United Nations

A/50/372


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

24 August 1995

ORIGINAL:
ARABIC/ENGLISH/
SPANISH


Fiftieth session
Item 149 of the provisional agenda*


MEASURES TO ELIMINATE INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

              Page

I.  INTRODUCTION .....................................................  4

II.  MODALITIES OF IMPLEMENTATION OF PARAGRAPH 10 OF THE DECLARATION
  ON MEASURES TO ELIMINATE INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM ANNEXED TO
  RESOLUTION 49/60 .................................................  5

III.   REPLIES RECEIVED FROM MEMBER STATES ..............................  8


  ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA ..............................................  8

  ARGENTINA ........................................................    8  

  CANADA ...........................................................  9
    
  MALDIVES .........................................................  11

  NORWAY ...........................................................  12

  SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC .............................................  13

  TURKEY ...........................................................  14

     
________________________

  *  A/50/150.


95-26097 (E)  120995   220995/...
*9526097*

 CONTENTS (continued)

                                                                        
Page

IV.  REPLIES RECEIVED FROM RELEVANT SPECIALIZED AGENCIES AND OTHER
  INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ......................................  22

  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION .  22

  INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION ..............................  26

  ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES ..................................  26

Annex.  State, as at 4 July 1995, of signatures and ratifications of,
    and accessions and successions to, international conventions
    relating to various aspects of the problem of international
    terrorism ......................................................28

    A.  Conventions in respect of which the Secretary-General of
      the United Nations performs depository functions ...........   28

      1.  Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes
        against Internationally Protected Persons, including
        Diplomatic Agents, adopted by the General Assembly of
        the United Nations on 14 December 1973 .................   28

      2.  International Convention against the Taking of
        Hostages, adopted by the General Assembly of the
        United Nations on 17 December 1979 .....................   31

    B.  Conventions in respect of which the International Civil
      Aviation Organization, the International Maritime
      Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency or
      some Member States perform depository functions ............   33

      1.  Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts
        Committed on Board Aircraft, signed at Tokyo on
        14 September 1963 ......................................   33

      2.  Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of
        Aircraft, signed at The Hague on 16 December 1970 ......   39

      3.  Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts
        against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at
        Montreal on 23 September 1971 ..........................   46

      4.  Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear
        Material, adopted at Vienna on 3 March 1980 ............   54
CONTENTS (continued)

                                                                         
Page

      5.  Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of
        Violence at Airports Serving International Civil
        Aviation, supplementary to the Convention for the
        Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of
        Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on
        24 February 1988 .......................................    59

      6.  Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts
        against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, done
        at Rome on 10 March 1988 ...............................    64

      7.  Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against

        the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the
        Continental Shelf, done at Rome on 10 March 1988 .......    67

      8.  Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for
        the Purpose of Detection, signed at Montreal on
        1 March 1991 ...........................................    70


/...  A/50/372
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A/50/372
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I.  INTRODUCTION


1.  The present report has been prepared pursuant to  paragraph 5 of General
Assembly resolution 49/60 of 9 December 1994, in which the Assembly  invited
the  Secretary-General to  follow  up  closely  the  implementation  of  the
resolution and  of the  Declaration on Measures  to Eliminate  International
Terrorism annexed  thereto and  to submit  to the  Assembly at  its fiftieth
session  a report  thereon relating,  in  particular,  to the  modalities of
implementation of paragraph 10 of the Declaration. 1/

2.   By  notes dated  3 January  1995, the Secretary-General,  in accordance
with  paragraph 2 of resolution  49/60, informed all  States of the adoption
of the Declaration.   He further  invited all  States to  submit by 30  June
1995  information  on  the  implementation  of  resolution   49/60  and  the
Declaration  annexed thereto  and drew  the  attention  of Member  States to
paragraphs 10 (a) and (b) of the Declaration.

3.   Also  in  accordance with  paragraph 2  of  the resolution,  the  Legal
Counsel,  by letters  dated 3  January 1995,  informed relevant  specialized
agencies and  other organizations of  the adoption of  the Declaration.   He
further invited them to submit any  information they deemed appropriate  for
inclusion in the  report requested  by the General  Assembly and drew  their
attention, in particular to paragraphs 10 (a) and (d) of the Declaration.  

4.   Furthermore, and again  in accordance  with paragraph  2 of  resolution
49/60, the Legal  Counsel, by letters dated  21 December 1994, informed  the
President  of the Security  Council and  the President  of the International
Court of Justice of the adoption of the Declaration.

5.    As  at 31  July 1995,  replies to  the  communications referred  to in
paragraphs 2 and 3 above had been received  from the Governments of  Antigua
and  Barbuda, Argentina, Canada, Maldives, Norway, the  Syrian Arab Republic
and Turkey, as well as from  the International Maritime Organization  (IMO),
the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural   Organization
(UNESCO) and the Organization of American States.

6.    The  present report  first  addresses,  pursuant  to  paragraph  6  of
resolution 49/60,  the modalities of implementation  of paragraph  10 of the
Declaration.  It then reproduces the  replies received from Governments  and
international  organizations, as listed  in paragraph  5 above.   It finally
indicates  in an  annex the  state,  as at  4 July  1995, of  signatures and
ratifications  of, and accessions  or successions  to, a  number of relevant
multilateral international conventions.


             II.  MODALITIES OF IMPLEMENTATION OF PARAGRAPH 10 OF THE
                  DECLARATION ON MEASURES TO ELIMINATE INTERNATIONAL
                  TERRORISM ANNEXED TO RESOLUTION 49/60

7.   In paragraph  6 of  its resolution 49/60, the  General Assembly invited
the  Secretary-General  to  report  on  the  modalities  of  application  of
paragraph  10  of the  Declaration  on  Measures to  Eliminate International
Terrorism annexed to the resolution.  Paragraph 10 of the Declaration  reads
as follows:

  "10.   The Secretary-General  should assist  in the  implementation of the
present  Declaration by  taking, within  existing resources,  the  following
practical measures to enhance international cooperation:

  "(a)  A  collection of data on the  status and implementation of  existing
multilateral, regional and  bilateral agreements  relating to  international
terrorism,  including  information  on  incidents  caused  by  international
terrorism and  criminal prosecutions  and sentencing,  based on  information
received from the depositaries of those agreements and from Member States;

  "(b)    A  compendium  of  national  laws  and  regulations  regarding the
prevention and suppression of international terrorism  in all its forms  and
manifestations, based on information received from Member States;

  "(c)  An  analytical review  of existing  international legal  instruments
relating   to  international  terrorism,  in  order  to   assist  States  in
identifying  aspects of  this  matter  that have  not been  covered  by such
instruments and could be addressed to  develop further a comprehensive legal
framework of conventions dealing with international terrorism;

  "(d)   A review of existing possibilities within the United Nations system
for  assisting  States  in  organizing workshops  and  training  courses  on
combating crimes connected with international terrorism."

8.   As  regards subparagraph  (a),  the  Secretary-General notes  that  the
envisaged  collection of data  would be  based on  information received from
the depositaries  of  existing agreements  and  from  Member States.    Such
information  could  be sought  at  regular  intervals,  for  instance, on  a
biennial basis from  all Member States as well  as from the depositaries  of
the multilateral conventions referred to in the annex  to the present report
and   from  the  depositaries  of  the  regional  conventions  mentioned  in
paragraph 12 below.

9.   With reference  to instruments  relating to  unlawful interference with
civil  aviation, the  Secretary-General has  been  informed  that it  is the
practice of  the International  Civil Aviation  Organization (ICAO) to  send
once  a  year  to  all  Contracting  States  of  ICAO  a  letter  requesting
information  on  the  implementation  of  ICAO  Assembly  resolution   A29-5
entitled "Consolidated  statement of  continuing ICAO  policies relating  to
the  safeguarding of  international civil aviation against  acts of unlawful
interference".   As for other international  conventions referred  to in the
annex to this report, the Secretary-General notes:  (a) that the  Convention
for  the  Suppression  of  Unlawful  Acts  against  the  Safety  of Maritime
Navigation, 1988,  obliges States Parties  to provide the  Secretary-General
of IMO,  who is the  depositary, with  any relevant information  on offences
under the Convention,  actions taken to avoid  that a ship,  its passengers,
crew or cargo be  unduly detained or delayed and measures taken in  relation
to the  offence or  alleged offender; (b)  that the  Convention on  Physical
Protection  of Nuclear Material  requires a  State Party  to communicate the
final outcome of proceedings against an  alleged offender to the depositary,
namely  the  Director-General of  the  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency
(IAEA), who in turn  informs all States thereof; and (c) that the Convention
against the Taking of Hostages (in its article 7) and  the Convention on the
Prevention  and  Punishment  of  Crimes  against  Internationally  Protected
Persons  (in  its article  11)  require  States  Parties,  where an  alleged
offender is prosecuted, to communicate the  final outcome of the proceedings
to  the Secretary-General  of the  United  Nations  for transmission  to the
other  States  concerned  and   interested  international  intergovernmental
organizations.

10.  The information  sent by Member  States and depositaries would, in  the
Secretary-General's intention, be  compiled under two main headings,  namely
"Status  and implementation  of  existing agreements"  and  "Information  on
incidents caused  by international terrorism  and criminal prosecutions  and
sentencing".  The  preparation of  the  relevant  document  would,  wherever
appropriate, be  coordinated  with that  of  the  report of  the  Secretary-
General under the item "Consideration of  effective measures to enhance  the
protection, security  and safety  of diplomatic  and  consular missions  and
representatives".   The  information gathered  would  be placed  before  the
General  Assembly  as  part  of  the  documentation  relating  to  the  item
"Measures to  eliminate international  terrorism".   On this  understanding,
the Secretary-General would be in a position to  carry out the task referred
to in subparagraph (a) from within existing resources.

11.   As  regards subparagraph  (b),  the  Secretary-General notes  that the
envisaged  compendium would  be  confined  to material  submitted by  Member
States.  Such  material could be requested by  circular notes to  be sent at
regular intervals, for instance every  two or three years.   Its publication
could  not be assured  from within  existing resources  if translation costs
were involved.  The printing costs, on the other hand,  could be absorbed if
use was made of  the Legislative Series, a series which reproduces  material
in English  or French and  for which funds are  currently appropriated under
the regular  budget of the United  Nations on the basis  of two volumes  per
year.  Member States whose official language is  not English or French would
thus have to undertake responsibility for the translation  into one of those
languages  of  the  laws  and  regulations   they  would  wish  to   submit.
Alternatively,  they could  be invited  to provide a  summary in  English or
French of such laws  and regulations which  would alone be published in  the
Legislative  Series with an indication  that the full  text is available for
consultation in the files of the Codification Division.       

12.   With regard to  subparagraph (c), the  envisaged analytical review  of
existing  international  instruments  relating  to  international  terrorism
would, in the intention  of the Secretary-General, cover, in addition to the
multilateral  conventions referred to  in the  annex to  the present report,
three regional conventions namely the Convention  to Prevent and Punish Acts
of  Terrorism  Taking  the  Form  of  Crimes  against  Persons  and  Related
Extortions that are  of International Significance,  signed at Washington on
2 February  1971, the European Convention  on the  Suppression of Terrorism,
signed at Strasbourg on  27 January 1972 2/  and the South Asian Association
for  Regional  Cooperation's  Regional  Convention  on  the  Suppression  of
Terrorism,  signed at  Kathmandu  on 4  November 1987.  3/    The analytical
review could  also, if  deemed  appropriate, take  into consideration  other
documents adopted  at  the  international  level  such  as  the  resolutions
adopted by  the  Economic and  Social  Council  following the  Ninth  United
Nations Congress on the Prevention of  Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.
It  would be  of a  strictly descriptive  character and  would leave  it  to
States  to  identify  aspects  of  international  terrorism  not  covered by
existing  instruments.   Provided the  analytical review  were  published as
part  of the documentation  under the  item entitled  "Measures to eliminate
international terrorism",  it could  be prepared  and processed from  within
existing resources.

13.   As regards  subparagraph (d)  to which,  as indicated  in paragraph  3
above,  the Legal  Counsel specifically drew the  attention of international
organizations  in his  letters dated  3 January  1995, the Secretary-General
wishes to refer to the extract from the  UNESCO Executive Board document 146
EX/44, reproduced in section IV  below, as well as to  the last paragraph of
the reply of IMO, also reproduced in section IV below.

14.    The Secretary-General  further  wishes  to  indicate  that the  Crime
Prevention  and Criminal  Justice Branch  of  the  United Nations  Office at
Vienna organizes  workshops and training seminars  in the  field relating to
crime prevention and criminal justice.   Generally, these are organized  for
law enforcement officers, prosecutors, investigating judges and  corrections
officers, and  focus on the use  and application of United Nations standards

and norms  in the  administration of  justice.   In recent times,  since the
resources allocated  to these activities in  the programme  budget are quite
limited,  a number of  such training  seminars have  been planned, organized
and conducted jointly with other United Nations entities such as the  United
Nations  International Drug  Control  Programme  and the  Centre  for  Human
Rights, as  well as  international professional  organizations.  The  Branch
also  assists Member States  by providing  advisory services on legislation,
policies and  strategies for  preventing, controlling  and combating  crime,
including  terrorism.   The nature  of  the  training courses,  seminars and
advisory services to be offered depends on the results of needs  assessments
which are carried out in response to requests of Member States.

15.   Furthermore,  interregional advisers  provide their  services  free of
charge to requesting Governments, in order to assist  them in solving urgent
and specific  problems.  In  general, a request  for assistance from  Member
States would  enable an  interregional adviser  to undertake  an exploratory
mission in  order to discuss with  the appropriate  national authorities how
to approach the relevant problems.

16.    The  Crime  Prevention  and  Criminal  Justice  Branch  considers its
technical assistance programme described above as a matter of priority.

17.    In  addition,  the  Secretary-General  is  currently  exploring   the
possibility of  addressing the  question of  international terrorism in  the
context  of the seminars organized within the framework  of the Programme of
Assistance in the Teaching, Study, Dissemination  and Wider Appreciation  of
International Law.

  III.  REPLIES RECEIVED FROM MEMBER STATES

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

[Original:  English]

[1 May 1995]       

1.  A Parliamentary democracy in the eastern Caribbean, Antigua and  Barbuda
is a  peaceful island-State known  for its  sun, sea  and sand.   There  has
never  been a  case of  international terrorism  within or connected  to the
State.    However,  even  a  peace-loving  island-developing  State  is  not
completely immune from the heightened social  and political tensions and the
often attendant criminal elements that currently  exist in various parts  of
the world.

2.   To this end,  the Government  of Antigua and Barbuda  has initiated the
following measures to assist in the fight against international terrorism:

  (a)  The Antigua  and Barbuda Port Authority,  with the assistance  of the
Coast  Guard and Navy  personnel of  a friendly country, has  stepped up its
monitoring of ports  and waterways in order  to prevent transport of weapons
within territorial seas;

  (b)    The newly  renovated  V. C.  Bird  International  Airport  has been
furnished  with metal  detectors to  hinder  the  departure of  any would-be
airline hijacker;

  (c)    Authorities  are  also  utilizing  trained  canines  to  sniff  out
narcotics and explosives; and

  (d)   Eight Caribbean States have formed a Regional Security System (RSS),
charged with addressing questions of collective security and defence.

3.  Furthermore,  on 19 July  1993, the  Government of  Antigua and  Barbuda
acceded to  the United Nations Convention  on the  Prevention and Punishment
of Crimes  against Internationally Protected  Persons, including  Diplomatic
Agents.

4.  The Government  of Antigua and Barbuda  attaches great importance to the
subject-matter  of  resolution  49/60  of  9   December  1994  and  to   the
Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism.


ARGENTINA

[Original:  Spanish]

[29 June 1995]     

1.  The legislation  currently in force in  Argentina on the  prevention and
suppression  of   international   terrorism  consists   of  acts   ratifying
international multilateral conventions, namely:

   -Act No.  18,730/70 (1963 Convention on  Offences and  Certain Other Acts
Committed on Board Aircraft);

  -Act  No.  19,793/72 (1970  Convention  for  the Suppression  of  Unlawful
Seizure of Aircraft);

  -Act No. 20,411/73 (1971 Convention for  the Suppression of Unlawful  Acts
against the Safety of Civil Aviation);

  -Act No. 22,509/81 (Convention on the  Prevention and Punishment of Crimes
against  Internationally  Protected Persons,  including  Diplomatic  Agents,
adopted by the General Assembly in resolution 3166 (XXVIII));

  -Act No. 23,956/91  (1979 International  Convention against the Taking  of
Hostages);

  -Act No. 23,915/92 (1988 Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts  of
Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation);

  -Act No. 24,209/93 (1988 Convention for  the Suppression of Unlawful  Acts
against the Safety of Maritime Navigation).

2.   In addition,  the Argentine  Republic has  signed bilateral  agreements
with the  Italian  Republic  (1992) and  the Republic  of  Turkey (1995)  on
cooperation   against  drug  trafficking,  organized   crime  and  terrorist
activities; however, both agreements are still awaiting ratification by  the
legislature.

3.  Lastly, the Argentine Penal Code (title IX, dealing with crimes  against
national  security,  and  title  X,  dealing  with  crimes  against   public
authorities  and  constitutional order),  special  criminal  laws  (Act  No.
20,840, as  amended by Act No. 21,459 and Act No. 23,077) and other domestic
regulations (Decree  No. 327/89,  which establishes  the organizational  and
operational  bases for  the  development, implementation  and  follow-up  of
measures to prevent  and suppress the  formation or the activities  of armed
groups) are  aimed at  preventing and suppressing terrorist  activities that
are  more  in  the  nature  of  "domestic  terrorism"  (subversion)  than of
international terrorism.


CANADA

[Original:  English]

[28 June 1995]     

  The Permanent  Representative of Canada to  the United  Nations is pleased
to  provide the  Secretary-General of  the United  Nations with  information
regarding the status and implementation of  such agreements to which  Canada
is, or is eligible to be, a party. 4/

 MULTILATERAL TREATIES

Treaties in force for Canada

I.Convention  on  Offences  and  Certain  Other  Acts  Committed  on   Board
Aircraft:

Signature:  04-11-64
Ratification:  07-11-69
Entry into force for Canada:  05-02-70

II.Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft:

Signature:  16-12-70
Ratification:  20-06-72
Entry into force for Canada:  24-07-72

III.   Convention  for the Suppression of  Unlawful Acts against  the Safety
of
   Civil Aviation:

Signature:  23-09-71
Ratification:  19-06-72
Entry into force for Canada:  26-01-73

IV.Convention  on   the  Prevention   and  Punishment   of  Crimes   against
Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents:

Signature:  26-06-74
Ratification:  04-08-76
Entry into force for Canada:  20-02-77

V.International Convention against the Taking of Hostages:

Signature:  18-02-80
Ratification:  04-12-85
Entry into force for Canada:  03-01-86

VI.Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material:

Signature:  23-09-80
Ratification:  21-03-86
Entry into force for Canada:  08-02-87


BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

I.Agreement  between the  Government of  Canada  and  the Government  of the
Republic of Cuba on Hijacking of Aircraft and Vessels and Other Offences:

Signed and in force:  15-02-73
Renewed by exchange of notes:  01-02-88 and 11-03-88
Renewed Agreement in force:  11-03-88

 II.Agreement  between the Government  of Canada  and the  Government of the
United States of America on Aviation Security:

Signed and in force:  21-11-86

(i)Protocol  for the  Suppression of  Unlawful  Acts  against the  Safety of
Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf

Canadian Criminal Code, articles 7, 78.1


MALDIVES

[Original:  English]

[20 June 1995]     

1.  If history and tradition are any guide to judge the  human values upheld
by any society or country,  the Republic of  Maldives goes wide of the  mark
today  having experienced  the fearful  events of  3 November  1988, when 18
hours of a vicious attack on the capital island of the archipelagic  country
- Male  - by a group of terrorists took place.  It was the first time in the
history of Maldives that a terrorist activity had ever taken place.

2.  The aim  of this planned attack,  it transpired following investigations
after  the  terrorists  were  beaten  back,  was  to  overthrow  the legally
established Government.

3.  But the 18  hours of the mayhem of shooting, killing and destruction  to
property created by the inhuman terrorists  left cruel and everlasting marks
on the  people of  Maldives who  had never  before experienced  any acts  of
terrorism.  These marks,  both physical and psychological,  are visible even
today.

4.    The  alarming  escalation  of  terrorist  activities  the  world over,
compelled the Government to  embark on a programme of action to enhance  the
public awareness on how, where and why terrorism  was leading the evils that
confront mankind on earth.

5.  The Republic  of Maldives firmly believes  that strong measures  have to
be taken at the  national and international levels to combat the inhuman and
dastardly  acts of  terrorism and  terrorists,  and  those who  encourage or
assist them in any way.

6.  The  Government of Maldives, while  fully supporting the most  important
work  being  carried  out  by  the  United  Nations  and  the  international
community and also at regional levels,  has already ratified/acceded to  the
following  legal instruments  which form  effective countermeasures  against
terrorism:

  1.    The Hague  Convention for  the  Suppression of  Unlawful Seizure  of
Aircraft, 1970:  ratified/acceded to on 1 September 1987.

   2.  Montreal Convention for the Suppression  of Unlawful Acts against the
Safety of Civil Aviation, 1971:  ratified/acceded to on 1 September 1987.

  3.   Tokyo  Convention on  Offences and  Certain Other  Acts Committed  on
Board Aircraft, 1963:  ratified/acceded to on 28 September 1987.

  4.   New  York Convention  against  the  Recruitment, Use,  Financing  and
Training of  Mercenaries, 1989:  signed on  17 July 1990  and ratified on 11
September 1991.

  5.   SAARC  Regional Convention  on Suppression  of Terrorism,  Kathmandu,
1987:  signed on 4 November 1987 and ratified on 28 December 1987.

7.   Apart from  becoming a party  to the  above-mentioned conventions,  the
Government of Maldives also  enacted in 1990  a law to prevent terrorism  in
the country (Law No. 10/90). 5/


NORWAY

[Original:  English]

[23 May 1995]      

1.  Norway is party to the following agreements:

  -Convention  on  Offences  and  Certain  Other  Acts  Committed  on  Board
Aircraft of 14 September 1963, in force for Norway as of 4 December 1969.

  -Convention for  the Suppression  of Unlawful  Seizure of  Aircraft of  16
December 1970, in force for Norway as of 14 October 1971.

  -Convention  for the Suppression  of Unlawful  Acts against  the Safety of
Civil Aviation  of 23 September  1971, in force for Norway  as of 26 January
1976.

  -Protocol  for the Suppression  of Unlawful  Acts of  Violence at Airports
Servicing International Civilian Aviation of 24  February 1988, in force for
Norway as of 28 June 1990.

  -European Convention on the Suppression of  Terrorism of 27 January  1977,
in force for Norway as of 10 April 1980.

  -Convention  on   the  Prevention   and  Punishment   of  Crimes   against
Internationally  Protected  Persons,  including  Diplomatic   Agents  of  14
December 1973, in force for Norway as of 26 November 1976.

  -International Convention against the  Taking of Hostages  of 18  December
1979, in force for Norway as of December 1984.

   -Convention for  the Suppression of Unlawful  Acts against  the Safety of
Maritime Navigation,  and  Protocol for  the  Suppression  of Unlawful  Acts
against the  Safety of  Fixed Platforms  Located on  the Continental  Shelf,
both of 10 March 1988, in force for Norway as of 1 March 1992.

  -Convention on  the  Marking of  Plastic  Explosives  for the  Purpose  of
Detection of 1 March 1991.  Norway deposited the  instrument of ratification
on 9 July 1992.

2.    The  Norwegian  legal  system  does  not contain  specific  rules  and
regulations  regarding  the  prevention  and  suppression  of  international
terrorism.   Individual acts  of terrorism  are liable  for prosecution  and
punishment in accordance with the Norwegian Civilian Penal Code of 1902.


SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC

[Original:  Arabic]

[23 May 1995]     

1.  The Syrian  Arab Republic reiterates that  it condemns all acts, methods
and practices  of terrorism  as criminal  actions, because  they target  the
lives and  property  of innocent  people  and  violate the  sovereignty  and
territorial  integrity of States.   It  urges genuine  cooperation among all
States in  the framework of international  legitimacy so  that the necessary
measures  may be  taken to  prevent and  combat terrorism  and eliminate its
causes,  and it  calls  for  the formulation  of internationally  acceptable
criteria  to  differentiate   clearly  between  terrorism,  which  must   be
condemned and  opposed, and  national struggle  against foreign  occupation,
which must be protected and supported.

2.   Accordingly, the  Syrian Arab  Republic  welcomed the  adoption by  the
General  Assembly of  its historic  resolution 42/159,  which  constituted a
step forward  in the  expansion and  promotion of  effective cooperation  in
combating terrorism in the framework of  international legitimacy and on the
basis of the principles  enunciated in its paragraph 14, as derived from the
Charter  of  the  United  Nations  and  the  Declaration  on  Principles  of
International  Law  concerning  Friendly  Relations  and  Cooperation  among
States.

3.  The Syrian  Arab Republic was  also in the forefront in calling  for the

convening  of an  international conference  to define terrorism,  to examine
its causes,  to eliminate any confusion  between terrorism  and the struggle
of peoples for national liberation from foreign occupation  and to study the
underlying  causes  of those  acts  of  violence that  may  arise  from  the
violation  of basic  rights  and  from misery,  frustration,  grievance  and
despair.  The Syrian Arab Republic believes that  the mandate of any working
group established should be restricted to  preparations for the convening of
an international conference to define terrorism  and consider means for  its
elimination.   An international convention for  the prevention of  terrorism
may be elaborated in the light of the results of such a conference.

 4.  As  it appreciates the  efforts made  by the  Secretary-General of  the
United Nations in continuing  to solicit the  views of Member States with  a
view to convening the international conference  in question, the Syrian Arab
Republic  bases   its  position  on  its  desire  to  protect  international
legitimacy,  the  principles  of  international  law  and  the purposes  and
principles of  the Charter.  It is  of the  view that  the General  Assembly
should consider  the item on measures  to eliminate international  terrorism
every two  years, in  order to  review ways  and means of  strengthening the
role  of  the  United  Nations  and  the  relevant  specialized  agencies in
combating international terrorism.


TURKEY

[Original:  English]

[20 June 1995]     

1.  Turkey has been one of the  prime targets of international terrorism  in
the past decades.   At present PKK,  with its violent methods, continues  to
be a menace detrimental to  the promotion of  a democratic way of living  in
the  region.   The  PKK  is  recognized   and  classified   as  a  terrorist
organization by Western States,  and also by the European Parliament and the
Council of Europe.  Since 1984,  indiscriminate violence and terror waged by
the PKK have claimed thousands of lives.   The United Nations Declaration on
Measures to  Eliminate International Terrorism,  adopted at the  forty-ninth
session   of  the   General   Assembly,  underlines   the  concern   by  the
international  community  at   the  growing  and  dangerous  links   between
terrorist  groups, drug traffickers and their paramilitary  gangs which have
resorted to all types of violence  thus endangering the constitutional order
of  States  and  violating  basic  human  rights.    This  Declaration  also
emphasizes the  desirability of  closer cooperation  and coordination  among
States in combating crimes closely connected  with terrorism, including drug
trafficking, unlawful arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of  nuclear
and other potentially deadly materials.

2.   The Vienna Declaration  and Programme of  Action, adopted  at the World
Conference on  Human  Rights, also  stresses  that  "the acts,  methods  and
practices of  terrorism  in  all its  forms and  manifestations  as well  as
linkage  in some countries to  drug trafficking are  activities aimed at the
destruction   of  human   rights,   fundamental   freedoms  and   democracy,
threatening  territorial  integrity, security  of  States and  destabilizing
legitimately constituted Governments.   The  international community  should
take the  necessary  steps to  enhance  cooperation  to prevent  and  combat
terrorism".


I.  INCIDENTS CAUSED BY TERRORISM

A.   PKK  uses  all  sorts of  terror  tactics such  as slaying  mercilessly
schoolteachers  and  other  civilians,  including  women,  the  elderly  and
children, and is also involved in drug trafficking.   Some of the attention-
striking incidents  mentioned below  and compiled  from the  reports of  the
foreign  media, foreign  officers and  the local  Turkish authorities proved
that the PKK's involvement in drug trafficking is self-evident:

    (1)  In January  1992, Bremen police  arrested a Turk of Kurdish  origin
selling drugs.  The police found  a bunch of  keys in his pocket.  The  keys
belonged to an  apartment where other Turks of Kurdish origin lived.  On the
walls of the said apartment were posters of  the PKK and its leader Abdullah
Ocalan.  The  police also found some clues  that the PKK finances its  armed
struggle by the heroin trade (SAT-TV, 6 January 1992).

  (2)  In 1992 a total  of 2,069 drug addicts died in Germany.  In the  same
year, police  arrested some  children aged 10-12  coming from  south-eastern
Turkey  and selling  drugs in  Hamburg.   A child  of 8  carrying a  firearm
confessed that the PKK was using them to  sell drugs, since they do not have
penal responsibility.  The police seized 30 kilograms  of heroin from a Kurd
who  was said  to  transfer  150,000 deutsche  marks to  his partners.   The
estimated figure the PKK earns from  the narcotics trade is more  than DM 56
million.

  (3)  The  years of intensive  police investigation by the  Slagelse Police
and  the Narcotics  Section of  the National  Police in  Denmark resulted in
solving several armed robberies whose spoils  were used to finance narcotics
purchases. The police  captured Inga Larsen  of Denmark who  had links  with
the two Turkish narcotics  kingpins living in Denmark:  Ali Nazim  Sivrikaya
and Kara Mehmet Secilmis  also called "Carlos".  During the trial, the close
relation between Carlos and  PKK was proved.   Superintendent Niels Bech  of
the National Police  Force explained that  large parts  of the profits  from
the narcotics sales in  Denmark have returned to  Turkey.  "Carlos" even got
people  to send the money via post  to Germany.  In one  case 140,000 Danish
kroner were  sent to  Mustafa A_deve  in Turkey  who in  turn sent  kilos of
heroin to Europe.

  (4)   Italian  police issued  a report  which  was  also handed  to German
Interpol.   The report lists  the PKK's involvement in  narco-terror case by
case.

  (5)   The German police reports underline the fact that, in 1991, 1,103 kg
of heroin  were seized by  the police  and 400  of 735 suspects  involved in
drug trading  incidents were PKK  members.  In  1992, this  ratio mounted to
450/735 and to 300/457 in 1993.

  (6)    The United  States  Department  of  State  Bureau of  International
Narcotic Matters,  in its  International Narcotics  Control Strategy  Report
(1992)  stated that two  thirds of the  people involved  in drug trafficking
incidents in Europe are PKK-oriented.

  (7)  In 1993 the police seized 200 kg of heroin in London and as a  result
of the investigation it  was understood that  the drug traders were  working
for PKK.

  (8)  Sengul Karacan,  captured in Caracas, Venezuela, on 10 November  1993
while carrying  3.5 kg  of cocaine,  confessed that  she was a  PKK courier.
This incident  proves the  links of  the PKK with  the drug cartels  even in
Latin America.

  (9)   In a police operation  realized in the  international waters of  the
Mediterranean, 3  tons of heroin  were seized in  the ship  "K1smetim 1" and
Kaz1m Akkus, one of  the sailors, confessed that  the heroin belonged to the
PKK and was on route to Europe.

  (10)  A  PKK member, Hakk1 K1tay, captured by  the police with 14.5 kg  of
heroin on 1 September 1993,  confessed that he was acting  on behalf of  the
PKK abroad, he was a drug smuggler and  was transferring 30 per cent  of the
income to the PKK.

  (11)    Hasan  Mo_lu, arrested  by  the  police  on  2  September 1993  in
connection  with the  incident  in  which 100  kg of  heroin were  seized in
Kap1kule, was found to be a PKK member.

  (12)  Turkish security forces  seized 120 kg of heroin  and 40 kg  of hemp
seeds (cannabis) in a PKK shelter in south-eastern Turkey.

  (13)  On 1  August 1994, Remzi Inceoren,  apprehended in Diyarbak1r with 2
kg of heroin,  acknowledged that he was selling drugs for the PKK.   He also
informed the police  that some PKK  members were cultivating drugs  and gave
the  name  of  the   places  where  hemp  seeds  were  grown.    In  further
investigation, the  police  captured 120,000  roots  of  hemp seeds  in  the
village of Dibek.

B.   Statistical information on  incidents caused by terrorism  in the first
half of  1995 and the  number of  people killed or  wounded as  a result  of
incidents between the years 1992 and 1995 in Turkey is provided below:

1.Statistical information  on  incidents caused  by terrorism  in the  first
half of 1995

1 January 1995
Village of Diyarbak1r - Kulp - Hamzal1
As a result of an attack by terrorists on the village, 19 civilians were
  killed and 6 were wounded.

1 March 1995
Ceyhan Village of Adana
A civilian named Haydar O_uz was killed by gunshot by terrorists.

3 March 1995
Adana
A civilian named Nebi Polat was killed by gunshot by terrorists.

4 March 1995
City of Adana
Two civilians were killed by gunshot by terrorists.

4 March 1995
Kulp village of Diyarbak1r
Terrorists attacked the village and killed five civilians.

 5 March 1995
Province of Diyarbak1r
During a football match in Diyarbak1r,  terrorists threw a hand-grenade into
the stadium; as a result of the attack three civilians were wounded.

5 March 1995
Province of Bingol
One  of the children  who found  a hand-grenade in the  playground died; the
other was wounded as a result of the explosion.

11 March 1995
Silopi village of the city of S1rnak
A civilian was killed by terrorists.

12 March 1995
City of S1rnak
A civilian was wounded after stepping on a mine laid by terrorists.

15 March 1995
Cukurca village of the city of Hakkari
Four  civilians were  kidnapped by  terrorists after  an attack  on a  radio
station.

18 March 1995
City of Adana
A bomb that was put in a car exploded.

17 March 1995

City of Siirt
A hand-grenade was thrown into the  house of Abdulkerim K1z1l by terrorists;
the house was heavily damaged.

20 March 1995
City of Adana
A bomb put in a garbage can exploded in front of a store.

  21 March 1995
Batman
A road was blocked and a bus and  many other cars were stopped by a group of
15 terrorists dressed as  soldiers.  Terrorists escaped from the scene after
security forces arrived.

21 March 1995
City of Mardin
A bus was damaged  after hitting a  mine laid on the road and  two civilians
in the bus were wounded.

24 March 1995
City of Mardin
Two civilians  in a horse carriage were  killed after hitting  a mine on the
road.

 27 March 1995
City of S1rnak
Four  civilians  were killed  and five  others were  wounded because  of the
gunfire by terrorists.

5 April 1995
Province of Hatay-Dortyol-Kuzuculu
Seven civilians were killed and one was wounded by terrorists.

12 June 1995
City of Bingol-Province of Genc
Eighteen soldiers were killed in an attack by terrorists.

16 June 1995
City of Hakkari-Province of Semdinli
Twenty soldiers were killed in an attack by terrorists.

2.Statistical information  on incidents  caused by  terrorism in 1992,  1993
and 1994

  1992

1,920 incidents
Civilian population -618  dead, 853  wounded (including  12 teachers  killed
and 2 wounded by attacks on schools by the PKK)
  Soldiers -  461 dead, 913 wounded
  Police -  48 dead, 165 wounded
  Village guard -  125 dead, 151 wounded

  1993

4,198 incidents
  Civilian population -1,325 dead, 1,512 wounded  (as a result of 46 attacks
on schools,  43 teachers  were killed,  30 were  wounded,  19 teachers  were
abducted and 12 were released)
  Soldiers -  550 dead, 1,046 wounded
Police -  36 dead, 155 wounded
  Village guard -  182 dead, 263 wounded

  1994

  3,524 incidents

  Civilian population -822 dead,  1,215 wounded (as  a result of 27  attacks
on schools, 25 teachers were killed, 11 were wounded, 7 were  abducted and 5
were released)
  Soldiers -  752 dead, 1,875 wounded
  Police -  39 dead, 174 wounded
  Village guard -  253 dead, 319 wounded

 C.  National Law on Suppression of Terrorism

  On  the  prevention of  terrorism  and  for  the  punishment of  terrorist
crimes, the Government  of the Republic of Turkey  has enacted Law No.  3713
on Suppression of Terrorism. 6/



II.  MULTILATERAL, REGIONAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS AND
OTHER INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS ON TERRORISM 

  Turkey has also concluded bilateral agreements  with various States and is
a party to  many regional and  universal agreements for  the suppression  of
terrorism and for cooperation in this area.  The bilateral agreements  which
were concluded  by the Turkish  Government in the framework  of the Security
Cooperation  Mechanism and the  multilateral treaties  to which  Turkey is a
party  are  listed below.    The  Security  Cooperation  Mechanism has  been
established   for   cooperation  in   areas   of  international   terrorism,
international drug  trafficking and  other issues  of  security.   Bilateral
meetings  are held periodically  between Turkey  and the  United States, the
United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden and Tunisia to consider these issues.

A.Bilateral  agreements   concluded  in  the   framework  of  the   Security
Cooperation Mechanism

  (1)   Agreement between  the Government  of the Turkish  Republic and  the
Republic of  Bulgaria on  Cooperation  on Prevention  of Terrorism,  Illegal
Drug Traffic and Other Organized Crimes (Ankara, 3 February 1993)

  (2)  Agreement between  the Government of  the Republic of Turkey and  the
Hashemite  Kingdom of  Jordan  for Cooperation  on Prevention  of Terrorism,
Illegal  Traffic  of Psychotropic  Substances  and  Other  Organized  Crimes
(Ankara, 7 May 1994)

  (3)  Agreement between  the Government of the  Republic of Turkey  and the
Government of the Republic  of Poland on Cooperation for the Security of the
Public and Protection of Public Order (Ankara, 30 January 1993)

  (4)   Agreement  between the  Government  of  the Republic  of Turkey  and
Israel for Cooperation on Prevention of Illegal Traffic  and Use of Narcotic
Drugs and Psychotropic  Substances and  Other Serious  Crimes (Jerusalem,  3
November 1994)

  (5)   Agreement on  Cooperation between  the Turkish  Ministry of Interior
and the Ministry of Security of the  Russian Federation (Moscow, 28  October
1992)

  (6)   Agreement on  Cooperation between  the Turkish  Ministry of Interior
and the Ministry of  Interior of the Russian  Federation (Moscow, 30 October
1992)

  (7)  Agreement  between the Government of the  Republic of Turkey and  the
Government  of the Republic of  Hungary for Cooperation on the Prevention of
Terrorism,  Illicit Drug  Traffic  and  Other Organized  Crimes (Ankara,  18
December 1992)
    (8)  Agreement between the Government of the  Republic of Turkey and the
Government  of  the  Czech  and  Slovak  Republic  for  Cooperation  on  the
Prevention  of Terrorism,  Illicit Traffic  and  Use  of Narcotic  Drugs and
Psychotropic Substances and Other Organized Crimes (Prague, 5 October 1992)

  (9)  Agreement  between the  Government of the Republic of  Turkey and the
Government  of the  Republic of  Ukraine  on  Cooperation for  Prevention of
Crime (Ankara, 14 April 1994)

  (10)  Agreement between  the Government of the Republic of Turkey and  the
Government of the  Republic of Moldova for  Cooperation on the Prevention of
Terrorism, Illicit Drug Trafficking  and Other Organized  Crimes (Kisinev, 3
June 1994)

  (11)   Agreement  on Cooperation  between  the  Turkish Republic  and  the
Republic of Azerbaijan (Ankara, 4 October 1994)

  (12)  Agreement for Cooperation on  Security between the Government of the
Turkish  Republic and the  Government of  the Republic  of Sudan  (Ankara, 5
August 1992)

  (13)  Agreement  for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of
Turkey  and the  Government of  the  former  Yugoslav Republic  of Macedonia
(Ankara, 19 May 1994)

  (14)  Agreement for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic  of
Turkey and  the  Government of  the Republic  of Romania  (Ankara, 28  April
1992)

  (15)   Protocol for the years 1992 and 1993  concluded in the framework of
the Cooperation Agreement between the Government  of the Republic of  Turkey
and the Government of the Republic of Romania (Bucharest, 15 July 1992)

  (16)  Agreement and Additional Protocol  thereto between the Government of
the Republic  of Turkey and  the Government of  the Republic  of Romania for
Cooperation on Coastal Security (Ankara, 6 November 1992)

  (17)   Protocol on Cooperation  in the Field  of Public  Order between the
Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Albania (Tirana, 1 June 1992)

  (18)  Protocol between  the Government of the  Republic of Turkey  and the
Government of the Republic  of Turkmenistan for Cooperation in the Areas  of
Prevention of Crime and Public Security (Ankara, 3 April 1992)

  (19)   Memorandum of  Understanding signed  between the  Government of the
Republic of  Turkey  and the  Government  of  the Republic  of  Turkmenistan
(Ashkabad, 25 July 1992)

  (20)  Agreement between  the Government of the Republic of Turkey and  the
Government  of the Republic  of Kyrgyzstan  for Cooperation in  the Areas of
Prevention of Crime and Public Security (Bishkek, 23 July 1992)

   (21)  Protocol of  Cooperation between the Government of the Republic  of
Turkey  and  the  Government  of  the  Republic  of  Uzbekistan  on security
authorities (Ankara, 17 April 1992)

  (22)  Agreement between  the Government of the  Republic of Turkey and the
Government of  the  Republic  of  Uzbekistan  on  Prevention  of  Terrorism,
Illicit  Traffic of  Narcotic Drugs  and Psychotropic  Substances and  Other
Organized Crimes

  (23)  Agreement for Cooperation on  Security between the Government of the
Republic of Turkey and the Government of the  Republic of Kazakstan (Ankara,
26 September 1992)

B.Multilateral  treaties which had  been ratified  by Turkey  by 31 December
1993 on international terrorism and other criminal matters

  (1)  European Convention on Extradition

  (2)  Additional Protocol 2 to the European Convention on Extradition

  (3)  European Convention on Mutual Assistance on Criminal Matters

  (4)    Additional Protocol  to  the  Convention  on  Mutual Assistance  on
Criminal Matters

  (5)  European Convention on International Validity of Criminal Judgements

  (6)   European  Convention on  the  Transfer  of Proceedings  in  Criminal
Matters

  (7)  European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism

  (8)  Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons

  (9)  Genocide Convention

  (10)  Convention against the Hijacking of Aircraft

  (11)  Convention  on the Prevention of  Illegal Acts against  the Security
of Civil Aviation

  (12)   Convention  on the  Prevention  and  Punishment of  Crimes  against
Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents

  (13)   Convention against  Torture and  Other Cruel,  Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment or Punishment

  (14)  International Convention against the Taking of Hostages

C.  Turkey  has also  concluded many  bilateral treaties  on legal  matters,
especially  on  extradition,  mutual  assistance  in  criminal  matters  and
recognition  and enforcement  of criminal  awards.    The States  with which
Turkey has concluded agreements in these areas are listed below:

   Iraq, Iran (Islamic  Republic of), Belgium,  Romania, Jordan,  the former
Yugoslavia,  Bulgaria,  the  United  States  of  America,  the  Syrian  Arab
Republic, Tunisia,  Pakistan, the Libyan  Arab Jamahiriya, Hungary,  Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus, Poland, India, and Egypt.

  Turkey  has also participated actively in the  preparation of resolutions,
decisions and declarations  on international terrorism and related  matters,
in  the framework  of  the  Council  of  Europe,  the  United  Nations,  the
Organization for Security and Cooperation in  Europe and the Organization of
the  Islamic  Conference, and  is  implementing  these  instruments in  good
faith.


IV.  REPLIES RECEIVED FROM RELEVANT SPECIALIZED AGENCIES
AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS        

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION

Extract from Executive Board document 146 EX/44 "Report by
the Director-General on the Possible Forms of UNESCO's   
Participation in the Endeavours of the International     
Community to Promote Cooperation in Combating the Danger 
of Terrorism" 7/

  ...

19.  UNESCO  is already participating in the endeavours of the international
community  to  fight  terrorism.    Following  resolution  5.1  the  General
Conference adopted  at its twenty-seventh session,  and, in particular,  its
paragraph 2.B(e), by which the Director-General  is invited to "help  foster
public awareness  of  the need  to  eradicate  terrorist acts,  methods  and
practices and  their link with  drug trafficking, on account  of their being

activities  calculated  to   destroy  human  rights,  fundamental  freedoms,
democracy  and  peace  and  having  detrimental  effects  on  education  and
culture", the  Programme and  Budget for  1994-1995 (27  C/5) foresees  that
studies  on  various  threats  to  democracy  and   human  rights  including
terrorism  will  be carried  out  in 1995,  within  the framework  of  Major
Programme V.2.1  on "Peace, Human Rights,  Democracy and  the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination".

20.   The entire programme  on education for peace,  human rights, democracy
and international  understanding provides a  meaningful contribution to  the
struggle against  the danger of terrorism  inasmuch as  it promotes thinking
and behaviour  based on  common humanistic  and cultural  values.   UNESCO's
activities are  now focused on incorporation  of these values  in all levels
and  all forms of  education.   Preparation of  practical teaching  aids for
education  for  tolerance  and  non-violence  has  been  foreseen.  8/   The
experience of the Associated Schools of  UNESCO from 10 countries  belonging
to  various regions  of  the world  has been  summarized  in a  handbook  on
democratic culture  and preparation  of brochures  on "No  to violence"  has
been initiated in nine countries.

 21.  The Sector of  Communication, Information and  Informatics contributes
to the struggle against  terrorism by its monitoring of press freedom and of
attacks against the independence and security  of media and journalists,  as
exemplified  in the  UNESCO-supported  International  Freedom of  Expression
Exchange (IFEX) network and  more specifically, by condemnation of terrorist
attacks  against media and  journalists through  special communiques  of the
Director-General.

22.   All UNESCO activities towards  a culture of  peace also contribute  to
the elimination of the  sources of terrorism.   Within the framework  of the
programme for a culture  of peace, UNESCO has  launched a series of national
programmes.  These  programmes seek to eradicate  a culture of violence  and
promote reconciliation.

23.   Activities undertaken  by UNESCO  within the  framework of  the United
Nations  Year for Tolerance (1995) may also be  considered as a contribution
towards progressive elimination of causes of  terrorism.  In conformity with
its  mandate as lead  agency of the  United Nations  system for  the Year of
Tolerance,  UNESCO has prepared  for 1995  a diverse  programme of meetings,
concerts, broadcasts, festivals,  publications and exhibitions.  The  Year's
calendar  of events  includes regional  conferences and  the preparation  of
UNESCO tolerance teaching guide.

24.    The  Director-General  draws  the   attention  of  the  international
community to the barbarous acts of  terrorism, qualifying terrorist acts  as
an assault on human rights, as action endangering  peace.  He has made  on a
number  of occasions  statements condemning  acts of  terrorism,  especially
those  against   intellectuals.     The   Director-General  also   denounced
situations  in  which  the life  of  journalists,  teachers,  scientists and
artists is in jeopardy.

25.  UNESCO is  in the process  of elaborating its programmes for  1996-1997
(28  C/5) and  its activities  for  the  Fourth Medium-Term  Strategy (1996-
2001).  In  this context, some specific  measures related to prevention  and
elimination of terrorism are foreseen, in  particular, those linked with the
creation of  an Observatory for Human  Rights.  They  are also an  important
part of  a follow-up  programme to  the  United Nations  Year for  Tolerance
(1995) and activities foreseen by the Culture of Peace Programme.

26.   Educational activities no doubt are crucial for UNESCO's efforts aimed
at  raising public awareness  on international  terrorism.  The Organization
may consider  elaboration  of educational  methods, paedagogical  approaches
and didactic material  so as to  give new  impetus to  the condemnation  and
rejection  of  international  terrorism.    The  UNESCO  Associated  Schools
Project (ASP), UNESCO Chairs  for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy as  well
as the  Associated Universities Project (AUP)  may play an important role in

these activities.   Concrete  projects  foreseen in  the draft  28 C/5  will
contribute to prevention  of terrorism through school campaigns and measures
within the  framework of the International  Day for  Tolerance.  Preparation
and  wide dissemination of  a UNESCO  Manual on Human Rights  Education - to
be, in the long run, put at the  disposal of all schools of the world - will
be  an action  of  special significance  for fostering  a sense,  values and
skills   of  respect  for   others  and   for  human   rights,  thus  laying
international  and  intercultural  foundations  for  tolerant,  non-violent,
cooperative behaviour.  A Manual on Human Rights  for higher education to be
published in 1996 will contain a chapter on human rights and terrorism.

27.   In  planning  activities  of the  Organization to  combat  and prevent
terrorism in the field of education,  foremost consideration could be  given
to the follow-up to  the Declaration adopted by  the Ministers of  Education
at the International Conference on Education  (ICE) Geneva, October 1994, in
which  they declared themselves  "Deeply concerned  by the manifestations of
violence,  racism,  xenophobia,  aggressive  nationalism  and  violations of
human rights, by religious intolerance,  by the upsurge of  terrorism in all
its  forms and  manifestations and  by  the  growing gap  separating wealthy
countries from  poor countries, phenomena  which threaten the  consolidation
of  peace and democracy  both nationally  and internationally  and which are
all obstacles to development".

28.   As far  as  research related  to  terrorism  is concerned,  the  draft
programme (28  C/5)  proposes  during  the 1996-1997  biennium,  studies  on
threats to  democracy and  on sources  of violence,  xenophobia and  racism,
which will contribute to the Organization's efforts to combat terrorism.

29.   The  draft  28 C/5  proposes the  creation of  an Observatory  for the
protection of human  rights and  fundamental freedoms  of writers,  artists,
scientists,  educators  and  journalists.    The  Observatory  will  collect
information on flagrant  violations of rights of intellectuals, attempts  to
their life,  dignity, freedom of expression,  creativity and  research.  For
this purpose,  it will  set up  a network  in collaboration with  the Member
States, National  Commissions and with  relevant intergovernmental and  non-
governmental organizations.   It is understood  that all  the UNESCO Sectors
will  contribute  to  its  establishment.    The  Observatory  will  also be
responsible  for the  preparation of  dossiers and reports  on the  basis of
reliable  and verified information.   This  will enable  the Organization to
alert  public   opinion  on  terrorism.     The   work  of  the   Sector  of
Communication, Information  and Informatics aimed  at protection of  freedom
of  expression and defence  of journalists  threatened by  terrorism will be
continued.

30.    The  Declaration of  principles  and  a  programme  of  action to  be
elaborated as  a follow-up to the  United Nations Year  for Tolerance (1995)
affords an  opportunity for  the Organization  to undertake  and to  propose
concrete  actions aimed at  the prevention  and elimination  of terrorism as
part  of  national  and  international  programmes  for   the  promotion  of
tolerance.

31.   Initiated  within the  framework of  the  Culture of  Peace Programme,
pilot  projects in  El Salvador  and  Mozambique  have prompted  interest of
other countries.  At present, national  programmes are under preparation for
Burundi, Nicaragua and Congo,  in addition to  a culture of peace action  in
Guatemala.    The   Executive  Board  may   wish  to  consider  recommending
initiation   of  culture   of  peace   programme(s)  in   certain   specific
country/regional  contexts, known  for or  prone  to  risk of  terrorism, in
order that  UNESCO may  devise specific  modalities of  action for  possible
support to endeavours of the government(s)  concerned to combat and  prevent
terrorism.

IV.  CONCLUSIONS

32.    Resolutions  of  the  General  Assembly  and  more  specifically  the
Declaration on Measures  to Eliminate International Terrorism request  inter

alia  the  Specialized Agencies  to  enhance  international  cooperation  in
combating and  eliminating terrorism.   UNESCO's  activities highlighted  in
this document can  be seen as response to these requests and also to General
Assembly resolution 46/51 which requested UNESCO,  along with IMO, UPU, WTO,
and IAEA  to consider  within their  respective spheres  of competence  what
further measures could usefully be taken to combat and eliminate terrorism.

33.  In this respect, the principal vocation of UNESCO  no doubt is to raise
public  awareness of the dangers  and consequences of terrorism,  as well as
to  contribute within  its field  of competence  to the  elimination of  the
underlying  causes.   UNESCO's contribution  to raising  public awareness is
not limited to educational and research  activities, but also comprises  the
statements,  declarations and  appeals by  the Director-General  to  condemn
terrorism.

34.   In the  further elaboration  of UNESCO's plan of  action on preventing
and eliminating  terrorism  and  participating  in  the  endeavours  of  the
international community, two principles must be kept in sight.

  (a)   This programme should be intersectoral - as all  sectors of UNESCO -
in   particular   Education,   Culture,   Communications,  Information   and
Informatics, Social  and  Human Sciences  as well  as the  Culture of  Peace
Programme - should participate.

  (b)  The plan  of action should fully  respect the specificity of UNESCO's
contribution in conformity with its fields of competence.

35.   Apart  from developing  its  own  programmes and  projects, addressing
directly  or  indirectly   the  question  of  terrorism,  UNESCO,  in  close
cooperation with the High Commissioner for Human  Rights and the Centre  for
Human  Rights may  participate  in  the  implementation  of  the  activities
assigned to the Secretary-General.

36.   Although  UNESCO  could  not be  considered  as being  among the  lead
agencies in  the endeavours  of the  international community  to combat  and
eliminate  international terrorism,  the  contribution it  would  be  making
through  the activities summarized  above is nevertheless highly relevant in
combating international terrorism and its root causes.


 INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION

[Original:  English]

[5 May 1995]       

1.  In  respect of the safety of ships and the security  of their passengers
and crews, the  IMO Assembly, by resolution  A.548(14) of 20 November  1985,
called upon Governments,  port authorities and administrations,  shipowners,
ship operators,  shipmasters  and  crews to  take steps  to  review and,  as
necessary, strengthen  port  and on-board  security.   Measures intended  to
assist Member Governments to implement this  resolution were adopted by  the
Maritime  Safety  Committee   of  IMO  in  September  1986   (MSC/Circ.443).
Thereafter,  the Governments  of  Greece  and the  United  States  submitted
information on the steps  taken by them to implement the measures adopted by
the Maritime Safety Committee. 9/

2.  Concerning the  two international instruments  done at Rome on 10  March
1988 under the  auspices of IMO, namely  the Convention for the  Suppression
of  Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and the Protocol
for the Suppression  of Unlawful Acts against  the Safety of Fixed Platforms
Located on the Continental  Shelf, they entered into force on 1 March  1992.
At this stage. there  are 30 Contracting States to  the Convention and 27 to
the Protocol.

3.  It should be noted that Greece and the United  States are parties to the

1988 Convention  and  Protocol  and  it is  not  clear  to what  extent  the
abovementioned measures,  which these States adopted  in 1987,  are in force
and still applied by them.

4.   With  reference to  the workshops  and training  courses which  may  be
organized  and  financed  under  the  auspices  of  the  United  Nations  in
pursuance of  General Assembly resolution  49/6, I  wish to inform  you that
IMO has no funds to contribute but would be pleased,  upon request, to be of
assistance in  connection with  issues of relevance  to the  above-mentioned
international instruments and measures adopted by this Organization.


ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES

[Original:  English]

[25 April 1995]    

  Reference  is  made  to  the  informative  document  CP/CAJP-978/94  of  2
November 1994 (in  English and Spanish),  which contains background material
and updates  information on the subject,  present status  of ratification of
the  1971  Washington  Convention, a  compilation  of  the  General Assembly
resolutions on terrorism, information  on the results of the inquiry made of
the Governments of the Member States and a list of relevant documents. 10/


 Notes

  1/  For the text  of paragraph 10 of the  Declaration, see paragraph  7 of
the present report.

  2/  Entered into force on 4 August 1978.

  3/  Entered into force on 22 August 1988.

  4/   The submission  of Canada  included copies  of the  relevant Canadian
legislative provisions  implementing these agreements,  which are  available
for  consultation  in the  Codification  Division  of  the  Office of  Legal
Affairs.

  5/   A copy of the  law is available for consultation  in the Codification
Division of the Office of Legal Affairs.

  6/  An unofficial translation of the law is available for consultation  in
the Codification Division of the Office of Legal Affairs.

  7/  Communicated by UNESCO under cover of a letter of 31 May 1995.

  8/  During the  1994-1995 biennium "A sense  of belonging:  Guidelines for
values for  the humanistic and international  dimension of  education" and a
preliminary   version  of  "Tolerance:     the   threshold  of   peace:    A
teaching/learning  guide   for  education  for   peace,  human  rights   and
democracy" have been  prepared and widely  disseminated in  various language
versions.

  9/  The texts  of resolutions A.584(14) and  of documents MSC/Circ.443 and
the  information submitted by  Greece and  the United  States (MSC/Circ. 475
and 476) are available for consultation in the  Codification Division of the
Office of Legal Affairs.

  10/   The  document is  available  for  consultation in  the  Codification
Division of the Office of Legal Affairs.

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A/50/372
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Annex

State, as at 4 July 1995, of signatures and ratifications of, and
accessions and successions to, international conventions relating
to various aspects of the problem of international terrorism


A.  Conventions in respect of which the Secretary-General of
    the United Nations performs depository functions a/    

1.  Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against 
    Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents,
    adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on      
    14 December 1973 (entered into force on 20 February 1977, in  
    accordance with article 17 (a))                               

    Ratification,
    accession,
Participant  Signature  succession

Antigua and Barbuda.................    19 July 1993
Argentina...........................    18 March 1982
Armenia.............................    18 May 1994
Australia...........................  30 December 1974  20 June 1977
Austria.............................     3 August 1977
Bahamas.............................    22 July 1986
Barbados............................    26 October 1979
Belarus.............................  11 June 1974   5 February 1976
Bhutan..............................    16 January 1989
Bosnia and Herzegovina..............     1 September 1993
Bulgaria............................  27 June 1974  18 July 1974
Burundi.............................    17 December 1980
Cameroon............................     8 June 1992
Canada..............................  26 June 1974   4 August 1976
Chile...............................    21 January 1977
China...............................     5 August 1987
Costa Rica..........................     2 November 1977
Croatia.............................    12 October 1992
Cyprus..............................    24 December 1975
Czech Republic......................    22 February 1993
Denmark.............................  10 May 1974   1 July 1975
Democratic People's Republic of Korea     1 December 1982
Dominican Republic..................     8 July 1977
Ecuador.............................  27 August 1974  12 March 1975

________________________

  a/    For  the   text  of  reservations,  declarations  or  communications
accompanying  the signatures,  ratifications, accessions or  declarations of
succession  to  the   two  conventions  below,  see  Multilateral   Treaties
Deposited with  the Secretary-General, document  ST/LEG/SER.E/13 as well  as
its subsequent issues.
    Ratification,
    accession,
Participant  Signature  succession

Egypt...............................    25 June 1986
El Salvador.........................     8 August 1980
Estonia.............................    21 October 1991
Finland.............................  10 May 1974  31 October 1978
Gabon...............................    14 October 1981
Germany.............................  15 August 1974  25 January 1977

Ghana...............................    25 April 1975
Greece..............................     3 July 1984
Guatemala...........................  12 December 1974  18 January 1983
Haiti...............................    25 August 1980
Hungary.............................   6 November 1974  26 March 1975
Iceland.............................  10 May 1974   2 August 1977
India...............................    11 April 1978
Iran (Islamic Republic of)..........    12 July 1978
Iraq................................    28 February 1978
Israel..............................    31 July 1980
Italy...............................  30 December 1974  30 August 1985
Jamaica.............................    21 September 1978
Japan...............................     8 June 1987
Jordan..............................    18 December 1984
Kuwait..............................     1 March 1989
Latvia..............................    14 April 1992
Liberia.............................    30 September 1975
Liechtenstein.......................    28 November 1994
Malawi..............................    14 March 1977
Maldives............................    21 August 1990
Mexico..............................    22 April 1980
Mongolia............................  23 August 1974   8 August 1975
Nepal...............................     9 March 1990
Netherlands.........................     6 December 1988
New Zealand.........................    12 November 1985
Nicaragua...........................  29 October 1974  10 March 1975
Niger...............................    17 June 1985
Norway..............................  10 May 1974  28 April 1980
Oman................................    22 March 1988
Pakistan............................    29 March 1976
Panama..............................    17 June 1980
Paraguay............................  25 October 1974  24 November 1975
Peru................................    25 April 1978
Philippines.........................    26 November 1976
Poland..............................   7 June 1974  14 December 1982
Republic of Korea...................    25 May 1983
Romania.............................  27 December 1974  15 August 1978
Russian Federation..................   7 June 1974  15 January 1976
Rwanda..............................  15 October 1974  29 November 1977
Seychelles..........................    29 May 1980
Slovakia............................    28 May 1993
Slovenia............................     6 July 1992
    Ratification,
    accession,
Participant  Signature  succession

Spain...............................     8 August 1985
Sri Lanka...........................    27 February 1991
Sudan...............................    10 October 1994
Sweden..............................  10 May 1974   1 July 1975
Switzerland.........................     5 March 1985
Syrian Arab Republic................    25 April 1988
Togo................................    30 December 1980
Trinidad and Tobago.................    15 June 1979
Tunisia.............................  15 May 1974  21 January 1977
Turkey..............................    11 June 1981
Ukraine.............................  18 June 1974  20 January 1976
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
  Northern Ireland..................  13 December 1974   2 May 1979
United States of America............  28 December 1973  26 October 1976
Uruguay.............................    13 June 1978
Yemen...............................     9 February 1987
Yugoslavia..........................  17 December 1974  29 December 1976
Zaire...............................    25 July 1977

2.  International Convention against the Taking of Hostages,

    adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on
    17 December 1979 (entered into force on 3 June 1983, in
    accordance with article 18 (i))                        

    Ratification,
    accession,
Participant  Signature  succession

Antigua and Barbuda.................     6 August 1986
Argentina...........................    18 September 1991
Australia...........................    21 May 1990
Austria.............................   3 October 1980  22 August 1986
Bahamas.............................     4 June 1981
Barbados............................     9 March 1981
Belarus.............................     1 July 1987
Belgium.............................     3 January 1980
Bhutan..............................    31 August 1981
Bolivia.............................  25 March 1980
Bosnia and Herzegovina..............     1 September 1993
Brunei Darussalam...................     8 October 1988
Bulgaria............................    10 March 1988
Cameroon............................     9 March 1988
Canada..............................  18 February 1980   4 December 1985
China...............................    26 January 1993
Chile...............................   3 January 1980  12 November 1981
Cote d'Ivoire.......................    22 August 1989
Cyprus..............................    13 September 1991
Czech Republic......................    22 February 1993
Denmark.............................    11 August 1987
Dominica............................     9 September 1986
Dominican Republic..................  12 August 1980
Ecuador.............................     2 May 1988
Egypt...............................  18 December 1980   2 October 1981
El Salvador.........................  10 June 1980  12 February 1981
Finland.............................  29 October 1980  14 April 1983
Gabon...............................  29 February 1980
Germany.............................  18 December 1979  15 December 1980
Ghana...............................    10 November 1987
Greece..............................  18 March 1980  18 June 1987
Grenada.............................    10 December 1990
Guatemala...........................  30 April 1980  11 March 1983
Haiti...............................  21 April 1980  17 May 1989
Honduras............................  11 June 1980   1 June 1981
Hungary.............................     2 September 1987
Iceland.............................     6 July 1981
India...............................     7 September 1994
Iraq................................  14 October 1980
Israel..............................  19 November 1980
Italy...............................  18 April 1980  20 March 1986
Jamaica.............................  27 February 1980
Japan...............................  22 December 1980   8 June 1987
                       Ratification,
    accession,
Participant  Signature  succession

Jordan..............................    19 February 1986
Kenya...............................     8 December 1981
Kuwait..............................     6 February 1989
Lesotho.............................  17 April 1980   5 November 1980
Liberia.............................  30 January 1980
Liechtenstein.......................    28 November 1994
Luxembourg..........................  18 December 1979  29 April 1991
Malawi..............................    17 March 1986
Mali................................     8 February 1990
Mauritius...........................  18 June 1980  17 October 1980
Mexico..............................    28 April 1987

Mongolia............................     9 June 1992
Nepal...............................     9 March 1990
Netherlands.........................  18 December 1980   6 December 1988
New Zealand.........................  24 December 1980  12 November 1985
Norway..............................  18 December 1980   2 July 1981
Oman................................    22 July 1988
Panama..............................  24 January 1980  19 August 1982
Philippines.........................   2 May 1980  14 October 1980
Portugal............................  16 June 1980   6 July 1984
Republic of Korea...................     4 May 1983
Romania.............................    17 May 1990
Russian Federation..................    11 June 1987
Saint Kitts and Nevis...............    17 January 1991
Saudi Arabia........................     8 January 1991
Senegal.............................   2 June 1980  10 March 1987
Slovakia............................    28 May 1993
Slovenia ............................     6 July 1992
Spain...............................    26 March 1984
Sudan...............................    19 June 1990
Suriname............................  30 July 1980   5 November 1981
Sweden..............................  25 February 1980  15 January 1981
Switzerland.........................  18 July 1980   5 March 1985
Trinidad and Tobago.................     1 April 1981
Togo................................   8 July 1980  25 July 1986
Turkey..............................    15 August 1989
Uganda..............................  10 November 1980
Ukraine.............................    19 June 1987
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
  Northern Ireland..................  18 December 1979  22 December 1982
United States of America............  21 December 1979   7 December 1984
Venezuela...........................    13 December 1988
Yugoslavia..........................  29 December 1980  19 April 1985
Zaire...............................   2 July 1980


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B.  Conventions in respect of which the International Civil
    Aviation Organization, the International Maritime     
    Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency or
    some Member States perform depository functions       

1.  Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed
    on Board Aircraft, signed at Tokyo on 14 September 1963
    (entered into force on 4 December 1969, in accordance 
    with article 21, paragraph (1)) a/                    


    Date of deposit
    of instrument
  Date of  of ratification
States  signature  or accession  Effective date

Afghanistan    15 April 1977  14 July 1977
Antigua and Barbuda    19 July 1985  17 October 1985
Argentina    23 July 1971  21 October 1971
Australia    22 June 1970  20 September 1970
Austria     7 February 1974   8 May 1974
Bahamas    12 June 1975  10 July 1973 (1)
Bahrain     9 February 1984   9 May 1984 (2)(3)

Bangladesh    25 July 1978  23 October 1978
Barbados  25 June 1969   4 April 1972   3 July 1972
Belarus     3 February 1988   3 May 1988 (2)(4)
Belgium  20 December 1968   6 August 1970   4 November 1970
Bhutan    25 January 1989  25 April 1989
Bolivia     5 July 1979   3 October 1979
Bosnia and Herzegovina     7 March 1995   6 March 1992 (5)
Botswana    16 January 1979  16 April 1979
Brazil  28 February 1969  14 January 1970  14 April 1970
Brunei Darussalam    23 May 1986  21 August 1986
Bulgaria    28 September 1989  27 December 1989 (6)
Burkina Faso  14 September 1963   6 June 1969   4 December 1969
Burundi    14 July 1971  12 October 1971
Cameroon    24 March 1988  22 June 1988
Canada   4 November 1964   7 November 1969   5 February 1970
Cape Verde     4 October 1989   2 January 1990
Central African Republic    11 June 1991   9 September 1991
Chad    30 June 1970  28 September 1970
Chile    24 January 1974  24 April 1974
China    14 November 1978  12 February 1979 (2)(7)
Colombia   8 November 1968   6 July 1973   4 October 1973
Comoros    23 May 1991  21 August 1991
Congo  14 September 1963  13 November 1978  11 February 1979
Costa Rica    24 October 1972  22 January 1973
Cote d'Ivoire     3 June 1970   1 September 1970
Croatia     5 October 1993   8 October 1991 (8)
Cyprus    31 May 1972  29 August 1972
Czech Republic    25 March 1993   1 January 1993 (9)
Democratic People's
  Republic of Korea     9 May 1983   7 August 1983 (2)
Denmark  21 November 1966  17 January 1967   4 December 1969
Djibouti    10 June 1992   8 September 1992
Dominican Republic     3 December 1970   3 March 1971

________________________

     a/   The information concerning this Convention is reproduced below  as
furnished  on  4 July  1995 by  the secretariat  of the  International Civil
Aviation Organization.
    Date of deposit
    of instrument
  Date of  of ratification
States  signature  or accession  Effective date

Ecuador   8 July 1969   3 December 1969   3 March 1970
Egypt    12 February 1975  13 May 1975 (2)
El Salvador    13 February 1980  13 May 1980
Equatorial Guinea    27 February 1991  28 May 1991
Estonia    31 December 1993  31 March 1994
Ethiopia    27 March 1979  25 June 1979 (2)
Fiji    31 January 1972  10 October 1970 (10)
Finland  24 October 1969   2 April 1971   1 July 1971
France  11 July 1969  11 September 1970  10 December 1970
Gabon    14 January 1970  14 April 1970
Gambia     4 January 1979   4 April 1979
Georgia    16 June 1994  14 September 1994
Germany  14 September 1963  16 December 1969  16 March 1970 (11)
Ghana     2 January 1974   2 April 1974
Greece  21 October 1969  31 May 1971  29 August 1971
Grenada    28 August 1978  26 November 1978
Guatemala  14 September 1963  17 November 1970  15 February 1971 (2)
Guinea    18 January 1994  18 April 1994
Guyana    20 December 1972  19 March 1973
Haiti    26 April 1984  25 July 1984
Holy See  14 September 1963
Honduras     8 April 1987   7 July 1987 (2)

Hungary     3 December 1970   3 March 1971 (12)
Iceland    16 March 1970  14 June 1970
India    22 July 1975  20 October 1975 (2)
Indonesia  14 September 1963   7 September 1976   6 December 1976 (2)
Iran (Islamic
  Republic of)    28 June 1976  29 September 1976
Iraq    15 May 1974  13 August 1974 (13)
Ireland  20 October 1964  14 November 1975  12 February 1976
Israel   1 November 1968  19 September 1969  18 December 1969
Italy  14 September 1963  18 October 1968   4 December 1969
Jamaica    16 September 1983  15 December 1983
Japan  14 September 1963  26 May 1970  24 August 1970
Jordan     3 May 1973   1 August 1973
Kazakstan    18 May 1995  16 August 1995
Kenya    22 June 1970  20 September 1970
Kuwait    27 November 1979  25 February 1980 (14)
Lao People's
  Democratic Republic    23 October 1972  21 January 1973
Lebanon    11 June 1974   9 September 1974
Lesotho    28 April 1972  27 July 1972
Liberia  14 September 1963    
Libyan Arab
  Jamahiriya    21 June 1972  19 September 1972
Luxembourg    21 September 1972  20 December 1972
Madagascar   2 December 1969   2 December 1969   2 March 1970
Malawi    28 December 1972  28 March 1973
Malaysia     5 March 1985   3 June 1985
Maldives    28 September 1987  27 December 1987
Mali    31 May 1971  29 August 1971
Malta    28 June 1991  26 September 1991
Marshall Islands    15 May 1989  13 August 1989
Mauritania    30 June 1977  28 September 1977
Mauritius     5 April 1983   4 July 1983
    Date of deposit
    of instrument
  Date of  of ratification
States  signature  or accession  Effective date

Mexico  24 December 1968  18 March 1969   4 December 1969
Monaco     2 June 1983  31 August 1983
Mongolia    24 July 1990  22 October 1990
Morocco    21 October 1975  19 January 1976 (15)
Nauru    17 May 1984  15 August 1984
Nepal    15 January 1979  15 April 1979
Netherlands, Kingdom
  of the   9 June 1967  14 November 1969  12 February 1970 (16)
New Zealand    12 February 1974  13 May 1974
Nicaragua    24 August 1973  22 November 1973
Niger  14 April 1969  27 June 1969   4 December 1969
Nigeria  29 June 1965   7 April 1970   6 July 1970
Norway  19 April 1966  17 January 1967   4 December 1969
Oman     9 February 1977  10 May 1977 (2)(17)
Pakistan   6 August 1965  11 September 1973  10 December 1973
Panama  14 September 1963  16 November 1970  14 February 1971
Papua New Guinea    15 December 1975  16 September 1975 (2)(18)
Paraguay     9 August 1971   7 November 1971
Peru    12 May 1978  10 August 1978 (2)
Philippines  14 September 1963  26 November 1965   4 December 1969
Poland    19 March 1971  17 June 1971 (2)
Portugal  11 March 1964  25 November 1964   4 December 1969
Qatar     6 August 1981   5 December 1981
Republic of Korea   8 December 1965  19 February 1971  20 May 1971
Romania    15 February 1974  16 May 1974 (2)
Russian Federation     3 February 1988   3 May 1988 (2)(19)
Rwanda    17 May 1971  15 August 1971
Saint Lucia    31 October 1983  29 January 1984

Saint Vincent and
  the Grenadines    18 November 1991  16 February 1992
Saudi Arabia   6 April 1967  21 November 1969  19 February 1970
Senegal  20 February 1964   9 March 1972   7 June 1972
Seychelles     4 January 1979   4 April 1979
Sierra Leone     9 November 1970   7 February 1971
Singapore     1 March 1971  30 May 1971
Slovakia    20 March 1995   1 January 1993 (20)
Slovenia    18 December 1992  25 June 1991 (21)
Solomon Islands    23 March 1982   7 July 1978 (22)
South Africa    26 May 1972  24 August 1972 (2)
Spain  27 July 1964   1 October 1969  30 December 1969
Sri Lanka    30 May 1978  28 August 1978
Suriname    10 September 1979  25 November 1975 (23)
Sweden  14 September 1963  17 January 1967   4 December 1969
Switzerland  31 October 1969  21 December 1970  21 March 1971
Syrian Arab Republic    31 July 1980  29 October 1980 (2)
Thailand     6 March 1972   4 June 1972
The former Yugoslav
  Republic of Macedonia    30 August 1994  17 September 1991 (24)
Togo    26 July 1971  24 October 1971
Trinidad and Tobago     9 February 1972   9 May 1972
Tunisia    25 February 1975  26 May 1975 (2)
Turkey    17 December 1975  16 March 1976
Uganda    25 June 1982  23 September 1982
Ukraine    29 February 1988  29 May 1988 (2)(25)
United Arab Emirates    16 April 1981  15 July 1981 (26)
    Date of deposit
    of instrument
  Date of  of ratification
States  signature  or accession  Effective date

United Kingdom of Great
  Britain and Northern
  Ireland  14 September 1963  29 November 1968   4 December 1969 (27)
United Republic of
  Tanzania    12 August 1983  10 November 1983
United States of America  14 September 1963   5 September 1969   4  December
1969
Uruguay    26 January 1977  26 April 1977
Vanuatu    31 January 1989   1 May 1989
Venezuela  13 March 1964   4 February 1983   5 May 1983 (2)
Viet Nam    10 October 1979   8 January 1980 (2)
Yemen    26 September 1986  25 December 1986
Yugoslavia*  14 September 1963  12 February 1971  13 May 1971
Zaire    20 July 1977  18 October 1977
Zambia    14 September 1971  13 December 1971
Zimbabwe     8 March 1989   6 June 1989

________________________

     *      Yugoslavia refers  to the  former Socialist Federal  Republic of
Yugoslavia.


(1)On 12 June 1975, a declaration dated 15  May 1975 was deposited with  the
International Civil Aviation Organization by  the Government of  the Bahamas
indicating that  the  Bahamas considers  itself to  be  bound  to the  Tokyo
Convention by virtue of the ratification of the United Kingdom and  pursuant
to  customary international law.   The  Bahamas attained  independence on 10
July 1973.

(2)Reservation:  Does not consider itself bound  by Article 24, paragraph 1,
of the Convention.

(3)Reservation:   "The accession of  the State of Bahrain  to the Convention

shall  not be considered  or interpreted  as recognition  of 'Israel' either
generally or implicitly under the Convention".

(4)Declaration  dated 17 December 1987 by the  Byelorussian Soviet Socialist
Republic  (now  the  Republic  of  Belarus)   that  "the  accession  of  the
Byelorussian Soviet  Socialist Republic  to the  Convention on Offences  and
Certain  Other Acts Committed on  Board Aircraft does  not affect its rights
and obligations under  agreements in  force on  the suppression  of acts  of
unlawful interference with civil aviation, to which it is a Party".

(5)An instrument  of succession by the  Government of the Republic of Bosnia
and  Herzegovina  was  deposited  with  the  International  Civil   Aviation
Organization on 7 March 1995, with effect from 6 March 1992.

(6)Declaration  dated 21 August  1989 by  the People's  Republic of Bulgaria
(now  the Republic of Bulgaria) that "the accession of the People's Republic
of Bulgaria to  the Convention on Offences  and Certain Other Acts Committed
on Board  Aircraft does  not  affect  its right  and obligations  under  the
multilateral  and bilateral  agreements  on acts  of  unlawful  interference
against civil aviation, to which it is a Party".

(7)The  instrument of  accession  contains the  following  statement:   "The
Chinese Government  declares illegal  and null  and void  the signature  and
ratification by the Chiang  clique usurping the name  of China in  regard to
the above-mentioned Convention".

 (8)An  instrument  of succession  by  the  Government  of  the Republic  of
Croatia  was deposited with the International Civil Aviation Organization on
5 October 1993, with effect from 8 October 1991.

(9)By a Note dated 8  March 1993, received on 25 March 1993, the  Government
of   the  Czech   Republic  informed   the  International   Civil   Aviation
Organization  that,  as  a  successor  State created  as  a  result  of  the
dissolution of the Czech and Slovak  Federal Republic, it considered  itself
bound by the Convention with effect from 1 January 1993.

(10)On 31 January  1972, a declaration dated  18 January 1972 was  deposited
with  the International  Civil  Aviation Organization  by the  Government of
Fiji indicating  that Fiji succeeded, upon  independence, to  the rights and
obligations  of the  United Kingdom  in  respect of  this Convention.   Fiji
attained independence on 10 October 1970.

(11)The German  Democratic Republic, which acceded  to the  Convention on 10
January 1989, acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.

(12)On 12 December 1989, a declaration  dated 16 October 1989  was deposited
with  the International  Civil  Aviation Organization  by the  Government of
Hungary whereby that Government withdraws the  reservation made at the  time
of accession on 3 December  1970 with regard to Article 24, paragraph 1,  of
the Convention.  The declaration took effect on 12 December 1989.

(13)Accession by the Republic of Iraq to  the Convention shall, however,  in
no way signify recognition of Israel or entry into any relations with it.

(14)It is  understood that the  accession to the Convention  on Offences and
Certain Other Acts Committed  on Board Aircraft,  done at Tokyo, 1963,  does
not mean  in  any  way  recognition  of  Israel  by  the  State  of  Kuwait.
Furthermore,  no treaty relation will arise between the  State of Kuwait and
Israel.

(15)"In case of a  dispute, all recourse  must be made to the  International
Court  of Justice  on the  basis of  the unanimous  consent of  the  parties
concerned".

(16)Declaration:  "...  the Convention, with respect  to the Kingdom of  the
Netherlands, shall not enter into force  for Suriname and/or the Netherlands

Antilles until the ninetieth  day after the date  on which the Government of
the Kingdom  of the Netherlands will  have notified  the International Civil
Aviation Organization  that in Suriname  and/or in  the Netherlands Antilles
the  necessary steps  for giving  effect  to the  provisions of  the  above-
mentioned Convention have been taken".

Note 1:On 4 June 1974,  a declaration dated 10 May  1974 was deposited  with
the International  Civil  Aviation Organization  by  the  Government of  the
Kingdom  of the  Netherlands stating  that  the  necessary steps  for giving
effect to  the provisions  of the  Convention have  been taken in  regard to
making the Convention  applicable to Suriname  and the Netherlands Antilles.
Accordingly, the  Convention takes effect  for Suriname  and the Netherlands
Antilles on 2 September 1974.  (See also footnote 23.)

   Note 2:By a Note dated 30 December 1985 the Government of  the Kingdom of
the Netherlands informed the International Civil Aviation Organization  that
as  of  1  January  1986 the  Convention  is applicable  to  the Netherlands
Antilles (without Aruba) and to Aruba.

(17)The accession  by  the  Government of  the  Sultanate  of  Oman  to  the
Convention  does  not mean  or  imply,  and shall  not  be  interpreted  as,
recognition of Israel generally or in the context of this Convention.

(18)On 15 December 1975, a declaration  dated 6 November 1975  was deposited
with the  International Civil  Aviation  Organization by  the Government  of
Papua New Guinea indicating  that Papua New Guinea desired to be treated  as
a party in  its own right  to the  Tokyo Convention, which had  entered into
force for Australia on  20 September 1970  and had applied to the  Territory
of Papua  and Trust  Territory of  New Guinea.   Papua  New Guinea  attained
independence on 15 September 1975.

(19)Declaration  dated 4  December 1987  by  the  Union of  Soviet Socialist
Republics (now  the Russian Federation) that  "the accession of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics to the Convention  on Offences and Certain  Other
Acts Committed on Board Aircraft does  not affect its rights and obligations
under bilateral and multilateral agreements in  force on the suppression  of
acts of unlawful interference with civil aviation, to which it is a Party".

(20)By a  Note dated  16  February 1995,  received  on  20 March  1995,  the
Government of the Slovak Republic informed the  International Civil Aviation
Organization that, as  a successor State, born  from the dissolution  of the
Czech  and  Slovak Federal  Republic,  it  considered  itself  bound by  the
Convention with effect from 1 January 1993.

(21)An  instrument  of succession  by  the  Government  of  the Republic  of
Slovenia was  deposited with the  International Civil Aviation  Organization
on 18 December 1992, with effect from 25 June 1991.

(22)An  instrument of succession  by the  Government of  Solomon Islands was
deposited with  the International  Civil Aviation Organization  on 23  March
1982, with effect from 7 July 1978.

(23)The instrument of succession was deposited  with the International Civil
Aviation  Organization  on 10  September  1979.   Prior  to  that  date  the
provisions of  the Convention applied to Suriname by virtue of a declaration
dated 10 May 1974 by the  Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.  The
Republic of Suriname attained independence on  25 November 1975.   (See also
footnote 16).

(24)An  instrument of succession  by the  Government of  the former Yugoslav
Republic  of Macedonia was  deposited with  the International Civil Aviation
Organization on 30 August 1994, with effect from 17 September 1991.

(25)Declaration  dated  13 January  1988 by  the Ukrainian  Soviet Socialist
Republic  (now  Ukraine)   that  "the  accession  of  the  Ukrainian  Soviet
Socialist Republic  to the  Convention on  Offences and  Certain Other  Acts

Committed  on Board  Aircraft does  not  affect  its rights  and obligations
under bilateral and multilateral agreements in  force on the suppression  of
acts of unlawful interference with civil aviation, to which it is a Party".

(26)Reservation:  "In accepting the said  Convention, the Government of  the
United  Arab  Emirates  takes  the  view that  its  acceptance  of the  said
Convention does not in any way imply its recognition of  Israel, nor does it
oblige to  apply the  provisions of the  Convention in respect  of the  said
Country".

(27)Declaration:   "... the provisions of  the Convention shall not apply in
regard to Southern Rhodesia  unless and until  the Government of the  United
Kingdom informs the International Civil Aviation Organization  that they are
in a position  to ensure that the obligations  imposed by the Convention  in
respect of that territory can be fully implemented".

Note:On 1 December  1982, a declaration dated 12 November 1982 was deposited
with  the  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization  stating  that   the
provisions  of the Convention  shall extend  to Anguilla.   Accordingly, the
Convention takes effect for Anguilla on 1 December 1982.

2.  Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft,
    signed at The Hague on 16 December 1970 (entered into force on
    14 October 1971) a/                                           

    Date of deposit
    of instrument of
    ratification or
      States  Date of signature     accession

Afghanistan  16 December 1970  29 August 1979
Antigua and Barbuda    22 July 1985
Argentina  16 December 1970  11 September 1972 (1)
Australia  15 June 1971   9 November 1972
Austria  28 April 1971  11 February 1974
Bahamas    13 August 1976
Bahrain    20 February 1984 (2)
Bangladesh    28 June 1978
Barbados  16 December 1970   2 April 1973
Belarus  16 December 1970  30 December 1971 (2)
Belgium  16 December 1970  24 August 1973
Benin   5 May 1971  13 March 1972
Bhutan    28 December 1988
Bolivia    18 July 1979
Bosnia and Herzegovina    15 August 1994 (3)
Botswana    28 December 1978
Brazil  16 December 1970  14 January 1972 (2)
Brunei Darussalam    16 April 1986
Bulgaria  16 December 1970  19 May 1971 (4)
Burkina Faso    19 October 1987
Burundi  17 February 1971
Cambodia  16 December 1970
Cameroon    14 April 1988
Canada  16 December 1970  20 June 1972
Cape Verde    20 October 1977
Central African Republic     1 July 1991
Chad   27 September 1971  12 July 1972
Chile   4 June 1971   2 February 1972
China    10 September 1980 (2)(5)
Colombia  16 December 1970   3 July 1973
Comoros     1 August 1991
Costa Rica  16 December 1970   9 July 1971
Cote d'Ivoire     9 January 1973
Cyprus     5 July 1972
Czech Republic    14 November 1994 (6)
Democratic People's

  Republic of Korea    28 April 1983

________________________

  a/   The information  concerning this  Convention is  reproduced below  as
furnished  on 4  July  1995 by  the secretariat  of the  International Civil
Aviation Organization.
    Date of deposit
    of instrument of
    ratification or
      States  Date of signature     accession

Denmark  16 December 1970  17 October 1972 (7)
Djibouti    24 November 1992
Dominican Republic  29 June 1971  22 June 1978
Ecuador  19 March 1971  14 June 1971
Egypt    28 February 1975 (2)
El Salvador  16 December 1970  16 January 1973
Equatorial Guinea   4 June 1971   2 January 1991
Estonia    22 December 1993
Ethiopia  16 December 1970  26 March 1979
Fiji   5 October 1971  27 July 1972
Finland   8 January 1971  15 December 1971
France  16 December 1970  18 September 1972
Gabon  16 December 1970  14 July 1971
Gambia  18 May 1971  28 November 1978
Georgia    20 April 1994
Germany  16 December 1970  11 October 1974 (8)
Ghana  16 December 1970  12 December 1973
Greece  16 December 1970  20 September 1973
Grenada    10 August 1978
Guatemala  16 December 1970  16 May 1979 (2)
Guinea     2 May 1984
Guinea-Bissau    20 August 1976
Guyana    21 December 1972
Haiti     9 May 1984
Honduras    13 April 1987
Hungary  16 December 1970  13 August 1971 (9)
Iceland    29 June 1973
India  14 July 1971  12 November 1982 (2)
Indonesia  16 December 1970  27 August 1976 (2)
Iran (Islamic Republic of)  16 December 1970  25 January 1972
Iraq  22 February 1971   3 December 1971
Ireland    24 November 1975
Israel  16 December 1970  16 August 1971
Italy  16 December 1970  19 February 1974
Jamaica  16 December 1970  15 September 1983
Japan  16 December 1970  19 April 1971
Jordan   9 June 1971  18 November 1971
Kazakstan     4 April 1995
Kenya    11 January 1977
Kuwait  21 July 1971  25 May 1979 (10)
Lao People's Democratic
  Republic  16 February 1971   6 April 1989
Lebanon    10 August 1973
Lesotho    27 July 1978
Liberia     1 February 1982
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya     4 October 1978 (11)
Liechtenstein  24 August 1971
    Date of deposit
    of instrument of
    ratification or
      States  Date of signature     accession

Luxembourg  16 December 1970  22 November 1978
Madagascar    18 November 1986

Malawi    21 December 1972 (2)
Malaysia  16 December 1970   4 May 1985
Maldives     1 September 1987
Mali    29 September 1971
Malta    14 June 1991
Marshall Islands    31 May 1989
Mauritania     1 November 1978
Mauritius    25 April 1983
Mexico  16 December 1970  19 July 1972
Monaco     3 June 1983
Mongolia  18 January 1971   8 October 1971
Morocco    24 October 1975 (12)
Nauru    17 May 1984
Nepal    11 January 1979
Netherlands, Kingdom of the  16 December 1970  27 August 1973 (13)
New Zealand  15 September 1971  12 February 1974
Nicaragua     6 November 1973
Niger  19 February 1971  15 October 1971
Nigeria     3 July 1973
Norway   9 March 1971  23 August 1971
Oman     2 February 1977 (2)(14)
Pakistan  12 August 1971  28 November 1973
Panama  16 December 1970  10 March 1972
Papua New Guinea    15 December 1975 (2)
Paraguay  30 July 1971   4 February 1972
Peru    28 April 1978 (2)
Philippines  16 December 1970  26 March 1973
Poland  16 December 1970  21 March 1972 (2)
Portugal  16 December 1970  27 November 1972
Qatar    26 August 1981 (2)
Republic of Korea    18 January 1973 (15)
Romania  13 October 1971  10 July 1972 (2)
Russian Federation  16 December 1970  24 September 1971 (2)
Rwanda  16 December 1970   3 November 1987
Saint Lucia     8 November 1983
Saint Vincent and
  the Grenadines    29 November 1991
Saudi Arabia    14 June 1974 (2)(16)
Senegal  10 May 1971   3 February 1978
Seychelles    29 December 1978
Sierra Leone  19 July 1971  13 November 1974
Singapore   8 September 1971  12 April 1978
Slovenia    27 May 1992 (17)
South Africa  16 December 1970  30 May 1972 (2)
    Date of deposit
    of instrument of
    ratification or
      States  Date of signature     accession

Spain  16 March 1971  30 October 1972
Sri Lanka    30 May 1978
Sudan    18 January 1979
Suriname    27 October 1978 (18)
Sweden  16 December 1970   7 July 1971
Switzerland  16 December 1970  14 September 1971
Syrian Arab Republic    10 July 1980 (2)
Thailand  16 December 1970  16 May 1978
Togo     9 February 1979
Tonga    21 February 1977
Trinidad and Tobago  16 December 1970  31 January 1972
Tunisia    16 November 1981 (2)
Turkey  16 December 1970  17 April 1973
Uganda    27 March 1972
Ukraine  16 December 1970  21 February 1972 (2)
United Arab Emirates    10 April 1981 (19)
United Kingdom of Great

  Britain and Northern
  Ireland  16 December 1970  22 December 1971 (20)
United Republic of
  Tanzania     9 August 1983
United States of America  16 December 1970  14 September 1971
Uruguay    12 January 1977
Uzbekistan     7 February 1994
Vanuatu    22 February 1989
Venezuela  16 December 1970   7 July 1983
Viet Nam    17 September 1979 (2)
Yemen    29 September 1986
Yugoslavia*  16 December 1970   2 October 1972
Zaire     6 July 1977
Zambia     3 March 1987
Zimbabwe     6 February 1989

________________________

  *    Yugoslavia  refers  to  the  former  Socialist  Federal  Republic  of
Yugoslavia.


(1)The  instrument  of ratification  by  Argentina  contains  a  declaration
which, in  translation,  reads:   "The  application  of this  Convention  to
territories the  sovereignty of  which may  be disputed  among  two or  more
States, whether Parties to the Convention or not, may not be interpreted  as
alteration, renunciation or waiver of the position upheld  by each up to the
present time".

 (2)Reservation  made  with respect  to paragraph  1  of  article 12  of the
Convention.

(3)An instrument of succession by the  Government of Bosnia and  Herzegovina
to the Convention was  deposited with the Government of the United States on
15 August 1994.

(4)On 4  September 1994,  a Note  was deposited  with the Government  of the
United  Kingdom  by  the  Government  of  Bulgaria whereby  that  Government
withdraws the reservation  made at the  time of ratification with  regard to
paragraph 1  of  Article  12  of the  Convention.    The withdrawal  of  the
reservation took effect on 4 September 1994.

(5)The instrument  of accession by the  Government of  the People's Republic
of  China  contains the  following  declaration:    "The Chinese  Government
declares  illegal and null  and void  the signature and  ratification of the
above-mentioned Convention by the Taiwan authorities in the name of China".

(6)An instrument of  succession by the Government  of the Czech Republic  to
the Convention was deposited with the  Government of the Russian  Federation
on 14 November 1994, with effect from 1 January 1993.

(7)Until  later decision, the  Convention will not  be applied  to the Faroe
Islands or to Greenland.

  Note:A notification was received by the  Government of the United  Kingdom
from the Government of  the Kingdom of Denmark whereby the latter withdraws,
with effect  from  1  June  1980,  the  reservation  made  at  the  time  of
ratification that this Convention should not apply to Greenland.

(8)The German Democratic Republic, which ratified  the Convention on 3  June
1971, acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.

(9)On  10 January 1990,  instruments were  deposited with  the Government of
the  United  Kingdom  and  the  Government  of  the  United  States  by  the
Government  of Hungary  whereby that  Government withdraws  the  reservation
made  at the time of ratification  with regard to  paragraph 1 of Article 12

of the  Convention.   The withdrawal  of the  reservation took effect  on 10
January 1990.

(10)Ratification by Kuwait was accompanied by an  Understanding stating that
ratification  of  the Convention  does not  mean in  any way  recognition of
Israel by the State of Kuwait.  Furthermore,  no treaty relations will arise
between the State of Kuwait and Israel.

(11)The  instrument of  accession deposited  by the  Libyan Arab  Jamahiriya
contains a disclaimer regarding recognition of Israel.

 (12)"In case of a dispute, all recourse must  be made to the  International
Court  of Justice  on  the  basis of  the unanimous  consent of  the parties
concerned."

(13)The Convention  cannot enter  into  force for  the Netherlands  Antilles
until thirty days after the date on which  the Government of the Kingdom  of
the  Netherlands shall  have notified  the depositary  Governments that  the
necessary measures to give effect to the  provisions of the Convention  have
been taken in the Netherlands Antilles.

  Note 1:On  11 June 1974,  a declaration was deposited  with the Government
of the  United States by the  Government of the  Kingdom of the  Netherlands
stating  that  in  the  interim  the  measures  required  to  implement  the
provisions  of the Convention  have been  taken in  the Netherlands Antilles
and, consequently, the Convention will enter  into force for the Netherlands
Antilles   on  the  thirtieth  day   after  the  date  of  deposit  of  this
declaration.

  Note  2:By a Note dated  9 January 1986  the Government  of the Kingdom of
the Netherlands informed the  Government of the  United States that as of  1
January  1986 the  Convention  is  applicable to  the  Netherlands  Antilles
(without Aruba) and to Aruba.

(14)Accession to the said Convention by  the Government of the  Sultanate of
Oman does not mean or imply, and shall not be interpreted as recognition  of
Israel generally or in the context of this Convention.

(15)The accession by the Government of the Republic  of Korea to the present
Convention  does not,  in  any  way, mean  or imply  the recognition  of any
territory or regime which  has not been recognized by the Government of  the
Republic of Korea as a State or Government.

(16)Approval by Saudi Arabia  does not mean and could not be interpreted  as
recognition of Israel generally or in the context of this Convention.

(17)An  instrument  of succession  by  the  Government  of  Slovenia to  the
Convention was  deposited with the  Government of the  United Kingdom on  27
May 1992.

(18)Notification of  succession  to the  Convention was  deposited with  the
Government  of the  United  States  on 27  October  1978, by  virtue of  the
extension  of the Convention to  Suriname by the Kingdom  of the Netherlands
prior to  independence.  The Republic  of Suriname  attained independence on
25 November 1975.

(19)"In  accepting the said  Convention, the  Government of  the United Arab
Emirates takes the view  that its acceptance of the said Convention does not
in any way imply  its recognition of Israel, nor does it oblige to apply the
provisions of the Convention in respect of the said Country."


 (20)The Convention is ratified "in respect of  the United Kingdom of  Great
Britain and Northern  Ireland and Territories under territorial  sovereignty
of the United Kingdom as well as the British Solomon Islands Protectorate".

                3.  Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts
                    against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at
                    Montreal on 23 September 1971 (entered into
                    force on 26 January 1973) a/

    Date of deposit
    of instrument of
    ratification or
      States  Date of signature     accession

Afghanistan    26 September 1984 (1)
Antigua and Barbuda    22 July 1985
Argentina  23 September 1971  26 November 1973
Australia  12 October 1972  12 July 1973
Austria  13 November 1972  11 February 1974
Bahamas    27 December 1984
Bahrain    20 February 1984 (1)
Bangladesh    28 June 1978
Barbados  23 September 1971   6 August 1976
Belarus  23 September 1971  31 January 1973 (1)
Belgium  23 September 1971  13 August 1976
Bhutan    28 December 1988
Bolivia    18 July 1979
Botswana  12 October 1972  28 December 1978
Brazil  23 September 1971  24 July 1972 (1)
Brunei Darussalam    16 April 1986
Bulgaria  23 September 1971  28 March 1973 (2)
Burkina Faso    19 October 1987
Burundi   6 March 1972
Cameroon    11 July 1973 (3)
Canada  23 September 1971  19 June 1972
Cape Verde    20 October 1977
Central African Republic     1 July 1991
Chad   23 September 1971  12 July 1972
Chile    28 February 1974
China    10 September 1980 (1)(4)
Colombia     4 December 1974
Comoros     1 August 1991
Congo  23 September 1971  19 March 1987
Costa Rica  23 September 1971  21 September 1973
Cote d'Ivoire     9 January 1973
Cyprus  28 November 1972  27 July 1973
Czech Republic    14 November 1994 (5)
Democratic People's
  Republic of Korea    13 August 1980
Denmark  17 October 1972  17 January 1973 (6)

________________________

  a/   The information  concerning this  Convention is  reproduced below  as
furnished  on 4  July 1995  by  the secretariat  of the  International Civil
Aviation Organization.
    Date of deposit
    of instrument of
    ratification or
      States  Date of signature     accession

Djibouti    24 November 1992
Dominican Republic  31 May 1972  28 November 1973
Ecuador    12 January 1977
Egypt  24 November 1972  20 May 1975 (1)
El Salvador    25 September 1979
Equatorial Guinea     2 January 1991
Estonia    22 December 1993
Ethiopia  23 September 1971  26 March 1979 (1)
Fiji  21 August 1972   5 March 1973

Finland    13 July 1973
France    30 June 1976 (1)
Gabon  24 November 1971  29 June 1976
Gambia    28 November 1978
Georgia    20 April 1994
Germany  23 September 1971   3 February 1978 (7)
Ghana    12 December 1973
Greece   9 February 1972  15 January 1974
Grenada    10 August 1978
Guatemala   9 May 1972  19 October 1978 (1)
Guinea     2 May 1984  
Guinea-Bissau    20 August 1976
Guyana    21 December 1972
Haiti   6 January 1972   9 May 1984
Honduras    13 April 1987
Hungary  23 September 1971  27 December 1972 (8)
Iceland    29 June 1973
India  11 December 1972  12 November 1982
Indonesia    27 August 1976 (1)
Iran (Islamic
  Republic of)    10 July 1973
Iraq    10 September 1974
Ireland    12 October 1976
Israel  23 September 1971  30 June 1972
Italy  23 September 1971  19 February 1974
Jamaica  23 September 1971  15 September 1983
Japan    12 June 1974
Jordan   2 May 1972  13 February 1973
Kazakstan     4 April 1995
Kenya    11 January 1977
Kuwait    23 November 1979 (9)
Lao People's Democratic
  Republic   1 November 1972   6 April 1989
Lebanon    23 December 1977
Lesotho    27 July 1978
Liberia     1 February 1982
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya    19 February 1974
Luxembourg  29 November 1971  18 May 1982
    Date of deposit
    of instrument of
    ratification or
      States  Date of signature     accession

Madagascar    18 November 1986
Malawi    21 December 1972 (1)
Malaysia     4 May 1985
Maldives     1 September 1987
Mali    24 August 1972
Malta    14 June 1991
Marshall Islands    31 May 1989
Mauritania     1 November 1978
Mauritius    25 April 1983
Mexico  25 January 1973  12 September 1974
Monaco     3 June 1983
Mongolia  18 February 1972  14 September 1972 (1)
Morocco    24 October 1975 (10)
Nauru    17 May 1984
Nepal    11 January 1979
Netherlands, Kingdom of the  23 September 1971  27 August 1973 (11)
New Zealand  26 September 1972  12 February 1974
Nicaragua  22 December 1972   6 November 1973
Niger   6 March 1972   1 September 1972
Nigeria     3 July 1973
Norway     1 August 1973
Oman     2 February 1977 (1)(12)
Pakistan    24 January 1974

Panama  18 January 1972  24 April 1972
Papua New Guinea    15 December 1975 (1)
Paraguay  23 January 1973   5 March 1974
Peru    28 April 1978 (1)
Philippines  23 September 1971  26 March 1973
Poland  23 September 1971  28 January 1975 (1)
Portugal  23 September 1971  15 January 1973
Qatar    26 August 1981 (1)
Republic of Korea     2 August 1973 (13)
Romania  10 July 1972  15 August 1975 (1)
Russian Federation  23 September 1971  19 February 1973 (1)
Rwanda  26 June 1972   3 November 1987
Saint Lucia     8 November 1983
Saint Vincent and
  the Grenadines    29 November 1991
Saudi Arabia     14 June 1974 (1)(14)
Senegal  23 September 1971   3 February 1978
Seychelles    29 December 1978
Sierra Leone    20 September 1979
Singapore  21 November 1972  12 April 1978
Slovakia     6 March 1995 (15)
Slovenia    27 May 1992 (16)
Solomon Islands    13 April 1982 (17)
South Africa  23 September 1971  30 May 1972 (1)
    Date of deposit
    of instrument of
    ratification or
      States  Date of signature     accession

Spain  15 February 1972  30 October 1972
Sri Lanka    30 May 1978
Sudan    18 January 1979
Suriname    27 October 1978 (18)
Sweden    10 July 1973
Switzerland  23 September 1971  17 January 1978
Syrian Arab Republic    10 July 1980 (1)
Thailand    16 May 1978
The former Yugoslav Republic
  of Macedonia     4 January 1995 (19)
Togo     9 February 1979
Tonga    21 February 1977
Trinidad and Tobago   9 February 1972   9 February 1972
Tunisia    16 November 1981 (1)
Turkey   5 July 1972  23 December 1975
Uganda    19 July 1982
Ukraine  23 September 1971  26 January 1973 (1)
United Arab Emirates    10 April 1981 (20)
United Kingdom of Great
  Britain and Northern
  Ireland  23 September 1971  25 October 1973 (21)
United Republic of
  Tanzania     9 August 1983
United States of
  America  23 September 1971   1 November 1972
Uruguay    12 January 1977
Uzbekistan     7 February 1994
Vanuatu     6 November 1989
Venezuela  23 September 1971  21 November 1983 (22)
Viet Nam    17 September 1979
Yemen  23 October 1972  29 September 1986
Yugoslavia*  23 September 1971   2 October 1972
Zaire     6 July 1977
Zambia     3 March 1987
Zimbabwe     6 February 1989

________________________

     *      Yugoslavia refers  to the  former Socialist Federal  Republic of
Yugoslavia.


(1)Reservation  made  with respect  to  paragraph 1  of  Article 14  of  the
Convention.

(2)On 4  September 1994,  a Note was  deposited with the  Government of  the
United  Kingdom  by  the Government  of  Bulgaria  whereby  that  Government
withdraws the reservation  made at the time  of ratification with regard  to
paragraph  1 of  Article  14  of the  Convention.   The  withdrawal  of  the
reservation took effect on 4 September 1994.

(3)"In accordance  with the  provisions of  the Convention  of 23  September
1971, for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts directed against the Security  of
Civil Aviation, the Government of the  United Republic of Cameroon  declares
that  in view of  the fact  that it does  not have any  relations with South
Africa  and Portugal, it has  no obligation toward  these two countries with
regard to the implementation of the stipulations of the Convention."

(4)The instrument  of accession by the  Government of  the People's Republic
of  China  contains  the following  declaration:    "The  Chinese Government
declares  illegal and null  and void  the signature and  ratification of the
abovementioned Convention by the Taiwan authorities in the name of China".

(5)An instrument of  succession by the Government  of the Czech Republic  to
the Convention was deposited with the  Government of the Russian  Federation
on 14 November 1994, with effect from 1 January 1993.

(6)Until  later decision, the  Convention will not  be applied  to the Faroe
Islands or to Greenland.

  Note  1:A  notification was  received  by  the  Government  of the  United
Kingdom  from the Government  of the  Kingdom of Denmark  whereby the latter
withdraws, with effect  from 1 June 1980, the  reservation made at the  time
of ratification that this Convention should not apply to Greenland.

  Note 2:The Government of the United  Kingdom subsequently received, on  21
September  1994,  a notification  from  the  Government  of  the Kingdom  of
Denmark whereby the latter withdraws,  with effect from 1  October 1994, the
reservation  made at the  time of  ratification that  this Convention should
not apply to the Faroe Islands.

(7)The German Democratic Republic, which ratified  the Convention on 9  June
1972, acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.

(8)On  10 January 1990,  instruments were  deposited with  the Government of
the  United  Kingdom  and  the  Government  of  the  United  States  by  the
Government  of Hungary  whereby that  Government withdraws  the  reservation
made at the time  of ratification with  regard to paragraph 1 of  Article 14
of  the Convention.  The withdrawal  of  the reservation  took effect  on 10
January 1990.

(9)It is understood that accession to the Convention for the Suppression  of
Unlawful Acts  against the Safety of Civil Aviation, done at Montreal, 1971,
does  not mean in  any way  recognition of  Israel by  the State  of Kuwait.
Furthermore, no treaty relation will arise  between the State of  Kuwait and
Israel.

(10)"In case of a  dispute, all recourse must  be made to  the International
Court  of Justice  on  the  basis of  the unanimous  consent of  the parties
concerned".
  (11)The Convention  cannot enter into force  for the Netherlands  Antilles
until  thirty days after the date on which the  Government of the Kingdom of
the  Netherlands shall  have  notified the  depositary Governments  that the
necessary measures  to give effect to  the provisions of the Convention have

been taken in the Netherlands Antilles.

  Note 1:On 11 June  1974, a declaration was  deposited with the  Government
of  the United States  by the  Government of the Kingdom  of the Netherlands
stating  that  in  the  interim  the  measures  required  to  implement  the
provisions  of the Convention  have been  taken in  the Netherlands Antilles
and, consequently, the Convention will enter  into force for the Netherlands
Antilles  on  the  thirtieth  day  after  the   date  of  deposit  of   this
declaration.

  Note  2:By a Note  dated 9  January 1986 the Government  of the Kingdom of
the Netherlands informed the  Government of the United  States that as  of 1
January  1986  the  Convention is  applicable  to  the  Netherlands Antilles
(without Aruba) and to Aruba.

(12)Accession  to the said Convention  by the Government of the Sultanate of
Oman does not mean or imply, and shall  not be interpreted as recognition of
Israel generally or in the context of this Convention.

(13)The accession by the Government of the Republic of Korea to the  present
Convention  does not  in  any way  mean  or  imply  the recognition  of  any
territory or regime which  has not been recognized  by the Government of the
Republic of Korea as a State or Government.

(14)Approval by Saudi Arabia  does not mean and  could not be interpreted as
recognition of Israel generally or in the context of this Convention.

(15)An  instrument  of succession  by  the  Government  of  Slovakia to  the
Convention  was deposited  with the  Government  of the  United States  on 6
March 1995, with effect from 1 January 1993.

(16)An  instrument  of succession  by  the  Government  of  Slovenia to  the
Convention was  deposited with  the Government of  the United Kingdom  on 27
May 1992.

(17)An instrument of succession by the Government of  Solomon Islands to the
Convention was  deposited with the  Government of the  United Kingdom on  13
April 1982.  Solomon Islands attained independence on 7 July 1978.

(18)Notification  of succession  to the  Convention was  deposited  with the
Government  of the  United  States on  27 October  1978,  by virtue  of  the
extension  of the Convention to  Suriname by the Kingdom  of the Netherlands
prior to  independence.  The Republic  of Suriname  attained independence on
25 November 1975.

(19)An  instrument of succession  by the  Government of  the former Yugoslav
Republic of  Macedonia to the Convention  was deposited  with the Government
of the United States on 4 January 1995.

 (20)"In accepting  the said Convention, the  Government of  the United Arab
Emirates takes the view that its acceptance of  the said Convention does not
in any way imply  its recognition of Israel, nor does it oblige to apply the
provisions of the Convention in respect of the said Country."

(21)The Convention  is ratified "in  respect of the United  Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern  Ireland and Territories under territorial  sovereignty
of the United Kingdom as well as the British Solomon Islands Protectorate".

  Note:By  a Note  dated 20  November  1990, the  Government of  the  United
Kingdom declared that Anguilla has been  included under the ratification  of
the Convention by that Government with effect from 7 November 1990.

(22)The instrument of  ratification by the Government of Venezuela  contains
the following reservation regarding Articles 4, 7 and 8 of the Convention:

"Venezuela will  take into consideration  clearly political  motives and the

circumstances   under  which  offences   described  in  Article  1  of  this
Convention  are  committed,   in  refusing  to  extradite  or  prosecute  an
offender, unless financial extortion or injury  to the crew, passengers,  or
other persons has occurred".

The Government of  the United Kingdom of  Great Britain and Northern Ireland
made the  following  declaration  in  a Note  dated  6  August 1985  to  the
Department of State of the Government of the United States:

"The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern  Ireland
do  not regard  as  valid the  reservation made  by  the Government  of  the
Republic of  Venezuela in  so far  as it  purports to  limit the  obligation
under  Article 7 of the Convention to submit the case against an offender to
the competent authorities of the State for the purpose of prosecution".

With  reference to  the above  declaration by the  Government of  the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern  Ireland, the Government of Venezuela,
in a Note  dated 21 November 1985, informed  the Department of State of  the
Government of the United States of the following:

"The reserve made by the Government  of Venezuela to Articles 4,  7 and 8 of
the Convention  is  based  on  the fact  that  the  principle of  asylum  is
contemplated  in  Article  116  of  the  Constitution  of  the  Republic  of
Venezuela.  Article 116 reads:

  'The Republic grants asylum to any person subject to persecution or  which
finds  itself in danger,  for political  reasons, within  the conditions and
requirements established by the laws and norms of international law.'

It is  for this reason  that the Government  of Venezuela  considers that in
order  to protect this right,  which would be diminished  by the application
without  limits of  the  said articles,  it  was necessary  to  request  the
formulation of  the declaration contemplated in  Art. 2 of the Law approving
the  Convention for the  Suppression of  Unlawful Acts  Against the Security
(sic) of Civil Aviation".

The Government of Italy  made the following  declaration in a Note dated  21
November 1985  to the Department of  State of the  Government of the  United
States:

"The  Government  of  Italy  does  not  consider  as  valid  the reservation
formulated by the Government  of the Republic of  Venezuela due to  the fact
that it may be considered as aiming to  limit the obligation under Article 7
of the Convention  to submit the case against  an offender to the  competent
authorities of the State for the purpose of prosecution".

/...  A/50/372
  English
  Page

A/50/372
English
Page

               4.    Convention  on  the  Physical  Protection  of   Nuclear
Material, adopted
                   at Vienna  on  3 March  1980  (entered  into force  on  8
February 1987,
                   in accordance with article 19, paragraph 1) a/

     Date of deposit
      of expression
      States/               Date of   of consent to
   organization            signature         be bound  Entry into force

Antigua and Barbuda     4 August 1993   3 September 1993

Argentina  28 February 1986   6 April 1989   6 May 1989 (1)
Armenia    24 August 1993  23 September 1993
Australia  22 February 1984  22 September 1987  22 October 1987
Austria   3 March 1980  22 December 1988  21 January 1989
Belarus     9 September 1993  effect from 14 June 1993 (2)
Belgium b/  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991
Brazil  15 May 1981  17 October 1985   8 February 1987
Bulgaria  23 June 1981  10 April 1984   8 February 1987 (3)
Canada  23 September 1980  21 March 1986   8 February 1987
Chile    27 April 1994  27 May 1994
China    10 January 1989   9 February 1989 (4)
Croatia    29 September 1992  effect from 8 October 1991
Czech Republic    24 March 1993  effect from 1 January 1993
Denmark b/  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991
Dominican
  Republic   3 March 1980
Ecuador  26 June 1986
Estonia     9 May 1994   8 June 1994
EURATOM  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991 (5)
Finland  25 June 1981  22 September 1989  22 October 1989
France b/  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991 (6)
Germany b/  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991
Greece b/   3 March 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991
Guatemala  12 March 1980  23 April 1985   8 February 1987 (7)
Haiti   9 April 1980
Hungary  17 June 1980   4 May 1984   8 February 1987 (8)(21)
Indonesia   3 July 1986   5 November 1986   8 February 1987 (9)
Ireland b/  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991
Israel  17 June 1983 (10)
Italy b/  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991 (11)
Japan    28 October 1988  27 November 1988
Liechtenstein  13 January 1986  25 November 1986   8 February 1987
Lithuania     7 December 1993   6 January 1994
Luxembourg b/  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991
Mexico     4 April 1988   4 May 1988
Mongolia  23 January 1986  28 May 1986   8 February 1987 (12)(21)
Morocco  25 July 1980
Netherlands b/  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991 (13)
Niger   7 January 1985
Norway  26 January 1983  15 August 1985   8 February 1987
Panama  18 March 1980
Paraguay  21 May 1980   6 February 1985   8 February 1987
Peru    11 January 1995  10 February 1995
Philippines  19 May 1980  22 September 1981   8 February 1987
Poland   6 August 1980   5 October 1983   8 February 1987 (14)
Portugal b/  19 September 1984   6 September 1991   6 October 1991
Republic of Korea  29 December 1981   7 April 1982   8 February 1987 (15)
Romania  15 January 1981 (16)  23 November 1993  23 December 1993

________________________

     a/   The information concerning this  Convention is reproduced below as
furnished on  4 July 1995  by the  secretariat of  the International  Atomic
Energy Agency.

     b/   Signed/ratified as EURATOM member State.
      Date of deposit
      of expression
      States/               Date of           of consent to
   organization            signature         be bound  Entry into force

Russian   22 May 1980  25 May 1983   8 February 1987 (17)
  Federation    continued
    26 December 1991
Slovakia    10 February 1993  effect from 1 January 1993
Slovenia     7 July 1992  effect from 25 June 1991

South Africa  18 May 1981 (18)
Spain b/   7 April 1986   6 September 1991   6 October 1991 (19)
Sweden   2 July 1980   1 August 1980   8 February 1987
Switzerland   9 January 1987   9 January 1987   8 February 1987
Tunisia     8 April 1993   8 May 1993
Turkey  23 August 1983  27 February 1985   8 February 1987 (20)
Ukraine     6 July 1993   5 August 1993
United Kingdom of
  Great Britain
  and Northern
  Ireland b/  13 June 1980   6 September 1991   6 October 1991
United States of
  America   3 March 1980  13 December 1982   8 February 1987
Yugoslavia  15 July 1980  14 May 1986   8 February 1987
    continued
    28 April 1992


(1)The  following reservation was attached to the instrument of ratification
of the Convention:

"In accordance  with  the provisions  of  Article  17.3 of  the  Convention,
Argentina  does  not  consider  itself  bound   by  either  of  the  dispute
settlement procedures provided for in Article 17.2 of the Convention".

(2)In succeeding,  Belarus  upheld the  reservation  made  by the  Union  of
Soviet Socialist Republics upon its adherence (see note 17).

(3)"The People's  Republic of  Bulgaria does  not consider  itself bound  by
Article  17 (2)  of the  Convention on  the  Physical Protection  of Nuclear
Material, according to which  any dispute concerning  the interpretation  or
application of  the Convention shall, at  the request of  any Party to  such
dispute, be submitted to arbitration or  referred to the International Court
of Justice."

(4)The following  reservation was attached to  the instrument of  accession:
"China  will not  be  bound by  the  two dispute  settlement  procedures  as
stipulated in paragraph 2, Article 17 of the said Convention".

(5)"[The European Atomic Energy Community] would like to declare:

  "(a)  that  the Member States  of the  Community are  at present  Belgium,
Denmark,   France,  Germany,   Greece,   Ireland,  Italy,   Luxembourg,  the
Netherlands,  Portugal, Spain and  the United  Kingdom of  Great Britain and
Northern Ireland;

  "(b)   that Articles 7 to 13  of the Convention are not  applicable to the
Community.

  "Further, pursuant  to Article  17 (3)  of the  Convention, [the  European
Atomic Energy Community] declare[s] that, since  only States may be  parties
in cases before the International Court  of Justice, the Community considers
itself exclusively  bound  by the  arbitration  procedures  provided for  in
Article 17 (2)."

 (6)Upon signature:

"Recalling its statement contained in document  CPNM/90 of 25 October  1979,
the French Government declares that the  jurisdiction referred to in Article
8, paragraph  4 may  not  be invoked  against  it,  since the  criterion  of
jurisdiction based on involvement  in international nuclear transport as the
exporting or importing  State is not  expressly recognized  in international
law and is not provided for in French national legislation."

"In accordance with  Article 17, paragraph 3,  France declares that it  does
not accept  the  competence of  the International  Court of  Justice in  the

settlement of the disputes  referred to in paragraph  2 of this article, nor
that of the President  of the International Court of Justice to appoint  one
or more arbitrators."

Note:The French statement regarding article 6 bis (document CPNM/87)  reads:
"...  This  provision introduces  new  elements  to  the  field of  criminal
jurisdiction,   necessitating  a   thorough  examination   of  their   legal
implications ..." (document CPNM/90)

  Upon approval:

  "(1)   In approving  the Convention,  the French  Government expresses the
following reservation:  the offences described  in subparagraphs 1 (e) and 1
(f) of article 7 of the  Convention shall be punished in accordance with the
provisions of French penal legislation.

  "(2)  The  French Government declares that the jurisdiction referred to in
article 8, paragraph 4  may not be invoked  against it, since  the criterion
of  jurisdiction based on  involvement in international nuclear transport as
the   exporting  or   importing  State   is  not   expressly  recognized  in
international law and is not provided for in French national legislation.

  "(3)  In accordance with article 17, paragraph 3, France declares that  it
does not accept the competence of the International  Court of Justice in the
settlement of the disputes  referred to in paragraph  2 of this article, nor
that of the President  of the International Court of Justice to appoint  one
or more arbitrators."

(7)The instrument of ratification contains the following reservation:

"The Republic  of Guatemala  does not  consider itself  bound by any  of the
dispute settlement procedures  set out in paragraph 2  of Article 17 of  the
Convention, which provide for the submission  of disputes to arbitration  or
their referral to the International Court of Justice for decision".

(8)"The Hungarian  People's Republic does not  consider itself  bound by the
provision of  paragraph 2  of article  17 that  any dispute which  cannot be
settled in the manner prescribed in paragraph 1 of  article 17 shall, at the
request  of  any  party  to such  dispute,  be submitted  to  arbitration or
referred to the International Court of Justice for decision."

(9)The instrument of ratification contains the following reservation:

"The Government  of the Republic of Indonesia does not consider itself bound
by the  provision of Article  17, paragraph 2  of this  Convention and takes
the position that any dispute relating  to the interpretation or application
of  the  Convention  may  only  be  submitted  to   arbitration  or  to  the
International Court  of Justice  with the agreement  of all  parties to  the
dispute".

(10)"In  accordance with Article  17, paragraph  3, Israel  declares that it
does  not  consider  itself  bound  by  the  dispute  settlement  procedures
provided for in paragraph 2 of Article 17."

(11)  "(1) In connection with article 4.2

  Italy  considers  that  if  assurances  as   to  the  levels  of  physical
protection described  in annex  I have  not been  received in good  time the
importing  State  party may  take  appropriate  bilateral  steps  as far  as
practicable  to  assure  itself  that  the  transport  will  take  place  in
compliance with the aforesaid levels.

   "(2) In connection with article 10

  The last  words 'through proceedings  in accordance with  the laws of  the
State' are to be considered as referring to the whole article 10.

  "Italy  considers  that   international  cooperation  and  assistance  for
physical protection  and recovery of nuclear  materials as  well as criminal
rules and  extradition will  apply also  to the  domestic  use, storage  and
transport of  nuclear  material used  for  peaceful  purposes.   Italy  also
considers  that  no   provision  contained  in  this  convention  shall   be
interpreted  as  precluding  the  possibility  to  widen  the  scope  of the
convention at the review conference foreseen in article 16."

(12)"...  does not consider itself  bound by the provisions  of paragraph 2,
article  17  of  the  Convention,  whereby   disputes  arising  out  of  the
interpretation  or  application  of  the Convention  could  be  submitted to
arbitration or referred to the International  Court of Justice for  decision
at the request of any party to the dispute."

(13)"With regard to the obligation to  exercise jurisdiction referred to  in
Article  10  of  the  Convention  on  the  Physical  Protection  of  Nuclear
Material,  done at  Vienna/New York  on 3  March 1980,  the Kingdom  of  the
Netherlands  makes  the  reservation,  that  in  cases  where  the  judicial
authorities of  the Netherlands are unable  to exercise  jurisdiction on the
grounds of  one of the principles referred to in Article  8, paragraph 1, of
the Convention,  the Kingdom shall  be bound by  this obligation  only if it
has received an extradition  request from a Party  to the Convention and the
said request has been rejected."

(14)"After having  seen and  examined the  said Convention  and the  annexes
thereto, the Council of State approved them subject to the reservation  that
the  People's  Republic of  Poland does  not  consider itself  bound by  the
provisions of Article 17.2 of the Convention; ..."

(15)"The Government of the Republic of Korea  does not consider itself bound
by the dispute settlement procedures provided for in paragraph  2 of Article
17."

(16)"The Socialist  Republic of Romania declares  that it  does not consider
itself bound by the provisions of Article 17, paragraph 2 of the  Convention
on  the  Physical Protection  of  Nuclear  Material,  which  state that  any
dispute  concerning the  interpretation  or application  of  the  Convention
which cannot  be settled by negotiation  or by any  other peaceful means  of
settling disputes  shall, at the  request of any  party to  such dispute, be
submitted to arbitration or referred to  the International Court of  Justice
for decision.

"The  Socialist Republic  of Romania  considers  that  such disputes  can be
submitted to  arbitration or to the International Court of Justice only with
the consent of all parties to the dispute in each individual case.

"In signing the Convention on the  Physical Protection of Nuclear  Material,
the Socialist Republic of Romania declares  that, in its interpretation, the
provisions of Article 18, paragraph 4  refer exclusively to organizations to
which the Member  States have transferred competence to negotiate,  conclude
and  apply international  agreements on  their  behalf  and to  exercise the
rights  and  fulfil   the  responsibilities  entailed  by  such   agreements
including the right to vote."

(17)"The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics  does not consider itself bound
by the  provisions of  Article 17, paragraph  2 of the  Convention that  any
dispute  concerning the  interpretation  or application  of  the  Convention
shall be submitted to arbitration or referred to  the International Court of
Justice at the request of any party to such dispute."

(18)"In  accordance with  Article 17,  paragraph  3,  the Republic  of South
Africa declares  that it  does  not  consider itself  bound by  the  dispute
settlement procedures provided for in paragraph 2 of Article 17."

(19)"The Kingdom  of  Spain declares,  in  accordance  with paragraph  3  of
Article 17 of the Convention, that  it does not consider itself bound by the

procedure for  the  settlement of  disputes  stipulated  in paragraph  2  of
Article 17."

(20)"Turkey, in  accordance with Article 17,  paragraph 3  of the Convention
does   not  consider  itself  bound  by  Article  17,  paragraph  2  of  the
Convention."

(21)Indicates that reservation/declaration was subsequently withdrawn.
             5.  Protocol for the Suppression  of Unlawful Acts of  Violence
at
                 Airports    Serving    International    Civil     Aviation,
supplementary
                 to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts
                 against the  Safety of Civil  Aviation, signed at  Montreal
on
                 24 February 1988 (entered into force on 6 August 1988, in
                 accordance with article VI, paragraph 1) a/
                                              
                                                Date of deposit
                                                of instrument of
                           Date of              ratification or
States                        signature                    accession        
Effective date

Argentina  24 February 1988  12 February 1992  13 March 1992
Australia    23 October 1990  22 November 1990
Austria   4 July 1989  28 December 1989  27 January 1990
Belarus  24 February 1988  1 May 1989   6 August 1989
Belgium  15 March 1989
Brazil  24 February 1988
Bulgaria  24 February 1988  26 March 1991  25 April 1991
Cameroon  23 November 1988
Canada  24 February 1988   2 August 1993   1 September 1993
Central African
  Republic     1 July 1991  31 July 1991
Chile  24 February 1988  15 August 1989  14 September 1989
China  24 February 1988
Congo  13 April 1989
Costa Rica  24 February 1988
Cote d'Ivoire  21 March 1988
Czech Republic (1)    25 March 1993   1 January 1993
Democratic People's
  Republic of Korea  11 April 1989
Denmark (2)  24 February 1988  23 November 1989  23 December 1989
Egypt  24 February 1988
Estonia    22 December 1993  21 January 1994
Ethiopia  24 February 1988
Fiji    21 September 1992  21 October 1992
Finland  16 November 1988
France (3)  29 March 1988   6 September 1989   6 October 1989
Gabon  20 September 1988
Germany (4)  24 February 1988  25 April 1994  25 May 1994
Ghana  24 February 1988
Greece  18 April 1988  25 April 1991  25 May 1991
Guatemala    11 October 1994  10 November 1994
Hungary  24 February 1988   7 September 1988   6 August 1989
Iceland  24 February 1988   9 May 1990   8 June 1990
India    22 March 1995  21 April 1995
Indonesia  24 February 1988
Iraq    31 January 1990   2 March 1990
Ireland  29 July 1988  26 July 1991  25 August 1991
Israel  24 February 1988  2 April 1993   2 May 1993
Italy  24 February 1988  13 March 1990  12 April 1990


________________________

     a/  The information concerning this  Convention is reproduced below  as
furnished on  4 July  1995 by  the  secretariat of  the International  Civil
Aviation Organization.
                                                Date of deposit
                                                of instrument of
                           Date of              ratification or
States                        signature                    accession        
Effective date

Jamaica  24 February 1988
Jordan  30 September 1988  18 September 1992  18 October 1992
Kazakstan    18 May 1995   17 June 1995
Kuwait (5)  24 February 1988   8 March 1989   6 August 1989
Lebanon  24 February 1988
Liberia  24 February 1988
Luxembourg  18 May 1989
Malawi  24 February 1988
Malaysia  24 February 1988
Mali    31 October 1990  30 November 1990
Malta    14 June 1991  14 July 1991
Marshall Islands  23 June 1988  30 May 1989   6 August 1989
Mauritius  28 June 1989  17 August 1989  16 September 1989
Mexico  24 February 1988  11 October 1990  10 November 1990
Monaco    22 December 1993  21 January 1994
Morocco   8 July 1988
Netherlands, Kingdom
  of the (6)  13 April 1988
New Zealand  11 April 1989
Niger   24 February 1988
Norway  24 February 1988  29 May 1990  28 June 1990
Oman    27 November 1992  27 December 1992
Pakistan  24 February 1988
Peru  24 February 1988   7 June 1989   6 August 1989
Philippines  25 January 1989
Poland  24 February 1988
Portugal  24 February 1988
Republic of Korea  24 February 1988  27 June 1990  27 July 1990
Romania  24 February 1988
Russian Federation  24 February 1988  31 March 1989   6 August 1989
Saint Lucia    11 June 1990  11 July 1990
Saint Vincent and
  the Grenadines   1 December 1988  29 November 1991  29 December 1991
Saudi Arabia  24 February 1988  21 February 1989   6 August 1989
Senegal  24 February 1988
Slovakia (7)    20 March 1995   1 January 1993
Slovenia (8)    27 May 1992          -Spain   2 March 1989   8 May  1991   7
June 1991
Sri Lanka  28 October 1988
Sweden   24 February 1988  26 July 1990  25 August 1990
Switzerland  24 February 1988   9 October 1990   8 November 1990
The former Yugoslav
  Republic of
  Macedonia (9)      4 January 1995              -Togo  24 October 1988    9
February 1990  11 March 1990
Tunisia     7 June 1994   7 July 1994
Turkey  24 February 1988   7 July 1989   6 August 1989
Uganda    17 March 1994  16 April 1994
Ukraine  24 February 1988
                                                Date of deposit
                                                of instrument of
                           Date of              ratification or
States                        signature                   accession         
Effective date

United Arab Emirates  24 February 1988  9 March 1989  6 August 1989
United Kingdom of

  Great Britain
  and Northern
  Ireland (10)  26 October 1988  15 November 1990  15 December 1990
United States of
  America  24 February 1988  19 October 1994  18 November 1994
Uzbekistan     7 February 1994   9 March 1994
Venezuela  24 February 1988
Yugoslavia*  24 February 1988  21 December 1989  20 January 1990
Zaire  24 February 1988

________________________

     *   Yugoslavia  refers to  the  former  Socialist Federal  Republic  of
Yugoslavia.


(1)By a Note dated 8 March 1993, received  on 25 March 1993, the  Government
of   the  Czech   Republic  informed   the  International   Civil   Aviation
Organization  that,  as  a  successor  State  created  as  a  result  of the
dissolution of the Czech and Slovak  Federal Republic, it considered  itself
bound by the Protocol with effect from 1 January 1993.

(2)The Government of Denmark  made the following reservation  at the time of
ratification of the Protocol:  "Until  later decision, the Protocol will not
be applied to the Faroe Islands".

Note:   On 27  September 1994,  a declaration  dated 22  September 1994  was
deposited
            with  the  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization  by  the
Government of
            Denmark   whereby   that   Government    withdraws   the   above
reservation, with
            effect from 1 October 1994.

(3)The Government  of France made the  following declaration at  the time of
signature of the Protocol:

"The  French  Republic recalls  the  declaration made  at  the time  of  its
accession  to the Convention  for the  Suppression of  Unlawful Acts against
the Safety  of Civil  Aviation of  23 September  1971, when it  stated that:
'In accordance with  Article 14, paragraph 2,  the French Republic  does not
consider  itself bound  by the  provisions of  paragraph 1  of  that Article
under which  any dispute between two  or more  Contracting States concerning
the interpretation  or  application  of  this  Convention  which  cannot  be
settled  through negotiation,  shall,  at  the request  of one  of  them, be
submitted  to arbitration.    If  within six  months  from the  date of  the
request for arbitration the Parties are unable to  agree on the organization
of the  arbitration, any one of those  Parties may refer  the dispute to the
International  Court of Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of
the Court.'

The above declaration is applicable to the  Protocol for the Suppression  of
Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports  Serving International Civil Aviation,
Supplementary  to  the  Convention for  the  Suppression  of  Unlawful  Acts
against the Safety of Civil Aviation of 23 September 1971."

 In addition, the following declaration was  made by that Government  at the
time of ratification:

"In  depositing  its  instrument  of  ratification  of  the  Protocol  of 24
February 1988 for  the Suppression of Unlawful  Acts of Violence at Airports
Serving International  Civil Aviation, Supplementary  to the Convention  for
the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the  Safety of Civil Aviation  done
at Montreal  on 23 September 1971, the French Republic  recalls and confirms
the declaration made  at the time of its  accession to the said  Convention,
when it  stated that:   'In  accordance with  Article 14,  paragraph 2,  the

French  Republic  does  not  consider  itself  bound  by  the  provisions of
paragraph 1  of that  Article under which  any dispute between  two or  more
Contracting  States concerning  the interpretation  or application  of  this
Convention  which  cannot  be settled  through  negotiation,  shall,  at the
request of one of them,  be submitted to arbitration.  If within six  months
from the  date of  the request  for arbitration  the Parties  are unable  to
agree on the organization  of the arbitration, any  one of those Parties may
refer  the  dispute to  the International  Court  of  Justice by  request in
conformity with the Statute of the Court.'

The above  declaration is applicable to  the Protocol for the Suppression of
Unlawful Acts of Violence at  Airports Serving International Civil Aviation,
Supplementary  to the  Convention  for  the  Suppression  of  Unlawful  Acts
against the Safety of Civil Aviation of 23 September 1971."

(4)The  German  Democratic  Republic,  which  ratified  the  Protocol on  31
January 1989, acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.

(5)It is understood that  the ratification of this Protocol does not mean in
any way a recognition of  Israel by the Government of  the State of  Kuwait.
Furthermore, no treaty relations will arise between the State of Kuwait  and
Israel.

(6)The  Government of  the Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands made  the following
interpretative statement at the time of signature of the Protocol:

"The  Government of the Kingdom  of the Netherlands hereby declares that, in
the light  of  the  preamble, it  understands the  provisions  laid down  in
Articles II and III of the Protocol to signify the following:

  -only those acts which,  in view of the nature of the weapons used and the
place where  they are  committed, cause or  are likely  to cause  incidental
loss  of life  or  serious injury  among  the  general  public or  users  of
international civil  aviation in  particular, shall  be classed  as acts  of
violence within the meaning of the new  paragraph 1 bis (a), as contained in
Article II of the Protocol;

  -only  those acts  which,  in  view of  the  damage which  they  cause  to
buildings or aircraft  at the  airport or their  disruption of the  services
provided  by the  airport,  endanger  or  are likely  to  endanger the  safe
operation of the airport in relation  to international civil aviation, shall
be classed as  acts of  violence within the meaning  of the new paragraph  1
bis (b), as contained in Article II of the Protocol."

(7)By  a Note  dated  16 February  1995,  received  on  20 March  1995,  the
Government   of   Slovakia  informed   the   International  Civil   Aviation
Organization that, as a  successor State, born from  the dissolution of  the
Czech  and  Slovak Federal  Republic,  it  considered  itself  bound by  the
Protocol with effect from 1 January 1993.

 (8)An  instrument  of succession  by  the  Government  of  Slovenia to  the
Protocol was deposited with  the Government of the  United Kingdom on 27 May
1992.

(9)An instrument  of succession  by the  Government of  the former  Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia to  the Protocol was deposited  with the Government of
the United States on 4 January 1995.

(10)The Government of the United Kingdom  made the following declaration  at
the time of ratification of the Protocol:   "... the United Kingdom declares
that  until consultations  with various  territories under  the  territorial
sovereignty of the United Kingdom  are completed, the Protocol will apply in
respect of the  United Kingdom of Great  Britain and Northern  Ireland only.
Consultations  with the  territories  are in  hand and  are  expected  to be
completed by the end of 1991."

                    6.   Convention  for the  Suppression of  Unlawful  Acts
against
                        the Safety of Maritime Navigation, done at Rome on
                        10  March 1988 (entered into force on  1 March 1992)
a/

       Date of deposit
     of instrument of
       ratification,
    accession, approval  Date of entry         States b/   Date of signature
   or acceptance   into force

Argentina  10 March 1988  17 August 1993 (1)  15 November 1993
Australia    19 February 1993  20 May 1993
Austria  10 March 1988  28 December 1989  1 March 1992
Bahamas  10 March 1988
Barbados     6 May 1994   4 August 1994
Belgium   9 March 1989
Brazil  10 March 1988
Brunei Darussalam   3 February 1989
Bulgaria  10 March 1988
Belarus   2 March 1989
Canada  10 March 1988  18 June 1993  16 September 1993
Chile  10 March 1988 (2)  22 April 1994  21 July 1994
China  25 October 1988 (3)  20 August 1991   1 March 1992
Costa Rica  10 March 1988
Denmark  26 October 1988
Ecuador  10 March 1988
Egypt  16 August 1988   8 January 1993 (4)   8 April 1993
Finland  18 November 1988
France  10 March 1988   2 December 1991 (5)   1 March 1992
Gambia     1 November 1991   1 March 1992
Germany     6 November 1990 (6)   1 March 1992
Greece  10 March 1988  11 June 1993   9 September 1993
Hungary  10 March 1988   9 November 1989   1 March 1992
Iraq  17 October 1988 (7)
Israel  10 March 1988
Italy  10 March 1988  26 January 1990   1 March 1992
Jordan  10 March 1988
Lebanon    16 December 1994  16 March 1995
Liberia  10 March 1988
Marshall Islands    29 November 1994  27 February 1995
Mexico    13 May 1994 (8)  11 August 1994
Morocco  10 March 1988
Netherlands  23 January 1989   5 March 1992   3 June 1992
New Zealand   8 December 1988
Nigeria   9 September 1988
Norway  10 March 1988  18 April 1991   1 March 1992
Oman    24 September 1990   1 March 1992
Philippines  10 March 1988
Poland  22 November 1988  25 June 1991   1 March 1992
Romania     2 June 1993  31 August 1993
Russian Federation   2 March 1989
Saudi Arabia   6 March 1989
Seychelles  24 January 1989  24 January 1989   1 March 1992
Spain  28 September 1988   7 July 1989   1 March 1992
Sweden  10 March 1988  13 September 1990   1 March 1992

________________________

     a/    The information concerning this Convention is reproduced below as
furnished  on 4 July 1995  by the secretariat  of the International Maritime
Organization.

     b/   Czechoslovakia,  which had signed the Convention on 9 March  1989,
was dissolved on 31 December 1992.


      Date of deposit
     of instrument of
       ratification,
    accession, approval  Date of  entry         States b/  Date of signature
   or acceptance   into force

Switzerland  10 March 1988  12 March 1993  10 June 1993
Trinidad and Tobago    27 July 1989   1 March 1992
Turkey  10 March 1988 (9)
Ukraine   2 March 1989  21 April 1994  20 July 1994
United Kingdom of
  Great Britain and
  Northern Ireland  22 September 1988   3 May 1991 (10)   1 March 1992
United States of
  America  10 March 1988   6 December 1994   6 March 1995


(1)The instrument of ratification contained the following reservation:

  "The Argentine Republic  declares, in  accordance with  the provisions  of
article 16,  paragraph 2, of the Convention,  that it shall  not be bound by
any of the provisions of paragraph 1 of that article."

(2)The  following  statement  was made  at  the  time  of  signature  of the
Convention:

"In connection with  the provisions of article  4 of the present Convention,
the Government of Chile shall  not apply the provisions thereof to incidents
that occur in its internal waters and in the waters of Magellan Strait."

(3)The  following  statement was  made  at  the time  of  signature  of  the
Convention and reaffirmed upon ratification:

"The People's  Republic of China is not  bound by paragraph  1 of article 16
of the Convention."

(4)The  following reservations were made  at the time of ratification of the
Convention:

  "1.A  reservation is  made to  article 16  on  the peaceful  settlement of
disputes  because   it  provides   for  the  binding  jurisdiction   of  the
International Court of Justice,  and also with regard to the application  of
the Convention  to seagoing ships in  internal waters which are scheduled to
navigate beyond territorial waters.

"2.A reservation is  made to article 6, paragraph  2, of the Convention  and
article 3, paragraph  2, of the Protocol  because those articles permit  the
optional  jurisdiction  of  blackmailed  States  (which  are  asked  by  the
perpetrator of an act of terrorism to do or abstain from doing any act).

  "This  is in compliance  with the provision of paragraph  4 of each of the
two articles."

(5)  The instrument of approval contained the following declarations:

  "1.  As  far as article 3, paragraph  2, is concerned the French  Republic
understands  by 'tentative',  'incitation',  'complicite' and  'menace',  la
tentative,  l'incitation, la  complicite and  la  menace  as defined  in the
conditions envisaged by French criminal law.

  "2.  The French Republic does not consider itself bound by the  provisions
of article 16, paragraph  1, according to which:   'Any dispute  between two
or more States Parties concerning the  interpretation or application of this
Convention which cannot  be settled through  negotiation within a reasonable
time shall, at  the request of  one of  them, be  submitted to  arbitration.

If, within  six months  from the  date of  the request for  arbitration, the
parties are unable to  agree on the organization of the arbitration any  one
of  those parties  may  refer the  dispute  to  the  International Court  of
Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of the Court'."

(6)On 3 October  1990 the German Democratic  Republic acceded to the Federal
Republic  of Germany.  The German  Democratic  Republic  had acceded  to the
Convention on 14 April 1989.
  (7)The following  reservation was made  at the  time of  signature of  the
Convention:

"This signature  does not in  any way imply  recognition of  Israel or entry
into any relationship with it."

(8)    The  instrument  of  accession  of  Mexico  contained  the  following
reservation:

"Mexico's accession to the Convention for  the Suppression of Unlawful  Acts
against  the Safety of  Maritime Navigation, 1988,  and to  its Protocol for
the  Suppression of  Unlawful Acts  against  the  Safety of  Fixed Platforms
Located on  the Continental  Shelf, 1988, is  on the  understanding that  in
matters  relating to  extradition, both  article  11  of the  Convention and
article 3 of the Protocol will be applied in the Republic of Mexico  subject
to the modalities and procedures laid  down in the applicable  provisions of
national law."

(9)Reservation  to the effect that  Turkey does not consider itself bound by
all of the provisions of article 16, paragraph 1.

(10)Theinstrument ofratification wasaccompaniedby thefollowing declaration:

"...  that   until  consultations   with  various   territories  under   the
territorial sovereignty  of the United Kingdom are completed, the Convention
and Protocol will apply  in respect of  the United Kingdom of Great  Britain
and Northern Ireland only.  Consultations  with the territories are  in hand
and are expected to be completed by the end of 1991."

7.  Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the
Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental
   Shelf, done at Rome on 10 March 1988 (entered into force
on 1 March 1992) a/                                 

     Date of deposit
     of instrument of
       ratification,
    accession, approval  Date of entry         States b/   Date of signature
   or acceptance   into force

Argentina  10 March 1988
Australia    19 February 1993  20 May 1993
Austria    28 December 1989   1 March 1992
Bahamas  10 March 1988
Barbados     6 May 1994   4 August 1994
Belgium   9 March 1989
Brazil  10 March 1988
Brunei Darussalam   3 February 1989
Bulgaria  10 March 1988
Belarus   2 March 1989
Canada  10 March 1988  18 June 1993  16 September 1993
Chile  10 March 1988  22 April 1994  21 July 1994
China  25 October 1988 (1)  20 August 1991   1 March 1992
Costa Rica  10 March 1988
Denmark  26 October 1988
Ecuador  10 March 1988
Egypt  16 August 1988   8 January 1993 (2)   8 April 1993
France  10 March 1988   2 December 1991 (3)   1 March 1992

Germany     6 November 1990 (4)   1 March 1992
Greece  10 March 1988  11 June 1993   9 September 1993
Hungary  10 March 1988   9 November 1989   1 March 1992
Iraq  17 October 1988 (5)
Israel  10 March 1988
Italy  10 March 1988  26 January 1990   1 March 1992
Jordan  10 March 1988
Lebanon    16 December 1995  16 March 1995
Liberia  10 March 1988
Mexico    13 May 1994 (6)  11 August 1994
Morocco  10 March 1988
Netherlands  23 January 1989   5 March 1992 (7)   3 June 1992
New Zealand   8 December 1988
Nigeria   9 September 1988
Norway  10 March 1988  18 April 1991   1 March 1992
Oman    24 September 1990   1 March 1992
Philippines  10 March 1988
Poland  22 November 1988  25 June 1991   1 March 1992
Romania     2 June 1993  31 August 1993
Russian Federation   2 March 1989
Saudi Arabia   6 March 1989
Seychelles  24 January 1989  24 January 1989   1 March 1992
Spain  28 September 1988   7 July 1989   1 March 1992
Sweden  10 March 1988  13 September 1990   1 March 1992
Switzerland  27 February 1989  12 March 1993  10 June 1993




________________________

     a/   The information concerning this Convention is reproduced below  as
furnished on  4 July 1995  by the secretariat of  the International Maritime
Organization.

     b/    Czechoslovakia, which  had signed the  Protocol on  9 March 1989,
was dissolved on 31 December 1992.
      Date of deposit
     of instrument of
       ratification,
    accession, approval  Date  of entry         States b/  Date of signature
   or acceptance   into force

Trinidad and Tobago    27 July 1989   1 March 1992
Turkey  10 March 1988 (8)
Ukraine   2 March 1989  21 April 1994  20 July 1994
United Kingdom of
  Great Britain and
  Northern Ireland  22 September 1988   3 May 1991 (9)   1 March 1992
United States of America  10 March 1988   6 December 1994   6 March 1995


(1)The following  statement  was  made at  the  time  of  signature  of  the
Protocol and reaffirmed upon ratification:

"The People's Republic  of China is not bound  by paragraph 1  of article 16
of the Convention."

(2)The following reservations were  made at the time of ratification of  the
Protocol:

"1.A  reservation is  made  to  article  16 on  the  peaceful settlement  of
disputes  because   it  provides  for  the   binding  jurisdiction  of   the
International Court  of Justice, and also with regard to  the application of
the Convention to seagoing  ships in internal waters which are scheduled  to
navigate beyond territorial waters.

"2.A  reservation is made  to article  6, paragraph 2 of  the Convention and
article 3,  paragraph 2, of the  Protocol because those  articles permit the
optional  jurisdiction  of  blackmailed  States  (which  are  asked  by  the
perpetrator of an act of terrorism to do or abstain from doing any act).

  "This is in compliance with  the provision of  paragraph 4 of each of  the
two articles."

(3)The instrument of approval contained the following declarations:

  "1.  As far  as article 2,  paragraph 2, is concerned the  French Republic
understands  by  'tentative', 'incitation',  'complicite'  and  'menace', La
tentative,  l'incitation, la  complicite and  la  menace  as defined  in the
conditions envisaged by French criminal law.

  "2.  The French  Republic does not consider itself bound by the provisions
of  article 1, paragraph  1, to  the extent  that reference  is made  to the
provisions of  article 16, paragraph  1, according  to which:   'Any dispute
between  two  or  more  States  Parties  concerning  the  interpretation  or
application of this  Convention which cannot  be settled through negotiation
within a  reasonable time shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted
to arbitration.   If, within  six months  from the  date of the  request for
arbitration, the  parties are  unable to  agree on  the organization of  the
arbitration  any  one  of  those  parties  may  refer  the  dispute  to  the
International Court of Justice by request in conformity  with the Statute of
the Court'."

(4)On 3 October  1990 the German Democratic  Republic acceded to the Federal
Republic  of Germany.  The German  Democratic  Republic  had acceded  to the
Convention on 14 April 1989.

(5)The  following reservation  was made  at  the time  of signature  of  the
Protocol:

"This signature  does not in any  way imply recognition  of Israel or  entry
into any relationship with it."

(6)The  instrument   of  accession   of  Mexico   contained  the   following
reservation:

"Mexico's accession to the Convention for  the Suppression of Unlawful  Acts
against the Safety  of Maritime Navigation,  1988, and to  its Protocol  for
the  Suppression of  Unlawful Acts  against  the  Safety of  Fixed Platforms
Located on  the Continental  Shelf, 1988,  is on the  understanding that  in
matters  relating to  extradition, both  article  11  of the  Convention and
article 3 of the Protocol will be applied in the  Republic of Mexico subject
to  the modalities and procedures laid down in  the applicable provisions of
national law."

(7)The instrument of acceptance contained the following reservation:

"With  regard to  the obligation laid down  in article 1 of  the Protocol in
conjunction  with  article 10  of  the  Convention  for  the Suppression  of
Unlawful  Acts  against  the  Safety  of  Maritime  Navigation  to  exercise
jurisdiction  in  cases where  the judicial  authorities of  the Netherlands
cannot exercise jurisdiction on  any of the  grounds referred to in  article
3,  paragraph 1,  of the  Protocol, the  Government  of  the Kingdom  of the
Netherlands  reserves the right  to be  bound to  exercise such jurisdiction
only after the Kingdom  has received and rejected a request for  extradition
from a State Party".

(8)Reservation to the effect that  Turkey does not consider  itself bound by
all of the provisions of article 16, paragraph 1 of the Convention.

(9)The  instrument  of   ratification  was  accompanied  by  the   following
declaration:

"...  that   until  consultations   with  various   territories  under   the
territorial sovereignty of  the United Kingdom are completed, the Convention
and Protocol will apply  in respect of the  United Kingdom of  Great Britain
and Northern Ireland only.   Consultations with the territories are in  hand
and are expected to be completed by the end of 1991."

8.  Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for
                           the Purpose of Detection, signed at Montreal on
                           1 March 1991 a/

       Date of deposit
       of instrument of
         ratification,
     acceptance, approval,
   States   Date of signature  accession or succession    Effective date

Afghanistan   1 March 1991
Argentina   1 March 1991
Belarus   1 March 1991
Belgium   1 March 1991
Belize   1 March 1991
Bolivia   1 March 1991
Brazil (1)   1 March 1991
Bulgaria  26 March 1991
Canada   1 March 1991
Chile   1 March 1991
Colombia  13 December 1991
Costa Rica   1 March 1991
Cote d'Ivoire   1 March 1991
Czech Republic (2)(3)    25 March 1993
Denmark   1 March 1991
Ecuador   1 March 1991
Eritrea     1 December 1994
Egypt   1 March 1991  19 July 1993
Finland  25 March 1993
France   1 March 1991
Gabon   1 March 1991
Germany   1 March 1991
Ghana   1 March 1991
Greece   1 March 1991
Guinea   1 March 1991
Guinea-Bissau   1 March 1991
Honduras (1)  26 March 1991
Hungary  30 October 1992  11 January 1994
Israel   1 March 1991
Jordan  17 July 1992
Kazakstan    18 May 1995
Kuwait   1 March 1991
Lebanon   1 March 1991
Madagascar   1 March 1991
Mali   1 March 1991
Malta    15 November 1994
Mauritius   1 March 1991
Mexico   1 March 1991   9 April 1992
Netherlands   2 August 1991
Nicaragua   6 October 1994
Norway (2)   1 March 1991   9 July 1992
Pakistan   1 March 1991
Peru (1)   1 March 1991
Republic of Korea   1 March 1991
Russian Federation   1 March 1991
Senegal   1 March 1991
Slovakia (2) (4)    20 March 1995
Spain (2)   5 April 1993  31 May 1994
Sweden  13 November 1992

________________________

     a/   The information concerning this Convention  is reproduced below as
furnished  on 4  July 1995  by the  secretariat of  the International  Civil
Aviation Organization.
         Date of deposit
       of instrument of
         ratification,
     acceptance, approval,                                 States   Date  of
signature   accession or succession   Effective date

Switzerland (2)   1 March 1991   3 April 1995
Togo   1 March 1991
Turkey (1)   7 May 1991  14 December 1994
Ukraine   1 March 1991
United Arab Emirates    21 December 1992
United States of America   1 March 1991
United Kingdom of Great
  Britain and Northern
  Ireland   1 March 1991
Zambia    31 May 1995


(1)Reservation:  Does not consider itself  bound by Article XI, paragraph 1,
of the Convention.

(2)Declaration,  in  accordance  with Article  XIII,  paragraph  2,  of  the
Convention, that it is a producer State.

(3)By a Note dated 8 March 1993, received  on 25 March 1993, the  Government
of   the  Czech   Republic  informed   the  International   Civil   Aviation
Organization  that,  as  a successor  State  created  as  a  result  of  the
dissolution of the Czech and Slovak  Federal Republic, it considered  itself
bound, as  at 1  January 1993, by the  Convention.  The declaration  made by
the former  Czech and  Slovak Federal  Republic in  accordance with  Article
XIII, paragraph 2, thereof  continues in force for  the Czech Republic  (see
footnote 2).

(4)By  a Note  dated  16 February  1995,  received  on  20 March  1995,  the
Government of the Slovak Republic informed the  International Civil Aviation
Organization that, as  a successor State, born  from the dissolution  of the
Czech  and Slovak  Federal Republic,  it considered  itself bound,  as  of 1
January 1993, by the  Convention.  The declaration  made by the former Czech
and Slovak  Federal Republic in accordance  with Article  XIII, paragraph 2,
thereof continues in force for the Slovak Republic (see footnote 2).


-----       


 

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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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