification  and  the  freedom  to  travel as
universally recognized human  rights.  Notwithstanding the foregoing,  those
who opposed  these regulations by  exercising their right to  travel are now
living in a stifling  and tense atmosphere and are being harassed by  United
States agencies, especially the Department of the Treasury.

62.    In  view of  the decision  of some Cubans  to travel  to Cuba through
third  countries, this  Department, through  its  Office of  Foreign  Assets
Control, has begun  to enforce more strictly  the provisions relating to the
ban  on travel  by informing  those persons that  they would be  fined up to
$10,000 and/or be incarcerated for up to five years.

63.   Cuban businessmen  residing in the United States  and elsewhere in the
world are also suffering from the effects of  the blockade, inasmuch as they
can  no longer  make  transactions  with their  country of  origin  on equal
terms:  those who reside in the  United States are at a disadvantage because
United  States law prohibits  the establishment  of any  trade links between
United States-based  entities and  entities based  in Cuba;  those who  live
elsewhere  in the  world are at  a disadvantage because  of the restrictions
they  will face if they wish  to have trade relations with the United States
after trading with Cuba.

64.  Far  from taking a  sensible and  realistic position  in its  relations
with  Cuba, the  United States  is  continuing its  efforts to  tighten  the
blockade  even  further,  including  an  attempt  to  internationalize  this
unilateral  policy of sanctions  and aggression  it has imposed  on Cuba for
over three decades.

65.  In violation of General Assembly resolution 49/9, which reiterates  its
call  to  all States  to refrain  from  promulgating and  applying laws  and
measures of the kind  referred to in its preamble, in conformity with  their
obligations under the Charter of the  United Nations and international  law,
a bill sponsored by  Senator Jesse Helms was introduced in the United States
Congress on 9 February 1995, with  the main objective of  internationalizing
the economic blockade against Cuba.  The bill includes measures to:

  (a)  Prevent Cuba  from receiving any external  financing and from joining
international financial institutions;

  (b)  Control all  of Cuba's economic transactions and put pressure on  its
trading partners;

  (c)  Impede investment flows to Cuba and, in effect, stifle the  country's
economic recovery  by means of sanctions  against businessmen and  companies
that  "traffic" in United States property nationalized following the triumph
of the Revolution,  including the  expropriated property of Cuban  nationals
who subsequently  went  to the  United States  and became  citizens of  that

country;

   (d)  Establish formulas, concepts and  definitions of what a  "transition
Government or  a democratically elected Government"  in Cuba  would be, thus
infringing the Cuban people's right to self-determination;

  (e)  Exert maximum pressure  on third countries to eliminate virtually all
economic   ties   to   Cuba,   clearly   demonstrating   the   element    of
extraterritoriality.  Not  only   could  the  United  States  compel   other
countries not  to invest  in Cuba,  but it  could punish nationals  of other
countries  who  fail to  do  its  bidding  by making  them  subject  to  the
jurisdiction of its courts;

  (f)   The United States would  also interfere in  the trade activities  of
other  States by  prohibiting the  import  of  sugars, molasses,  syrups and
products  containing those production  factors from  countries which in turn
had imported them from Cuba.

66.  This also  violates the principles of  the recently founded World Trade
Organization,  which  institutes  a  reduction  in  trade barriers  and  the
elimination of discrimination in international trade relations.

67.   Obviously, from  the legal,  economic and  political standpoints, this
bill is  absurd.   Even if  parts of  its text  could be  amended, the  fact
remains that  the United  States federal  authorities have  expressly stated
their  intention of overthrowing  the Government  which the  sovereign Cuban
people have freely elected.

68.  In  her letter of 28 April 1995, addressed to Benjamin Gilman, Chairman
of  the  House   Foreign  Relations  Committee,  Wendy  Sherman,   Assistant
Secretary for Legislative Affairs of the  State Department, stated that  the
United States would continue its embargo as leverage to pressure the  regime
to  reform.    This statement  clearly  shows  the current  Administration's
position on Cuba.

69.    The international  community  is  viewing  with  growing concern  and
rejection the ongoing United States policy  of hostility and embargo against
Cuba,  which is  both irrational and  a contradiction of  modern trends, and
which  undermines the  climate of  international  peace and  cooperation all
peoples  need in order to  work wholeheartedly at  solving their most urgent
problems.

70.  For three consecutive years, the General Assembly has demonstrated  its
commitment to this just aspiration by  adopting resolutions 47/19, 48/16 and
49/9.  Cuba therefore  continues to hope that  the United Nations  will take
an appropriate role in bringing an end to this injustice.


CYPRUS

[Original:  English]

[18 May 1995]      

  Cyprus does  not favour  any attempt  to enforce laws  into its  territory
that  are promulgated  by other  States.   It is  therefore opposed  to  the
adoption  of  any measures  that  have  extraterritorial application  on its
territory.
  DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA

[Original:  English]

[16 May 1995]      

1.   The  Democratic People's  Republic  of  Korea maintains  the consistent
stand that a United Nations Member State should  not promulgate and apply  a

law or a measure that might  infringe upon the sovereignty of and hinder the
freedom of trade and navigation of other Member States.

2.    Laws and  measures  referred  to in  resolution  49/9  contravene  the
principles  of the Charter of  the United Nations and the international laws
stipulating  the  sovereign equality  of  States,  non-interference  in  the
internal  affairs  of  other  States,  freedom  of  trade and  international
navigation  and in  particular the  free  choice  of political  and economic
systems.

3.   The economic,  commercial and financial  embargo against Cuba  for over
three decades has put serious  constraints upon the sustained socio-economic
development of Cuba.

4.   The  Democratic People's  Republic  of  Korea therefore  supported  the
adoption  of the resolution  calling for an end  to the economic, commercial
and financial embargo against Cuba.

5.  The  Democratic People's Republic of  Korea reaffirms its  position that
the economic, commercial and financial restrictions should not be  used as a
tool of political pressure and the embargo against Cuba should be lifted.


ECUADOR

[Original:  Spanish]

[10 May 1995]      

1.  The legal system  of the Republic of Ecuador does not contain, nor  does
it intend to promulgate,  any law or measure of  the kind referred to in the
preamble to General Assembly resolution 49/9.

2.   Without exception,  Ecuador's  actions in  its relations  with all  the
members  of  the  international  community  are  guided  by  the  principles
enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations  and international law, which
provide, inter alia, for freedom of trade and navigation.


 FRANCE

[Original:  French]

[19 June 1995]    

1.   France  does not apply  any law or measure  of the kind  referred to in
paragraphs 2 and 3 of resolution 49/9.

2.   It  has consistently expressed  its opposition to  the promulgation and
application,  by  States  Members  of  the   United  Nations,  of  laws  and
regulations whose extraterritorial  effects affect the sovereignty of  other
States, as well as  the freedom of trade and  navigation.  In its view, such
measures violate the general principles of public international law.

3.    France, together  with  its  European  Union  partners, has  regularly
restated its adherence to these principles.


GHANA

[Original:  English]

[16 June 1995]     

1.  Ghana has no law or measures  of the kind referred to in the preamble to
resolution 49/9.

2.   Ghana voted for resolution  49/9 in the conviction  that it  was not in
conformity with obligations Member States have  assumed under the Charter of
the United Nations and under international law, for  any State to promulgate
and apply  laws and regulations  whose extraterritorial  effects affect  the
sovereignty of  other States  and the  legitimate interests  of entities  or
persons under  their  jurisdiction,  as well  as the  freedom  of trade  and
navigation.

3.    Ghana,  never  having  supported   the  imposition  of  the  economic,
commercial and financial  embargo by the United  States of America on  Cuba,
has never promulgated  or applied laws  whose extraterritorial effects could
adversely affect Cuba.


GUYANA

[Original:  English]

[29 March 1995]    

  Guyana fully supported resolution  49/9 and voted in its favour.   Guyana,
therefore, is committed to  paragraphs 2 and 3 of the resolution and honours
its mandate.


 INDIA

[Original:  English]

[8 May 1995]       

  India has not promulgated or  applied any laws of the  kind referred to in
the  preamble  to  resolution  49/9  and   the  necessity  of  repealing  or
invalidating any such laws or measures, therefore, does not arise.


IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF)

[Original:  English]

[14 June 1995]     

  In  line  with its  support  for  General  Assembly  resolution 49/9,  the
Islamic Republic  of Iran  rejects the  economic,  commercial and  financial
embargo imposed against Cuba  and considers it  a violation of the  purposes
and principles  of the  Charter of  the United  Nations, lacking  acceptable
justification  in current  international affairs.   The  Islamic Republic of
Iran  believes that  such  embargoes create  restrictions  against  accepted
rights and national sovereignty of States  as well as principles  concerning
freedom  of trade  and  economic  cooperation at  the  international  level.
Accordingly, the  Government  of the  Islamic  Republic  of Iran  urges  all
countries to respect those principles.


IRAQ

[Original:  Arabic]

[6 May 1995]      

1.    The  promulgation  by  the  United  States  of  America  of  laws  and
regulations  imposing an unjust  embargo on  the Cuban  people constitutes a
flagrant violation  of the Charter  of the United  Nations since  it has the
purpose  of achieving unilateral  political objectives that bear no relation
to  international  peace   and  security.     This  embargo  is,   moreover,
incompatible with the most elementary humanitarian and moral standards.

2.   The Government of the Republic of Iraq calls for an end to such inhuman
practices aimed  at depriving peoples of  their right to  a life of  freedom
and dignity and to  the adoption of measures  designed to deprive  States of
opportunities for economic advancement and social development.


 KENYA

[Original:  English]

[11 April 1995]    

  The Government of Kenya has neither  promulgated nor applied any  laws and
measures of the kind referred to in resolution 49/9.


LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

[Original:  French]

[31 May 1995]     

  The Lao  People's Democratic Republic deeply  regrets the continuation  of
the economic, commercial and financial embargo  imposed by the United States
against Cuba.  For its part, given its obligations  under the Charter of the
United Nations and international law, the  Lao People's Democratic  Republic
has never  promulgated or  applied  laws and  measures  of  this kind.    It
considers that  such laws  and measures  interfere with  the sovereignty  of
other States, as well as with freedom of trade and navigation.


LESOTHO

[Original:  English]

[11 April 1995]    

1.  The Government of the Kingdom of Lesotho  has not promulgated or applied
national  laws and  measures of  the kind  referred  to  in the  preamble to
resolution 49/9.

2.   The Kingdom of Lesotho  has, at  all times, striven to  act and conduct
itself in  conformity  with international  law  and  the provisions  of  the
Charter of the United Nations.


LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA

[Original:  Arabic]

[24 April 1995]   

1.  The  Socialist People's Libyan  Arab Jamahiriya affirms  once more  that
the best  way to  resolve disputes  between States  is to  reach a  peaceful
settlement in  accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of
the United Nations.

 2.  In its commitment  to those purposes and principles  and out of respect
for  international law,  the Socialist  People's Libyan  Jamahiriya has  not
promulgated or applied any  laws such as those  referred to in  paragraphs 2
and 3 of resolution 49/9.

3.   The Socialist  People's Libyan  Arab Jamahiriya  is likewise  suffering
under  the sanctions  that have  been maintained  against it  by  the United
States of America since 1986, which are similar to the sanctions imposed  on
Cuba.  Accordingly,  it  reaffirms  the  tenor of  paragraphs  2  and  3  of

resolution 49/9 and calls  upon the State concerned  to desist from adopting
measures such as those imposed on Cuba or any other country and to take  the
necessary steps for their repeal and annulment.


MEXICO

[Original:  Spanish]

[26 June 1995]     

1.    The  Government  of  Mexico,  in accordance  with  the  foreign policy
principles stipulated  in its Political  Constitution, continues to  observe
the relevant provisions  of the aforementioned resolution, in fulfilment  of
its obligations  under the Charter of  the United  Nations and international
law.

2.  Mexico, faithful to these  instruments, has refrained from  promulgating
and  applying laws  of an  extraterritorial  nature  that affect  freedom of
trade and navigation,  as State Members of the  United Nations are urged  to
do in resolution 49/9.

3.    On  the  contrary,  in  1994  Mexico, recognizing  the  importance  of
strengthening its relations with Cuba, a  neighbouring country with which it
has  maintained a tradition  of friendly  relations based  on strict respect
for  the  principles  of  non-intervention  and  the  self-determination  of
peoples, sought  to strengthen  its economic cooperation  with that  country
through  bilateral  meetings between  the two  Governments  and support  for
joint investments in Cuba by Mexican companies.

4.   Moreover,  in  July  1994 a  framework  agreement  was signed  for  the
acquisition  of the Cuban  telecommunications system.   In  September 1994 a
framework agreement  was adopted for the establishment of a joint venture at
the  Cienfuegos  refinery. Mexico  is  now  one  of  Cuba's main  investment
partners.

5.  In  addition, the Chamber of Deputies of  the Congress of the Union,  at
its meeting of 22 November 1994, issued a statement signed by the  country's
four  major  political  parties  represented  in  that  body,  stating their
support  for resolution  49/9  and  condemning  the  United  States  embargo
against Cuba.

6.    In view  of  the attempts  by  various  members of  the  United States
Congress to strengthen the embargo against  Cuba through the introduction of
a bill  known as  the  "Cuban Liberty  and Democratic  Solidarity Act",  the
Mexican  Government, with full  respect for  the sovereignty  of States, has
expressed its  deep concern  at the  possibility that  such proposals  could
become  law because several  of its  chapters and  sections are unacceptable
under  international law,  in  addition to  violating  specific  commitments
Mexico has made at the international and bilateral levels.

7.   In particular,  Mexico has  noted that, if  such a bill  were to become
law, it would violate the principles enshrined in the Charter of the  United
Nations, and in  particular, the Declaration on Principles of  International
Law  concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States contained in
General  Assembly resolution  2625 (XXV),  which was  unanimously adopted in
1970.

8.  Thus, Mexico  has maintained that both the  letter and the spirit of the
bill  contain provisions  that are in  violation of the  North American Free
Trade   Agreement  and   the   Agreement  Establishing   the   World   Trade
Organization. Moreover,  in  violation  of  the  principle  of  respect  for
sovereignty of States, the  bill attempts to give  the domestic laws  of the
United States extraterritorial effect.

9.  To  sum up, Mexico  considers that  not only does the  implementation of

this kind  of legal  measure ignore  the principles  of the  Charter of  the
United Nations, but its  objectives run counter to the majority view in  the
international community,  which has  rejected the  economic embargo  against
Cuba in the United Nations General Assembly for several years running.

10.  In conclusion, at the recent meeting of the Rio  Group held in Quito on
23  May  1995,  the  Government  of  Mexico  supported  the  adoption  of  a
declaration, which was approved, condemning any  possible application of the
"Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act".


MONGOLIA

[Original:  English]

[30 June 1995]     

  The Government  of Mongolia  maintains diplomatic  and consular  relations
with the Government of Cuba  and has not undertaken any measures with a view
to restricting  its trade and economic  relations with  Cuba.  Consequently,
there is  no law or other legislative  act to be repealed in conformity with
resolution 49/9.


MYANMAR

[Original:  English]

[10 August 1995]   

1.   The  Union  of  Myanmar wishes  to reiterate  that it  has consistently
practised  a policy of  strict compliance  with the  purposes and principles
enshrined in  the Charter of  the United Nations and  of scrupulous respect,
among others, for the  principles of the sovereign  equality of States, non-
intervention  and non-interference  in their  internal affairs,  freedom  of
trade and international navigation.

2.    The  Union of  Myanmar  is  of  the  view  that  the promulgation  and
application by  Member States of  laws and  regulations the extraterritorial
effects of which affect the  sovereignty of other States  and the legitimate
interests  of entities or  persons under their  jurisdiction as  well as the
freedom of  trade and navigation violate the universally accepted principles
of international law.

3.  In conformity with  the above, the Union of  Myanmar has not promulgated
any laws and regulations of the kind referred to in  the preamble to General
Assembly resolution 49/9.


NAMIBIA

[Original:  English]

[2 May 1995]       

1.  The  Government of the Republic of  Namibia believes in the  sovereignty
of each nation State to exist.

2.   The Government  of the Republic  of Namibia upholds  the principles  of
non-interference in the internal affairs of other States.

3.   The  Government of  the Republic  of Namibia  enjoys cordial diplomatic
relations with Cuba and the United states of America.

4.   The Government  of the Republic  of Namibia views  the embargo  against
Cuba  as long overdue and is of the opinion that it  is time for the embargo

to be  lifted so  that the  long suffering  experienced by the  Cuban people
comes to an end.

5.  The Government of the Republic of  Namibia urges both the United  States
of America and Cuba to begin serious negotiations to resolve all aspects  of
the long-standing  dispute between  them in  the interest  of peace,  trade,
development and good neighbourliness.


NICARAGUA

[Original:  Spanish]

[28 July 1995]     

1.    Nicaragua rejects  as a  matter of  principle economic  and commercial
embargoes as a means of applying political pressure.

2.  Nicaragua maintains diplomatic relations with the Republic of Cuba.

 NORWAY

[Original:  English]

[11 April 1995]    

  Norway  has not enacted an  economic embargo against Cuba or adopted other
measures contradictory to General Assembly resolution 49/9.


PAPUA NEW GUINEA

[Original:  English]

[15 June 1995]     

1.  Papua New  Guinea has never promulgated or  applied laws and measures of
the kind referred to in the preamble to resolution  49/9.  The Government of
Papua New  Guinea  has consistently  voted  in  favour of  General  Assembly
resolutions  on  the  necessity  of  ending  the  economic,  commercial  and
financial embargo imposed on Cuba.

2.   Papua  New Guinea  believes that  the promulgation  and application  by
member States of laws and regulations  whose extraterritorial effect affects
the sovereignty  of other  States and  legitimate interests  of entities  or
persons  under their  jurisdiction, as  well  as  the freedom  of trade  and
navigation, are not in conformity with  obligations that Member States  have
assumed under the Charter of the United Nations and international law.


PARAGUAY

[Original:  Spanish]

[31 July 1995]     

  Paraguay applies no restrictive measures  whatsoever, whether legal  or de
facto, whether economic, commercial or financial, against Cuba.


PERU

[Original:  Spanish]

[29 June 1995]     

1.   No law or measure of the kind referred to in the preamble of resolution
49/9 exists or  has been applied in Peru.   The Government of Peru does  not
accept  the extraterritorial  application  of  domestic  laws, such  as  the
"Cuban Democracy Act".

 2.    The Government of Peru  once again states its adherence to the common
objectives of democracy, respect for human rights and economic freedom.

3.     Peru's  position on  this matter  can be  found  in  the text  of the
Declaration  of  the Third  Ibero-American Conference  held  in Salvador  de
Bahia, Brazil  in  1993, and  in the  Declaration of  Ministers for  Foreign
Affairs of the Political Mechanism  for Consultation and Policy Coordination
of the Rio Group, issued in Quito on 23 May 1995.


RUSSIAN FEDERATION

[Original:  Russian]

[23 June 1995]     

1.   In supporting the General  Assembly resolution,  the Russian Federation
based its  position on the fact  that a consensus on  the issue had  already
emerged in the international community.   The Russian Federation, the  Latin
American countries, the majority of developing  countries in Asia and Africa
and the  Western European  States view the  embargo as a  throw-back to  the
cold  war and  an ongoing  source of  tension  between  Cuba and  the United
States.  The Russian Federation believes  that attempts to "suffocate"  Cuba
using the embargo are counter-productive and  may give rise to unpredictable
consequences.  Its position is that the lifting  of the trade, economic  and
financial embargo imposed by  the United States on  Cuba, and the removal of
the  Cuban-American  tension generally,  would objectively  encourage Cuba's
movement towards democracy and an open society.

2.  Where it is itself directly concerned, the Russian Federation is  firmly
guided  by  the  principles  of  the  sovereign  equality  of  States,  non-
interference  in  their internal  affairs and  the freedom  of international
trade  and navigation  as mentioned  in  resolution  49/9, and  continues to
support normal  trade  and economic  relations  with  Cuba based  on  common
interest  and  mutual  benefit.  Russian  trade  with   Cuba  is  invariably
conducted in strict  accordance with generally accepted international  norms
without any discrimination and on the basis of world prices.


SOUTH AFRICA

[Original:  English]

[21 June 1995]     

  South  Africa and Cuba  established diplomatic  relations on  11 May 1994.
In accordance with  the policy  of the  Government of  South Africa  towards
countries with which it has normal  diplomatic relations, South Africa  will
endeavour  to foster trade  and economic,  cultural and  sporting links with
Cuba, which should be mutually beneficial to both countries.


 SPAIN
[Original:  Spanish]

[22 March 1995]    

1.     With  respect  to paragraph  2 of  resolution 49/9,  Spain  has never
promulgated nor  applied any laws or measures which might  have entailed, in
the case of  Cuba, a violation of the  principles of the sovereign  equality
of States, non-interference in their internal  affairs and freedom of  trade

and  navigation,  to which  the preamble  of the  above-mentioned resolution
refers.

2.   Paragraph 3 of the resolution is not relevant, in that no such laws  or
measures exist in Spain.


SRI LANKA

[Original:  English]

[23 March 1995]    

1.  Sri Lanka has neither  promulgated nor applied any laws or measures that
might affect the sovereignty  of Cuba or any  laws that violate  the freedom
of trade or navigation.   The question of repealing or invalidating any laws
in this respect does not therefore arise.

2.   Sri  Lanka supported  General Assembly  resolution  49/9 of  26 October
1994.


TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

[Original:  English]

[24 July 1995]     

  Trinidad and  Tobago has not adopted  any measures  restricting trade with
Cuba.


UKRAINE

[Original:  Russian]

[30 June 1995]     

1.    Ukraine  has  not  adopted   any  legislation  or  regulations   whose
extraterritorial effects might affect  the sovereignty of  other States  and
the   legitimate  interests   of  entities   or  persons   under   Ukraine's
jurisdiction, or the freedom of trade and navigation.

2.  Ukraine has consistently pursued a policy of strict compliance with  the
purposes and the principles  enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations,
in particular, the principles of the  sovereign equality of States  and non-
interference in the internal affairs of States.

3.   Ukraine does  not accept  the use  of economic  measures as a  means of
achieving  political aims and  holds that  relations between  States must be
built on  the basis of  complete respect  for the fundamental  principles of
the Charter and the norms of international law.


UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND
NORTHERN IRELAND

[Original:  English]

[18 May 1995]      

1.  The United  Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland enjoys  normal
diplomatic and trade relations with Cuba.

2.   The Government  of the United Kingdom has  made clear its opposition to
the extraterritorial extension of the United  States embargo against Cuba in

the  Cuban Democracy  Act  of  1992.   In October  1992, the  United Kingdom
invoked  the Protection  of Trading  Interest Act  of 1980.   It  is  now an
offence in the UK  law for any persons in  the United Kingdom to comply with
the specific parts of the US Cuban Assets Control Regulations.

3.  While the Government of the United  Kingdom considers the United  States
trade policy towards Cuba is  primarily a matter for  those two Governments,
it  remains  concerned about  the  extraterritorial  aspects  of the  United
States  embargo,  including  legislation  proposed  by  Senator  Helms   and
Congressman Burton.


UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

[Original:  English]

[20 June 1995]     

1.   The  Government of  the United  Republic  of Tanzania  has consistently
rejected any unilateral promulgation and application  of laws such as  those
referred to in resolution 49/9 because  such measures are inconsistent  with
the general  principles of international law  and violate  the provisions of
Article 1 of  the Charter of the United  Nations, in particular paragraph  2
on developing  friendly relations  among nations  based on  respect for  the
principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples.

2.   Tanzania  also  opposes  laws and  regulations  whose  extraterritorial
application  constitutes an  infringement on  the sovereign rights  of other
States.  Therefore,  the  Government  reaffirms  its  principled  stand   to
implement fully all  resolutions of  the United  Nations, including  General
Assembly  resolutions 47/19, 48/16  and 49/9  on ending  the embargo against
Cuba.

  URUGUAY
[Original:  Spanish]

[13 June 1995]     

   Whereas Uruguay has  maintained a foreign policy based on respect for the
principles  of the Charter of  the United Nations  and international law, in
particular, freedom of  international trade and navigation without any  type
of  restrictions, and, for its  part, does not recognize  in its legislation
the extraterritorial  application of  domestic laws,  the Government  of the
Eastern Republic  of Uruguay  has not applied  any measures or  laws of  the
kind referred to in the preamble to resolution 49/9.


VIET NAM

[Original:  French]

[1 June 1995]     

1.  The embargo imposed for several decades by the United  States of America
against Cuba constitutes a violation of  public international law in general
and the laws  of free trade in particular,  and runs counter  to the current
trend  towards cooperation for  development on  a basis  of equality between
States without distinction as to political regime.

2.   The  resolutions of  the United  Nations  General  Assembly and  of the
Movement of Non-Aligned  Countries calling for an end to the embargo against
Cuba reflect  not only  the common  concern of  the international  community
regarding this  anachronistic policy of coercion  against the Cuban  people,
but  also  the  common  aspiration for  the  rejection  of  extraterritorial
legislation in the interest of harmonious international relations.

3.   Viet Nam  is of the  view that disputes  between the  United States and
Cuba should be settled through dialogue and negotiation.

4.  Having constantly  in mind the  difficulties caused to the Cuban  people
by the  United States embargo, the  Government and people  of Viet Nam  have
undertaken a number  of activities to provide  support and assistance to the
Cuban people.

5.  Viet  Nam has protested  and will  continue to  protest legislation  and
measures implementing the embargo against Cuba.  Viet Nam has supported  the
resolutions adopted and reaffirms the need  to end the economic,  commercial
and financial embargo against Cuba.

6.  Viet Nam is of  the view that the Secretary-General, in his next report,
should  put forward  effective means  of  ending  the embargo  and providing
assistance to Cuba  so as to overcome the difficulties that have arisen as a
result of the United States embargo.


 ZAMBIA

[Original:  English]

[12 June 1995]     

1.   The Government of Zambia has  never at any given time  applied any laws
or  measures aimed  at  enforcing  the economic,  commercial  and  financial
embargo against  Cuba.   On the contrary,  Zambia is  of the  view that  the
continued  imposition  of  such  an  embargo  has  a  very  negative effect,
especially  on  the most  vulnerable  groups  such  as  the less  privileged
population  of that country,  and therefore,  deserves to  be lifted without
any further delay.

2.   As a  sovereign  State, Zambia  feels that  continued promulgation  and
application by Member States of laws  and regulations whose extraterritorial
effects affects the sovereignty  of other States is  not in the  interest of
international  cooperation  as  it  undermines  the  sovereign  equality  of
nations. Since  prosperity is an important  lever for  empowering the people
of  any country  in this regard,  Zambia feels the  Cuban people need  to be
availed of the widest possible economic  opportunities through free trade in
order to empower them.


             III.  REPLIES RECEIVED FROM ORGANS AND AGENCIES OF THE
                   UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

A.  United Nations Children's Fund

4.   The situation  of children  in Cuba has  been adversely  affected by  a
number  of  factors,  including the  embargo,  internal  factors  and  other
external  factors. As  with  most  such  situations it  is  not possible  to
separate  the combined negative  effects of these  factors.   However, it is
apparent that  as a result of  those effects, the  situation of children  in
Cuba has come  under serious pressure and  special efforts supported by  the
international community are required to protect children.

5.    Nutritional  deficiencies  represent  one  area  of  difficulty.   For
example, UNICEF understands that approximately 50  per cent of the  children
under one  year of  age showed deficiency  in iron, calcium,  vitamin A  and
vitamin  B  complex. Likewise,  nearly  half  of  pregnant  women have  iron
deficiency anaemia, which, combined with deteriorating overall food  intake,
is contributing to a rise in the number of low birth weight babies.

6.  The lack of availability of essential medical  supplies gives particular
cause for concern.   Even antibiotics and supplies for the sterilization  of
medical  instruments are in  short supply.   These  shortages, combined with

nutritional  factors, have  contributed to the very  significant increase in
maternal mortality in the last year.

7.  Serious shortages  in school supplies remain a major factor  undermining
child  education.   For example,  while the school  system requires  some 50
million notebooks and  another 50 million  pencils, only 20 million  of each
have been available each year for the last two years.
  8.   The water supply system continues  to be a source of serious concern.
In  the  past year,  Cuba  was  able to  obtain  only  26 per  cent  of  its
requirements  of chlorine and  some 10  per cent of aluminium  sulphate.  As
both of these items are essential  for water purification, acute  diarrhoeal
diseases among children continued to rise.   Regular electric power  outages
and difficulties  in obtaining supplies to  maintain the  urban water supply
also seriously affected the water supply situation.


B.  United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)

9.  Habitat would  like to report, based on extensive consultations with its
sectoral counterparts  in Cuba, the following  information on  the impact of
the embargo on the housing and human settlements situation in the country.

10.   The crisis in  the energy sector,  resulting from the  loss of  Cuba's
main sources of fuel  supply in Eastern Europe, as well as from the embargo,
has had direct  consequences on housing production, infrastructure  delivery
and maintenance and transport.

11.   The  Government of  Cuba has  had to  curtail its  foreseen  target of
60,000 housing units per year  in the present five-year development plan and
it is estimated  that production  was reduced  from 1991  onward to  roughly
22,000 units.

12.  The  main factors responsible for  the decline were  the sharp  fall in
cement and steel production  (78 per cent and  75 per cent less respectively
from 1991), both heavily dependent upon availability of fuel.

13.   Quite interesting  and very  encouraging is  the fact that  the sudden
crisis in the  production of materials such as  cement and steel, which  had
been  used  extensively  in  the past  in  housing programmes  in  Cuba, has
prompted  a much needed  rethinking in  terms of  technologies and materials
for house construction.

14.    Starting  in  1992,  emphasis  was  placed  on  the  development   of
alternative   technologies   based  on   indigenous   materials,   primarily
pozzolanic  cement and  stabilized soil.    The Cuban  authorities  estimate
that, thanks  to the  alternative materials  so far  developed, targets  for
housing production will increase  as of this year  to roughly 35,000  units,
still short  of the target  originally envisaged at  the start  of the five-
year plan, but a marked improvement over the performance from 1991 to 1994.

15.  Habitat has supported, in 1994-1995, the  efforts of the Government  of
Cuba  in  developing  alternative  technologies  by  financing  a   training
programme and introducing improved production systems.


C.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

16.  UNCTAD provides  technical assistance to the  Government of Cuba in the
following areas:   assistance in the commercialization of its  biotechnology
products and  services, which  includes, inter  alia, advisory and  training
activities on strategic planning, organizational  design, marketing strategy
and intellectual property protection.  Furthermore,  the Government of  Cuba
has recently requested UNCTAD to implement  its cargo tracking system (ACIS)
project in Cuba.

D.  United Nations Development Programme

17.  Assistance is  to be provided  to the Government of Cuba in  support of
its  actions for the  transformation of  the Cuban  economy, including human
resource   development  programmes  and  the   strengthening  of  managerial
capacities at  the national, provincial  and municipal levels, following the
activities initiated through  the UNDP Management Development Programme  for
the strengthening of the Cuban administration.

18.    Actions are  also  under  consideration in  critical  areas  such  as
financial  management  and accountability,  tax reform,  budget formulation,
execution  and  control,   national  accounts,   marketing  techniques   and
information systems for the decision-making process in the economic areas.


                 E.  United Nations Educational, Scientific and
                     Cultural Organization

19.  UNESCO is continuing  its efforts to offset the  effects of the embargo
in its  fields of competence:  its action has made it possible, owing to the
participation of Cuban specialists in events  organized in the countries  of
Latin America and the  Caribbean and meetings held  in Cuba itself, to build
a bridge between the island and the region.

20.   Recent examples  of cooperation  include the  Organization's financial
and technical  contribution to Pedagogia 95,  a major  congress of educators
held in Cuba in February 1995, and the  establishment of four UNESCO  chairs
in  the fields of higher education, information technology, teacher training
and cultural heritage.

21.   Furthermore,  the  German foundation  Tias-Gesellschaft  Nurnberg  has
awarded a  grant of  more than  $200,000 for  the manufacture  of 3  million
exercise books  for children  in Cuban schools.   These exercise  books will
bear the  UNESCO logo,  a quotation from the  poet Jose Marti and  the words
"1995 - United Nations Year for Tolerance".

22.   In addition,  a large-scale  project of the World  Decade for Cultural
Development  - the  Cultural Information  System  of  Latin America  and the
Caribbean  - enables  Cuba to  stay in  touch  with  other countries  of the
region on cultural matters.

23.   UNESCO's  Regional  Office  for  Culture  in  Latin  America  and  the
Caribbean is located at La Havana.


 F.  World Food Programme

24.   WFP  has  complied with  resolution  49/9 by  continuing  its  regular
development  programme with Cuba and by cooperating in an operation aimed at
assisting  vulnerable groups  (children and  pregnant women)  located at  La
Havana and  Santiago de Cuba.   This  operation is supported  bilaterally by
Canada,  Italy,  the Netherlands  and Norway.    The  urban sector  has been
hardest hit by the current economic crisis and consequent food shortfalls.

25.  WFP strives  to maintain the  level of its significant contribution  to
Cuba (approximately 65 per cent of  the total United Nations  contribution).
This food assistance helps the Cuban  people to increase their agricultural,
livestock  and  dairy  production,  despite  the  adverse   effects  of  the
economic, commercial and financial embargo on those sectors.

*  *  *

26.  The  following agencies  and programmes  of the  United Nations  system
replied  that they had  no relevant  information to submit to  the report of
the SecretaryGeneral  on the implementation  of General Assembly  resolution
49/9:   the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC);

the   International   Labour   Organization   (ILO);   the  United   Nations
International   Drug   Control   Programme;   the   International   Maritime
Organization  (IMO);  the International  Monetary  Fund  (IMF);  the  United
Nations International  Research and Training  Institute for the  Advancement
of  Women (INSTRAW); the  World Bank,  the World  Health Organization (WHO);
and the World Trade Organization.


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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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