United Nations

A/50/398


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

7 September 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Item 109 of the provisional agenda*


ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN

Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for
the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

  I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................1 - 33

 II.  PRIORITY THEMES TO BE CONSIDERED BY THE COMMISSION ON
  THE STATUS OF WOMEN AT ITS FORTIETH SESSION ..........4 - 453

  A.  Equality:  Elimination of stereotyping of women in
    the mass media ...................................  5 - 203

  B.  Development:  Child and dependant care, including
    sharing of work and family responsibilities ......  21 - 366

  C.  Peace:  Education for peace ......................  37 - 459

III.  GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION 49/161 ON THE
  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NAIROBI FORWARD-LOOKING
  STRATEGIES FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN ..............46 - 8412

  A.Cooperation by the organizations of the United
    Nations system with the Commission on the Status
    of Women on the implementation of the Nairobi
    Forward-looking Strategies .......................  46 - 5012
________________________

  *  A/50/150.

95-27073 (E)   171095/...
*9527073*
  CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

  B.  System-wide medium-term plan for the advancement
    of women for the period 1996-2001 ................  51 - 5313

  C.  Women with disabilities, elderly women and also
    women in vulnerable situations such as migrant and
    refugee women and children .......................  54 - 5814

  D.  Steps to be taken by the Division for the
    Advancement of Women, in cooperation with other
    United Nations bodies, to ensure that relevant
    human rights mechanisms of the United Nations
    regularly address violations of the rights of
    women ............................................  59 - 6314

  E.  Public information ...............................  64 - 6515

  F.  World Survey on the Role of Women in Development .  66 - 6816

  G.  Development of methods of compilation and data
    collection .......................................  69 - 7517

  H.  Participation of women in the planning and
    implementation of programmes for sustainable
    development ......................................  76 - 8418

 IV.  IMPLEMENTATION OF GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION 49/162
  ON THE INTEGRATION OF OLDER WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT .....85 - 8920

I.  INTRODUCTION


1.  Since the  endorsement of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the
Advancement of Women 1/ by the General Assembly in its resolution 40/108  of
13 December 1985, the Secretary-General has presented a  report each year to
the Assembly  on the implementation  of the Strategies.   In its  resolution
49/161 of 23 December 1994, the  General Assembly reaffirmed the  importance
of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for  the Advancement of Women  for
the period  up to  the  year  2000 and  provided comprehensive  guidance  to
Governments,   the  organizations   of  the   United  Nations   system   and
intergovernmental    and    non-governmental    organizations    on    their
implementation.    It  requested  the  Secretary-General  to  report to  the
Assembly  at  its  fiftieth  session  on  measures  taken  to  implement the
resolution.

2.    In  addition, by  its resolution  49/162 of  23  December 1994  on the
integration of  older women in  development, the  General Assembly requested
the  Secretary-General to report to  the Assembly at its fiftieth session on
the implementation  of that  resolution.   The requested  material has  been
included in the present report.

3.  The present report has  been prepared on the basis of contributions from
and  in consultation with  the organizations  of the  United Nations system.
Information regarding the Fourth World Conference  on Women and its  follow-
up is found in separate reports.


            II.  PRIORITY THEMES TO BE CONSIDERED BY THE COMMISSION ON
                 THE STATUS OF WOMEN AT ITS FORTIETH SESSION

4.   The General Assembly,  in paragraph 20  of resolution 49/161, requested
the  Secretary-General to  include in  his  report  an assessment  of recent
developments that  were relevant to the priority themes to  be considered at
the subsequent  session of  the Commission  on the  Status of  Women and  to
transmit  to  the  Commission  a  summary  of  relevant  views  expressed by

delegations during the debate in the Assembly.


              A.  Equality:  Elimination of stereotyping of women in
            the mass media

5.   The issue  of women  and the  media, including  women  as audience  and
consumers, the employment of women in the  media and the stereotyped content
delivered  by print,  electronic  media and  advertisements,  have  received
increasing attention.   The  Nairobi  Forward-looking Strategies  emphasized
the critical  role of  the media  in advancing the  status of women  and the
role of women in  development and called for the elimination of exploitative
and stereotyped portrayal of women in  various forms of the media, including
in advertisements.

6.   The Nairobi  Forward-looking Strategies  contain references  concerning
the need for  women to be an integral  part of decision-making with  respect
to  the choice and  development of  alternative forms  of communications and
the need for  them to have an equal say in the determination  of the content
of all public  information efforts.  The Strategies  also refer to the  need
to assist organizations aimed at promoting the role of women in  development
in  their efforts  to  establish effective  communications  and  information
networks.

7.    The  first  review  and   appraisal  of  the  Nairobi  Forward-looking
Strategies in 1990 stated that practices  denigrating the role and potential
of women continued to constitute obstacles  in many countries, in particular
the  stereotyped  images  of  male  and female  roles  in  textbooks or  the
glorification of traditional roles in  the mass media.   The perpetuation of
such images retarded women's advancement  by providing justification  for an
unequal  status  quo.    Recommendation  III  of   the  recommendations  and
conclusions   arising  from   the  first   review  and   appraisal  of   the
implementation of the  Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies, contained in  the
annex  to  Economic  and  Social  Council  resolution  1990/15, states  that
Governments  should,  in conjunction  with  women's  groups,  take steps  to
reduce  the stereotyping  of  women in  the  mass  media,  whether by  self-
policing on the part of the media or by other measures.  The United  Nations
Secretariat,  the  United  Nations   Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural
Organization  (UNESCO) and  other appropriate  organizations of  the  United
Nations  system  should  continue  to  analyse  the  extent  and  effects of
stereotyping of women  and should implement innovative programmes to  combat
it.  Another reference is  made to the role of the  media in the  context of
violence against women.  Recommendation XXII  states that the United Nations
system,  Governments and  non-governmental  organizations should  study  the
relationship between  the portrayal of violence  against women  in the media
and  violence against women  in the  family and  society, including possible
effects of new transnational transmission technologies.

8.   The second  review and  appraisal of the implementation  of the Nairobi
Forward-looking Strategies, in 1995, stated that  the nexus of women,  media
and development was finally being  recognized as a central element of local,
national and international  agendas of research, policy-making, funding  and
other action.

9.   In  the matter  of media content  and gender portrayal,  there has been
progress in  raising  awareness  on  the issue  and  removing bias,  but  in
general,  the media  continue to  reflect  and reinforce  traditional gender
stereotypes.  Women  are  still  portrayed  in  traditional  roles  with  an
emphasis on  their presumed  passive and  dependent character.   Social  and
occupational  roles  are divided  along  gender lines.    Women tend  to  be
depicted within the  home and  are rarely portrayed  as rational, active  or
decisive.  Although  media images may  challenge traditional  perceptions of
the role of women in society, they more often serve to reinforce them.

10.   Women  are frequently  shown  as victims  or in  helpless  conditions.
Differences in  the portrayal  of men and  women indicate that  social roles

and  behaviour are  scrutinized according  to stereotyped  expectations  and
interpretations.    The  media  coverage shapes  how  political  leaders are
evaluated,  with  women  framed  in  ways  that  perpetuate  their  lack  of
participation  in  decision-making.   Media agenda-setting  influences which
issues are given  priority, with policies for women  given a lower level  of
concern.

 11.    Many women's  groups  and  consumer  associations  have begun  media
monitoring.  Media  watch  groups  try  to  note  instances  of  stereotyped
representation  of women  and to  make  media  producers aware  by providing
media-literacy training and  eventually to  empower the audience.   Audience
studies   and  reception   analyses  are   available   throughout  developed
countries,  however, there  is  little  data  on  women  as an  audience  in
developing  countries.    Figures  on  access  to  media  use  in developing
countries show  disparities  that are  linked  to  the availability  of  the
various  forms  of  the  media  and  to  the  level  of  education  and  the
persistence of illiteracy.

12.   Employment patterns  in the  media have  changed, with a  global trend
towards  increased professional  activities of  women  in  all forms  of the
media.  Over the past 15  years, the number of women educated and trained in
communications  and journalism  has  increased.   In  many  countries, women
account for  50 per  cent of  the students  in journalism and  communication
studies.   However, the  proportion of  women professors  in journalism  and
communication studies is limited in most countries and  the curricula do not
prepare students on gender-related issues in their profession.

13.  Furthermore, the  proportion of women  employed in the mass media  does
not correspond  to the number of  female graduates.   The majority of  women
occupy administrative jobs  in media  organizations, while  only a  minority
become  producers and  creative staff.   The  number of  women  in decision-
making  positions able  to  shape media  policy  and content  is  very  low.
Women's  access  to  influential  positions  in  the  media  is  hampered by
barriers such as attitudes, working conditions and work assignments.

14.  Through research and training,  national and international efforts have
been  made to understand  the situation  of women world wide  and to empower
women to  influence private attitudes, public  opinion and  policies.  These
efforts, however, have  made limited use of  the media and new communication
technologies  to promote  and  disseminate research,  to  stipulate  greater
interaction among  people and to provide  training and  sources of education
for the advancement of women.

15.  Women's alternative media, including  media associations and  networks,
have  increased world  wide and  have developed  a  niche  that can  have an
impact on the  mainstream media.   The most  established of the  alternative
media  are  print  media,  which  have   a  wide  circulation  in  developed
countries.  Electronic media are increasingly  available and used by  women,
particularly radio,  which  is the  cheapest  and  most widespread  form  of
electronic  media in  developing countries.  The  INTERNET and  e-mail  have
gained  importance and have been  widely used by  women activists for global
networking. 

16.   As communication technologies  and the media  acquire a global  reach,
their power  to  influence public  opinion  and  the course  of  development
increases.   Those  with   access  to   and   control   of  the   media  and
communications, therefore,  are in  a position  to influence  the course  of
development, equality  and peace.   There is  a need to examine  the ways in
which women  are using communication technologies,  the impact  they have on
women,  the  constraints to  women's  access  to  innovative  communications
technologies and how women can enter  the mainstream of these  developments.
Women's  access to  communications and  the  media needs  to be  enhanced if
women are  to participate effectively in  decision-making on  all aspects of
development.

17.    The  mass  and  alternative  media,  as  well  as  new  communication

technologies  (such  as  CD-ROM,  e-mail,  satellite,  remote-sensing),  are
important vehicles through which information can be exchanged  expeditiously
and  training  and  education  extended   to  women.     The  globalization,
privatization  and commercialization  of  the mass  media  have  reached new
dimensions.   Transnational  broadcast networks  have increased  as has  the
privatization of  national media networks.  With privatization, the question
of control  of media content  and guidelines  for media ethics  becomes even
more difficult to handle.

18.   In  preparation  for the  Fourth  World Conference  on  Women,  UNESCO
organized an  international symposium  on women  and the media:   access  to
expression and  decision-making, which took  place at  Toronto, Canada, from
28  February to 3  March 1995.   The symposium adopted  the Toronto Platform
for Action,  which sets out specific  recommendations for achieving  women's
equality in the media and addresses  them to Governments, media enterprises,
professional    media   organizations,    non-governmental    organizations,
educational and media training institutions and others.

19.  In  order to explore  the subject of  women and the  media further,  as
mandated by the Commission  on the Status of Women, an expert group  meeting
on the portrayal of women and men in the media will  be convened at the Joan
Shorenstein  Center  on the  Press,  Politics  and  Public  Policy, John  F.
Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge,  Massachusetts,
from 16  to 20  October 1995.   Taking  place immediately  after the  Fourth
World Conference on Women,  in Beijing in September  1995, the meeting  will
draw on the action  proposed in the Platform for Action under critical  area
"J".

20.    The  meeting  will  undertake  a  comparative  analysis  of  content,
portrayal and coverage of women  and men in the mass media so as to  discern
progress and  possible backlash.  It will evaluate developments  in the past
20 years,  including the  increase of  commercialization, sexually  explicit
material and  pornography.   Emphasis will  be put on  globalization of  the
mass media and the  impact of transboundary transmission in the portrayal of
women  and  men.  Questions  related  to  media  monitoring  such  as  self-
regulation   and  guidelines   versus  formal   directives  and  legislative
constraints will be examined.


               B.  Development:  Child and dependant care, including
             sharing of work and family responsibilities

21.    The  priority  theme  was   suggested  in  the  recommendations   and
conclusions  arising   from  the   first  review   and   appraisal  of   the
implementation   of  the   Nairobi   Forward-looking   Strategies  for   the
Advancement of Women to  the year 2000,  contained in the annex to  Economic
and Social  Council  resolution  1990/15,  and  will  be  taken  up  by  the
Commission on  the Status  of Women during  its fortieth  session, in  March
1996.

22.    Since  1975,  several  international  instruments  have  reflected  a
consistent emphasis on the  need for reducing the  double burden on women of
work and family responsibilities.  The Convention on the  Elimination of All
Forms of  Discrimination against Women,  in its articles  5, 10  (c) and 11,
sets  out specific legal  requirements for  States parties  to encourage the
sharing  of  family   responsibilities  between   men  and  women  and   the
elimination of discrimination on the basis of sex.

23.   In 1981,  the International  Labour Organization  adopted the  Workers
with Family  Responsibilities Convention (No.  156) and Recommendation  (No.
165).   The  instruments  have the  dual objective  of creating  equality of
opportunity and  treatment in working  life between  men and women  who have
family responsibilities and between these workers  and other workers.   They
call upon  member States to  make it  an aim  of national  policy to  enable
persons with family responsibilities,  who are engaged or wish to engage  in
employment,  to  exercise  their right  to do  so  without being  subject to

discrimination  and, to the  extent possible, without conflict between their
employment and family responsibilities.

24.   The  Nairobi Forward-looking  Strategies emphasized  that  neither the
actual expansion  of employment  for women  nor the  recognition that  women
constitute a  significant proportion  of producers  has been accompanied  by
social adjustments  to ease women's  burden of  earning a living  and taking
care of children and domestic chores.   Despite significant efforts in  many
countries  to transfer tasks traditionally  performed by women to  men or to
public  services, traditional  attitudes continue  to persist and,  in fact,
have contributed  to the  increased burden  of work  placed on  women.   The
Strategies  highlighted  the  complexity  and  multidimensional  aspects  of
changing sex roles and norms and  the difficulty of determining the specific
structural and organizational requirements of such a change.

25.   Women's  economic independence and  access to gainful  activities is a
precondition  for self-reliance  in a  viable and  sustained way.   For this
reason  and in  order to  reduce the  burden  on women  of work  and  family
responsibilities,  it  was  necessary  to  recognize  and  measure   women's
unremunerated  work,   including  reproductive  activities.     Reproductive
activities  are understood  in a  broad sense  to  be  those carried  out to
reproduce  and care  for the  household  and  community, including  fuel and
water collection, food  preparation, child care, education, health care  and
home  maintenance.    These  activities,  which  are  often  viewed  as non-
economic, generally  carry no  monetary compensation  and are  excluded from
national income  accounts.   The promotion  of changes  in social  attitudes
with respect to the role of women in  society requires the establishment  of
a system  of  sharing  parental responsibilities  by women  and  men and  by
society, as well as  the provision of a social infrastructure in both  urban
and rural areas.

26.   To achieve the  sharing of parental  responsibilities between men  and
women  and   society,  the  following  measures  need  to  be  taken:    (a)
introduction of  flexible working hours for  men and  women; (b) development
and  strengthening of  maternity  protection schemes;  (c)  introduction  of
parental  leave;  and  (d)  accessible  child-care  facilities  for  working
parents.

27.  In  paragraph 19  of the recommendations  and conclusions arising  from
the  first  review  and  appraisal  of  the  implementation  of  the Nairobi
Forward-looking Strategies,  set out  in the  annex to  Economic and  Social
Council resolution  1990/15, it  is noted  that urbanization, migration  and
economic changes have increased the proportion  of families headed by  women
and  the number  of  women entering  the labour  force.   These  women  have
experienced increasing difficulties in harmonizing their economic role  with
the  demands on  them  to  provide care  for children  and dependants.   The
double  burden,  rather  than  being  reduced  by  greater  sharing  between
spouses, has increased.   Unless it is  reduced, women  will not be able  to
play their full and fair role in development.

28.   In  the same  resolution, in  recommendation  XVII,  it is  noted that
support  measures should  be established  with  a  view to  facilitating the
combination  of  parental   and  other  caring  responsibilities  and   paid
employment, including  policies for the provision  of services and  measures
to  increase the sharing  of such  responsibilities by men and  women and to
deal  with  specific  problems  of  female-headed  households  that  include
dependants.

29.  In the same recommendation, the United Nations Secretariat, the  United
Nations Children's  Fund (UNICEF) and other appropriate organizations of the
United Nations system  were requested to make special efforts to analyse the
issues of caring for children and  dependants and sharing domestic, parental
and  other caring  responsibilities,  including the  appraisal  of  national
experience.

30.  The second  review and appraisal of  the implementation of  the Nairobi

Forward-looking  Strategies concluded  that  the feminization  of employment
has  been one of the most  important economic changes of the  past decade in
terms of both the  rapid influx of women into  the paid labour force and the
emerging patterns of  employment.  Estimates show  that more than one  third
of  all women  aged 15  years and  older are  in the  formal labour  market.
Female economic activity  has increased over the  past two decades in almost
all  regions and,  if activities  in the  informal sector  were counted, the
increase would be even  greater.  About one half of all economically  active
women in developing countries are employed in the informal sector.

31.  During the  past decade, female participation in the labour market  has
grown at an average of 10 per cent in all regions  of the world, i.e., twice
the  rate of  their male  counterparts,  and  women's representation  in the
economically  active population  doubled between  1970  and  1990.   In most
parts of the  world, women are no longer a "reserve" labour  force; they are
more  and  more  becoming   the  workers  who   remain  economically  active
throughout their  working lives.   The  trend towards  rising female  labour
force participation is a stable one, occurring at  the same time as economic
activity rates for men have been falling.

32.   One quarter  of all  households world  wide are headed  by women,  and
households  are dependent  on female  income,  even  where men  are present.
Evidence has been found that the  strong correlation between female headship
and poverty is also a result of higher dependency ratios.

33.   However, despite  these trends,  structural  adjustment programmes  in
many  countries have  forced cuts  in basic services  and in  investments in
human development,  shifting the responsibilities  of basic social  services
from Governments to women without  compensation.  And, while  there has been
increased  understanding  that social  protection  needs  to be  accorded to
workers and  female heads of households,  particularly in  terms of services
such  as child  care that  enable women  to reconcile  their productive  and
reproductive roles,  global restructuring  has reduced  the likelihood  that
such facilities are provided  either by the State or by private enterprises.
As a result,  there is concern about how  children and dependants are  cared
for and  what alternative ways of  sharing family  responsibilities could be
provided in this new context.

34.   The double burden on women of work and family responsibilities and the
extent to which the sharing  of these responsibilities between women and men
has  changed  or  is  expected  to  change  are  issues  that  merit further
research.  Quantitative measurements  of the  sharing  of  women and  men of
family  responsibilities  need  to  be  developed  to  help  establish  more
practical and quantifiable policy targets.   One approach currently used  is
through time-use  studies that  provide indicators  of the  time devoted  by
women  and men to  family activities  and to work.   Other approaches should
also be explored.

35.  In order to  develop the subject further, an expert group meeting  will
be held from 4 to 8 December 1995 in cooperation  with the Government of the
Republic  of Korea,  at Seoul.   The  main objective  of  the meeting  is to
define  policies for  child and  dependant care  that  could involve  men as
central actors, mainly  in developing countries.   It is  proposed that  the
following matters be discussed at the meeting:

  (a)   The existing  modalities for  child and  dependant care for  working
parents and women heads of households, in the formal and informal sectors;

  (b)  The impact that  the feminization of the labour  market has or  could
have  on  the actual  division of  labour between  men and  women, including
child and dependant care;

  (c)    The  progress  and  potential  backlash  of  alternative  policies,
programmes and  projects involving men  in the  sharing of  work and  family
responsibilities.

36.   The  meeting  will  study a  number  of  topics and  formulate  policy
recommendations to be forwarded to the Commission on the Status of Women  at
its fortieth session, in  1996.  Experts will  be invited to  prepare inputs
on a specific  issue and to  reply to  questions.   Scheduled to take  place
immediately  after the Fourth  World Conference  on Women,  the meeting will
draw on the conclusions of  the Conference.  A central theme in the Platform
for  Action adopted  by  the  Conference is  expected to  be the  sharing of
responsibilities.


C.  Peace:  Education for peace

37.  The role of women in education  for peace is one of the  main themes of
research, action and training in the  area of "women and peace".  This issue
has been addressed on a number of occasions,  including at the Expert  Group
Meeting on  Women and Peace, held  at Vienna in 1983,  and in the report  on
access to information and education for  peace (E/CN.6/1988/5), submitted to
the  Commission on  the Status  of  Women at  its thirty-second  session, in
1988.

 38.   In both the first (1990)  and second (1995) reviews and appraisals of
the  implementation  of  the  Nairobi  Forward-looking  Strategies  for  the
Advancement  of Women,  many  countries  reported on  the role  of  women in
education for peace,  although the issue  was given  less attention in  1995
than in  1990.  In  the second  review and  appraisal, such  issues as  war-
related  violence and  its impact  on women;  the role  of women  in  peace-
keeping and  the  peacemaking process;  women  in  the military  and  police
force; and the  participation of  women in decision-making  in the areas  of
peace and security gained a more prominent place on the agenda.

39.  With the  end of the cold war,  however, and with attempts to establish
democracy and  a new  world order, there  has been  a growing  understanding
that these  goals  cannot be  achieved  without  the full  participation  of
women.   Thus, in  this context, there is  a need to revisit  the concept of
education  for peace  and the  role that  women can  play in  this  respect.
There is a realization that  what is needed is a  new culture, a  culture of
peace,  that  involves  changing  attitudes,  beliefs  and  behaviours  from
everyday life situations  to high-level negotiations between countries,  and
that education  for peace  should be  seen as  an important  element of  the
transition from the present culture of violence to a culture of peace. 2/

40.  The specific role that  women can play in this process results from the
fact that, as a group, they are neither  among the decision makers nor among
the  beneficiaries  of the  established  power  structure  and the  existing
socio-economic, political  and cultural establishment.   For example,  women
constitute  the majority of  war refugees,  although they had no  say in the
armed conflicts  that uprooted them;  they own hardly  any property  and are
among the poorest of  the poor, although they  secure the daily  survival of
their families.   As stated in  the draft Platform for  Action:  "The  power
relations  that impede  women's attainment  of fulfilling  lives operate  at
many  levels of  society,  from  the  most personal  to  the highly  public"
(A/CONF.177/L.1, para. 183).

41.   Because of  their experience  in coping  with daily  problems and  the
resolution of  conflicts in the  family, of being the  educators of children
and  young  people  as  mothers  and  as  representatives  of  the  teaching
profession;   and  as   grass-roots  and   community  activists  challenging
environmental damage, militarization, the arms race  and the trade in  arms,
corruption and  violence,  women can  make  a  unique and  largely  untapped
contribution to education for  peace aimed at the  creation of a  culture of
peace.

42.   The  expert group  meeting on  women's  contribution  to a  culture of
peace,  organized  by  UNESCO  in  cooperation  with  the  Division  for the
Advancement  of Women,  which was held at  Manila from 25 to  28 April 1995,
addressed some of those issues and  emphasized, from a woman's  perspective,

certain characteristics  of the  predominant culture  of violence  and of  a
culture of peace to  be created. The meeting stressed the special role  that
women can play in  the transformation from a  culture of violence  towards a
culture of  peace and  considered gender inequality  as one  of the  crucial
obstacles to  such a transformation.   The meeting  identified the following
as the basic characteristics of a culture of  peace:  equality between women
and men; respect for differences and  recognition of diversities as creative
and  enriching   to  human   potential;  complete   refusal  of   dominance,
exploitation  and   discrimination  in  all   human  relations  and   social
structures; responsibility  for solidarity  and assurance  of well-being  of
vulnerable persons by the world community;  an end to the "insider-outsider"
mentality and to people being treated  as either exploitable or  expendable;
power  derived from shared capacities and responsibilities;  and respect for
all human rights.

43.  As  the principles and guidelines for achieving a culture of peace, the
meeting  identified cultural  diversity  and social  and  structural  change
rooted in the local  community and aimed at  the gradual elimination  of the
existing  causes   of  conflicts.    It   called  for   the  achievement  of
comprehensive  security,   encompassing  such   dimensions  as   ecological,
economic, political, cultural,  social and individual security, and  focused
on prevention, peacemaking and peace-building rather  than the use of force,
and on respect  for human rights and a  complete end to discrimination.   It
advocated partnership  contracts between  the family and the  global society
based on equality, partnership  and equal citizenship of  men and women.  It
identified  developments  for   economic  and   social  justice,   including
examination  of all  policies from  the perspective of  their impact  on the
human  rights of women,  peace and  the natural  environment; and education,
arts and communication  for transformation, with  special emphasis on gender
equality, values  and attitudes in  education, literacy  and basic education
programmes in all the poorer sectors of society.

44.  The creation of a culture of peace defined in  that way would require a
special,  new type of  education.   Such education  should be value-oriented
and  focus on human  solidarity, mutuality,  justice, equality  of the sexes
and respect  for  diversity and  human rights.    It  should provide  skills
enabling society to renounce violence as a means of achieving individual  or
collective  purposes   and  to   prepare  for   participation  in   conflict
management,  peacemaking, peace- building, social dialogue and negotiations.
It should  also  pursue  the  concept  of  a global  community  rather  than
separate  competitive societies  and  should develop  consciousness  of  the
unity of  humankind and the natural environment. This new  type of education
should  also   provide  a   sense   of  global   citizenship,  prepare   for
participation in the  democratic transformation of societies, including  the
decision-making and peace process at the national and international  levels.
Women's  holistic  approach to  peace, security  and citizenship  makes them
particularly qualified to  take the lead in this  new type of education  for
peace.

45.   On the basis of  these conclusions, the  report suggested an  approach
for dealing with the wider issue of bringing  women into the peace  process,
including, in particular, through education for peace.


           III.  GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION 49/161 ON THE IMPLEMENTATION
                OF THE NAIROBI FORWARD-LOOKING STRATEGIES FOR THE
                ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN

            A.  Cooperation by the organizations of the United Nations
                system with the Commission on the Status of Women on
                the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking
                Strategies

46.  The General Assembly, in its resolution 49/161,  reaffirmed the central
role  of the  Commission on the  Status of Women  in matters related  to the
advancement  of  women,  and  called upon  it  to  continue to  promote  the

implementation  of the Nairobi  Forward-looking Strategies to the year 2000,
based  on the  goals of  the United  Nations Decade  for Women:    Equality,
Development  and   Peace,  and   the  sub-theme   "Employment,  health   and
education", and urged  all relevant bodies of  the United Nations system  to
cooperate effectively with the Commission in that task.

47.  The  nineteenth ad hoc Inter-Agency  Meeting on Women  was held  in New
York on 13 and 14 March  1995.  The main work of the Meeting related to  the
preparations for  the Fourth  World Conference  on Women;  the Meeting  also
discussed the  form of inter-agency cooperation  after the  Conference.  The
Meeting reiterated  its recommendation  to the  Administrative Committee  on
Coordination (ACC), made at  its eighteenth meeting, to establish the ad hoc
Inter-Agency Meeting on  Women on a  permanent basis  as a coordination  and
cooperation mechanism for the implementation of  the Platform for Action and
for the programme on the advancement of women.   The Meeting underlined  the
important  role it  played in  the  implementation  of the  Nairobi Forward-
looking  Strategies and  in the  preparatory  process  for the  Fourth World
Conference on Women.   At the  same time,  the importance  of integrating  a
gender  approach  into  the  work  of  all  subsidiary  bodies  of  ACC  was
emphasized.

48.   In compliance with  Economic and Social Council  resolution 1993/16 of
27  July 1993,  the  Meeting  held discussions  on the  preparations  of the
revised system-wide  medium-term plan for the  advancement of  women for the
period 1996-2001.  It was recommended  to hold an extraordinary Inter-Agency
Meeting in conjunction  with the discussion of  the item on the  advancement
of women in  the Third Committee  of the  General Assembly  at its  fiftieth
session, to consider a draft of the revised system-wide medium-term plan.

49.    A  joint  statement  of   the  Inter-Agency  Meeting  concerning  the
institutionalization   of   a  gender-sensitive   system-wide   inter-agency
structure was  delivered to  the Commission on  the Status of  Women at  its
thirty-ninth  session.    It  stressed  that  in  order  to  accomplish  the
implementation  of the  declarations  and  programmes of  action adopted  at
world conferences, such as the United  Nations Conference on Environment and
Development,  the  World  Conference  on  Human  Rights,  the  International
Conference  on  Population and  Development,  the  World Summit  for  Social
Development  and  the Fourth  World Conference  on Women,  in a  manner that
would ensure complementarity, synergy and  a gender perspective,  the Inter-
Agency Meeting should be institutionalized,  since to date there had been no
such  formal   system-wide  structure  with   competence  on  gender-related
matters.
  50.  With regard  to specific organizations of the United Nations  system,
the Food  and Agriculture Organization  of the United Nations  (FAO), in its
substantive   programme   activities,   continued   to  develop   innovative
interventions  oriented  towards increasing  rural  women's  access  to  and
control of productive  resources, especially through improved extension  and
training.   Many  FAO activities  highlighted  the  crucial roles  played by
rural  women in such areas  as food security, household nutrition and family
well-being, demographics,  and ecologically sustainable  development.  In  a
number   of  countries,   institutional   capabilities  to   recognize   the
differential  needs and constraints  of rural women  as opposed  to men have
been strengthened, and the ability of  these institutions, both governmental
and non-governmental,  to deliver services  that reflect these  differential
needs  and  constraints  has  been  enhanced.     By  learning  from   these
experiences,  FAO will be  better prepared  to replicate  successes in other
countries and to develop even better interventions in the future.


    B.  System-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of
        women for the period 1996-2001

51.   By its  resolution 1993/16, the  Economic and  Social Council endorsed
the system-wide  medium-term  plan for  the  advancement  of women  for  the
period 1996-2001 as a general framework  for the coordination of system-wide
efforts. It requested the Secretary-General, in  his capacity as Chairman of

ACC,  to arrange for  a revision  of the system-wide  medium-term plan after
the Platform for Action  and the results of the second review and  appraisal
of  the implementation  of the  Nairobi  Forward-looking Strategies  for the
Advancement of Women have  been adopted.  In resolution 49/161, the  General
Assembly  requested the  Secretary-General, in  formulating  the system-wide
medium-term plan,  to pay  particular attention to specific  sectoral themes
that cut  across the three  objectives -  equality, development and  peace -
and to include, in particular, literacy,  education, health, population, the
impact of technology  on the environment  and its  effect on  women and  the
full participation  of women in decision-making,  and to  continue to assist
Governments in strengthening their national machineries for the  advancement
of women.

52.  At the nineteenth ad hoc Inter-Agency Meeting on Women, convened  under
the auspices of ACC, agreements were reached among the organizations of  the
United Nations  system regarding  revisions to  the system-wide  medium-term
plan.   The  plan will  be structured  according to  the critical  areas  of
concern set out in  the Platform for Action  and will include  those actions
that are expected to  be taken by  the relevant organizations of the  United
Nations  system during  the  plan period.   The  critical  areas  of concern
include all  the issues  emphasized by  the General  Assembly in  resolution
49/161.

53.   A  draft  of  the plan  is in  preparation  and will  be finalized  in
November 1995 and submitted to the Commission on the  Status of Women at its
fortieth session.   After taking into  account the  Commission's comments, a
final draft will  be considered by  ACC and  forwarded to  the Economic  and
Social Council through the Committee for Programme and Coordination.


    C.  Women with disabilities, elderly women and also women
           in vulnerable situations such as migrant and refugee
           women and children

54.  In  paragraph 10 of  resolution 49/161,  the General Assembly  strongly
urged  that particular attention  be given  by the  competent United Nations
organizations   and  Governments   to  the  special  needs   of  women  with
disabilities, elderly women and also women  in vulnerable situations such as
migrant and refugee women and children.

55.  The Commission on the Status of Women, at its  thirty-ninth session, in
considering the  preparations for the Fourth  World Conference  on Women and
especially the draft Platform for Action,  emphasized that the situation  of
various  groups of  women,  including refugees,  migrant  women,  indigenous
women and women with disabilities, be reflected.

56.   Separate reports  on violence  against migrant  women  workers and  on
traffic in women and children are being submitted to the General Assembly.

57.  In its resolution  39/2 on the release of  women and children  who have
been taken hostage in armed  conflicts and imprisoned, the Commission on the
Status of  Women urged  all parties  to conflicts  to release all  women and
children  who had  been  taken hostage  in areas  of  armed conflict.    The
Commission also  requested the Secretary-General to  submit a  report on the
matter to the Commission at its fortieth session. 3/

58.  The International Research and  Training Institute for the  Advancement
of Women  (INSTRAW) noted  that women  in export  processing  or free  trade
zones are  also vulnerable  to exploitation and  abuse.  This  seemed to  be
increasingly  prevalent and a  threat to the rights  of these women workers.
This  issue  is  among   the  potential  subjects  meriting  further  study,
especially  in  the context  of  structural  adjustment  and  the new  trade
agreements.


     D.  Steps to be taken by the Division for the Advancement of

      Women, in cooperation with other United Nations bodies,
      to ensure that relevant human rights mechanisms of the
      United Nations regularly address violations of the
      rights of women

59.   In resolution  49/161, the  General Assembly  requested the Secretary-
General to  prepare a report for the Commission on the  Status of Women, for
consideration  at its  thirty-ninth session,  on steps  to  be taken  by the
Division for  the Advancement  of Women,  in cooperation  with other  United
Nations  bodies, specifically the  Centre for  Human Rights,  to ensure that
relevant human  rights mechanisms  of the  United Nations,  such as  treaty-
monitoring  bodies,  special  rapporteurs  and   working  groups,  regularly
address  violations  of  the  rights  of  women,  including  gender-specific
abuses.   The requested  report was  submitted to  the Commission, including
progress in preparing  a joint work  plan on  women's human  rights for  the
Centre for Human Rights and the Division for the Advancement of Women.

 60.   The Commission  on the  Status of Women,  in its  resolution 39/5  on
mainstreaming  the  human  rights  of  women,  stressed  the  importance  of
cooperation and coordination between the Commission  on the Status of  Women
and the Commission on Human Rights to ensure  that the United Nations  human
rights  mechanisms address,  on a  regular  basis,  violations of  the human
rights of  women and that the  Commission on the  Status of Women  regularly
takes stock of that integration process  while carrying out its central role
of monitoring activities relating  to the status of  women.  The  Commission
recommended  that the Division  for the  Advancement of  Women provide input
for  the  next meeting  of  the persons  chairing  the human  rights  treaty
bodies,  providing  background analyses  of  the  relevant articles  of  the
Convention on the Elimination of All  Forms of Discrimination against Women,
in order to assist the treaty bodies in  addressing violations of the  human
rights of women by, inter alia, amending their reporting  guidelines, in the
consideration of State reports and in  the preparation of general  comments.
4/   The  Division has  prepared an  analysis of  methods for  incorporating
gender  factors in  the  work  of the  treaty bodies  and has  submitted it,
through  the  Centre for  Human  Rights,  to  the sixth  meeting  of persons
chairing the human rights treaty bodies.

61.  The Commission encouraged the Division for the Advancement of Women  to
provide relevant  material it receives or  prepares, through  the Centre for
Human Rights, for the information of  the treaty bodies in their work and to
cooperate with and assist the Special  Rapporteur on violence against women,
through the automatic and regular exchange  of information and by forwarding
expeditiously relevant material it  receives or prepares on violence against
women.    It  encouraged  the  efforts  made  by  the  United  Nations  High
Commissioner  for Human Rights  to promote  and protect the  human rights of
women,  including  his efforts  to  coordinate  the activities  of  relevant
United Nations  organs, bodies and mechanisms  dealing with  human rights in
considering violations of the human rights of women.

62.   The Commission  requested the Secretary-General,  taking into  account
the outcome  of the  Fourth  World  Conference on  Women, to  undertake  the
preparation  of  a joint  work plan  on the  human rights  of women  for the
Centre for Human Rights and the  Division for the Advancement of Women on an
annual basis  and to  inform both  the Commission  on Human  Rights and  the
Commission on  the Status  of Women at  their annual sessions,  beginning in
1995, of those plans to facilitate the mainstreaming of the human rights  of
women, in  the context of the  implementation of the  Vienna Declaration and
Programme of Action.

63.  Modalities for  a clear division of  labour and coordination  of action
between the Centre and  the Division are  being developed in the context  of
the follow-up to the  Fourth World Conference on Women and will be  included
in the report  on the follow-up to  the Conference, submitted  separately to
the General Assembly.

E.  Public information

64.    The Secretary-General  was  requested,  in  paragraph  19 of  General
Assembly resolution 49/161, to continue to  provide for the existing  weekly
radio  programmes  on women  in the  regular budget  of the  United Nations,
making adequate  provisions for  broadcasts in  different languages, and  to
develop the focal point  for issues relating  to women in the Department  of
Public  Information.    In  cooperation  with   the  Department  for  Policy
Coordination  and Sustainable  Development,  the Department  should  provide
more  effective public information programmes relating to the advancement of
women.

65.   The Department of Public  Information continues to  produce the weekly
radio programme "Women"  in English and twice-monthly programmes in  Arabic,
French and  Spanish.  These  programmes are distributed  to about 400  radio
stations world wide.


F.  World Survey on the Role of Women in Development

66.   The Secretary-General  was requested,  in paragraph  16 of  resolution
49/161,  to continue  updating  the  World Survey  on the  Role of  Women in
Development, with particular emphasis on the  adverse impact of the economic
situation on women. The first Survey  was prepared for the  World Conference
to Review  and Appraise the  Achievements of the  United Nations  Decade for
Women:   Equality, Development and Peace, held at Nairobi from 15 to 26 July
1985.   The General Assembly, at its fortieth session, considered the Survey
and, by  resolution 40/204  of 17  December 1985,  requested the  Secretary-
General to  update the  Survey  on  a regular  basis, focusing  on  selected
emerging development issues  that had impact  on the  role of  women in  the
economy at  the local, national, regional and international levels.   It was
emphasized that the Survey was the joint effort of the specialized  agencies
and other  organizations of the United  Nations system. The first update was
submitted  to the  Assembly  at  its forty-fourth  session, in  1989.   That
Survey explored women's participation in the  global adjustment process  and
its impact on them.

67.   As requested  by the General  Assembly in  its resolutions  44/77 of 8
December 1989  and 44/171  of 19  December 1989,  the second  update of  the
Survey  was issued in 1994.  The  Commission on the Status of  Women, in its
resolution  36/8, decided  to include  the Survey  as  one of  the principle
documents for  the Fourth World  Conference on Women.  5/   The 1994 Survey,
like its predecessors, was a product of the  United Nations system.  It  was
based on  micro-studies  and specialized  studies  by  organizations of  the
United Nations  system.    It  utilized the  third  version of  the  Women's
Indicators  and Statistics  Database (WISTAT),  created by  the  Statistical
Division of  the Department for Economic  and Social  Information and Policy
Analysis.   The  Survey  examined  three  main issues,  poverty,  productive
employment and economic decision-making, from a  gender perspective.  It has
been issued  as a  United Nations  publication under  the title  Women in  a
Changing Global Economy. 6/

68.  By decision  of the Commission on  the Status  of Women, the Survey  is
expected  to appear  on a  quinquennial  basis, in  the year  preceding  the
regular review and appraisal of the  implementation of the Nairobi  Forward-
looking Strategies  for the  Advancement of  Women.   Accordingly, the  next
update should be issued in 1999.


G.  Development of methods of compilation and data collection

69.   In  paragraph 29  of resolution  49/161, the  Assembly recommended the
further development of methods of compilation  and data collection in  areas
of  concern identified by  the Commission  on the Status of  Women and urged
Member States to  improve and broaden the collection of gender-disaggregated
statistical information  and make it available to the relevant bodies of the

United Nations system.

70.  The  World's Women  1995:  Trends and  Statistics 7/ was published  for
the  Fourth World Conference  on Women.   It was prepared  by the Department
for Economic  and Social  Information and Policy  Analysis in  collaboration
with  the  United  Nations  Children's  Fund (UNICEF),  the  United  Nations
Population Fund  (UNFPA), the United  Nations Development Programme  (UNDP),
the  United Nations  Development Fund  for  Women  (UNIFEM), the  World Food
Programme (WFP), the  International Research and Training Institute for  the
Advancement of Women  (INSTRAW), the United Nations Educational,  Scientific
and Cultural Organization  (UNESCO) and the  World Health Organization (WHO)
and,  within   the  United  Nations   Secretariat,  the   Division  for  the
Advancement  of  Women  and  the  Department  of  Public  Information.   The
publication  covers the core  areas addressed  in the  first edition  of The
World's Women,  in 1991:   population  and families, health,  child-bearing,
work  and public  life.   It  also includes  new topics  such as  the media,
violence against  women, poverty,  the environment,  refugees and  displaced
persons, and 50 years of women's participation in  the United Nations and in
peace-keeping.

71.    The  Statistical  Division  also   assisted  in  the  preparation  of
documentation  and public  information  for the  Conference  by  circulating
research reports prepared for WISTAT.   WISTAT provides a comprehensive  set
of  internationally   available  gender-based   statistics   in  a   single,
comprehensive and  well-documented source.   It  was established  with UNFPA
support  and is available on diskette  and CD-ROM.  A manual was prepared by
the  Statistical Division  for national use  on how to  compile and organize
statistics  on gender-related issues  and how  to present  tables and charts
and write up  the quantitative analysis.  The  manual was used in draft form
at various forums  at the end of  the year.  This  work is supported  by the
Joint Consultative Group on Policy (JCGP).

72.   The Statistical Division, in  collaboration with  INSTRAW, conducted a
training  programme  for users  and  producers  of  statistics  in order  to
improve  the use  and quality  of  existing  data on  gender-related issues.
Efforts  have also  been made  to  influence  the revision  of international
standards  and   guidelines  for  collecting,   classifying  and   analysing
statistical information,  with a  view to  integrating gender  perspectives.
For instance, INSTRAW and the  Statistical Division actively participated in
the latest  revision of the System  of National  Accounts, the International
Standard   for   Classification   of  Occupations   and   the  International
Classification of Status of Employment.

73.  Research studies have also been conducted by INSTRAW on statistics  and
indicators  on  special  groups.    Results  of  such  studies,   containing
recommendations  on specific  indicators that can be  compiled from existing
data and  identifying  the more  crucial  data  gaps, have  been  published.
Existing time-use data-collection  techniques that can bridge existing  gaps
are  being  modified  for situations  in  developing  countries.   Objective
approaches for  measuring and recognizing  women's contribution to  economic
development  are  similarly  being  developed,  in  line  with  the  Nairobi
Forward-looking Strategies and outcomes  of regional plans and platforms for
action and in accordance with the current statistical accounting system.

74.    The  secretariat of  the Economic  Commission  for Europe  (ECE) also
carried  out  a  number  of  gender-specific  activities  in  the  areas  of
statistics  and  demography.   Work  sessions  on  statistics  on women  are
organized every three years  as part of the work programme of the Conference
of  European Statisticians,  and  a new  statistical  publication,  entitled
Women and  Men in Europe and North  America, was issued for the Fourth World
Conference  on Women.   In  the area  of demography, research  projects have
been undertaken on  the socio-economic living  conditions of  elderly women,
and  on  the   relationship  between  child-bearing,  union  formation   and
dissolution, education  and work.   In addition,  ECE has  just completed  a
study on the use of time of women in Europe and North America.

75.    The United  Nations Industrial  Development Organization  (UNIDO) has
established a database  on women in industry.   It became clear during  that
undertaking that  large gaps existed in  many countries  in statistical data
on women in industry and other data that  were related to the role  of women
in manufacturing.


    H.  Participation of women in the planning and implementation
        of programmes for sustainable development

76.    In  paragraph 14  of resolution  49/161,  the General  Assembly urged
organs, organizations and bodies  of the United Nations system to ensure the
active  participation  of  women  in  the  planning  and  implementation  of
programmes for sustainable development.

77.     Following  the   United  Nations   Conference  on   Environment  and
Development, in 1992,  the General Assembly  established the  Commission for
Sustainable  Development, whose role  is to  monitor, review  and assess the
implementation  of  the Conference  agreements, including  Agenda  21.   The
Commission, taking a  thematic approach, reviews selected chapters of Agenda
21 each year; an overall review is scheduled for 1997.

78.    Chapter  24  of  Agenda  21,  on  global  action  for  women  towards
sustainable  and  equitable  development,  concerns  women's  issues.    The
Commission  for Sustainable  Development,  at  its third  session, in  1995,
reviewed the  report of the Secretary-General  on the  role and contribution
of  major groups (E/CN.17/1995/9), covering  chapters 23 to 32 of Agenda 21,
including  chapter  24.    In its  1995  report, the  Commission  stated the
following: 
  
"The   Commission  notes  the  growing  awareness  of   the  linkages  among
development,  environmental protection  and the  empowerment of  women.   In
accordance with  decisions taken at  relevant United Nations conferences, it
calls  upon Governments,  organizations  of  the United  Nations system  and
major groups to  give particular attention to the  need to involve women  in
decision-making    at   all    levels   of    population   and   sustainable
developmentrelated  strategies,  policies, projects  and  programmes.    The
Commission also  calls for  the further  promotion of  measures directed  at
empowerment of women, ensuring their full  access to literacy, education and
training, and health, and  at the removal  of all obstacles to their  access
to credit and other  productive resources and to their ability to buy,  hold
and sell  property and  land  equally with  men.    Such empowerment  is  an
important factor in influencing demographic trends and sustainability." 8/

79.    The  Chairman  of  the  Commission  on  Sustainable  Development,  in
summarizing  the high-level  meeting of  the Commission, made  the following
observation:   "The crucial role of  women as well  as youth and  indigenous
people  and other  local communities  in  decision-making was  reiterated by
many delegations". 9/

80.   The  High-level Advisory  Board  on  Sustainable Development  held its
third  session in  October 1994.  One  of the issues discussed  by the Board
was sustainable food security for a growing population.  In paragraph 25  of
its report (E/CN.17/1995/25), the Board noted that:

"Women  play  a   critical  role  in   rural  development  and  agricultural
activities.   They produce  60 to 80  per cent of  the basic  food supply in
sub-Saharan   Africa;  grow  70  per  cent  of  the   crops  on  the  Indian
subcontinent; perform over 50  per cent of the labour involved in  intensive
rice production  in Asia as a  whole; and  manage complex agro-silvopastoral
complexes in  Central and  South America.   However,  women are  often in  a
disadvantageous situation  with  regard to  social, economic,  technological
and  legal conditions that  frustrate or prevent  them from  being given the
opportunity to  fully participate in agricultural  development.   There is a
need for legal, administrative  and other measures to promote the access  of
women to land, agricultural  credit, appropriate agricultural  technologies,

extension programmes, membership  in agricultural cooperatives,  training in
use  of fertilizers and  pesticides, and  training in  conservation and land
rehabilitation measures."

The Board  advised that, in order  to be  effective, agricultural technology
development must be based  on a systems approach  and must include  a strong
element of farmer participation with equal  opportunities for men and  women
(para. 30).

81.  A number of  the reports of the Secretary-General to the Commission  on
Sustainable  Development  referred  to  the  importance  of  women's   equal
participation in sustainable development.

82.   In pursuit of its  overall policy of  support to women in development,
the  Department  for  Development  Support  and  Management  Services   paid
particular attention  to assessing the actual  and potential  roles of women
in all its various development activities.   This entails designing specific
strategies and mechanisms not only to  include women as direct beneficiaries
but also to promote their active participation  in the various activities as
they  are  carried  out.  The  Department's  efforts increasingly  focus  on
support  to  women's productive  activities  as  independent  generators  of
income  and  their  social empowerment  as  community  leaders  and decision
makers.

 83.   The Committee on  Food Aid  Policies and  Programmes of  WFP, at  its
thirty-eighth session, in December 1994, adopted  the WFP Mission Statement,
which ensures  that its assistance programmes  are designed and  implemented
on the basis  of broad-based participation.   Women, in particular,  are the
key  to change, and it  is the aim  of WFP  to provide food to  women as the
providers and caretakers of the entire  household, especially children.  The
WFP  project approval process now requires that  proposals relate explicitly
to  the action  taken  by Governments,  non-governmental  organizations  and
beneficiaries of WFP assistance in these areas.

84.   An expert group meeting on  women in industry,  organized by UNIDO and
held  at Vienna  from  10 to  12  July  1995,  emphasized the  necessity  of
developing and strengthening UNIDO's network, partnership and visibility  in
governmental  and non-governmental  circles, with  a view  to supporting its
work on the integration of women  in sustainable industrial development  and
of   identifying  regional  problems  and   developing  regionally  specific
strategies  and  recommendations  for  accelerating and  monitoring  gender-
sensitive and  sustainable industrial  policies and programmes.   UNIDO also
provided assistance to Governments in the  development of strategies for the
integration  of  women in  industrial  development  processes  and  policies
(e.g., Burkina Faso, Kenya, Uganda and Zimbabwe).


    IV.  IMPLEMENTATION OF GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION 49/162 ON
               THE INTEGRATION OF OLDER WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT

85.  In its resolution  49/162, the General Assembly requested the Committee
on  the  Elimination  of  Discrimination  against  Women  to pay  particular
attention to  discrimination  on grounds  of  age  when evaluating  national
reports on the  implementation of the Convention  on the Elimination of  All
Forms of  Discrimination against  Women.   The request was  conveyed to  the
Committee at its fourteenth session.

86.  In the  same resolution, the  Assembly invited the competent organs  of
the United Nations  to adopt an approach that,  in all their strategies  and
programmes  for the  advancement of women,  took into account  all stages of
life.  In  the course  of inter-agency discussions,  it has become  apparent
that  a life-cycle  approach in  dealing with  the advancement  of women has
become normal in the activities of the  organizations of the United  Nations
system.

87.    The  Assembly  invited  the  international  development  agencies and

organizations,  including the United  Nations Development Fund for Women and
UNDP, to take account of the potential of elderly women as  a human resource
for development and to include older  women in their development  strategies
and  programmes.   Among  the organizations  concerned,  the  United Nations
Development Fund for  Women provides direct technical and financial  support
to  women's initiatives  in developing  countries.   It also seeks  to bring
women  into mainstream development  planning and  decision-making.  The Fund
has projects that target older women  specifically, and address their  needs
and interests.

88.   The Assembly  invited the Preparatory  Committee for the  World Summit
for  Social   Development  to  ensure   that  older   women's  concerns  and
contributions to development were considered at  the Summit.  The Copenhagen
Declaration on Social Development 10/ and Programme of  Action of the Summit
called  for ensuring full  and equal  access to  social services, especially
education,  legal services and  health-care services  for women  of all ages
and  children,  recognizing  the  rights,  duties  and  responsibilities  of
parents and other persons legally responsible for children, consistent  with
the Convention on the Rights of the Child. 11/  It also  called for ensuring
that  social protection  and social  support  programmes  meet the  needs of
women,  and especially that  they take  into account  women's multiple roles
and concerns,  in particular  the reintegration  of women  into formal  work
after periods  of absence,  support for  older women,  and the promotion  of
acceptance of women's multiple roles and responsibilities. 12/

89.   Finally, the Assembly urged  the Commission on the Status of Women, as
the  preparatory body  for the Fourth  World Conference on  Women, to ensure
that  older   women's  concerns  and   contributions  to  development   were
recognized and incorporated  into the strategies, programmes and policies of
the Platform  for Action.   The  draft Platform  for Action  adopted by  the
Commission  and  transmitted  to  the  Conference  (A/CONF.177/L.1) contains
references to older women in  5 paragraphs, to elderly women  in 2, to women
of all ages in 16 and to the life-cycle approach in 9.


Notes

  1/     Report  of  the   World  Conference  to  Review  and  Appraise  the
Achievements of the United Nations Decade  for Women:  Equality, Development
and Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985  (United Nations publication, Sales  No.
E.85.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

  2/   First Consultative Meeting  of the Culture  of Peace Programme  Final
Report (UNESCO, 1994).

  3/  Official Records of the  Economic and Social Council, 1995, Supplement
No. 6 (E/1995/26), chap. I, sect. C.

  4/  Ibid.

  5/  Ibid., 1992, Supplement No. 4 (E/1992/24), chap. I, sect. C.

  6/  United Nations publication, Sales No. E.95.IV.1.

  7/  United Nations publication, Sales No. 95.XVII.2.

  8/  Official Records of the  Economic and Social Council, 1995, Supplement
No. 12 (E/1995/32), chap. I, sect. A, para. 92.

  9/  Ibid., chap. II, para. 18.

  10/  Report of the  World Summit for Social  Development, Copenhagen, 6-12
March 1995 (A/CONF.166/9), chap. I, resolution 1, annex I. 

  11/  Ibid., annex II, para. 35 (c).

  12/  Ibid., para. 38 (j).


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