United Nations

A/50/390/Add.1


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

29 August 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH/FRENCH
SPANISH 


Fiftieth session
Item 106 of the provisional agenda*


RIGHT OF PEOPLES TO SELF-DETERMINATION

              Use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights
        and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to
self-determination

Note by the Secretary-General

Addendum


  The  Special Rapporteur of the  Commission on Human Rights on the question
of the  use of mercenaries  has received a  letter from  the Deputy Minister
for  Foreign Affairs of  the Republic  of Armenia dated 21  December 1994; a
letter from the  Deputy Prime Minister and  Minister for Foreign  Affairs of
the Republic of  Croatia dated 30 June 1995, and a letter from the Permanent
Mission  of the Federal  Republic of  Yugoslavia (Serbia  and Montenegro) to
the United  Nations Office at Geneva  dated 14 July  1995.  These  documents
are reproduced as annexes to this report.













________________________

  *  A/50/150.


95-26494 (E)   220995  250995/...
*9526494*
ANNEX I

            Letter dated 21 December 1994 from the Deputy Minister for
            Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia addressed to the
            Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the
question of the use of mercenaries


  "The  Government   of  the   Republic   of  Armenia   has  received   your
communication requesting  the Republic of Armenia's  position on  the use of
mercenaries in the conflict between Nagorny Karabakh and Azerbaijan.

  The Government  of the  Republic of Armenia  is aware of  the considerable
importance of  prohibiting the  use of  mercenaries in  armed conflicts  and
fully  supports General  Assembly resolutions  2395 (XXIII)  of  29 November
1968; 2465  (XXIII) of 20 December  1968; 2548 (XXIV)  of 11 December  1969;
2708 (XXV) of 14  December 1970 and 3103  (XXVIII) of 12  December 1973,  as
well  as  Security Council  resolutions 405  (1977)  of 14  April 1977;  419
(1977) of 24  November 1977; 496 (1981) of  15 December 1981  and 507 (1982)
of 28 May 1982 in  which the United Nations denounces the practice of  using
mercenaries.  In  addition, the  Government of  the Republic  of Armenia  is
examining the possibility of ratifying the International Convention  against
the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries.

  Like the  great majority of the  international community,  the Republic of
Armenia  considers  that  the  use  of  mercenaries  in  armed  conflicts is
contrary to  the fundamental  principles  of international  law, namely  the
principle of equality of States and  the principles of territorial integrity
and political  independence, and  seriously jeopardizes  the realization  of
the principle of self-determination.

  Unfortunately, the principles of international  law are often  violated by
States that wish to  dominate other peoples or States.  The Nagorny Karabakh
region is  an area  where the  fundamental principles  of international  law
have  frequently  been  and  continue  to  be  ignored  by  the  Azerbaijani
Republic.   The use of mercenaries is part of a long list of principles that
have been violated by Azerbaijan.

  We  hereby  wish to  submit  information  to you  concerning  the  use  of
mercenaries  in  the Nagorny  Karabakh  conflict in  order  to give  you  an
unbiased and objective picture of the situation.

  The Nagorny Karabakh conflict, in which  the principal parties are Nagorny
Karabakh and  Azerbaijan, has been  going on for  six years  and has claimed
the  lives  of several  hundred  persons.   The  conflict  began  after  the
Armenian majority  in  the Nagorny  Karabakh  Autonomous  Region, using  the
legal  machinery  provided  under  the  Constitution  of  the  former  USSR,
expressed their desire for independence through  a popular referendum with a
view to  fully  exercising  their civil,  economic, political  and  cultural
rights.  The Azerbaijani authorities chose to settle this conflict of  self-
determination  militarily,  confident  as  they  were  of  their   numerical
superiority (the population of Azerbaijan being approximately 7 million  and
that of Nagorny Karabakh being 150,000).
    Parallel  to the conflict  in Nagorny  Karabakh, Azerbaijan attempted to
involve  the  Republic  of  Armenia  by   bombing  its  border  regions  and
circulating  dubious claims  of aggression  perpetrated by  the Republic  of
Armenia against  the Azerbaijani Republic, and  of the use of mercenaries in
the pay of either  the Armenian Government or the diaspora.  Resolutions  of
the  Security  Council and  decisions  of  the  Conference  on Security  and
Cooperation in  Europe (CSCE)  have proved  that Armenia  is not one  of the
principal parties to  the conflict.  This  information was put about  mainly
in  an  attempt  to  conceal  the  systematic  use  of  mercenaries  by  the
Azerbaijani  Republic, which,  realizing  that the  Nagorny  Karabakh  Self-
Defence Forces might win, decided to  hire mercenaries from the Commonwealth
of Independent States (CIS), Turkey and Afghanistan.

  These mercenaries  and soldiers  of the  armed forces  of the  Azerbaijani
Republic have committed atrocities and crimes  which fall into the  category

of crimes against humanity,  but we believe  that it is more appropriate  to
focus on the use of mercenaries.

  1.  The alleged use of mercenaries by the authorities in Nagorny Karabakh

  The term 'mercenary' is defined in article 47  of Additional Protocol I of
the Geneva  Conventions of  12 August  1949.   According to this  article, a
mercenary is an  individual recruited to fight in  an armed conflict; he  is
directly involved in that conflict; his  motives are primarily financial and
the  material  compensation  which  he  receives  is  greater  than  that of
combatants of the same rank from one of  the parties to the conflict;  he is
neither a  national  of one  of  the parties  to  the  conflict, nor  is  he
resident in the territory  controlled by the members  of the armed forces of
one  of the parties  to the  conflict; finally,  he has  not been sent  by a
third State as a member of its armed forces.

  According to  this definition, the majority  of combatants  referred to in
the  letter from  the Government  of  the Azerbaijani  Republic do  not fall
within the category of mercenaries.  Armenians  throughout the world are not
indifferent to the sufferings of their compatriots and some  have even taken
up arms in order  to fight voluntarily alongside the Nagorny Karabakh  Self-
Defence  Forces.  They  cannot be  considered mercenaries  for the following
reasons:

  -  They have not been recruited by the  authorities in Nagorny Karabakh or
indeed by any authority; they came to fight of their own free will;

  -  Their motives are purely patriotic rather than financial;

  -  They are ethnic Armenians like the population of Nagorny Karabakh.

  By listing  the nationalities of these  individuals instead of  mentioning
their ethnic  origin, the Azerbaijani  authorities are attempting to portray
them as mercenaries.


   2.  The use of mercenaries by the Azerbaijani Republic

  Mercenaries  have  been  used  by  the  armed  forces  of  the Azerbaijani
Republic since  1991.   These mercenaries  fall into  two categories,  those
originating from CIS States and those from other States.

  Mercenaries  originating from CIS  States have  been incorporated into the
Azerbaijani armed forces  in special units  comprised of  foreign nationals.
Russians have frequently been recruited by the Russian military  recruitment
services and  dispatched  to Baku.    They  are paid  approximately  500,000
roubles, half of which is payable in dollars.  These mercenaries arrived  in
Baku in  several batches on different dates:   a group of 70 arrived in 1992
and a group  of 150 arrived  in 1993.   However, it  is fairly difficult  to
determine the exact  number since some of  them have returned home, deserted
or been killed.

  Regarding nationals of other States serving  as mercenaries in Azerbaijan,
they are mainly from  the Islamic Republic of Iran, Turkey and  Afghanistan.
They are paid  between $700  and $1,000 a month  depending on their area  of
expertise. Military pilots are paid $5,000 for each successful sortie.

  The  mercenaries  are  stationed  in  different  military   units  in  the
following regions:

  -  Djitanov Region, village of Tolipar;

  -  Shamkhor Region, settlement of Selful;

  -  Between Kucho and Mingechaur Regions;

  -  The town of Ali-Bayram.

  The mercenaries are mainly serving in:

  -  The 860th and 723rd motorized brigades;

  -  The air force;

  -  The artillery;

  -  The secret services.

  The Afghan  mujahidin are  the most  heavily involved  in the  conflict in
Nagorny Karabakh.   Having engaged the  armed forces of  the former USSR  in
Afghanistan, they  are best  trained to  fight against  combatants from  the
former USSR.  They  are thought to  number 3,000, are fairly well  organized
and  carry   out  special  tasks   including  punitive  operations   against
Azerbaijani combatants who have deserted the front lines.

  Since 1991,  12 mercenaries  have been  captured in  the Nagorny  Karabakh
region, the Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijani Republic, namely:

  -Oleg Aleksei Bilibengo, Ukrainian national;
   -Aleksei Dimitri Suslo, Ukrainian national;

  -Kamzad Murat oglu Beldurov, Russian national, originally from Chechnya;

  -Movla Movladi oglu Abasov, Russian national, originally from Chechnya;

  -Egor Dimitri Ivanov, Russian national;

  -Anatoli Giorgi Chistyagov, Latvian national;

  -Yuri Viktor Belichenko, Ukrainian national;

  -Marat Ichgnei Ichgneiev, Kyrgyz national;

  - Sergey Aleksandr Shanukhin, Russian national;

  -Bakhtiar Verbole Baberzai, Afghan national;

  -Yumak Atilla Hamdioglu, Turkish national;

  -Amir Ibrahimli Buluk Abat, Iranian national.

  More detailed information about these mercenaries  is included at the  end
of this communication.

  In  addition to these  mercenaries, Western  diplomats based  in Baku have
repeatedly  reported the  presence of  officers  from  the United  States of
America  and Turkey who  have been  recruited to  train Azerbaijani military
forces.   While the  former are  often paid  by American oil  companies, the
Turkish  officers are  recruited  in  Turkey  and  paid  for  by  Turkey  or
Azerbaijan.    In  accordance with  the  definition  used  in  international
humanitarian  law,  these  individuals  are not  directly  involved  in  the
conflict  and cannot  be considered  mercenaries. However,  they satisfy all
the other criteria  and in  modern-day conflicts,  where technology  enables
damage to be inflicted  from a much greater distance, it is fairly difficult
to  define 'involvement  in conflicts'.   Thus,  in some  cases, even  these
training officers could be considered mercenaries.

  The use of mercenaries by  the Azerbaijani Republic has also been reported
in a number of newspaper articles.  Some of these are worth mentioning:

  -   The  Washington Post of 12  March 1994 notes that  '1,000 Afghans have
passed their first test in the Zangelan offensive near the Iranian border';

  -  The Washington Post of  20 April 1994 describes the Azerbaijani army as
including mercenaries from  Afghanistan, Iran, the United States, Russia and
Turkey.   The  Baku-based journalist  who  wrote  the article  states  that,
according  to  Western  diplomats,  the  republic  had  hired  1,000  Afghan
mujahidin  in 1993.  In  addition, Turkey and Iran were reportedly providing
Baku with military training personnel, not  forgetting the 200 Russian  army
officers who taught the Azerbaijanis basic  combat methods in the north-west
of Barda in November 1992;

   -  In an  article in the Spring 1994 issue of Covert Action Quarterly, A.
Rowell analyses  the  involvement  of foreign  citizens in  the  Azerbaijani
armed  forces.  After  mentioning that  American and  Iranian nationals have
been paid by  oil companies to  train Azerbaijani  soldiers, he reports  the
arrival from Afghanistan of approximately 1,000 mujahidin, who often  stayed
at the 'Azerbaijan'  hotel.  According to  Western diplomats based in  Baku,
they apparently  saw action  for the  first time  in October  1993 when  the
Nagorny Karabakh Armenians occupied 100 kilometres of Azerbaijani  territory
along  the  Azerbaijani-Iranian  border.    The  article  concludes  with  a
reference to  the involvement of Turkish  officers as  training personnel in
military camps near Gyanja;

  -   The  weekly news  magazine Ikibin  Dogru  reports in  its issue  of 20
December 1992  that the  adjutant-general of  the Turkish  armed forces  was
recruiting  Turkish  officers  to  reinforce  the  Azerbaijani  army.    The
article,  by H. Cicek,  reports that  officers are  allegedly paid  $7,500 a
month  out of  a secret  fund administered  by the  adjutant-general of  the
Turkish armed forces;

  -  In its 4 January 1994 issue, the Russian newspaper Nezavisimaya  Gazeta
notes the violent clashes that occurred during the  final days of 1993.   It
confirms the  use of mercenaries from  neighbouring States  and refers above
all  to  the involvement  of  Afghan  mercenaries in  these  clashes.    The
dispatch of these mercenaries was apparently  negotiated during the visit of
the Azerbaijani Deputy Minister  of Internal Affairs  to Kabul.  The  Deputy
Minister is reported to  have brought the first 200 mercenaries with him  to
Baku in  his private  aircraft. They  belonged to  the forces  of the  Prime
Minister  of Afghanistan,  Mr. Hekmatyar,  and  were  paid by  Saudi Arabia.
Experts  believe  that   the  reasons  for  their  involvement  were  purely
financial.

  -  In  its issue of 24 February 1994, the Russian  daily Izvestiya reports
that Russian mercenaries are serving in the Azerbaijani army.   According to
this  article, the military  recruitment services  in Tula, Kaluga, Ivanovo,
Tambov and  Vladimir launched  an active  recruitment drive as  a result  of
which approximately 150 Russian  mercenaries arrived in  Baku at the end  of
1993.   These mercenaries allegedly received  500,000 roubles  a month, half
of which  was paid in dollars. Most of the soldiers believed they were going
to serve in the Russian army.  The  article devotes considerable coverage to
interviews  with Russian soldiers  who had been recruited  in this manner by
the  military  recruitment  services.   These  soldiers  testify  that  they
arrived  in Baku on 20 December 1992 aboard an  Air Azerbaijan Tu-154.  Some
of them  escaped and  some returned  home, but  several of them  were killed
and, in  some cases, their bodies  were never found.   The journalist  notes
that this  group of mercenaries  was neither the  first nor  the last, since
the  arrival of recruits  from the  Russian Federation  continued after that
date;

  -  As a  follow-up to its article of 24  February, and in the light of  an
inquiry launched by the Russian Federal Counter-Intelligence Service in  the
meantime, another  article which appeared in  Izvestiya on  24 November 1994
revisited  the  topic  of  the  Azerbaijani  army's  employment  of  Russian
mercenaries.  The  article  reports  that the  Federal  Counter-Intelligence
Service  interrogated a  number of  individuals who  had  taken part  in the
Nagorny  Karabakh conflict  and had  even  discovered  two persons  whom the
Azerbaijani   authorities  had   requested  to   kidnap  Armenian   officers
holidaying in  the Russian Federation.  Aleksandr Mikhaylov,  an official in

the  Counter-Intelligence Service,  confirmed  to the  journalist  that  the
findings  of  the investigation  had  been  sent  to the  Procurator  of the
Russian Federation.   The Procurator  initiated 19  criminal proceedings  on
the basis of this  investigation, but all charges were dropped owing to lack
of evidence.  The Procurator recognizes,  however, that Azerbaijan is  using
Russian mercenaries  with the complicity of the Russian military recruitment
services.    In  the  wake  of  this investigation,  a  draft  law  has been
submitted to  the Russian  Duma with a view  to including an article  on the
use of mercenaries in the Penal Code of the Russian Federation.

  This information clearly shows that the  Azerbaijani Republic is using the
services  of mercenaries  in  order  to impose  its desire  to  dominate the
territory and people  of Nagorny Karabakh.   We  therefore request that  you
take account of  this information in the preparation  of your report on  the
use of mercenaries in armed conflicts.

  Below  is  a  list  of  mercenaries captured  in  and  around the  Nagorny
Karabakh region:

  (1)   Oleg  Aleksey  Bilibengo, born  in 1963  in  Ukraine.   Address:  10
Bargamingo  Street,  Vladivostok.    Secondary  education.    Served  in the
Azerbaijani special operations forces from May 1992.  Captured at Agdam.

  (2)   Aleksey  Dimitri  Suslo,  born in  1976 in  Ukraine.   Address:   24
Belisgo Street, Kiev.  Served in  the Azerbaijani special operations  forces
from May 1992.  Captured at Agdam.

  (3)  Anatoli Georgi  Chistyagov, born in  1955 in Russia.  Address:  32/31
24th Street,  Taoukavsi, Latvia.   Higher education,  pilot.  Served  in the
Azerbaijani air  force as  a  member of  the  Gultamir  battalion.   He  was
wounded and  captured on 15 January 1992 in the  vicinity of Vank-Sulgarent.
Died in October 1992.

  (4)   Yuri Viktor  Belichenko, born  in 1966  in Ukraine.   Address: 66/34
Brimarsghe Street,  Znamensk.   Higher  education,  pilot.   Served  in  the
Azerbaijani air force from  1978 in the 'Nasosny'  forces near Sumgait.   He
was wounded and captured on 20 August 1992 in the Mardakert area.

  (5)   Marat Ichgnei Ichgneiev,  born in 1949  in Kyrgyzstan.   Address: 48
Batovai Street,  Bishkek.  Higher education,  pilot.   Served from September
1993  in the  'Talyar' battalion.   Captured  in the  Omar mountains  on  17
February 1994.

  (6)   Sergei Aleksandr Shanukhin, born  in 1967 in  Russia.  Address:  9/8
Bleganov Street,  Heuz village,  Krasnodar Territory.   Secondary  technical
education.   Served in the 170th  battalion of the  Azerbaijani armed forces
in Shamkhor  from February 1994.   Captured in April 1994  in the village of
Kuludjhan in the Agdam area.

   (7)  Bakhtiar  Verbole Baberzai, born  in 1974 in Afghanistan.   Address:
Mouzari  Sherif  village,  Afghanistan.    Served   as  an  officer  in  the
Azerbaijani armed forces from April 1994.  Captured on 20 April 1994.

  (8)   Humag  Atilla Hamdioglu,  born in  1959  in  Turkey.   Address: Mez-
Burunkugh  village, Kayseri, Turkey.   Secondary  education.   Served in the
Azerbaijani  armed forces  in  the Kubatly  area.   From  1993 worked  as  a
military  adviser.   Captured  in Kubatly  on  20  August  1993.   Freed  in
September 1993 and returned to Turkey.

  (9)   Amir Ibrahimli Buluk  Abat, born in 1970 in  the Islamic Republic of
Iran.  Address:   33  Montazeri Avenue, Urmia,  Iran.  Secondary  education.
Served  in the  701st battalion  of  the Azerbaijani  armed forces  in Baku.
Captured in  February  1994 in  the  village  of Hanchag,  Kelbajar  region.
Freed in July 1994 and returned to Iran.

  (10)  Movla  Movladi  oglu Abasov,  born in  1957  in Chechnya.   Address:

Ozhelga  village,  Gudermes region,  Chechnya.   Served  in the  Azerbaijani
armed  forces from 1992.  Captured  in June 1992 at Stepanakert.   Freed and
returned to Chechnya on 30 October 1992.

  (11) Hamza  Murat oglu  Bedurov, born in  1963 in Chechnya.   Address:  27
Lermontov Street,  Sermontov.  Served in  the Azerbaijani  armed forces from
1992.  Captured in July 1992  in the vicinity of Ijevan.  Freed and returned
to Chechnya on 30 October 1992.

  (12)  Egor Dimitri  Ivanov, born  in  1964 in  Russia.   Address  unknown.
Recruited into the Azerbaijani armed forces  directly from prison.  Captured
near  Kafan on 17 August 1992.   Freed and returned to Russia  on 30 October
1992.


(Signed)  Vartan OSKANYAN
Deputy Minister"

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ANNEX II

             Letter dated 30 June 1995 from the Deputy Prime Minister
             and Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of
             Croatia addressed to the Special Rapporteur of the
             Commission on Human Rights on the question of the use of
mercenaries


  "Like  the previous  information available  to  us,  the most  recent also
indicates  that  in   the  temporarily  occupied  territories  of   Croatia,
particularly  those   bordering  on  the   so-called  Federal  Republic   of
Yugoslavia  (FRY) and  the Republic  of  Bosnia  and Herzegovina,  there are
constantly  a certain  number of  foreigners  who  perform services  for the
occupying authorities against remuneration.

  Beside  mercenaries  from  several  Eastern  Bloc countries,  particularly
Russia, Bulgaria and  Romania, armed paramilitary  groups from  the Republic
of Serbia  have been  coming to  these territories  as a  sort of  voluntary
force.

  These paramilitary  groups are the  ones who are  the most  extreme in the
ethnic  cleansing   of  the   remaining  non-Serbian   population  and   the
devastation of the  cultural and historic heritage of the Croatian and other
non-Serbian populations in the region.

  The organized groups of mercenaries have  established an organized  system
of plundering  economic and  natural resources in  these territories,  which
are either  taken to  the Republic  of Serbia  or used  for maintaining  the
authority  of the  political, military  and  police  apparatus of  the self-
proclaimed state, the so-called Republic of Serbian Krajina.

  Direct involvement of the  authorities of Serbia in the activities of  the
paramilitary groups and their support to  the local occupying authorities in
Croatia have  been clearly shown during  the liberation  of Western Slavonia
and the establishment of the State and legal sovereignty of the Republic  of
Croatia in this area.

  They are also  shown by the fact that  nearly all the commanding  officers
in the  formerly  occupied part  of Croatia  were members  of the  so-called

Yugoslav National Army (JNA), which paid them.

  The presence of voluntary units and mercenaries from  the so-called FRY in
the  territory of  the  Republic  of Croatia  was recorded  as early  as the
beginning of the aggression against Croatia in 1991.

  The most numerous category  of mercenaries registered  are career officers
of the  army of the so-called  FRY, as well as  officers of  the former JNA,
who are  in commanding positions  in the so-called  army of  the Republic of
Serbian Krajina (RSK).   Their functions range from the commander of the so-
called army of the  Republic of Serbian Krajina to  the commander of the so-
called corps and brigades.   Generally, they have a command and coordination
function  in the army of Serbian  Krajina.  This group of officers claims to
be  from the temporarily  occupied territories  of the  Republic of Croatia,
which  are controlled  by the  Serbian  paramilitary units,  and is  on  the
payroll  of the so-called army  of Yugoslavia.  According to the information
available, around 700  persons (career officers of the so-called army of FRY
and former  officers of the  so-called JNA)  are engaged in  the temporarily
occupied territories of the Republic of Croatia  with mercenary status.  The
majority of these  persons are nationals  of the so-called  FRY (Serbia  and
Montenegro).  The following  persons are the most important among those  who
are on the payroll of the army  of Yugoslavia and who are  periodically sent
to the battlefields in the  Republic of Croatia as personnel of the army  of
the Republic of Serbian Krajina:

1.  Mile Mrksic,  lieutenant-general, now a commander of the so-called  army
of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, was formerly  assistant chief of the so-
called General Staff of the army of FRY.

2.   Mirko Bjelanovic, major-general,  assistant commander  of the so-called
army of the Republic of Serbian Krajina.

3.   Ljubomir  Domazetovic, general,  special adviser  to the  commander-in-
chief of the so-called army of the Republic of Serbian Krajina.

4.   Mile Novakovic, major-general, assistant  commander and  adviser to the
so-called President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, Milan Martic.

5.    Boro  Poznanovic,  colonel,  commander  of  the  so-called  7th  North
Dalmatian corps.

6.  Stevo Sevo, colonel, commander of the so-called 15th Lika corps.

7.  Veljko Bosanac, colonel, commander of the so-called 21st corps.

8.   Dusan  Loncar, major-general,  commander  of  the so-called  11th  East
Slavonic corps.

9.   Branislav  Kusljic,  lieutenant-commander, former  commander  of  'Alfa
Centre',  currently occupying  a position  in  the Federal  Secretariat  for
National Defence in Belgrade.

10.   Jovica Gazibara, career  officer of the so-called  navy of Yugoslavia,
commander of 'Alfa Centre'.

  Career officers  of the so-called army  of Yugoslavia  in the headquarters
of the former so-called 18th corps were the  commander of the corps, Colonel
Lazo  Babic; his  deputy, Colonel  Milan Romanic;  civilian  sector officer,
Colonel Slobodan Peric; security  officer Lieutenant-Colonel Borislav Stijak
and many others.   All career officers of  the so-called army  of Yugoslavia
within  the  so-called  18th  corps were  on  the payroll  of  the so-called
General Staff of the  army of Yugoslavia in Belgrade.  An irrefutable  proof
of  this are documents  found during the  liberation of  Western Slavonia by
the police  and military  forces of  the Republic  of Croatia.   Written and
other  documentation has been  found which  confirm the  direct link between
the so-called army of  Yugoslavia and the so-called  18th corps of  the army

of Serbian Krajina.   Some documents show the presence in the so-called 18th
corps of the army of Serbian Krajina of 261 military persons  from the Banja
Luka Armoured Unit, who did not have permanent  residence in the Republic of
Croatia but were sent to the said area from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  After  the action  'Blitz',  the arrival  of a  large number  of Cossacks,
headed  by Colonel  Ataman Georgievich  from  the  Republic of  Moldova, was
recorded in Eastern  Slavonia, linked to the  raising of the  shaken morale.
In this area there  are also two Russian  officers, who were  United Nations
Protection  Force  (UNPROFOR) commanders  in the  former  Sector East,  i.e.
Colonel Vladimir Loginov  and Aleksandar Chromchenko.  Is has been confirmed
that Loginov, after his  release from duty in  UNPROFOR, remained in Vukovar
and became  a military  adviser to  the so-called  army of  the Republic  of
Serbian Krajina for training and planning of armed operations.

  In this area the  presence of a certain number of foreign mercenaries from
Russia, Bulgaria and  Romania was  recorded.  It  has been established  that
several  persons of  Russian nationality  were deployed  in Mirkovci,  where
they  were paid travel  expenses and  remuneration for  military service and
promised land in this area.

  The presence of the so-called party  paramilitary formations from the  so-
called FRY  was recorded,  i.e. 'Beli orlovi',  'Tigrovi', 'Pantere',  'Crna
Legija', etc.

  Zeljko Raznatovic  Arkan,  a mercenary  and  war  criminal with  extensive
media  coverage, and his paramilitary troops, the 'Tigers', took part in the
Serb aggression against  Croatia from the very  first day.  The headquarters
of  his troops is in the occupied town of Erdut,  where they also have their
training  camp.    Some  information  indicates  that  a  certain  number of
'Tigers' are  in fact a  professional group  of commandos  of the  so-called
army of Yugoslavia.

  Paramilitary troops numbering some  220 men and  calling themselves 'Super
Tigers' have recently arrived in Eastern  Slavonia and are partly  stationed
in Erdut.

  One of the camps  where the presence of foreign mercenaries has also  been
recorded is the  so-called Alfa Centre  near the  village of  Bruska in  the
former municipality of Benkovac.   The camp is specially set up for sabotage
and terrorism  and sudden attacks on  the rear lines  of the Croatian  army.
It  was established  and  led for  some time  by  Dragan  Vasiljkovic, alias
Danijel Sneden, called Captain Dragan, citizen  of FRY and Australia (former
officer of  the Australian army for  special assignments).  According to the
available information, five citizens  of the Republic of Ireland who were in
the camp  in the capacity of  instructors had made  friends with Vasiljkovic
in Australia. Officers of the so-called  army of Yugoslavia, mostly  members
of  the  rapid  reaction  paratroopers  from  Nis,  also  serve  as military
instructors.  For a long time, the camp was led by Captain Dragan's  deputy,
Tihomir Mraovic, a  captain in the so-called army of Yugoslavia, who himself
is a paratrooper from Nis.  We have  information that the Second  Department
of the  Federal  Secretariat  for  National Defence  (FSND)  directly  makes
personnel changes at Alfa Centre in  that it brings in officers  of the army
of the so-called FRY,  who in turn report  to the Second  Department of  the
FSND.   This  is  corroborated by  the fact  that Alfa  Centre  can only  be
reached by telephone through the FSND operator, No. 011/665-122.

  The  underwater training of commandos from Alfa Centre  takes place in the
naval  base of  the so-called  army  of Yugoslavia  in Tivat,  where  groups
consisting of  10-15 people  go.  At present,  the commander of the  camp is
Jovica Gazibara, naval officer of the so-called army of Yugoslavia.

  Besides providing  commanding officers and military  experts, the army  of
the  so-called FRY also has other ways of assisting  in the formation of the
so-called  army of RSK.  Recruits  from the so-called RSK are sent for their
military training,  which lasts  for three to  six months, in  the so-called

FRY,  in the 'Avala'  barracks at  Bubanj potok, VP 6653/8  Ruma, VP 4554/10
Vrsac, Obrenovac  and Sombor  (where they  are trained  to command  armoured
units).   At the  Centre for  Specialization school  at Banjica  in Belgrade
personnel  are trained and  assigned to  the units of the  so-called army of
RSK when needed.  In the course of the mobilization in the  so-called RSK in
November 1994, military equipment for 2,000 men came from Belgrade.

  Besides assisting the army of the  so-called RSK, FRY continuously assists
the  development of  the Ministry  of the  Interior  of  RSK.   In mid-1993,
following  the  communications  instructions,  a  free  telephone  line  was
established between  the  Minister of  the  Interior  of Serbia  and  Nikola
Rastovic, the so-called Assistant  Minister of RSK.   The technical part was
done by  a team  of the  Serbian Ministry of  the Interior.   Also, some  20
policemen from the  so-called Ministry of the Interior  of RSK were sent  to
the Security Institute  of the Serbian Ministry  of the Interior; they  were
received by the deputy head of the Institute, Dusko Lakcevic.

  The  State Security Service  of Serbia  engaged in  organizing and sending
volunteer units from Serbia  to the so-called  RSK.  In this connection,  we
mention  that Dejan Lucic, member  of the State Security  Service of Serbia,
had brought Captain  Dragan to Knin  and introduced  him to  the then  self-
styled Minister of the Interior of RSK, Milan Martic.

  Please  find enclosed photocopies  of some  documents found  with the Serb
paramilitary  troops during the  liberation of  Western Slavonia, from which
the direct connection between  the so-called army of Yugoslavia and the  so-
called 18th corps of the army of RSK can clearly be seen.

ENCLOSED:

1.  Dragan Popovic  (order No. 7-160, commander of the so-called 18th corps,
of 20 March 1994).

2.   Borislav Stijak  (order  No. 15-142,  commander of  the so-called  18th
corps, of  6 April 1993, and  order No. 14-205,  commander of the  so-called
18th corps, of 25 November 1993).

 3.   Zarko  Novakovic (headquarters,  91st anti-armour  brigade, top secret
No.  1-90/93 of  10 March 1993 -  schedule of family visits  for officers of
the army of Yugoslavia temporarily deployed at the 91st AAB).

4.   Petar Miljevic (headquarters,  18th corps, top  secret No.  20273 of 19
September 1994  - 'A  group of military  members, volunteers  from the  FRY,
have been discovered in the 7th corps ...').

5.   Dorde  Meandzija  (VP  3040, secret  No.  243-1  of 7  September  1994,
Radovici,  Tivat,  extraordinary promotion  and  evaluation  of  the  above-
mentioned person during his temporary work with the 'Serb army of RSK').

6.   Milenko Dimic  (VP 4001,  Belgrade, classified  No. 7-135  of 31  March
1994, decision  on the  working conditions  compensation -  stationed at  VP
4001 Belgrade - serving at VP 9167 Rajic).

7.   List of professional  soldiers with citizenship  of Serbia  - 'FRY' and
list of officers  who applied  for citizenship of Serbia  - 'FRY' - VP  9172
Okucani.

8.  List of  military personnel from the so-called Yugoslavia to take leave,
headquarters of the 18th motorized artillery regiment.

9.  List of  military personnel from  the Banja Luka 'armoured unit'  within
the 18th corps of the army of Serbian Krajina of 20 April 1995.

10.    Dragan  Vukadinovic  (general  staff   of  the  army  of  Yugoslavia,
reinforcement,   mobilization   and   system   matters   sector,   personnel
department, classified  No.  14/14-227 of  27 June  1994 -  decision on  the

double   duration  of  the  working  period,  the  above-named  having  been
stationed at VP 4001 Belgrade and serving in VP 9174 Stara Gradiska).

  Further  to the point,  it is  important to notice that  the Government of
the Republic of Croatia also has knowledge of the use of mercenaries in  the
military units of  the 'army of  the Republic of Srpska',  whose nationality
is  other than  that  of  the  States formerly  belonging  to the  Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY).

  In  the beginning  of 1994,  near the  village of  Gomolje (Federation  of
Bosnia and Herzegovina), Aleksandar Skrabov, member  of the marine corps  of
the Russian army, was  killed in battle.   After the end of  his mandate  in
the  forces of UNPROFOR  he took  command of the Russian  mercenary force in
the so-called 'army of the Republic of Srpska'.

  In  April  1995 the  commander of  the  UNPROFOR Sector  East forces,  the
Russian General Pereljakin, who had been  replaced because of miscarriage of
his duties, was appointed  as an adviser to  the commander of  the 'Baranja'
division of the so-called 'RSK army'.

  During May 1995 a group of 100 Greek  and 500 Russian mercenaries  arrived
in  the  Gacko-Avtovac  region  from the  town  of  Uzice (FRY  (Serbia  and
Montenegro)). The  main  purpose  of  their arrival  seems  to be  that  the
command of  the 'Herzegovina corps' of  the so-called 'army  of the Republic
of Srpska' intends to organize an international brigade.

  Allow  me, Your Excellency, to stress once again the overall commitment of
the Government of the  Republic of Croatia to participance in the process of
suppression of the use of  mercenaries throughout the world, especially as a
practice contrary to the right of self-determination.


(Signed)  Dr. Mate GRANIC      
Deputy Prime Minister and 
Minister for Foreign Affairs"
/...  A/50/390/Add.1
  English
  Page

A/50/390/Add.1
English
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ANNEX III

            Letter dated 14 July 1995 from the Permanent Mission of the
            Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to
            the United Nations Office at Geneva addressed to the
Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights


  "With reference to your  letter G/SO 214 (18-13) of 8 May 1995, I have the
honour to  forward, enclosed herewith,  Information on foreign  mercenaries,
prepared by  the Government of  the Federal Republic  of Yugoslavia, with  a
kind request  to forward  it to  Mr. Enrique  Bernales Ballesteros,  Special
Rapporteur on the question of the use of mercenaries.


Information on foreign mercenaries

The  Federal  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  of  the  Federal  Republic  of
Yugoslavia has  given careful consideration  to General Assembly  resolution
49/150 and resolution 1995/5 of the Commission  on Human Rights as  referred
to in  the letter of the  Special Rapporteur on the  question of  the use of
mercenaries as a  means to violate human rights  and to impede the  exercise
of the right of peoples to self-determination (G/SO 214 (18-23)).

There  can be no doubt as  to the soundness of the actions taken with a view
to reaffirming accepted  international norms  relating to the prevention  of
the use of mercenaries in military conflicts.

As far  as the  Federal Republic of  Yugoslavia is concerned,  the laws  and
regulations  pertaining  to  this  matter  are   clear  and  based  on   the
international  commitments  accepted by  Yugoslavia  when  it  ratified  the
international  instruments   prohibiting  the   activities  of   mercenaries
(Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions).

Article 134  of  the Constitution  of  the  Federal Republic  of  Yugoslavia
provides that the army  of Yugoslavia is composed of Yugoslav citizens, that
it is  made up  of a standing army  and reserve units and  that the standing
army is  composed of professional  soldiers and conscripts.   A  federal law
regulates the army of Yugoslavia (Official  Gazette of the Federal  Republic
of Yugoslavia No. 43/94).

According to the Law on the Army of  Yugoslavia, reserve units are  composed
of  reserve officers,  reserve non-commissioned  officers,  reserve soldiers
and women conscripts (art. 7, para. 5).

Members  of  the  army of  Yugoslavia  can be  only  Yugoslav citizens  and,
exceptionally in war, foreign  nationals if they join the army of Yugoslavia
as volunteers (art. 8, para. 3).

The units and  institutions of the army  of Yugoslavia are replenished  from
the standing  and reserve  units and  during a  state of  war, imminent  war
danger  or  a  state  of  emergency  the army  can  also  be  replenished by
volunteers.  Volunteers are persons  who are not subject to conscription and
conscripts who  do  not have  military  duty  assignments  in case  of  war.
Volunteers are equal in rights and duties to military persons (art. 15).

The  said  provisions  of the  Constitution  and  the  Law  on  the Army  of
Yugoslavia clearly  indicate who in the  Federal Republic  of Yugoslavia can
be a member of the army  of Yugoslavia.  They also indicate that a mercenary
in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia cannot have  the status of a combatant
or a prisoner of  war, which is in accordance  with article 47 of Additional
Protocol I.

The  events in  the  former  Yugoslavia have  shown that  a large  number of
foreign mercenaries and mujahidin are involved in  the war in former  Bosnia
and Herzegovina and  Croatia.  In  its previous information  to the  Special
Rapporteur,  the  Government  of  the  Federal  Republic  of Yugoslavia  has
submitted its findings on this problem.

(a)   On this occasion, the attention of the Special  Rapporteur is drawn to
the  Information on  Foreign Mercenaries  Participating  in  the War  on the
Territory  of  the  Former  SFR  of  Yugoslavia  prepared  by  the Committee
Compiling  Data on  Crimes against  Humanity  and  International Law  of the
Government  of  the  Federal  Republic of  Yugoslavia  on the  basis  of its
investigation which was published  as annex II to  the fourth report  of the
Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia  on crimes committed in the
territory of  the former  SFR of  Yugoslavia (A/49/801-S/1994/1436,  annex).
Singled out from this list are the names  of 13 mercenaries, Dutch citizens,
who  participated in  the  war  operations in  Croatia  on the  side of  the
Croatian  military.   Particular  attention  is  drawn  to  the first  eight
mercenaries who  participated directly in  the crimes  committed against the
civilian Serbian  population in  the Medak  pocket, on  which UNPROFOR  also
reported.   The list  has been forwarded  to the Dutch  Ministry of  Foreign
Affairs which, according to the information  available to us, transmitted it
to the ad hoc  International Tribunal at  The Hague.   The Dutch press  also
wrote about  this (Het parool,  Amsterdam, 15  April 1995, The  European, 26
May 1995);

(b)   According to  the available  information, six  instructors from Jordan
participated in the training of the 505th Muslim  brigade from Buzim and  in

Koprivna (Cazinska  Krajina) in  1993.   They were  transferred from  Zagreb
(Croatia).  They  were members of the special  units of the Jordanian  armed
forces;

(c)  A large number  of mujahidin participated in the war operations in  the
Krupa area  on the  Una in December 1994.   On the basis  of lost documents,
identified  were Ahmed Hasan  Al-Khatib, born  in 1947,  at Kalonia, Jordan,
and Abid Ahmed Hasan, born in 1957 in Amman, Jordan;

(d)  Furthermore, according  to the information available  to us, a group of
22 mujahidin  was infiltrated,  for the  purpose of  carrying out  terrorist
acts, into  the area of  Kamenicka premet (Mt.  Ozren) in  former Bosnia and
Herzegovina at the beginning  of April 1995.   Having been given chase, they
left behind many documents, including their  battle conduct reports.   Their
names are:  Abu Imadel Meki, Abu Muhamed el Tunisi, Omran  Abdel Setari, Abu
Ahmed el  Tunisi, Abu  Hamaz, Abu  Rahman Tunisi,  Abu Haib el  Magrebi, Abu
Hamza  el Pakistani,  Abu  Zijan el  Tiblizi, Hamza  Tunisi, Abu  Abdulah el
Gini, Abu Rida  el Tunisi, Abu Selmani el  Yemeni, Abu Talka el Jinubi,  Abu
Zubair el Tunisi, Abu  Hasim el Tunisi, Abdulah el Tunisi, Akobad el Yeziri,
Aburida el  Magrebi, Abu el Musema el Masri, Abu Sima el Masri and Abu Munir
el Mini.

The attention of the  Special Rapporteur is drawn to the foreign reports  on
the participationofmercenaries,i.e.mujahidin,inthewarintheformerYugoslavia.

(a)   On 3  April 1995,  the Sun  of London  carried an  interview with  17-
yearold  Briton  George  Paterson  from  Biggin  Hill,  Kent,  in  which  he
described his  duties as  a mercenary  sniper in  the 109th  brigade of  the
Croatian army.  The said  mercenary  described  in detail  the murder  of  a
Serbian soldier and said that he had been paid L100 every month;

(b)  British mercenary Stephen Lambert was interviewed by 'Inside Story'  on
BBC  1.   He  said  that  there had  been  hundreds  of  British and  French
mercenaries with  a Celtic accent in Croatia.   He had belonged to the First
International Unit whose assignment had been,  among other things, to  carry
out sabotage by planting  explosives in towns in  order to deceive  European
Union  cease-fire monitors  and to  present the  Serbian army  to the  world
public and the United Nations as the violator of the agreed cease-fire;

(c)  On  20 February 1993,  the Daily  Telegraph reported on the  actions of
the  Muslim Hanjar  division of  about  6,000  soldiers, citing  an UNPROFOR
officer who said  that it was strange that a small number of Hanjar division
commanders  spoke Serbo-Croatian.   The Daily  Telegraph also reported that,
according to  United Nations sources, the  members of this division were led
and trained  by mujahidin,  veterans from  Afghanistan and  Pakistan.   Many
Albanians from  Albania and  Kosovo and  Metohija were  also members  of the
division;

(d)  On 31 July 1994,  a magazine published in London reported that about 40
officers  of the Turkish  army coordinated  the operations  of mujahidin who
were still arriving in Bosnia  and Herzegovina.  In  its February-March 1994
issue, the same magazine reported that the  massacre at the Sarajevo Markale
market  on 5  February  1994 had  been committed  by  a group  of  Hezbollah
mujahidin specially trained for terrorist and other clandestine actions  and
not by  a mortar attack of the Serbian side.  Furthermore, in all its issues
from January to August  1993, the magazine reported  about the activities of
the Armed Islamic Movement and its  'International Legion' in former  Bosnia
and Herzegovina under the control of well-trained  and experienced mujahidin
from  Afghanistan.   The magazine  also  reported about  a great  number  of
mujahidin  from  Iran,  Algeria,  Egypt,  the  Sudan,  the  Gulf,  Pakistan,
Afghanistan, the Syrian Arab  Republic and Turkey.   By the autumn of  1992,
between 200  and 300  mujahidin had arrived  in Travnik alone,  over 200  in
central Bosnia and Herzegovina and several hundred in  Sarajevo.  It is also
said  that Iran has  sent well-trained  Pazdarans to  Bosnia and Herzegovina
and that  it controls Hezbollah units  from Jordan.   These forces are  used
for clandestine  terrorist operations  in Bosnia  and Herzegovina.   At  the

beginning of November 1992, over 50  instructors and terrorists, members  of
the Hezbollah and  Tawhid based at  Baalbek (Lebanon),  were sent to  Bosnia
and Herzegovina;

(e)  On 2 June 1994, The Washington Times published the news, obtained  from
United States intelligence  sources, that in  early May 1994, Iran  had sent
400  members of the  Iranian Revolutionary  Guard to  Bosnia and Herzegovina
with the assignment to organize terrorist groups  among local Muslims.   The
activity of  the Guard members  was organized  from the  Iranian Embassy  in
Zagreb.   According to  The Washington Times,  between 350  and 400  Iranian
Revolutionary Guardsmen  were in Bosnia  and Herzegovina at that  time.  The
members of this special  military unit had  trained militant Muslims in  the
Middle East and northern Africa;

(f)  In its  analysis entitled 'The Truth  about Gorazde' (1994),  a special
group  of  the Republican  Party in  the  United States  Congress said  that
Muslims in this town had gained advantage due to Afghan and Arab  volunteers
who expelled  the Christian population,  describing it  as an act  of ethnic
cleansing;

(g)   In its  issue of July 1994,  Davor of Jerusalem reported  that central
Bosnia and  Herzegovina was turning into  a military training camp headed by
Hezbollah members.  In this region, there are two training camps - one  near
Zivinice and the  other near Tuzla  in the  vicinity of  the airport,  which
enables  the  Muslims  to  control  illegal  arms  supplies.    The magazine
reported the arrival  of 400 Hezbollah members from  the 'El Quds' units  to
Bosnia  and Herzegovina.  These  mujahidin had previously been in the region
of Baalbek in  Lebanon.  According  to the magazine, mujahidin  were leaving
Bosnia and Herzegovina  and, at the beginning of 1994, about 300 of them had
already gone to Azerbaijan where they joined the Azeri army;

(h)   On  26  February 1995,  the Turkish  magazine  Nokta wrote  about  the
participation of 'Unit  of the World  Order' members  in the  war in  former
Bosnia and Herzegovina.   These members are  mujahidin, but also members  of
the special task  units of the Turkish police  who spend their vacations  or
sick-leaves fighting in former Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Information on foreign mercenaries participating in the
war on the territory of former SFRY

                 I.  PARTICIPANTS IN THE CROATIAN ARMY OPERATIONS
                     AT THE 'MEDAK POCKET'

  1.   Rick Grauwert:    born in  Helden,  the  Netherlands, age  about  27,
finished the  Royal Military School in  the Netherlands.   As a professional
soldier he had served in the Dutch army with the rank of  sergeant.  Towards
the  end  of  1991 he  was hired  as a  mercenary by  the Croatian  army and
stationed in Perusic.   He was one of  the mercenaries in the Croatian  army
who committed war  crimes against  Serb civilians and  wounded in the  Medak
pocket.  He was demobilized  from the Croatian army allegedly under pressure
from the West, whereafter he tried to  obtain Croatian citizenship.   Having
failed to do that, he has returned to  Holland and is currently working as a
truck driver in his home town.

  2.   Raymond van  der Linden:   born in Roosendaal,  the Netherlands,  age
about 35.   Towards the  end of  1991 he  was hired  as a  mercenary in  the
Croatian army and stationed in  Perusic.  He was one  of the perpetrators of
war crimes  against Serb  civilians and wounded  in the Medak  pocket.   For
some time he was a member of the  Croatian Armed Forces (HOS) and after that
he joined the 104th  Croatian Defence Council (HVO) brigade and took part in
war operations in  the region of Bosanska Posavina.   After he was  wounded,
he was cured in  a hospital in Zagreb.  He acquired Croatian citizenship and
is now living in Gospic with his wife Tanja from Velika Gorica.

  3.  Andre Van  der Aart:   born in Lisse,  the Netherlands, age about  29.

He  used to be a member of the Dutch contingent  of United Nations forces in
Lebanon with the rank of corporal.   Towards the end of 1991 he was hired as
a mercenary in the  Croatian army and  stationed in Perusic.  He was  one of
the perpetrators  of war crimes  against Serb civilians  and wounded in  the
Medak pocket.  He is currently living in his home town in Holland.

  4.   Mark Molenaar:  born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands,  age about 24. He
used  to  serve  in  the  Dutch  contingent  of  the  North  Atlantic Treaty
Organization  (NATO)  forces  stationed at  the  Seedorf  base  in  Germany.
Towards the end of  1991 he  was hired as a  mercenary by the Croatian  army
and stationed  in Perusic.   He  was one of  the perpetrators of  war crimes
against  Serb  civilians  and  wounded  in  the  Medak  pocket.    Following
demobilization, he returned to Holland.

  5.  Edwin Hoovens:  born in Venlo, the Netherlands,  age about 26. Used to
be a truck driver in the  Dutch army.  Towards the end of 1991 he was  hired
as a mercenary by  the Croatian army  and stationed in Perusic.  He  was one
of the perpetrators of war crimes against the  Serb civilians and wounded in
the Medak pocket.   He was  wounded while he  was a member  of the  Croatian
army.   He had returned to  Holland wherefrom he  allegedly left for  Israel
and is currently working in a kibbutz.

  6.  Martin de Porres:   born in Ambon, Indonesia, age about 33, used to be
a sergeant in the  Dutch army.  Formerly a  student of theology. Towards the
end of 1991 he was hired as a  mercenary in the Croatian army  and stationed
in  Perusic.   He was  one of  the perpetrators of  war crimes  against Serb
civilians and  wounded in the  Medak pocket.   After he  was demobilized, he
returned to Holland and is allegedly now a monk in Arnhem.

  7.   Joost van Dijk:   born in Den Bosch,  the Netherlands, age about  26.
Used to  be  a  professional  soldier in  the  Dutch  army for  four  years,
specializes in mines and explosives.   Towards the end of  1991 he was hired
as  a mercenary in the Croatian army  and stationed in Perusic.   He was one
of the perpetrators of  war crimes against Serb civilians and wounded in the
Medak pocket.   Upon demobilization, he  returned to Holland.   He had  been
treated for alcohol addiction and is at present  allegedly in Kazakstan as a
volunteer.

  8.   Tom  Chitum:  born  in Whoopaki Lake,  United States of  America, age
about 46, fought in Viet Nam as a member of the United  States army. Towards
the  end  of  1991 he  was hired  as a  mercenary in  the Croatian  army and
stationed in Perusic.   He was one of the perpetrators of war crimes against
Serb civilians and wounded  in the Medak pocket.   He abandoned the Croatian
army following the leave he had been granted in 1993.

  9.   Ellijas Laslo:  born in Hungary, served in  the parachute regiment of
the Hungarian  army.   As a mercenary for  the Croatian Army, he  joined HOS
and then the 104th HVO brigade and participated  in the fighting in Bosanska
Posavina.   He was one of  the perpetrators of war  crimes against the  Serb
civilians and wounded in the Medak pocket.

  10.    Johannes  Tilder:    born  on 25  October  1963  in  Enkhuizen, the
Netherlands.  Attended the Royal Military  School in the Netherlands, served
as  an officer  in  the Dutch  army,  graduated from  the  Special  Military
School, where he completed  a reconnaissance and parachute course.  He was a
member of the Dutch battalion of  NATO in Germany, at the  Seedorf base.  He
stayed  in Germany  from 1985  to 1990  when  he  joined the  French Foreign
Legion.   He  left  the Legion  by  the end  of  1990 and  returned  to  the
Netherlands.  Towards the  end of  1991 he was hired  as a mercenary by  the
Croatian  army  via  a  branch  organization  of  'Croatian  Relief'  in the
Netherlands.   His  engagement  as a  mercenary for  the  Croatian army  was
mediated by the  Nederlandse Werk Gemenschap  organization, together  with a
pro-Fascist party Centrum Democraten.  He arrived  in Croatia on 22 November
1991.  He was given his first instructions by  the Ministry of Defence where
he  was received  by Jure  Martinovic.   Thereafter, he  was placed  at  the
disposal  of the  Croatian army  in Gospic  where  he  reported to  the then

Commander of Military Police,  Tihomir Oreskovic.  He held the Croatian army
rank  of lieutenant,  deputy  commander of  the reconnaissance  and sabotage
detachment  of  the  9th guard  mechanized  brigade.    He  was  one of  the
perpetrators of war crimes  against Serb civilians and wounded in the  Medak
pocket.  Killed?


II.  OTHER MERCENARIES IN THE CROATIAN ARMY

  11.   Bart Velt:  born in Haarlem, the Netherlands, age about 30.  Used to
be a  radio operator  in the Dutch  army contingent attached  to the  United
Nations  forces in  Sanai.   Towards  the end  of  1991 he  was  hired  as a
mercenary  in   the  Croatian  army  and   stationed  in   Perusic.    After
demobilization he  returned to the Netherlands  and is  currently working in
his home town.

  12.  Johannes Stelling:  born in Drachten, the Netherlands, age about  28,
hired as a mercenary for the Croatian army by the beginning of 1992.  Served
as   a   reconnaissance  officer   in   the   Croatian  army.      Following
demobilization, he stayed  for some time in Herzegovina  and Livno.  By  the
end of  1992 he returned to  the Netherlands  and is now living  in his home
town.

  13.   Ronald Geurts:   born  in Utrecht,  the Netherlands,  age about  27,
served  in the Dutch  army.  By the end of  1991 he joined the Croatian army
and  was  stationed  in  the  army  barracks  in  Perusic,  allegedly  as  a
journalist.  He did some shooting  with a video camera and  sent his reports
to  Dutch Television via Zagreb.   In the spring of 1994 he was working in a
restaurant in Maksimir, Zagreb.

  14.   Peter  van Eekeren:   a citizen of the  Netherlands.  By  the end of
1991  he was  hired as a  mercenary for  the Croatian  army and  acted as an
instructor in Jastrebarsko.  He also sent reports to Dutch Television.

  15.   Mustafa N., called 'Africa',  originally from  the Sudan, reportedly
attended the Maritime College in Rijeka.  Served  with the Croatian army  as
an  interpreter  for Johannes  Tilder  and  also as  an  instructor  in  the
Croatian  army  brigade.    Allegedly  he   is  currently  employed  as   an
interpreter for the European Community Mission in Ogulin.

  16.   An  Englishman, unidentified,  hired for  the  Croatian army  in the
First Brigade in Samobor.

  17.  A  Canadian, unidentified, hired for the  Croatian army as a  colonel
in the area of Zadar.

  18.  Henk Joling:  a citizen of the Netherlands, married to  a Croat woman
residing in Holland.   Owns a small export-import company in Zagreb.  Served
as  an intermediary between  the Croatian Ministry of  Defence and the Dutch
mercenaries seeking engagement by the Croatian army.


                 III.  MERCENARIES IN THE SO-CALLED 'INTERNATIONAL
                       BRIGADE'

  19.   The so-called 'International Brigade'  was established  in Zagreb at
the  beginning  of  the  war  and   consisted  of  foreign  mercenaries  and
foreigners  of the Croat  origin.   There were many Germans  from the former
German  Democratic Republic,  Englishmen, Americans,  Frenchmen,  Austrians,
etc. in  the Brigade.  Most of  its operations were carried out in Slavonia,
in the  vicinity of Osijek.  Allegedly,  the commander of  the Brigade was a
captain Hans, a citizen of Germany.


             IV.  MERCENARIES IN THE CROATIAN ARMY WHO PARTICIPATED IN
                  THE OPERATIONS ON THE TERRITORY OF THE SO-CALLED

                  BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (BIH) IN THE REGION OF
                  BOSANSKA POSAVINA

  20.   Uslisti (Aleksandrovic)  Sergei:   born on  18 July 1963  in Omskaya
district, former USSR.   Used to be a member of the 101st  HVO brigade which
took part in the operations in Bosanska Posavina.
    21.  Trishin (Borisovic)  Aleksei:  born on 6 July 1964 in Novolsibirsk,
former USSR.  Used to be  a member of the 101st  HVO brigade which took part
in the operations in Bosanska Posavina.

  22.  Wolfgand Niedereuger,  a citizen of Austria, used to be hired for the
Croat army in the so-called BIH, a fact published in the Austrian press.

  23.  Krup Stefan, a citizen of Austria from Korushka, participated in  the
Croat army operations near Mostar.


                V.  FOREIGN MERCENARIES ON THE SIDE OF CROAT FORCES
                    IN HERZEGOVINA, FORMER BIH

  24.   On  20 July  1992, an  unidentified German  citizen was  one of  the
perpetrators  of the murder  of Milena  Laganjin, a Serb woman,  in the camp
established for Serbs at the school 'Ivan Goran Kovacic' in Livno.

  25.  At the  beginning of 1992, a number  of mercenaries were  attached to
the Croat forces in  Livno from Germany, England, Spain and Argentina.  Also
noticed among  them was  a black man.   They all  wore uniforms with  the RH
insignia (Republic of Croatia).


             VI.  FOREIGN MERCENARIES IN THE SO-CALLED BIH, MEMBERS OF
                  MUSLIM MILITARY FORCES AND CROAT MILITARY FORCES

  (a)   In mid-September  1992, between  Tesanj and  Teslic, a  group of  43
mercenaries,  mujahidin,  mainly  from  Saudi  Arabia,   took  part  in  the
operations against the army of the Republic of Srpska on the side of  Muslim
military forces.  The following persons were identified:

  26.  Abu Isak, commander of the group, born in Mecca.

  27.  Abu Xerib, deputy commander of the group, born in Mecca.

  28.  Seih Abu Sulejman, in charge of religious matters.

The above-mentioned  mercenaries had  crossed the  Austrian-Slovenian border
by the  beginning of  August 1992  and a  few days  later  they crossed  the
border of  Croatia.   In Kamensko,  they received  a  certificate from  Imam
Sefik  Omerbasic which  stated  that they  had  been dispatched  to  BIH  to
investigate the possibilities for  delivering humanitarian aid.   Films  and
photographs showing the  heads of  decapitated Serbs were  found on some  of
them.

  (b)  The  following persons fought  on the  Derventa front on the  side of
military forces of the former BIH:

  29.  An unidentified Arab.

   30.  Venzhou Zhejiang, Chinese, a citizen of France.

  31.   Abid Abu  Safijahsi, a  citizen of  Jordan, used  to have  permanent
foreigner's residence in Derventa.

  (c)  In Hrasnica:

  32.    Naser N.,  a  citizen of  Bahrain,  in collusion  with  a group  of
foreigners,  organized  the  procurement  and   delivery  of  arms   to  the

warehouses in Pazaric and  Hrasnica.  This  deal was supported by  'Mesihat'
from Zagreb.

A special unit  was stationed in the region  of Hrasnica, under  the name of
'Black  Swans', composed  of mercenaries  -  professionals from  the  United
States of America, France, Italy and elsewhere.

  (d)   The following  person fought on the  side of the military  forces of
the so-called BIH in the broader area of Prijedor:

  33.  Ostruk Mahmut, a citizen of Turkey.

  (e)    About  30  Turkish  citizens,  together  with  the  members of  the
territorial defence  of the  so-called BIH,  participated in  the attack  on
Llijas  and Cakrcici.   Among  them were  allegedly about  20 Turkish  women
whose duty was to strengthen their morale.

  (f)   The foreign mercenaries  mentioned below who  fought on  the side of
the  military  forces of  the  so-called  BIH  were  treated  in the  Zenica
hospital:

  34.  Ibu Raha, a citizen of Saudi Arabia.

  35.  Shaker Al Sharif, a citizen of the Syrian Arab Republic.

  36.  Abu Falah, a citizen of Egypt.

  37.  Abu Amin, a citizen of Egypt.

  38.  Ijas Medini, a citizen of Saudi Arabia.

  39.  Abu El Zubeir, a citizen of Saudi Arabia.

  40.  Abdurahman Abu Sarahudin, a citizen of Saudi Arabia.

  41.  Twelve unidentified citizens of Islamic countries.

  (g)   Around 30  foreign mercenaries  - Italians,  Germans, Frenchmen  and
others - were  accommodated in the Buna  bungalows, the property of Aluminum
Works of Mostar.

  (h)   Unidentified  citizens of  Germany,  Great  Britain and  the  United
States of America were members of HOS in the region of Capljina.
    (i)   Mercenaries, members  of HOS, at  the infamous camp  for Serbs  in
Dretelj.

  42.   Joe N.,  a citizen  of the  United States  of America,  posing as  a
journalist, spoke no Serbian,  age about 48, about  180 cm tall,  slim, with
brown hair, participated in the rape  of Serb women in the camp for Serbs in
Dretelj.

  43.  A few  Poles and Germans were members of the Croat military forces in
the so-called BIH in Dretelj.


VII.  MUJAHIDIN IN SO-CALLED BIH

  By  the beginning  of September  1992,  250  mujahidin ('holy  warriors of
Jihad') had  arrived in  the so-called BIH  from Turkey,  Iran, Bahrain  and
Qatar.  They were  accommodated in the building  of the Pensioners'  Home in
Babina rijeka near Zenica and in Kakanj.   Their transfer to the  former BIH
had been arranged by Muhamed  Cengic, Vice Prime Minister  of the Government
of the so-called BIH.


              VIII.  FOREIGN MERCENARIES IN THE 'FRANKOPAN' BATTALION

                     IN HERZEGOVINA, FORMER BIH

  Mercenaries  from the  French Foreign  Legion  and other  foreign citizens
were members of the so-called 'Frankopan' battalion  established and trained
in Kumrovec near Zagreb.  They fought in Herzegovina, the region of  Mostar.
The sole purpose of this detachment was to  carry out sabotage and terrorist
actions on the  territory of the Republic  of Srpska.   Their motto  was 'No
prisoners'.


                IX.  FOREIGN MERCENARIES IN THE 'ZRINSKI' BATTALION
                     OF THE CROATIAN ARMY

  Mercenaries  from the  French Foreign  Legion and  other foreign  citizens
were members  of the  so-called 4th  independent battalion  of the  Croatian
army under the name of 'Zrinski'.   They had also been prepared and  trained
in Kumrovec near  Zagreb.  For  a time  they were  operating in the  broader
area of Tomislavgrad (Duvno).


(Signed)  Miroslav MILOSEVIC
Counsellor"  


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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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