United Nations

A/50/38


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

31 May 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH/FRENCH/
SPANISH


Fiftieth session
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN*

Fourteenth session

________________________

  *   The present document is  a mimeographed version  of the  report of the
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination  against Women on its twelfth
session.  The report will be issued subsequently as Official Records of  the
General Assembly, Fiftieth Session, Supplement No. 38 (A/50/38).

95-16044 (E)   100795/...
*9516044*
CONTENTS

Chapter  Paragraphs  Page

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL ..................................................6

I.  MATTERS BROUGHT TO THE ATTENTION OF STATES PARTIES ...............7

  A.  General recommendation 22 (fourteenth session) ...............7

  B.  Suggestions ..................................................8

    Suggestion 7 .................................................8

    Suggestion 8 .................................................11

  C.  Decisions ....................................................12

    Decision 14/I ................................................12

    Decision 14/II ...............................................13

    Decision 14/III ..............................................14

  D.  Other matters ....................................  1 - 515

    Adequate meeting time to consider reports of
    States parties ...................................  1 - 515

II.  ORGANIZATIONAL AND OTHER MATTERS .....................6 -3317

  A.  States parties to the Convention .................  6 - 717

  B.  Opening of the session ...........................  8 - 1717

  C.  Membership and attendance ........................  18 - 2018

  D.  Solemn declaration ...............................      2119

  E.  Election of officers .............................     2219

  F.  Adoption of the agenda and organization of work ..     2319

  G.  Report of the pre-session working group ..........  24 - 2720

  H.  Composition and organization of work of the
    working groups ...................................  28 - 3320

III.  REPORT OF THE CHAIRPERSON ON THE ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN
  BETWEEN THE THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH SESSIONS OF THE
  COMMITTEE ............................................34 - 3923

CONTENTS (continued)

Chapter  Paragraphs  Page

IV.  CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES
  UNDER ARTICLE 18 OF THE CONVENTION ...................40 - 63725

  A.  Introduction .....................................  40 - 4125

  B.  Consideration of reports .........................  42 - 59125

    1.  Initial reports ..............................42 - 15925

      Bolivia ......................................42 - 10425

      Chile ........................................105 - 15935

    2.  Initial and second periodic reports ..........160 - 34444

      Mauritius ....................................160 - 21744

      Tunisia ......................................218 - 27752

      Uganda .......................................278 - 34461

    3.  Second periodic reports ......................345 - 45171

      Finland ......................................346 - 39771

      Peru .........................................398 - 45179

    4.  Third and fourth periodic reports ............452 - 55289

      Norway .......................................452 - 49589

      Russian Federation ...........................496 - 55299

    5.  Reports submitted on an exceptional basis ....553 - 591110

      Croatia ......................................556 - 591110

  C.  Concluding comments on reports considered at the
    thirteenth session ...............................  592 - 637116

    Australia ........................................  593 - 601116

    Colombia .........................................  602 - 615117

    Guyana ...........................................  616 - 626119

    Japan ............................................  626 - 636120

CONTENTS (continued)

Chapter  Paragraphs  Page

V.  WAYS AND MEANS OF EXPEDITING THE WORK OF THE
  COMMITTEE ...........................................637 -664123

  A.  Action taken by the Committee on the report of
    Working Group I .................................639 - 657123

  B.  Plan of activities of the Centre for Human Rights
    of the United Nations Secretariat ...............     658129

  C.  Presentation of the Special Rapporteur on
    Violence against Women ..........................659 - 661129

  D.  Presentation of the Gender Statistics Unit of the
    Statistical Division of the Secretariat .........     662130

  E.  Presentation of the Harrison Program on the
    Future Global Agenda and the American Association
    for the Advancement of Science ..................663 - 664130

VI.  IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 21 OF THE CONVENTION ......665 -671131

  A.  Action taken by the Committee on the report of
    Working Group II ................................     667131

  B.  Elements for an optional protocol to the
    Convention ......................................     668131

  C.  General recommendations on articles 7 and 8;
    general recommendation on article 2 .............     669131

  D.  Document prepared by the United Nations
    Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
    on the Committee on the Elimination of
    Discrimination against Women ....................670 - 671131

VII.  CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE COMMITTEE TO INTERNATIONAL
  CONFERENCES .........................................672 -679135

  A.  Fourth World Conference on Women ................672 - 675135

  B.  The Committee's input to the World Summit for
    Social Development ..............................     676136

  C.  Follow-up to the International Conference on
    Population and Development ......................677 - 679136

VIII.  PROVISIONAL AGENDA FOR THE FIFTEENTH SESSION OF THE
  COMMITTEE ...........................................680 -681137

IX.  ADOPTION OF THE REPORT ..............................     682138

CONTENTS (continued)

                     Page
Annexes

I.  States parties to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
  of Discrimination against Women as at 3 February 1995 ............139

II.  Membership of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
  against Women ....................................................143

III.  Documents before the Committee at its fourteenth session .........144

IV.  Status of submission and consideration of reports submitted by
  States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the
  Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women as at
  3 February 1995 ..................................................146

  A.  Initial reports ..............................................146

  B.  Second periodic reports ......................................152

  C.  Third periodic reports .......................................157

  D.  Fourth periodic reports ......................................160

  E.  Reports submitted on an exceptional basis ....................160
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

3 February 1995

Sir,

  I  have the  honour  to  refer to  article  21 of  the  Convention on  the
Elimination  of  All  Forms of  Discrimination against  Women,  according to
which the  Committee on  the  Elimination of  Discrimination against  Women,
established  pursuant to the  Convention, "shall,  through the  Economic and
Social Council,  report  annually to  the  General  Assembly of  the  United
Nations on its activities".

  The Committee on the Elimination of  Discrimination against Women held its
fourteenth  session from 16  January to  3 February  1995 at  United Nations
Headquarters.  It  adopted the report on the  session at its 284th  meeting,
on 3  February.  The report is herewith submitted to you for transmission to
the General Assembly at its fiftieth session.

  Accept, Sir, the assurances of my highest consideration.


                                                (Signed)Ivanka CORTI

Chairperson
Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women




























His Excellency Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Secretary-General of the United Nations
New York
--I.  MATTERS BROUGHT TO THE ATTENTION OF STATES PARTIES


A.  General recommendation 22 (fourteenth session)

Amending article 20 of the Convention

  The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,

  Noting that  the States  parties to the  Convention on the  Elimination of
All  Forms of Discrimination  against Women,  at the request  of the General
Assembly, will  meet during  1995 to  consider  amending article  20 of  the
Convention,

  Recalling  its previous decision,  taken at  its tenth  session, to ensure
effectiveness  in its  work and  prevent the  building up of  an undesirable
backlog in the consideration of reports of States parties,

  Recalling  that the Convention  is one  of the  international human rights
instruments that has been ratified by the largest number of States parties,

  Considering that the  articles of  the Convention address the  fundamental
human  rights of women in all aspects of their daily  lives and in all areas
of society and the State,

  Concerned about the workload of the Committee as  a result of the  growing
number  of ratifications,  in addition  to  the  backlog of  reports pending
consideration, as reflected in annex I,

  Concerned also  about the long  lapse of  time between  the submission  of
reports  of States parties  and their  consideration, resulting  in the need
for States to provide additional information for updating their reports,

  Bearing in  mind that the Committee  on the  Elimination of Discrimination
against Women  is the only human  rights treaty body  whose meeting time  is
limited by its Convention, and that it has  the shortest duration of meeting
time of all the human rights treaty bodies, as reflected in annex II,

  Noting that the  limitation on the  duration of sessions, as  contained in
the Convention, has become a serious  obstacle to the effective  performance
by the Committee of its functions under the Convention,

  1.    Recommends that  the  States  parties favourably  consider  amending
article  20  of the  Convention  in  respect  of the  meeting  time  of  the
Committee,  so as  to allow  it to  meet annually  for  such duration  as is
necessary  for  the  effective  performance  of  its   functions  under  the
Convention, with no specific restriction except  for that which the  General
Assembly shall decide;

  2.  Recommends  also that the General  Assembly, pending the completion of
an amendment process, authorize the Committee  to meet exceptionally in 1996
for two sessions, each  of three weeks' duration  and each being preceded by
pre-session working groups;

  3.  Recommends further  that the meeting of States parties receive an oral
report from the chairperson  of the Committee  on the difficulties faced  by
the Committee in performing its functions;

   4.   Recommends that the Secretary-General  make available  to the States
parties  at their  meeting all relevant  information on the  workload of the
Committee and comparative information in respect  of the other human  rights
treaty bodies.


B.  Suggestions

Suggestion 7.  Elements for an optional protocol to the Convention

Background

1.  The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted by consensus  by
States Members of the United Nations at the  1993 World Conference on  Human
Rights, stresses  the need  for  women  to make  effective use  of  existing
procedures  under   international  human  rights   instruments.    It   also
emphasizes the  need for the adoption of new procedures  and, in particular,
a petition procedure for  the Convention on the  Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against  Women.  It states that the "Commission on the Status
of Women  and the  Committee on  the Elimination  of Discrimination  against
Women  should quickly examine  the possibility  of introducing  the right of
petition   through  the   preparation  of   an  optional   protocol  to  the
Convention".

2.   The question  of the  preparation of a  protocol to the  Convention was
discussed  by the  Committee at  its thirteenth  session  in  1994.   In its
suggestion 5, the Committee  asked the Commission on  the Status of Women to
request that  an expert group meeting be convened during  1994, "composed of
5 to  10 independent  experts with  a knowledge  of the  different forms  of
civilization and  of the  principal legal  systems".  The  expert group  was
asked to prepare a draft optional protocol to the Convention and the  report
of that meeting  was to be presented to  the Committee for its comments  and
to the  Commission for  action. The  Committee also  designated  one of  its
members to prepare a paper on the subject for its 1995 session.

3.  The Committee  regrets that, at  the thirty-eighth session in 1994,  the
Commission on the Status  of Women did not convene an expert group  meeting.
The Commission  decided however that, at  its thirty-ninth  session in 1995,
in  cooperation with  the Committee,  it  would  examine the  feasibility of
introducing  the right of  petition through  the preparation  of an optional
protocol  to  the  Convention,  taking  into  account  the  results  of  any

governmental  expert group  meeting on  the  question  that might  have been
convened.  The decision of the Commission on the Status of  Women was echoed
by the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 1994/7.

4.  Bearing  in mind the decision of the Commission on the  Status of Women,
and in order to expedite matters, the Maastricht  Centre for Human Rights at
the  University of  Limberg,  in  conjunction with  the International  Human
Rights Law Group,  with the financial assistance  of the Governments  of the
Netherlands and  Australia, convened  an expert group  meeting during  1994.
Participants  were  drawn from  different regions  and from  different legal
systems, had  a knowledge of  international law and experience  of the other
human rights  treaty bodies  and included  three members  of the  Committee.
The draft  optional protocol prepared by  the expert group  drew on existing
international  and regional  procedures.   The  draft, together  with  other
relevant documents, served as  the basis for discussion by the Committee  at
its  fourteenth session.  As a result of those discussions, the overwhelming
majority of the  members of the Committee suggested that the following ideas
be submitted  to the Commission  on the  Status of Women  for consideration.
One  member  of the  Committee  expressed  her  reservation  with regard  to
paragraphs 8 and 12 to 26.

Elements of an optional protocol

5.   States parties  to the  Convention should have the  option to ratify or
accede to the optional  protocol.  "State  party" in this section means  one
that has ratified or acceded to the optional protocol.

6.  Two procedures  should be envisaged:   a communications procedure and an
inquiry procedure.

7.    Communications      may  be  submitted  by  an  individual,  group  or
organization  suffering  detriment  from  a  violation  of  rights  in   the
Convention or  claiming to be  directly affected by  the failure  of a State
party to  comply with its obligations under the Convention or by a person or
group having a sufficient interest in the matter.

8.  Communications would be in writing and confidential.

9.  The admissibility of a communication would be subject to the following:

  (a)   The communication  would be  inadmissible if  a State  party to  the
Convention had not ratified or acceded to the optional protocol;

  (b)  It should not be anonymous;

  (c)   It should  disclose an  alleged violation  of rights  or an  alleged
failure  of  a  State  party  to  give  effect   to  obligations  under  the
Convention;

  (d)  It should  relate to acts or omissions  that occurred after the State
party  ratified  or acceded  to  the  Convention,  unless  the violation  or
failure to give  effect to those obligations  or the impact  continued after
the protocol took effect for that State party;

  (e)  It should not be an abuse of the right to submit a communication;

  (f)   A communication would be  declared inadmissible by  the Committee if
all  domestic  remedies  had  not  been  exhausted,   unless  the  Committee
considered that  requirement unreasonable.   If  the same  matter was  being
examined under another international procedure, the Committee would  declare
the  communication  inadmissible   unless  it   considered  that   procedure
unreasonably prolonged;

  (g)   The  communication would  be inadmissible  if the  author,  within a
reasonable period, failed to provide adequate substantiating information.

10.  Pending examination  of a communication, the  Committee should have the
right to request that the status quo be preserved, and a  State party should
give  an undertaking to  that effect,  in order  to avoid  irreparable harm.
Such  a request  should be  accompanied  by  information confirming  that no
inference  could be  drawn that the  Committee had determined  the merits of
the communication.

11.  While  the State party would be  informed confidentially of the  nature
of the  communication, the author's identity  would not  be revealed without
that person's consent.   The State party  would, within a specified  period,
provide replies  or  information about  any remedy.   While  the process  of
examination  continued, the  Committee would  work  in cooperation  with the
parties to facilitate a settlement which,  if reached, would be contained in
a confidential report of the Committee.

12.    The  Committee would  examine  communications  in the  light  of  all
information provided by the  State party, or by the author or received  from
other  relevant sources.  All  such information would  be transmitted to the
parties  for comment. The  Committee would  set its  procedures, hold closed
meetings when examining communications and, as  a whole Committee, adopt and
transmit views and  any recommendations to the  parties.  While examining  a
communication, the  Committee might, with the  agreement of  the State party
concerned, visit its territory.

13.   When the whole  Committee considered that  the communication  had been
justified, it  might recommend  remedial measures  or  measures designed  to
give  effect to  obligations under  the Convention.   The State  party would
remedy violations and implement recommendations.   It would also ensure that
an  appropriate  remedy  (which  might  include  adequate  reparation)   was
provided.  It  would also provide  the Committee  within a  set period  with
details of the remedial measures taken.

14.    The  Committee  should  have  the  power  to  initiate  and  continue
discussions concerning  such measures  and remedies  and have  the power  to
invite the  State party  to include  such information  in its  reports under
article 18 of the Convention.

15.   The Committee would,  in its confidential report, summarize the nature
of  communications  received,  its  examination  of  them,  the  replies and
statements   of   the   States  parties   concerned   and   its   views  and
recommendations.

16.   The Committee would have the power to delegate  to a working group its
responsibilities under  this section.  The working group would report to the
Committee and the Committee  alone would have the  power to adopt  views and
make recommendations.

Inquiry procedure

17.  If  the Committee received reliable information indicating a serious or
systematic violation by a State party of rights  under the Convention or  of
a failure  to  give effect  to  its  Convention obligations,  the  Committee
should have the right  to invite that State party to cooperate in  examining
the  information and in  submitting observations  on it.   After considering
those  observations and any other relevant information, the Committee should
have the  power  to designate  one or  more  of  its members  to conduct  an
inquiry and report urgently to the Committee.

18.  Such an inquiry  would be conducted with the  cooperation of the  State
party and might, with its agreement, include a visit to its territory.

19.  Following the examination  of the findings, which  would be transmitted
to the State  party, the latter  would have  a set period  in which to  make
observations in response.

20.  The inquiry  would be conducted confidentially  and at all  stages with

the cooperation of the States parties.

21.  The  Committee would encourage  the State  party to  discuss the  steps
taken  by it as a  consequence of the  inquiry.   Those discussions might be
continued until  a satisfactory outcome was  achieved.   The Committee might
ask the  State party to report on  its response to the inquiry in its report
under article 18 of the Convention.

22.  After completing all those steps, the  Committee would be empowered  to
publish a report.

23.   When ratifying or  acceding to the  optional protocol  the State party
would undertake to assist  the Committee in its inquiries and to prevent any
obstacles  to, or victimization  of, any  person who  provides the Committee
with information or assists it in its inquiries.

General matters

24.   States parties  would publicize the  protocol and  its procedures, the
Committee's  views   and  any  recommendations  concerning  a  communication
received or inquiry conducted.

25.  The Committee  would develop rules and procedures that would enable  it
to conduct its work fairly, efficiently and, as necessary, urgently.

26.   Meeting  time of not  less that three  weeks per annum  and resources,
including  expert  legal advice,  would  be  made  available  to enable  the
Committee to conduct its work under the Convention.

27.   Procedures for  the signing,  ratification, accession  and entry  into
force of the protocol should be prescribed.

28.   No State-to-State  communication procedure  should be  included and no
reservations permitted.

29.  Procedures for  amendment and denunciation and  the authentic texts  of
the protocol should be prescribed.


           Suggestion 8.  Follow-up to the International Conference on
                          Population and Development

  The Committee  on the Elimination of  All Forms  of Discrimination against
Women,

  Recognizing  the  importance of  maintaining  effective communication  and
meaningful dialogue with United Nations bodies active in  the field of human
rights in general and women's rights in particular,

  Considering  the need  to  ensure  its participation  and  involvement  in
activities of  relevance to  its  work  which are  taking place  within  the
framework of the United Nations system-wide action,

  Affirming  its support for  the Programme  of Action  of the International
Conference  on  Population  and Development,  held  in Cairo  from  5 to  13
September 1994, and  its centrality to the goal  of gender equality and  the
empowerment of women throughout the world,

  Recalling  the provisions  of  articles  10 (h),  12  and 16  (e)  of  the
Convention on the Elimination of All  Forms of Discrimination against  Women
with respect to, among  other things, the  right of access to family  health
and  family  planning  education,  the  right  to  equality  in  health care
services,  the  right  to  receive  appropriate  pregnancy  and   childbirth
services,  and the right to  equality in deciding freely  and responsibly on
the number and spacing of children,

  Noting  the importance  of women's reproductive health  as a pre-condition
to their enjoyment  of all other  human rights  and freedoms, including  the
fundamental right to life, on a basis of equality with men,

  Noting also  the information received by  the Committee  at its fourteenth
session  from the World  Health Organization  on HIV/AIDS  and women's human
rights in the context of the Convention,

  Recalling  the comments  in the  report of  the fifth  meeting  of persons
chairing  the human  rights  treaty bodies  (A/49/537,  annex),  encouraging
cooperation with the  specialized agencies  and other United Nations  bodies
to ensure consistency in  the application of related provisions of the human
rights treaties and other international instruments,

  1.  Decides to employ the reporting mechanism  under the Convention on the
Elimination  of All  Forms of Discrimination  against Women so  as to follow
the  implementation  of  the  Programme  of   Action  of  the  International
Conference  on Population  and Development  with  respect to  women's  human
rights;

  2.   Decides  also that  the Committee  shall develop  a jurisprudence  of
standards of international law in the field of women's reproductive health;

  3.   Requests  the  Chairperson  of  the  Committee  to consult  with  the
Executive Director of the United Nations  Population Fund on the possibility
of convening a  meeting of the chairpersons of  all the human rights  treaty
bodies  to promote the effective exchange of information among them, as well
as the coordination  with the relevant organs  of the United Nations system,
as regards the  follow-up to the Programme of  Action with respect to  human
rights.


C.  Decisions

Decision 14/I

1.   The Committee  decides that its  concluding comments  developed on  the
basis of  a constructive dialogue with  each State party  should be sent  in
the language of adoption to each State party  separately from the report and
immediately after the conclusion of each session of the Committee.

2.   The  Committee  notes that  the  summary  records  of  the  Committee's
thirteenth  session were only  received at  the fourteenth  session and were
incorrect and incomplete.  Therefore, the  Committee decides to request  the
Secretariat to ensure that the summary records are  complete and issued in a
timely manner in order to facilitate correction.

3.   The  Committee notes  that the  Spanish translation  of the  Convention
issued  by  the Department  of  Public  Information  of  the Secretariat  is
inaccurate, in particular  article 10 (h) thereof.  The Committee decides to
request the Secretariat to review all  translations issued by the Department
of Public Information to ensure their accuracy.

4.   The Committee  expresses its wish  to review  as soon  as possible  the
draft Platform  for  Action, which  will be  discussed at  the Fourth  World
Conference on  Women.   It requests the  Secretariat to send  copies to  the
members of the Committee.

Decision 14/II

  The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,

  Recalling that the Vienna Declaration and  Programme of Action, 1/ adopted
in June  1993, recognizes that the  human rights of  women and  of the girl-
child are an inalienable, integral and  indivisible part of universal  human
rights, and  stressing that,  as a  consequence, the human  rights of  women

should form  an integral  part of  United Nations  human rights  activities,
including the promotion of all human rights instruments relating to women,

  Taking  into account  the recommendation  of  the  meeting of  the persons
chairing  the human  rights treaty bodies  at their third,  fourth and fifth
meetings,  2/  that  the  Committee  be  located  at  Geneva  with servicing
provided by the Centre for Human Rights of the Secretariat,

  Recalling  that, at its  last few  sessions, the  Committee has considered
the advantages  for women's  human rights if  they are  integrated into  the
mainstream of the United Nations treaty bodies,

  Recalling also resolution 38/2  of 18 March 1994  of the Commission on the
Status  of Women  3/  on the  mainstreaming  of  women's  human rights,  and
resolution 1994/45 of  4 March 1994 of the Commission on Human  Rights 4/ on
integrating  the rights  of women  into the human  rights mechanisms  of the
United Nations,

  Noting that  the Committee at its  annual meetings  considers issues which
have expanded  both in number and in substance, and  which therefore reflect
the increasing relevance of women's human rights,

  Bearing in mind that  article 20.2 of the Convention should be applied  in
such a way that States parties could be  encouraged to present their reports
on schedule,

  1.    Requests  the  Secretary-General  to  locate  the  Committee  on the
Elimination  of  Discrimination  against  Women  at  Geneva  with  servicing
provided by the Centre for Human Rights;

  2.   Also requests that the  Secretary-General provide  the Committee with
the necessary  staff and  facilities for  the effective  performance of  the
functions  of  the  Committee  in  accordance   with  article  17.9  of  the
Convention on the Elimination of All  Forms of Discrimination against Women,
and  keeping in  mind the  link with  the Division  for the  Advancement  of
Women;

  3.   Declares that the roles  that the Commission  on the  Status of Women
and  the Committee  play are  important in  making the general  human rights
work of  the United  Nations  more  gender conscious  and in  promoting  the
universal and indivisible human rights of  women, and therefore requests the
Secretary-General to  ensure that  the link  between the  Commission on  the
Status  of   Women  and   the   Committee  be   maintained,  the   continued
implementation of article 21.2 of the Convention being one such link;

  4.   Urges the  Secretary-General to  expedite the  implementation of  the
present decision without delay.

  Decision 14/III

  The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,

  Bearing in mind that the Charter of the United Nations reaffirms faith  in
fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth  of the human person  and
the equal rights of men and women,

  Reaffirming  the importance of  the Convention  on the  Elimination of All
Forms of  Discrimination against Women as  the only  human rights instrument
for the promotion and protection of women's human rights,

  Recalling that  the articles  of  the Convention  address the  fundamental
human rights  of women in all aspects  of their daily lives and in all areas
of society and the State,

  Noting   the  key  role   that  the   Committee  on   the  Elimination  of
Discrimination against  Women has to play in making the general human rights

work  of the  United  Nations  more gender  conscious and  in  promoting the
universal and indivisible human rights of women,

  Recognizing  the function of the Committee in  elaborating a jurisprudence
of international standards for women's human rights,

  Recognizing  also the Committee's  responsibility to  develop and foster a
relationship with specialized agencies which share  common areas of  concern
affecting women,

  Noting that  the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the
World Conference on Human  Rights emphasized that the  human rights of women
and the  girl child  are an  inalienable, integral  and indivisible  part of
universal human rights and stressed that  these rights should be  integrated
into the mainstream of United Nations system-wide activities,

  Convinced of the  need to ensure its active participation in activities of
relevance to its work which are taking place  within the framework of United
Nations system-wide action,

  Recalling  its  previous  decision  to  be  represented  at,  and actively
contribute to,  the overall  work of the  Fourth World Conference  on Women:
Action for Equality, Development and Peace, to be held in Beijing from 4  to
15 September 1995,

  1.  Reaffirms its  decision to participate in the Fourth World  Conference
on  Women:   Action  for Equality,  Development and  Peace and  requests the
Secretariat to  take all  necessary measures  to facilitate  and ensure  the
participation of the Committee;

  2.   Requests  the  Secretariat  to be  the focal  point for  organizing a
thematic  meeting, to  the extent  possible,  with  members of  other treaty
bodies and  specialized agencies  attending the  Fourth World Conference  on
Women,  and to implement  the technical  and administrative arrangements set
forth in this report;

  3.    Decides  to transmit,  as  its  contribution  to  the  Fourth  World
Conference  on   Women,  its  report  on   the  progress   achieved  in  the
implementation  of  the  Convention  on  the  Elimination  of  All  Forms of
Discrimination against Women and requests the secretariat  of the Conference
to ensure wide dissemination of the report;

  4.   Declares  that the  Committee  on  the Elimination  of Discrimination
against  Women  is  an  essential  mechanism  within  the  framework  of the
international  machinery  that   should  be  entrusted  with  the  task   of
monitoring and  periodically reviewing  the implementation  of the  Platform
for Action concerning the human rights of women.


D.  Other matters

Adequate meeting time to consider reports of States parties

Background

1.    At  its  thirteenth  session,  the  Committee on  the  Elimination  of
Discrimination against Women concluded: 5/

"12.  The backlog  of reports pending consideration by the Committee is  now
very large and is growing since the number  of States parties is increasing.
Moreover, if an effort  is made to encourage  States with overdue reports to
submit them,  the size  of the  backlog will  increase further.   If  States
currently  parties  to  the  Convention  were  to  report  on  schedule, the
Committee would be expected  to consider 30  reports per session.  There  is
now  an average  of three years between  the time a State  party submits its
report  and   its  consideration  by  the  Committee.    This  is  itself  a

disincentive  to report  and  leads  to the  need for  the State  to present
additional information  to update the report  which, in  turn, increases the
volume of documentation that must be considered by the Committee. 

"13.  The limitation on the duration of sessions of the Committee  contained
in the Convention  has become a  serious obstacle.  The  temporary extension
of sessions to three weeks cannot be expected to eliminate the backlog."

Status of reports

2.   States parties undertake to  submit an initial  report within one  year
after the entry into  force of the Convention  for the State  concerned, and
at  least every  four years thereafter.   As of 31 October  1994, 35 initial
reports,  34 second  periodic reports  and  34  third periodic  reports were
overdue.   The  status of  reports submitted  to the  Committee and  pending
consideration was  as  follows:   13  initial  reports, 19  second  periodic
reports,  18  third   periodic  reports  and   2  fourth   periodic  reports
(CEDAW/C/1995/2).

3.  At its  fourteenth session, the Committee had for its consideration  the
reports of 13 States  parties composed of six initial reports, three  second
periodic  reports, four third periodic reports, two  fourth periodic reports
and one report on an exceptional basis.  For comparison, it is worth  noting
the number  of reports  scheduled for  consideration by  other human  rights
treaty bodies at each of their 1995 sessions as shown below.

  Committee on the Rights of the Child6-7         
  Human Rights Committee5          
  Committee Against Torture8          
  Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights4-5         
  Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination6-10        
  Meeting time

4.  For further  comparison, it is  worth noting the 1995 session  schedules
of the human  rights treaty bodies.   CEDAW  convened its fourteenth  annual
session for an  exceptional period of  three weeks.   The  Committee on  the
Rights  of the  Child scheduled  three 3-week  sessions in  1995, with  pre-
session working groups.  The Human Rights  Committee scheduled two sessions,
the  first  of which  for a  period of  six  weeks.   The Committee  Against
Torture  scheduled three sessions,  each for  a duration of two  weeks.  The
Committee  on Economic,  Social and  Cultural  Rights scheduled  two  3-week
sessions,  with one pre-session  working group.   Finally,  the Committee on
the Elimination of Racial Discrimination scheduled two 3-week sessions.

Conclusion

5.   In her opening statement  to the fourteenth  session of the  Committee,
Mrs.  Gertrude Mongella,  Secretary-General  of the  Fourth  United  Nations
World Conference on Women, said the following:

"A central concern of the World Conference on  Human Rights was that women's
rights should be fully integrated into United  Nations work on human rights.
The question of integration is not an easy  one.  There is a  consensus that
there are two  requirements for successful integration.   The first is  that
the   'mainstream'  bodies   in  any  field  recognize   the  importance  of
incorporating women's concerns into their work.   The second requirement  is
that there be strong institutions concerned  specifically with women.  It is
here that the Committee is crucial.

"In future, the work of the Committee will  increase.  As of today there are
139 States parties to  the Convention.  Based on indications I have received
...  many more  States  will  become party  over  the course  of  the  year.
Furthermore,  the Platform  for Action  will undoubtedly  place emphasis  on
universal ratification, without reservations, by the year 2000.

"If all the current States report  on schedule, you will have to consider 35

reports each  year.   That would  be three  times the  number you  currently
consider and,  if universal  ratification is  achieved, it  would be  almost
four times.

"The  work of  the Committee  has been  hampered by  the limitation  of  the
meeting time contained in the Convention itself."
--II.  ORGANIZATIONAL AND OTHER MATTERS


A.  States parties to the Convention

6.   On 3 February 1995, the  closing date of the fourteenth  session of the
Committee on  the Elimination of  Discrimination against  Women, there  were
139 States  parties to  the Convention on  the Elimination of  All Forms  of
Discrimination against Women, which was adopted  by the General Assembly  in
its  resolution  34/180 of  18  December  1979,  and  opened for  signature,
ratification and accession  in New York in March  1980.  In accordance  with
article 27, the Convention entered into force on 3 September 1981.

7.  A list of States  parties to the  Convention is contained in annex I  to
the present report.


B.  Opening of the session

8.  The  Committee on the Elimination  of Discrimination against Women  held
its  fourteenth session at United  Nations Headquarters from 16 January to 3
February  1995.   The  Committee held  25 plenary  meetings (260th  to 284th
meetings) and its two working groups each held 5 closed meetings.

9.   The session  was opened  by the  Chairperson of  the Committee,  Ivanka
Corti (Italy), who had been elected at the twelfth session of the  Committee
in January 1993.

10.  In  her opening statement, made on  behalf of the Secretary-General  of
the United Nations, the Secretary-General of  the Fourth World Conference on
Women,  Gertrude Mongella, welcomed  the new  and re-elected  members of the
Committee  and extended her gratitude to the experts who had completed their
service to the Committee.  She also welcomed  the appointment of the Special
Rapporteur,  Radhika Coomaraswamy,  on violence  against women  pursuant  to
Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/45 of 4 March 1994.

11.   She  emphasized  that  the current  session  was taking  place at  the
beginning of the year  which would see the Fourth World Conference on  Women
and  which marked  the  fiftieth  anniversary of  the United  Nations.   She
stressed that the  revised draft Platform  for Action,  to be considered  by
the Commission  on the Status  of Women at  its thirty-ninth  session, would
set out  action to be taken in the area of women's human rights, which would
not  only shape the Committee's  work, but would also support new directions
for  the Committee  and  its work  as a  contribution  to the  Fourth  World
Conference and the implementation of the Platform for Action.

12.   She recalled that a  central concern of  the World Conference on Human
Rights was  that women's human  rights should be  fully integrated into  the
work of the  United Nations on human rights.  She said that this integration
was dependent on two factors:  the recognition by other human rights  bodies
of  the importance of  incorporating women's  concerns into  their work; and
the strengthening of institutions concerned specifically with  women as well
as the  deepening of relationships among them.  In the  context of the first
factor, she  informed the Committee that  discussions had  been held between
the Division for the  Advancement of Women  and the Centre for Human  Rights
on developing a joint plan of activities, that the Commission on the  Status
of  Women had requested  the Division  to report  to it  on a joint  plan of
activities with the Centre, that the new focal point  on women of the Centre
for Human  Rights had visited the  Division, and that  staff members of  the
Division  had participated in  the work  of other  human rights institutions

and mechanisms.

13.    The  Secretary-General  of  the  Fourth  World  Conference  on  Women
indicated that the work of the Committee plays  a decisive role in the human
rights  report.  Currently  there  were  now   139  States  parties  to  the
Convention and  many other States were  moving towards  ratification.  This,
combined  with  the  predicted  emphasis  in  the  Platform  for  Action  on
universal  ratification,  would  significantly  increase  the  work  of  the
Committee.   She reminded the  Committee that the limitation  on its meeting
time  imposed by  the Convention  currently  impeded its  work, but  that  a
special meeting of States  parties to the Convention would take place on  22
May 1995 to consider revision of that aspect of  the Convention and that its
recommendations would be considered by the  General Assembly at its fiftieth
session.   To allow  the Committee  to carry  out its  mandated effectively,
there is a need to strengthen the servicing of the Committee.

14.    She   informed  the  Committee  that  a  State  party  had  withdrawn
reservations to the Convention and  that the World Conference on Women would
undoubtedly  recommend  to  others  to  follow  suit.    At  its forty-sixth
session, the  Subcommission on Prevention  of Discrimination and  Protection
of  Minorities had  again  requested  the  Secretary-General to  obtain  the
Committee's views as to  whether it would  be desirable to have an  advisory
opinion on the question of reservations. 

15.  She recalled  that the Committee has recommended the creation, by means
of an optional protocol, of a procedure for communications to the  Committee
and she  noted that a draft protocol, based on a draft prepared by an expert
group  meeting   convened  by  some   non-governmental  organizations   with
financial  assistance provided  by some  Governments had  been circulated by
one of the Committee members for  consideration during the current  session.
Any views of  the Committee after  such consideration would  be conveyed  to
the Commission on the Status of Women.

16.  The Secretary-General  of the World Conference noted that the Committee
intended  to  revise  its  rules  of   procedure  and  guidelines  for   the
preparation  of  national reports.    She  also  drew  attention to  General
Assembly resolution 49/221 B of 23 December 1994 related to summary  records
and invited the Committee to review its need for such records.

17.  She drew  the attention of the Committee to General Assembly resolution
49/162 of 23 December 1994 on the integration of older women in  development
and  to   resolution   1994/5  of   the  Subcommission   on  Prevention   of
Discrimination  and Protection  of  Minorities  of the  Commission on  Human
Rights  requesting  it  to include  in the  guidelines  on reporting  of the
Committee an item concerning contemporary forms of slavery.


C.  Membership and attendance

18.  In  accordance with article 17 of  the Convention, the seventh  meeting
of States  parties to the Convention  was convened  by the Secretary-General
at  United Nations  Headquarters on  7 February  1994.   The  States parties
elected 12  members of the Committee from among the  candidates nominated to
replace those whose term of office was due to expire on 16 April 1994.

 19.  All members  of the Committee  attended the fourteenth session  except
Ms. Gurdulich de Correa; however, Ms.  Munoz-Gomez attended from 17  January
to 3 February  1995, Ms.  Garcia-Prince from  16 to 20  January and from  30
January to 3 February, Ms. Sunaryati Hartono from 16 to  20 January and from
1 to 3 February, and Ms. Mervat Tallawy from 16 to 27 January 1995.

20.   A list of members of the Committee, together with an indication of the
duration  of their  terms of  office, appears  in  annex  II to  the present
report.

D.  Solemn declaration

21.   At  the  opening of  the  fourteenth  session,  before assuming  their
functions,  the newly elected members, Tendai Ruth  Bare (Zimbabwe), Desiree
Patricia  Bernard (Guyana),  Aurora  Javate de  Dios  (Philippines),  Miriam
Yolanda Estrada  Castillo  (Ecuador), Sunaryati  Hartono (Indonesia),  Ginko
Sato (Japan)  and Carmel Shalev (Israel),  and the  five re-elected members,
Charlotte  Charity  Abaka  (Ghana),  Emna  Aouij  (Tunisia),  Ivanka   Corti
(Italy), Lin Shangzhen (China) and Mervat  Tallawy (Egypt), made the  solemn
declaration asprovidedforunderrule 10ofthe rulesofprocedure oftheCommittee.


E.  Election of officers

22.   At  its  260th meeting,  on  16  January,  the Committee  elected  the
following  officers by acclamation  for a term of  two years (1995-1996), in
accordance  with article  19  of the  Convention on  the Elimination  of All
Forms  of  Discrimination  against  Women   and  rules  13  and  14  of  the
Committee's  rules  of  procedure:  Ivanka  Corti  (Italy),  re-elected   as
Chairperson; Emna  Aouij (Tunisia), Evangelina Garcia-Prince (Venezuela) and
Lin Shangzhen (China),  Vice-Chairpersons; and Hanna Beate  Schopp-Schilling
(Germany), Rapporteur.


F.  Adoption of the agenda and organization of work

23.   The Committee  considered the  provisional agenda  and organization of
work (CEDAW/C/1995/1) at its  261st meeting, on  16 January.  The agenda  as
adopted was as follows:

  1.  Opening of the session.

  2.  Solemn declaration by the new members of the Committee.

  3.  Election of officers.

  4.  Adoption of the agenda and organization of work.

  5.Report  of  the   Chairperson  on  activities  undertaken  between   the
thirteenth and  fourteenth sessions of  the Committee  and consideration  of
the report of the fifth meeting of persons chairing the human rights  treaty
bodies and action taken by the General Assembly concerning treaty bodies.

  6.Consideration of reports  submitted by States  parties under  article 18
of the Convention on  the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women.

   7.Implementation of  article 21 of the  Convention on  the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

  8.Ways and means of expediting the work of the Committee.

  9.  Contributions of the Committee to international conferences.

  10.  Provisional agenda for the fifteenth session.

  11.  Adoption of the report of the Committee on its fourteenth session.


G.  Report of the pre-session working group

24.   The Committee  had decided at its  ninth session 6/ to  convene a pre-
session working group for five days before each  session to prepare lists of
questions relating to the second and  subsequent periodic reports that would
be considered by  the Committee at the session.   The Committee, wishing  to
reflect the ideas and views of its various  members, decided that it  should

continue to submit to the Secretariat  draft questions on specific countries
and articles of  the Convention prior to the  meeting of the working  group.
In accordance with the decision of the Committee  at its thirteenth session,
the pre-session working group  met at United Nations Headquarters from 9  to
13 January 1995.

25.     In  accordance  with  the   provisional  agenda   of  the  Committee
(CEDAW/C/1995/1), the working group had to prepare  a list of questions  for
five  countries:     Argentina,  Finland,  Peru,  Norway  and  the   Russian
Federation.

26.   The working group consisted  of four members  as follows:   Salma Khan
(Chairperson), Evangelina  Garcia-Prince,  Pirkko Anneli  Makinen and  Ahoua
Ouedraogo.

27.   At  its  266th meeting,  on 19  January, the  Chairperson of  the pre-
session   working    group   introduced    the   report    of   the    group
(CEDAW/C/1995/CRP.1).   Members adopted  the report containing  the list  of
questions, which was sent to the States parties concerned.


H.  Composition and organization of work of the working groups

28.   At its  265th  meeting, on  18 January,  the Committee  agreed on  the
composition  of  its  two standing  working  groups:    Working  Group  I to
consider ways and means of expediting the work of the Committee and  Working
Group  II to  consider ways  and means  of  implementing  article 21  of the
Convention.

29.   Working  Group  I  was  composed  of  the  following  members  of  the
Committee:  Desiree  Patricia Bernard,  Carlota  Bustelo  Garcia  del  Real,
Ivanka Corti, Liliana Gurdulich de Correa,  Salma Khan, Lin Shangzhen,  Elsa
Victoria  Munoz-Gomez, Hanna Beate Schopp-Schilling,  Kongit Sinegiorgis and
Mervat Tallawy.

30.    Working  Group II  was  composed  of  the  following  members of  the
Committee:  Charlotte  Abaka,  Emna  Aouij, Gul  Aykor,  Tendai  Ruth  Bare,
Carlota Bustelo  Garcia del Real, Silvia  Rose Cartwright,  Aurora Javate de
Dios,  Miriam Yolanda Estrada  Castillo, Evangelina Garcia-Prince, Sunaryati
Hartono, Salma  Khan, Pirkko Anneli  Makinen, Ahoua  Ouedraogo, Ginko  Sato,
Carmel Shalev, Lin Shangzhen, Kongit Sinegiorgis and Mervat Tallawy.
  Working Group I

31.   The Secretariat  proposed the  following draft programme  of work  for
Working Group I:

  (a)  Reports  to be considered by the  Committee at its fifteenth  session
(CEDAW/C/1995/6, chap. VIII);

  (b)  Dates of the fifteenth session of the Committee;

  (c)  Review of the need for  summary records (General Assembly  resolution
49/221 (statement by  the Secretary-General of  the Fourth  World Conference
on  Women); format  of  the annual  report  of the  Committee  (question  of
inclusion  of  summaries of  the  consideration  of  the  reports of  States
parties:  statement by the Secretary-General  of the Fourth World Conference
on Women));

  (d)   Issues raised  by the fifth  meeting of persons  chairing the  human
rights treaty  bodies (see  A/49/537, annex),  particularly the question  of
the venue of  the Committee's  session and the  location of its  secretariat
(ibid., para. 51);

  (e)    Funding  for  activities  undertaken  by  the  Chairperson  between
sessions of the Committee;

  (f)   Procedure for  examination of  reports of  States parties, including
procedure for and content of notification  of States parties concerning  the
consideration of the report;

  (g)     Technical   and   administrative   arrangements   concerning   the
participation  of  the  members  of  the   Committee  in  the  Fourth  World
Conference on Women;

  (h)    Review  of  the  rules  of  procedure  (CEDAW/C/1995/6,  chap. II),
including the role of non-governmental organizations;

  (i)  Review of the general guidelines for  the preparation of initial  and
periodic reports (ibid, chap. III);

  (j)   Any additional  views on reservations,  following a  request of  the
Subcommission on Prevention  of Discrimination and Protection of  Minorities
(resolution 1994/43, statement by the Secretary-General  of the Fourth World
Conference on Women);

  (k)    An   integrated  management   system  on  human  rights   (American
Association for the Advancement of Science);

  (l)  Link with the focal  point on the human rights of women of the Centre
for Human Rights;

  (m)  Provisional agenda for the fifteenth session;

  (n)  Nomination of members of the pre-session working group.

Working Group II

32.   The Secretariat  proposed the following  draft programme  of work  for
Working Group II:

   (a)   The  Committee's contribution  to  the  Fourth World  Conference on
Women: the "Compendium" and any other contribution;

  (b)  Optional Protocol;

  (c)   United  Nations Educational,  Scientific and  Cultural  Organization
document on CEDAW, Decade of Human Rights Education;

  (d)  General recommendation on articles 7 and 8;

  (e)  Follow up  with regard to the  International Conference on Population
and Development;

  (f)  General recommendation on article 2;

  (g)  The Committee's input to the World Summit for Social Development.

33.    Members  of  the  Committee   expressed  their  concern  for  setting
priorities in their work in the  working groups in order to  finish the most
pressing business.


III.  REPORT OF THE CHAIRPERSON ON THE ACTIVITIES
UNDERTAKEN BETWEEN THE THIRTEENTH AND
FOURTEENTH SESSIONS OF THE COMMITTEE


34.   At  the  261st  meeting, the  Chairperson  of the  Committee,  in  her
introductory statement, said that the Committee had  proven itself to be  an
important human rights body, and she  summarized the numerous activities she
had undertaken since the  thirteenth session.  She pointed out that in  1994
the attitude  of various  United Nations  bodies towards  the Committee  had

been very  positive.   She outlined  the decisions  of the fifth  meeting of
persons chairing the  human rights treaty  bodies, which  took place at  the
United Nations Office  at Geneva from 19 to  23 September 1994.  The meeting
touched on women's human rights generally  and the Committee in  particular.
She noted that for the first time, the report of the chairpersons  contained
a  section  relating  specifically to  the  Committee  which criticized  the
resource constraints  experienced  by it.    It  also recommended  that  the
Committee, during its current session, take a  decision on whether it should
be based,  like all  other human  rights treaty  bodies, at  the Centre  for
Human Rights at Geneva.

35.  The Chairperson informed the  Committee that information exchange  took
place  on a regular basis between the Centre for Human Rights at Geneva and,
through her and  some of the designated experts,  the Committee.  She  noted
the  appointment of  the  "focal point"  for  women's human  rights  in  the
Centre.   She  also informed  the Committee that  the Special  Rapporteur on
Violence against Women was in attendance at this session and that she  would
address the Committee.

36.   The  Chairperson described  efforts which  she had  made  to establish
closer  cooperation with  the specialized  agencies  of the  United Nations.
The  United  Nations   Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization
(UNESCO)  hosted a meeting  attended by  five members of  the Committee that
resulted  in a  "manifesto"  relating to  gender-inclusive  culture  through
education, to be approved  by the Committee and to  be discussed in  a joint
UNESCO/CEDAW workshop at  the Fourth World Conference  on Women, to be  held
at  Beijing.   Initial  contacts  have been  made  with the  United  Nations
Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the United  Nations Population Fund.   Concrete
steps to  foster collaboration with other  specialized agencies,  as well as
the International Labour Organization have not yet been taken.

37.  The Chairperson stressed the  role of non-governmental organizations in
publicizing  the  Convention  and  the  work  of  the  Committee  and  noted
particularly the contribution of International Women's Rights Action  Watch,
with its  regular  "IWRAW to  CEDAW  report",  and the  International  Human
Rights Law Group, which  had co-hosted an expert  meeting sponsored by  some
Governments, to develop a proposal for  an optional complaints protocol  for
the Convention.

38.   The Chairperson outlined  the tasks  before the Committee  during this
session.    They  would  include  consideration  of  the  proposed  optional
protocol  to  introduce  a  right  of  petition  under  the  Convention, any
contribution that the Committee  might like to make  to the World Summit for
Social  Development,  the   Committee's  role  in   the  follow-up   to  the
International  Conference on  Population and  Development, its  role in  the
Decade for Human Rights Education and  the contribution of the  Committee to
the Fourth World Conference on Women.

39.    In  response  to concerns  expressed  by  members  of  the  Committee
regarding the  lack of resources available  to the  Chairperson to undertake
her inter-sessional activities, the Deputy Director  of the Division for the
Advancement of  Women indicated  that  general resources  for the  Committee
were appropriated by  the General Assembly  based on the  provisions of  the
Convention and subsequent decisions of the  Assembly.  Some travel  expenses
of the  Chairperson had been financed from savings of these resources during
1994, and, on several  occasions, the Division had  undertaken to assist the
Chairperson in communicating with members of the Committee.


           IV.  CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES
                UNDER ARTICLE 18 OF THE CONVENTION


A.  Introduction

40.    At its  fourteenth  session,  the  Committee  considered the  reports

submitted  by 10  States  parties  under article  18 of  the Convention:   2
initial reports,  3  combined 7/  initial  and  second periodic  reports,  3
second periodic  reports, 2  third periodic  reports and  2 fourth  periodic
reports.    The  Committee  also  considered  one  report  submitted  on  an
exceptional basis.   As  decided at  its thirteenth  session, the  Committee
prepared concluding  comments on  each report  considered.  Furthermore,  it
prepared  concluding  comments   on  four  reports  considered  during   the
thirteenth session which were deferred to the  fourteenth session.  For  the
status of the submission of reports by  States parties, see annex IV  to the
present report.

41.   The Committee's  consideration  of reports  of the  States parties  is
summarized below,  with a summary of  the introductory  presentations by the
representatives of  the States  parties, of  the observations  made and  the
questions asked by the  members of the Committee,  the replies given  by the
representatives  of the States  parties present at the  meetings, as well as
the concluding  comments to the reports  as prepared by  two members of  the
Committee  respectively.     The  summary  records  provide  more   detailed
information on the reports submitted by States parties.


B.  Consideration of reports

1.  Initial reports*

Bolivia

42.  The Committee considered the  initial report of Bolivia  (CEDAW/C/BOL/1
and  Add.1) at  its 262nd,  263rd and 267th  meetings, on 17  and 20 January
1995 (see CEDAW/C/SR.262, 263 and 267).

43.  In introducing the report, the representative of Bolivia said that  the
time that had elapsed between the submission of  the initial report in  1991
and  its presentation  in  1995  had created  a difficulty  for  the country
because during  that  time the  Government  had  changed and,  consequently,
major changes  had occurred with  regard to the  policy of  equality.  After
many years of dictatorship,  the country was completing its first decade  of
democracy.   At  the same  time, there  was a  general economic  crisis  and
structural adjustments had  taken place.   As a  result, many social  issues
had  had to  be  postponed  owing  to the  priority  given to  macroeconomic
stabilization.   The representative said that  her country  had an extensive
history of  active women's  movements.   Those organizations  had played  an
important  role in  returning the  country  to democracy  and had  laid  the
groundwork for  governmental action  for the  advancement of  women and  for
developing  social policies  aimed  at achieving  equality  and  alleviating
poverty.


________________________

  *   Including subsequent reports,  if submitted, in  those cases where the
initial  report of  the  State  party had  not  yet been  considered by  the
Committee.
44.  The three major changes were the reform of the Executive  Branch with a
decentralization  in decision-making, the establishment of the Office of the
Under-Secretary for Gender  Affairs within the Ministry of Human Development
and reforms  of the  Constitution and  the legal  framework in  keeping with
market  economy, which  refer  to Bolivia  as  a  multiethnic, multicultural
country.  The  representative said that while  the initial report had  given
the  impression  that  de  jure  equality  was  fully  implemented  and that
obstacles resided  only in  the practical  implementation, there  were still
laws  and  practices that  violated  the  principle  of  equality.   Whereas
formerly  social   policy  had  been  dealt   with  sectorally  in   various
administrative units,  the programme  for women  created in  1992 under  the
National  Institute  for  Minors,  Women  and  the  Family  and,  later, the
National Secretariat for Ethnic, Gender  and Generational Affairs created in

1993, had proposed sectoral  policies for the female population to ensure an
across-the-board gender perspective.

45.     The  most  important   policy  measure  was   the  Law  on   Popular
Participation,  which  had   decentralized  the  State  and  its   financial
resources,  recognized   the  legal  status  of  grass-roots  organizations,
provided  government funding  for  those organizations,  respected  people's
traditions  and  customs,  integrated  genderequality  and  laid  down   the
principle of equal  opportunity and empowered administrations at all  levels
to  establish  programmes  for  women.    Another  important  step  was  the
enactment of the Law  on Education Reform, which laid down the principle  of
free,  universal  and  mandatory  education   without  cost,  based  on  the
principle  of  equal opportunity  and  gender  equality.    Unlike the  past
attempt of enforced  "Hispanization", bilingual and multicultural  education
was  presently foreseen, from  which, in  particular, girls  and women would
profit.  A  further important step was the adoption of the National Plan for
the  Prevention  and   Eradication  of  Violence.     It   demonstrated  the
Government's understanding  that lack of respect  for human  rights was also
an obstacle  to development and showed  its particular  concern for domestic
violence.   It was being carried out through an  interministerial task force
and  provided free  legal and  health  care services  to female  victims  of
violence.

46.   The representative  said that  although women  continued to  carry the
major   burden  of  poverty,   changes  would   be  introduced  through  the
implementation  of  participatory  planning.    She  highlighted  the   most
important recent  changes,  as described  in  the  addendum to  the  initial
report, and underlined  that the most important  message she wanted to bring
was  that Bolivia had  institutionalized its  public policies  with a gender
approach.

General observations

47.   The Committee  commended the  well-structured and  frank report, which
adhered  to  the   general  guidelines,  and   its  sincere   and  objective
presentation.   It demonstrated the  political will of  the country  and was
well  placed within the  national realities  by showing  that the Government
was aware  of the obstacles that  had to be  overcome.   The new legislative
and  administrative  reforms  demonstrated very  positively  the  integrated
approach  taken regarding  women's issues.    They  commended the  fact that
Bolivia  had  ratified the  Convention  without  entering  reservations  and
congratulated the  Government on its future  plans to  implement further the
Convention,  and in particular  to redress  the situation  of indigenous and
rural  women.    Members were  favourably  impressed by  the  reform of  the
Executive Branch  and the creation of  the National  Secretariat for Ethnic,
Gender  and Generational Affairs.   They  commended the  establishment of an
inter-ministerial task  force and  the measures  undertaken and  commissions
created  to eradicate  violence against  women,  and in  particular domestic
violence between the spouses  as well as between the first and second degree
of  consanguinity.   They also  considered  commendable  the steps  taken to
elaborate a health code.  They welcomed the  efforts made to present Bolivia
as a multicultural and multiethnic society.

48.   In  reply to  observations made  by  the  members that  the Government
should  take   measures  to   incorporate  the   Convention  into   national
legislation and  to questions as to  whether the  Convention could presently
be invoked in the courts and  whether any initiatives existed to incorporate
the  provisions of the Convention into the  Constitution, the representative
stated that  the Convention had  become part of  Bolivian legislation on  15
September 1989  and could be  invoked before the courts.   While at the time
of preparing the  initial report the  Convention had been very  little known
by  judges and  other public  authorities,  more and  more lawyers  were now
taking recourse to the Convention.

49.   Members recommended as one  of the priority tasks that an inventory be
made of the  laws that were  still discriminatory  to women in an  effort to

amend  them.  They  asked  how  motivated  the  Government  was  to bringing
national laws into line with the  requirements of the Convention and whether
it  was  done  systematically  or  on  an  ad hoc  basis.    In  reply,  the
representative  said that the  national Secretariat  had an  Office of Legal
Reform,  which had the task  of bringing Bolivian legislation into line with
the  requirements  of  the Convention.    The  representative mentioned  the
amendments that  were  being  made  to several  laws,  such  as the  Law  on
Domestic Workers  regarding  their working  hours,  the  General Labour  Law
regarding excessive  protectionism of  women, the Law  on Domestic  Violence
that  should repeal  article  276  of the  Penal  Code and  the Family  Code
regarding  age  of marriage,  free  choice  of  occupation  and reasons  for
divorce.  Further  amendments  concerned  the   articles  concerning  sexual
violence  with  the aim  of  treating  domestic  violence as  an  ex officio
offence, the Health Code  and Property Law that should give women access  to
property, as well as the Law on Political  Parties.  Furthermore, changes in
favour of women were being made to various municipal decrees.

50.   Members recommended that  the low  number of women  in decision-making
positions should be considered  as a critical area  of concern.  Asked about
the outlook for women  to be better represented in political parties and  in
decisionmaking  positions   and  any  mechanisms   for  increasing   women's
participation,  the representative  said that  although the  Law  on Popular
Participation gave women equal opportunities, no  quotas were foreseen.  The
Under-Secretariat for  Gender Affairs  was,  however, considering  temporary
measures to remedy the situation.

51.  Members expressed the hope  that measures would be taken to correct the
de  facto  discrimination often  practised by  employers.   Considering that
Bolivia's  development index  was at  a  rather alarming  level, on  the one
hand, and that the Government's level of commitment  seemed to be very high,
on  the  other,  it  would  be  important  for  the country  to  submit  its
subsequent  report on  time and  to place  therein a  greater focus  on  the
programmes undertaken.

52.  Bearing in mind that  Bolivia was considered to have one of the fastest
growing  economies in  Latin America,  members inquired  whether the  recent
economic growth  had had  a positive  impact on  the status  of women.   The
representative explained that income distribution measures were being  taken
and that while local demands were being taken  into account, the demands  of
women were being given particular attention.   The Government was  currently
also elaborating gender statistics.  A gender investigation and  information
mechanism had been  put into  action to study the  impact of poverty on  the
female population.

 53.  As a  reaction to the observation made by members that women should be
encouraged to  be aware of  their legal rights  and that  lack of  access to
legal aid  was often one  of the obstacles to the  advancement of women, the
representative said  that the major obstacles  to the  implementation of the
Convention were  resistance, prejudices  and ignorance  on the  part of  the
judges  about the contents  of the  Convention as well as  the crisis in the
actual legal  system.   All  comments by  members  would  be the  basis  for
consideration for future  national policies on women  by Bolivia.   In order
to overcome  those difficulties,  the National  Secretariat  had started  an
awareness-raising and training programme for law officials.

54.  Members commended the Government  representative for her frank  replies
and expressed their hope that  the next report would give an account of  all
the  obstacles  and  failures encountered  by  the  National  Secretariat in
carrying  out its policies  and would  be supplemented  by ample statistics.
In  thanking the members for the questions raised, the representative of the
Government  said that  they  would form  the basis  for future  policies and
serve as a guide in the elaboration of periodic reports.

Questions related to specific articles

  Article 2

55.   Members raised  questions about  the type of  mechanisms through which
the National Secretariat  introduced sectoral policies, about its  decision-
making powers,  its resources  and the  channels of  cooperation with  other
government agencies.  The  representative replied that  the mechanisms  were
focal points for  rural development, education and popular participation,  a
few committees  dealing with  specific issues, various other  connections at
the societal and international levels and  that the National Secretariat was
represented  in seven  out  of  the nine  provinces  of the  country.    The
National Secretariat could  adopt mandatory resolutions and issue  mandatory
decrees  and  was working  in coordination  with  the Parliamentary  Women's
Commission and  all  the political  parties  that  were represented  in  the
Parliament.   It had sufficient  resources, 25 per  cent of  which came from
the  national Government  and  75 per  cent  from  international assistance.
Various other programmes had  been carried out by other sources in the  area
of health and education,  but it was difficult  to quantify their  impact on
women.

56.  In the light of the fact  that Bolivia was still characterized  by male
domination,  members  inquired in  what  way  the National  Secretariat  was
ensuring   that  the   Law  on   Popular  Participation   guaranteed   equal
opportunities at the  grass-roots level.   The  representative mentioned  in
that context a plan designed by  the National Secretariat, in  collaboration
with  the  National Secretariat  for  Popular  Participation,  which  should
strengthen non-governmental  organizations at the local level and maintain a
dialogue  with the local  political institutions  in order  to introduce the
gender  perspective  at  the  municipal  level.    A  transfer  of financial
resources  on  the  basis  of  demographic  criteria  would  support   local
programmes and women's programmes.

  Article 3

57.   When members inquired  about the positive  effects of the  educational
reform on  girls in  rural areas,  the representative said  that a  striking
example was  the bilingual  education in  the Guarani  area.  It  had had  a
positive impact on the inherent problems  of school desertion, the repeating
of classes and the functional analphabetism.
  58.  Members welcomed the institutionalization  of policies of equality in
the  country,  particularly  at  times  of  frequent  changes  in  political
leadership,  and pointed  to  the  importance  of mainstreaming  the  gender
aspect within the development process.

  Article 4

59.   Members asked for concrete examples of temporary special measures, and
whether  any such  measures were  foreseen  to  correct the  high illiteracy
rate, the low employment rate of women and the low  rate of participation of
women  in  political  decision-making  or to  protect  indigenous  and rural
women.   The  representative said  although  presently no  temporary special
measures existed,  the adoption  of such  measures was  under discussion  in
order to promote higher school attendance of girls.

  Article 5

60.  Asked about  any efforts to overcome sex-stereotyping in education,  in
the family  and in the  media and the existence of any  study on the matter,
the representative said  that within  its educational reform the  Government
was  modifying school  curricula  and textbooks  and  concurrently  training
teachers.

61.    Regarding  the  role  played  by  non-governmental  organizations  in
connection with  the Plan  for the  Prevention and  Eradication of  Violence
against  Women, the representative  said that  their contributions  had been
taken  into account  in its  elaboration and  also  in  drafting the  Law on
Domestic Violence.

62.  As to measures taken  to change the attitude of court officials dealing

with complaints regarding violence against women, the representative  stated
that within the National Secretariat there  was a department that dealt with
the training of various sectors of the judiciary.

63.   Regarding the  alleged contradiction  between the  statements made  in
paragraphs  84  and  85 of  the report  concerning  discrimination regarding
women holding certain  positions, the representative explained that  studies
had  made clear the  legal, social and  cultural discrimination  of women in
the workplace  and the lack of efficient  mechanisms to deal  with it as the
law did  not foresee any sanctions.   The practice had  shown that women  in
similar professions  and holding  the same  academic degrees  as men  earned
between 30 and 50 per cent less than their male counterparts.

  Article 6

64.   As  prostitution existed  in practically every  country in  the world,
members  felt  that  Bolivia  should  not  have  any  misgivings  about  its
"indirect  approval"  referred  to  in  paragraph   86  of  the  report  and
considered  the practice  of periodic medical examinations  of prostitutes a
laudable  measure.  Further  information was  requested about  the number of
women  prostitutes, their  social strata,  the  conditions under  which they
worked and the measures taken for their social reintegration.

65.   Regarding any  possible protection  of prostitutes  against the  human
immunodeficiency  virus (HIV)/acquired  immune  deficiency  syndrome (AIDS),
the representative said  that although the  National AIDS  Programme foresaw
measures  of prevention for  prostitutes, no  corresponding laws  had as yet
been adopted.

 66.  Members recommended that the Government  look into the various aspects
of  prostitution as it  was regarded  as a severe violation  of human rights
and one of the  most severe forms of slavery.  The representative  explained
that there was a contradiction in Bolivia between  the Penal Code and police
regulations in that there  was abolitionist legislation against pimping, but
whereas women prostitutes were penalized, men remained unpunished.

67.   Regarding a  question about the  meaning of  "offences against  sexual
morality",  the representative  said  such offences  ought to  be eliminated
from the Penal Code as they were discriminatory against women.

68.   As  the report  indicated that  trafficking in  women did  not  exist,
members asked  whether specific measures  prevented women from migrating for
the purpose of  prostitution.  Members found  the contents of paragraphs  88
and 99  of the report contradictory  in that studies  had proved that  there
was a close connection between trafficking in women and prostitution.

  Article 7

69.   Asked about  the initiatives  taken by the Government  or the National
Secretariat for Ethnic,  Gender and Generational Affairs to provide  support
to women's  non-governmental organizations, the  representative stated  that
the Government  recognized  the role  of  such  organizations as  agents  of
development. Their  autonomy was  entirely respected  and  they received  no
financial support from the Government.   Among others, they had participated
in  elaborating the  Plan for  the  Prevention  and Eradication  of Violence
against  Women;  however,  it  was  important  that  they  took  a different
approach vis-a-vis  the  State and  recognized  its  role and  their  roles,
respectively.

70.   Members  inquired which  incentives  were  being provided  to increase
women's  participation  in  political  life  and  their  representation   in
political parties and whether women in  political parties obtained financial
support  for  their  campaigns.    The  representative  explained  that  the
National  Secretariat  was currently  working  on a  reform  of  the  Law on
Political  Parties, which should  increase the  participation of  women.  No
government support  was given  to political parties  nor to women  for their

participation.

71.   Members  asked whether  the Law  on  Popular  Participation was  being
implemented,  whether it respected the various forms  of legal organizations
among indigenous women and whether indigenous  women and men received  legal
training. The  representative explained that  under that Law  municipalities
were  obliged to  incorporate  requests  by local  women's organizations  in
their plans  and that  legal training  as well  as the setting  up of  local
information and  communication networks at municipal  and local levels  were
foreseen.   She  pointed  to  the goal  that at  least  10 per  cent of  the
municipal structures should include women within the next three years.

72.   Considering the  absence of  a quota system, they  asked whether there
was an  ongoing programme to utilize  grass-roots organizations for  working
out programmes for  civic education to raise  the civic awareness of  women,
to inform them of the  necessity to vote and to take part in political  life
and, therefore, to  have identification cards  in order to register  to take
part in the polls. The representative stated that  presently 46 per cent  of
the  population  above 10  years did  not  have  identification cards.   The
Government  was,  with  foreign  aid,  working  on a  national  registration
programme  and  it  was   hoped  that  by  1997  all  citizens  would   have
identification cards.  The age to vote was 18 years.

 73.   Members inquired  about the  current  number of  women ministers  and
about the  status of women in  the police force.   They  asked whether women
had equal possibilities as men of being promoted.

74.  Members  asked whether  the training for  military careers had  resumed
for women and what possibilities women had to pursue military careers.   The
representative stated  that  it was  currently  not  an issue  for  national
debate.  It  was presently  more  urgent to  invest  in  activities  such as
education and health.

  Article 8

75.   Members asked what  the requirements were  for working  in the foreign
service and whether they  were different for  women and for men.   They also
wanted to  know  whether husbands  opposed  their  wives working  abroad  or
whether they  were not allowed  to join their  wives working  in the foreign
service.

  Article 9

76.     Regarding   questions   about  transmission   of   nationality   the
representative  stated that a  Bolivian woman  married to  a foreigner could
transmit her nationality to her husband and her children.

  Article 10

77.   Members asked  about the  reasons for  the large  gap in  the rate  of
illiteracy between women and men and  whether the Government was undertaking
measures  to encourage female  adult education.   Questions  were also asked
about the percentage of  pupils that were enrolled in private and in  public
schools and whether plans existed to privatize the education system.

78.  As bilingual education stopped at the  fifth grade level, it was  asked
how  the   non-hispanic  groups  could   fully  participate   in  the  whole
educational  system. Members  felt  that  there  could  be  a  contradiction
between  the  educational  policies, that  sought  to  respect  the  various
cultures and  those that  aimed at  avoiding gender  stereotyping.   Members
asked whether there were  gender or women's studies at the tertiary level of
education.   The  government representative  was  asked  to comment  on  the
issue.  Members also asked whether  health education included information on
family planning and prevention of HIV/AIDS.

  Article 11

79.   Members assumed  that  the employment  plan provided  for measures  to
close the gender gap.  However,  as regards salaries, indigenous  women were
the most  disadvantaged group.   Members asked  whether concrete initiatives
existed to  introduce a gender approach  in vocational  training and whether
there was  a legally  guaranteed minimum  wage and,  if so,  whether it  was
different for women and for men.

80.   Regarding the high rate  of growth of  street trading, mostly  carried
out by women, it  was asked whether that  sector of tertiary  urban economic
activity was  included in  the formal statistics  of the  country.   Members
inquired whether  there was a law  on sexual harassment  at the work  place,
whether measures  existed for the welfare  and protection  of women domestic
workers and  which programmes  responded to  the economic  needs of  migrant
women.  The representative replied that  a law regulating working conditions
for domestic workers was now under consideration in Parliament.

81.  Because of the absence of child-care  centres it was asked whether  the
burden of caring for their brothers and sisters  in addition to helping with
housework  resided on the  shoulders of  the young  girls and, consequently,
prevented them from attending school.

  Article 12

82.   Asked about abortion, the  representative explained that  it was legal
only  in cases of  rape and danger to  the mother's life.   She did not give
the actual  rate of abortion, but  said that it  was widespread and  carried
out  in unsafe  conditions.   It  accounted  for  30  per cent  of  maternal
mortality.   The  Government  did not  intend to  legalize abortion.   Asked
about  consciousness-raising  programmes for  family-planning  schemes,  she
said  that the  Government fully  endorsed  the  declaration adopted  at the
World  Conference  on Population  and  Development  held  at  Cairo in  1994
concerning reproductive  rights and sexual education  for teenagers in  view
of the health of the family.

83.  It was asked whether  there was a constitutional or legal basis for the
high fertility rate of women or whether the  reasons lay within societal  or
cultural aspects.  Comments were made  on the chronic malnutrition affecting
women  and it was asked what percentage of women,  in general, had access to
safe motherhood, what  the situation was  in rural areas and  which measures
the Government  had initiated  to reduce  teenage pregnancies  and the  high
level of maternal mortality.

84.   Members asked  whether victims  of rape could report  the incidents to
the public  prosecutors, and  if so,  whether measures were  being taken  to
lift  any legal bias  against rape  victims.  Members  asked further whether
crisis centres took care of  victims of rape or other  sexual abuse and  how
the police and the courts were handling cases of violence against women  and
whether they received any training on these matters.

  Article 14

85.   Since rural  women seemed  to be the most  disadvantaged, members felt
that they should  be the subject  of major  concern and asked that  they and
their plight be given more visibility in the next report.

86.   It  was  asked  to which  part  of the  population  indigenous  people
belonged,  whether  indigenous people  were  equivalent  to people  in rural
areas and whether non-indigenous  people had better  living conditions  than
they.   Members asked further  how much of  the resources of  municipalities
were  dedicated  to  indigenous  women,  how they  participated  in  general
programmes and whether special programmes were  dedicated to them.   Members
inquired further  what type  of national  and  international investment  was
made in rural development  and how it had benefited rural women.  They asked
whether  it  had  increased  their  productivity,  whether  they  could  use
technology and to what extent it  was environment-friendly.  Members  sought
information on whether  initiatives were  being taken  to create  pre-school

facilities   in   rural   areas   and   whether   non-governmental   women's
organizations  or  women  working  at  the  grass-roots level  had  provided
programmes to improve the conditions of the girl child in rural areas.

   Article 16

87.   Members commended  the  Government  for adopting  a new  Family  Code,
although a  number  of provisions,  such  as  marriage, divorce  and  family
assistance, still  needed to  be adopted.   As  to the  question of  whether
there was any legal  provision giving the husband  the right to prohibit his
wife  from  engaging  in  certain  occupations  if  they  impinged  upon her
domestic tasks, the  representative replied  that the  restriction had  been
reviewed.   Information was sought on the existence of a draft law to change
the legal provision that prevented women from accusing  a violent spouse and
whether measures  had been taken  to sensitize judges  with regard to  women
and minors.

88.  Members commented that the  regulations regarding guardianship were  in
blatant  contradiction  to the  provisions  of  the Convention.    Regarding
single mothers' status in  relation to adoption it was stated that a  single
mother  could adopt  a  child and  could  transfer her  nationality  to  the
adopted child.

89.  Members asked about the  percentage of abandoned children  and inquired
whether measures  were envisaged  to  prevent the  abandonment of  children.
They also  requested information  on surrogate  mothers and  on adoption  of
Bolivian  children by  women outside  Bolivia.    Information was  sought on
measures to protect foreign  women in their status  as wives of Bolivian men
and it was asked whether  a Bolivian husband could  prevent his foreign-born
wife and her children from leaving the country.

90.  Members asked whether the legal equality and joint responsibilities  as
described  in   paragraph  376  of  the   report  were   leading  to  social
inequalities.

91.   Members urged the Government to reconsider  the provision described in
paragraph  326 of the  report, according  to which a woman  had to observe a
timelimit  of 300 days before  marrying again.  They sought clarification of
the provisions governing  the name of  a person, as described  in paragraphs
309  and 310 of  the report and asked  whether it was true  that in spite of
the rights of mothers to transmit their name to their children  it was still
the husbands who decided what was happening in the family.

Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

92.   The Committee commends  the Government of  Bolivia for submitting  the
report  within  the required  time and  for following  the guidelines.   The
Committee noted that the oral presentation complemented the original  report
submitted  in 1991 and  concentrated on  the time  between 1992-1995, during
which the  country undertook major efforts  to promote  gender policies that
were beneficial  to the advancement of  women, thereby  overcoming a neutral
policy  which  did  not  differentiate  between  men  and  women,  and which
maintained  stereotyped role  models.  The Government  applauded the efforts
of the non-governmental organizations  as well as the efforts of the present
Government.

  Positive aspects

93.  The Committee  noted that Bolivia had made great strides in introducing
and  institutionalizing  public  policies  with  a   focus  on  the   gender
perspective.  This has been reflected in  the establishment of a  government
agency for  gender issues, the National  Secretariat for  Ethnic, Gender and
Generational Affairs.  The Committee noted also that the Secretariat was  in
charge of  policies and  programmes which  had taken  an inter-sectoral  and

regional approach.

94.   The Committee considered that the recently  promulgated Law on Popular
Participation  was of  great  importance,  as  it  decentralized  power  and
resources   to  the  municipal  level,   giving  grass-roots  organizations,
including  women's  organizations,   a  legal  recognition  and  access   to
resources.  Thus, the law  aimed at providing equal  opportunities to grass-
roots  organizations  by   mandating  municipalities  to  pursue  a   gender
perspective in their policies.

95.   The Committee commended  the educational reforms, which  were aimed at
providing bilingual  education, favouring  thereby the  education of  girls,
and the development of a multicultural society crossing gender barriers.

  Principal subjects of concern

96.   The  Committee noted  with concern  that the  budget of  the  Bolivian
national machinery for women was only  partially financed from the  national
budget and was largely dependent on international subsidies.

97.    The Committee  expressed  concerns  about  the  impact of  structural
adjustment programmes on women and the feminization of poverty.

98.   The Committee noted with  concern the specific  disadvantages of rural
women.

  Suggestions and recommendations

99.    The  Committee  recommends  to  the  Government  of Bolivia  to  give
particular attention to  amending article 276 of  the Penal Code  to abolish
the provision which  inhibits a just  solution to the  problems of  domestic
violence.

100.     The  Committee   recommends  that   for  the   effective  political
participation of women the Government establishes  quotas for women's  high-
level representation  in the public administration  and calls the  attention
of political parties to that effect.

101.  The Committee  would like to see  in the subsequent  report statistics
which  show the  results of  programmes  such  as the  Popular Participation
Plan, the National Plan for the Prevention  and for Eradication of  Violence
and the educational reform.

102.   The Committee  suggests to the  Government to look  into the  various
aspects of prostitution which is regarded as a  severe case of human  rights
violations and one of the most heinous forms of slavery.

103.   The Committee requests that the  plight of rural  women be given more
visibility in the next report, including measures to mitigate it.

104.  The Committee recommends that an inventory should  be made of the laws
that are discriminating to women, with a view to having them amended.


 Chile

105.   At its  264th and  271st meetings,  on 18  and 24  January 1995,  the
Committee considered the initial report of Chile (CEDAW/C/CHI/1).

106.  In introducing the report and its  update, the representative of Chile
stressed the importance of  international commitments, and in particular the
Convention,  for the  Chilean Government.    She also  pointed out  that the
recent  political changes in  Chile had not  affected the  programme for the
implementation  of  the Convention,  thanks to  the continued  and sustained
process  of consultation promoted  by the  Government.   Special efforts had
been made by the  National Office for Women's  Affairs (SERNAM) in  order to

update the initial report presented in 1991.

107.   The representative pointed out that although  abortion was illegal in
Chile,  in 1990 one  out of  every three pregnancies had  ended in abortion.
Fertility  has diminished in every age group.  Family planning policies were
aimed at  establishing  non-discriminatory access  to birth  control and  to
methods for overcoming infertility.   Fewer women were infected by the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), than men, though  there had been a significant
increase in the number of women infected.

108.  She indicated  that the poverty rate was higher among women than among
men and  that women  represented an  increasing proportion  among the  poor.
Currently, one of every four households  were female-headed and these tended
to be poorer than those headed  by men.  She further reported that, in 1991,
SERNAM  had adopted  a national  programme  for  the prevention  of domestic
violence.

109.  The representative highlighted  that the participation of women in the
workforce had increased significantly in the  formal and informal sectors in
the last few decades  and that female employment was increasing at a  faster
pace than that of  men.  Nevertheless, the  unemployment rate for  women was
higher  than  that  for  men.    She also  reported  that  women's  level of
education had improved. However,  women had not  been able to improve  their
position in the job  market because an unequal  value was assigned  to their
work.   Moreover,  studies  had  revealed  that  the  higher  the  level  of
education the woman had, the greater the salary discrimination.

110.  The  representative noted  that women have  had little involvement  in
the  executive branch  of  Government; currently,  the Government  had three
women ministers.  Women's participation in  the legislative branch had  been
traditionally  low.  During  the period  from 1990 to 1994,  there were only
6.5  per  cent and  5.8  per  cent  of women  among  senators  and  deputies
respectively.  Women's political  participation had  increased  in political
parties  and  in  some of  them they  accounted  for 40  to 50  per  cent of
members.   While there  was a  dialogue  regarding political  discrimination
against  women, there remained  a low  presence of  women at decision-making
levels.

111.   The  representative stressed  that  the  political context  of  Chile
explained why there had been limited  legislative changes introduced by  the
Government, particularly where  women were concerned.  The current  delicate
political equilibrium,  reached after 17  years of dictatorship, had created
a situation in which it was extremely difficult to pass legislation  without
the agreement of the current opposition.

112.    The  representative  stressed  that  the  policies  of  the military
Government towards women had been assistance-oriented and paternalistic  and
that they  had reinforced traditional patterns  regarding the  role of women
in society.  In  response to women's  demands, in 1990 the first  democratic
Government had  appointed women  to top  positions and  had created  SERNAM.
The achievements  of SERNAM between 1991  and 1993  had included recognition
of discrimination  against women,  strengthening  of SERNAM's  institutional
mechanisms  and  the  recognition  of  some  persistent  realities  such  as
domestic violence and the precarious status of women working from home.

113.  The representative  stressed that, in order to add a gender  dimension
to   all  government   policies,  the   current  Government   assumed   that
discrimination  against  women  was  not  expressed  through  occasional  or
partial situations, but rather was systematic and hence required  structural
and cultural  changes.  Consequently, the  Government had  designed an equal
opportunity  policy which  aimed at  reversing  structural  change so  as to
eliminate discrimination.    Over the  next  decade,  programmes and  action
plans would be undertaken within that  framework.  The representative  noted
the  complicated  process   of  implementing  the  policy,  which   required
coordination  among  ministries  and  the  identification  of areas  of  top
priority and  their integration  into the targets  and budget plans  of each

ministry.

114.  For the  period from 1994 to 1999,  an equal opportunity plan had been
designed as the fundamental instrument for  accomplishing the first stage of
the equal opportunity policy.   The plan sought to increase and improve  the
position  of women  in  the labour  market,  as  well  as to  promote  their
political  and social  participation,  specifically in  top  decision-making
levels.   The implementation  of the plan  would have  collateral effects on
the  legal system, on health,  training and educational policies  and on the
modalities of  child care,  as well as  on the  sharing of  responsibilities
between women and men.

115.  The promotion, implementation and  follow-up of the plan were SERNAM's
main responsibility.  Institutional reinforcement of  SERNAM was thus a  top
priority,  particularly  as  adequate  execution  of the  plan  and  similar
positive action would contribute to Chile's compliance with the Convention.

General comments

116.  The  members of the  Committee welcomed Chile's  return to  democracy.
They noted with satisfaction that Chile  had ratified the Convention without
reservations.

117.   Members expressed their concern  that Chile's initial  report did not
follow the guidelines as defined by the Committee  and recommended that they
be taken  into consideration when  writing future reports.   Members of  the
Committee  offered  advice on  this  matter.    Concern  was also  expressed
regarding the  lack  of  statistics and  more concrete  data  as to  women's
progress  towards   de  facto  equality   in  all   areas  of  life.     The
representative  noted that the  1994 updated  version of  the initial report
followed the  structure suggested  by the  Committee and  that it  contained
many answers to their preoccupations.

118.    Members  emphasized  that  after  17 years  of  dictatorship  it was
necessary to reinstate women's human rights,  and asked whether measures had
been taken in that regard by the democratic  Government.  The representative
said that women's protagonistic action against  the dictatorship in the past
had  helped  to create  SERNAM  and to  introduce  their concerns  into  the
governmental agenda.  However, she informed  the Committee that the  women's
movement had reduced its political  involvement.  She pointed  out that good
working relationships  existed between  SERNAM and women's  non-governmental
organizations.
  119.   In reply  to the  concern expressed  by members regarding  the neo-
liberal  economic  model and  as  to  whether  action  directed towards  the
prevention  and reduction of  its negative  effects on women  was planned or
being taken, she informed  the Committee that the Government had opted for a
model based  on  growth with  fairness.   In  that  context, the  Government
played an active  role in linking economic  and social development with  its
redistributive  role,  as  well  as  with  the  implementation  of  policies
targeted to various  social sectors  and defined groups.   She informed  the
Committee that the Government had designed  a national programme to overcome
extreme  poverty.    In   this  framework,  SERNAM   was  executing  various
programmes, including the national programme for  women heads of households,
in  coordination  with  other  ministries.    That  programme  followed   an
intersectoral approach,  including ageing  women.   The representative  also
elaborated on five measures  for women in  agricultural work.  Some  members
suggested the need for action  concerning infant mortality, the remuneration
gap between women and men and female unemployment.

120.   Members commended the establishment of SERNAM at ministerial rank and
requested  more  information   on  its   programmes,  goals,   institutional
relationships and power.

121.  Members asked whether non-governmental organizations had  participated
in the  preparation of the  Chilean report and  been requested to  publicize
and disseminate  the report, together with their comments.  In that context,

members wanted to know  whether cultural and religious factors were not also
part  of the  obstacles impeding  legal  changes  and asked  for information
about the participation of  men in action towards  the advancement of  women
in Chile.

Questions related to specific articles

  Article 1

122.   In  reply  to  the concern  expressed by  members  on the  lack of  a
definition of  the  legal term  of  discrimination  in the  Constitution  of
Chile, the  representative  replied that  Chile  did  not consider  this  as
necessary since the  Convention was considered  law under  article 5 of  the
Constitution concerning the ratification of international treaties.

  Article 2

123.   Members requested  more information  on the  equal opportunity  plan,
including  its  goals,  its  impact  on   general  public  policy  and   its
legislative base.  The representative informed  the Committee that the  plan
addressed  eight  areas:  legislation,  family,  education,  culture,  work,
health, participation and institutional support.   The plan showed that  the
commitment  of the entire  Government had  been presented  to the executive,
and  a formal  act  of  adoption was  planned for  8 March  1995.   She drew
attention to the updated report and  specifically its discussion of  article
2,  which  noted  action  undertaken  under  the  plan  to  date,  including
legislative reforms.

  Article 3

124.   In answering  the questions  regarding the  status of SERNAM  and its
implementing capacity, the  representative noted that SERNAM was created  by
law and that its Director had a ministerial rank.  She pointed  out that its
budget and legal projects were directly  negotiated by SERNAM in  Parliament
and that SERNAM had  a direct relationship  with all  ministries.  It had  a
coordinating rather than an  executive role by choice.   She added  that the
concerns  and needs of  women should  be in the mainstream  of public action
and  the  specific   ministry  should  carry  out  the  executing  activity.
However, when an institutional gap  existed, SERNAM executed programmes such
as centres for information on  women's rights and programmes for women heads
of households,  the prevention of domestic  violence, temporary workers  and
the prevention  of early pregnancy.  SERNAM also had  regional offices, with
their directors being members of the regional cabinets.

  Article 4

125.    Members   requested  more  information  on  the  interpretation  and
implementation  of article  4, as  they  had  noticed that  certain measures
taken  by Chile had eliminated  the protection of women.  The representative
made reference  to International  Labour Organization  (ILO) Convention  No.
156, which  was ratified by Chile  in October 1994.   The  objective of that
Convention and of various measures taken by  the Government was to encourage
men to assume and share family responsibilities.

  Article 5

126.   Members expressed their appreciation  for the high  priority given by
the  national machinery  to  the  prevention  and  elimination  of  violence
against women  in the  family.   Regarding the  sanctions against  offenders
proposed by Law No. 19.325, the  representative informed the Committee  that
there  were three  types:    obligatory attendance  for therapeutic  advice;
fines;  and,  in  more  serious  cases,  prison.    In  addition, protective
measures existed  such as the right  of the  woman to leave the  home and to
have  the family income protected.  In response to questions  as to whether,
in  cases  of violence,  the  Convention  could be  invoked  in  court,  the
representative recalled article 5 of the  Constitution of Chile, which  gave

the Convention the status  of law.  She informed the Committee that training
and sensitization programmes for police personnel had been organized.

127.  Members expressed  concern about the high number of rapes reported and
requested information  on the legal and  practical measures  taken to combat
that situation.

  Article 6

128.     Members   expressed  concern  regarding  the   situation  of  women
prostitutes   and  their   vulnerability  to   violence.     In  reply,  the
representative  recognized that  Law No.  19.325  referred only  to domestic
violence  and excluded  prostitutes, which  were  under  criminal law.   She
emphasized that in Chile the practice of prostitution  was not condemned and
added that  sanitary  control of  women  prostitutes  was guaranteed.    She
agreed with  the suggestion  that studies  and statistics  on this  specific
group should be  developed in order  to focus policies and  programmes, also
in view of the danger of HIV infection of prostitutes.

  Article 7

129.  In response  to requests for more information on the implementation of
article 7,  the representative said that  Chile had  ratified the Convention
on   the  Political   Rights  of   Women   and   had  participated   in  the
Interparliamentary Conference in Paris.   She welcomed suggestions to create
networks among women who had played a role in the recuperation of  democracy
in  Chile and to  study mechanisms  such as  quotas, which were  seen as the
most expeditious way  of increasing  the presence of  women in positions  of
political decision-making.
  130.    Members  raised  questions  as   to  the  situation  of  political
detainees.   It was  asked whether  the Government  had any  policy to  help
women  who  had  suffered  from  the   effects  of  detention,  directly  or
indirectly.    The  representative  replied  that  a  law  had  been adopted
specifying the benefits established by the  Government to help the  affected
families.

  Article 8

131.  Responding to questions regarding  the representation of Chilean women
on  the international scene, the representative emphasized  that an increase
in the diplomatic service would take time, but that efforts were being  made
to   have  visible   female  representation   at  high-level   international
conferences.

  Article 10

132.    Members  noted  that Chilean  textbooks  contained  serious sex-role
stereotyping and suggested changes.  The  representative replied that a non-
sexist education law had  been signed and  that a seminar to train  teachers
in gender sensitivity  had taken place.  Guidelines for model textbooks were
planned for 1995.

133.   Members welcomed the  initiative of  the programme  on education  for
peace  and requested more  information.   In reply,  the representative said
that the  programme was  linked to the  implementation of the  Convention on
the  Rights of  the  Child and  was being  implemented  by the  Ministry  of
Education.  The programme introduced students to human  rights as well as to
peaceful conflict-solving methods and was implemented in  public and private
schools.

134.   Members  noted  the  negative relationship  existing between  women's
level of education and their remuneration compared to men.  They asked  what
was  causing the  situation, whether  it was  affecting  access by  girls to
higher  levels  of education  and  what measures  were  being  taken  by the
Government in  order  to rectify  the  situation.   Members  also  expressed
concern  about the  levels of  female  illiteracy and  requested information

about its causes and  whether any programme had been designed to help female
adults to continue their education.

  Article 11

135.  Following  a request for information  on female temporary workers, the
representative  said that  general  policies directed  to  all  agricultural
workers guaranteed  the  limitation  of  working  hours  and  basic  working
conditions.   In  that context,  the  Government  had ratified  various  ILO
conventions  on working conditions  for both  women and  men.  Specifically,
she pointed  to local implementation of  the heads  of households programme,
which included measures such as  child care, training,  education, promotion
of women's public participation and provision of medical attention.

136.   The representative agreed with observations that part-time employment
could  lead to women's  marginalization in the labour  market.  She informed
the  Committee that  SERNAM had  studied women's  real interests as  well as
experience  acquired in  other  countries.    In reaction  to  a comment  on
SERNAM's  emphasis on the  reproductive role  of women and what  the role of
men should  be in  that respect,  she said  that the  changes introduced  in
labour legislation sought  to ensure shared family responsibilities  between
men and women.   New initiatives such  as day-care centres in the  workplace
for  both working  fathers  and  mothers were  being introduced.    She also
stressed that in 1994 Chile had ratified the ILO Convention on the matter.
  137.  Following a  request for information on whether SERNAM had taken any
action to improve women's  working conditions, she replied that there was  a
law of the Ministry of Labour which provided  for training of its  personnel
on specific issues  such as maternity leave and non-discrimination.  The law
was supported by the  World Bank and was considered as a special  instrument
to improve the situation of working women.   Members wanted to know  whether
labour legislation gave any guarantee for equal  remuneration as established
in ILO Convention  No. 101 and whether  Chile had ratified that  Convention.
Members requested  information on whether pregnancy was used to discriminate
against women  in the labour  market, as well as on  wage disparities in the
public sector.

  Article 12

138.  Members  noted the alarming  levels of teenage pregnancy  and inquired
whether  action was  going  to  be directed  to  that sector  of the  female
population, specifically regarding access to education.  The  representative
replied that a special programme was planned in cooperation  with the United
Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to prevent  early pregnancy and give support
to pregnant adolescents.  The project  consisted of providing information in
schools and a study  of sexuality among  Chilean youth and dissemination  of
its  results.    An  administrative  circular  issued  by  the  Ministry  of
Education had  prohibited discrimination  against pregnant  students but  it
had not  been implemented in most schools because it was not a law.  Efforts
were  being made  by the  Government, in the  Parliament and  through public
opinion to transform it into law.

139.  Members were  seriously concerned by the fact that though abortion was
illegal, it  was nevertheless practised widely.   They  inquired whether the
Ministry of  Health was proposing concepts  of family  planning, how illegal
abortions were recorded and  how rural women could  afford it.  In response,
the representative replied that  Chile had signed the  final document of the
International Conference on Population and  Development at Cairo without any
reservation.   Although family planning policy  had been  neglected for many
years,  the  Ministry  of  Health  was  handling  a  programme  for paternal
responsibility,  informing   men  and   women  of   the  various  means   of
contraception.  She recalled that the  Government considered the practice of
abortion a  serious public health problem,  that it could not  be seen as  a
means of contraception and  that its prevention was  one of the  purposes of
the family  planning  policies.   The  family  planning policies  sought  to
improve the  health conditions of mothers  and children  while affirming the
rights of every family to have the number of children it desired.

140.   The representative, in response to questions on consciousness-raising
activities  regarding HIV  and  acquired immunodeficiency  syndrome  (AIDS),
replied  that a special commission had been set  up among various ministries
and that campaigns had been organized in the  media.  She added that  action
was very  slow because  there was  no consensus  on the  issue among  social
sectors and religious organizations.

  Article 14

141.  Members  required more information on  rural women living in  poverty.
The representative informed  the Committee that  efforts to collect accurate
data had  been made  by the  Government, which  had helped  to quantify  the
extent  of  rural  women's  poverty  problems.    She  referred  to measures
directed  towards  rural  women,  such  as  the  provision  of  child  care,
introduction of  legal changes and,  in some cases,  access to property  for
women  heads of  households.    Members suggested  educational measures  and
income-generating activities.  The  development of appropriate  technologies
was also suggested in order to reduce the burden of their many activities.

  Article 15

142.    In  reaction  to  concern  expressed  by  members  on  divorce,  the
representative  agreed that  this  was also  a  governmental  preoccupation,
especially in  the context  of a  very high  number of  marital separations.
She emphasized  that, in Chile, there  was no consensus  on the  issue.  The
Government was  opening the discussion for  public debate.   Meanwhile, some
members of Congress were drafting a law to be presented to Parliament.

143.   In response to requests  to highlight the  legal capacity of  married
women  to  manage their  property and  the  types  of regimes  existing, the
representative  replied that  women  had complete  legal  capacity  in those
matters  and that recent  legal changes  had been  introduced concerning the
property of  married  persons, which  took into  consideration the  economic
protection of married women.

  Article 16

144.    Members  asked  for  clarification  regarding  the  legal  status of
children and parental authority and  guardianship.  The  representative gave
information  on a  recent law,  still  pending for  adoption by  the Senate,
which would  establish equality  of rights for  legitimate and  illegitimate
children,  extend  parental  authority and  guardianship to  the  mother and
permit the establishment of paternity by blood tests.

145.   Information was  also requested  by members  on the  minimum age  for
marriage in Chile and  whether it was the  same for  both sexes.  They  were
informed  that there  was a  Committee's recommendation  suggesting that the
age  should be  18, which  would be  compatible  with  the accorded  age for
accessing voting, civil and penal responsibilities.

146.  In response to inquiries as to  whether provisions existed giving  the
same protection  and rights for financial  support to  married and unmarried
women,  the representative replied  that married  and unmarried  mothers had
equal rights to  receive financial support for  their children, but not  for
themselves.

Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

147.   The Committee congratulated the  representative of  the Government of
Chile on  the presentation of the  report and on  the effort the  Government
had made to  update the information submitted,  which reflected a  number of
advances  since 1991.    The Committee  also welcomed  the  presence  of the
Minister and Director of the National Office for Women's Affairs.

148.  The Committee referred to  the fact that those who prepared the report
followed neither  the standard  format nor  the Committee's  recommendations
concerning  the interpretation  of certain  articles  and the  submission of
information on them.

149.   The Committee noted  that the report  was descriptive  and general in
nature, with  few  analytical  references  supported by  concrete  data  and
statistics.  It noted further that in  the discussion of the  implementation
of the  articles, more attention  was given to  responses having  to do with
legal and normative provisions, and not  enough information was provided  on
concrete actions.    The Committee  noted that  this made  it impossible  to
determine the extent of the gap between de facto and de jure equality.

  Positive aspects

150.    The  Committee  acknowledged  the  political  will  demonstrated  by
government  administrations  during the  democratic  period  in  seeking  to
improve the  status  of Chilean  women,  and  drew particular  attention  to
following clearly positive actions:

  (a)  The ratification  of the Convention on  the Elimination of  All Forms
of Discrimination against Women and its incorporation into national law;

  (b)   The progressive introduction of legal reforms, specifically directed
towards eliminating discrimination and protecting women's rights;

  (c)   The  creation of the  National Office for  Women's Affairs (SERNAM),
designated as the body responsible for  coordinating the initiatives of  the
executive in implementing the provisions of the Convention;

  (d)    Starting  a  peace-oriented  education  programme  in  the  schools
especially on the issue of all forms of violence against women to  implement
the  Vienna  Declaration  and  Programme  of  Action  adopted  by  the World
Conference on Human Rights;

  (e)   Starting  a  local Heads  of  Households  Programme  to improve  the
situation of women;

  (f)  Improving the working conditions of female agricultural workers.

  Principal subjects of concern

151.   The  Committee expressed  concern  about  laws which  still contained
discriminatory  provisions, and about  situations in  which women  were at a
disadvantage  compared  to  men,  which  contradicted  the  clear   advances
achieved in democracy and economic development in the State party.

152.  The Committee also expressed its concern  about the situation of rural
women  who did  not  have  access to  the  same opportunities  for the  same
services  as those in the cities, as well as the  low percentage of women in
positions  of   political  responsibility  and   about  maternal   mortality
resulting from clandestine abortions.

  Suggestions and recommendations

153.   The Committee  suggests that  the Government of  Chile should prepare
its second  report according to the  guidelines, and that  it should provide
more  complete, well-grounded  information that  would reflect  the  real as
well as the legal situation of  women, including the obstacles  encountered,
rather than basing itself on legal references.

154.   The Committee  urges the State  party to promote  the elimination  of
still existing  discriminatory legal  provisions especially  in relation  to
the family and to bring Chilean legislation into line with the Convention.

 155.   The Committee urges the State party to introduce legislation opening

up the rights to legal divorce.

156.   The  Committee requests  the State  party  to  provide more  complete
information,  including  relevant  statistics, in  its  next  report  on the
implementation  of  each of  the  articles,  especially  on  topics such  as
violence against  women, prostitution, political participation, reproductive
health, working conditions and  wages, the situation of "temporary" workers,
women living  in poverty,  the de facto  situation of women  in the  family,
teenage pregnancy and the status of non-governmental organizations.

157.   The  Committee expresses  interest  in  receiving information  on the
possible  further  strengthening  of  SERNAM.     It  also  asked  for  more
information on the implementation of the equal opportunities plan.

158.   The  Committee recommends  a  revision  of the  extremely restrictive
legislation  on  abortion, taking  into  account  the  relationship  between
clandestine abortion and maternal mortality.

159.  The  Committee suggests that SERNAM  should disseminate the  report it
had submitted to the Committee, together  with the Committee's comments,  as
a means  of heightening  the awareness of those  sectors that might be  in a
position to help improve the status of Chilean women.

--2.  Initial and second periodic reports

Mauritius

160.  The  Committee considered the  initial and second periodic  reports of
Mauritius (CEDAW/C/MAR/1-2) at its 268th  and 271st meetings, held on 20 and
24 January 1995.

161.   In  her statement,  the  representative  of Mauritius  described  the
legal, political,  institutional and  economic framework in her  country for
the  implementation  of  the   Convention  and  highlighted  the  legal  and
practical changes that had taken place  since the submission of  the report.
She  pointed out  that structural  adjustment  in  the country  had actually
benefited women in  terms of their access  to employment and integration  in
the  economy.    Despite  the  general  economic hardships  associated  with
adjustment, the Government  had found it possible  not only to avoid cutting
expenditure  on social  programmes  but  actually  to  expand  the  national
machinery  for  the advancement  of women  by  creating  a new  Ministry for
Women's  Rights.    Having  highlighted  positive  developments  in  women's
employment,  education  and health,  she  acknowledged  the  persistence  of
certain  legal,  administrative, cultural  and  religious  barriers  to  the
equality of women and  the improvement of their  socio-economic status.  She
emphasized  the continuing  commitment of her Government  to the advancement
of women and its  determination to promote women's rights in general and  on
the  basis  of a  forthcoming  White  Paper on  Women  and  Development,  in
particular.

General observations

162.   Members of the Committee commented on the  concise, comprehensive and
frank  nature of the  presentation made  by the  representative of Mauritius
and  on  the   country's  considerable  achievements  in  implementing   the
Convention.   They were particularly impressed  by the  strong commitment of
the Government of Mauritius to  the goal of the advancement of women and  by
the fact that social services and funding for  women's organizations had not
been  cut  off  even  in  difficult   times  of  structural  adjustment  and
recession.     They  noted  with  satisfaction  that  cooperation  had  been
established with some  of the specialized agencies  of the United Nations to
promote women's development.

163.   Several experts expressed great  satisfaction with  the withdrawal of
reservations to articles 11.1 (b), 11.1 (d) and 16.1 (g) of the  Convention.
One expert pointed out that Mauritius was one  of those rare countries where

the  Convention itself  was  being  used to  reform the  domestic  legal and
economic systems so as to achieve greater compliance.

164.   Members  of  the  Committee pointed  out that  the report  would have
benefited  from a clearer  presentation of how the  situation in the country
had  evolved since  the  preparation of  the first  report and  from greater
highlighting of the obstacles that still existed.

165.  It was pointed  out that chapters 2.3 and 16.3 of the Constitution  of
Mauritius, dealing with the protection of  fundamental human rights and  the
definition  of  discrimination  respectively, had  been  formulated  without
regard to  gender.   It  was suggested  that  that  fact might  bring  about
internal   inconsistency  in   the  Constitution   as  far   as   issues  of
discrimination were concerned.  If that was indeed  so, the situation should
be rectified.

166.   Members  noted  the positive  developments that  had  taken place  in
Mauritius with respect to the increase  in women's employment, the promotion
of their human rights and their economic  independence, which, as one expert
pointed  out,  was the  main  prerequisite  for  their  advancement and  the
preservation of  their dignity.   However,  they expressed  concern at  what
appeared to  be excessive emphasis  on directing  female employment  towards
industrial  occupations  in  export-processing  zones  and  in  the  private
sector.

167.   It  was suggested that  article 4 of  the Convention should  be fully
utilized  to  ensure that  there were  more women  in positions  of economic
decision-making rather than merely to increase  further their number in  the
traditional  sectors,  where  women  had long  been  overrepresented.   With
respect to special positive discrimination  programmes, one expert cited the
conversion of  two coeducational State  secondary schools  into schools  for
girls only,  pointing out that that  measure was in  fact negative since  it
promoted  segregation  and  was  contrary  to  the  Nairobi  Forward-looking
Strategies.   Another expert  pointed  out that  protective legislation  was
problematic in  terms of its impact  on the  equality of women and  men.  It
did  not fall into the category of special  temporary measures to accelerate
equality.     In  her   opinion,  the   report  of   Mauritius  reflected  a
misunderstanding  of what  affirmative  action was.   The  industrial sewing
programmes reinforced labour-market stereotypes, and courses in banking  and
management should be considered instead.

168.   Concern  was  expressed by  members of  the  Committee  regarding the
report's  lack of  data on  violence against  women.   Given the  widespread
nature  of the  problem and  its  acute  consequences, more  information was
needed.  One expert  commented on section 253 of  the Criminal Code:  in her
view, the Code was  designed to protect society from prostitution but not to
address the  issues of the  exploitation of women  engaged in  that activity
and  of violence  against them.  Concern  was  also expressed  regarding the
potential  of sex-tourism in the light of the rapidly growing tourism sector
in Mauritius.

169.    Having  expressed  satisfaction  with   the  progress  made  by  the
Government of Mauritius in the elimination  of discrimination against  women
and in their continuing advancement in the economic and social spheres,  one
expert  expressed  particular  interest  in  the  White  Paper  on  Women in
Development currently  being  prepared  by the  Government.   She  expressed
confidence  that the  paper  would  open  new possibilities  for  addressing
issues of special concern to women in the country.

170.   Having described  female literacy  programmes as highly  commendable,
one  expert expressed  concern  regarding  the content  of such  programmes,
which currently  served to confirm  women in  their traditional roles.   She
also noted that there were no courses on family nutrition.

171.   One  expert noted that  the Labour Law,  which forbade night  work by
women, was in fact discriminatory; night work was usually better paid.

172.   One expert  praised the  Government for the  initiation of programmes
for the early detection of breast  and cervical cancer, which  reflected the
fact  that  women's  distinctive  physiological  needs  were  finally  being
addressed.    She  noted  a  contradiction,  however,  with  respect  to the
provision of family planning.   On the one hand, the report emphasized  free
and accessible family  planning services  and, on the  other, it pointed  to
the widespread problem of illegal abortion.

 Questions related to specific articles

  Article 1

173.   Members  of  the  Committee  pointed  out  that the  Constitution  of
Mauritius  did not  define  discrimination in  terms  of  sex.   One  expert
commented  that that implied  that no  laws on  discrimination against women
existed.   Members  asked whether  the  Government  intended to  revise  the
Constitution  so as  to  remedy that  problem and  whether the  enactment of
equal  opportunity   legislation  was  considered.     In  her  reply,   the
representative of  Mauritius indicated  that her  Government would  consider
the amendment  of  the Constitution  after  the  issues of  citizenship  and
nationality were addressed.

  Article 3

174.    Members asked  what  the  exact  relationship  between the  National
Women's Council and the Ministerial Committee  was and what the relationship
of those two bodies  to the Ministry for  Women's Rights and  Family Welfare
was.   They  also wanted  to know  if there  was a  problem  of coordination
between those  bodies and whether the  cooperation between  the Ministry for
Women's Rights and other ministries was fruitful.   They also wanted to know
whether desk officers reported on problems in their ministries.

175.  The representative of Mauritius  replied that the responsibilities  of
the  National   Women's  Council  involved   the  organization  of   women's
associations and  the facilitation of dialogue  between the  State and women
through those  associations.  The Ministerial  Committee, for  its part, was
made  up  of desk  officers  in  various sectoral  ministries  who  met  and
discussed  problems  that  were  encountered  in  their  ministries  in  the
implementation  of gender  policy and  shared  information on  projects that
were carried out  by their ministries and had an impact on women.   The work
of the Ministerial Committee was somewhat inefficient  owing to the lack  of
prior training  of desk officers in gender analysis and  gender planning and
also because of the transfer of officers. However, the Committee had  worked
successfully on an  ad hoc basis for the  preparation of the White Paper  on
Women in Development and  the national report  on the implementation of  the
Nairobi Forward-looking  Strategies and its  staff participated in  seminars
and  meetings, thereby  contributing  to the  solution of  various problems.
The training  of desk officers in gender  analysis was on  the agenda of the
Ministry  for  Women's  Rights for  1995  and  a consultant  had  been  made
available  by the  United  Nations  Development Programme  (UNDP)  for  that
purpose.  A link existed  between the Ministerial Committee and the National
Women's Council  in  that the  Council  was  managed  by a  committee  which
consisted of  the  representatives  of  women's  associations  and  of  desk
officers from the  most important ministries in  the social sector, such  as
the  Ministries of  Education, Health,  Economic Planning  and  Development,
Social Security and Youth and Culture.

  Article 4

176.  Members of  the Committee noted that  the report indicated  that there
was  provision for police  training for  women and for the  development of a
corps of policewomen.  It  was asked whether that idea would be extended  to
the  national judicial system.   In  reply, the  representative of Mauritius
said  that the training  of judges  and magistrates would have  to be looked
into especially  in connection with  the creation of  a Family Court,  which
was on the Government's agenda.

 177.    Members  wanted  to  know  what was  meant  by  specific protective
legislation  for women  in  agriculture and  manufacturing.   In particular,
they asked if it  really protected women  in those sectors or if it  in fact
helped  to  perpetuate  employment  segregation.    The  representative   of
Mauritius  replied that  women  in  agriculture had  indeed  benefited  from
protective legislation:  they were no  longer required to perform  strenuous
field operations.  Women in  the advanced stage of pregnancy were prohibited
from lifting  heavy loads  and were  provided with  light field  work.   The
option of  early retirement  at the age  of 55  was opened to  women in  the
sugar and salt  industries.  As regards  industrial employment, women in  an
advanced state  of pregnancy were not required to perform jobs that involved
continuous  standing.  Also,  a discriminatory  clause that  had not allowed
women  to aspire to the post of "factory operator" had been removed in 1989.
Women  employed in the industrial sector were not  compelled to do overtime.
They now enjoyed privileges with respect  to refunds of their transportation
fees.   Pregnant women  who had 12 months  of continuous employment received
full  maternity  benefits  that  included  12  weeks  of  paid  leave,  cash
allowances and 1-hour nursing breaks.

  Article 6

178.   In response  to the  concern expressed  by members  of the  Committee
regarding the lack of  data on violence against women, the representative of
Mauritius  informed  the Committee  that  the  issue  of  violence was  very
sensitive and that victims  were often reluctant to report such abuse.  She,
however,  provided  the  Committee  with  some  statistical  information  on
domestic  violence in  her country.  Specifically,  from  1991 to  date, 107
cases of incest and 431 cases  of child abuse had been reported.  Also, from
1989 to date, 1,500 cases of the battering of women had been reported.

179.   Members inquired about laws  governing the  solicitation and purchase
of a prostitute's  services.  They also wanted  to know if prostitutes  were
undergoing regular  medical check-ups.   Members inquired whether there were
any specific  laws designed  to protect  minors from  sexual tourism.   They
also wanted to know  if immigrant women were among prostitutes and if  there
were laws against trafficking in women.

180.   In response, the representative  of Mauritius  informed the Committee
that there  was  no  registration of  prostitutes in  her  country and  that
prostitutes therefore  operated illegally.   She however  pointed out  that,
owing to the  sensitization campaign on AIDS,  they were now  more conscious
of health hazards associated with their profession.  She  cited a television
source, according to which prostitutes underwent regular medical  check-ups.
She referred  to the relevant sections  of the Criminal  Code and the  Child
Protection Act that  stated that procurement, enticement or exploitation  of
adults and children for purposes of  prostitution were considered an offence
and were subject to penalties.

  Article 7

181.   Members  of the  Committee  wanted to  know  what  had been  done  to
encourage women's  participation in  the  diplomatic service  and how  their
participation in the diplomatic service compared  with the progress made  by
them in the judicial system.

182.   The representative  of Mauritius  responded that  the foreign service
was open to both men  and women and that recruitment to the foreign  service
was on  the basis  of an  entrance examination.    Currently, the  Mauritian
diplomatic service  was comprised  of 51 members,  including 7  women.   The
disparity  in  numbers was  primarily due  to  the lack  of qualified  women
candidates  and not to  discrimination against  women.   There was currently
one female puisne judge (out  of six) and both the Master and Deputy  Master
in Bankruptcy were  women.  Also,  3 of  the 12  District Court  magistrates
were women.  Thus,  in general, women were  well represented in the judicial
system, although their participation was somewhat  low in the various levels
of court administration.

183.  One expert  asked whether the multicultural  and multiracial fabric of
Mauritian society  had created  internal problems  and, if  so, what  impact
those  problems had on women.  The representative  of Mauritius replied that
there  was no  indigenous  population in  her  country and  that  people  of
various  races and  cultures from Europe,  Asia and Africa  lived in perfect
harmony.  Given  the extreme diversity  of the population in  Mauritius, the
Government was  extremely cautious and prudent  in dealing  with issues that
could upset  the balance  and disrupt the  social fabric.   She stated  that
comments made  by  members regarding  dangers  of  cultural strife  and  its
adverse impact on women had been noted.

  Article 10

184.   Members commented  that the  courses offered  by the  adult education
programmes  run  by  the  Ministry  for  Women's  Rights  were  primarily in
industrial sewing, secretarial skills,  embroidery and handicrafts.   It was
asked whether any  other types of training was  available to women and  what
the Ministry for Women's Rights intended to do about that situation.

185.   Replying to  the question,  the representative  of Mauritius informed
the  Committee  that  the  Ministry  of  Women's  Rights  provided  training
primarily  to  low  academic achievers  who did  not  have access  either to
training  provided by the  Industrial Vocational  Training Board  or to that
provided  by private  institutions.   The  main  objectives of  the training
offered by  the Ministry  to those  women were  to provide  them with  basic
skills  to help them in their  family life, to discover their talents and to
achieve  a certain  degree of  selffulfilment.   The  Industrial  Vocational
Training  Board,  responsible for  the provision  of training  in Mauritius,
offered training in  electronics, engineering and other professional  fields
that were open to women.

186.   In response  to the comment  on the conversion  of two  coeducational
State secondary  schools into  schools for  girls only, she  said that  that
decision  had been taken  in consideration  of the  cultural environment and
educational tradition of her country.   The practice helped in the effective
teaching  and learning  process and  allowed teachers  to utilize  different
approaches to teaching boys  and girls.  She assured the Committee that that
specific conversion  did  not  lead to  segregation, but  instead,  provided
additional educational opportunities for girls at the right time.

  Article 11

187.   The Committee  noted the withdrawal  of the  reservation to  articles
11.1 (b) and 11.1 (d).   They wanted to know what  new laws had been adopted
in Mauritius to allow the  reservations to be withdrawn and if all the legal
procedures  with respect to  the withdrawal  of those  reservations had been
followed properly.

188.   In her  reply, the  representative of  Mauritius stated that  all the
necessary procedures regarding the waiving of  the reservations on parts  of
article  11 (as well  as of art.  16) had  been followed.   Those procedures
included  consultations with  the State  Law  Office  and at  Cabinet level.
Given the changes in  the economic and social situation in the country  that
had  taken place between 1984 and  1991, the State Law Office  had agreed to
the withdrawal of those reservations, which  had been followed by government
approval.

189.   Members noted  that the  report indicated that, under  the Labour Law
and the  export-processing zone  act, women  in Mauritius  were entitled  to
maternity  leave for only  three pregnancies.  They  asked what would happen
when a fourth  pregnancy occurred, particularly  in the light of  the strict
laws  on  abortion. The  representative  of  Mauritius  responded that  paid
maternity  leave was  restricted to  three confinements.   Female  employees
were  granted leave  without  pay after  the third  confinement.    She also
pointed out  that that provision  was in line  with the national  population
policy to discourage large families.

190.   As to the policy  of granting an employed  woman a  one-hour break to
breastfeed  her  child,  members  wanted  to  know  how  that  provision was
implemented and  whether that law  was necessary for  working mothers.   The
representative  replied  that  practical difficulties  were  encountered  in
implementation of that provision because there  were few nurseries near  the
factories.  She  said that the  law had  been enacted  to encourage  breast-
feeding.

191.   As to  when the  labour law  covering employment  within the  export-
processing zone would be  amended so that women working in that sector could
enjoy  the  same  working conditions  as  those in  the  public sector,  the
representative of Mauritius pointed out that  the public and private sectors
in her  country operated  under different  conditions  and that  it was  not
economically  feasible at  the  present  stage of  economic  development  to
provide the same  working conditions in both  sectors.  She noted,  however,
that the  Export Enterprises  Regulations enacted  in 1983  fixed wages  and
some other conditions of employment.

192.  Regarding what  impact changes in fiscal  and taxation policies and in
the  price  index  had   on  women,  she  replied  that  it  had  not   been
scientifically studied.  However, the  reduction in capital  expenditure had
led  to  a  freeze  in  the construction  of  State  secondary  schools  and
subsidized housing that might have reduced  women's access to education  and
proper housing.   She also pointed  out that  that trend  had been  reversed
since the  late  1980s  and  that  those  sectors  were  currently  in  full
development.    Women had  been  direct  beneficiaries  of the  Government's
policy to adopt  new taxation policies  in that  they could  now file  their
income tax returns separately and could deduct benefits individually.

193.   Members  noted that  women's participation  in  the labour  force was
growing rapidly in  Mauritius and asked  if the Government  had projects  to
meet the increasing demand  for health care, day care and retraining.   They
also wanted  to know if  the increasing employment rate  was associated with
positive developments  only or if it had some negative aspects as well.  The
representative of  Mauritius stated that  the rapidly growing  participation
of women in the labour force in her country had  tripled the burden on women
and that they needed  to be provided  with community support services.   Her
Government had embarked on the provision  of such services in  collaboration
with  non-governmental organizations, local governments, the private sector,
etc.

194.   Members  noted with  concern that  the report  indicated  that minors
under the age of 16 were allowed to  work, which, according to the  relevant
International  Labour Organization Convention,  was wrong.   It  was pointed
out that  the report did  not provide any  information on  where minors were
working, whether there were any special  laws governing their employment and
whether   their  employment   was   monitored  by   the  Government.     The
representative of  Mauritius informed  members that  the Labour  Law in  her
country prohibited  the employment  of a  person under  15 years of  age and
that in 1990 her  Government had ratified ILO Convention No. 138 on  minimum
age  for employment and was  determined to eliminate  child labour, which at
the  moment represented 0.7  per cent  of the  Mauritius working population.
She pointed out that the report of her  Government referred to age 16 as the
age when minors were allowed to work.

  Article 12

195.  Members of  the Committee asked  what the Ministry for Women's  Rights
was doing to improve  the poor quality of life  of women in Rodrigues.  What
was  done  with  respect  to  the  provision  of  health  services  and  job
opportunities for  women  in Rodrigues  and  to  the improvement  of  social
infrastructure?  The representative informed the  Committee that there was a
Ministry for  Rodrigues, which dealt exclusively  with the situation  there.
She also stated that  new information had  been collected and updated.   The
situation in  Rodrigues was  improving:   water, sanitation  and roads  were
widely available but a lot remained  to be done.  Figures that reflected the

situation in Rodrigues would be provided in the next report.

196.  Members of the Committee asked how  family planning reached all women,
including poor women.  They also wanted to  know what the prospects were for
a  revision  of  the  anti-abortion  legislation.    The  representative  of
Mauritius  replied that  family planning  in  her  country was  available to
women of all ages, married  and unmarried, and was  specifically targeted to
teenage women.  In spite of the  wide availability of contraceptive methods,
about 2,000  complications from abortion were reported each year  and it was
not clear whether those were natural or induced.

  Article 14

197.  Members requested  more information on whether  women could own  land,
what the Government did to enhance women's right  to land ownership, and how
that issue affected rural  households headed by women.   One member found it
encouraging  that women in rural  areas had the  choice to  work not only in
agriculture but also in industry.  She, however,  wanted to know about women
and land ownership:  in  some countries, women  could not own land owing  to
social, legal  and  cultural impediments.    Another  member also  asked  if
Mauritian  women could  own  land.   In  her reply,  the  representative  of
Mauritius stated that women  in her country had access to land ownership and
that  they had  the same  rights with  respect to  land ownership  and  land
inheritance as men.

198.   One member requested clarification  of the  contradiction between the
statement regarding shortages of labour in  the agricultural sector and  the
following statement that indicated that the  workday in agriculture was from
6 a.m. to  12 noon,  i.e. very short.   The representative replied that  the
shortage of labour in  agriculture existed because women  as well as  men no
longer  wanted to work  in the  agricultural sector in spite  of the shorter
hours of work and a  comparable rate of pay.  They showed strong preferences
for work  in manufacturing  industry in  spite of  longer hours,  presumably
because work in that  sector was regarded as  "cleaner" and had more status.
Furthermore,  she indicated  that it  had  been  the practice  in Mauritius,
especially in  sugar-cane fields, to  work from sunrise  to noon  in view of
the climate.

199.  A question was raised by members  as to how environmental  degradation
affected rural women and  what measures were taken in that respect.  Members
noted  that  changes in  food  habits  were  mentioned  and  asked for  more
information and  whether it  implied a  worsening of nutritional  standards.
In response,  the Committee  was informed that  a survey  conducted in  1988
revealed that 38  per cent of women were  anaemic and that obesity was  most
prevalent among  the female labour  force.  There  was a  tendency among the
population to go  for fast food  and disregard  nutritional standards.   The
Ministry  of  Health  and  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture  were  engaged  in
developing a food and nutrition policy in order  to help families to  adjust
to  new patterns of  life in  a newly industrialized society.   She informed
members that environmental degradation was especially visible in  Rodrigues,
mainly through  soil erosion  and deforestation.   Measures  to sustain  the
environment   had  been   initiated   and  involved   terracing   of   land,
reforestation, sensitization, waste management and others.

  Article 16

200.   As to  a  question on  the  recognition  of religious  marriage,  the
procedure for  the dissolution  of religious  marriages and  whether or  not
religious  law  was  applicable  to  divorce,  she  stated  that   religious
marriages  in  her country  had all  the  effects of  civil marriages,  that
children  of such marriages  were considered  legitimate and  that the civil
law applied to them as well as to divorce procedures.

201.  Members inquired  if married women  in Mauritius were allowed to  live
in the  parental home.  They  also wanted to  know if a married  woman had a
right to shelter in  a house other than her  husband's or his family's.  The

representative replied that a  married woman in  her country had a right  to
live in  the family home until  her death, even  after her husband's  death.
The  law in her country did not provide for a right  to shelter in any other
house.

202.  Members  asked whether judges  were trained regarding divorce  and the
interests of  the child in the event of divorce.   One member suggested that
the Government  needed to reform the  "300 days"  stipulation, keeping women
from  re-entering  marriage.    Another  member  wanted  to  know  how  many
marriages were  arranged by parents.   In her  reply, the representative  of
Mauritius stated that no such training for judges existed in her country.

Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

203.  The  Committee congratulated the  distinguished representative  of the
Government of  Mauritius on  presenting the  comprehensive combined  initial
and  second  periodic  report,  which  was  prepared  on  the  basis  of the
Committee's guidelines and provided ample statistical data.

204.   The Committee  expressed thanks  to the Government  of Mauritius  for
ratifying the  Convention in  full and  urged it  to use  the Convention  to
further improve women's status in Mauritius.

  Positive aspects

205.   The Committee was of  the opinion that Mauritius was  a country which
had  achieved commendable  success  in social  integration  while  promoting
equal  opportunities  for women  through  a  strong  social  programme.   It
commended Mauritius  for having  made a  determined effort  to ensure  equal
rights for all ethnic groups.

206.    The  Committee  further  appreciated   the  fact  that  despite  the
structural  adjustment  programmes  the  Government  had  not  cut  down  on
educational and social benefit programmes concerning women.
  207.   The  positive  move  on the  part  of the  Mauritius Government  in
withdrawing  its reservations  on articles 11.1  (b), 11.1 (d)  and 16.1 (g)
was highly appreciated by the Committee.

  Principal subjects of concern

208.  The Committee  expressed concern that the Constitution of the  country
did not  cover discrimination  on the grounds  of sex.   The Committee  felt
that this had to be reflected in the Constitution.

209.    The  Committee  noted  that  the  report   did  not  provide  enough
information  on prostitution  and trafficking  in women  and  rehabilitation
programmes  in  this  respect.    The   next  report  should  provide   more
information in this regard.

210.   The  Committee observed a lack  of clarity on the  nationality law of
Mauritius,  especially  in areas  where  rights  enjoyed  by  men and  women
marrying foreign citizens varied.

211.  The  Committee noted that  the reasons  for the  high rate of  teenage
pregnancy despite  improved family planning  programmes were not  explained.
The Committee  also noted that  the report did  not specify  clearly whether
family  planning services  were  made  available to  women  irrespective  of
marital status.

212.  The  Committee also noted with concern  that the development of  women
in the Rodrigue lagged far behind that on the main island.

213.  The Committee believed that  non-academic training such as embroidery,
industrial sewing,  etc., conducted as  a positive discrimination  programme

would  only contribute  to  keeping  women to  the feminized  sector  of the
economy.

  Suggestions and recommendations

214.    The  Committee  suggests  that  in  the  subsequent  report, further
information should be given  on the national machinery  and on what had been
done to institutionalize it at the local levels.

215.  The Committee  also suggests that more  information should be given on
prostitution and government  efforts to  decrease it and rehabilitate  women
involved  in  prostitution.   It  also  requested  more  information on  the
potential rise of sex tourism.

216.   The Committee also  encourages the Government  of Mauritius to  amend
labour  laws  for  the   export  processing  zones  and  provide  respective
information on such efforts in the subsequent report.

217.  The  Committee requests more information  in the subsequent  report on
the  vocational  training  programmes  for  girls  and women  with  specific
emphasis on non-traditional vocational training.


Tunisia

218.  The  Committee considered the combined  initial and second reports  of
Tunisia  (CEDAW/C/TUN/1-2) at  its 269th  and 273rd meetings,  on 23  and 26
January 1995 (see CEDAW/C/SR.269 and 273).

 219.  In introducing the report,  the representative of Tunisia, emphasized
the important  changes that  had occurred  in 1987,  which asserted  women's
fundamental  rights and  promoted their  economic  and  social status.   The
first accomplishment  after Tunisia's  independence was the adoption  of the
Personal Status Code, which  laid the foundations for  a new organization of
the  family, based on legal equality  of men and  women.  Tunisia had a long
history of women's emancipation,  which led in 1936  to the creation  of its
first  women's  organization.    The  Tunisian  leaders  adopted  a  dynamic
interpretation of Islam,  and since 1956, Tunisian legislation had gradually
been establishing the conditions necessary for  women's equal status in  the
political, economic and social  life.  This  new vision of society had  been
widely disseminated and  had gradually been adopted  by women.   Equality of
opportunity  was  beginning  to emerge  and was  given  considerable impetus
through new women's organizations.

220.  The  representative stressed  that in  a society such  as that of  her
country,  women's freedom and  their rights as citizens remained vulnerable,
and  must  be continually  reinforced.    Among  the  mechanisms created  to
achieve  that end  was  the Ministry  of  Women's and  Family  Affairs,  the
Research, Documentation and Information  Centre and the  National Women  and
Development Commission.   Women had been  appointed to high-level  political
posts and a  series of legislative  reforms had  been sought  to remove  any
archaic  elements remaining from the past.  The new vision of the family had
been built on  the principle of partnership between  the spouses.  The  most
important amendments  referred to the Personal  Status Code,  the Penal Code
and the Labour Code,  and thus women  currently entered more fully into  the
era of  human rights.   The  greater involvement  of women  in the  informal
sector had also been  able to limit the  negative effects of  the structural
adjustment plan.

221.    The  representative  illustrated,  through  concrete  figures,   the
advances made  by women  in many  professions, in  decision-making positions
and in schooling, thanks to  the policies of universal education, health and
family planning. Since 1956, Tunisian legislation  had been modelling a  new
society  within  the framework  of modern  Islam,  gradually abandoning  the
static  models  of  thought  inherited  from  traditional society,  and  the
Tunisian  society of today  was concerned  with following  the principles of

religion  without sacrificing progress.   Major concerns were illiteracy and
the  resurgence  of   backward  models   under  the  influence  of   current
fundamentalism.   Tunisia was  aware that  it could  not successfully embark
upon the twenty-first  century without allowing an irreversible  involvement
of women in its development policy.

  General observations

222.  The Committee commended the well-structured and comprehensive  report,
supplemented  by  extensive statistical  data, and  its  frank and  succinct
presentation and expressed appreciation for the  fact that the Minister  for
Women's and Family Affairs  herself had introduced  the report.  Bearing  in
mind  Tunisia's geo-political  environment,  it  paid  tribute  to  the  big
strides made  by the country  for the advancement  and empowerment  of women
and stated that  Tunisia could be  considered, even  since the  1950s, as  a
shining  example  for  other  countries,  because  of  its  progressive  and
programmative interpretation of  Islam. The members emphasized the  adoption
of the Personal  Status Code in 1956 and  all the reforms it brought  about.
However,  they expressed  concern  at the  reservations  entered  concerning
articles  9 and  16,  and in  particular, at  the  language of  the  general
declaration and  the  declaration made  with  regard  to article  15,  which
seemed to  close the door  on any future revisions  of national legislation.
They expressed  the hope  that the  reservations and  declarations would  be
withdrawn in the  near future.   In replying,  the representative said  that
Tunisia  had not  entered  any reservations  regarding  other  international
treaties  dealing  with the  status  of  women.   The  Convention  had  been
ratified  in a  particular  socio-political  context, which  was  marked  by
rising   fundamentalism,  conservative   traditions   and   related  issues.
Although the political vision was  enlightened and most of the provisions of
the Convention were already being applied  in the country, the specificities
of internal law should not be denied. The general  declaration, however, did
in  no  way intend  to  detract  from the  Government's  commitment  to  the
Convention.  It was  only made to explain  the reservations entered.   Since
ratification many  legal reforms  had been  introduced in  favour of  women,
which showed  that the country was  slowly but surely  moving towards gender
equality, and the reservations would certainly  be withdrawn before not  too
long.

223.   While  recognizing the  efforts undertaken  by the Government  in the
area of  education, members were  concerned at  the high rate  of illiteracy
among  girls  between  the ages  of  14 and  24,  at the  low  level of  the
participation  of women  in  political decision-making  despite  substantive
gains  made  in legal  equality  and  at  the  current provisions  regarding
women's inheritance  rights.  They stated that Tunisia had not yet succeeded
in  filling the  gap  between the  elite  and  the  broader sectors  of  the
society.  While praising all the  rights given to women, further information
was requested on  the de facto situation of women and on steps  taken by the
Government to protect the rights of  individual women, irrespective of their
family  status.  In  reply, the representative stated  that a general policy
of emancipation and faith  in the human being was the driving principle  for
all political  action, and  the  measures  taken by  the President  in  1992
marked  a certain dynamism  in the women's  movement.   The participation of
women at the last elections had been four  times higher than in the past and
the President emphasized in his statements  that women should take advantage
of the  opportunities provided to them by democracy to develop further their
achievements.   Women's  rights  were fundamental  rights,  which  benefited
women irrespective of  their family status.   At  the same  time, while  the
family needed to be  preserved, decision-making in the  family needed to  be
shared by women and men.  A study had been made on the issue.

224.   Referring  to pressure  exercised  by  religious extremist  groups in
neighbouring countries and to questions  raised as to whether  there was any
longterm plan  that would guarantee women  their full  democratic rights and
avoid  any  set-backs  and  whether Tunisia  was  collaborating  with  other
Islamic countries  in  that  respect, the  representative replied  that,  in
Tunisia, democracy  was a process based on the principle that its conditions

were fulfilled  and that human rights  encompassed also  economic and social
rights.   Political liberty was  meaningless without economic  independence.
She  said that  the  terrorists who  denied  women  their  rights were  also
inveterated enemies  of human rights in  general, and  democracy must defend
itself  against  those forces.   Yet  Tunisia could  not remain  isolated in
following the right path and other countries should follow that example.

225.   In making  an additional comment,  a member  inquired whether Tunisia
was  intending to  introduce women's  issues  into  the Organization  of the
Islamic Conference.

  Article 3

226.  Members inquired  through which means the  national mechanism for  the
advancement of  women was implementing its  policies at  the regional level,
what  its  financial resources  were and  which  steps were  being taken  to
involve more women in the mainstream of the society.
    Article 5

227.    Members   praised  efforts  made   to  correct  stereotypes  through
presenting a more  positive image of women  in school textbooks and  through
human  rights education.    Further information  was  requested  on violence
against women of any kind, i.e.,  domestic violence, rape, sexual harassment
at  the  work  place,  violence  against  female  prisoners,  in  particular
political prisoners, violence  against prostitutes and any other  vulnerable
groups, and sexual abuse practised by police officers.

228.  The representative explained that  the phenomenon of violence  against
women had  only recently  become  a  subject of  investigation, and  it  was
difficult  to  obtain reliable  statistical  data  because the  victims only
rarely reported  such incidents to the competent authorities.   So far, only
7 per cent of cases  of marital violence had been  submitted to the Ministry
of Women's and Family Affairs.  The subject was no  longer taboo and women's
associations were carrying out studies and  setting up hot-line services for
battered women.   The  results of  those efforts  would be  outlined in  the
subsequent  report.    It  was  equally  difficult  to  obtain   trustworthy
statistical data  on cases of  rape and sexual  harassment, and only  rarely
were cases  reported.   Apart from the  important change in  the Penal  Code
regarding conjugal  violence, which made  rape within  marriage a punishable
offence,  other new measures to  deal with the  problem were the institution
of a family judge, the creation of  defence and social integration  centres,
hot-line services,  centres for  battered women  set up by  non-governmental
organizations  and  media  campaigns  directed  at  young  people.  Violence
against women was dealt with in the framework of a global national  strategy
of awareness-raising.  In addition to  that, the Research Documentation  and
Information Centre (CREDIF) had issued a  little booklet to disseminate  the
contents of the Convention in the schools.

  Article 6

229.  Responding to questions regarding  health care plans for  prostitutes,
the representative  emphasized that  the authorities  focused on  the health
aspect and instituted mandatory medical visits  for prostitutes in order  to
prevent sexually  transmitted  diseases  and  human  immunodeficiency  virus
(HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

230.   In reply  to questions,  the representative  explained that regulated
prostitution was  not banned because  it curtailed clandestine  prostitution
and protected  minors from  abuses.  Clandestine  prostitution was  severely
punished  in  Tunisia.   Replying  to a  question  about the  percentage  of
regulated  prostitution, the  representative said  that it  had  drastically
decreased.  Currently only 68  women were registered in  Tunis as "regulated
prostitutes".  The decrease was attributable  to the rising living standard,
the  progressive eradication of  poverty and  women's entry  into the labour
force.

231.  Replying to  questions raised by members  about the existence of child
prostitution  and  trafficking in  women,  the  representative  stated  that
neither of  the two  had ever  existed in  Tunisia  despite rising  tourism.
Asked  about measures to  prevent minors  from engaging  in prostitution the
representative said  that it  was banned  by law.   Judges  could decide  to
place  delinquent minors  in special  centres in  order to prepare  them for
their reintegration into society. 

232.     Further  questions   referred  to  the   social  reintegration   of
prostitutes, and to  the protection of the  rights of female prostitutes  in
practice.   Members  requested detailed  statistical data  in the subsequent
report and asked whether the current  legislation was not discriminatory  in
that  it  made a  distinction  between  female  prostitutes  and their  male
clients.

  Article 7

233.   Asked about measures  taken to  change women's approach  to political
life and to encourage  girls to alter their  views on political matters, the
representative stated  that the Ministry of  Women's and  Family Affairs had
set up an evaluation  campaign to assess the impact of development  projects
on  women.   The  Ministry was  also  planning  to set  up several  plans of
action, such as one aimed at rural women and another that focused on  better
time sharing  by women  between professional  and household  tasks, and  was
conducting several  communication and information  campaigns.  The  Ministry
was  assisted in  its efforts  by the  National Council  for Women  and  the
Family and non-governmental organizations.

234.   Members  wanted  to  know how  the  Government was  coping  with  the
apparent  resistance by  men to  institutionalizing women's  integration  in
political  life. The representative  said that  although some  men had shown
resistance,  it  was   gradually  waning  because  of  women's   outstanding
competence  and  devotion,  and at  the last  elections  a woman  had scored
highest in  the main party.  More and more women had become visible at lower
political levels and  sensitization campaigns should  help women  in gaining
more votes.

235.  As members  noted that women  did not seem to be represented  in trade
unions nor in banking institutions,  the representative said  that presently
a national  women's commission  consisting of  coopted members  participated
actively in the elaboration of an activity programme for trade unions.

  Article 9

236.    When  asked  why  women  were  given  unequal  treatment  where  the
transmission  of nationality  to alien  spouses  and  to their  children was
concerned  and whether  the  National Women  and Development  Commission was
taking  any steps  to remove  these  differentials, the  representative said
that  the inequality  had  been  softened as  a result  of the  amendment of
article 12 of the  Nationality Code in July 1993. Currently the transfer  of
nationality still required the consent of both spouses.   It was to be hoped
that the reservation in this article could be lifted in the near future.

237.  Members also  inquired what was being done to disseminate  information
on the legal rights of women to the public at large.

  Article 10

238.   Members  commended the  Government  for  the particular  attention to
education  and for  dedicating to it  as much  as 10  per cent  of the State
budget.  They praised  the strides made in increasing the enrolment level of
girls  in secondary schools.   They noted, however,  a high concentration of
girls  in traditional female  fields of education  and a  tendency of female
students  to embark on careers  that were financially less  rewarding.  They
asked whether  there was  a particular preference  for girls  to follow  the
traditional female  paths and whether there were any plans to encourage them

to  break  into non-traditional,  so-called "men's  fields".   Asked whether
school  curricula might  be  responsible for  that fact,  the representative
stated that  schoolbooks did  not allow  for any  discrimination.   However,
girls  appeared  to   choose  economics  more  frequently  than   industrial
vocations,  and arts  and literature  over mathematics  and science.  Girls'
options were also  determined by the current  labour market, which was still
dominated by  certain stereotypes.   The  educational reform  introduced new
school orientations.    Another innovation  was  the  introduction of  human
rights education at  primary and secondary  level.  Other  measures in  that
direction were national  seminars and annual campaigns, orientation  courses
for parents  and their  children and  pilot projects to  encourage girls  to
take technical subjects.

239.   In reaction  to the  statement by  the representative  that, for  the
first time, a woman had become regional director of secondary education  and
a  woman had been appointed as university rector, members warned against the
"token woman" syndrome.   They said  that experience in other  countries had
shown  that the  appointment  of  a "token  woman"  reinforced  stereotypes,
rather than improved the status of women.

240.  Commenting  on the lower  school enrolment  of girls  and replying  to
questions as to whether  any studies had  been carried out to determine  the
causes for the high  drop-out rate of girls  from school, the representative
explained through  statistical data that the  gap between girls  and boys in
school  enrolment was gradually  shrinking in  the direction  of attaining a
gender balance.  Whereas originally the school drop-out rate was higher  for
girls  than  for boys,  especially in  rural areas,  that tendency  had been
almost  reversed at  all  levels. Studies  that had  been undertaken  on the
subject  gave as major  reasons socio-economic  and cultural  factors in the
rural  areas.    To  alleviate  that  problem,  school  timetables  had been
changed, school aids had been introduced,  schooling had been made mandatory
from 6 to 16 years and non-compliance had  been put under sanction.   It was
said that  the need  to promote  equality of opportunities  for children  of
both sexes  in urban  and rural areas had  become one of the  parameters for
educational planning and infrastructure.

241.   Referring to observations  made about the  high illiteracy rate,  the
representative  said  that one  of the  reasons for  the high  percentage of
illiterate  girls was that girls entered  school later than boys.  It was to
be  hoped that the  school reform  and the national programme  that had been
elaborated within the eighth development plan  would achieve the targets set
for reducing female  illiteracy, particularly in the 18  to 29 age group.  A
national  commission  had  been   set  up  in   collaboration  with  several
ministries to monitor the programme.

  Article 11

242.   Comments  were made  about  the low  percentage of  women's  economic
participation in the agricultural sector, and members  asked whether efforts
were  being made  to  give more  importance to  the  informal sector.    The
representative  stated  that  numerous studies  showed the  extent  to which
informal  sector had contributed  to the national  economy, and  it was also
proved  that women's contribution  to the  informal sector  could reduce the
negative effects  of the structural adjustment  plan.  Forthcoming  measures
for that  sector  were an  assistance fund  for small  rural enterprises,  a
sensitization  campaign  about  family  economy  and  the publication  of  a
guidebook to instruct women about possibilities of credit.

243.  Asked about any plans to explore the training possibilities for  women
in non-traditional jobs, the representative said  that thanks to the current
reform of professional training, women should  get access to new  vocational
and professional  qualifications, in  particular in non-traditional  fields.
At  the  same  time,  the  quality  of  training  was  improved  in  women's
traditional fields.

 244.   Members inquired  about plans  to abolish the  prohibition on  night

work for women.

  Article 12

245.  While commending  the Government's efforts made in the area of  family
planning, members asked whether plans existed  to expand the health coverage
for women  and girls.   The representative  confirmed the existence  of such
plans and programmes.

246.  Asked whether  a woman could decide to have an abortion or whether she
needed the permission of her husband,  the representative said that abortion
was  allowed under  certain  conditions and  if  it  was  carried out  in  a
hospital  by  an authorized  physician  within  the  first  three months  of
pregnancy.  After that time abortion was allowed only for health reasons.

247.   Further clarification was requested  on women  who allegedly suffered
depression or  hysteria as they sought  to reconcile  liberal education with
traditional  norms.   The representative  commented that  those  allegations
were not  supported by  any  reliable  data and  seemed to  be part  of  the
propaganda of fundamentalists.

  Article 15

248.   Members asked why  the Government had  entered a  declaration on this
article upon  ratification  of  the  Convention  in  so  far  as  choice  of
residence and domicile by women was concerned, despite the entry into  force
of  the  Personal  Status  Code.    The  representative  explained  that the
declaration  had been made  because articles  23 and 61 of  the old Personal
Status Code  contradicted  the provisions  of  the  Convention.   Since  the
amendment  of  the  Code,  the  clause  of  "obedience"  had  been  removed.
Currently, the free choice of the woman's residence could  only be curtailed
in the  light of  her custody  duties for  a child  of school  age.   Judges
always took into consideration the child's interests as paramount.

  Article 16

249.    Members  commended the  Government  on  the  progress  made  in  the
abolition of polygamy  and the free choice of  a husband, but they  required
more  information and a  real analysis of the de  facto position of women in
the family.  Members  were interested in knowing whether the national law of
the  country was the  religious law as  interpreted from  the Koran, whether
there was  a separate secular  law and what  happened in  cases of conflict.
The  representative explained  that  originally  there had  been no  unified
legal system.  When Tunisia gained independence in 1956, the Sharia law  and
institutions had been reformed  and one unified law applied to all Tunisians
of any faith.  Religious courts had been abolished, and  the new Family Code
of 1956  was applicable throughout.   The amendment  of the  Personal Status
Code gave  women a better status in  the family. The  new family was founded
on the concept of  mutual respect and cooperation between the spouses in all
family matters,  including the education of  their children, the  obligation
of  women  to  contribute  to  family  expenses  and  the abolition  of  the
"obedience" clause.  The legislation still preserved  the husband as head of
the  family,  but  it  was  likely  that  as  women  gradually  became  more
independent  economically, the  role of  the husband  as economic  custodian
would  disappear.    Another  new  provision   was  that  women  could   get
guardianship of their children after divorce.

 250.  In reply to  a request for further explanation  of the prohibition of
polygamy, the  representative said that one  of the  conditions for entering
into a  marriage was that  the individual was  free from  any other marriage
bond.    Whoever infringed  upon  that  provision  was  liable to  sanction.
Marriages had  to be  entered  into  the civil  registry and  customary  law
marriages and free  unions were  prohibited.   The rights  of children  from
free unions were protected through a system of judicial machinery.

251.  Asked  why the minimum  age for  marriage was different for  girls and

boys,  the representative  said  that  before the  entry into  force  of the
Family Code there was no minimum age at all.  The current minimum ages  were
conditioned on mentality,  traditions, education  and access  to the  labour
market.

252.   In  relation to  questions  raised  about whether  property  acquired
during  marriage was equally  shared between  the spouses the representative
explained that Tunisian law enshrined the  separation of conjugal  property.
Each  of the spouses maintained  exclusive control over his  or her property
and was in charge  of his or her debts.   The spouses could, however, choose
another  system  when   they  entered  into  marriage.    While  maintaining
separation of the property  that was brought into  the marriage, the spouses
could opt  for community  of property  acquired  during marriage.   As  that
system was not generally known, it was rarely applied.

253.  Members  asked whether  girls had the same  rights to inherit as  boys
and whether the  wife's right of  inheritance from her deceased  husband was
equal to  the  husband's rights  vis-a-vis  his  wife.   The  representative
explained that the  inheritance law was based  on the Koran.   Consequently,
men inherited twice  the share of women  if they were  equally related.   It
was to  be hoped  that  with the  evolution  of  the Tunisian  society  that
inequality would be overcome.

254.    Referring  to  the  persistence  of  the  institution  of dowry  the
representative stated that it was maintained  symbolically, in order not  to
break completely  with  the Muslim  tradition.    The amended  Family  Code,
however, no longer contained a fixed amount.

255.  Regarding  questions about  the possibility of inter-faith  marriages,
the representative said  that a marriage  of a  Tunisian woman  with a  non-
Muslim was possible only if the husband converted to Islam.

256.   Asked about reservations entered  by Tunisia upon ratification of the
Convention  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child  the  representative  said those
reservations were similar  to those with  respect to  the Convention on  the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

257.   Members asked what the  reasons were for  the reservation to  article
16,  paragraph l (c),  whether it was socially accepted  for a woman to live
independently without a spouse, and who  had the guardianship over  children
living outside  the country, who were  born in Tunisia  to a foreign  woman.
They expressed  concern at the non-recognition  of free  unions and inquired
whether the Government was  intending to ratify the Convention on the  Civil
Aspects of International Child Abduction.

 Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

258.  The  Committee expressed appreciation to  the Government of Tunisia on
its combined  report, presented  in accordance with the  general guidelines,
and  on  the  fact  that  the  report  contained  important  information  on
legislation and measures relating to the implementation of the Convention.

259.     The   Committee  noted  with  great   appreciation  the  high-level
representation sent to discuss  the report, which serves as an indication of
the  importance attached  by the  Government  to  its obligations  under the
Convention,   and  the   comprehensive   and  constructive   approach   that
characterized the dialogue with the delegation.

260.    The  Committee   expressed  its  appreciation   for  the  additional
information provided  by the ministerial  delegation, which had  endeavoured
to answer all questions from the Committee in an open manner.

  Positive aspects

261.  The Committee  noted, from the  new provisions of the Personal  Status
Code,  that  the  Government  had  remained  steadfast in  guaranteeing  and
protecting the rights and property of women.

262.  The  Committee stressed that the promotion  of women's rights was  the
best safeguard against extremist and retrograde movements.

263.   The Committee took  note of efforts made by  the Government to secure
the implementation of the Convention's provisions throughout the country.

264.   The  Committee noted  with satisfaction  the progress  being made  in
introducing  legislative  measures   to  improve  the  application  of   the
Convention. The  inclusion of measures for  the advancement of  women in the
Eighth National Development Plan of the  country constituted a step  forward
in that regard.

265.    The Committee  equally  noted  with  great  admiration the  existing
political  will to  maintain progressive  interpretation of  women's  rights
under both civil and religious laws.

  Principal subjects of concern

266.   The Committee  was concerned  about the  general declaration made  at
ratification in relation to reservations made to the Convention.

267.  The Committee  expressed its concern with the high rate of  illiteracy
among  women in  Tunisia, since access  to education was  fundamental to the
empowerment  of women.   Equally important  was the fact that  the number of
school drop-outs among girls was high.

268.   The Committee noted that in higher education  women were concentrated
in specific  areas of  studies and therefore  in professions  which had  low
return or  less job opportunities.   Women needed  to be  encouraged to join
scientific fields in order to have better chances of employment.

269.  The Committee noted the lack of  information on violence against women
in the family.
  270.   The Committee noted that,  although there was  a political will  by
the  Government  concerning   support  of  women's  rights,  the   political
participation of women was still unsatisfactory.

  Suggestions and recommendations

271.    The Committee  urges  the  Government  to  consider withdrawing  its
reservations.

272.   The Committee  wishes to see in  the next report more  information on
the issues of women's illiteracy and school drop-out.

273.   The  Committee suggests  that  more  information on  violence against
women in  the family  and  the community  should  be  provided in  the  next
report.

274.    The  Committee  encourages  the  Government  of  Tunisia  to further
increase its efforts for women's political participation at all levels.

275.  The Committee  proposes that more training  courses for women  in non-
traditional areas be conducted,  as well as  more support be given to  women
in the area of agriculture.

276.  Ways and  means should be  envisaged to  encourage women and girls  to
enrol in science fields.

277.   More  cooperative activities  should  be  encouraged at  the regional
level to  consolidate women's  rights that  had been  gained so  far and  to
prevent  any  setback  as a  result  of the  threat  of religious  extremist

trends.


Uganda

278.  The  Committee considered the  initial and second periodic  reports of
Uganda  (CEDAW/C/UGA/1-2 and Add.1) at  its 270th and  273rd meetings, on 23
and 26 January (see CEDAW/C/SR.270 and 273).

279.   In  introducing the  report, the  representative of  the State  party
pointed out that women  accounted for up  to 80 per cent of  food production
in the  agricultural  sector  and  that they  were  widely employed  in  the
informal  sector in  urban areas.  She  stressed that Uganda was  one of the
few  sub-Saharan   countries  that  was   self-sufficient  in   agricultural
production.

280.  She also emphasized that the main  objective of the Government was  to
ensure  the  positive  integration  of  women  and  gender  issues  into the
mainstream  of   all  development  processes   from  the  planning   through
implementation to  evaluation stages.  She  informed the  Committee that the
Government had addressed the integration  strategy at national  and sectoral
levels.

281.   Furthermore,  the representative  mentioned that  the Government  was
committed to enhancing the participation of  women in politics and decision-
making at national and local levels  through legislative and  administrative
measures.

282.   She informed the Committee  that major steps  had been taken  towards
the  full  observance  of  the  legal  rights  of  women  and  on  de  facto
discrimination  against  women  in  the  areas  of  the  family,  education,
employment,  health  care  and  nutrition  policies  and  natural  resources
management.   However, she pointed  out that a  lot remained  to be  done on
both the  de jure and de facto levels and that obstacles such as traditional
customs  and attitudes, the  economic restructuring  process and  health and
ecological crises impeded the efforts.

General observations

283.   Members of the  Committee commended the  frankness and objectivity of
the report  and commented that the  report followed  the general guidelines.
They  welcomed  the fact  that  the  Convention  had  been ratified  without
reservations.  They praised  the  Government  of Uganda  for involving  non-
governmental organizations in the preparation and  evaluation of the  report
in a very innovative way.  They suggested  that a similar cooperation should
be followed regarding the constitutional and other legal reforms.

284.   Members commended the Government  and, in  particular, the President,
for  having appointed women to high positions in the Government, namely, the
woman Vice-President and  the five women ministers  in the cabinet.  Members
advised Uganda to take advantage  of the political will,  including from the
President,  at  those  levels  to  make  further  necessary  reforms.   They
welcomed  the  establishment   of  a  Ministry   of  Gender   and  Community
Development.

285.   Other members noted that  there were still  various obstacles to  the
implementation of the Convention, such  as religious and cultural practices,
which  had not yet  been adequately  addressed.  It was  also mentioned that
traditions and customs were very deeply rooted and very diversified.

286.  Members of  the Committee noted with concern the effects of structural
adjustment programmes on women and  children.  The Committee  wanted to know
what measures had  been taken to  deal with  the negative  effects of  those
programmes.  The representative  explained that  various studies  have  been
carried out on the  effects of structural adjustment programmes on women  in
Uganda.  Information on the findings of those  studies would be included  in

the next report.

Questions relating to specific articles

  Article 2

287.  Some members of  the Committee wanted to know  what measures had  been
taken  to amend  the Constitution  towards  granting  women equal  rights in
accordance with the Convention.  One  member indicated that the Constitution
was  silent on  the  issue  of gender.    She therefore  suggested that  the
Government should  take  the  matter into  consideration when  revising  the
Constitution.   Others  expressed their  concern  that the  Constitution had
failed to provide an accurate definition  of sex discrimination.  One expert
referred to  paragraph 64  of the  report of  the State  party and  asked if
initiatives had been taken by women's  organizations to make the  Government
reform the laws.

288.  The representative replied that, as mentioned  in the addendum to  the
report of the State party,  the issue of equality was being addressed by the
draft  Constitution.   He referred to  clause 50  (2) and  (3) of  the draft
Constitution. He also pointed out that the Government has been committed  to
the  elimination of  institutionalized  discrimination against  women.    He
referred to clause 50 (4) of the draft Constitution.

289.  Members of  the Committee noted that the Constitution referred to "he"
throughout, while referring  to both women and  men, and suggested that  the
matter should  be corrected.   The  representative answered  that the  draft
Constitution  would  specify both  men  and  women,  particularly  regarding
critical  issues on equality  before the  law, fundamental  human rights and
other constitutional rights.

290.   The  report of  the State  party indicated  that the  Government  had
introduced  the death  penalty for  men  convicted  of rape  and defilement.
However, because men dominate  the police force and  crime detection, it was
difficult to  prove rape  in court.    The Members  therefore inquired  what
steps  were taken to convict men who were guilty of  crimes such as rape and
defilement.   Also, more information  was requested on  the steps that  have
been  taken to  improve law enforcement  procedures in the  context of rape.
The representative stated that the Government  had taken measures to address
the  difficulty  of  prosecuting  rape  offenders.    In  that  context, the
Ministry of Gender and Community Development had  been carrying out a  study
on the non-prosecution  of rape cases.   Findings had  indicated that  there
were social, economic, legal and cultural  factors contributing to the  non-
prosecution of  rape  offenders.   The findings  had been  forwarded to  the
institutions concerned  to call for their  action to  remedy these problems.
This  Ministry was also  engaged in sensitization programmes, especially for
the  police and other  law enforcement  officers, concerning  the problem of
rape.    Also,  the  Government,  in  collaboration  with   non-governmental
organizations,   both  local   and  international,   had  been   undertaking
interventions  during  the  training  of  police  officers  to  specifically
sensitize them on issues affecting women in criminal matters.

291.   The Law Reform Commission was presently looking  into the controversy
surrounding the  issue of  the death penalty  for rape  offenders.   Results
would be included in the next report.

  Article 3

292.   One member  wanted to  know how  many women  were in  the Law  Reform
Commission.  The  representative  replied that  figures  were  given in  the
addendum  to the report:   the  Law Reform Commission should  consist of six
members, including  at least one woman.   However,  the Commission currently
had three  Commissioners, one  of whom  was a woman.   The Secretary  of the
Commission was also a woman.

293.     One  member  wanted   to  know   whether  women's  non-governmental

organizations  were  involved in  the constitution  drafting  process.   The
representative  responded that  the initial  and second  reports stated that
individuals, as well as organizations representing various interest  groups,
had  been   involved  in  submitting  memoranda   of  their   views  to  the
Constitutional Commission.  Women's non-governmental  organizations had also
been involved in that process.

294.   In that context,  some members wanted to know  how many complaints on
discrimination against  women had been received  by interest  groups and how
many had been judicially disposed of.  The representative replied that  many
complaints on discrimination  against women were received; however, owing to
the lack of gender-disaggregated  data in that  office, it was difficult  to
procure information on the exact number.

295.  Another  member asked if  the Government had  a plan  to introduce  an
equal  opportunities bill.   Furthermore,  she  wanted  to know  whether the
Government  had  addressed  the  issue  of  violence  against  women.    The
representative explained  that the Constituent  Assembly had considered  the
question of establishing an equal opportunities  commission.  He added  that
the process of  drafting the Constitution  has been ongoing  since 1988  and
now had six months to reach a conclusion.

 296.  In 1970,  the Law Development Centre was established for the  purpose
of extending  legal aid  for women.   The  members wanted  to know why  this
scheme had never taken  off.  In the  report, it  was noted that the  Uganda
Women's Lawyers Association could  not serve all women in need of legal  aid
in  the  country.  Members asked  whether  the  Government  had  established
additional  legal aid agencies.   The  representative of  Uganda referred to
the information contained in the  addendum to the report and explained that,
in addition  to  the Uganda  Women's  Lawyers  Association, the  Uganda  Law
Society had  been operating  a similar  project in  the four regions  of the
country.  Furthermore,  the legal department of  the Ministry of Gender  and
Community Development offered similar services.

297.   Some members  emphasized that  the inferior  status of  women in  the
family impeded legal equality of women; they stressed  that there was a need
to adopt a new family code  integrating statutory legislation and  customary
law.   The representative  replied that among the  strategies to address the
inferior status of  women in Ugandan society, the Government had embarked on
a  process of reforming  the laws  on domestic  relations.  A  draft bill on
such  a law  had been  put  in place,  which sought  to  integrate  both the
various  customary  laws  and  statutory  law   into  one  code.     Further
consultations  and research  were  still  being carried  out, especially  to
ensure  that  the  law was  in line  with  international and  regional human
rights instruments  on the  status of  women. Moreover,  he stated that,  as
reported in  the addendum  to the  report,  the issue  of domestic  violence
would be  specifically  addressed in  the  new  law on  domestic  relations.
Apart from legal measures, the Ministry  of Gender and Community Development
had  been conducting  legal education  and sensitization  activities  on the
problem in various  parts of the  country, together with locally  based non-
governmental organizations.

  Article 4

298.  Paragraph 79  of the report  referred to Uganda's efforts to  increase
the  level  of  participation  of  women  in  the public  sector,  based  on
affirmative action.  One  member wanted to know  what action had  been taken
concerning the problem of wife beating.

  Article 6

299.  The report indicated  that prostitution was a crime but did not  state
whether the clients  of prostitutes were also  considered guilty of  a crime
and whether  they  were prosecuted;  nor  did  the report  indicate  whether
measures to prevent  acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were  applied
equally to prostitutes and clients.   The representative replied that  based

on  the definition of  prostitution and prostitutes, the amended legislation
S.134A  of  the Penal  Code  allowed  for  the prosecution  of  both parties
involved in the act.

300.  A clarification of paragraph 100 of the report, which referred to  the
extension of the age category  of protected males and females  from 14 to 18
years, was  required.  The  representative reported  that the age  limit for
statutory rape had been raised from 14 to 18 years.

301.    Members requested  more information  concerning  the trafficking  in
women  in  Uganda;  what  effective  measures  had  been  taken  to decrease
trafficking  in  women and  their  exploitation  through prostitution?   The
representative replied that prostitution and trafficking in  women in Uganda
was  highly commercially  organized.   In  that  regard, the  legal position
remained that trafficking in women was a crime under the laws  of Uganda and
all  measures to  address  the  crime would  be employed  in the  event that
anybody was arrested.
  302.   Paragraph  95 of  the report  noted  the need  to form  policy  and
special programmes  to prevent the spread  of AIDS  among women prostitutes.
Some members  wanted  to  know if  such  policies  or  programmes  had  been
initiated.    If  not, what  plans would  be initiated  in  the future?   In
addressing  the  AIDS  crisis,  another  member  asked  about  proposals  to
eliminate polygamous marriages in  order to stem the  spread of the disease.
It was asked how these marriages were viewed by the Ugandan Government.

303.   The  representative  welcomed  the  recommendations  of  members  for
programmes  to decrease  the prevalence  of prostitution.   Such  programmes
should  be  implemented,  especially  in view  of  the danger  of  the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS.  Information on future initiatives  would
be included in the next report.

  Article 9

304.   Unlike  male citizens  in Uganda,  women do  not enjoy  the right  to
extend their  citizenship  to  their  children  born  outside  the  country.
Similarly, women  do not  enjoy the  right to  extend  their citizenship  to
foreign  spouses. Furthermore, a  married woman  citizen is  not entitled to
have a passport  issued without the consent of  her husband.  Members  asked
what  measures  had  been  taken  to   correct  these  inequalities.     The
representative  replied that  the  existing legal  bias  preventing  Ugandan
women married to foreigners from extending  their citizenship to spouses and
children had been addressed in the draft Constitution.   As indicated in the
addendum to the report,  clause 43 (2) (a)  of the draft Constitution stated
that every person  married to a Ugandan citizen  may apply to be  registered
as a citizen upon providing  proof of a legal and  subsisting marriage of at
least three-years standing.  The draft  Constitution further stated that men
and women should have  equal rights at marriage, during marriage and at  its
dissolution.   Such a  provision within  the Constitution  would address the
current problems  for Ugandan married  women regarding  passport and  travel
documents.

305.  One member  wanted to know whether a husband or father could prevent a
wife or child from leaving the country.   It was indicated that a girl child
born out  of wedlock was  discriminated against.   One expert asked  whether
these  issues were being  addressed by  the Government.   The representative
replied  that  regarding  discrimination  of  the  girl  child  born  out of
wedlock, the legal position was that all children whether born in or out  of
wedlock were entitled to inherit equally from their parents.

   Article 10

306.   Paragraph  158 of  the report  referred to  pre-primary school  as  a
"private  business".  Members  wanted to  know whether  the Government would
revise its attitude towards pre-school education.   The State party  replied
that  the  competition  for  entry  into  good  primary  schools  had mainly
occurred in urban areas and that the majority  of the residents could afford

the cost.  However, the Government  of Uganda had taken note  of the concern
of  the members about the danger  of abuse in the provision  of education by
private institutions.   More detailed information  would be  provided in the
next report.

307.   In Uganda,  49 per cent  of households are  headed by a  single young
woman. The Committee wanted  to have more information about the age of these
young women  and asked  what measures had  been taken by  the Government  to
prevent early pregnancy, which disrupts education.

 308.   According to the  report, 81.4 per  cent of  girls who should  be in
primary  school enter  into  matrimonial relationships.    Members  inquired
whether there  was a  special curriculum  made available  to these  girls in
order to  make up for the  lost primary  education, and if not,  how was the
Government going  to deal with  that issue in  the future.   Several members
expressed  concern regarding  the  high  number of  pregnancies among  young
girls  that had been caused  by teachers.   That could  account for the high
drop-out rate of girls who had suffered such  violence.  Members asked  what
measures  had  been taken  to  address  the  problem.  Had information  been
provided  to  young  girls  about  the   dangers  related  to  early  sexual
intercourse?

309.  The  representative responded that, as stated  in the addendum to  the
report, the  Ministry of Education  was incorporating family life education,
which  included sex education, in the school curriculum.   The Government as
well  as  non-governmental   organizations  had  been  carrying  out   adult
education  and functional literacy  programmes to  target women  and men who
had not had  an opportunity for formal education.  Statistics indicated that
the  majority of persons  attending those  programmes were  women.  Specific
statistics would be included in the next report.

310.  Additional information was requested  by members on primary education;
was  primary  education  compulsory and  were  there any  age  limits?   The
representative  stated that the  minimum age  for entry  into primary school
for  children in Uganda was six  years old.   He referred to the addendum to
the  report, which  stated that  government  policy  was aimed  at providing
compulsory  universal  primary education  by  the  year 2003.    As  to  the
financial  resources,  the  representative  replied  that  the  process   of
providing government aid would be a  gradual one; by gradually  transforming
the current  educational system, primary  education would become  government
aided, and university  and other forms of tertiary  education would be on  a
cost-sharing basis.

  Article 12

311.   Abortion  was  carried  out in  Uganda  even though  it was  illegal.
Members requested additional  data on abortion.  The representative answered
that statistics on  women dying from abortion  had been difficult to  obtain
because  the records from  various hospitals were not  compiled at one focal
point.  However, statistics from the  main national hospitals indicated that
in 1992 induced abortion accounted for one third  of maternal deaths.  While
it  had  been possible  to  provide  statistics  on  the  ratio of  HIV/AIDS
infection between men and women, actual figures of people dying of AIDS  had
been difficult  to get  since the  medical reports  indicated the  immediate
causes of  death, such as pneumonia,  tuberculosis, etc.,  rather than AIDS.
Furthermore,  many deaths had  not been  reported by  hospitals because they
happened at home, especially in rural areas.

312.   Members also  wanted to  know if a  woman who was  infected with AIDS
could  have a legal  abortion.  The representative  explained that the legal
position on  abortion was that if  two medical  doctors independently agreed
that it  was necessary  for the woman's  health, then an  abortion could  be
performed.

313.   In reference  to paragraphs 251 and 252  of the report, the Committee
wanted to  know how successful government  programmes had  been in combating

the  spread of  AIDS.    Also, in  reference to  paragraph 259,  the members
wanted  to  be   provided  with  a   statistical  update   on  AIDS.     The
representative replied that updated statistics on  the prevalence of AIDS in
Uganda were included in the addendum.  Whereas the government programmes  to
combat the  spread of  AIDS now  reached 90 per  cent of  the population,  a
corresponding change in sexual behaviour had  not been achieved because that
took some  time.  Government programmes to combat the spread  of AIDS had to
target all members of society, and should include information on the use  of
condoms.  To  provide for the  latter, however,  was a  matter of  financial
resources.

314.  Members requested specific statistics  regarding the incidence of rape
and incest, particularly of young girls.   The representative explained that
that  information  was difficult  to  obtain  since  there  was no  coherent
pattern in police records.

315.  As to the difference  in the number  of births per woman as stated  in
the written  and oral  reports, the  representative stated  that the  recent
increase  of fertility  rates could  be explained  by  AIDS and  high infant
mortality rates.

316.   The  Members raised  concerns  about  female circumcision  in Uganda.
They wanted to know why immediate action had not been taken to abolish  that
tradition,  which  was  still  practised  in  some  parts  of  the  country.
Furthermore, what  penalty was  given to  the person  performing the  female
circumcision?  Had there  been any programmes to re-educate or inform  those
persons  about the dangers  of circumcision?   The  Committee also requested
more information on  traditions and  customs in Uganda.   For example,  were
there any food taboos?

317.  The representative replied that concerning  health-related customs and
taboos, the  situation was  that there were  several tribes  in Uganda  with
different customs  and  practices affecting  women.   Government policy  had
been to discourage customs  and practices with a negative impact and promote
the positive ones.   The draft  Constitution provided  that any custom  that
was contrary  to the fundamental human  rights provided  in the Constitution
should be declared null  and void.   It was hoped that that  provision would
provide an  effective  challenge  to the  practice of  female  circumcision.
Furthermore, the  Inter-Committee for Africa,  a regional organization  that
was addressing negative customary  practices in Africa,  had been  operating
programmes in Uganda.   The Government of Uganda had also been carrying  out
sensitization  programmes   on  female  circumcision   and  other   negative
customary practices.

318.   A member  commented that  the Government  described prostitutes as  a
danger  to society because  of HIV/AIDS.   Table 22 of  the report indicated
that  only  2  per cent  of  the population  had  been using  condoms.   Had
anything  been done  to inhibit  the  spread of  AIDS among  prostitutes  by
distributing condoms  to  them? Were  there  any  programmes to  inform  the
population about the use of condoms?  The representative replied that  there
had  been various general programmes  for AIDS in  Uganda.  That information
had already been included in the reports.

319.  Table  19 in the  report stated that  there was a  shortage of  health
personnel.    Members believed  that  traditional  healers  and  traditional
medicine  were  the  key  to  making  assisted  child  bearing  a  financial
possibility.   Had  Uganda made  an  effort  to systematize  its network  of
traditional  birth attendants  and traditional  healers?   Were  development
strategies  making use  of traditional  knowledge,  as opposed  to  imposing
foreign approaches?   What kind  of familyplanning facilities were available
to women in rural  areas?  In  response, the representative referred to  the
addendum to the report.

320.   Members  suggested that  women  in  high political  positions  should
become  involved in  information campaigns  about  the  use of  condoms, the
spread of AIDS, etc.

   Article 14

321.   As to what  measures had been  taken to  decrease illiteracy, provide
health services and social  protection to rural women and provide them  with
access to  family planning, the representative  referred to  the addendum to
the report.

  Article 16

322.  Some  traditional practices such as  polygamous marriages, as well  as
incest and rape,  had furthered the spread of  AIDS.  Members inquired  what
programmes  had been offered by the Government to women  and men in order to
prevent  the transmission  of AIDS.    The  representative replied  that the
issue of polygamy was considered in the new law on domestic relations.

323.   Regarding interference and  harassment by fathers, brothers  or other
relatives against  widowed  women  when  they  had  acquired  property  from
deceased  husbands, members wanted to  know what measures  had been taken by
the Government to protect such women, legally as well as physically.

324.  Concerning the issue of double standards  in adultery and divorce, the
representative replied that the provision in  the draft Constitution on  the
equality  of  men  and  women  in  marriage,  during  marriage  and  at  its
dissolution  was addressing the  issue.   Currently, the  Ministry of Gender
and  Community Development was  conducting a  research project  on women and
inheritance in  order to make  recommendations to amend  the current law  in
order to  empower women  in inheritance  and succession  matters.   Existing
legal provisions  to protect women in  succession matters  were contained in
the  Administrator Generals Act, the  Succession Act and  criminal law.  The
Government  had  been  sensitizing  women  through  legal  education  on the
existence of those provisions and institutions.

Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

325.   The Committee commended Uganda  for ratifying  the Convention without
reservation  and for  submitting the  report which  followed the guidelines.
In  spite of  the  long years  of internal  conflicts Uganda  had instituted
measures to  implement the various provisions  of the  Convention that would
redress past imbalances.

  Positive aspects

326.    Uganda  is  about  to  put  in  place  constitutional  reforms  that
recognized discrimination on the grounds of  sex.  This was reflected, inter
alia, by the creation  of the Ministry of Women in Development, Culture  and
Youth renamed the Ministry for Gender Equality and Community Development.

327.   Commendable progress has been  made in  increasing the representation
of women in public life through affirmative action.

328.   The  close collaboration  between  the  National Machinery  and  non-
governmental organizations in the development  of gender-specific programmes
is a very positive move.

329.  Measures have been taken to improve the condition of rural women  with
credit targeted to 70 per cent of them and through legal services.

 330.   The Office  of the  Ombudsman has  been established  to receive  and
investigate complaints on the violation of human rights.

  Principal subjects of concern

331.  The Committee expressed serious concern over the alarming death  rates
among women as  a result of  the AIDS  crisis, particularly  among women  of

child-bearing age, and its association with high fertility rate.

332.    The Committee  expressed  concern  at  the  prevalent religious  and
cultural practices  still existing  that perpetuated  domestic violence  and
discriminated against women in the field of inheritance.

333.  The Committee expressed serious  concern about the continuing practice
of genital mutilation, such as specifically  female circumcision in one area
of Uganda.

334.    The Committee  was  concerned  at  the  privatization of  pre-school
education,  which  was  an  impediment  to  early  education  for  children,
particularly for those in the rural areas.

335.  The Committee was concerned at the  very high percentage of households
headed by girl children.

336.  The Committee was deeply concerned by  the sexual abuse against school
children by  their teachers  and other  adults.   They noted  that this  had
serious  consequences on  their lives,  among  others,  high rate  of school
drop-outs.

337.  The Committee was seriously  concerned about the harassment  practised
by the police against women who reported on cases of violence.

  Suggestions and recommendations

338.  The  Committee suggests that existing measures be reassessed to combat
AIDS.  Foremost  of  these  should  be  the  intensification  of  preventive
measures,  such as public  education in  sexual and  reproductive health, as
well as more effective health delivery systems in these areas.

339.   The Committee  recommends that better  methods of data  collection on
the incidence  of AIDS cases amongst women  and deaths due to AIDS should be
developed.

340.    The  Committee recommends  that  measures  be  taken  to  raise  the
awareness  of teachers  and citizens in  order to halt  sexual abuse against
children.  The Committee recommends further  that campaigns be initiated  to
prevent children from forming a family too early.

341.   The Committee recommends  that legal  measures be  taken against  all
religious   and  customary   practices  that   discriminate  against  women.
Furthermore, awareness programmes must be put  in place to change  mentality
and  attitudes.   The  Committee  also recommends  that laws  be  amended to
empower women in matters of inheritance and succession.

342.  The Committee suggests that  pre-school facilities be made  accessible
and affordable, particularly for low means families.

 343.   The Committee  suggests further  that programmes  be instituted that
allow for  continued education  for school  drop-outs and  that family  life
education be part of the school curriculum.

344.   The  Committee  feels  that it  is  necessary to  develop an  overall
programme  of prevention of  violence against  women and of  attention to be
given to  the victims,  which includes  the need  to educate  the police  to
treat  and handle the  violated woman  in such a way  that their predicament
will  not be  worsened.   This  creation  of awareness  is  necessary  since
Uganda's draft Constitution recognizes this kind of treatment as illegal.

--3.  Second periodic reports


345.  Following the procedure adopted by the Committee at its ninth  session
8/ for the consideration of second  and subsequent periodic reports,  issues

that appeared necessary to be discussed  with the representatives of  States
parties submitting second  or subsequent periodic reports were identified in
advance by  a pre-session  working group.   In  addition  to those,  members
raised questions during the consideration of the reports.


Finland

346.    The Committee  considered  the  second  periodic  report of  Finland
(CEDAW/C/FIN/2)   at   its  272nd   meeting,  on   24   January  1995   (see
CEDAW/C/SR.272).

347.  In his introductory statement,  the representative of Finland recalled
his country's  official  equality policy  of more  than  20  years with  the
object of  altering the  division of  power and  work between  the sexes  in
family  life and public  decision-making.   It implied economic independence
and the right to  reconcile work and family life  for both women and men. It
required   concrete  active   measures  in   addition  to   creating   equal
opportunities  and a  re-evaluation of  the traditional  role  of men.   The
period of  recession between the years 1991 and 1994  had created additional
challenges for the policy makers and because of unemployment it had  reduced
the  standard  of  living of  all  households.   But,  whereas the  economic
development was clearly  gender-divided, the unemployment of women had  been
lower than that  of men, regardless  of the  economic trends. Poverty  among
single parents was in  1990 the same as the  average level among  the entire
population.

348.   The representative  underlined the  role of  the public  sector as  a
supplier of services, which were crucial to equality of women, such as  free
school meals,  children's day care  and the care  of the  elderly and people
with  disabilities. The public sector  was also the main  employer of women.
Women's contribution to  the Finnish national economy  was equal to that  of
men.  A major problem that had not  been solved yet was the wage gap in that
women's wages  were still only 80 per cent of men's wages although women had
high educational  levels.   Another  problem  that  was serious  and  deeply
rooted in  culture  and in  power structures  of  the  society was  violence
against  women.    Although  it  had   only  recently  become  visible,  its
elimination had become one of the main objectives in promoting equality.

349.  The strong representation of  women in politics was, as  stated by the
representative, the result of intensive work  of political and other women's
organizations and  of the electoral  system.   In spite  of that,  decision-
making especially in economic  policy was still firmly  in the hands of men.
As it  was easier for women  to achieve positions  in elected bodies  rather
than as appointed members,  the recent adoption of  the amended Equality Act
was important because it stipulated  a quota of 40 per  cent for both  sexes
in  governmental  and   local  government  committees.     It  also  obliged
authorities to promote equality in a systematic manner.

350.  After  the introduction, which  was given by the  Minister Responsible
for  Gender Equality, the replies  to the questions  raised by the Committee
were given by a whole team representing the Government.


   General observations

351.  Members commended the report  presented, in particular because  of its
extensive statistical data and charts, which  were helpful to understand the
development process and changes that had  taken place since the presentation
of the initial report.  They congratulated the  Government on having held  a
public hearing before finalizing  the report, in  which representatives from
different  organizations,  including  non-governmental  organizations,  were
invited,  and on having  used their comments  and suggestions  to revise the
report.   They felt  that the  reporting process seemed to  be objective and
unbiased,  which  was  an  indication  of  the  Government's  commitment  to
implement de  facto equality  of women  according to the  provisions of  the

Convention.   They stated  that the  period covered  by the report  was long
enough to evaluate the impacts of the Equality Act and other measures  taken
to implement  the Convention,  and consequently  they felt  that the  report
would have  been enriched  if the  impact of  the Equality Law  in different
areas had been reflected.

352.   Regarding observations as  to whether the  Convention was included in
the Statute  Book of Finland and what  impact it had on the daily judgements
affecting the rights of women, the  representatives said that the Convention
was, indeed,  included in  the Statute  Book of  Finland of 1994,  which had
been published  recently.  However, although the Convention had the force of
law, it  had not been  directly invoked  by the  courts of  justice and  the
administrative authorities.  This was attributable  to the fact that  judges
had not had a profound training  in human rights issues.  As, currently, the
university  education of  legal  professionals included  teaching  on  human
rights  instruments,  it  was  to  be  hoped  that  the  provisions  of  the
Convention  would  in  future  be  directly  taken  into  account  in  court
decisions.    However,   further  information  of  the  importance  of   the
Convention  was  still  needed.    None  the  less,  the  provisions  of the
Convention had been  taken into  consideration in drafting new  legislation,
for  example the  Equality Act,  and  the process  of preparing  the  second
periodic report had some impact on Finnish administration and legislation.

353.    In  their  concluding  observations  the  members  of  the Committee
commended the  presence of such  a large and  high-level delegation  and the
detailed replies  given.   They  considered  particularly  laudable the  new
legislation  regarding domestic  violence, the  emphasis on  changing  men's
roles, the amendments  in the  child-care system in  an effort to  reconcile
family  life and  work, the  decrease in  the rate  of abortion,  the  quota
system  and  the  attention  given  to  specially  marginalized  groups  and
underlined  as  particularly   remarkable  that  in  Finland  equality   was
considered a human rights issue.

Questions relating to specific articles

  Article 2

354.  Regarding observations made on  ways to improve women's  possibilities
of  participating in  national defence  services, the  representatives  said
that  the Government bill for  the voluntary military  service for women had
just been adopted.  It allowed women  to perform voluntary military service,
to  participate in national defence  as reservists of the  Defence Forces or
to enter  the military profession  on the same  conditions as men,  provided
they were Finnish citizens and aged between 17 and 29.

355.   Asked about  protective measures  of women who had  become victims of
discrimination against possible reprisal, the representatives said that  the
new  Equality Act prohibited  reprisals and  entitled the  employee, who had
been  subjected to the prohibited  actions of reprisal, to seek damages from
the employer.   The  representatives explained that  compensation caused  by
damages through  discrimination in employment  according to the Equality Act
could amount  to between  15,000 and  50,000 markkaa.   The amount  could be
doubled  in  severe cases  of  discrimination.   In  addition,  it  was also
possible for the victim to claim damages for financial loss.

  Article 3

356.   Regarding initiatives  taken by  the Government to update  the Act on
domestic violence and  to give women the right  of recourse to the  Equality
Act, the representatives explained that legal  remedies in cases of domestic
violence  were  contained in  the  Penal  Code,  which  was currently  under
revision.   The  most important  legal  change was  to consider  rape within
marriage a criminal act.   A further  change would provide that all  acts of
violence were equally punishable, whether committed  in or outside the home.
Assault  and battery would  always be  prosecuted by  the public prosecutor,
apart from petty cases.  Assault and battery  were always prosecuted by  the

public prosecutor if committed against children under 15 years of age.

357.   In additional comments,  members expressed concern  at the  spread of
sexual violence and asked how that  phenomenon was compatible with  economic
independence of women.  They considered  educative measures and publicity as
most  important  to  curb  the level  of  violence against  women  and asked
whether particular programmes existed to deal  with the problem of  violence
against  particularly  marginalized  groups,  such  as  refugee,  poor   and
disabled women.  In reply to further  questions, the representatives  stated
that assault  and battery,  whether committed  inside or  outside the  home,
could be prosecuted  without the consent of the  victim.  Since assault  and
battery  were considered to  be serious  crimes, however,  the accused could
only be  tried in  the presence  of the  victim.   Counselling services  for
victims of incest and rape were  available free of charge.   A special help-
line service was set up  to assist female victims.   Men with a  tendency to
violence were offered a possibility to  discuss their patterns of  behaviour
in an  effort to break them.   Special training  was administered to  police
officers, social workers, doctors and school nurses.

358.   Given the small size of the Finnish population  (4 million) living in
only  450 local  communities, it  was  explained that  an ombudsman  at  the
municipal level was not considered necessary.

  Article 6

359.   In reply to questions  about attempts to  monitor the trafficking  in
women  for purposes  of prostitution,  sex tourism and  bride trade  and the
role  of the Equality  Ombudsman in  the matter,  the representatives stated
that after having studied ways  of curtailing the sex business, the Ministry
of  Labour  had stopped  employment  services  for  sex  work in  employment
exchange offices and cut off financial  support for starting enterprises  in
the sex  industry.  The Equality  Ombudsman had chaired  a working group  to
make a  survey on the  applicability of the present  legislation to restrict
sex  industry, and had  proposed concrete  measures to  limit the increasing
trafficking  in women  and expanding  sex  business,  and clarify  the legal
rights of  sex workers.  They  also mentioned that there  would be a  Nordic
Conference on  prostitution where the  so-called "moving prostitution"  from
the  Russian Federation and the Baltic States would be  one of the topics of
discussion.

 360.    Additional questions  were  raised  about  whether  an increase  in
prostitution  and  traffic in  women  was noticeable  in  view  of  the dire
economic  situation  of  the  Baltic  States  and  whether  related  interim
measures had been taken.  The representatives stated that it was often  part
of other criminal activities and that special services  were set up to  help
prostitutes and reintegrate them into society.

  Article 7

361.   Regarding  questions about  policies  to combat  discrimination  with
regard  to  women's  representation  on  the  Council  for  Equality  and in
planning and  decision-making bodies,  it was  stated that  the Council  was
continuously drawing attention to the composition  of important planning and
decision-making  bodies  and  processes.    It  put  women's  issues  on the
political agenda,  promoted gender  studies and  had established  in 1988  a
Subcommittee for Men to activate men in promoting equality.

362.  Asked about the  impact on legislation and politics of the increase in
the   number  of  women   elected  to   parliament  in   recent  years,  the
representatives said  that so far decisions  had not  been greatly affected,
partially  owing to  the  recession and  the necessary  cuts in  the budget.
However, through networking,  women members of  parliament had  succeeded in
improving child-care  arrangements, in  making women's  issues more  visible
and in sensitizing the legislative work to the gender issue.

363.   Asked about a clarification of the apparent contradiction between the

breakthroughs made by women  in the political  sphere and their low  numbers
in  the  State  administration,  the  representatives  explained  that   the
breakthroughs   in  the   State  administration   took  several   years   to
materialize.  Recent examples  were the appointment of women to the posts of
Governor  of  the Bank  of Finland,  of university  rector and  of permanent
secretary of  the Ministry  of Justice. Women's representation  in important
bodies was presently much discussed in public.

364.   Members made  additional comments  about the  discrepancy between the
Government's commitment  to equality  and the  scarcity of  women in  higher
administrative  posts and  asked  whether specific  sanctions  existed,  and
whether  the Government  was determined  to  combine result  management with
equality  promotion.    They  welcomed  the  fact  that  a  study  would  be
undertaken  on  the   political  impact  of  women's  increasing   political
participation  and  requested  that  the  subsequent  report  give   further
information on such effects.

365.   In reply  to  additional  questions about  the financing  of  women's
election  campaigns, the representatives stated that women usually used less
money on their campaigns  and collected it from a smaller number of  sources
whereas men more  often "institutionalized"  supporters.   Specially in  the
past, women's political organizations had played  a crucial role in  women's
campaigns.

  Article 9

366.  Regarding  the residence situation  of a  foreign woman  married to  a
Finnish citizen, who  was abandoned or separated,  it was explained that the
woman was expected  to leave the country after  the divorce if the  marriage
had  lasted less  than two  years or  if  the  cohabitation period  had been
brief.   That  decision could  be  appealed  to the  Supreme  Administrative
Court.

   Article 10

367.    In  reply  to  the  question  whether  human  rights  education  was
incorporated  in  the school  curricula,  the  representatives  stated  that
attempts  were  under way  to  develop human  rights  education based  on  a
national evaluation of the comprehensive school  system, which set as  basic
criteria  the  respect  for  human  dignity  and  for  life.    One  of  the
requirements of the most recent national  education plan was that  materials
advancing the equality objectives were available to teachers and pupils.

368.   In reply  to additional  comments made by  members about  the way  in
which foreign  women were informed about  their rights, the  representatives
mentioned  a  booklet that  had  been  prepared  by the  Ministry  of Social
Affairs  and Health,  providing information  on residence  permit issues and
the  status  of  women and  children  in  Finland.    Finland  had also  the
institution  of  an Ombudsman  for  aliens to  whom  aliens could  turn  for
information.

  Article 11

369.   Members asked why  the pay differentials  between women  and men were
still rather  wide, whether  there was a  connection to the  feminization of
unions  and how the  market economy  had influenced the  bargaining power of
unions  and  reduced  a  direct  benefit  to  women.    The  representatives
explained  that  the  Finnish labour  market  was  strongly  segregated into
women's and men's  jobs.  The female-dominated  fields in the public  sector
had a  lower capacity to pay wages  and, even within the same field, women's
wages  were normally lower  than those  of men.  Whereas  for the collective
agreements male-dominated industrial  trade unions had  more weight  to back
up  their demands,  the female-dominated  unions  mainly  in the  public and
private service sectors did  not have enough  power to adjust wages.   Asked
about  the  effects of  job  re-evaluations,  it was  said  that  they  were
expected  to  help  resolve  the  problem  and  several  such  projects were

presently  being  carried  out  by  several  labour  market   organizations.
Members requested  more information on the  topic in the  next report.   The
representative  explained further that equal pay had been  a main concern of
the Council for Equality.

370.   Regarding  measures to  improve  women's  working conditions  and  to
overcome  gender  segregation in  the  labour  market,  the  representatives
stated that occupational segregation had diminished from  1985 to 1990.  The
amended Equality  Act required  the employers  to take  certain measures  to
promote equality.  Employers with  more than  30 employees  were obliged  to
draw up annually, in  cooperation with the works councils, a plan of  action
for equal employment opportunities.   In reply  to a specific question,  the
representatives said that there  were no rules as to goals and timetables in
the contents of  such equality plans.  However,  it was necessary that  they
contained  concrete  actions.   The  equality  plans  would  be  a  part  of
personnel  and  education  plans  or  labour  protection  plans.    Specific
measures  to  overcome  gender  segregation  were  in-service  training  for
physics  teachers in  general education,  mentoring  services for  women  in
technical  vocational training,  and technical courses for  girls in general
education.  The  Equality Act did  not provide sanctions  if equality  plans
were not made, but  employers could be sued for discrimination when  failing
to draw up such  plans.  The  obligation to  make equality plans was  placed
upon both private and public sector employers.

371.  Considering the proposal to  reduce State expenditure, questions  were
raised  regarding day-care  facilities and  possible actions  undertaken  by
women's organizations to  forestall withdrawal of financial support so  that
women  could  continue  working  outside  the  home.    The  representatives
explained that the  goal was to ensure a  diverse range of services, such as
a  choice between public  day-care and  home-care allowance  for children, a
system of child care  leave for both parents  and an experiment with service
vouchers, which  would enable parents  to choose the  place of day-care  for
their child.

372.  Regarding several questions about  sexual harassment in the workplace,
the representatives  said that in  addition to the  new Equality  Act, which
referred to that offence, several acts had been interpreted to cover  sexual
harassment.  However,  as  the  original  Equality  Act did  not  explicitly
mention  that offence  and relevant  cases  had  been prosecuted  as illegal
termination of employment contract,  assault, battery or  rape, no  concrete
data were available on the number of court decisions or cases pending.

373.   As regards questions  about measures to  reduce the deterioration  in
the quality of working life for women caused by "time pressure and  stress",
the  representatives stated that  the emphasis  of labour  protection lay on
industrial work  and prevention of accidents.   Labour  protection in fields
dominated by women  was only just emerging and  it was necessary to  develop
methods of supervision and training of personnel in that field.

374.   Regarding additional questions raised  about whether  the Labour Laws
were  in  line  with  the  directives  issued  by  the  European  Union  the
representatives said that they were in  compliance with those directives and
some of them were still undergoing change.

375.   Concerning an  additional observation about  the lower wage  level in
the public sector, the  representatives stated that in a period of recession
the Government considered it more opportune to save  jobs in that sector  at
lower wages than have  less jobs at  higher salaries and felt that  salaries
in some areas of the private sector were generally too high.

376.   In reply to another  additional observation  the representatives said
that statistics  showed that women  occupied 2  per cent of  high management
positions in the private sector.

377.  Another additional observation referred to any plans that might  exist
to deal  with girls'  continuing choice of  traditional fields of  study and

with the  gender-segregated labour  market.   The representatives  commented
that  boys and girls  were encouraged  to choose  non-traditional areas, but
underlined also that so-called women's jobs were of great importance.

  Article 12

378.   Regarding  questions about  investigations  into  the causes  of  the
gradual decrease  in  the number  of  abortions  and requests  for  specific
statistical data on the subject, the representatives replied that  in 1992 a
survey  had been  carried out.   It  brought to  light that  the new  family
planning  strategy adopted  in the  1960s,  which  was based  on educational
measures and on easy  access to family planning  means, advice and services,
had led to a  decrease in abortions, in general, and teenage pregnancies and
abortions in  particular.   Birth control  services had  been  free and  the
focus had  been on a  reduction of the  health risks  associated with sexual
activity  rather  than  on its  repression.    The average  rates  of  legal
abortions had decreased from 12.3 per thousand in 1980 to 8.1 in 1993.

 379.  The birth rate  had been continuously  rising since 1986.  A  booklet
about the  evolution of reproductive health in Finland entitled  "How We Did
It"  as well  as Finland's  "Report  on the  Implementation of  the  Nairobi
Forward-Looking Strategies" were  distributed, which contained the requested
statistical   data  and   detailed   information  about   the   methods   of
contraception used.

380.   In reply  to additional comments about the  rise in birth rate, which
was unusual for a European country, the representatives  said that it was  a
result of the improvement  of the day-care system  and the increase in child
allowances.  The use of the pill RU 486 was not  allowed, however.  In reply
for  an explanation sought  of the  statement that  "the first contraceptive
method" was provided without charge the  representatives said that the birth
control services  were always provided  free of charge.   The birth  control
methods (for  example pills)  had  to be  paid  for,  apart from  the  first
contraceptive method, which was  provided free of  charge.  Women were  free
to choose the method of birth control they wanted.

  Article 13

381.   Members  raised  an  additional  question regarding  women's  pension
rights  and  inquired  whether  single  women  had  sufficient  means  to be
economically independent at an older age in  spite of working shorter  hours
and living longer years than men.

  Article 16

382.  In  response to questions  about equal  division of property  acquired
during the  marriage at its  dissolution and income  provided to  women when
the marriage ended  the representatives  replied that  the Finnish  Marriage
Act rested on the  principle of separate  ownership.  Both spouses were  the
sole owners of their property, including  the property acquired in  marriage
and, at  divorce, their property  was usually  divided into two  equal parts
unless a  marriage settlement  agreement  provided differently.   Under  the
Marriage Act  the spouses were required to contribute to  the joint finances
of the family and  to the maintenance of  the spouses.   During the  divorce
procedures the court may  order the spouse  to pay maintenance to the  other
spouse to the extent  it deemed reasonable.   Maintenance order for  spouses
had been granted very rarely. According  to the Nordic model  the foundation
of  a person's maintenance was the person's own  income or individual social
security.

383.  Responding to  additional comments the  representatives explained that
the divorce procedure had become  easier and that even if women ended up  in
a  worse financial  situation  after  divorce, the  social  security  system
guaranteed the minimum means for living.  If parents  could not agree on the
custody of their  children, the courts decided.   If they reached  agreement
among themselves,  that agreement had to be confirmed by the municipal board

of social affairs.

Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

384.     The  Committee   applauded  the   State  party   for  an  excellent
presentation,  based  on  the  Committee's  guidelines,  of  a   thoughtful,
stimulating and  inspiring report on progress  in the  implementation of the
Convention and in the promotion of gender equality within Finland.


 385.   The Committee commended the  State party on  consideration given and
actions  taken in response to the Committee's comments  on the State party's
initial report.

386.  The Committee noted with  satisfaction the constructive dialogue  that
also ensued from the questions it posed to  the second periodic report under
current deliberation.

  Positive aspects

387.  The Committee  commended the recent  publication of the Convention  in
the Statute  Book of Finland  1994, as well  as the  continuing amendment of
the Equality Act to further enhance the equality of women and men.

388.   The Committee welcomed  the positive approach  of the  State party to
the  reconciliation  of  family  and  work,  and  to  re-examination  of the
traditional roles  of men  in this context,  as a primary  condition to  the
promotion of equality.

389.  The Committee  noted with satisfaction the inclusion in the report  of
special  information  on   minority  women,  because  of  their   particular
vulnerability  to  discrimination,   and  similarly  the  plans  to   foster
education for equality as a matter of human right and dignity.

390.   The  Committee expressed  appreciation  for  the decrease  in teenage
pregnancy  and in  the  incidence of  abortion, as  a  result of  the  State
party's comprehensive policy  that includes family planning education,  free
birth control services and the  availability of legal abortion  as a measure
of last resort in cases of contraceptive failure.

  Principal subjects of concern

391.  The Committee  voiced concern over patterns of violence against women,
including incest, that had only recently  become apparent and were presently
a  subject   of  governmental  consideration,   though  noting  the   recent
criminalization of  marital rape  as a  positive step  towards removing  the
public-private   distinction  that   had   hitherto   hindered  governmental
intervention.  It  similarly expressed concern in this respect on the matter
of trafficking in women from foreign countries and sex tourism.

392.  Another concern pertained to  patterns of occupational segregation and
to  disparities  in  wages  between  men  and  women,  despite  the official
governmental  policy of economic  independence as central to attaining goals
of equality.

393.   The Committee also  expressed concern about  the relative  absence of
women from  high decision-making  professional and  administrative positions
in  both  the  public and  private sectors  (the  glass-ceiling phenomenon),
though  noting the recent  legislation mandating  40 per cent representation
of  both  sexes in  governmental  appointed  bodies  at  national and  local
levels.

  Suggestions and recommendations

394.  The Committee  suggests that the third  periodic report should include
information  on efforts  made to  achieve equal  pay for  work of  equal  or
comparable worth, especially taking into account  the role of government  as
employer  in  the  female-dominated  public  sector.    It  recommends  that
concrete guidelines  in  this respect  also  be  issued to  those  employers
subject to  a  duty  to design  plans for  implementing  equality under  the
recent amendment to the Equality Act.

395.   It further  suggests that  attention be  paid to  issues of  violence
against women, sexual,  domestic and otherwise, with particular  sensitivity
to the vulnerability of foreign and minority women.

396.  The Committee  recommends that measures be  taken to educate and train
judicial  and administrative  officials in  applying the  provisions of  the
Convention, as a matter of human rights.

397.  The  Committee strongly recommends that  the current discussion of the
Finnish Constitution Act refers to  the suggestions made by  the Council for
Equality and the Equality Ombudsman that  the promotion of equality  between
the sexes should be included in the obligations of the State.


Peru

398.   At its  275th meeting,  on 27 January 1995,  the Committee considered
the second periodic report of Peru (CEDAW/C/13/Add.29).

399.     In  presenting   the  report,  the  representative  underlined  the
importance  that the Government  of Peru  attached to  the implementation of
the Convention, which it had ratified in 1982.   She informed the  Committee
that  she was presenting an  updated version of the  second periodic report,
which had  been submitted in  1991. The representative  focused on the  main
features   of  Peruvian  society,  highlighting   the  wide  differentiation
existing  between rural and  urban areas,  with specific laws  for each, and
the efforts  to  include these  differences  in  the Constitution  of  1993,
including  some  ancient   customs  of  the  indigenous  population.     She
highlighted the fact  that terrorism, economic recession and  hyperinflation
had  nearly led the country to a state of  collapse, to which the Government
had  reacted  with  emergency  measures  for  political  stabilization   and
reconstruction of the country.  The  main measures taken included structural
changes  in  the  economy  and  in  international  economic  relations,  the
promotion  of  human  rights  and  democracy  and  the  adoption  of  a  new
constitution adapted to the economic, political  and social changes that had
occurred  during  the  past  few years.    She  pointed  out  that  the  new
Constitution  was being  implemented through  the development  of rules  and
institutions that  would ensure its viability.  Since 1993,  a Programme for
the Elimination of  Poverty, financed  from both national and  international
resources, was being implemented  in the most affected areas of the  country
and with specific focus on education, health and justice.

400.   The representative reported  on the  main current aspects  of women's
life  in Peru.   The  public visibility  of women was  evident in  the large
number  who  participated  in  various  levels  of  decision-making  and  as
community  leaders. This was  explained by  the high  level of participation
women  have  had during  the  past  decade,  as  professional and  community
leaders, in actions for  defence against violence  and of providing for  the
basic needs of the  people.  She reported  that the Government  gave special
importance to women's organizations and non-governmental organizations,  for
which it  had created  a law  ensuring the  support and  financing of  their
activities.   She  informed the  Committee  that  a Permanent  Commission on
Women's and Children's  Rights had been created  in the Ministry of Justice.
This  Commission, which has  a coordinating  function between  the State and
civil society,  develops and disseminates studies  and promotes the  defence
of human rights for  women and children as  well as legislative changes, and
coordinates  and   promotes  actions   regarding  women   and  children   in
coordination   with  the   executive,   civil   society  and   international

organizations.  It  evaluates its  activities  and  develops a  platform  of
action  for  women.    The  Commission  includes members  from  governmental
institutions,  the   Church,  the   private   sector  and   non-governmental
organizations concerned with issues related to women and children.

401.  She also pointed out that, as a result of  terrorism, there had been a
growing number  of  women  heads  of  households.   Equality  in  access  to
education had nearly been  reached and girls represented 50 and 40 per  cent
of  students  enrolled  in  primary  and  secondary  levels  of   education,
respectively.   Women's  access to  formal  market  labour continued  to  be
restricted by  their parenting activities, which were not yet shared by men.
Although, at the national  level, fertility had declined and more women knew
about methods  of contraception, there was  a wide  difference between rural
and urban  areas.  She  stated that the  Constitution gave  equality between
women and men  clear legal support and that the Civil Code,  the Labour Code
and the Children's Code  were under review.   The Government had appointed a
growing number of women to top decision-making levels in all sectors of  the
executive, legislative and judicial systems.

General comments

402.  The members of the Committee  welcomed the fact that Peru had ratified
the  Convention  without  any  reservations,  that  the  Convention  was  an
integral part  of domestic Peruvian legislation,  and that, in  the event of
any conflict, the Convention would prevail.

403.  Members  noted that Peru's  second report  did not  take into  account
observations made  by the  Committee on  the first  report and did  not even
follow the Committee's  guidelines.  The  representative emphasized that, in
1990, at  the time of  the preparation of  the second  report, the country's
situation  had  been  especially  difficult  and  had   impeded  the  normal
functioning  of several  institutions.    She informed  the  Committee  that
subsequent  reports   would  take  into   account  the  guidelines  for  the
preparation of the reports.

404.    When  the  initial  report   was  submitted,  the  Committee,  while
recognizing  the  enormous difficulties  facing the  country, had  asked for
more   detailed   information   concerning    the   existence   of   women's
organizations.   Members  noted that  the  current  report did  not  provide
relevant information  on that point. Members  also asked  whether the report
had been published.   In reply to a question as to whether  non-governmental
organizations had been consulted, the representative informed the  Committee
that  in  Peru  there  were  110  women's  non-governmental   organizations,
including eight  networks, and  that common  action was  being developed  in
order  to promote a  new social  perception of women,  gender perspective in
social and economic policies and women's participation in decision-making.

405.  Members expressed concern that the lack  of official statistics on the
status  of women,  to  which  the report  referred, was  a source  of sexist
prejudice  which impeded  the understanding  of  the  situation of  women in
Peru.   They  wanted to  know what  the Government  was  doing to  update or
improve data pertaining to the status of  women.  The representative replied
that subsequent  reports  would  include  statistics  on  women  which  were
collected in the 1993 national census.  The National Institute of Statistics
and  Computing had formed  the Inter-institutional Commission for the System
of  Social Indicators on  Children, Youth  and Women for  the generation and
systematization of statistics on these groups.

 406.   In the  context of legal  initiatives undertaken  since the  initial
report,  one member asked which of the two Acts - No.  25011 and No. 23506 -
afforded better  protection  against  discrimination.    The  representative
replied  that law No. 23506,  concerning habeas corpus  and amparo, had been
promulgated in 1982.  That law had  been modified  in 1989  through law  No.
25011,  and in 1992  by legislative decree  No. 25433.   Those  laws seek to
guarantee individual freedom to men and women which can be enforced  through
the  Constitution.   She noted  that,  consequently,  women can  enforce the

rights established in the Convention through those laws.

Questions relating to articles

  Article 2

407.  Article 101 of the  Constitution provides that international  treaties
subscribed to by Peru shall subsequently form  an integral part of  national
legislation,  and that  the  Convention  thus supports  and  protects  women
against  all forms of  discrimination.   In reply to concerns  raised by the
Committee relating to the real force  of this provision, the  representative
stated  that,   effectively,  the   Constitution  of   Peru  provided   that
international treaties concluded by Peru formed  part of municipal law, and,
accordingly,  article 2,  which  established  that everybody  is  equal  and
cannot be discriminated against  by reason of sex,  was part of  the law  of
the land.   She agreed that despite the increase in the integration of women
in public life  during 1990, de facto inequality  between women and men  was
still persistent.

408.   Asked  about  the specific  content of  the  equality clause  in  the
National Population  Law and  whether recourse  was available  in the  event
that national  equality legislation was not  applied at the local level, the
representative said  that the National  Population Law established  equality
between  men and  women where  family  planning  was concerned  and provided
recourse to courts.

409.    The report  stated that  relatively minor  provisions of  the former
Civil  Code concerning women  had been  retained in the new  Code, which was
promulgated in 1984.  Members  of the Committee requested information on how
many cases  had been heard  by the courts  under the new  Civil Code with  a
view  to  halting  activities   that  discriminate  against   women.     The
representative  said  that  the Civil  Code  of  1936,  which  discriminated
against  women,  had  been  replaced  by  the  1984  Civil  Code  after  the
promulgation of the 1979 Constitution, and  that the main changes introduced
concerning discrimination were with respect to  married women.  She informed
the Committee that there  was no information on  cases of discrimination  or
their prosecution  by the judiciary  and that studies  are required in  this
regard.

  Article 3

410.  As  to the new Constitution which entered into force in December 1993,
various concerns had  been expressed with respect  to a number of  elements,
especially the  fact that  the principle  of fundamental  equality had  been
eliminated and  that economic, social and  cultural rights  had been omitted
from the  category of fundamental rights.  It was also  pointed out that, by
and large,  the State  no longer  shouldered the  responsibility for  social
welfare, such  as  the provision  of  health  services, education  and  land
redistribution; it was feared that all  this had negative repercussions  for
women  and had affected  their status.   The  representative emphasized that
the  1993   Political  Constitution  of   Peru  included  chapters  on  "The
Fundamental  Rights  of  the  Person",  "Social  and  Economic  Rights"  and
"Political Rights  and Obligations".   These  three  chapters made  specific
reference  to the  role of  the State  in  the  area of  employment, health,
education, security, public  services and infrastructure.  Furthermore,  she
pointed  out,  the Government  had  given  priority  to  the elimination  of
poverty by the establishment of a  large programme of public  expenditure on
education,  health  and basic  justice.    This  social  policy put  special
emphasis  on the  most vulnerable  sectors of  the population,  specifically
women  and  children.  Furthermore, article  4 of  the  Constitution clearly
stated  that  the  community  and the  State  are both  responsible  for the
protection  of abandoned  children, adolescents,  mothers and  the  elderly.
Following  the 1993  Constitution, land  distribution was  effected  through
market mechanisms.

411.   As to the  questions of specific  integrated policies  for women, the

representative  informed the Committee  of the public policy regarding women
and  its objectives.   These include:   access  to decision-making, equality
and equity in the  benefits of development, equality  with men in  political
participation  and  citizenship,  incorporation  of  gender  equity  in  the
mainstream of  public policies and elimination  of cultural and  attitudinal
sex  stereotypes.     She   further  emphasized  that  the   Government  was
coordinating  its  action  with   that  of  women's  NGOs,  specifically  in
nutrition, health, education programmes and in rural  areas.  She also  made
reference to other coordinating activities around specific issues.

412.    Asked  whether a  Police Commissioner's  Office  for Women  has been
created and, if so,  how it operated, the representative replied that, since
1988, the Government had opened 12  women's police offices.   These offices,
which  have  the  support  of  women's  NGOs,  offer  affected  women legal,
psychological and social advice.  These actions have the support of  women's
NGOs.

  Article 5

413.  Members  of the Committee  noted that human  rights organizations  had
documented cases of rape perpetrated against  rural and indigenous women  in
areas subject  to civil strife.  There  are reports of  40 instances of rape
allegedly committed  by security forces in  the course  of interrogations in
such  areas.   It  had  been estimated  that only  10 per  cent of  all rape
victims officially reported the crime because  it is difficult to  prosecute
perpetrators.  There were  also reports of rape by members of Shining  Path.
In  reply  to requests  for more  information about  the causes  of violence
experienced by these  women and preventive  action that has been  taken, the
representative informed  the  Committee  that, according  to  investigations
carried out  by the  Government  and NGOs  women  had  been the  victims  of
terrorist activities by the Shining Path  and the Revolutionary Movement  of
Tupac Amaru,  as well  as in some  instances by the  security police  force.
Investigations were under way to prosecute such crimes.

414.   Peruvian non-governmental organizations  have compiled very  thorough
data on violence against women, and members of  the Committee wanted to know
what concrete steps or  initiatives the Government had taken to protect  the
fundamental  human rights and dignity of women and the physical integrity of
its  citizens.    In  reply, the  representative  said that  law  No. 26260,
promulgated in 1993, established  the legal framework  to confront  domestic
violence.     That   law,  which   was  currently   being  implemented   and
disseminated,  had been  accompanied by  the  creation,  in the  capital, of
advice centres for women.  Other  measures were being implemented, including
changes in  school curricula, campaigns for the dissemination of the law and
its importance and the  opening of a greater  number of women commissioner's
offices.

   Article 6

415.  When  the initial report had  been considered, further information had
been sought with respect to the extent of  prostitution, the role played  in
that phenomenon by poverty  and the steps taken  to combat it, including the
establishment of  health identification  cards.   While  the current  report
described  a  disturbing  increase  in  the   number  of  women  engaged  in
drugtrafficking  and  terrorism, no  mention  was  made  of  the problem  of
prostitution, even  though the  aforementioned activities  generally led  to
prostitution.   The  representative was  requested  to inform  the Committee
whether houses of prostitution were widespread and  health checks effective.
The  representative informed  the Committee  that the  Penal Code  regulated
prostitution  and  included  obligatory sanitary  control.   She  pointed to
studies carried  out by  NGOs and  to studies  planned by the  Government to
obtain more  information and statistics on  this issue.   Child prostitution
was condemned in the legal code.

416.   Replying  to a  question as  to whether the  Ministry of  Justice had
taken  any  steps  to  improve  the   condition  of  female  prisoners,  the

representative said that women prisoners represented  nearly 10 per cent  of
the total  of prisoners and that  they were placed  in prisons exclusive  to
women, mostly  attended by women officers.   Supreme  resolution No. 047-92-
JUS specified  that children  of female  prisoners up  to the  age of  three
could  be accommodated in separate  child-care centres.  She noted that many
of the leaders of the  terrorist movement were  women.  She also noted  that
training programmes  in human rights were  developed for  police officers in
this respect.

  Article 7

417.   Asked about  specific measures  taken by  the Government to  increase
women's participation  in  the decision-making  process, the  representative
informed  the  Committee  that  the  Government  had  appointed  two   women
ministers and  increased women's  visibility by  nominating them to  various
levels  of  decision-making   in  central  government  and  its   autonomous
agencies.

418.   Regarding  the request  for  specific  information  on women  in  the
various sectors of public affairs, and  especially in politics, she informed
the Committee  that  in  1979  the  right  to  vote  had  been  extended  to
illiterates, who were mostly  women.  However,  the political  participation
of women  was very low and  its growth slow;  she quoted statistics  showing
that at the local  level, in the country and  Lima, respectively, 5 per cent
and 11.6 per cent of mayors were women.   In 1990, women represented  40 per
cent of members in  the professional organization of accountants, and 20  to
25 per  cent of members in  professional organizations  of doctors, lawyers,
architects  and  odontologists.    However, she  also  emphasized  that  the
political crisis had placed many women  in leadership positions in important
political parties  and  that, at  the  local  level, poverty  and  political
violence  had  given  women  a  leadership  role,  where  they  had acquired
negotiating and managerial skills.

419.  The representative  was asked for information  on the participation on
women in the  current Parliament as  compared to  1991.  The  representative
informed  the Committee  that,  in 1992,  the  proportion  of  women in  the
Congress was slightly higher than in the past, i.e., currently 8 per cent.

  Article 11

420.   According to the  report, 81 per cent of all  women are unemployed or
underemployed.   Problems relating to  women's employment were  particularly
important because  23 per  cent of all  Peruvian households  were headed  by
women. This was also significant in view of the fact that women have  access
to various vocational education and training  programmes.  In addressing the
reasons  for the unemployment  rates of women, the representative emphasized
that the heavy burden of family  responsibilities was still impeding women's
employment.  She  informed the  Committee that  child-care alternatives  had
been  introduced by  civil society  and that the  Government was  working in
cooperation  with the  United Nations  Children's  Fund  (UNICEF) to  set up
child-care centres and to open up job opportunities for women.

421.  The representative informed the Committee that law No. 24705 of  1987,
which  qualified home-makers  as independent  workers and,  in  consequence,
allowed  them  to  have  access  to  health  services  and  pension  schemes
guaranteed by social security, was being implemented.

422.  In reply to  a question concerning  the proportion of women who  could
obtain access  to social security protection,  the representative said  that
article 12  of the  Constitution established that the  Government guarantees
social security to all.  Working  women, whether employed, or  self-employed
independent workers, have access to social security, as do those who are  55
years old and have  contributed to the social  security system for  at least
five years.

423.   Asked  about  the sectors  in  which  women  and men  were  typically

employed,  the   representative  said  that,  in   1991,  67   per  cent  of
economically  active  women  were  engaged  in  tertiary activities.    That
represented a 10 per cent increase compared with 1981.

  Article 12

424.  Since family planning information  and advisory services are  provided
by private  agencies and  financed by  international organizations,  members
wanted information  on the percentage of  the population  involved in family
planning, on the profile  of the population served by family planning and on
the initiatives the Government  was taking in this context.  In reply to the
Committee's concerns,  the representative informed  it that knowledge  about
family planning methods among married women  is widespread.  Fifty-nine  per
cent of women  of fertile age  (15 to  44 years) had  employed some form  of
contraception: 56  per cent  of them  used modern  methods and  44 per  cent
preferred  traditional methods.   The natural rhythm method  seemed to be on
the rise.   She indicated that the choice  of method was  directly linked to
location (urban or rural) and to the level  of education, with women  living
in urban areas and with  a high level of education  tending to choose modern
methods.   In so far  as public action  in this  context was  concerned, the
representative  informed   the  Committee   that  the   National  Fund   for
Compensation and Social Development, one of  the main programmes directed to
the elimination  of poverty, had directed  7 per cent of  its budget to  the
health sector, mostly for the improvement  and expansion of health  centres.
Although the  current coverage of the  health infrastructure  per capita was
inadequate, she  noted that  it had doubled  since the  last decade.  Public
institutions  in charge  of family  planning  were  the National  Council of
Population,  the Ministry of  Health and  the Peruvian  Institute for Social
Security.

425.   In reply to questions regarding the legislation  relating to abortion
and its practice, the representative informed  the Committee that the  Penal
Code of 1991, which replaced that of 1924,  provided for imprisonment up  to
two  years   in  practice,   however  service   for  illegal   abortion  was
implemented.  She  stated that the  Peruvian Government  considered abortion
to  be a  serious public  health issue  and  the  principal cause  of mortal
maternity, especially  among poor women.   She added  that the law  provided
only for  therapeutic abortion, which was  available only  when the mother's
health or life was in danger.  Doctors  had to face a more severe punishment
depending  on whether the woman  had consented and  whether the abortion had
led to her injury or death.

426.  Members requested information on  the country's population policy,  as
well as  more statistical  data on the  health situation.   They also  asked
whether  data  were available  on  the  prevalence  of  contraception.   The
representative  quoted statistics  which showed  that in 1993,  the maternal
mortality rate  was 261 per 100,000,  a decrease since  1981, when the  rate
had been  321.   She informed the  Committee that  maternal mortality  rates
among women without formal education were  higher than the national  average
and higher than the  rate 10 years previously.  The main factors  identified
as  causes were abortion and  inadequate sanitation.   Estimates of rates of
infant and child mortality  were an average of  64 and 92, respectively, per
thousand  for  the  period  1981-1991.    The  representative  informed  the
Committee  that  in  Peru  only  half   of  childbirths  were  attended   by
professionals.   However, in  rural areas  only 18  per cent of  births were
attended.   She pointed  out that the  number of persons  affected by  human
immunodeficiency virus  (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency  syndrome (AIDS) was
increasing  and that the registered number in 1992-1993  was higher than the
total  registered from  1983 to 1991.   She  said that  there was  a growing
proportion  of women and children  among the affected.  She emphasized that,
despite the growing incidence  of HIV/AIDS, insufficient  attention had been
paid to the disease and the response of the judicial-legal system to it  was
inadequate.   She  informed the  Committee that  when  the disease  had been
first discovered, there was  only one woman victim for each 20 affected men;
today,  the proportion  was one woman  for each four  men.  She  stated that
this  increase  reflects  women's  social,  biological  and  epidemiological

vulnerability.

  Article 14

427.   Most  rural  women in  Peru were  said  to be  occupied  in  the most
traditional forms  of  farming, in  which  they  undertook the  most  menial
tasks.  In reply to  a question about whether any  measures were planned  to
improve  that situation,  the representative  said  that  rural women  had a
leading  role in their communities  because during the past  decade many men
had died or  migrated.  She confirmed that  most women were not involved  in
income-generating  activities.    She  indicated  that  the  Government  was
implementing  a project which  recognized women's  rights to  have access to
the land  which they  directly worked  and thus  access to wealth.   Another
project, designed  to  allow the  transfer  of  technology to  rural  areas,
included the participation of  women as extension agents.   She said  that a
network,  led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
(FAO) and  made  up  of several  institutions from  the  public and  private
sectors, had been created for the support of rural women.

428.   Members  expressed  concern  at the  fact  that, in  the  absence  of
decentralization called for  under the national regionalization plan,  women
were  denied  any  involvement  in  decision-making.    The   representative
recalled that  violence  and economic  crises  had  induced rural  women  to
assume various  public duties.   She  emphasized that,  during the  previous
decade, the role of  women and the perception society  had of them,  as well
as  the expectations of  women themselves,  had changed.   Nevertheless, she
noted that, although women were increasingly  integrated and accepted in the
public  sphere,  women's  equality  within the  private  sphere  remained  a
problem.

 429.  In reply to a question about concrete steps the Government had  taken
to raise the living standards of  indigenous women, the representative  said
that  the Government had  primarily directed  its efforts  to supporting the
basic  needs  of  rural  women.    At  the  present time,  the  Ministry  of
Agriculture was developing programmes for women's  access to resources.   It
was   also  coordinating   the  network   of  international   and   national
organizations  for the  support of  rural women, through  their organization
and the management of credit.

  Article 16

430.   Members of the  Committee requested more detailed  information on the
Family Code, divorce  and differential views on  adultery by men and  women.
The representative  informed  the Committee  that  the  Peruvian Civil  Code
included a chapter on  divorce which did not  discriminate between women and
men.   Replying to  questions relating  to  the provision  of alimony  after
divorce,  the  representative   said  that  alimony  was  awarded,   without
distinction between  women and men,  to the partner  who had fewer  economic
resources  and this obligation ceased automatically if  the person receiving
alimony remarried.

431.    Replying  to  the  Committee's  request  that  it  be  provided with
statistics  on  divorce  and child  custody  (maternal/paternal/other),  the
representative  said that the  Government was  in the  process of developing
statistics  on the  subject and  identifying  the  main variables  for their
study.

Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

432.   The  Committee commended  the  Government of  Peru for  ratifying the
Convention without  reservations.   The report  did not  follow the  general
guidelines  and lacked important details such as comparative statistics over
time.  Information  requested by the Committee  when the initial report  was
submitted  were  not  provided in  the  second periodic  report.   One  such

information  was the involvement of women's organizations in the preparation
of the report.

  Positive aspects

433.  The Committee noted  that the Convention  was an integral part of  the
Peruvian  domestic  legislation  and  in  the  event  of  any  conflict, the
Convention prevailed.

434.  The  Committee noted that although  the Special Commission on  Women's
Rights  was  terminated  in  1990,  a  Permanent  Commission  on  Women  and
Children's  Rights had  been established  in  1994 to  coordinate activities
relating to women's rights.

435.  The Committee noted the passage of a Domestic Violence  Law, which had
been supported  by many  women's groups.   It  would complement the  work of
Police  Stations (Comisarias de  Policia) in  dealing with  cases related to
violence against women.  Likewise, a law prohibiting discrimination  against
pregnant women had been passed.

436.  The Committee noted the increase in women judges in Peru.

   Principal subjects of concern

437.   The Committee asserted that peace and  development were essential for
promoting women's rights and  should be pursued, even as the Government  was
trying  to extricate itself from political crisis.  Concern was raised about
the effects of recent political developments  in Peru on women, particularly
in the exercise of their civil liberties.

438.   The Committee  raised concern  about reports  of rape, gang  rape and
custodial  rape which  had been  documented by  human rights  organizations,
especially  those   occurring  in  the   "emergency  zones"  and   affecting
indigenous and peasant women.

439.   Special  concern was  expressed by  the  Committee  to the  plight of
displaced/refugee women and children in resettlement areas.

440.  High unemployment rates among women was  another matter of concern  of
the Committee.   It  had forced  women to  seek employment  in the  informal
sector  without access  to  credit,  social benefits  and  other  supportive
infrastructure.

441.  The Committee was alarmed to note that women were resorting to  small-
scale drug trafficking as a means of survival.

442.   Whereas women had been  entering universities  in increasing numbers,
illiteracy among women still remained high.

443.   The health status of women and children in  Peru was of great concern
to the  Committee,  particularly as  regards high  maternal mortality  rates
resulting from clandestine abortions.

  Suggestions and recommendations

444.   The Committee calls upon  the Government to  ensure the provision  of
social services as education, employment and  health as this greatly affects
women.

445.   The Committee strongly recommends  the strengthening  of the National
Council  for  Human Rights  in  its  investigation  of  human rights  abuses
against  women  detainees and  civilians  and  calls  for  more updated  and
gender-disaggregated information on the Nationwide Register of Detainees  as
well as cases of enforced disappearances.

446.  The  Committee urges the  Government to  look into the causes  of high

maternal  mortality rates  arising from clandestine abortions  and to review
the law on  abortion, taking into  consideration the  health needs of  women
and to consider suspending  the penalty of imprisonment  for women who  have
undergone illegal abortion procedures.

447.    The  Committee  suggests  further   that  the  Government  seek  the
cooperation of  medical associations and of  judges and  lawyers to consider
more expansive use of the therapeutic  exception to the criminal prohibition
of abortion, in cases of danger to the mother's health.

448.    The  Committee  calls for  more  effective  measures to  hasten  the
reintegration of displaced and refugee women into society.

449.  The Committee encourages the Government of Peru to take measures  that
the strengthening of the family leads  simultaneously to a strengthening  of
individual rights of women and to  an equal distribution of responsibilities
between women and men.

450.    The  Committee  recommends  that  the  organ  which  was  created to
coordinate  the  activities regarding  women's  rights  be  politically  and
administratively strengthened in  order to coordinate public policies  aimed
at improving the situation and position of women.

451.    The  Committee  asks  that  the  subsequent  report  be  written  in
conformity   with   the  reporting   guidelines   and  contain   comparative
statistics.

--4.  Third and fourth periodic reports

Norway

452.   The Committee  considered the third  and fourth  periodic reports  of
Norway  (CEDAW/C/NOR/3  and  CEDAW/C/NOR/4)  at  its 277th  meeting,  on  30
January (see CEDAW/C/SR.277).

453.   In introducing the  report, the representative  pointed out  that the
priorities set out in  the White Paper  to the Parliament (Storting) in  the
spring of 1993 included  an active child-care policy with a focus on  shared
family responsibilities  between the parents,  renewed efforts  to reach the
goal  of equal pay,  and more  effective actions against the  abuse of women
and sexual violence.  She noted that efforts to  change the rules and  tasks
of men and  to see  the gender question as  one of Norwegian human  resource
development, was  one of  the top  priorities of  the Government.   She also
focused  on the instruments  used in  the gender  equality policy, including
the proposed revision of the Norwegian Gender Equality  Act of 1978 and  the
discussion  of   equality  as  a  concern   for  both   local  and  regional
authorities.

General comments

454.  Members of the  Committee commended the detailed  and thorough written
and  oral  reports.    They  praised  the   Government  of  Norway  for  the
conceptualization   and  implementation  of  its  gender  policies,  thereby
serving as a role model for many countries, and they welcomed  the fact that
the Convention had been ratified early without reservations.

455.   Members  applauded the  fact  that  in preparing  the third  periodic
report the  Government had carried  out consultations with  non-governmental
organizations and transmitted  the report to major women's organizations  in
the country  for comments.  Members noted  that the general view of the NGOs
was  that the Government  had represented  the situation  of women extremely
well, but that they felt  that there were still problems in legal areas  and
in the participation of women in public and private life.

456.   Members  of the Committee wanted  to know whether the  meaning of the
concept of equality in Norway refers to the  recognition of equality in  the

Constitution as meaning equality  between the sexes and an equal division of
work,  paid  or  not,  and  an   equal  availability  of  resources.     The
representative explained that the  Norwegian Constitution is  gender-neutral
in its formulation.   It contains no  explicit provision of gender  equality
or prohibition against  gender discrimination.  The Government is  currently
considering whether  to include  various human  rights conventions, such  as
the  Convention on the  Elimination of  All Forms  of Discrimination against
Women.   In 1995, the Government will present a white paper on this subject.
Equality between  the sexes is regulated by the Gender  Equality Act (1978),
article 1  of which  states:   "This Act  shall promote gender  equality and
aims particularly at improving the position  of women. Norwegian women must,
nevertheless, today  be considered  to have  achieved de  jure equal  status
with  men".   The  representative  noted  that  the  gender perspective  was
currently mainstreamed  in all areas of  the Government,  and all Ministries
had established a focal  point for gender issues.   They had  the obligation
to make gender issues  visible, to include them in policy formulation at the
earliest  stage possible  and  in all  routines, to  follow up  and evaluate
implementation  and  to influence  recruitment  policies;  they  planned  to
create gender balance and thereby improve substantive results.

 457.   Members wanted to know how the economic changes in the country which
aimed  at  a  revised  distribution  of  social   investments  had  affected
programmes  for  women.   The  representative  replied  that  the  budgetary
situation has  been  strained since  the  late  1980s.   However,  important
reforms had  been implemented  in the  same period,  including improved  and
flexible    solutions   targeted    at   harmonizing    work    and   family
responsibilities.   The  welfare system is  at present under  revision.  The
aim is to  achieve a more  cost-effective system and  to be  better able  to
target  services and  benefits.   Furthermore, the  representative said that
there  has  been  an  increased  awareness   of  gender  roles  both   among
politicians and  in the administration, which  has served  to counteract any
possible negative impact on women.

458.   Members requested  more statistics  and wanted additional information
regarding articles 6, 13, 18 and 19 of the Convention.

Questions relating to specific articles

  Article 2

459.  There  is some concern that the Equal Status Act  is being interpreted
in some quarters  to mean equal access by men to occupations where they seem
to  be underrepresented, such  as health  and welfare  occupations.  Members
wanted to know if, at the same time, there are plans to increase the  number
of women in areas  dominated by men.   The representative told  members that
the Gender Equality Act permits different  treatment of the sexes  when that
promotes  gender equality.   So  far,  different  treatment with  respect to
women has  only been  permitted in favour of  women.  The Act  is at present
under  revision, and the  Government has  proposed modest  forms of positive
action in favour of men  related to jobs in child  care and the  teaching of
young  children,  in  day-care centres,  primary  school  and child  welfare
institutions.   This  will not alter the  fact that the main  purpose of the
Gender Equality  Act has been to  promote the situation  of women, and  this
will  remain the  case in  the future  too.    The Norwegian  statement also
referred to  the Nordic project  "BRYT", a programme designed  to break down
the  sex-differentiated labour  market, as  described in  the third periodic
report (see CEDAW/C/NOR/3, para. 137).

  Article 3

460.   The report  stated that  the Norwegian  Equal Status  Act covers  all
fields including  education, employment and politics.   However,  as the Act
does not  cover family  and personal  affairs in  reality, there  is a  high
possibility  that  some  critical  areas  of   concern  of  women  are  left
unaddressed  by this  legislation.   The Committee  was especially concerned
with provisions in  the Norwegian  legislation to  exempt certain  religious

communities from compliance with  the equal rights  law.  Since women  often
face  greater  discrimination  in  family and  personal  affairs  in certain
communities and  in religion, they asked  the Norwegian  Government to amend
the Norwegian  Equal Status Act to  eliminate exceptions  based on religion.
The representative  replied that  the Norwegian Gender  Equality Act  stated
that "The Act relates to discrimination between women  and men in all areas,
with the  exception of internal conditions  in religious  communities".  The
reason  for  this  exception  is  article   2  of  the  Constitution,  which
establishes the right of all persons,  including both those from  dissenting
communities and  the Church  of Norway, to  the free  practice of  religion.
"Internal  condition"  may be  what  the  religious  communities  themselves
reasonably  consider  to  be  theological  questions.    The  appointment of
clergymen, preachers and chaplains has been  exempted from the reach  of the
Act.  However, the appointment of staff whose tasks have not been  connected
with religious practice, for example, caretakers  or welfare officers at the
church family guidance officers,  has not been  exempted from the Act.   The
family is not regarded  as a religious community and therefore the Act  also
applied to family life and served as a guideline for family life.

461.    Concerning the  fact  that  immigrant  women  constitute a  sizeable
percentage of those abused in Norway,  members asked what special programmes
are  in  place  to  assist  them.   The  representative  answered  that  the
disproportionately  large numbers  of immigrant  women who  are reported  as
seeking refuge at the  crisis centre have been  a phenomenon limited  to the
capital.   Moreover, a  joint Nordic  survey concerning  immigrant women and
the crisis centres has included suggestions  for improvement of the centres.
Special  programmes  have  not  been  applied  and  the  policy   concerning
immigrants  has  focused  more  on  integration  in  existing  services  and
mainstream programmes.   In Oslo  there is,  however, a resource  centre for
immigrant and refugee women (MIRA).   This Resource Centre assists immigrant
and refugee women, including women victims  of family abuse, and constitutes
a  useful link between  Norwegian authorities  and immigrant  women. It does
not represent an alternative to mainstream  crisis centres, but has, rather,
served a supplementary function.

462.    Members  wanted to  know  what  measures  were  being  undertaken to
preserve the welfare programme especially aimed  at women within the general
framework reviewing the welfare system.   The representative stated that, at
present, the National  Insurance Scheme  and other  welfare programmes  have
been scrutinized in order  to provide a  basis for the Government's view  on
the need  for changes which will be presented during the spring of 1995.  It
would  be a  misinterpretation if  this  was  construed as  "cut-backs under
way".  The general background to this activity  included the need for a more
efficient resource  allocation, which may lead  to cut-backs  in areas where
present spending  is found to be  unjustified or  even unreasonable compared
with spending  in other areas.  The motivation for the  scrutiny has been to
avoid the welfare  state turning into a rigid  structure unable to adapt  to
the needs of a society undergoing rapid changes.   Special attention will be
given  to female-headed  households to  further the  reintegration  of these
women into the labour  market.  One of the  main objectives of the Norwegian
policy will continue to  be to promote equality  between men and  women even
in the welfare field and to adapt welfare programmes accordingly.

  Article 4

463.  Members wanted to know to what extent affirmative action measures  are
actually being  applied.   In what  sectors are  the major  obstacles to  be
found?  In  what  sectors has  the  presence  of  women  increased  and what
benefits have  flowed from this?   The representative addressed  affirmative
action  as  preferential  treatment and  special  quota  arrangements.   The
Gender  Equality Act  includes a  provision requiring  at least 40  per cent
representation  of each sex  in all  official committees,  boards, councils,
and so forth.  Although this provision is  not binding for political parties
in  the course  of the  1980s, most  political parties  have  adopted gender
quotas on a  voluntary basis and have  been successful in promoting  women's
political  participation.    In  the  fields  of  employment  and education,

affirmative action has been permitted, but  not prescribed.  Moderate  forms
of preferential treatment  have been in  effect in  the public sector  since
the first half  of the 1980s,  so that women candidates are  to be preferred
in    sectors   where   women   are   numerically   underrepresented,   when
qualifications are  identical or roughly equal.   A  recent research project
found  that a  quota system  has  not been  applied to  any great  extent in
employment and  education.   Rather,  advertisements for  vacant posts  with
statements  like "women  are encouraged  to apply"  have  been proved  to be
effective.   There are, however, some obstacles in this  area.  Preferential
treatment has  not been sufficiently  integrated into collective  agreements
and regulations in  the public sector. Also, there  has been a general  lack
of such agreements and actions in the private sector.  This must  be seen in
the light of the parties' reluctance  to accept any interference  with their
freedom of choice, and  the fact that use of quotas has been  controversial.
Moreover, women's  employment has increased  primarily in the public, social
and private service sectors.   Two out  of three employees in these  sectors
are women and more than 50  per cent of all working  women are in the public
sector.   Furthermore, the structural  changes in  the labour market  in the
1980s  have been favourable  for women-dominated occupations and for women's
employment.   Increased  unemployment  affected women  less, because  of the
sex-segregated market.

464.  Noting that the Ombudsman has called for a more effective  affirmative
action policy,  the members wished to  know whether  such affirmative action
legislation has been adopted  so far.  The  representative replied that  the
third periodic  report,  which noted  the  Ombudsman's  request for  a  more
effective affirmative action policy, explained that  the view of the  Gender
Equality  Ombudsman was  that existing  affirmative action  measures  should
either be  strengthened to gain proper  effect, or  abolished altogether, as
in  her  opinion  the  existing  arrangements  served  to  give  the  public
unrealistic notions of women's opportunities in the labour market.   She was
particularly  worried that  the proposed  amendment to  the Gender  Equality
Act, which  would allow affirmative action for men, might change the present
balance in favour of  men.  The  effects of affirmative action measures  are
being evaluated at present.  The  proposed amendment to the  Gender Equality
Act was presented in the fourth periodic report.   The intention behind  the
proposal to allow positive  action in favour  of men in a limited  number of
occupations in  the caring  sector is  to activate  men's caring  potential,
which  would serve to  counteract the  strict sex-segregation  in the labour
market  and  also  provide children  with  less  stereotyped  conceptions of
gender roles.   Another concern expressed  by the  Gender Equality Ombudsman
has  been  with respect  to  the enforcement  of  the  quota  arrangement in
collective agreements, since the social parties  are reluctant to accept any
interference. In  order to strengthen the  obligation to put in place active
measures for equal status  in all parts of  the labour market,  the Ministry
wishes  to go  further.  Legalization  of the  Plan of  Action is  now under
consideration.   This would  mean that  employers, in  cooperation with  the
employees'  organizations,  would have  to  act  and fulfil  the obligations
according to agreements involving preferential treatment.

465.   A member  wanted more  information regarding  mainstream policies and
their  various procedures.   Are these  policies included in the  law or are
they just a consensus  by the Cabinet?  The representative replied that,  at
present, the mainstreaming policies are only  a consensus of the Government.
However, extensive  efforts were  made to  integrate them  into the  routine
procedure of the Government.

  Article 6

466.   Despite all the  steps taken to assist and  support victims of sexual
abuse (incest, rape,  etc.), violence  against women does  not seem to  have
been reduced. The members wanted  to know if any study has been carried  out
on the causes  of this phenomenon  so as  to find out  which aspects of  the
society are  responsible for these crimes.   The  representative stated that
several studies have been  carried out in order to understand the causes  of
violence and  which aspects of  society may be responsible  for such crimes.

The   findings  on  these   studies,  however,  differ  depending  on  their
theoretical framework.    Most  studies have  been based  on  psychoanalytic
theory, system theory or feminist theory.   Studies within a  psychoanalytic
framework  see violence  as a  consequence of  the individual  history.   In
system theory, the generation perspective is important, explaining  violence
as an  issue of revictimization.   Many victims  repeat the  abuse that they
themselves experienced  as children.   The  feminist perspective  focuses on
the power  relation  between men  and women.   It  is well  known that  most
abusers are  men while  the  victims may  be  boys,  girls or  adult  women.
Empirical evidence suggests that gender power  and family pattern have  been
central in understanding the prevalence of sexual violence in society.

467.   Norway deserves  to be commended for attempting  to look at the other
side of prostitution - namely, its male consumers.  A study on  prostitution
has provided an analysis of prostitution as a problem which is  not simply a
problem of  women but  of male  sexual needs  and desire to  "control sexual
relations".   As  a  result of  the instructive  insights  of the  study  of
prostitution referred to in  the report, the members  wanted to know  if the
Government  had introduced measures  to sensitize the population in general,
and men in  particular, on this  issue.  The  representative explained  that
the  national  authorities  had  recently   given  the  National  Centre  on
Prostitution  a responsibility  to  develop strategies  that  might  prevent
prostitution,  inter alia, on  the basis  of research findings.   The centre
was opened on 1  January 1994.  Further information  will be provided in the
next report.

468.     As  to  rehabilitation  efforts   to  assist  prostitutes   through
information  campaigns and seminars for police, health and social officials,
and  so forth,  members wanted  to know  what the  result had been  of these
seminars  and  if  this  is  a  continuing  programme.    They  requested  a
definition  of  "rehabilitation"  and   the  programmes  under   it.     The
representative said  that the  national programme for  regional seminars  on
prostitution had concluded, and the responsibility for up-grading  knowledge
concerning  prostitution  at  present   lay  with  the  National  Centre  on
Prostitution.  Two regional seminars were  held under the national programme
and were considered to  be useful by the  participants, who were  drawn from
different   institutions  within   welfare  and   services.     Furthermore,
"rehabilitation"  refers   to  assistance   aimed  at   the  prevention   of
prostitution.  This  may  include general  information,  guidance,  economic
assistance,  paid vocational training, psychological  help, participation in
self-help  groups  and other  individual  support,  development  of  "career
plans", and so on.

469.   As to the increasing  incidence of child  abuse, the Committee  noted
the establishment  of centres  for incest  victims.   The members wanted  to
know if  preventive and  rehabilitative measures  also are  directed to  the
abusers.  Is there legislation dealing with this  issue?  The representative
stated that  the fourth periodic report  described two  measures directed to
abusers.    The Ministry  of Social  Affairs  has provided  funds for  three
treatment  projects for  persons convicted  of  sexual  crime.   A reference
group will  evaluate the  projects and  present proposals  for treatment  of
sexual criminals.  One major issue of  the research programme (1992-1996) on
sexual violence was the  role of men as abusers and the preventive  measures
related to abusers.

470.  The  members wanted to know what  the situation is  concerning the sex
business  in  Norway.    What  is   the  Government's  policy  here?     The
representative explained that in  Norway, sex business  has been  considered
to be comparatively limited.  In recent years, a tendency towards more  hard
core  pornography has been  observed.  It is  also assumed that prostitution
may be  increasing because  of the  internationalization of  the sex  trade.
Sex trade  in various forms  has been regarded  as a serious  matter by  the
Government.   In this respect, combating  child pornography  and focusing on
the  persons that profit from  prostitution have been among  the concerns of
the Government.   The major approach has been  to sharpen the provisions  in
the  Penal  Code  relating  to  pornography  and  pimping.  In  relation  to

prostitutes, the authorities  have initiated and supported several  projects
aimed at both  preventing prostitution  and motivating prostitutes to  leave
prostitution.  Detailed  information was  presented in  the fourth  periodic
report.

  Article 7

471.   As to  the quota  of 40  per cent representation  of each  sex on all
publicly appointed boards,  councils and committees, which is as  beneficial
to women as to  men, members wanted to know what the public reaction to this
has been.  What  is being done to  ensure that  women can benefit more  from
this policy?   The  representative stated  that today  there seems  to be  a
general agreement  that  men and  women  should  be equally  represented  in
boards,  committees, etc. appointed  by public  bodies.   As early  as 1981,
when the  Government first introduced the  amendment to  the Gender Equality
Act, the  majority of  women's organizations,  unions and  political parties
expressed   their  support.     In  boards   and  committees   appointed  by
governmental bodies, the average percentage  of women is at present close to
40 per  cent,  while women  on  boards  and  committees appointed  by  local
government is 36.4  per cent.  Owing  to quota provisions  in the  new Local
Government Act, women's  representation may  increase after  the next  local
government  election.  Women, however, are still  underrepresented on boards
and  committees in  a number  of  traditionally male-dominated  fields,  for
example,  defence,  foreign  affairs and  trade.    The representative  also
stated   that  stricter  enforcement   of  the   quota  provisions  must  be
accomplished in these sectors.

472.  The Committee  would have liked to  see a fuller  discussion of  women
and power,  particularly since increasing women's  power and  influence is a
crucial part of  the equal status policy.   Though women's  participation in
public life has increased substantially in  Norway, in some other  important
spheres  women are  still a  small minority  - especially  in the  areas  of
trade, industry  and the media.  With regard to political participation, the
Committee wanted  to know  whether  women today  really have  more power  in
Norwegian politics than in earlier times.   The representative replied  that
there  has been  great  concern  regarding women's  poor  representation  in
managerial  levels in  the  private sector.    In the  one  hundred  largest
enterprises women are not represented among  executive directors.  On boards
10 per  cent are women.   One  reason for  this may  be that  women seem  to
prefer the public sector rather than  the private sector. Furthermore, today
women  account for  52 and  55  per cent  of the  total  number  of students
enroling at  universities and  colleges.   In the traditional  maledominated
fields  such as  law, economics  and  engineering,  the percentage  of women
candidates  is 53  per cent,  30 per  cent and  38 per  cent,  respectively.
Also, trade unions  and employers' organizations devote increased  attention
to the  absence of  women in  high positions  in private enterprises.   Some
enterprises have introduced  women's training programmes.  Moreover,  access
to the media usually  implies power.  In  recent decades, the  proportion of
women  among journalists  has increased.   In 1992, the  proportion of women
among journalists was  33 per  cent.  Among  media students, the  percentage
has been 58 per cent. Women's participation in  politics has made women  and
women's  interests  more  visible  in  the  media.    Also,  the  media have
contributed to the degree of equality enjoyed by Norwegian women today.

473.  The members  wanted to know  what substantive change has been  brought
about  by the  increase of  women in  the public  sector and  politics,  and
primarily  in  which sector  the  change  has  been most  significant.   The
representative stated that a  high number of women  in governance has made a
difference.   In Norway,  the most prominent  result has  been the  progress
achieved  in politics regarding  family responsibilities.   In  the last few
years, a rapid  expansion of  government-subsidized child-care  institutions
has been  noted.  Since 1986, parental leave has been expanded from 18 to 42
weeks  with full wage  compensation or  one full year with  80 per cent wage
compensation.  The costs  have been provided by  social insurance and not by
the employer.   The  time account scheme  and the father's  quota have  been
other  important  reforms in  this  area,  which  have  been implemented  in

periods otherwise  characterized by  economic recession.  The Government  of
Norway  believes  that  this  would  not  have  happened  without  the  high
representation of women in politics.

  Article 10

474.   The  members  wanted  to know  if there  are any  special educational
benefits for  women -  especially disadvantaged  women  and single  parents.
The representative explained that single mothers  are, on the whole,  better
educated than married women.   There is,  however, a limited number of  very
young single  women with  few formal  qualifications.   Single mothers  with
children up to the age of 10 are entitled  to benefits regardless of whether
they have been undergoing education.   Furthermore, single parents have been
entitled to  benefits under the National  Insurance Scheme  to cover various
costs in  connection  with education,  where education  has been  considered
necessary to qualify the  single parent for the  labour market.  The average
educational  benefit granted  is about  NKr 10,000  per year and  covers the
purchase of  necessary  books,  and  so  forth.   Students  have  also  been
entitled to favourable State loans during  periods of education, and  single
parent students  may add substantially to  their income  from other benefits
under the welfare state.

475.   Members  wanted  to  know how  the Government  is  supporting women's
studies.  The   representative  stated  that   women's  studies  have   been
established and  have acquired a considerable  reputation in  Norway.  Since
the 1980s, the Government has assumed  the responsibility for increasing the
number of  women researchers in all  fields, supporting  women's studies and
introducing them in educational institutions and  elsewhere.  As referred to
in the fourth periodic report, progress  has been made in institutionalizing
women's  studies.  Obstacles  remain, however,  in the  field of integrating
women's  studies in  university and  college  curricula,  and in  making the
results useful in the  education of children and youth.  Currently,  special
attention is given to teacher education.   The project Nord-LILIA, mentioned
in the fourth periodic  report, aims to strengthen the gender perspective in
the  method  and content  of  teacher  training.   The  Government  has been
instructing the  National Research Council to  evaluate how women's  studies
are approached in the universities.

  Article 11

476.  As to the increased participation  of women in non-traditional fields,
members wanted  to know if that  had been  sufficiently institutionalized in
different  industrial sectors.   The representative  answered that the third
periodic report mentioned projects which aim  to increase the  participation
of  women in non-traditional  fields.   The "BRYT" policy  had, however, not
changed  the  gender  roles  in  the  fields  of  education  and occupation.
Furthermore, structural  changes and increasing  unemployment in many  male-
dominated sectors had contributed to  restructuring.  Moreover,  measures to
encourage women to choose traditionally male-dominated occupations had  been
actively supported by the Government.

 477.   Although Norway's  population is  highly industrialized and educated
with  extensive  social   security  coverage,  the  occupational  and   wage
differentials  still remain significant.   Members  wanted to  know what was
being  done  to  reduce these  inequalities.   What  are  the obstacles  and
reasons that  impede  equal  treatment  and equal  salary  for women?    The
representative stated that Norway  had come a long  way towards the  goal of
equality between women and men,  but pay equity was still  a matter of great
concern.  Equal pay is not to be  taken as a matter of course because of the
high level of education and workforce  participation.  Norway experienced  a
negative trend  in  the  1980s  and faced  the  fact  that progress  is  not
continuous.  It is apparently  easy to reach agreement on the goal of  equal
pay, but the choice of means  is far more controversial.   The fact that the
labour  market  is gender-segregated  with  women  in the  lowest  positions
requires  measures on the  macroeconomic level.   The  Government is working
for an integration of the topic  into the labour market policy  and the wage

setting in general.   The Norwegian Government  has made efforts to  address
the gender issue and  the wage gap in the unions, in employer  organizations
and the  bargaining system.   Furthermore,  statistics and  facts about  the
wage gap are at present integrated in the  document that forms the basis for
collective  bargaining.  The  present policies  seek to  improve the working
conditions and payment in the traditional  female-dominated sectors.  A tool
for  this  can  be  job  classification  systems.    The Government  is  now
developing non-discriminatory programmes for job evaluation.   The aim is to
develop job evaluation  for use  in all  parts of  the labour  market.   The
unions  have shown great  interest in  these measures and will  take part in
these programmes.

478.   However, the  representative stated  that  the Government  is of  the
opinion  that legislation plays a limited role in  eliminating the wage gap.
Legislation is  aimed, primarily,  at securing individual rights.   However,
improvements  are  continuously  being  made  in   order  to  make  it  more
effective.   The Government  and the  Gender Equality  Ombudsman are  taking
joint  action to  inform the  public  more  thoroughly about  women's rights
under  the Act.   The aim is to encourage women  to make use of these rights
in all  sectors,  including  in working  life. Furthermore,  the  Government
plans  to introduce provisions  on action  plans for  gender equality, which
will  apply to  employers  who  engage a  certain minimum  of persons.   The
employers will  be expected  to  conduct an  annual survey  which shows  the
situation with respect  to gender equality  and to  make concrete plans  for
promotion of  gender equality  for the  next year.   Another  project is  to
establish  a  "check-list" on  equal pay.   This  list is  supposed to  be a
practical tool for organs working for the achievement  of equal pay, such as
gender equality machinery, social partners and employees.

479.  Members wanted to know why there has been a significant rise of  women
in  the  political  hierarchy,  while,  at  the  same  time,  discrimination
persists in the area of employment, especially as regards the type of  work,
conditions, hours  and wage gap.   What is  the situation  in private sector
companies?  The representative  replied that the answer to this question had
already been covered in other replies.

480.   The report  gives the  impression that women have  a choice between a
long working  day or a shorter  one with a  lower pay scale.   It would seem
that  work is not equitably distributed between men and women.  On the other
hand,  it seems that supplementary  pensions are calculated  on the basis of
"points",  a  system   that  favours  those  who  have  performed   regular,
uninterrupted service.   The  revised system  for calculating  supplementary
pensions has not eliminated  the gap between the  pensions of men and women.
Members wanted to know if there  were plans to  draft a law to do away  with
this gap.  The representative stated that the  Norwegian pension system is a
two-tier system:   a  basic pension  for  all citizens  regardless of  their
source of income before being pensioned, and a  supplementary pension on the
basis of  earned "pension points", calculated  each year  in accordance with
income  and paid  for  through  taxes.   The  system  as a  whole  posits  a
comparatively  strong  redistribution of  income:    the  better  off get  a
smaller percentage of their income  during their working years than the rest
of the society.   The better off,  however, still get a higher pension.   In
this kind of system, the gap between men  and women will reflect the gaps in
participation in working  life.  The main  factors behind the difference  in
male  and female average  points are  due to the fact  that typical "female"
jobs are  generally less well paid  than typical "male"  jobs.  At  present,
there are no  plans to change this  system.  The reason  for this is  that a
uniform and  compulsory pension system for  all, paid  for through taxation,
is an essential part  of a good welfare state and allows a much better basis
for  equality in  standards of  living for the  older population  than other
systems.

481.  Members  wanted to know  if there  is a statute  for immigrants.   The
report  emphasizes that  immigration to  Oslo is  abnormally high.    Do all
immigrants  come with  their families?    Under  the circumstances,  how are
female  immigrants integrated into  Norwegian society?   Do  the families of

immigrants  have the  right to work?   What  sort of work  do they do?   The
representative stated  that approximately 30 per  cent of  all immigrants in
Norway live  in the  capital. Immigrants  constitute 14.7  per  cent of  the
population in Oslo.   Immigration policy is based on genuine equality in the
status of immigrants and Norwegians. Immigrants  should be granted the  same
opportunities, rights and  obligations as  the rest of  the population.   In
the last  decade, immigration has been  dominated by  persons seeking asylum
and by family  reunions, including both foreign  wives of Norwegian  men and
wives and children of immigrant men who are  established in Norway.   Family
members of immigrants with a lawful  residence permit are generally entitled
to work.   Immigrants  are found in  several branches of  industry, such  as
within  oil and  gas extraction,  and  in  public services.  Immigrants from
developing countries are clearly overrepresented in certain  sectors such as
the  hotel  and restaurant  sectors,  cleaning,  and  certain  manufacturing
industries.   Immigrants, both  men and women, experience  unemployment more
frequently than the  rest of the  population.  It is also  a general concern
that the qualifications of immigrants are  not fully utilized.  Insufficient
command of  the Norwegian language and  various types  of discrimination are
among  negative  factors.     Programmes  to  facilitate  integration   into
Norwegian society, such as education in  language and vocational training in
segregated women's  groups, have  been offered.   Some  of these  programmes
also include  psychotherapy.  Furthermore,  there are  special training  and
education schemes for immigrants in the employment service.

482.  Members wanted to know what compensation  a woman can get when she has
been  discriminated against in  the workplace.   The  representative replied
that  according  to  the Gender  Equality  Act,  a person  who  wilfully  or
negligently violates the  provisions of the Act should be liable for damages
in accordance  with the  rules on ordinary  compensation.  A  woman who  has
experienced  discriminatory  treatment,   that  is,  in  relation  to   pay,
recruitment  or promotions,  can  sue  her  employer  for  compensation  for
economic loss caused by that  treatment.  The courts also  have the power to
overrule  discriminatory appointments.   Normally,  courts hesitate  to  use
this power where an appointment has already been made.

  Article 16

483.  The  report noted the increasing violence  committed by spouses.   The
Committee commended the legal measures taken  by the Norwegian Government in
this regard, in particular  the amendment of  section 228 of the Penal  Code
which allows the prosecution to prosecute unconditionally cases of  violence
in families.   Asked whether there  were any statistics  available on  this,
the representative explained that there are  no statistics available on  the
effect of  this amendment.  There  is reason to  believe, however, that  the
number of  prosecutions against violent spouses  has increased.   Statistics
from the early 1980s have showed that almost half of  the women who reported
violence committed  by spouses either did  not request  prosecution or later
withdrew their request. 

484.  The Committee wanted to know if fathers take responsibility for  their
children.  How often do they use their right to paternity leave?  Are  there
investigations and records  kept of complaints by  fathers that they  do not
have access to their children?  The representative stated  that surveys have
indicated that young fathers spend more time with their children today  than
such fathers  did  20  years ago.    On the  other  hand, fathers  of  young
children spend increasingly more  time in paid work as well as in  overtime.
Since April  1993, four weeks  of the parental  leave has  been reserved for
the  father, which are lost to the family if not taken by the father.  There
has also been a significant increase in the payment of parental benefits  to
fathers.  No  record of complaints  by fathers  has been  kept.   Statistics
concerning family  law, especially those  regarding lawsuits concerned  with
custody  and right  of  access, are  very poor.    There is  no  information
regarding the number of fathers who have been  prevented from access by  the
other parent.

Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

485.  The Committee applauded the State party  on an excellent presentation.
Norway was among the  first States parties to  ratify the Convention, and in
fact had submitted four reports to the Committee in due time.

  Positive aspects

486.    The Committee  applauded  the  Government  of  Norway for  directing
attention to the necessary  changes in men's roles and tasks as an important
element in achieving  true gender equality, including men's encouragement to
use their  right to  paternity leave  and to  increase their involvement  as
caretakers in the labour market.

487.  The Committee commended the achievements in  the areas of public life,
education, and  labour  market participation.    Several  of the  six  major
political  parties had  female leaders  and,  because  of the  quota system,
women  constituted almost 40 per  cent of all  committees.  Girls' education
had improved and it seemed  to continue to  rise.  The Committee noted  that
almost 50 per cent of the total numbers of pupils  in upper secondary school
were women.

488.   The Committee commends the  continuing amendment  to, and enhancement
of the Equal status Act to strengthen the role of the equality apparatus.

489.   The  Committee  also  welcomed  the  Government's  holistic  approach
towards solving the issues connected with prostitution.

  Principal subjects of concern

490.   The  Committee  expressed concern  about the  absence  of  women from
higher level management posts in the private sector.
  491.   The Committee was also concerned about the patterns of occupational
segregation in the labour  market and disparities  in wages between men  and
women. The  Committee expressed its concern  about the high  number of women
working  parttime,  as  well  as  about  the  pay  differentials  which were
reflected also in the pensions.

492.  The  Committee voiced concern over patterns of violence against women,
including incest.

  Suggestions and recommendations

493.    The  Committee  suggests  that  the  fifth  periodic  report include
information on the results  of the general review of the welfare programmes,
including  the scrutinization  of the  National Insurance Scheme;  it should
also provide  information on how  and to what  extent the  changes resulting
from the review have affected women.

494.   The  Committee  encourages the  Government to  take serious  steps to
address the  problem of violence  against women.   It further  suggests that
attention be  paid  to the  issue  of  violence  against migrant  women  and
trafficking in women.

495.   The Committee suggests that  the next report include more statistical
data on the women living in  Norway.  The Committee would  also like to have
more  information  concerning  general  recommendations,  in  particular  on
general recommendations 13, 18 and 19.


                                Russian Federation

496.  The Committee considered the third and  fourth periodic reports of the
Russian  Federation  (CEDAW/C/USR/3 and  4)  at  its  274th  meeting, on  26
January 1995.

497.   Introducing the  fourth periodic  report, the  representative of  the
State Party outlined  the current  economic, political and social  situation
in the Russian Federation and stressed that the  position of women should be
viewed  within the context  of the  problems generally  encountered in those
areas.  She stressed  the depth and permanent nature of the current  reforms
in the  Russian Federation and their  international implications.   She also
pointed to  the high  economic and  social costs  of restructuring and  to a
whole new set of issues that the Russian Federation has  had to deal with in
the  context  of  that  process.  Among  the  most  acute  issues  were  the
continuing  economic deterioration, the  decline in real incomes, the spread
of poverty, unemployment, massive migration and  a sharp worsening of living
standards for  what appeared to  be the majority  of the  population.  Those
problems were  further complicated by  serious ecological  problems and  the
deterioration of the physical and social  infrastructure caused by the sharp
decline in capital investment.

498.   Poverty had become a  widespread and  self-perpetuating condition for
many strata  of  the  population.    There  was  a  real  danger  of  inter-
generational  transfer  of poverty,  since many  children in  poor families,
particularly  in  single-parent  households,  were  faced  with  a   limited
opportunity  to  develop as  they  lacked  books, toys  and  other  aids  to
intellectual  and   spiritual  growth.  Poverty   in  Russia  was   becoming
increasingly feminized  and women  comprised 70  per cent  of the  country's
unemployed.    The  high  rate  of  unemployment  among  Russian  women  was
primarily due  to the  rapid restructuring  and privatization  of industries
employing a large proportion  of female labour.  The majority of  unemployed
women  were highly  educated, but  the  duration  of their  unemployment was
twice as long  as that of men.  Social tensions, intensified  by reform, had
led to a resurgence of  stereotyping of the role of  women and to  calls for
their return to their "natural functions".   Although national machinery for
the advancement  of  women had  been  established  and its  functioning  had
protected women from some of the adverse consequences of reform, it had  not
as yet  been able fully to articulate women's interests so  as to affect the
course of  reform.  Women  remained  debarred from  economic  and  political
decision-making.

499.   The representative  informed the members  of the  Committee that  the
Government of the  Russian Federation,  having realized that the  monetarist
underpinning of the  first wave of  economic reform provided only  a limited
set of social protection measures,  had emphasized the provision of a proper
level of social protection as the main  requirement for the continuation  of
economic reform.   She assured  members of the  Committee that,  in spite of
the current economic and political crisis in the Russian Federation and  the
sharp reduction  in the capacity of  the State to achieve  the goals set  by
the Convention,  the Government remained dedicated  to the  goals of women's
advancement  and the  elimination of  discrimination against them  and would
continue  to take measures  directed at  alleviating the  negative impact of
transformation on women and improving their economic and social position.

General observations

500.    Members  thanked  the  Government  for  its  report  and  noted  its
comprehensive and  frank  nature.   They  noted,  however, that  the  fourth
periodic report had a number of major weaknesses, among which the  following
should  be  mentioned.  Firstly,  there  were  few  references  to  specific
policies, programmes and  activities being  undertaken by the Government  in
connection with the provisions of the  Convention.  In addition, the limited
number  of statistics provided  did not  make it possible to  grasp the real
dimensions of the situation.  Thus, the report was largely theoretical  and,
to some  extent, incomplete in  nature.  It  was rather  difficult to assess
how  the  status  of  women  had  evolved  and  what  initiatives  had  been
undertaken by  the Government  since the  restructuring of  the country  had
begun.

501.  Members expressed concern that  the special temporary measures adopted
did not  cover issues  like increasing  women's influence in  policy or  the

market economy,  their possibilities  in higher  positions, pay  differences
and other forms of discrimination in  working life and the  health situation
of women.  It  seemed to  be a fact that  poverty in the Russian  Federation
was a female phenomenon.

502.  Members  noted with  concern that  with the end  of communism and  the
introduction of  the new system,  changes had  taken place in  the political
and economic  spheres.   While  the  restructuring  process had  entailed  a
series  of  progressive developments  in  society  as  a  whole, women  were
encountering greater  disadvantages as  a result  of the  increase in  their
workload,  inadequate child-care  services and shrinking  job opportunities;
social changes were leading  to a stratification that went beyond the social
plane and  was also  directly apparent  between the  sexes.  Yet  the report
said little about the  economic crisis and the  impact of stabilization  and
adjustment policies on women.  A more detailed explanation should have  been
given  of the  way in  which the burden  of inflation had  fallen on women's
shoulders  and   increased  their  workload,   given  that  the   adjustment
programmes  had caused  prices to  rise and  wages to  be frozen, presumably
forcing women to forgo certain common  services that were formerly available
to them.
  Questions relating to specific articles

  Article 3

503.  Responding to  a question on national  machinery for the  coordination
of  policies dealing  with women  and  on  its responsibilities,  status and
authority,  the representative,  referring to  the fourth  periodic  report,
informed  members of the  Committee that  such machinery,  with mandates for
women,  the  family  and  children,  had  been established  within  federal,
regional  and  local  governments  and   that  it  cooperated   with  public
organizations.   A Commission for Women, the Family and  Demography had been
established in the office  of the President of the Russian Federation.   The
Commission  was   a  collective  advisory   body  for  the  formulation  and
coordination  of   government  policy   for  achieving   equal  rights   and
opportunities for  men and  women.   A Committee  on Women,  the Family  and
Youth had been established in  the State Duma.  A Department for Women,  the
Family  and  Children's Questions  existed  within  the Ministry  of  Social
Defence.  It coordinated State policy on the family, the social equality  of
women and child  development.  The Department worked in cooperation with the
federal  executive  and legislative  branches  of  the  State.   A  National
Preparatory Council  for  the Fourth  World  Conference  on Women  had  been
established.   It  consolidated  the  efforts  of  the  State  and  of  non-
governmental organizations to improve the situation  of women and to develop
the State's social policy and its legal base.

504.  Concerning a question raised  on State programmes for  the advancement
of women, the representative  replied that the aim  of those programmes  was
to  create conditions  for the  realization  of  the principles  of equality
between  men  and  women  in  terms  of their  access  to  legal  rights and
freedoms.   Such  programmes included  the  provision  of support  to  women
candidates for election, the nomination  of women as candidates for posts at
various levels  of  the executive  and  legislative  branches, a  system  of
control of  the  implementation  of  decisions,  and  cooperation  with  the
Government and  with trade unions and  non-governmental organizations.   One
of the main  goals of those  programmes was to help women  with their family
obligations and to  achieve an equal distribution of family responsibilities
between men and women.

505.  Replying to  a question  on the role of  women in economic and  social
decision-making and  the  integration of  their concerns  into economic  and
social  planning,  the representative,  referring  to  the  fourth  periodic
report,  informed the Committee  that women  in the  Russian Federation were
not adequately  represented at the decision-making  level.   The problems of
women's participation  in economic  and political  decision-making had  been
discussed  at a  National Conference  on  Women  in Development  in December
1994.   She  further stated  that the  current strategy  for increasing  the

participation  of women in  decisionmaking was directed at the restructuring
of  the existing  system of  societal  governance  by the  enactment of  the
necessary  laws,   the  creation  of   the  necessary   conditions  and  the
development of special programmes for the training of women.

506.   In reply  to questions  by members  of the  Committee concerning  the
resettlement of refugees,  including women, the representative recalled  the
extent, dimensions and causes of migration in  the Russian Federation.   She
stated that  the Federal  Migration Service  of the  Russian Federation  had
been established in 1991.   As at 1 January 1994, 447,900 refugees had  been
registered, of  which women accounted for  53.4 per cent.  Refugees received
payments  equal to  the minimum  wage  and  were entitled  to interest-free,
long-term credit, which had  been paid to 6,700 refugee families in 1992 and
1993.

   Article 4

507.  With regard  to special measures to  guarantee de facto  equality, the
representative  stated that  the law  did  not  allow discrimination  on the
basis of  sex.  She also informed them that reform of the legislation of the
Russian Federation for purposes of ensuring equality was under way.

  Article 5

508.   In response to a  question on what had been done to ensure that women
were fairly  portrayed in  the media,  the representative  stated that  that
issue, among  other concerns of women,  was systematically  addressed by the
programmes on State  television and radio.   The purpose of those programmes
was to inform  women of their rights and to draw public attention to women's
problems.  She named a number of  popular programmes that addressed  women's
issues and concerns.   She noted, however, that the stereotyping of the role
of women and their place  in society sometimes  took place in the media  and
in the press.

509.  Members  of the Committee wanted to  know whether the Government  made
systematic  studies of  forms of  violence  directed  against women  and the
consequences of  abuse  suffered by  them.    In reply,  the  representative
stated  that  her   Government  interpreted  violence  against  women  as  a
violation  of  their  human  rights.     She  provided  the  Committee  with
statistics  on various forms  of violence  against women  and information on
the consequences  of such  violence for the  lives and health  of the  women
subjected  to it.  In  September 1994, the National  Preparatory Council for
the Fourth World Conference  on Women had convened  a meeting to discuss the
1993  Declaration  on  the  Elimination  of  Violence  against  Women.   The
National Platform for the Advancement of  Women contained a separate section
dealing with action for  the prevention of violence against women.  She also
informed the Committee that in 1993, 14,400 rape  cases had been registered.
In that year,  the total number  of crimes  involving women  as victims  was
331,800.  As a result of  those crimes, 14,500 women had died and 56,400 had
suffered mutilation or other bodily injury.   The representative stated that
the legislation  of  the Russian  Federation  regarded  rape as  a  criminal
offence punishable by long-term imprisonment.   She recognized the need  for
shelters and mentioned the attempt to  establish rehabilitation centres  for
the victims.  Attention was given to the  identification of the profiles  of
violators in order  to improve the prevention of such crimes.  She also said
that, in order to  combat violence against women,  solutions should be found
to current economic and social  problems, inter-ethnic conflicts and decline
in the living standards of the population.

510.  Responding to  the question concerning the  role of the  family during
the  period  of  transition  and  the  increase  of  the  burden  of  family
responsibilities  on  women,  the  representative  said  that  although  her
Government  considered the  distribution of  family responsibilities  as  an
internal family matter,  it nevertheless viewed egalitarian distribution  of
those responsibilities as  desirable and conducted  policies directed at the
encouragement  of equal  participation of  men  and  women in  parenting and

caring for family members.   She also stated  that the expansion of economic
freedom of  Russian women  would help  to  liberate them  from the  everyday
burden of domestic work.

  Article 6

511.  One expert  cited an independent  non-governmental organization source
of  information  on  prostitution  in  the   major  cities  of  the  Russian
Federation, and requested  more information on prostitution and on  measures
that the Government had  taken to address those  problems.  In response, the
representative stated  that although  it was not  appropriate to refer  to a
source other than the report under  discussion, she nevertheless was willing
to comment on some  aspects of that phenomenon.   She referred the Committee
to  the  fourth   periodic  report,  where  the  legislation  dealing   with
prostitution  was described.   She  stated that  the law  did not  establish
criminal  liability for prostitution,  but corruption  of minors, keeping of
brothels  and  procuring   for  pecuniary  gain  were  considered   criminal
offences.   She also informed  members that there  was no  department in the
Russian  Federation dealing  with prostitution and, therefore,  there was no
reliable source of  information and statistics  on that issue.   She  stated
that  prostitutes did  not undergo  any  additional medical  examination and
could be  held responsible for their  actions only in an administrative way,
in other words, they could be fined.

512.    The  representative stated  that  the  Government  did  not  seek to
determine whether marriages between Russian women  and foreign citizens were
genuine.    She also  pointed out  that because  legal illiteracy  was quite
widespread,  it was  conceivable that  some  Russian  women could  have been
taken abroad  on fictional  contracts.  She  referred to the  fact that  the
Russian  Federation  had  joined  Interpol,  which  might  help  to  address
problems of prostitution and associated criminal acts.

  Article 7

513.  In  response to a  question concerning  the representation of  Russian
women in  Parliament and the generally  undemocratic situation with  respect
to women's  participation in political  decision-making, the  representative
replied that, after a decrease, there had lately been a notable increase  in
the activities of women and in their self-confidence.   There were now  more
women  leaders in  public movements  and  political  parties in  the Russian
Federation.  The  political movement "Women of  Russia" had been  founded in
October 1993 and  was represented in  the Parliament.  Its main  goal was to
promote the  socio-political role of  Russian women and  to advance them  to
decision-making  positions.     Although  women's   representation  in   the
legislative organs  of the  federal Government had  somewhat improved,  they
were  still significantly underrepresented  in the upper echelons of federal
ministries.  In 1995, there were only two women ministers. The strategy  for
the integration of women in decision-making  was directed at the development
and implementation of special programmes for  the training and promotion  of
decisive, able and competent women.

514.   In  her  answer  to the  question  concerning measures  taken by  her
Government to  ensure that  the level  of women's  representation in  public
life did not decline, particularly in  rural areas, the representative  said
that  legislation in  the  Russian Federation  contained  no  discriminatory
rules limiting  the participation  of  women in  the political  life of  the
country.  She pointed  out that the old  system of quotas,  although helping
to  soften the effects of discrimination on women,  was an old-fashioned way
to address  the problem and new methods should be sought.   In that respect,
she  emphasized  the  greater political  participation of  women,  which was
rising.   Women's  organizations were  an  integral  part of  the  country's
socio-political structure,  but many of  them were  still in the  process of
being  built  and  were  faced  with  a   variety  of  difficulties.     The
representative  informed members of  the Committee that special measures had
been formulated to find  competent women to stand for election to  executive
bodies.

   Article 10

515.   In response  to the  question on  government initiatives  to evaluate
sexism in the educational system, the representative  responded that article
5  of  the Education  Act of  the  Russian Federation  guaranteed access  to
education regardless  of  various factors,  including  sex.   Women  in  the
Russian  Federation  had equal  access  with  men  to  higher and  technical
education  with  the  exception  of  some  occupations  where  operation  of
hazardous  machinery  or performance  of  physically  strenuous  tasks  were
required.   Some restrictions  on women's participation in those occupations
were  spelt  out in  job  descriptions.    The  representative informed  the
Committee that the proportion of  women in higher educational establishments
was stable.

  Article 11

516.   Responding to  the question on  the high rate  of unemployment  among
Russian women, the representative said that the right  to work and the right
to   non-discriminatory  treatment  in  the  labour  market  were  the  most
difficult and contradictory  questions to be  addressed under the conditions
of the fledgling market  economy.  She stated  that women had  accounted for
almost  70 per cent of the unemployed in 1993 and  explained that it was the
result of  the restructuring  of  "women's branches  of the  economy".   She
pointed out, however, that the proportion  of women among the unemployed was
expected  to decline to  60 to 65 per cent as  the first stage of the reform
had now been completed.   She also informed members that the Government  had
just  begun to  regulate labour relations  under the conditions  of a market
economy and based its  policies on the principles of assistance to the needy
and  of   strengthening  conditions  for   the  development  of   employment
opportunities.

517.   Regarding  discrimination against  women  in  the labour  market, the
representative informed  the Committee that  the Government had never stated
explicitly or  implicitly that women  should confine themselves  exclusively
to  matters of  family  and  home-making.   At  the same  time,  freedom  of
expression  allowed  some  journalists  and  politicians  to  express  their
personal views regarding the  role of women in the economy and society.  She
noted that  there was  unequal treatment  of women  and men  in the  private
sector, though women  who had been  discriminated against were free  to turn
to  the  courts  for  the  resolution  of  discrimination  cases,  even when
companies were closing.

518.  As regards  the disparities in remuneration between men and women, the
representative informed the Committee that salaries  of women were lower not
because  of discrimination, but  because they  were employed  in the sectors
dependent on  the State  budget.   The  average salary  of  a  woman in  the
Russian Federation  was one  third lower  than that  of men.   On the  other
hand, when women held  jobs comparable to  those of  men, they were paid  at
the same rate.

519.   Concerning special treatment given  to pregnant  women, members asked
how the policies of maternity leave and  benefits had been implemented under
conditions of  scarcity.   In response,  the representative  said that  such
measures had been taken and were discussed in the fourth periodic report.

520.    Members  of  the Committee  wished  to  know  the  value  of  family
allowances in  real terms compared with  the period  before economic reform.
The representative said that  the analysis of  changes in the real value  of
family  allowances was  complicated because  of the  difference between  the
purchasing power  of the family  income and its  nominal value.   Changes in
the structure  of allowances  constituted  the other  source of  complexity.
She informed the  Committee that as at the  end of 1993, there were  several
types of  allowances available  to families  with dependent  children.   The
size of the allowance  was determined on the basis  of the age  of dependent
children  and the  number  of income-providers  in  the family.    She  also
informed the Committee  that since  1992, families  with dependent  children

were entitled to a tax deduction per dependent child.

  Article 12

521.  In response to the question on the impact of structural adjustment  on
the  provision of  and access  to health  care  by  women and  children, the
representative informed  the Committee  that access  to health  care in  her
country was guaranteed  by the  Constitution.   The health  care system  was
being transformed  from a system based on  the State budget  to one based on
private  insurance.   The State  guaranteed access  to free  health care  to
women and children.

522.   In connection  with the  question regarding  the impact of  the human
immunodeficiency  virus/acquired  immunodeficiency  syndrome  (HIV/AIDS)  on
women  in   the  Russian  Federation,   the  representative  said  that  the
Government  considered  this  a  priority  task  and  a  matter  of national
security.   She informed the Committee  that in January  1994, 264 cases  of
women with HIV had been registered in the Russian Federation of whom 42  per
cent were  girls and of  whom 33  had been pregnant when  diagnosed with the
virus.   The Government had drafted a law on the prevention of the spread of
HIV/AIDS in  the  Russian Federation,  which  was  now being  considered  by
legislative organs of the Government.

523.  Responding  to the question  on family  planning and  the request  for
recent  data on that  issue, the  representative stated  that the Government
was financing a  federal programme to  establish family-planning  offices in
all medical establishments.  The programme  aimed at greater availability of
contraceptives and a  reduction in  the number of  abortions.  She  informed
the  Committee  that  in  1994  25  family-planning centres  were  operating
throughout  the Russian Federation  and, as a  result of  that, the abortion
rate had declined to 94 per 1,000 women from 114 per 1,000 in 1990.

  Article 14

524.  Concerning the  impact of fertilizers and pesticides on the health  of
women  farmers  and  their children,  the  representative  stated  that  her
Government had taken a  number of measures directed at improving the life of
rural  women.    Women  in rural  areas  were  in  some  cases  entitled  to
additional  benefits.   Women below  the age  of 35 were  not allowed  to be
assigned  to work with poisons,  pesticides and disinfectants.   There was a
specific list of  occupations and  places where  women were  not allowed  to
work.   The  Ministry  of Agriculture  and Food  had  developed  a programme
directed at the introduction of greater  automation and reduction of  manual
work in the areas that were especially harmful to human health.

525.    Experts   requested  some  additional  information  on   rural-urban
migration involving women.   The representative  replied that migration from
rural areas was caused by the  lack of prestigious employment  opportunities
in those areas.  She  stressed that unemployment could not be viewed as  the
single most important  cause of migration because women from rural areas had
little chance  of finding employment  in the cities.   She  also pointed out
that  migration from rural  to urban  areas had always been  typical for the
Russian Federation and in  the past had been the result of the  urbanization
policy.

 526.   In  connection with  the  question  on the  marketing infrastructure
available   to  rural   women,   the  representative   replied   that   such
infrastructure was at the initial stage of its  development.  The Government
expected that  in the  future it would  be widely accessible  to all  people
employed within the agro-industrial complex.

  Article 16

527.   One expert commented that, according to various  media reports, there
had been  an alarming  increase in the  number of homeless  children in  the
Russian Federation.   She wanted to  know what  the reason for that  was and

what measures had been taken by  the Government to address the problem.  The
representative responded that  every year  in the Russian Federation  60,000
unsupervised minors were arrested for vagrancy  and criminal activity.   She
informed the Committee that at present  there were 59 social  rehabilitation
centres, 151 orphanages and 5 centres  for assistance to children  operating
in  the country.    The activities  of those  institutions were  directed at
finding caring homes for children without families.

Additional comments and questions

528.  Members of the Committee  applauded the in-depth, substantive  answers
provided  by  the representative  in  response  to  questions  posed by  the
Committee. One member expressed her concern  about the system of  quotas and
the  fact  that the  Government  seemed  to  have  completely discarded  the
potential  usefulness of  quotas  as a  tool  for the  facilitation  of  the
advancement  of women.   She  said that  she could  not see how  the Russian
Federation could  improve women's  participation in  decision-making without
obliging political parties to incorporate women  into politics.  She further
stated  that  quotas had  been used  successfully  in  many countries.   She
expressed her  hope  that the  creation  of  women's organizations  and  the
greater  involvement of women  in politics  could help  the incorporation of
their interests into the economics and politics of the transition.

529.  In  response to that  comment, the  representative said that  although
quotas  might be of  some use  in the  facilitation of  women's advancement,
Russian  women felt demeaned by them.  She said that her Government saw more
opportunities  for the improvement of  the situation of women in the Russian
Federation through  encouraging women's political  participation.  She  said
that  it was  essential to  get more women  involved in the  work of women's
organizations and political parties.

530.   Another  expert  expressed her  concern  that women  in  the  Russian
Federation,  like  in   many  other  countries  that  underwent   structural
adjustment, were the main  victims of the negative effects of the transition
process.  She said that during the period of transition, Russian women  were
exposed  to discrimination  from both  the old  and  the  new systems.   She
further  expressed her  concern over  the  feminization  of poverty  and its
devastating consequences.   She commented on  the segregation  of the labour
market  and expressed her hope that the new system would be able to overcome
that impediment to the advancement of women.

531.   Another expert  was concerned  with the  resurgence of  stereotyping.
She  pointed  out  that  the  stereotyping  of the  role  of  women  was not
addressed  under the  old system  and there  existed a  real danger  of  its
perpetuation.  She stressed the need  for addressing women's individual  and
not just family-related  needs.  She  also expressed  her concern about  the
current  internal war  in the  Russian  Federation  and its  consequences in
terms of loss of life and drain of much-needed financial resources.

532.  One  expert made a comment about  the impact of structural  adjustment
on social services and the deteriorating  health of the Russian  population.
She was  especially concerned about widespread  illnesses of  the lungs, the
digestive  system  and the  nervous  system  among  Russian  children.   She
requested more  information on the causes  of those illnesses,  particularly
nervous disorders.

533.   In  response to  that  comment,  the representative  cited ecological
reasons,  poverty and worsening nutritional standards as  possible causes of
the widespread deterioration in the health of Russian citizens.

534.  A comment  was made concerning  the scope  of new social and  economic
problems that  had to  be dealt  with by the  Government in  the context  of
transition.   The  problems of  poverty,  the  deterioration of  the  health
system and  the decline in the provision of social  services were mentioned.
In that  context, the  expert expressed her  fear that  continuation of  the
reform would  lead to  further deterioration in  standards of living  in the

country.  She felt,  however, that there were  some positive developments as
well.   She thought  that economic  and political  crises brought  a greater
awareness   of   women's   problems   and   encouraged   women's   political
participation.  She advised the Government of the Russian Federation to  use
the Committee in its efforts to reform the economy and society.

535.  One member  commented on the need  for more special temporary measures
to  help Russian  women achieve  full  integration  of their  interests into
economic and social policy-making during the period of transition.

536.   Another  expert expressed  her concern  about the  growing number  of
prostitutes in the Russian  Federation, who operated not only in the Russian
Federation  but  also in  other  countries  where  their  human rights  were
constantly  violated.  She said that there were  many Russian prostitutes in
Turkey  and some  of  them were  infected  with  HIV.   She  requested  some
information on what happened to Russian  prostitutes who were deported  from
Turkey and other countries.   She felt that such information was needed  for
better monitoring of women's human rights.

Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

537.  The Committee appreciated the frank appraisal  of the situation in the
fourth periodic report of  the Russian Federation, as well as the frank oral
presentation.  In  contrast to the third  periodic report, it revealed  that
the  excellent legal framework  for the advancement of  women in the Russian
Federation  neither automatically  guaranteed nor led to  the realization of
non-discrimination and equality  of rights and opportunities between men and
women.    Furthermore, as  was  clearly  indicated  in  the fourth  periodic
report,  achievements by  and  for  women,  made  in  the  past  were  being
threatened by the current social and economic upheavals.

  Positive aspects

538.  The Committee appreciated the inclusion in  the fourth periodic report
of a list of  laws that revealed that, between 1990 and 1993, the Government
of  the Russian Federation had seriously endeavoured to adhere to the gender
principle  in  most  aspects  of  law,   from  the  Constitution  (1993)  to
Presidential Decrees and Ministerial Regulations and Instructions.

539.   In  spite of  all the problems  faced by the  Russian Federation, the
Committee  appreciated  the substantial  changes  being  introduced  in  the
educational system of the country.

540.   The Committee  also noted  with satisfaction  the statement  that the
Government  of the  Russian Federation  had  the  intention of  applying the
spirit and letter of the Convention in order  to ameliorate the situation of
women during the period of transition.

  Principal subjects of concern

541.  The Committee  considered as the most critical matter whether all  the
laws and regulations,  which had been listed  in the fourth periodic  report
had actually been implemented to women's benefit.

542.   The Committee expressed  its concern as  to the  deterioration in the
lot  of  women  and  children  (e.g.   in  their  health,  life  expectancy,
employment opportunities,  and educational  opportunities), which  seemed to
be profound,  despite recognition of  women's political, economic and social
rights.

543.    The  Committee  also  expressed   its  concern  over  the  following
consequences of  the  transformation from  a  Marxist  society to  a  market
economy with deregulated  and privatized property and the inherent economic,
political and social changes:

  (a)  Difficulties in achieving the goals of the Convention;

  (b)  Increase in the social vulnerability of part of the population;

  (c)   Severe constraints on  women's ability to exercise their equality of
opportunity.

544.   The Committee  expressed serious  concern about  the deterioration of
the structure  of the society  as a result  of restructuring  of the country
leading to mass migration.

545.  The Committee also expressed  concern about the transition's  negative
impact on  the health of the  population, especially women  and children, in
particular  as regards  tuberculosis, and  the  decline  in the  birth rate,
being in fact  exceeded by the death rate, which affected the  growth of the
population.   The Committee  was equally concerned about  the quality of the
population's diet and the subsequent increase in maternal mortality.

546.  The Committee  expressed its deep concern  that all those problems had
a serious impact on women  in their roles in the  family and affected  their
ability to  earn an income  and participate in  education and  all facets of
the society.

547.    The Committee  was  also  concerned  that  inadequate public  health
financing had led to  a reduction in  guaranteed state medical aid to  women
and  children, while state  expenditure for  education in  general was being
curtailed.

548.   The Committee  was equally  concerned that  women's unemployment  had
increased ninefold and  that it equally  hit women  with little  as well  as
with high level training.   Concern was  also expressed about the fact  that
women received on average 30 per cent less pay than men.
    Suggestions and recommendations

549.   The Committee strongly recommends  that in the  light of the  serious
consequences  of the  current economic  restructuring during  the period  of
transition  the  Government  should  implement, as  a  matter  of  priority,
emergency  economic measures  to  alleviate the  acute suffering  of Russian
women.

550.  The Committee recommends that the  Russian Federation have a mechanism
within  its  federal administration  with  sufficient  staff  and  resources
encharged with  initiating and  coordinating  the overall  policy level  for
women and  with  implementing the  content of  the Convention.   The  person
heading such mechanism should be at the highest  possible level in order  to
have an impact on  all the decisions  of the Government which affect  women.
In view of the size of the country and the great number  of inhabitants, the
Committee considered  as appropriate  the need  for such  mechanisms at  all
levels.

551.   The Committee suggests  that special  temporary measures be  taken to
promote  the  participation  of   women  at  the  decision-making  level  in
different fields, including at the highest levels.

552.     The  Committee   recommends  that  the  subsequent  report  provide
information on the consequences of the political restructuring on women.

--5.  Reports submitted on an exceptional basis

553.   The Committee  considered a report submitted  on an exceptional basis
through the presentation  of the report by  the State concerned, followed by
questions by the experts and answers by the State.

554.   In her opening  remarks, the  Chairperson of  the Committee  recalled
that, at  its twelfth  session, in 1993,  the Committee  had decided,  inter
alia, that  it should,  pursuant to  article 18 of  the Convention,  request

States of  the territory  of the  former Yugoslavia  to submit  a report  or
reports on an exceptional basis and that such a report or  reports should be
considered at  the next  session.   In addition,  the Committee  had put  on
record its commitment to look into similar grave violations of rights  being
experienced by women in any part of the world. 9/

555.  She also noted  that, in accordance with the  practice of other  human
rights treaty  bodies,  the Committee,  deeply  concerned  about recent  and
current  events in  the territory  of  the  former Yugoslavia  affecting the
human rights of women protected under the Convention, having noted that  all
the women  within the  territory of the  former Yugoslavia were  entitled to
the  guarantees of the  Convention, finding  that the new  States within the
boundaries of the former Yugoslavia had  succeeded to the obligations of the
former  Yugoslavia under the Convention, and acting under  article 18 of the
Convention, had requested certain States within  the territory of the former
Yugoslavia,  in particular Bosnia  and Herzegovina,  Croatia and the Federal
Republic of  Yugoslavia (Serbia  and Montenegro),  to submit  reports on  an
exceptional basis within the mandate  given by the Committee  at its twelfth
session.  Croatia was unable  to submit its  report to the Committee at  its
thirteenth session and it was agreed that it would submit  its report to the
Committee at the fourteenth session.


Croatia

556.    The  Committee considered  the  report  of  Croatia  that  had  been
requested on  an exceptional  basis at  CEDAW's thirteenth  session, at  its
279th meeting, on 31 January 1995 (see CEDAW/C/CRO/SP.1).

557.  The representative of Croatia made a  statement in which she  informed
the Committee about the  protection of human rights  of women in her country
and  on how  the war  in Croatia  had affected  women.   She emphasized that
women's ability  to  exercise their  human  rights  and participate  at  all
levels of decision-making in  her country should be  considered in the light
of  the  complex situation  of  the  war,  which affected  various  parts of
Croatia  differently.    In  the  first   part  of  her  presentation,   the
representative  informed  members  of  the  Committee  about  the   Croatian
legislation pertaining to  women's economic, social and political roles. The
Croatian  legislation was  in full  compliance  with  the provisions  of the
Convention  and the representative identified the various  laws and measures
in Croatia that ensured equality of human rights of men and women  according
to those provisions.   In Croatia  there were  no laws  or regulations  that
discriminated against women.  She also drew attention to the high  standards
of  the protection  of women  at work,  during maternity  and in  health  in
general.  She pointed out,  however, that in spite of laws and measures that
guaranteed women's equality  in all spheres  of life  in Croatia, women  did
not  use the existing legislation to its fullest  extent, particularly in so
far as their  rights to equal political  participation were concerned.   She
pointed  out that  the war  in her country  prevented women  from benefiting
fully from the enabling legislative environment, and as a result of the  war
women  in Croatia  suffered  maltreatment, torture,  humiliation,  degrading
treatment and rape.

558.  The representative of Croatia stated that  women accounted for 23  per
cent of  all wounded and  20 per cent of killed civilians.   Twelve per cent
of  wounded  women suffered  disabilities  and  serious  bodily  impairment.
Women accounted for 24 per cent  of forcibly disappeared or missing persons.
The  disturbing violations of  women's rights  in which  women were  used as
part of the  tactic (as tools) of  ethnic cleansing had  taken place  at the
end of 1991 and the beginning of 1992.   Women were captured and detained in
prisons, where, according to the accounts of  some of the 744 women who were
subsequently released from  camps in Serbia,  the conditions  were extremely
poor.  Women were maltreated and often  beaten.  The representative  pointed
out that more than half of the detained women were  older than 45.  Children
were  also detained  in prisons  and camps  along with  women.   There  were
accounts of mass rape  of women.  The pattern and time of occurrence of mass

rape suggested strongly that  it was used  as a method of ethnic  cleansing.
Rapes  were perpetrated within  the occupied  territories of  Croatia and in
the detention camps located in Serbia.

559.   The problem  of forcibly disappeared or  missing persons involves two
categories of women victims:  women  who are themselves forcibly disappeared
and  missing, and women  whose family  members are  forcibly disappeared and
missing. All this causes the most complex problems.

560.  The  Croatian Government organized the  provision of help and  support
to victims  of war.   It made  a commendable effort  to collect  information
relating to the violation  of women's rights by encouraging women to provide
the testimonies of those violations.   Testimonies by women constituted  not
only the source of  information on violations of women's rights, but also  a
form of psychological  support and therapy that  were badly needed by  women
who had experienced the  physical and emotional scars of rape.  Five hundred
testimonies  of  women  victims  of  various   forms  of  maltreatment  were
collected.   Among those cases rape  accounted for 10 per  cent.  Sixty  per
cent  of  raped  women  were,  at  the same  time,  victims  of  torture and
maltreatment.   It is believed,  however, that  the actual  number of  raped
women  is much  higher than  that  reported.   For cultural,  religious  and
historical reasons  women sometimes do  not report sexual abuse  or deny its
occurrence.   As  a  consequence of  rape, four  children  were born.    The
representative of  Croatia stated that all  such children were  cared for by
their mothers and their  respective families, by foster  families or by  the
appropriate government institutions.

561.   The  Government of  Croatia had  made significant efforts  to provide
assistance to 103,671 displaced and 111,017  refugee women in the  territory
of Croatia  who had  suffered violations  of their  human rights,  including
rape  and maltreatment.  They  were provided with basic  necessities such as
food, accommodation, health care  and schooling.  At the beginning of  1993,
the Government  had established a comprehensive programme for the protection
and  assistance of  the  victims  of war,  consisting of  10 projects.   One
project dealt  with the provision of  gynaecological care for  women who had
suffered sexual abuse.   However, the Government was  not able to  implement
that programme because  of lack of financial  resources and lack of  support
from international organizations and foreign Governments.

General observations

562.  Members  of the Committee  thanked the representative  of Croatia  for
the submission of a thorough and  comprehensive report despite the extremely
difficult circumstances  in her country.   One member deplored the fact that
the Croatian Government had  not been able to  present the report  last year
as requested.  Members expressed their  satisfaction with the efforts of the
Government of  Croatia to reflect  the provisions of  the Convention  in the
Croatian legislation  and to ensure  equality between men  and women in  all
spheres of life.   They deplored the violations of women's human rights that
took  place in the  context of  the war and expressed  their concerns at the
impact those violations had on  women's lives and their  physical and mental
health.  They commended  the Government of Croatia for its effort to provide
assistance to women victims of war.

563.  Members of  the Committee expressed their solidarity with the women of
Croatia and their  hope that a peaceful solution  to the war  would be found
soon. One member  said that from  the report  of Croatia  she had  concluded
that there  had been  no aggression  against women  living in Croatia.   She
also understood  that the events  described in the  report were events  that
had  taken  place in  the past  and  involved primarily  refugee women  from
Bosnia  and Herzegovina.   She thus  wanted to know if  her understanding of
the situation was correct  and that the events described in the report  were
not happening currently.   She also wanted to know if women who had suffered
rape in the course of the military conflict had been  able to have access to
the abortion services, psychotherapy and adoption  services and if they were
entitled  to  monetary  compensation.    Responding  to  that  comment,  the

representative  of  Croatia stated  that  women  who  became  pregnant as  a
consequence  of rape  had a  right to  abortion.   Women could  also  decide
whether to keep  children conceived  as a result of  rape or offer them  for
adoption.  Women  in  Croatia  were  still  the  victims  of  the atrocities
committed against them in the temporarily  occupied territories.  During the
period from April  1992 to September 1993,  12,468 persons had been forcibly
displaced  from  the occupied  territories,  and  placed  temporarily  under
United  Nations  protection; the  representative  referred  members  of  the
Committee  to the  table  that had  been  submitted  to  them prior  to  the
meeting.

564.  One member of the  Committee requested further information  concerning
the gynaecological  treatment programme  for the  victims of  rape that  had
been  mentioned  in  the  representative's  presentation.    Other   members
requested more information  on the lack of  financing for that programme  so
that they could make a proposal with respect to that issue.

565.  Members wanted to  know if the Government of Croatia had succeeded  in
bringing persons responsible for the violation  of women's human rights  and
for war  crimes to  the International  Tribunal for  the former  Yugoslavia.
She  also wanted  to know  if there  had  been  any incidents  of aggression
against  and  abuse  of   women  by  the  Croatian  army.    In  reply,  the
representative pointed  out that the Croatian  army was  organized to defend
the country against the "brutal Serbian  aggression" and, initially, had not
even been properly armed.  She stated that it  was conceivable that rapes by
the Croatian army  had occurred; nevertheless, rape  had never been used  by
the Croatian army  as a tool  of ethnic  cleansing.  Any confirmed  cases of
rape by Croatian soldiers would be prosecuted under Croatian law.

566.  The Committee members expressed their concern  at the lack of national
machinery  for the  advancement of  women and  for the  protection  of their
human rights.   They acknowledged  the particularly difficult  circumstances
in Croatia, but nevertheless stressed that  national machinery for women was
very  important  and  could  be  very  helpful to  women  in  such  times of
difficult circumstances.    As women  tended  frequently  to be  treated  as
second-class citizens, they needed spokespersons to uphold their rights  and
articulate their special needs.
  567.  With regard  to missing persons mentioned in the report, one  member
pointed out that  she appreciated  the fact that  the Government of  Croatia
was   in  touch  with   the  Working   Group  on   Enforced  or  Involuntary
Disappearances of the  Commission on Human Rights.   She suggested  that the
Government should also get in touch with the Special  Rapporteur on violence
against women.

568.  Questions were  raised with respect to the Comprehensive Programme for
Protection  and  Help to  Victims  of  War  initiated by  the  Government of
Croatia  in 1993.    One  member of  the  Committee commented  that  it  was
incomprehensible that  such a programme was  unable to  secure the necessary
funding.   She  herself  was  aware of  funds available  in Germany  for the
financing of  such  programmes  in the  zones of  military  conflict in  the
former Yugoslavia.  She wanted to know: (a)  who coordinated the efforts  to
obtain funding for  that programme;  (b) whether  it was  the Government  or
non-governmental organizations; (c) why their efforts  did not succeed;  and
(d) whether  the lack of  success was the  result of excessive  bureaucracy.
In reply,  the representative  of Croatia  stated that the  programme was  a
comprehensive  effort designed to  help all  victims of war.   She confirmed
that substantial  help and resources had  been committed to  Croatia for the
purpose of solving various problems of refugees and  displaced persons.  The
biggest  portion was  used to  cover their  extensive basic  needs, such  as
accommodation,  food, schooling and  health care.  Over  the past year, some
$24,200,000  had been  spent  on health  care for  refugees.   Although that
programme  did   not  receive  direct   financial  support,  assistance   to
victimized women and other  persons who suffered as a  result of the war was
provided through regular funds obtained by the Government of Croatia.

569.   Having expressed her  concern at the  maltreatment and  rape of women

during the  war in  Croatia, one  member of  the Committee commented  on the
role  of  NGOs  and  women's  organizations  with  respect  to  the  current
situation of  women  in Croatia  and in  the  neighbouring  republics.   She
wanted to know  what women's organizations existed  in Croatia and how  they
cooperated  with  international non-governmental  organizations.    She also
wanted  to  know  which  international  non-governmental  organizations  had
visited Croatia.   She asked the  representative to  state specifically what
kind  of  assistance  her  Government  wanted   the  Committee  to  provide.
Concerning the  involvement of  NGOs, the representative  of Croatia  stated
that  her  Government  appreciated  their assistance  and  their  effort  to
deliver help to the victims of the war.

570.  Several members of the  Committee commended the Government  of Croatia
on its effort to provide the  information on the situation of  women in that
country.  They condemned  mass rape  and deplored  its  use  as a  weapon of
ethnic cleansing. They encouraged the Government  to seek peaceful means  to
resolve the  military conflict.   But they  also stated that  peace was  not
just the absence of war, but also social  justice for all.  They  called for
punishment of  the perpetrators  and wanted  to know  what had been  done in
that  respect, whether complaints  had been  taken to  the newly established
International  Tribunal  and  how  women  were  involved  in  that  process.
Members of  the Committee  expressed concern  at the  effects of the  war on
children and  wanted  to know  whether  children  had continuing  access  to
education  and how  war  and  the  crimes  committed  in that  context  were
reflected in school curricula.

571.    Members noted  that  the report  of  the representative  of  Croatia
documented  and properly  identified the gender-specific impact  of the war.
They commented on the positive  effects of breaking the  silence and letting
women  talk  about crimes  committed against  them.    One member  cited the
document  prepared  by  the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific   and
Cultural  Organization (UNESCO) that  defined the  rape of  women during the
war as  "the war crime".   She stated  that the  UNESCO report  stressed the
need to  "name the  guilty and record the  crime in law" and  she wished the
representative of Croatia to respond to  that statement. She also  wanted to
know what, if  anything, had been  done to  provide women  who had  suffered
rape  and other  forms of  abuse with  the monetary  compensation for  their
suffering.

572.  Responding to questions concerning  the punishment of perpetrators  of
war  crimes, the representative  of Croatia  stated that  her Government had
established  a  Commission on  War  Crimes  which  was  collecting data  and
evidence  concerning  war  crimes.    The  International  Tribunal  for  the
Prosecution of Persons  Responsible for Serious Violations of  International
Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory  of the Former Yugoslavia  since
1991 had been established and  its work had just begun.   The Government  of
Croatia was  cooperating fully with the  Tribunal and  had already forwarded
to  the  Tribunal  the  data  it  had  collected.  In  order  to  bring  the
perpetrators to  trial, however,  the full  support and  cooperation of  the
international community was essential.

573.     Members  of  the  Committee   raised  questions   relating  to  the
reintegration  into society  of the  victims of  sexual and  other  forms of
abuse.  Concerns  were expressed at  the impact  those events  had on  young
girls who  might need psychiatric and other help for some time to come.  The
Committee members  encouraged the  Government of  Croatia to  follow up  the
victims on a case-by-case basis.

574.  One member  commented that in the past, women in Croatia had been used
as a  tool of war.   She stated  that the time  had come for  women in  that
country to become the  heart of the  "machinery for peace".  She  encouraged
the  Government to  initiate the  dialogue on  peace and  expressed her hope
that a peaceful solution would soon be found.

575.  Members of  the Committee commended the Government of Croatia for  its
efforts to  provide women  who suffered as  victims of war  with assistance,

health care and psychological counselling.   One member raised the  question
of the  possible spread of HIV/AIDS  among abused women  and the devastating
impact it would have on  the country and its women.   She wanted to  know if
any information on the  magnitude of that  disease was available to be  sent
to members wishing to see it.

576.   Responding  to the  question concerning  the spread  of HIV/AIDS, the
representative  of Croatia stated  that information  had been  collected and
would be presented in the next report.   She also stated that her Government
had undertaken  a  comprehensive programme  to  control  the spread  of  the
disease.

577.   The Committee  members commended  the  Government of  Croatia on  its
efforts to extend care  and protection to refugee  and displaced persons  on
the territory of Croatia.  They wanted to know how many  children were among
the displaced  population and  whether they  received adequate  care.   They
wanted  to know if  medical help  was available  to them  and how  they were
prepared for reintegration into the life of the  society after the trauma of
war.

578.   In referring to  the problems of  refugees and  their dependants, the
representative  of Croatia  stated  that refugee  women  received  financial
support that was augmented if they had children.  They also had full  rights
to primary health  care and education  in Croatia,  and to secondary  health
care  in the  event  of life-threatening  problems,  free  of  charge.   The
Government of Croatia  sought to assist persons disabled  by the war and  to
provide psychological and social support to victimized women.
  579.  Concerns  were expressed at the  low participation of Croatian women
in the political process.  It was stated that, as  the main agents of peace,
women had to come to the forefront of  all levels of decision-making.   They
should  therefore  be  encouraged  to  participate  more   actively  in  the
political  process. In  reply, the  representative  of Croatia  stated  that
women in  her country participated  in the decision-making process, although
somewhat insufficiently.  She cited  some progress  in that  respect in  the
judiciary and  referred members of the  Committee to the  initial report for
more information  on the issue.   She stressed that the  reason for the  low
participation of women in decision-making was  the war and its consequences.
She  emphasized  that  women  in Croatia  had  a  right  to  participate  in
decision-making at all  levels, a right which was upheld by the Constitution
and recorded in law.

580.    The  view was  expressed  that  throughout  the  war  in the  former
Yugoslavia,  women were used  as a  weapon of  war.   Women should  use that
common experience  to  initiate peace.   The  Committee urged  the women  of
Croatia and the women of  other regions that  suffered from the war to  join
their  efforts in  their search  for  a  peaceful solution  to the  military
conflict.

581.   The  representative of Croatia  thanked the members  of the Committee
for  their interest  in the  situation of  women in  Croatia and  for  their
solidarity with the victims of the war.

Concluding comments of the Committee

  Introduction

582.  The Committee commended the  representative of Croatia for submitting,
at its request, her  country's report on  an exceptional basis, in spite  of
the difficult situation which Croatia is still undergoing.

  Positive aspects

583.  The Committee took note of the  sufficient information and data, which
confirm that the principle  of equality is laid  down in the Constitution of
Croatia,  that the protection  of the  rights of  women is institutionalized
and  that the  provisions of  the Convention  are  an  integral part  of the

country's legislation.

584.  The Committee  noted with relief that  the Government of  Croatia, the
United Nations and international cooperation have set  up support programmes
for women  and girls who were  the victims of violence  in order to  provide
them  with  the  psychological,  medical  and social  assistance  that  they
require.

  Principal subjects of concern

585.   The Committee  noted with  concern that  following the  war in  which
Croatia was the  victim, the situation  of women  in the  occupied areas  is
alarming.  Violations of  the rights  of  women,  violence, rape  and sexual
abuse were perpetrated against women and girls because of their sex.

586.  The Committee  noted with dismay that rape became systematic in nature
and was  used  as  "weapon of  war"  in  order  to force  women  to  undergo
humiliation  and torture and leave  their homes.   The specific objective of
the aggression  was not  only territorial  gain, but  was also  part of  the
policy of "ethnic cleansing".

 587.   The Committee  was also  deeply concerned  about the fact  that many
women  were still missing  and about  the material  and psychological effect
this had on their families.

  Suggestions and recommendations

588.  The  Committee recommends the establishment of a national mechanism to
protect and expand the rights  of women and encourage participation by women
in  the  political  field,  decision-making  and  the  struggle  for  peace.
Although women were used by  men as "a weapon of war", their solidarity  and
their  organization  in  non-governmental organizations  can  constitute  an
instrument for peace.

589.  The Committee recommends that  the displaced and refugee  women should
not be marginalized and that they should be  provided with necessary support
and assistance by the Croatian Government.

590.  The  Committee encourages  the Government of  Croatia to continue  its
efforts  and its social integration programmes, particularly  for girls, who
are just beginning their lives.

591.  The Committee recommends above all that  it is necessary to break  the
silence concerning  the sexual abuse  and aggression of which  women are the
victims, identify  the guilty  parties and  bring them  before national  and
international courts, and provide financial compensation to the victims.


               C.  Concluding comments on reports considered at the
                   thirteenth session

592.  The  Committee considered the question  of concluding comments  on the
reports  of  States parties  that  had  been  deferred  from the  thirteenth
session.  In response to a question on the practice of the  Committee and of
other  treaty bodies, the  Deputy Director  indicated that  the decisions of
the  Committee on  the  formulation  of comments  on the  reports  of States
parties  contained  in  paragraph  816  of  the  Committee's  report  on its
thirteenth  session 10/ suggested  that the  comments would  be completed in
the session  at which the reports were considered.  He  stated that that was
consistent with  the  practice of  other  human  rights treaty  bodies  that
prepared  concluding comments, all  of which  adopted their  comments at the
session at  which the report of  the State party was  presented.  There  had
been no  instances  of comments  being  deferred  to a  subsequent  session.
Noting  that the matter  was not covered  by the  rules of  procedure of the
Committee, the  Committee decided  to include in  the rules  of procedure  a
provision  to the effect  that the  Committee would  complete all concluding

comments  at the session  at which  the relevant report  was considered. The
Committee also  decided on an exceptional  basis that it  would complete the
concluding comments  that had been deferred  from its  thirteenth session at
its fourteenth session.


Australia

593.   The Committee emphasizes  that the Convention has  been recognized as
one of the basic  human rights instruments.   The Government of Australia at
the  national level  and at  the  international  level has  made significant
efforts  to put women's  rights into  the agenda at  the International Human
Rights Conference  at Vienna, 1993, the  Commission on the  Status of Women,
the Commission on Human Rights and the General Assembly.
  594.  Furthermore, the Committee notes  with approval that the  Government
has adopted the new National  Agenda for Women in 1993.  This is the  second
plan of  action concerning activities that  the Government  adopted in order
to improve the status of women.

595.  At the legal level, there hardly exists any longer any  discrimination
on  the basis  of sex.    Following an  evaluation of  legislation,  several
legislative amendments have been made.

596.    The  Committee, however,  expresses its  concern  about reservations
which  the Government made  when ratifying  the Convention.   Although there
have been  some developments  in this  area, the  Committee is  particularly
concerned  about the reservations  on paid  maternity leave.   The Committee
urges the Government to continue its efforts to withdraw its reservations.

597.   The Committee  expresses its  concern abut  indigenous women, migrant
women  and  particularly  women from  aboriginal  groups  and  Torres Strait
Island who  are the most  disadvantaged people in  Australian society.   The
Government has  been frank in  its information to the  Committee about these
women.  However, the  status of these women  is significantly different from
other women living  in Australia.   Violence, life  expectancy, unemployment
and the health situation among aboriginal women are remaining problems.

598.   The Committee urges that  in the next  report the Government  provide
more  specific  data   concerning  aboriginal  women  and  about   remaining
obstacles that impede their progress to full equality.

599.  The  Committee also asks  for information about  improvements for  the
aboriginal women after the  court decision Mabo  and Others v. The State  of
Queensland.    Will  that  decision  permit   aboriginal  women  to  receive
redistributed land on an equal basis with aboriginal men?

600.   The  Committee also  expresses  its  concern about  the  Government's
policy to encourage part-time work among women.   Women need access to full-
time work  to  achieve independent  status  and  to improve  their  economic
situation.

601.    Finally,  the  Committee  encourages  the  Government  to  adopt new
temporary measures in  order to increase  women's participation  in politics
at the state and federal levels.


Colombia

602.    The Committee  considered  the  revised  combined  second and  third
reports of  Colombia  (CEDAW/C/COL/2-3/Rev.1) of  21 September  1993 at  the
meeting held on 31 January 1994.

603.   The  representative of  the  Government  of Colombia  introduced  the
document  in question and replied  to the questions which  the Committee had
submitted to him in  advance and which had been prepared by the  Pre-session
Working Group.

604.  The Committee  considered that the reports of Colombia, which had been
drawn up with the participation of  not only governmental agencies  but also
non-governmental  organizations,  were  in   keeping  with  the  Committee's
guidelines  for the submission of reports and  provided detailed information
on  the  implementation  of  most  of   the  articles  of  the   Convention.
Furthermore, they  analysed  in a  self-critical manner  the obstacles  that
still existed.   The Committee drew  attention to  the extensive information
provided on violence against women, which was felt to be of great  interest;
it  regretted that no reference  had been made to  General Recommendation 18
of the  Committee on  handicapped women;  and it  asked how the  increase in
guerrilla activities  and drug trafficking had  affected the  lives of urban
and rural women and families.

605.   In spite of the  contents of  the document, it should  be pointed out
that  there were  some shortcomings  in it,  such  as  the lack  of analysis
concerning articles  1 and  2 of  the Convention,  despite their  particular
importance.  The Committee recommends therefore  that in its future reports,
Colombia should provide an adequate analysis of each  of the articles of the
Convention, in accordance with article 18.

Progress achieved

606.   The following  points should  be underscored as  the most significant
ones in efforts to ensure the complete equality for Colombia women:

  -Since 1992,  divorce  has been  permitted  for  all marriages,  including
Catholic marriages, and the grounds of mutual consent have been added;

  -In 1992,  the  Constitutional  Court recognized  that domestic  work  had
monetary   value,   which   constitutes   a   precedent   and    establishes
jurisprudence;

  -The patrimonial regime for de facto unions was regulated in 1990;

  -The preposition de was removed from the names of married women through  a
legal order;

  -The  Law on  Support for  Female Heads of  Families (1993)  provides such
women  with  access  to  social  security  both  for  themselves  and  their
dependants;

  -Law 50 of 1990 extended paid maternity leave from 8 to 12 weeks.

607.    Furthermore,   the  Committee  drew   attention  to   the  increased
participation by females at  all levels of the educational system, which has
been  put  on  an  equal  footing  with  the  system  for  males,  including
university education, the  reduction of illiteracy  and fertility - although
there are still  differences in the number  of children per woman  according
to  her level of education -  as well as the increase in the number of women
who wish to work outside the home and who obtain a job.

608.     The  Committee   attached   particular  importance   to  the   1991
Constitution, which contains  several articles concerning the Convention  on
the Elimination of All Form of Discrimination against Women and the  General
Recommendations of the Committee,  as well as  a number of decisions by  the
Constitutional Court with regard  to:  (1) the ruling against an educational
institution for expelling a girl because  she was pregnant; the  institution
was required to readmit  her; (2) the requirement  to include sex  education
in primary education.

Obstacles and suggestions

609.   The Committee  regretted that the  General Education  Law of December
1993 had  not  included  affirmative-action measures  concerning  non-sexist
education or any provisions specifically relating  to women.  This  required
the Presidential  Council for  Youth, Women  and the Family  to continue  to

provide  strong  support for  programmes  aimed  at  overcoming  stereotypes
concerning men  and  women in  textbooks  and  other school  materials,  the
training of teachers and school curricula.

610.    The Committee  also pointed  out that  the Presidential  Council and
Ministry of Labour should publicize  to a greater extent than  up to now the
rights  of women  in  the  workplace and  seek ways  of supporting  them and
protecting them more  effectively against abuses  in enterprises  in sectors
such as  flower-growing, the  clothes and food  industries and  particularly
the  informal sector.    It would  be  advisable to  train,  in  particular,
officials  responsible for  monitoring  the correct  application  of  labour
legislation,  for example labour  inspectors, with  regard to  the rights of
working women.

611.   On the basis  of the information  provided on  violence against women
and  on women  prostitutes, the  Committee  requested  that the  next report
should  supplement that information  with new  data and  analyses and, above
all, information on new measures  to eliminate violence against women in all
its forms.   It was  suggested that  all necessary steps should  be taken to
ensure that  in cases of domestic  violence, the aggressor  was the one  who
left  the residence  instead of  the  woman attacked,  as occurred  in  many
places in the world.

612.   The Committee  criticized the  high  number of  miscarriages and  the
maternal mortality  rate resulting  from them,  which made  it consider  the
possible  need to  amend  the legislation  in  force and  the  necessity  to
continue  to promote the  spread of  family planning,  particularly in rural
areas.

613.  The Committee pointed out that policies  to promote equality should be
stepped up with regard to  the most impoverished women and the low level  of
training and  should eliminate the differences  which still existed  between
urban women and rural women.

614.  While  the Committee viewed  positively the  fact that some  Colombian
women  had reached  very high-level  posts (three  ministers, including  the
Minister  for Foreign Affairs),  it considered that speedier progress should
be  made in  the participation  by  women  in decision-making,  for example,
through government support for specific  programmes for women  candidates in
elections.

615.  In order to promote and coordinate  these measures and continue making
progress   in  implementing   the  Convention,   the  Committee  recommended
strengthening the government mechanism responsible for policies on  equality
- currently the Presidential  Council for Youth, Women  and the Family  - by
providing it, under the law, with  sufficient authority to propose, promote,
coordinate  and  carry  out  measures  on  behalf  of   women  at  a  higher
hierarchical  level within  the Administration,  greater autonomy  and  more
human and  economic resources.   If  all that  was established  by law,  the
changes of government would not have a negative impact on its functioning.


Guyana

  Introduction

616.  The  Committee commended the  Government of  Guyana for ratifying  the
Convention without reservation and presenting its  report and its replies to
the questions of the Committee as comprehensively as possible.

 617.   While  the  report was  considered to  have  some shortcomings,  the
Committee nevertheless had the impression that  the Government of Guyana was
fully committed to the  full and equal integration of  women in all areas of
society.

  Positive aspects

618.  The Committee  noted with satisfaction that  the implementation of the
Convention had led to the improvement of the legal status of Guyanian  women
through  legal reforms.  It also applauded the  Government for having raised
the status of the national machinery for women to that of a ministry.

619.   It also  applauded the  Government's willingness  to seek  assistance
from  international agencies for  implementing its  programmes for women and
for assistance in reporting its reporting obligations.

  Principal subjects of concern

620.   The  Committee  expressed  its concern  that  the provisions  of  the
Convention were  not integrated  into the  Constitution of  Guyana and  that
some laws  still needed  to be  amended in  order to  comply fully  with the
Convention.

621.  It  noted also with concern the  lack of family  planning services and
the numbers of illegal abortions because of it.

622.  It also noted  that women were still underrepresented  in many of  the
political,  administrative  and  economic  higher decision-making  echelons,
thereby depriving society of women's knowledge and experience.

  Suggestions and recommendations

623.  The Committee recommends that in the subsequent report the  Government
of Guyana  include more concrete data  on measures  implemented on obstacles
encountered  and provide  the Committee  with more statistics  to illustrate
change.

624.  The Committee requests more information on violence  against women and
measures to combat it.

625.    The  Committee  encourages  the  Government of  Guyana  to  pursue a
comprehensive  approach of  legal reform  relating  to  the family;  it also
encourages  the Government  to seek  further assistance  from  international
agencies or on  a bilateral level to  improve women's material situation  in
Guyana.   In that context,  priority should be assigned to enhancing women's
economic situation.


Japan

626.   The  Committee on  the  Elimination  of Discrimination  against Women
(CEDAW) considered the combined second and  third periodic reports of  Japan
(CEDAW/C/JPN/12 of 9 July) at its 248th meeting, on 27 and 28 January 1994.

  Introduction

627.  The  Committee commended the  Government of Japan on  the presentation
of a detailed combined report, which  followed the guidelines for  reporting
and provided information  on questions left unanswered during  consideration
of  the initial  report.   The Committee  also noted  with  appreciation the
extensive responses  given to the questions  put by  the Pre-session Working
Group, but  expressed its concern  that the information was  not provided in
sufficient time  for  the  pre-session  group to  consider  it fully.    The
Committee,  while  appreciating  the  richness  of  the  report,  asked  the
Government of Japan to  bear in mind the Committee's constraints of time for
considering  reports,  so that  in  future  a  fuller  dialogue between  the
distinguished representatives  of the  Government of  Japan and the  Experts
could take place.

  Positive aspects

628.   The Committee noted  and commended that  some consultation with  non-
governmental organizations having an interest  in issues affecting women had

occurred.   It noted  in particular  the active  interest taken by  Japanese
non-governmental  organizations  in  the  Convention  and  also  noted   the
independent reports  provided by them.   The Committee  considered that this
interest  was indicative  of the  level  of  mobilization and  concern among
Japanese  women and the degree  of consensus about the major obstacles faced
by them in achieving equal status with men.

629.  The Committee  also commended the Government of Japan on the  progress
made in a short time in advancing  the status of women, particularly  in the
increased  participation of  women in  public  and  political life,  and the
plans  of  the  Government  to  improve  further  that  participation.   The
Committee also applauded the  way in which the Government had encouraged the
broader participation of women in education  and its action in  implementing
a family leave scheme.

  Principal subjects of concern

630.  The Committee observed  with concern that although Japan ranked second
among the countries of the world in  terms of overall resource  development,
according to the United Nations, her ranking was reduced  to fourteenth when
the socio-economic  status of Japanese  women was  taken into consideration.
The Committee considered that this demonstrated the  State's indifference to
integrating women fully in the economic development process of the country.

631.   The Committee  also expressed  its concern  that although  the report
contained  a  wealth  of  data,  it  was  otherwise  descriptive  and lacked
critical analysis of the obstacles to  full implementation of the Convention
in Japan.

632.  The  Committee noted  further that,  despite the  introduction of  the
Equal Employment Opportunity Act, individual discrimination continues.

633.   The Committee expressed its  disappointment that  the Japanese report
contained   no  serious   reflection  on   issues  concerning   the   sexual
exploitation of women  from other countries  in Asia  and during the  Second
World War.  It noted that Japan's commitment  to the Convention required  it
to ensure the protection  of the full  human rights of all women,  including
foreign and immigrant women.

  Suggestions and recommendations

634.  The Committee  asks that the Government  of Japan engage  in effective
dialogue with Japanese women's  organizations during the  preparation of the
next periodic  report so  that a better  picture of Japanese  women emerges.
The  legal and functional  discrimination faced  by Japanese  women, both in
the private sphere and  in the workplace should be identified, as should the
measures in place or planned to overcome these obstacles.

 635.  To enable  the Committee to have a better understanding of commercial
sexual  exploitation or  prostitution  of  immigrant women  in  Japan,  more
detailed information should be provided on the sex  industry in Japan.   The
Committee requests the Government  of Japan to undertake  a study of the sex
industry in  Japan and to provide  information on the  findings in its  next
report.  The Committee  also encourages the Government to take specific  and
effective measures  to address these current  issues as  well as war-related
crimes and to inform the Committee about such measures in the next report.

636.    The  Government of  Japan  should  ensure  that  the  private sector
complies  with the provisions  of the  Equal Employment  Opportunity Act and
report on  the measures taken to  address the  indirect discrimination faced
by women, both in terms of promotion and wages in the private sector.

--V.  WAYS AND MEANS OF EXPEDITING THE WORK OF THE COMMITTEE


637.    The  Committee considered  ways  and means  of  expediting its  work

(agenda  item 8)  at its  260th,  263rd  and 280th  meetings, on  16 and  17
January and 1 February 1995.

638.   The item was  introduced by the  Deputy Director  of the Division for
the  Advancement  of  Women,  who  presented  the  report  prepared  by  the
Secretariat (CEDAW/C/1995/6).


               A.  Action taken by the Committee on the report of
                   Working Group I

639.  At  its 280th meeting,  on 1  February, the  Committee considered  the
report of Working Group I.


1.  Reports to be considered at the fifteenth session

640.   The  Committee  is  fully aware  of  the  backlog of  reports  to  be
considered. However, it emphasizes that the  quality of the Committee's work
should  not suffer  for  the sake  of the  quantity  of  reports considered.
Because of the Convention's  complex nature and the major global changes  in
the world,  more time should in future be dedicated to constructive dialogue
with the States parties. It is therefore recommended that, as a target  when
adequate meeting  time is provided, three  meetings should  be allocated, on
average, for the consideration of a State party's report.

641.   The Committee  authorizes the  Secretariat to  inform States  parties
that have not sent  a representative to appear before the Committee in spite
of being  invited to  do so,  about its  concern on  this issue,  especially
given the  large number  of reports  pending consideration.   The  Committee
will reschedule  the State's presentation  at a  later date  and request  an
update of the information contained therein.

642.   On an  exceptional basis,  given that  the duration of  the fifteenth
session is three weeks, it is  recommended that a maximum of  two and a half
meetings  be allocated  for the  consideration  of  initial reports  and two
meetings for the consideration  of subsequent reports.  On this basis, it is
recommended  that the reports from eight States parties be considered at the
fifteenth session. Bearing  in mind the  criteria of date of  submission and
geographical balance, the reports of the  following States parties should be
considered at the fifteenth session:

  (a)  Initial reports

    Cyprus

    Ethiopia

    Iceland

    Paraguay


    (b)  Second periodic reports

    Belgium

    Cuba

  (c)  Third periodic reports

    Hungary

    Ukraine

643.   The initial  report of  Israel and  the third periodic  report of the

Philippines should be kept  in reserve for  consideration in the event  that
one of the States parties listed above is not able to present its report.


2.  Dates of the fifteenth session

644.   Consistent with the  calendar of conferences  for 1996, the fifteenth
session should be held from 15  January to 2 February 1996 in New York.  The
pre-session working group would meet from 8 to 12 January 1996.


               3.  Review of the need for summary records and format
                   of the annual report of the Committee

645.  The  Committee is of  the view that  these matters  should be  further
discussed  in the  future.  The  suggestion to discontinue  the summaries of
the  presentation made  by  the representative  of the  State party,  of the
general observations made by the  Committee and of all  the questions raised
and  replies given under  each article  of the  Convention, maintaining only
extensive concluding comments  by the Committee, would require more meetings
and working  time.   In the  light of  the existing  time constraints  under
which the  Committee  operates, the  present  format  of the  annual  report
should  be retained.   The Committee  also decides that  the summary records
should be retained for the time being.


          4.  Issues raised by the 5th meeting of persons chairing the
              human rights treaty bodies, particularly the question of
              the venue of the Committee's session and the location of
              its secretariat (A/49/537, annex, para. 51)

646.   Since  the  World Conference  on  Human Rights  has  determined  that
women's rights are human rights and that all  treaty bodies should be placed
in the same framework,  it is recommended  that the Committee be located  at
Geneva, with appropriate and adequate servicing  provided by the Centre  for
Human Rights of the Secretariat, and by the  Division for the Advancement of
Women as concerns  relevant information on the  Commission on the Status  of
Women, and other relevant information.


             5.  Funding for activities undertaken by the Chairperson
                 between sessions of the Committee

647.   Recognizing that the  Chairperson or other member  designated for the
purpose  should  attend  meetings  in  pursuance  of  the  mandates  of  the
Committee, which should therefore be funded  from the regular budget  of the
United  Nations, the  Committee  recommends that  the following  meetings be
attended in any given year:

  (a)  The Commission on the Status of Women;

  (b)  Any meeting of States parties to the Convention;

  (c)  The Third  Committee of the General Assembly during its  deliberation
on the report of the Committee;

  (d)   A maximum  of two  meetings per year  of other  human rights  treaty
bodies which might be  relevant to the ongoing  work of the Committee, based
on the agendas of those bodies;

  (e)   Any United  Nations world  conference relevant  to the  work of  the
Committee (in 1995, the World Summit for Social Development).

648.   With regard to  the problem of reimbursing  extraordinary expenses of
the  Chairperson,  the   Committee  endorses  the  recommendation  made   in
paragraph 48 of  the report of  the 5th  meeting of  chairpersons of  treaty

bodies  (A/49/537) for  the  establishment  of a  fund to  provide  for such
expenses.


               6.  Procedure for examination of reports of States
                   parties, including procedure for and content of
                   notification of States parties concerning the
                   consideration of the reports

649.   Given  the decision  to allocate  two  and a  half meetings  for  the
consideration of reports  of States  parties, the Committee further  decides
that no formal time-limit  be placed on  the introduction of States  parties
reports,  since the main objective is  to have a dialogue with a State party
and a  timelimit  might inhibit  the  State's  presentation.   However,  the
Secretariat is  requested to inform States  parties of  the Committee's time
constraints.    For  the  present,  the  Committee  will  continue  with its
existing procedures for examination of reports of States parties.


             7.  Technical and administrative arrangements concerning
                 the participation of members of the Committee at the
                 Fourth World Conference on Women and their role at
                 the Conference

650.   The Committee  takes note  with satisfaction  of the decision  of the
Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-sixth session to invite  the
members of the Committee to participate in the  Conference.  It requests the
Secretary-General  to  take steps  to  enable  the Committee  to  contribute
actively to the work of the Conference and, accordingly:

  (a)  To provide  the Chairperson of the  Committee with the opportunity to
introduce at the Conference plenary the report produced by the Committee;

  (b)    To  allocate time  and space  to allow  the  Committee to  hold two
workshops,  one  in   conjunction  with  the  United  Nations   Educational,
Scientific and  Cultural Organization, and  the other on  ways and  means to
publicize  the Convention  and its implementation at  the national, regional
and international levels so as to promote women's rights;
    (c)   To provide documentation  for these  workshops, including existing
public information material and excerpts from  the report being presented by
the Committee;

  (d)   To provide  a place for  the members of  the Committee  to meet with
States parties  and others to provide  advice and answer questions about the
implementation of the Convention;

  (e)   To arrange for  the Committee to hold a  press conference during the
Conference.

The Committee requests  the Chairperson of the Committee to arrange with the
Facilitating  Committee of the NGO  Forum for the  Committee members to meet
with non-governmental organizations at the Forum.


                8.  Review of the rules of procedure, including the
                    role of non-governmental organizations

651.  In view of  the time constraints at the present session, the Committee
decides to defer the item to the fifteenth session.


             9.  Review of the general guidelines for the preparation
                 of initial reports

652.    The  Committee  adopts  the   revised  general  guidelines  for  the
preparation of initial reports, as follows:


Guidelines regarding the form and content of initial
reports of States parties

1.   Under article 18 of the  Convention on the Elimination of  All Forms of
Discrimination  against  Women,  each State  party  undertakes  to submit  a
report on the legislative,  judicial, administrative or  other measures that
it has  adopted to  give effect to the  provisions of the Convention  and on
the progress  made in  this respect  within one  year after  the entry  into
force of  the Convention for  the reporting State,  and thereafter at  least
every four  years as well as  whenever the Committee  on the Elimination  of
Discrimination against Women established under the Convention so requests.

2.  In  order to assist the States  parties in fulfilling their  obligations
under article  18  of the  Convention,  the  Committee recommends  that  the
States  parties should follow general guidelines as to the form, content and
date  of reports.  The  guidelines are to  help ensure  that the reports are
presented in a uniform manner so that the  Committee and the States  parties
can obtain a  complete picture of the  implementation of the  Convention and
the progress made therein.

3.    The report  should be  in two  parts.   Part I  should be  prepared in
accordance with  the consolidated  guidelines for  the initial  part of  the
reports of  States parties to be  submitted under  the various international
human rights  instruments, including  the Convention  on the  Elimination of
All Forms  of Discrimination  against Women, as  contained in  the annex  to
document HRI/CORE/1.

 4.   Part  II  should  provide  specific information  in  relation to  each
provision of the Convention, in particular:

  (a)   The  constitutional, legislative  and administrative  provisions  or
other measures in force;

  (b)    The developments  that  have  taken  place and  the  programmes and
institutions that have been  established since the entry  into force of  the
Convention;

  (c)  Any  other information on  progress made  in the  fulfilment of  each
right;

  (d)  The de facto position as distinct from the de jure position;

  (e)   Any restrictions or limitations, even of a temporary nature, imposed
by law,  practice or tradition  or in  any other manner on  the enjoyment of
each right;

  (f)  The  situation of  non-governmental organizations  and other  women's
associations and their  participation in the elaboration and  implementation
of plans and programmes of the public authorities.

5.  It is  recommended that the reports should not be confined to mere lists
of  legal instruments adopted in  the country concerned in  recent years but
should also include  information indicating how these legal instruments  are
reflected  in  the  actual  economic, political  and  social  realities  and
general conditions existing in  their countries.  As far as possible, States
parties should make efforts to provide all data  disaggregated by sex in all
areas  covered by  the Convention  and  the  general recommendations  of the
Committee.

6.    State   parties  are  invited  to   submit  copies  of  the  principal
legislative,  judicial, administrative and  other texts  referred to  in the
report so that these can be  made available to the Committee.   It should be
noted,  however, that for reasons  of expense those texts  will not normally
be reproduced for general distribution with the report except to the  extent
that the  reporting State  specifically so requests.   It is  desirable that

when  a text is not actually quoted in or annexed  to the report, the report
should contain sufficient  information to be understood without reference to
the text.

7.  The reports should reveal obstacles to the participation of women on  an
equal basis with  men in the  political, social, economic and  cultural life
of  their countries and give  information on types  and frequencies of cases
of non-compliance with the principle of equal rights.

8.  In reporting on reservations to the Convention:

  (a)   Each State  party that  has entered  substantive reservations should
include information on those reservations in each of its periodic reports;

  (b)  The State party should indicate why  it considered the reservation to
be necessary; whether any  reservations the State party  may or may not have
registered on obligations with regard to the same rights set forth in  other
conventions are  consistent with its reservations  to the  Convention on the
Elimination of  All Forms of Discrimination  against Women;  and the precise
effect of the reservation in  terms of national law and  policy.  It  should
indicate the  plans that  it has  to limit  the effect  of reservations  and
ultimately to withdraw them and, whenever  possible, specify a timetable for
withdrawing them;

  (c)  States parties  that have entered general  reservations which do  not
refer to a specific article of the Convention or reservations to articles  2
and 3  should  make  a  particular  effort  to  report  on  the  effect  and
interpretation  of  those  reservations.    The  Committee  considers   such
reservations  to  be  incompatible  with  the  object  and  purpose  of  the
Convention.

9.  The reports  and supplementary documentation should be submitted in  one
of  the  working  languages  of  the Committee  (Arabic,  Chinese,  English,
French, Russian or Spanish) in as concise a form as possible.


          10.  Any additional views on reservations, following a request
               of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and
               Protection of Minorities

653.   The Committee  recommends that the  decision taken  at its thirteenth
session on the issue of reservations to the  Convention be reiterated to the
Subcommission.   In addition,  it decides  to examine  reservations made  by
particular States parties in  terms of whether the State party has made  the
same reservations in relation to other conventions.


          11.  An integrated management system on human rights (American
               Association for the Advancement of Science)

654.  The Committee takes note of the  information provided by the  American
Association for the Advancement of Science  and requests a further  progress
report  at its next session.   Ms. Bustelo was  designated to act as liaison
on  behalf of  the  Committee with  the  project, and  the  Secretariat  was
requested to provide to her any information it may receive on the matter.


               12.  Link with the focal point on the human rights of
                    women of the Centre for Human Rights

655.    The Committee  decides to  defer  action  on this  item to  its next
session.


13.  Provisional agenda for the fifteenth session

656.   The Committee  decides to  adopt the provisional  agenda contained in
annex II to the present report.









 14.  Nomination of members of the pre-session working group

657.   The Committee  decides that  the members  of the  pre-session working
group for  the  fifteenth session  of  the  Committee and  their  alternates
should be:

            Member                                    Alternate

  Ms. Evangelina Garcia-Prince  Ms. Miriam Estrada
  Ms. Tendai Ruth Bare  Ms. Kongit Sinegiorgis
  Ms. Carmel Shalev  Ms. Carlota Bustelo Garcia del Real
  Ms. Aurora Javate de Dios  Ms. Ginko Sato


               B.  Plan of activities of the Centre for Human Rights
                   of the United Nations Secretariat

658.  At  the 280th meeting,  on 1 February 1995, the  representative of the
Centre for  Human Rights made  a statement on  behalf of  the United Nations
High  Commissioner   for  Human  Rights,   elaborating  on  the   activities
undertaken by the Centre (see CEDAW/C/SR.280, paras. 1-15).


                    C.  Presentation of the Special Rapporteur
                        on Violence against Women       

659.  The Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women of the Commission  on
Human Rights  explained that Commission resolution  1994/45 of  4 March 1994
had mandated her to recommend means  of eliminating violence against  women,
to work together with other special rapporteurs  and mechanisms in the human
rights  area  and  to  consult  with  the  Committee.    She  had  contacted
Governments  to  request information  on  violence  in  the  family, in  the
community and  violence  by the  State.   She had  requested information  on
national administrative and juridical practice and on programmes related  to
violence against women, including shelters.   Thus far, 29 States,  a number
of  United  Nations   agencies  and  a   large  number  of  non-governmental
organizations had responded.   She had prepared a preliminary report, to  be
considered  by the Commission on Human Rights at its fifty-first session, in
February,  and indicated  that  subsequent reports  would  contain  detailed
recommendations on  the elimination  of specific  forms of violence  against
women.  She stressed that States should  reject violence against women  and,
in accordance  with the Declaration on  the Elimination  of Violence against
Women, should not seek  to cite tradition or  custom as a  means of  evading
their responsibilities in this regard.

660.    The  Special  Rapporteur  outlined  measures  that  she  proposed to
strengthen  cooperation between  herself and  the Committee,  including  its
secretariat.   She hoped  those parts of  country reports  which dealt  with
violence against women would be brought to her  attention and that she would
be given  advance notice  of country  reports to  be submitted  so that  she
could encourage those countries to  report on violence against women or pass
on to the Committee information that had come to her attention.

661.  In their comments on the presentation, members of the Committee  noted
the prevalence of violence  against women in war  and drew the  attention of

the  Special Rapporteur to United Nations instruments concerning the special
needs  of women  and children  in this  context.   Others reflected  on  the
interdependence  of discrimination  against women  in general  and  violence
against women in  particular, as well as on  the secret and  taboo nature of
violence against  women in  the family.   Questions  were raised  as to  the
resource constraints  on the work of  the Special  Rapporteur, who responded
that some budgetary allocations  had been made to  her from the Economic and
Social Council.  Members underlined the  need for strong cooperation between
the Special Rapporteur and the Committee.


               D.  Presentation of the Gender Statistics Unit of the
                   Statistical Division of the Secretariat

662.   A representative  of the Gender  Statistics Unit  of the  Statistical
Division  of the United Nations  described the use of statistics in national
reports.   She indicated  that much  had been  done  to improve  the use  of
statistics in the measurement of  all rights, although much  still needed to
be taken  into account. The  use of  statistics in other areas,  such as the
enforcement of specific legal rights or  the measurement of the  enforcement
of specific legal  guarantees, was very  difficult.   A new  edition of  the
World's  Women, the best-selling United Nations sales  publication ever, was
currently  in preparation.   It would  include sections  on violence against
women and a ratification chart.


              E.  Presentation of the Harrison Program on the Future
                  Global Agenda and the American Association for the
                  Advancement of Science

663.  A representative  of the Harrison Program  on the Future Global Agenda
and  the American Association  for the  Advancement of  Science informed the
Committee that  he  had been  instructed by  the Chairpersons  of the  human
rights treaty  bodies to  present them  with all  needed information and  to
that  end  he  was  preparing  a  management  document  related  to  treaty-
monitoring.   The  Chairpersons had  recommended  that  each of  the  treaty
bodies outline  their own  information needs.   A  working relationship  has
been  established with  the Economic,  Social and  Cultural Rights Committee
and  he  was anxious  to establish  such a  link with  the Committee  on the
Elimination of Discrimination against Women.

664.  A number  of members of the  Committee commented on  the presentations
and  suggested that  the matters  raised  by both  speakers be  explored  in
working Group I.


VI.  IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 21 OF THE CONVENTION

665.   At its  263rd meeting,  on 17  January, the Committee  considered the
implementation of article 21 of the Convention (agenda item 7).

666.   The  item was introduced by  the Deputy Director of  the Division for
the  Advancement  of  Women,  who  presented  the  report  prepared  by  the
Secretariat (CEDAW/C/1995/4).


               A.  Action taken by the Committee on the report of
                   Working Group II

667.  At  its 282nd meeting,  on 2  February, the  Committee considered  the
item on the basis of the report of Working Group II.


B.  Elements for an optional protocol to the Convention

668.  At  its 282nd meeting,  on 2  February 1995, on the  recommendation of

Working Group  II, the  Committee adopted  suggestion 7  on elements for  an
optional protocol to the Convention (for the text see chap. I, sect. B).


              C.  General recommendations on articles 7 and 8; general
                  recommendation on article 2

669.   The Committee  decided to postpone  consideration of this  item to  a
future session.


            D.  Document prepared by the United Nations Educational,
                Scientific and Cultural Organization on the
                Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
                against Women

670.   At its  283rd meeting, on  3 February, the  Committee considered  the
UNESCO document on CEDAW.

671.  After review and amendment by Working Group II, the Committee  adopted
the document,  a joint UNESCO/CEDAW  meeting in November  1994, the text  of
which follows:

  The Committee  requested the Secretariat to ensure the correct translation
into Spanish of the  text.  The Secretariat  was further requested to ensure
transmission of the final text to UNESCO.











  Annex

              Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against
              Women/United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization Manifesto


Towards a gender-inclusive culture through education

Preamble

1.    Since  the  adoption  of  the  Convention  against  Discrimination  in
Education  (1962),  the  Convention  on  the  Elimination  of  All  Forms of
Discrimination  against  Women   (1979)  and  the  Nairobi   Forward-looking
Strategies for  the  Advancement  of  Women (1985),  numerous  national  and
international declarations  affirm the importance  of women's education  for
political, social and economic life.  The World Conference on Education  for
All (1990)  launched an  appeal to  heads of State  and decision-makers  for
high-level commitment to education  and especially for girls and women.  The
Rio de Janeiro  Conference on  Environment and  Development (1992)  stressed
women's roles in the  protection of the environment.   The Cairo  Conference
on  Population  and  Development in  1994  showed  the  correlation  between
women's education,  reproductive rights  and control  of population  growth.
The United Nations Decade  on Education for  Human Rights, which began on  1
January  1995, gives  priority to  gender  equality.   The Social  Summit of
Copenhagen (1995)  puts educational opportunities for  women and girls  once
more  to the forefront.   It is  in this context  that the  Committee on the
Elimination  of  Discrimination against  Women  and  UNESCO  reaffirm  their
belief in  the universal value of  education for  a gender-inclusive culture

world wide.

2.  Where do we stand?

3.  Women exceed 60 per cent of  the more than 1 billion adults who have had
no access to  basic education  and girls  make up the  majority of the  more
than  130 million  children who  have not  had access  to primary schooling.
Economic necessity,  the  weight of  tradition,  early  marriages and  early
pregnancies often  force girls to  drop out of  school at  higher rates than
boys before  they complete  their first cycle  of education.   In  secondary
education  in developing countries,  the percentage  of girls  is much lower
than that of boys.  Moreover even in  developed countries they are obviously
less well represented in technical and  scientific education.  At  the level
of  higher education, women  are mostly  concentrated in  courses of shorter
duration  in  both  industrialized  and  developing countries.    In  higher
education  and  research  more  women  participate  in  the  humanities  and
literature than in  science and technology.   While women enter the teaching
profession  in increasing numbers  and often  constitute a  majority in both
developing and  industrialized  countries,  they  rarely  attain  high-level
administrative positions.

4.   Each aspect  of gender  inequality is  exacerbated for  women in  rural
areas.   Girls and  women are  victims of  additional discrimination at  all
levels of  formal education.   This  additional discrimination  particularly
affects  vulnerable  groups,  such  as  women  in  poverty,  women  heads of
households,  disabled   or  elderly   women,  women   belonging  to   ethnic
minorities,  migrants, immigrants,  refugee and  displaced women  and  women
living in situations of extreme discrimination  such as violence, slavery or
prostitution.   These groups  of women  have practically  no opportunity  to
acquire an education.

5.   The  present international  context  is marked  by a  continuing  world
economic crisis,  by policies  of structural  adjustment and debt  repayment
imposed upon  a very large number of  countries as well as by the ascendancy
of economic  competitiveness over concerns relating  to social  justice.  In
many countries, programmes  promoting equality of opportunity for women  and
men and the strengthening of women's capacities are non-existent or are  not
implemented for lack of the necessary  resources or political commitment and
as  a consequence  of  male-centred policies.   It  is widely  accepted that
there  is a close link between  the level of  participation of women and the
development of these  countries.  Consequently, the disparity between  women
and men is one of the factors that  aggravates the disparities between  poor
countries and rich ones.

6.    Faced  with  this  persistent  discrimination  against  women  and the
resultant waste of human resources, the  Committee and UNESCO consider  that
it is urgent for  the international community to  reaffirm as a  fundamental
human right  the decisive role played by  education for women  and for it to
adopt  clear  and  well-defined  principles  of  action.    Education  is  a
necessary  precondition for  women's full  and effective  exercise of  their
right  to citizenship.  Education for all is the  best way of establishing a
culture  of equality  which is  necessary  for  democracy, tolerance  and an
international peace  based on  justice and  the recognition  that all  human
beings are born free and equal.


Principles for action

7.   The right  to  education is  a fundamental  human  right  that must  be
guaranteed to  all women and men by the State as a public service. Education
is one of the inalienable rights of the  human being.  It is also one of the
necessary preconditions that enable women to  gain confidence in  themselves
and to have  access to other  rights:   equality before  the law,  political
participation  and freedom  of vote,  freedom  of  thought and  opinion, the
right to work  and the right to leisure.   Only the State can guarantee  the
long-term commitment needed for the fulfilment of the right to education.

8.   Separate is  rarely equal.   Girls and women  should have  access on an
equal  footing with  boys and  men to  all levels  and forms  of  education.
Cultural,  family  or religious  pressure  for  separate forms  of education
should  not  be tolerated.    This  does not  mean  that  special  temporary
measures  should not be  adopted when necessary to  attain real equality and
thus  give equal  opportunities to  women  and  girls.   Generally, however,
girls and boys, women and men  must interact in the freedom of the school so
as  to  learn  and to  practice  equality of  the  sexes and  to  have equal
opportunities to participate  at all levels of teaching, administration  and
management of teaching.

9.  The acquisition of basic literacy and  numeracy is essential to  achieve
the empowerment of all citizens and  especially to strengthen the capacities
of girls  and women.  Literacy  training for women  must be ensured  through
funding of  long-term national  programmes that respond to  needs identified
with and by  women and which take into account their concerns.  Women's time
is limited by the multiple responsibilities  of production and reproduction.
Non-formal education programmes should be  designed to be of  benefit to the
daily lives and responsibilities of women.

10.   An education policy  that provides lifelong  education for women  from
early childhood  to adulthood and  takes into account the  varying stages in
women's life  cycles should  be developed.   This  ongoing education  should
provide direct  access  to employment  and mainstream  accreditation at  any
time.   All  non-formal and  parallel  education  should provide  access  to
primary, secondary and  higher education, and  moreover should  be generally
recognized as having the same value in providing  access to the work  market
as formal education  does.  Without economic empowerment, women are not able
to exercise their rights.

11.   Means of ensuring  that larger numbers  of girls and  women enter  the
fields of non-traditional  scientific and technological education should  be
explored and implemented.  This will enable them  not only to take advantage
of scientific and technological  advances so far as they relate to issues of
gender,  but  also  to  join  the  varied  professions  that  require  sound
scientific and technical knowledge, such as research, teaching,  engineering
and as technicians, and to enjoy an identical career path with men.

12.     Non-discriminatory   gender   inclusion  is   fundamental   to   the
organization,  structure and  content both  of  the  development and  of the
transmission of all learning through education.  Books, programmes,  teacher
training  and teaching material  should be  revised to  eliminate all sexist
stereotyping  taking  into account  the  contributions  of  women's  studies
programmes.   All social action  in education should be  devoted to ensuring
that  pupils, teachers,  head teachers  and administrators  are exposed  to,
trained and  involved  in the  changing  values  that promote  equality  and
tolerance  of  diversity.     These  initiatives  should  be  reinforced  by
families, the  media and associations  in order to  ensure that  there is an
ongoing  transition  towards a  democratic,  pluralistic  and  just  society
capable  of guaranteeing respect  for the  fundamental rights  of each human
being, irrespective of gender.

13.   Legal literacy, health  and reproductive rights are  the foundation of
women's   autonomy   and   enable  them   to   exercise   the   rights   and
responsibilities of citizenship.  Education of  the rights of women provides
them not only  with legal knowledge, but also  gives them a practical  means
of achieving formal equality and access  to national and international  law.
Health services should be freely available to all  women from young children
to  adults.    All  aspects  of  family  planning  and  women's  sexual  and
reproductive health should be an integral part of these services.

14.  Education  for gender equality is a  vital means of combating  violence
throughout  the  world.    It  is  through  teaching  the  values  of peace,
dialogue,  equality  and  respect  for  the  dignity  of  all  human beings,
including  women, that  violence in  the family,  in public  life and  among
States can be effectively combated.

                      VII.  CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE COMMITTEE
                            TO INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES


A.  Fourth World Conference on Women

672.   At its 266th and  282nd meetings, on  19 January and 2 February 1995,
respectively,  the Deputy Director  of the  Division for  the Advancement of
Women introduced the  report of the  Committee on progress  achieved in  the
implementation of  the Convention (CEDAW/C/1995/7)  prepared for the  fourth
World Conference  on Women.   He  recalled that that  contribution had  also
been prepared by the  secretariat on behalf of  the Committee for  the World
Conference  to Review and  Appraise the  Achievements of  the United Nations
Decade  for Women  held at  Nairobi in  1985 and  the General  Assembly  had
mandated the preparation of the current  document, after which the Committee
had  agreed to  prepare it  during its twelfth  session and  had established
guidelines  for  its  preparation  by  the  secretariat  at  its  thirteenth
session.

673.  The  Committee took note of the  document prepared by the  Secretariat
(CEDAW/C/1995/7) containing  a first draft  of the Committee's  contribution
to the Fourth World  Conference on Women.  While the Committee expressed its
appreciation for the  work done by the Secretariat,  it felt that the  draft
did not  fully comply  with the  guidelines given  by the  Committee at  its
thirteenth  session.  Some of the information contained  in the document was
considered to be of  limited relevance to the request the Committee had  put
to  the Secretariat  concerning the  structure  of its  contribution,  while
other parts seemed  to be too technical and provide too much  detail for the
target audience.  The Committee also  considered the proposals regarding the
redrafting of the document put forward by a consultant to the Secretariat.

674.  The  Committee decided that its  contribution to the Conference  would
consist of the following two documents:

  (a)   The  first  would be  a document  prepared  in accordance  with  the
guidelines  provided  by the  Committee  at  its  thirteenth  session.   The
document would be concise, readable and intended to reach a broad  audience.
It  would situate the  Convention and the Committee's  work within the human
rights framework, stress the Committee's  achievements and aim  at universal
ratification without  reservations by the  year 2000.   It would  stress the
role of the Convention and of the  Committee in highlighting and  developing
women's rights.  Finally, it  would present  a forward-looking  view of  the
Committee's role in  the promotion and protection  of women's rights in  the
twenty-first century;

  (b)   The second document would  utilize the information  contained in the
draft prepared by the Secretariat, which would be  edited and streamlined in
accordance  with instructions provided  by the  Working Group,  and serve as
background and reference material.

675.  The Committee  decided to adopt its  contribution to the  Fourth World
Conference on Women and authorized its Chairperson  to finalize the text  of
the  Committee's  contribution, in  consultation  with  the  members of  the
Committee, such  consultation to  take place,  inter alia,  at the  informal
meeting of the  Committee scheduled to  take place from 24 to  28 April 1995
at Madrid.




                     B.  The Committee's input to the World Summit
                       for Social Development

676.  The Committee  noted that, in  accordance with the rules of  procedure
for the  event, the  Committee or its  representative would not  be able  to
play an  official role  at the Summit.   Nevertheless, given  the importance

for  women of  the  issues  to be  discussed  at the  Summit, the  Committee
proposes that,  as its  contribution to  the Summit,  the Rapporteur  of the
Committee  will participate and  represent the  Committee in  events such as
round tables and workshops  on women's human rights being organized by  non-
governmental organizations and other groups in conjunction with the Summit.


                 C.  Follow-up to the International Conference on
                     Population and Development

677.  At its 282nd meeting, on 2  February 1995, the Committee, on the basis
of the report of Working Group II, adopted suggestion  8 on follow-up to the
International Conference on Population  and Development (for  the text,  see
chap. I, sect. B).

678.   The Committee  also heard  a statement by Dr.  Nafis Sadik, Executive
Director  of  the United  Nations  Population  Fund  (UNFPA) and  Secretary-
General of the International Conference on  Population and Development.  She
pointed  out that one  of the  achievements of that Conference  had been the
clear  recognition of the need  to empower women, to  ensure gender equality
and  to place  human rights,  especially women's  rights, at  the centre  of
population  and  development policies  and  programmes.    The  Conference's
Programme of Action reinforced  and amplified in many ways the Convention on
the  Elimination of  All Forms  of  Discrimination  against Women.   As  one
example  where  the  Programme  of  Action  supported  the  Convention,  she
referred to health and family planning, mentioned in articles 12, 14 and  16
of the Convention.   The quantitative goals set  by the Programme  of Action
in  areas  such as  education, mortality  reduction and  reproductive health
were  directly in support  of gender  equality and  opportunities for women.
She encouraged members of the Committee  to contribute to the implementation
of the Programme of  Action through their own  work, their standing in their
communities  and  participation in  non-governmental  organizations, and  by
influencing policy-making processes.

679.   Members thanked  the Executive  Director for  her statement,  for the
important  work she had  accomplished and  for the  remarkable role  she had
played in the preparation  and conduct of the Conference.  The importance of
the Convention as the first and  only international human rights  instrument
to include  family planning and  reproductive rights  as fundamental rights,
and the importance assigned  to those matters in  the Programme of Action of
the International  Conference on Population  and Development were  stressed.
Members expressed  their interest in collaborating  with UNFPA  on issues of
common  interest.   In that  regard, members  of the  Committee proposed  to
convene, in  cooperation with UNFPA, a  working group  consisting of members
of the Committee and of other human rights  treaty bodies to develop further
the  jurisprudence with  regard to family planning,  reproductive rights and
reproductive  health  in   the  framework  of  international  human   rights
instruments and the Programme of Action  of the International Conference  on
Population  and   Development.    The   Executive  Director  expressed   her
willingness to consider supporting such a project.

               VIII.  PROVISIONAL AGENDA FOR THE FIFTEENTH SESSION
                      OF THE COMMITTEE


680.  At its 281st meeting, on 3  February 1995 the Committee considered the
provisional agenda for its fifteenth session (agenda item 10).

681.  At its 281st meeting,  on the basis of the  report of Working Group I,
the Committee decided to approve the following provisional agenda:

1.  Opening of the session.

2.  Adoption of the agenda and organization of work.

3.Report of the Chairperson on the activities undertaken during the year.

4.Consideration of reports submitted by States  parties under article 18  of
the Convention.

  Documentation

Report of the  Secretary-General on the  status of submission of  reports by
States parties under article 18 of the Convention.

  Reports of States parties to be considered at the fifteenth session.

5.  Implementation of article 21 of the Convention.

Documentation

Note by the Secretary-General on reports provided by specialized agencies.

Report of the Secretariat on analysis of article 4 of the Convention.

6.  Ways and means of expediting the work of the Committee.

  Documentation

Report of the  Secretariat on ways and means  of expediting the work of  the
Committee.

7.  Results of the Fourth World Conference on Women.

8.  Provisional agenda for the sixteenth session.

9.  Adoption of the report of the Committee on its fifteenth session.

IX.  ADOPTION OF THE REPORT


682.   At its 284th meeting, on  3 February 1995,  the Committee adopted the
report on its fourteenth session (CEDAW/C/1995/L.1 and Add.1-12), as  orally
amended.


Notes

  1/   Report of the  World Conference on  Human Rights,  Vienna, 14-25 June
1993 (A/CONF.157/24 (Part I)), chap. III.

  2/  See A/45/636, annex; A/47/628, annex; and A/49/537, annex.

  3/   See  Official  Records of  the  Economic  and  Social Council,  1994,
Supplement No. 7 (E/1994/27), chap. I.C.

  4/  Ibid., Supplement No. 4 (E/1994/24), chap. II.A.

  5/    Official  Records  of  the  General  Assembly, Forty-ninth  Session,
Supplement No. 38 (A/49/38), chap. I, sect. C.2.

  6/   See Official  Records of  the General  Assembly, Forty-fifth Session,
Supplement No. 38 and corrigendum (A/45/38 and Corr.1), paras. 28-31.

  7/   At  its  tenth  session, the  Committee had  decided that,  if States
parties whose  reports were  overdue by the  conclusion of  that session  so
wished, they could submit a combined report to  the Committee and that  such
reports  should be  numbered by  the Secretariat  in a way  that facilitated
their identification (Official Records of the General Assembly,  Forty-sixth
Session, Supplement No. 38 (A/46/38), para. 370).

  8/   See Official  Records of  the General  Assembly, Forty-fifth Session,
Supplement No. 38 and corrigendum (A/45/38 and Corr.1), paras. 28-31.

  9/    Official Records  of  the  General Assembly,  Forty-eighth  Session,
Supplement No. 38 (A/48/38), chap. I, sect. B.

  10/   Ibid., Forty-ninth  Session, Supplement  No. 38  (A/49/38), chap. I,
sect. B.

--ANNEX I

States parties to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women as at 3 February 1995


                                                                           
  
        Date of receipt of the 
             instrument of           Date of entry
States parties  ratification or accession       into force
                                                                           
  
Albania       11 May 1994 a/   10 June 1994
Angola  17 September 1986 a/  17 October 1986
Antigua and Barbuda   1 August 1989 a/  31 August 1989
Argentina  15 July 1985 b/  14 August 1985
Armenia  13 September 1993 a/  13 October 1993
Australia  28 July 1983 b/  27 August 1983
Austria  31 March 1982 b/  30 April 1982
Bahamas   6 October 1993 a/   5 November 1993
Bangladesh   6 November 1984 a/, b/   6 December 1984
Barbados  16 October 1980   3 September 1981
Belarus   4 February 1981 c/   3 September 1981
Belgium  10 July 1985 b/   9 August 1985
Belize  16 May 1990  15 June 1990
Benin  12 March 1992  11 April 1992
Bhutan  31 August 1981  30 September 1981
Bolivia   8 June 1990   8 July 1990
Bosnia and Herzegovina   1 September 1993 d/   1 October 1993
Brazil   1 February 1984 b/   2 March 1984
Bulgaria   8 February 1982 c/  10 March 1982
Burkina Faso  14 October 1987 a/  13 November 1987
Burundi    8 January 1992   7 February 1992
Cambodia  15 October 1992 a/  14 November 1992
Cameroon  23 August 1994 a/  22 September 1994
Canada  10 December 1981 c/   9 January 1982
Cape Verde   5 December 1980 a/   3 September 1981
Central African Republic  21 June 1991 a/  21 July 1991
Chile   7 December 1989    6 January 1990
China   4 November 1980 b/   3 September 1981
Colombia  19 January 1982  18 February 1982
Comoros  31 October 1994 a/  30 November 1994
Congo  26 July 1982  25 August 1982
Costa Rica   4 April 1986   4 May 1986
Croatia   9 September 1992 d/   9 October 1992
Cuba  17 July 1980 b/   3 September 1981
Cyprus  23 July 1985 a/, b/  22 August 1985
Czech Republic e/  22 February 1993 c/, d/   24 March 1993
Denmark  21 April 1983  21 May 1983
Dominica  15 September 1980   3 September 1981
Dominican Republic   2 September 1982   2 October 1982
Ecuador   9 November 1981   9 December 1981
Egypt  18 September 1981 b/  18 October 1981
El Salvador  19 August 1981 b/  18 September 1981
Equatorial Guinea  23 October 1984 a/  22 November 1984
Estonia   21 October 1991 a/  20 November 1991
Ethiopia    10 September 1981 b/   10 October 1981
                                                                           
   

        Date of receipt of the 
             instrument of           Date of entry
States parties  ratification or accession       into force
                                                                           
  
Finland   4 September 1986   4 October 1986
France  14 December 1983 b/, c/  13 January 1984
Gabon  21 January 1983  20 February 1983
Gambia  16 April 1993  16 May 1993
Germany f/  10 July 1985 b/    9 August 1985
Georgia  26 October 1994 a/  25 November 1994
Ghana   2 January 1986   1 February 1986
Greece   7 June 1983   7 July 1983
Grenada  30 August 1990  29 September 1990
Guatemala  12 August 1982  11 September 1982
Guinea   9 August 1982   8 September 1982
Guinea-Bissau  23 August 1985  22 September 1985
Guyana  17 July 1980   3 September 1981
Haiti  20 July 1981   3 September 1981
Honduras   3 March 1983   2 April 1983
Hungary  22 December 1980 c/   3 September 1981
Iceland  18 June 1985  18 July 1985
India   9 July 1993 b/   8 August 1993
Indonesia  13 September 1984 b/  13 October 1984
Iraq  13 August 1986 a/, b/  12 September 1986
Ireland  23 December 1985 a/, b/, c/  22 January 1986
Israel   3 October 1991 b/    2 November 1991
Italy  10 June 1985 b/  10 July 1985
Jamaica  19 October 1984 b/  18 November 1984
Japan  25 June 1985  25 July 1985
Jordan   1 July 1992 b/  31 July 1992
Kenya   9 March 1984 a/    8 April 1984
Kuwait  2 September 1994 a/   2 October 1994
Lao People's Democratic
  Republic  14 August 1981  13 September 1981
Latvia  14 April 1992 a/  14 May 1992
Liberia  17 July 1984 a/  16 August 1984
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya  16 May 1989 a/, b/  15 June 1989
Lithuania  18 January 1994 a/  17 February 1994
Luxembourg   2 February 1989 b/   4 March 1989
Macedonia  18 January 1994 d/  17 February 1994
Madagascar  17 March 1989  16 April 1989
Malawi  12 March 1987 a/, c/  11 April 1987
Maldives   1 July 1993 a/, b/  31 July 1993
Mali  10 September 1985  10 October 1985
Malta   8 March 1991 a/, b/   7 April 1991
Mauritius   9 July 1984 a/, b/   8 August 1984
Mexico  23 March 1981 b/   3 September 1981
Mongolia  20 July 1981 c/   3 September 1981
Morocco  21 June 1993 a/, b/  21 July 1993
Namibia  23 November 1992 a/  23 December 1992
Nepal  22 April 1991  22 May 1991
Netherlands  23 July 1991 b/  22 August 1991
New Zealand  10 January 1985 b/, c/   9 February 1985
Nicaragua  27 October 1981  26 November 1981
Nigeria  13 June 1985  13 July 1985
                                                                           
    

       Date of receipt of the 
            instrument of        Date of entry
States parties  ratification or accession    into force
                                                                           
  
Norway  21 May 1981   3 September 1981
Panama  29 October 1981  28 November 1981

Papua New Guinea  12 January 1995 a/  11 February 1995
Paraguay   6 April 1987 a/   6 May 1987
Peru  13 September 1982  13 October 1982
Philippines   5 August 1981   4 September 1981
Poland  30 July 1980 b/   3 September 1981
Portugal  30 July 1980   3 September 1981
Republic of Korea  27 December 1984 b/, c/  26 January 1985
Republic of Moldova  1 July 1994 a/  31 July 1994
Romania   7 January 1982 b/   6 February 1982
Russian Federation  23 January 1981 c/   3 September 1981
Rwanda   2 March 1981   3 September 1981
Saint Kitts and Nevis  25 April 1985 a/  25 May 1985
Saint Lucia   8 October 1982 a/   7 November 1982
Saint Vincent and the
  Grenadines   4 August 1981 a/   3 September 1981
Samoa  25 September 1992 a/  25 October 1992
Senegal   5 February 1985   7 March 1985
Seychelles   5 May 1992 a/   4 June 1992
Sierra Leone  11 November 1988  11 December 1988
Slovakia e/  28 May 1993 c/, d/   27 June 1993
Slovenia   6 July 1992 d/   5 August 1992
Spain   5 January 1984 b/   4 February 1984
Sri Lanka   5 October 1981   4 November 1981
Suriname   1 March 1993 a/  31 March 1993
Sweden   2 July 1980   3 September 1981
Tajikistan  26 October 1993 a/  25 November 1993
Thailand   9 August 1985 a/, b/, c/   8 September 1985
The former Yugoslav Republic
  of Macedonia  18 January 1994 d/  17 February 1994
Togo  26 September 1983 a/  26 October 1983
Trinidad and Tobago  12 January 1990 b/  11 February 1990
Tunisia  20 September 1985 b/  20 October 1985
Turkey  20 December 1985 a/, b/  19 January 1986
Uganda  22 July 1985  21 August 1985
Ukraine  12 March 1981 c/   3 September 1981
United Kingdom of Great
  Britain and Northern
  Ireland   7 April 1986 b/   7 May 1986
United Republic of Tanzania  20 August 1985   19 September 1985
Uruguay   9 October 1981   8 November 1981
Venezuela   2 May 1983 b/   1 June 1983
Viet Nam  17 February 1982 b/  19 March 1982
Yemen g/  30 May 1984 a/, b/  29 June 1984
Yugoslavia  26 February 1982  28 March 1982
Zaire  17 October 1986  16 November 1986
Zambia  21 June 1985  21 July 1985
Zimbabwe  13 May 1991 a/  12 June 1991
                                                                           
  

(Footnotes on following page)
  (Footnotes to annex I)

                       

  a/  Accession.

  b/  Declarations and reservations.

  c/  Reservation subsequently withdrawn.
  
  d/  Succession.

  e/  Before becoming  separate States on 1 January 1993, the Czech Republic
and  Slovakia formed part  of Czechoslovakia,  which State  had ratified the
Convention on 16 February 1982. 

  f/   With  effect  from  3 October  1990, the  German  Democratic Republic
(which ratified the Convention  on 9 July 1980) and the Federal Republic  of
Germany (which ratified the Convention on 10 July  1985) united to form  one
sovereign State,  which acts  in the  United Nations  under the  designation
"Germany".

  g/  On  22 May 1990  Democratic Yemen  and Yemen merged  to form a  single
State, which acts in the United Nations under the designation "Yemen".

ANNEX II

Membership of the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women


  Name of member    Country of nationality

  Charlotte Abaka**                   Ghana    
  Emna Aouij**                   Tunisia    
  Gul Aykor*                   Turkey
  Tendai Ruth Bare**                      Zimbabwe
  Desiree Patricia Bernard**                    Guyana
  Carlota Bustelo Garcia del Real*                      Spain
  Silvia Rose Cartwright*                   New Zealand
  Miriam Yolanda Estrada Castillo**                      Ecuador
  Liliana Gurdulich de Correa*                    Argentina
  Ivanka Corti**           Italy
  Aurora Javate de Dios**                     Philippines
  Evangelina Garcia-Prince*                   Venezuela
  Sunaryati Hartono**                   Indonesia  
  Salma Khan*           Bangladesh
  Pirkko Anneli Makinen*                   Finland
  Elsa Victoria Munoz-Gomez*                   Colombia
  Ahoua Ouedraogo*           Burkina Faso
  Ginko Sato**                    Japan    
  Hanna Beate Schopp-Schilling*                    Germany    
  Carmel Shalev**           Israel    
  Lin Shangzhen**         China    
  Kongit Sinegiorgis*               Ethiopia  
  Mervat Tallawy**                                   Egypt  










                            

  *  Term of office expires in 1996.

    **  Term of office expires in 1998.

 ANNEX III

Documents before the Committee at its fourteenth session


Document number                    Title or description

CEDAW/C/1995/1            Provisional agenda and annotations

CEDAW/C/1995/2          Report  of the  Secretary-General on  the status  of

submission of reports by States parties under article 18 of the Convention

CEDAW/C/1995/3  Note by  the  Secretary-General on  reports  of  specialized
agencies  on the implementation  of the  Convention in  areas falling within
the scope of their activities

CEDAW/C/1995/3/Add.2      Report of the International Labour Organization

CEDAW/C/1995/3/Add.3Report  of  the  United Nations  Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization

CEDAW/C/1995/3/Add.4Report of the  Food and Agriculture Organization of  the
United Nations

CEDAW/C/1995/4Report of the Secretariat on the analysis of article 2 of  the
Convention

CEDAW/C/1995/5Report of the Secretariat on the  implications for work of the
Committee of the priority themes of the Commission on the Status of Women

CEDAW/C/1995/6 Report of the Secretariat on ways and means of improving  the
work of the Committee

CEDAW/C/1995/7   Report  of the  Secretariat  on  progress achieved  in  the
implementation of the Convention

CEDAW/C/1995/CRP.1        Report of the Pre-session Working Group

CEDAW/C/1995/INF.1/       List of participants
Rev.1

CEDAW/C/1995/L.1          Draft report of the Committee
and Add.1-12

CEDAW/C/1995/WP.3-12         Concluding  comments of  the Committee  on  the
reports
                          of the States parties

CEDAW/C/1994/WP.2/Add.1,  General comments of  the Committee on  the reports
of
12/Add.1, 13/Add.1,       Australia, Colombia, Guyana, Japan
14/Add.1                 

CEDAW/C/1995/WG.I/WP.1    An optional protocol to the Convention on the
                          Elimination   of   All  Forms   of  Discrimination
against
 Women
 Document number                    Title or description

CEDAW/C/1995/WG.I/WP.2    Report of Working Group I
and Add.1 and 2

CEDAW/C/1995/WG.II/WP.1,  Report of Working Group II
2 and Add.1


Reports of States parties

CEDAW/C/1995/BOL/1 and    Initial report of Bolivia
Add.1

CEDAW/C/CHI/1             Initial report of Chile

CEDAW/C/FIN/2             Second periodic report of Finland

CEDAW/C/MAR/1-2           Combined initial and second periodic reports of

                          Mauritius

CEDAW/C/NOR/3             Third periodic report of Norway

CEDAW/C/NOR/4             Fourth periodic report of Norway

CEDAW/C/13/Add.29         Second periodic report of Peru

CEDAW/C/USR/3             Third periodic report of the Russian Federation

CEDAW/C/USR/4             Fourth periodic report of the Russian Federation

CEDAW/C/TUN/1-2           Combined initial and second periodic reports of
                          Tunisia

CEDAW/C/UGA/1-2 and        Combined  initial and second periodic reports  of
Uganda
Add.1               

CEDAW/C/CRO/SP.1              Report submitted  on an  exceptional basis  by
Croatia

            
ANNEX IV

          Status of submission and consideration of reports submitted by
          States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the
          Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women as at
3 February 1995


States parties Date due a/ Date of submission   Considered by Committee
(session (year))
A.  Initial reports  due as at  3 February 1995Angola17 October  1987Antigua
and Barbuda31 August 199021 September 1994
(CEDAW/C/ANT/1-3)Argentina14 August 19866 October 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.39)Seventh (1988)
Armenia13 October 199430 November 1994
(CEDAW/C/ARM/1)Australia27 August 19843 October 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.40)Seventh (1988)
Austria30 April 198320 October 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.17)Fourth  (1985)Bahamas5 November  1994Bangladesh6  December
198512 March 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.34)Sixth (1987)Barbados3 September 198211 April 1990
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.64)Eleventh (1992)Belarus3 September 19824 October 1982
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.5)Second (1983)Belgium9 August 198620 July 1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.53)Eighth  (1989)Belize15 June 1991Benin11 April 1993Bhutan30
September 1982Bolivia8 July 19918 July 1991
(CEDAW/C/BOL/1)
26 August 1993
(CEDAW/C/BOL/1/Add.1)Fourteenth
(1995)Bosnia and
Herzegovina1  October  1994Brazil2 March  1985Bulgaria10  March 198313  June
1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.15)Fourth (1985)Burkina Faso13 November 198824 May 1990
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.67)Tenth  (1991)Burundi7  February  1993Cambodia14   November
1993Canada9 January 198315 July 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.16)Fourth  (1985)Cape  Verde3 September  1982Central  African
Republic21 July 1992Chile6 January 19913 September 1991
(CEDAW/C/CHI/1)Fourteenth
(1995)China3 September 198225 May 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.14)Third (1984)Colombia18 February 198316 January 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.32)Sixth    (1987)Congo25   August    1983Costa   Rica4   May
1987Croatia9 October 199310 January 1995
(CEDAW/C/CRO/1)Cuba3 September 198227 September 1982
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.4)Second (1983)Cyprus22 August 19862 February 1994

(CEDAW/C/CYP/1-2)Czech
Republic24 March 1994Denmark21 May 198430 July 1984
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.22)Fifth  (1986)Dominica3 September  1982Dominican  Republic2
October 19832 May 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.37)Seventh (1988)Ecuador9 December 198214 August 1984
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.23)Fifth (1986)Egypt18 October 19822 February 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.10)Third (1984)El Salvador18 September 19823 November 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.19)Fifth  (1986)Equatorial  Guinea22  November  198516  March
1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.50)Eighth  (1989)Estonia20  November  1992Ethiopia10  October
198222 April 1993
(CEDAW/C/ETH/1-3)Finland4 October 198716 February 1988
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.56)Eighth (1989)France13 January 198513 February 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.33)Sixth (1987)Gabon20 February 198419 June 1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.54)Eighth   (1989)Gambia16  May  1994Germany9  August  198615
September 1988
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.59)Ninth (1990)Ghana1 February 198729 January 1991
(CEDAW/C/GHA/1-2)Eleventh (1992)Greece7 July 19845 April 1985
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.28)Sixth (1987)Grenada29 September 1991Guatemala11  September
19832 April 1991
(CEDAW/C/GUA/1-2 and Corr.1)
7 April 1993
(CEDAW/C/GUA/1-2/
Amend.1)Thirteenth (1994)

Thirteenth    (1994)Guinea8    September    1983Guinea-Bissau22    September
1986Guyana3 September 198223 January 1990
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.63)Thirteenth  (1994)Haiti3  September  1982Honduras2   April
19843 December 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.44)Eleventh (1992)Hungary3 September 198220 September 1982
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.3)Third (1984)Iceland18 July 19865 May 1993
(CEDAW/C/ICE/1-2)India8 August 1994Indonesia13 October 198517 March 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.36)Seventh (1988)Iraq12 September 198716 May 1990
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.66/Rev.1)Twelfth  (1993)Ireland22  January  198718   February
1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.47)Eighth (1989)Israel2 November 199212 January 1994
(CEDAW/C/ISR/1)Italy10 July 198620 October 1989
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.62)Tenth (1991)Jamaica18 November 198512 September 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.38)Seventh (1988)Japan25 July 198613 March 1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.48)Seventh   (1988)Jordan31   July  1993Kenya8   April  19854
December 1990
(CEDAW/C/KEN/1-2)Twelfth  (1993)Lao People's Democratic Republic13 September
1982Latvia14 May  1993Liberia16  August  1985Libyan Arab  Jamahiriya15  June
199018 February 1991
(CEDAW/C/LIB/1)
4 October 1993
(CEDAW/C/LIB/1/Add.1)Thirteenth (1994)
Thirteenth (1994)Luxembourg4 March 1990Madagascar16 April 199021 May 1990
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.65)
8 November 1993
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.65/Rev.2)

Thirteenth (1994)Malawi11 April 198815 July 1988
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.58)Ninth   (1990)Maldives1  July  1994Mali10  October  198613
November 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.43)Seventh  (1988)Malta7  April 1992Mauritius8  August 198523
February 1992
(CEDAW/C/MAR/1-2)Fourteenth
(1995)Mexico3 September 198214 September 1982
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.2)Second (1983)Mongolia3 September 198218 November 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.20)Fifth (1986)Morocco21 July 199414 September 1994
(CEDAW/C/MOR/1)Namibia23  December 1993Nepal22  May 1992Netherlands22 August
199219 November 1992
(CEDAW/C/NET/1)
17 September 1993
CEDAW/C/NET/1/Add.1

20 September 1993
(CEDAW/C/NET/1/Add.2)
9 October 1993
CEDAW/C/NET/1/Add.3)
)
)
Thirteenth (1994)
)
)New Zealand9 February 19863 October 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.41)Seventh (1988)Nicaragua26 November 198222 September 1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.55)Eighth (1989)Nigeria13 July 19861 April 1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.49)Seventh (1987)Norway3 September 198218 November 1982
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.7)Third (1984)Panama28 November 198212 December 1982
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.9)Fourth (1985)Paraguay6 May 19884 June 1992
(CEDAW/C/PAR/1-2)Peru13 October 198314 September 1988
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.60)Ninth (1990)Philippines4 September 198222 October 1982
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.6)Third (1984)Poland3 September 198210 October 1985
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.31)Sixth (1987)Portugal3 September 198219 July 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.21)Fifth (1986)Republic of Korea26 January 198613 March 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.35)Sixth (1987)Romania6 February 198314 January 1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.45)Twelfth  (1993)Russian  Federation3 September  19822 March
1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.12)Second (1983)Rwanda3 September 198224 May 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.13)Third (1984)Saint Kitts and  Nevis25 May 1986Saint  Lucia7
November 1983Saint  Vincent and the  Grenadines3 September 198227  September
1991
(CEDAW/C/STV/1-3)Samoa25 October 1993Senegal7 March 19865 November 1986
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.42)Seventh   (1988)Seychelles4   June   1993Sierra    Leone11
December 1989Slovakia27 June 1994Slovenia5 August 199323 November 1993
(CEDAW/C/SVN/1)Spain4 February 198520 August 1985
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.30)Sixth (1987)Sri Lanka4 November 19827 July 1985
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.29)Sixth  (1987)Suriname31 March 1994Sweden3 September 198222
October 1982
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.8)Second (1983)Tajikistan25  October 1994Thailand8  September
19861 June 1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.51)Ninth   (1990)Togo26  October  1984Trinidad  and  Tobago11
February 1991Tunisia20 October 198617 September 1993
(CEDAW/C/TUN/1-2)Fourteenth
(1995)Turkey19 January 198727 January 1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.46)Ninth (1990)Uganda21 August 19861 June 1992
(CEDAW/C/UGA/1-2)Fourteenth
(1995)Ukraine3 September 19822 March 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.11)Second (1983)United Kingdom  of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland7 May 198725 June 1987
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.52)Ninth (1990)United  Republic of Tanzania19 September 19869
March 1988
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.57)Ninth (1990)Uruguay8 November 198223 November 1984
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.27)Seventh (1988)Venezuela1 June 198427 August 1984
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.24)Fifth (1986)Viet Nam19 March 19832 October 1984
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.25)Fifth (1986)Yemen29 June 198523 January 1989
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.61)Twelfth (1993)Yugoslavia28 March 19833 November 1983
(CEDAW/C/5/Add.18)Fourth (1985)Zaire16 November 19871 March 1994
(CEDAW/C/ZAR/1)Zambia21 July 19866 March 1991
(CEDAW/C/ZAM/1-2)Thirteenth (1994)Zimbabwe12  June 1992B.   Second  periodic
reports due as at 3 February 1995Angola17 October 1991Antigua and
Barbuda31 August 199421 September 1994
(CEDAW/C/ANT/1-3)Argentina14 August 199013 February 1992
(CEDAW/C/ARG/2)Australia27 August 198824 July 1992
(CEDAW/C/AUL/2)Thirteenth (1994)Austria30 April 198718 December 1989
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.27)Tenth (1991)Bangladesh6 December 198923 February 1990
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.30)Twelfth (1993)Barbados3 September 19864 December 1991
(CEDAW/C/BAR/2-3)Thirteenth (1994)Belarus3 September 19863 March 1987
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.5)Eighth (1989)Belgium9 August 19909 February 1993
(CEDAW/C/BEL/2)Bhutan30  September  1986Brazil2 March  1989Bulgaria10  March
19876 September 1994
(CEDAW/C/BGR/2-3)Burkina Faso13 November 1992

Canada9 January 198720 January 1988
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.11)Ninth  (1990)Cape  Verde3 September  1986China3 September
198622 June 1989
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.26)Eleventh (1992)Chile6 January 19959 March 1995
(CEDAW/C/CHI/2)Colombia18 February 198714 January 1993
(CEDAW/C/COL/2-3)
2 September 1993
(CEDAW/C/COL/2-3/Rev.1)

Thirteenth  (1994)Congo25 August  1987Costa  Rica4  May 1991Cuba3  September
198613 March 1992
(CEDAW/C/CUB/2-3)Cyprus22 August 1990Denmark21 May 19882 June 1988
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.14)Tenth (1991)Dominica3  September 1986Dominican  Republic2
October 198726 April 1993
(CEDAW/C/DOM/2-3)Ecuador9 December 198628 May 1990
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.31)Thirteenth (1994)Egypt18 October 198619 December 1986
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.2)Ninth (1990)El Salvador18 September 198618 December 1987
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.12)Eleventh   (1992)Equatorial   Guinea22   November   19896
January 1994
(CEDAW/C/GNQ/2-3)Ethiopia10 October 198622 April 1993
(CEDAW/C/ETH/1-3)Finland4 October 19919 February 1993
(CEDAW/C/FIN/2)Fourteenth
(1995)France13 January 198910 December 1990
(CEDAW/C/FRA/2)
(CEDAW/C/FRA/2/Rev.1)

Twelfth  (1993)Gabon20  February  1988Germany9  August  1990Ghana1  February
199129 January 1991
(CEDAW/C/GHA/1-2)Eleventh  (1992)Greece7   July  1988Guatemala11   September
19872 April 1991
(CEDAW/C/GUA/1-2 and Corr.1)
7 April 1993
(CEDAW/C/GUA/1-2/
Amend.1)Thirteenth (1994)

Thirteenth    (1994)Guinea8    September    1987Guinea-Bissau22    September
1990Guyana3  September  1986Haiti3  September   1986Honduras2  April  198828
October 1987
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.9)Eleventh (1992)Hungary3 September 198629 September 1986
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.1)Seventh (1988)Iceland18 July 19905 May 1993
(CEDAW/C/ICE/1-2)Indonesia13  October  1989Iraq12  September   1991Ireland22
January  1991Italy10 July  1990Jamaica18  November 1989Japan25  July  199021
February 1992
(CEDAW/C/JPN/2)Thirteenth (1994)Kenya8 April 19894 December 1990
(CEDAW/C/KEN/1-2)Twelfth  (1993)Lao People's Democratic Republic13 September
1986Liberia16  August  1989Libyan  Arab  Jamahiriya15  June  1994Luxembourg4
March   1994Madagascar16  April   1994Malawi11  April   1992Mali10   October
1990Mauritius8 August 198923 February 1992
(CEDAW/C/MAR/1-2)Fourteenth
(1995)Mexico3 September 19863 December 1987
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.10)Ninth (1990)Mongolia3 September 198617 March 1987
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.7)Ninth (1990)New Zealand9 February 19903 November 1992
(CEDAW/C/NZE/2)
27 October 1993
(CEDAW/C/NZE/2/Add.1)Thirteenth (1994)
Thirteenth (1994)Nicaragua26 November 198616 March 1989
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.20)Twelfth   (1993)Nigeria13  July   1990Norway3   September
198623 June 1988
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.15)Tenth  (1991)Panama28  November 1986Paraguay6  May  19924
June 1992
(CEDAW/C/PAR/1-2)Peru13 October 198713 February 1990
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.29)Fourteenth
(1995)Philippines4 September 198612 December 1988
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.17)Tenth (1991)Poland3 September 198617 November 1988
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.16)Tenth (1991)Portugal3 September 198618 May 1989
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.22)Tenth (1991)Republic  of Korea26  January 199019 December

1989
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.28   and   Corr.1)Twelfth  (1993)Romania6   February  198719
October 1992
(CEDAW/C/ROM/2-3)Twelfth   (1993)Russian   Federation3   September    198610
February 1987
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.4)Eighth (1989)Rwanda3 September 19867 March 1988
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.13)Tenth (1991)Saint Kitts and Nevis25 May 1990Saint  Lucia7
November 1987Saint  Vincent and the  Grenadines3 September 198627  September
1991
(CEDAW/C/STV/1-3)Senegal7 March 199023 September 1991
(CEDAW/C/SEN/2)
(CEDAW/C/SEN/2/Amend.1)Thirteenth (1994)Sierra  Leone11 December  1993Spain4
February 19899 February 1989
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.19)Eleventh (1992)Sri Lanka4 November 198629 December 1988
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.18)Eleventh (1992)Sweden3 September 198610 March 1987
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.6)Seventh  (1988)Thailand8   September  1990Togo26   October
1988Tunisia20 October 199017 September 1993
(CEDAW/C/TUN/1-2)Fourteenth
(1995)Turkey19 January 19917 February 1994
(CEDAW/C/TUR/2)Uganda21 August 19901 June 1992
(CEDAW/C/UGA/1-2)Fourteenth
(1995)Ukraine3 September 198613 August 1987
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.8)Ninth (1990)United Kingdom  of Great Britain and  Northern
Ireland7 May 199111 May 1991
(CEDAW/C/UK/2)
(CEDAW/C/UK/2/Amend.1)Twelfth  (1993)United Republic of Tanzania19 September
1990Uruguay8 November 1986Venezuela1 June 198818 April 1989
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.21)Eleventh (1992)Viet  Nam19 March  1987Yemen29 June  19898
June 1989
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.24)
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.24/
Amend.1)Twelfth (1993)Yugoslavia28 March 198731 May 1989
(CEDAW/C/13/Add.23)Tenth  (1991)Zaire16  November  1991Zambia21  July  19906
March 1991
(CEDAW/C/ZAM/1-2)Thirteenth  (1994)C.  Third  periodic reports  due as  at 3
February 1995Antigua and
Barbuda31 August 199821 September 1994
(CEDAW/C/ANT/1-3)Argentina14  August  1994Australia27  August  1992Austria30
April 1991Bangladesh6 December 199326 January 1993
(CEDAW/C/BDG/3)Barbados3 September 19904 December 1991
(CEDAW/C/BAR/2-3)Thirteenth (1994)Belarus3 September 19901 July 1993
(CEDAW/C/BLR/3)Belgium9  August  1994Bhutan30  September  1990Brazil2  March
1993Bulgaria10 March 19916 September 1994
(CEDAW/C/BGR/2-3)Canada9 January 19919 September 1992
(CEDAW/C/CAN/3)Cape  Verde3  September 1990China3  September  1990Colombia18
February 199114 January 1993
(CEDAW/C/COL/2-3)
2 September 1993
(CEDAW/C/COL/2-3/Rev.1)

Thirteenth (1994)Congo25 August 1991Cuba3 September 199013 March 1992
(CEDAW/C/CUB/2-3)Cyprus22 August 1994Denmark21 May 19927 May 1993
(CEDAW/C/DEN/3)Dominica3  September  1990Dominican Republic2  October 199126
April 1993
(CEDAW/C/DOM/2-3)Ecuador9 December 199023 December 1991
(CEDAW/C/ECU/3)Thirteenth  (1994)Egypt18 October 1990El Salvador18 September
1990Equatorial Guinea22 November 1993Ethiopia10 October 199022 April 1993
(CEDAW/C/ETH/1-3)France13  January 1993Gabon20  February 1992Germany9 August
1994Ghana1 February  1995Greece7 July 1992Guatemala11 September  1991Guinea8
September  1991Guinea-Bissau22  September 1994Guyana3  September  1990Haiti3
September 1990Honduras2 April 199231 May 1991
(CEDAW/C/HON/3)Eleventh (1992)Hungary3 September 19904 April 1991
(CEDAW/C/HUN/3)Iceland3  July 1994Indonesia13  October 1993Ireland22 January
1995Italy10 July  1994Jamaica18  November  1993Japan25 July  199428  October
1993
(CEDAW/C/JPN/3)Thirteenth  (1994)Kenya8  April 1993Lao  People's  Democratic

Republic13 September 1990Liberia16 August  1993Mali10 October 1994Mauritius8
August 1993Mexico3 September 19901 December 1992
(CEDAW/C/MEX/3)Mongolia3     September     1990New     Zealand9     February
1994Nicaragua26 November 199015 October 1992
(CEDAW/C/NIC/3)Twelfth  (1993)Nigeria13  July 1994Norway3  September  199025
January 1991
(CEDAW/C/NOR/3)Fourteenth
(1995)Panama28   November  1990Peru13   October  1991Philippines4  September
199020 January 1993
(CEDAW/C/PHI/3)Poland3 September 199022 November 1990
(CEDAW/C/18/Add.2)Tenth (1991)Portugal3 September 199010 December 1990
(CEDAW/C/18/Add.3)Tenth   (1991)Republic  of  Korea26  January  1994Romania6
February 199119 October 1992
(CEDAW/C/ROM/2-3)Twelfth  (1993)Russian  Federation3 September  199024  July
1991
(CEDAW/C/USR/3)Fourteenth
(1995)Rwanda3 September 199018 January 1991
(CEDAW/C/RWA/3)Twelfth  (1993)Saint Kitts  and Nevis25 May  1994Saint Lucia7
November 1991Senegal7 March 1994Saint Vincent and the Grenadines3  September
199027 September 1991
(CEDAW/C/STV/1-3)Spain4   February   1993Sri  Lanka4   November  1990Sweden3
September 19903 October 1990
(CEDAW/C/18/Add.1)Twelfth (1993)
Thailand8 September  1994Togo26 October  1992Tunisia20 October  1994Turkey19
January 1995Uganda21 August 1994Ukraine3 September 199031 May 1991
(CEDAW/C/UKR/3)United   Republic   of  Tanzania19   September   1994Uruguay8
November 1990Venezuela1 June 19928 February 1995
(CEDAW/C/VEN/3)Viet Nam19 March 1991Yemen29 June 199313 November 1992
(CEDAW/C/YEM/3)Twelfth (1993)Yugoslavia28 March 1991Zambia21 July 1994
D.  Fourth periodic reports due as at 3 February 1995
Norway3 September 19941 September 1994
(CEDAW/C/NOR/4)Fourteenth
(1995)Russian Federation
3 September 19941 September 1994
(CEDAW/C/USR/4)Fourteenth
(1995)E.  Reports  submitted on an exceptional basisBosnia and  Herzegovina1
February 1994 oral report
(see CEDAW/C/SR.253)Thirteenth
(1994)Croatia15 September 1994
(CEDAW/C/CRO/SP.1)Fourteenth
(1995)Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)2 December 1993
(CEDAW/C/YUG/SP.1)
2 February 1994 oral report
(see CEDAW/C/SR.254)Thirteenth (1994)
  a/    One year  prior to  the due date, the  Secretary-General invites the
State party to submit its report.


-----


 

This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org