United Nations

A/50/370


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

6 September 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Item 107 of the provisional agenda*


             SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INCLUDING QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE
             WORLD SOCIAL SITUATION AND TO YOUTH, AGEING, DISABLED
PERSONS AND THE FAMILY

Observance of the International Year of the Family

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION ........................................1 - 23

II.  CONCLUSIONS .........................................3 - 93

III.  BACKGROUND AND OPERATIONAL MODALITIES ...............10 -155

IV.  ACTION BY INTERGOVERNMENTAL BODIES ..................16 - 276

V.  RELEVANT INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCES ..............28 - 398

VI.  ACTION AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL ........................40 -5712

VII.  MAJOR INSTRUMENTS, CAMPAIGNS AND SPECIAL INITIATIVES 58 -8016

VIII.  ACTION BY THE SECRETARIAT ...........................81 -9620

IX.  REGIONAL LEVEL ACTION ...............................97 -10224


________________________

  *  A/50/150.


95-27039 (E)   280995/...
*9527039*
CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

X.  ACTION BY THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM AND INTER-AGENCY
  COOPERATION .........................................103 - 10925

XI.  ACTION BY INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS ...........110 -11227

XII.  ACTION BY NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS ............113 -12528

XIII.  ACTION BY RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS ........126 -12933

XIV.  IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONS ...............................     13033

XV.  VOLUNTARY FUND FOR THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE
  FAMILY ..............................................131 - 13436

XVI.  SPECIFIC PROPOSALS ON THE FOLLOW-UP TO THE
  INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE FAMILY ....................135 - 13637



I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   The International Year of the Family was  observed in 1994, pursuant to
General Assembly  resolution 44/82  of 8  December 1989  and its  subsequent
resolutions  45/133  of 14  December 1990,  46/92  of 16  December 1991  and
47/237  of  20  September  1993.   In  its resolution  47/237,  the Assembly
requested the  Secretary-General to report to  it, at  its fiftieth session,
on the observance  of the Year at  the national, regional  and international
levels,  and to  submit specific  proposals on  the follow-up  to  the Year,
including a draft plan of action, if deemed appropriate.

2.   The present  report is  submitted pursuant  to that request.   It  also
responds to  the reporting required on  the activities  for an international
year, in  accordance with  General Assembly  decision 35/424  of 5  December
1980 and Economic and  Social Council resolution 1980/67  of 25 July 1980 on
guidelines for international  years and anniversaries.   The report provides
a brief  global  overview  of the  most significant  aspects  of the  Year's
observance and contains specific proposals  on its follow-up.   It is beyond
the  scope of this report even  to list fully the broad  array of activities
undertaken at different levels. Supplementary information  can be found in a
series of documentation  on the Year. In  particular, attention is drawn  to
the Secretary-General's earlier reports on the  Year (A/46/362, A/48/293 and
E/CN.5/1993/3).


II.  CONCLUSIONS

3.   The  International Year  of the  Family was  observed at  an  important
juncture in the history  of the United Nations, on  the eve of  its fiftieth
anniversary,  and formed an  integral element of  a process  of refining the
concepts and mechanisms of development and  social progress.  The observance
of the Year  served to highlight the role of families as  basic social units
and  the  need  to  pay  adequate attention  to  the  family  dimensions  in
development efforts.

4.    The  Year's  observance  has  resulted  in  a  significant  record  of
accomplishment.    These  include,  among  others:    achieving  the  Year's
immediate  goal  of  increasing awareness  of family  issues;  advancing the
subject-matter of  families in  the context  of development  and in  related
international dialogue;  an evolution and maturation  of an  approach to the
family as  an object  and  agent of  social  policy  in many  countries  and
internationally;  increased  recognition  of  the  importance of  supporting
families and of  bringing about positive changes in  the family realm as  an
integral  part  of  efforts  to  achieve  peace,  human  rights,  democracy,

sustainable  development and  social progress;  an ever  growing  conviction
that it  is in the best  interests of individuals  and societies to  promote
democratic  families  and   family-friendly  societies;  a  myriad  of   new
initiatives  and long-term activities  in support  of families  all over the
world,  particularly at the  local and  national levels;  the development or
strengthening  of  mechanisms  devoted to  family policy  and  research; the
mobilization of  a global  network of  partners; and  the recognition  that,
despite the diversity of families, many key  issues relating to families are
common across countries  and regions, and that international cooperation  on
family issues is valuable.

 5.   The success of the  Year has been  achieved, in  particular, through a
persistent effort  to focus  activities at  the national  and local  levels,
supported by selected  regional and international measures.  Also  essential
has been the consistent promotion of a functional  approach to families.   A
most  basic factor  has been  the  extensive,  and mutually  reinforcing and
complementary, efforts of the numerous partners  of the Year, as exemplified
by  157 Member  States, 34  organizations  and  specialized agencies  of the
United  Nations, several intergovernmental and  hundreds of non-governmental
organizations, research  and academic institutions,  the private sector  and
families themselves.

6.  The  concerted effort to promote the  substantive goals, as approved  by
the General  Assembly, was crucial.   It resulted  in broad  support for the
Year. Subsequently,  the Year has  been a valuable  instrument not  only for
promoting  support  for  families  as  basic  social  units,  but  also  for
advancing human rights within the family, equal rights and  responsibilities
of individual members  of families, gender equality, the role of the father,
and  protection  and   development  of  children.     It  generated  greater
understanding of the situation of families and,  at the same time, increased
sensitivity to problems  within families, including gender and  generational
inequalities, distribution of resources and violations  of human rights.   A
recurrent  conclusion  of  the  Year  has   been  the  need  for   universal
ratification  and  effective  implementation of  related  basic instruments,
such as the  Convention on the  Elimination of  All Forms of  Discrimination
against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

7.   Other  overriding priority  issues identified by  the processes  of the
Year included  supporting the societal  functions of families,  particularly
with respect to nurturing  and care, socialization,  transmission of  values
and culture,  social integration, education,  health and living  conditions;
the negative  impact  of poverty  and unemployment;  family life  education;
domestic  violence; reconciling  work and  family responsibilities; families
as units  of production and  consumption as well as  agents of environmental
protection;  assistance  to  families   in  need,  including   single-parent
families,  especially those  headed by women, refugee  families and families
in  conditions  of  war;  legislation  concerning  families;  and   national
capacities  to  address   family  issues,  including  research  and   policy
development.

8.    The Year  increased  the  understanding  of  the interrelationship  of
families to  society, including  their role  as providers  and consumers  of
services  and  agents of  development.   It  underscored  the  need  for the
formulation of  appropriate and  timely policies.   A major  outcome of  the
Year, with  a potentially  lasting impact, is  the greater awareness  of the
extent and ways in  which policy decisions affect families and the value  of
a  family-sensitive perspective  in  policy development  and implementation.
Numerous corresponding measures have already been initiated at all levels.

9.   As  a major phase in  a long-term  process of supporting families,  the
Year has  succeeded  in meeting  its  basic  objectives.   Its  achievements
should be built upon through long-term  action, including effective  follow-
up at  all  levels. Specific  proposals  in  this  regard are  contained  in
section XVI below.

 III.  BACKGROUND AND OPERATIONAL MODALITIES

10.  Whereas families had long been recognized  as basic units of  societies
in various  international conventions and  declarations, family issues  have
become  the object of  increasing attention in the  United Nations since the
early 1980s. The newly adopted international  plans and programmes of action
in the social policy and  development area called for increased attention to
family dimensions. Since its twenty-eighth session  in 1983, the  Commission
for Social  Development and, subsequently, the  Economic and Social  Council
regularly  considered family  issues and adopted several  resolutions on the
subject, which, inter  alia, called  for enhancing awareness among  decision
makers and the public of family issues and ways of addressing them.

11.   The General Conference of  the United  Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural  Organization (UNESCO),  at its twenty-fourth session  in 1987,
adopted  a resolution in  which it approved the  principle of proclaiming an
international year  of  the  family.    The  Interregional  Consultation  on
Developmental  Social  Welfare Policies  and  Programmes,  convened  by  the
United Nations in 1987, covered family  issues extensively and stressed  the
importance  of  addressing  them  adequately.    Throughout  the  1980s,  an
increasingly   large   number  of   Member   States   and   non-governmental
organizations began  to focus  attention on  the family and  called for  the
proclamation of an international year of the family.

12.    Consequently,  at  its  forty-second  and  forty-third sessions,  the
General Assembly  adopted resolutions 42/134 and  43/135 of  7 December 1987
and 8 December  1988, respectively, entitled "Need to enhance  international
cooperation in  the  field of  protection  and  assistance to  the  family".
Having  considered the  Secretary-General's reports  (A/43/570 and A/44/407)
mandated  by those resolutions,  the Assembly,  on 8  December 1989, adopted
resolution 44/82,  in which it proclaimed 1994 as the  International Year of
the Family, with the  theme:  "Family:  resources and responsibilities in  a
changing world".

13.    In that  resolution,  the  General  Assembly decided  that  the major
activities  for the observance  of the  Year should  be concentrated  at the
local, regional and national  levels and assisted by the United Nations  and
its system  of organizations,  with a  view to  creating among  Governments,
policy  makers and  the public  a greater  awareness  of  the family  as the
natural and  fundamental  unit  of  society.    It also  endorsed  the  main
recommendations, objectives and  principles for the observance of the  Year,
as contained  in the  Secretary-General's report  (A/44/407).   Accordingly,
the  Year's   objective  has   been   to  stimulate   local,  national   and
international actions to:   increase awareness, understanding and  knowledge
of family issues and processes affecting  families; focus attention upon the
rights   and  responsibilities   of  family  members;   strengthen  national
institutions  and stimulate  efforts to  address family  issues; enhance the
effectiveness  of relevant  local, regional  and national  efforts;  improve
national  and international  collaboration; and  build upon  the  results of
various international activities.

14.    The  principles  established  to  guide  the  Year's  preparation and
observance stipulated that the family constitutes  the basic unit of society
and  therefore warrants  special  attention; that  families  assume  diverse
forms and  functions among and  within countries; that the  Year should seek
to promote the basic human rights  and fundamental freedoms of  individuals;
that it should  foster equality between  women and  men within families  and
bring  about fuller  sharing  of domestic  responsibilities  and  employment
opportunities; that it  should give expression to an integrated  perspective
of families,  their  members, community  and  society;  and that  it  should
constitute an event within a continuing process.

15.  The General Assembly designated  the Commission for Social  Development
as  the preparatory  body  and  the  Economic  and  Social  Council  as  the
coordinating body for the Year.

IV.  ACTION BY INTERGOVERNMENTAL BODIES

A.  General Assembly

16.  Review of  the preparatory process.  Subsequent to the proclamation  of
the  International Year of  the Family,  the General  Assembly continued its
consideration of the Year's  preparations and observance at its forty-fifth,
forty-sixth  and  forty-seventh  sessions  and  adopted resolutions  45/133,
46/92 and 47/237, respectively.

17.   Official launching  of the  Year.  One  plenary meeting at  the forty-
eighth session of the General Assembly, on 7  December 1993, was devoted  to
a  formal launching  of the  Year,  in  accordance with  Assembly resolution
47/237.   The meeting was addressed  by the President  of the Assembly,  the
Secretary-General and a  representative of the host  country, as well as  by
representatives of the countries  that hosted the  four regional preparatory
meetings for the Year.  A  brief segment for non-governmental  organizations
was also held.

18.   International Conference on  Families.  In its  resolution 47/237, the
General  Assembly further  decided to  devote  two  plenary meetings  at its
fortyninth session,  in 1994, to the  implementation of the follow-up to the
Year  and to  designate those  meetings  as  an international  conference on
families, which  should take  place at  an appropriate global  policy-making
level.   Pursuant to that decision,  the Assembly met  on 18  and 19 October
1994, in four plenary meetings, as  an International Conference on Families.
Following statements  by  the President  of  the  General Assembly  and  the
Secretary-General,  45 delegations took the floor, including those who spoke
on behalf  of the  European Union,  the Nordic  countries and  the Group  of
Latin  American and  Caribbean States.    Twenty  of these  delegations were
represented at the  ministerial level or  equivalent.  A  brief segment  for
non-governmental organizations  also took place as  part of the  Conference.
The Conference  marked the first time  that the General Assembly devoted its
plenary meetings exclusively to  a discussion of  the topic of families.   A
brief summary of  its discussions is contained in  a note by the  Secretary-
General. 1/


B.  Economic and Social Council

19.   At  its regular  sessions of  1991, 1993  and 1995,  the  Economic and
Social  Council,   the  coordinating   body  for  the  Year,   reviewed  the
recommendations of the preparatory body and approved its draft resolutions.
  C.  Commission for Social Development

20.  The  Commission for Social  Development, the  preparatory body for  the
Year, reviewed  the  Year's  preparation, observance  and follow-up  at  its
thirty-second,  thirty-third and  thirty-fourth sessions.   At  its  thirty-
second session,  it  examined a  draft  programme  for the  preparation  and
observance of  the Year, contained in  the report  of the Secretary-General,
2/ and recommended to the  General Assembly, through the Economic and Social
Council,  the  adoption  of  draft  resolution  III.    At  its thirty-third
session, it reviewed  the state of preparations for  the Year, on the  basis
of the  report of the  SecretaryGeneral, 3/ and  recommended to the  General
Assembly,  through the Economic  and Social  Council, the  adoption of draft
resolution VI.  At its thirty-fourth session, it considered the note of  the
Secretary-General  on  the current  status  of  implementation  of  Assembly
resolution  47/237 on  the Year  4/  and  adopted resolution  34/3, entitled
"Follow-up to the International Year of the Family".


D.  Commission on the Status of Women

21.   The Commission  on the  Status of Women, at  its thirty-sixth session,
adopted resolution 36/1, entitled "Advancement of  women and the family", in
which it  recommended to the Commission  for Social Development that it take

account  of a number of elements  when preparing for  the Year.  Pursuant to
the request of the General Assembly  contained in its resolution  46/92, the
text of  draft  resolution VI  of  the  Commission for  Social  Development,
entitled  "International Year  of the  Family",  was  made available  to the
Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-seventh session.


E.  Human Rights Committee

22.   At  its thirty-ninth  session,  in 1990,  the Human  Rights  Committee
adopted   general  comment  19   (39),  relating   to  article   23  of  the
International  Covenant on Civil  and Political  Rights.  Article  23 of the
Covenant  recognizes that the  family is  the natural  and fundamental group
unit of society and is entitled  to protection by society and the State.  In
its general comment,  the Committee noted, inter  alia, that the concept  of
the family might  differ in some respects from State to State, and even from
region to region within a State, and that  it was therefore not possible  to
give the concept a standard definition.   The Committee emphasized, however,
that when a group of  persons was regarded as a family under the legislation
and practice  of a State,  it must be  given the  protection referred  to in
article 23.


                F.  Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
                    against Women

23.   The  Committee on  the  Elimination  of Discrimination  against  Women
considered  the  International  Year  of  the  Family  at  its  eleventh  to
thirteenth sessions.  At its  twelfth session, the Committee  was briefed by
the Coordinator for  the Year.  Pursuant to  its earlier  decision that  its
contribution to the  Year would be  a general recommendation  on article  16
and related articles 9 and  15 of the  Convention on the Elimination of  All
Forms of  Discrimination  against Women,  the Committee,  at its  thirteenth
session, adopted General Recommendation No. 21  on equality in marriage  and
family relations.


G.  Committee on the Rights of the Child

24.  At its  seventh session, in 1994,  the Committee on the  Rights of  the
Child held a  general discussion on the role of the family  in the promotion
of  the rights  of the  child.  The  Coordinator for the  Year addressed the
Committee.


H.  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

25.    At its  forty-seventh  session,  in 1991,  the  Economic  and  Social
Commission  for  Asia  and the  Pacific  (ESCAP)  adopted  resolution 47/13,
entitled  "International Year  of the  Family".    The Commission  urged all
members and  associate members to take  prompt action  to establish national
coordinating mechanisms for the  Year, and requested the Executive Secretary
of the  Commission to  undertake several  specific  measures, including  the
convening  of  a regional  intergovernmental  preparatory  meeting  and  the
initiation  of a  series of  country studies  on the  role of the  family in
development.


I.  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

26.  At its  sixteenth session, in 1992,  the Economic and Social Commission
for   Western  Asia   (ESCWA)  adopted   resolution  189   (XVI),   entitled
"Preparation for  the International  Year of  the Family".   The  Commission
appealed  to its  member States  to exert  all possible  efforts  to promote
awareness  of the  role of the  family as a  fundamental unit of  society in
furthering economic and social development in the region.


J.  World Health Assembly

27.   The  World Health  Assembly,  at its  forty-sixth session,  adopted  a
resolution on the  International Year of the Family,  in which it urged  all
Member States  to give effect  to the  objectives of the Year  in the health
sector and  urged the Director-General of  the World  Health Organization to
take several specific measures.


V.  RELEVANT INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCES

28.    The observance  of the  Year coincided  with, and  formed part  of, a
process  of  refining  the  basic  concepts  of  development.    The  global
conferences of the 1990s provided vital  conceptual and policy direction  in
this regard.  Peace, economy, the  environment, social justice and democracy
are now viewed  as integral components of development.   At their centre  is
the  human person.   Families, as  agents and  beneficiaries of development,
and as basic social units capable of  promoting democratic, just and  stable
societies, provide  for a human-centred link  among the  various elements of
development, particularly in its social  dimension.  The  International Year
of the  Family served  to highlight this  important social component  of the
global  initiatives in  pursuit  of peoplecentred  sustainable  development.
Its  preparations   and  observances  were   guided  by  that   perspective.
Conversely,  family   issues  were   extensively  covered   by  the   global
conferences and the agendas, plans and  programmes of action emanating  from
them.


A.  World Summit for Children

29.   The World  Summit for Children  adopted the World  Declaration on  the
Survival, Protection  and Development of Children and the Plan of Action for
implementing the Declaration in  the 1990s.  The Declaration and the Plan of
Action enunciate  the importance of the  family as the  fundamental group of
society and  the natural environment  for the growth  and well-being  of all
its  members, particularly  children.  The Declaration  calls for protection
and  assistance to  families, and giving  children the chance  to find their
identity  and realize  their worth  in  a  safe and  supportive environment,
through families  and other  care-givers committed  to their  welfare.   The
Plan  of Action recognizes  that the  family has  the primary responsibility
for the  nurturing and protection of  children from  infancy to adolescence,
and that introduction of  children to the culture, values and norms of their
society begins  in the family.   It calls  for respect and  support for  the
efforts of parents and  other care-givers to  nurture and care for  children
in a family environment.   It further encourages  families to play an active
role  in support  of the  goals of  the Plan  of Action  and  calls  for the
marshalling of all  forms of social mobilization  to convey to all  families
the knowledge and skills required for improving the situation of children.


B.  United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

30.   The United  Nations Conference  on Environment  and Development served
notice  that  environment permeates  all aspects  of  development; that  for
sustainable  development  to   succeed,  it  must  become  the  concern  and
commitment  of all  segments of  society,  including  families; and  that in
order to secure the future of the planet,  all actors, including households,
must change the  way they behave.   In addressing unsustainable patterns  of
consumption, Agenda  21, adopted  by the  Conference, stressed  the role  of
households as consumers.  In the  context of addressing demographic dynamics
and  sustainability,  it made  a  number  of  proposals  relating to  family
welfare, family credit schemes, the responsible  planning of family size and
responsible parenthood.

C.  World Conference on Human Rights

31.   The World Conference  on Human Rights  and the  Vienna Declaration and
Programme of Action adopted  by the Conference stress the need to ensure the
protection of  individual's rights  in the context  of family  relationships
and  to  address  discrimination,  the  denial  of  equal  rights  of family
members,  particularly women,  domestic  violence  and abuse  or neglect  of
children.  The Conference also pointed out  the positive role that  families
could play in promoting respect for and the  learning and exercise of  basic
human rights, and thereby the actual enjoyment of those rights.


D.  International Conference on Population and Development

32.   The International  Conference on Population and  Development addressed
family  issues extensively.  Principle  9 of the Programme of Action adopted
by  the Conference states that:   "The family  is the  basic unit of society
and   as  such  should  be   strengthened.    It   is  entitled  to  receive
comprehensive  protection and support.  In different cultural, political and
social  systems,  various forms  of  the family  exist.    Marriage  must be
entered into  with the free  consent of the  intending spouses, and  husband
and wife should be equal partners." 5/

33.   The Programme contains  a chapter on  "The family,  its roles, rights,
composition and  structure", wherein objectives  and actions are  identified
regarding the  diversity of  family structure  and  composition, and  socio-
economic support to the  family.  The objectives  are:  to  develop policies
and laws that  better support  the family, contribute  to its stability  and
take into  account its plurality of  forms, particularly  the growing number
of  single-parent  families; to  establish  social  security  measures  that
address  the social,  cultural and  economic factors  behind  the increasing
costs  of child-rearing;  to  promote  equality of  opportunity  for  family
members, especially the rights of women and children  in the family; and  to
ensure  that  all  social   and  economic  development  policies  are  fully
responsive to the diverse and changing needs and the rights of families  and
their  individual members,  and provide  necessary support  and  protection,
particularly to the most vulnerable families  and the most vulnerable family
members.  Several actions are recommended to achieve these objectives.

34.  The Programme's chapter  on "Gender equality, equity and empowerment of
women" identifies objectives and actions of  direct relevance to the family,
such  as  those  related  to  improving  women's  access  to  employment and
educational  opportunities,  eliminating  discriminatory  practices  against
women, enabling women to combine the  roles of child bearing, breast-feeding
and child rearing with participation in the workforce, eliminating  violence
against  women, equal treatment  of girls  and boys,  equal participation of
women  and men in all areas of family  and household responsibilities, men's
shared responsibility and active involvement in responsible parenthood,  and
child-support laws.


E.  World Summit for Social Development

35.    Family  issues  were  addressed  by  the  World  Summit  for   Social
Development  and  are incorporated  in the  Copenhagen  Declaration and  the
Programme of Action, 6/ adopted by the Summit.

36.   The  Copenhagen Declaration  on Social  Development  acknowledges that
"societies  must respond  more effectively  to  the material  and  spiritual
needs  of individuals,  their families  and  the  communities in  which they
live".   It  states  that "the  goals and  objectives of  social development
require continuous efforts to reduce and  eliminate major sources of  social
distress   and  instability  for   the  family   and  for   society".    The
Declaration's principles and goals "recognize the  family as the basic  unit
of society and  acknowledge that it plays a  key role in social  development
and  as  such  should  be  strengthened,   with  attention  to  the  rights,

capabilities  and responsibilities  of its members.   In different cultural,
political and social systems various forms of family exist.  It is  entitled
to receive comprehensive protection  and support".  In  commitment 4 of  the
Declaration,  Summit participants resolved  to "strengthen institutions that
enhance social integration, recognizing the central  role of the family  and
providing it with an environment that  assures its protection and  support".
In commitment 5 they resolved to  "promote changes in attitudes, structures,
policies, laws and  practices in order to  eliminate all obstacles  to human
dignity, equality and  equity in the  family and in  society," and  "promote
equal partnership  between women and  men in family  and community life  and
society, emphasize  the shared responsibility  of men and women  in the care
of children  and  support for  older  family  members, and  emphasize  men's
shared responsibility  and promote their  active involvement in  responsible
parenthood and responsible sexual and reproductive behaviour". 7/

37.    In accordance  with  the principles,  goals  and commitments  of  the
Copenhagen Declaration as well as those  of the International Conference  on
Population and Development, the Programme  of Action of the World Summit for
Social  Development  contains  numerous  specific   elements  regarding  the
family,  as they relate,  inter alia,  to promoting  an enabling environment
based on a  people-centred approach to sustainable development,  eradication
of  poverty,  expansion  of  productive  employment  and  the  reduction  of
unemployment,  and social  integration.  In particular,  social  integration
should involve  encouraging social  and economic policies that  are designed
to  meet the needs of families and their  individual members, especially the
most disadvantaged and vulnerable members, with  particular attention to the
care of  children; ensuring opportunities for  family members to  understand
and meet their social responsibilities; promoting mutual respect,  tolerance
and cooperation  within the family and  within society;  and promoting equal
partnership between women and men in the family.


            F.  Fourth World Conference on Women:  Action for Equality,
                Development and Peace

38.   The  draft Platform  of Action  considered  by  the Commission  on the
Status of  Women for transmission  to the Fourth  World Conference on  Women
reflected family  aspects as they relate  to gender  perspectives in people-
oriented development and advancement of women.   The draft Platform  defined
five strategic goals  to deal with  critical areas  of concern.  One  of the
key goals is to "inspire a new generation of women and  men working together
for equality".   Other areas of concern are the growing burden of poverty on
women, inequality  in  access  to  education and  health,  violence  against
women,  effects  of  armed  conflicts  on  women,  inequality  in  access to
economic  structures  and resources  and  decisionmaking  processes  at  all
levels, women's human rights, stereotyping of  women in the mass  media, and
women and  the  environment.   All these  areas  have  special relevance  to
equality in the family.


              G.  Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements
                 (Habitat II)

39.  Two main  themes identified by the  preparatory process for  the Second
United  Nations Conference  on Human  Settlements (Habitat II)  are adequate
shelter for  all and sustainable human  settlements in  an urbanizing world.
These are  crucial to the situation  of families.  It  is expected that  the
global plan of action  to be adopted by the Conference will contain specific
provisions relating  to families.   Also,  the informal  drafting group  has
proposed that the statement of principles  should make specific reference to
families.


VI.  ACTION AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL

40.   Measures were taken in  157 countries for  the observance of the Year,

according  to the latest  information available  to the  secretariat for the
Year.

41.    In  order  to  promote  effective  national  action,  three  specific
organizational  measures  were suggested  to  Governments:    designating  a
national focal  point; establishing a  national coordination mechanism;  and
formulating a national programme of action to observe the Year.   In most of
the  countries  that  took  action  for   the  Year,  all  three   suggested
organizational  measures  were taken,  while  others  undertook  the  Year's
observances  within   the  context   of  relevant   existing  policies   and
programmes.

42.   The extensive  and varying  measures taken have been  described in the
two editions of the Inventory of National Action.   Pertinent information is
also  contained  in  the Secretary-General's  earlier  reports  on the  Year
(A/46/362,  A/48/293 and  E/CN.5/1993/3).    A brief  analysis is  presented
below of the  salient features of national  action, centred around the three
major   organizational   measures   undertaken,   the  national   priorities
identified and  corresponding programme  and policy  initiatives to  address
them, as well as a preliminary assessment of the impact of the Year.

43.  The national focal points for  the Year served as an invaluable conduit
for information and inquiries, facilitated contact with the secretariat  for
the  Year,  performed diverse  other  functions  and  served  as members  of
national  coordination mechanisms.   In particular,  in the  early phases of
the preparations for  the Year, they functioned  as an important medium  for
information  sharing  and for  establishing  arrangements  at  the  national
level.

44.  National coordination mechanisms for  the Year were mostly  established
by  the Head of  State or  Government, or through parliamentary  action.  In
many instances  they were headed  by or  under the patronage of  the Head of
State or Government, or the first lady of  the country; were established  at
the  senior  governmental   level;  and  often  involved  several   national
ministries, with the ministry or authority  devoted to family issues,  where
it  existed, usually assuming  the lead  role.   They generally  enjoyed the
active  participation   and  support   of  non-governmental   organizations,
research  institutions,   the  academic   community,  the   private  sector,
religious groups, the  media and prominent personalities.   Country/regional
offices of the organizations and  agencies of the United Nations system were
also often  requested to participate.   In some  countries, the coordination
mechanism had  a two-tiered structure  consisting of a higher-level honorary
committee,  broadly  representative of  the  society,  and  a  working-level
committee  for implementation.    In many  instances  national  coordinating
bodies  established  working  groups  on  sectoral  issues  or  programmatic
priorities.  In several countries, coordination  structures were also set up
at sub-national  levels.    Local authorities  undertook activities  at  the
community and municipal levels, thus  extending the network  of coordinating
structures.

45.   The functions  of national  mechanisms routinely involved  elaborating
and implementing a  national plan; disseminating information; achieving  the
involvement  of all sectors  of the  society; undertaking  measures to raise
public awareness of family issues and promoting appreciation of the role  of
families; and identifying priority issues and  concrete actions.  In several
instances  their  functions   have  been  prolonged   beyond  the  Year  and
institutionalized, as either special ministries or similar bodies.

46.   National plans or programmes  for the observance  of the Year  usually
included the following main features:   (a) a research component,  involving
activities  such as  specific studies,  surveys, national  reports,  special
publications, expert  meetings, funding  for research, publicizing  existing
research resources  and refinement  of data  in official  statistics; (b)  a
legislative  component,   involving   review,   reform  and   enactment   of
legislation;  publicizing  provisions  related  to  families;  and   special
parliamentary and other debates; (c)  support for local  initiatives through

facilitative  services; (d) specific measures for special needs groups, such
as information  materials  in Braille  and  audiotape  form or  in  minority
languages; (e) a private-sector  component, involving resource mobilization;
publicizing  existing  corporate  policies  benefiting  families;  promoting
policy-building on issues  relating to family and work; promoting  corporate
plans for  observance of  the Year;  and use  of private-sector  information
services to  disseminate information; (f)  public education components;  (g)
promotional   and   awareness-raising  components,   incorporating  numerous
elements such  as extensive activities to  observe the  International Day of
Families, posters and  information material based on  the logo of the  Year,
campaign  mottos  or  themes,  special  media  events,  concerts,   sporting
competitions, observances of family days  or weeks, special  postage stamps,
commemorative   coins,  publications,   contests,   artistic   exhibits  and
competitions,  folkloric  demonstrations,  support  of  public  figures   or
celebrities, special theme songs, including the  official theme song for the
Year,  public  announcements from  the  Head  of  State  or Government,  and
opening  and  closing events  for  the  Year;  (h) professional  development
aspects, often  geared to groups  with a  direct helping role  for families;
and  (i) a policy  component, involving policy reviews, publicizing existing
policies and  programmes, establishing mechanisms for greater inter-sectoral
collaboration, identification  of policy "gaps",  adoption of new  policies,
bilateral  assistance and  international sharing  of experiences  on  policy
issues, etc.

47.  National priorities established for  the Year included those associated
with:   employment  of family  members;  reconciliation  of work  and family
responsibilities; family,  maternity and paternity leave; domestic violence;
gender  equality  in  families  and  before  the  law;  demographic  change;
displaced  persons and  refugees; family  reunification; migration; poverty;
child care; family-based foster care; adoption; street children;  children's
rights  in the  family and  in  society;  exploitation of  children; breast-
feeding,  maternal and  child  health and  mortality;  fertility;  abortion;
adolescent  pregnancy;   family  life   education;  responsible  parenthood;
parenting skills;  the role of men in  families and the role of fathers; the
girl child; impact  and use of  media; numerous  issues related to  marriage
and  divorce;  families  as  sources  of  joy,  security,  love  and caring;
changing  family forms, notably  the growing number of single-parent female-
headed  households;  disability;  socialization  and  social  integration of
youth;  intergenerational relations and  issues; rights and responsibilities
of and  in families; education within  and supported  by families; democracy
and   tolerance;   literacy,   particularly  of   women;   immunization  and
preventative  public  health; family  health  care;  nutrition;  safe  water
supply;  housing and shelter  issues; unpaid  domestic work; rural families;
families  as   micro-support  units;  rural   development  and   subsistence
agriculture;  family-based  enterprise;  consumption  practices; erosion  of
family ties  and weakening  of familial  support systems;  ethics and  moral
education  in families;  transmission  of values,  culture  and  traditions;
juvenile crime; prisoners; drug abuse;  HIV/AIDS prevention and care; social
security;  environmental protection;  recreation;  families  in transitional
economies; large families; issues related to multicultural and  multilingual
families; ethnic minority families; families in conditions of war; etc.

48.  Approaches  to address these  priority issues  included correspondingly
diverse programme  initiatives:   introduction of income  supports, such  as
parenting  allowance and home  child-care allowance; tax and credit reliefs;
elaboration of training courses  for families or  family members on a  broad
range of issues; family mediation services; numerous initiatives  concerning
balancing work and  family responsibilities; employee assistance  programmes
and parental  leave schemes;  counselling centres  and employment  agencies;
integrated  professional   centres  providing   comprehensive  services   to
multiple-need,    at-risk    families;   outreach    programmes,   including
decentralization of  services for families;  support for preschool  children
of  low-income  families; earlyintervention  programmes  for  child  health,
domestic  violence and  other  issues; national  prevention  strategies  for
child abuse  and neglect; crisis centres  for victims  of domestic violence;
establishment of schools,  housing facilities, feeding programmes and  other

services  for street  children and abandoned children;  training and support
programmes  for family-based  carers;  family reunification  programmes  for
displaced,   refugee  or   migrating   persons;   training  of   health-care
professionals;   food  and   medicine   distribution   programmes;  prenatal
nutrition  programmes;  introduction   of  family  studies  in  the   school
curriculum;   teacher   sensitization   training;   programmes  to   promote
educational  roles  of   parents;  early  childhood  and  family   education
programmes; family court systems; family consultation  and other services in
criminal justice  systems; training  programmes for  juvenile court  judges;
funding programmes  for communitybased projects  and services for  families;
construction of housing units; lowincome housing strategies; initiatives  to
strengthen families as units of production and self-sufficiency;  programmes
for  substance-abusing parents  and others  dealing with  addicts  and their
families; parenting  skills  projects and  services;  etc.   Most  of  these
initiatives have been intended to become part of ongoing programmes.

 49.   Attention  was  also focused  on policy  issues  as they  related  to
families in  the national context  and resulted in  a broad  array of policy
initiatives.   These included  or addressed:   large-scale  decentralization
initiatives,  introducing   new  frameworks   for  policy  development   and
implementation; entitlements  and leave  provisions enabling  parents to  be
more  active  in  children's  education;  mechanisms  to   permit  a  fuller
reconciliation  of employment  and family  responsibilities; incentives  for
the greater  involvement of men in domestic responsibilities; mechanisms and
responsibilities for  the protection  of children  in families;  support for
families  with children;  national  plans to  eradicate  domestic  violence;
efforts to eliminate  occupational and income discrimination against  women;
paternity, maternity  and family leave  policies; numerous tax-system  based
provisions or  reforms;  removing  gender bias  from policies  dealing  with
family  issues;  gender  equality  in   respect  of  marital   property  and
responsibilities  in  alimony;  building  mediation  processes  into  formal
divorce  proceedings;  inclusion  of a  family  focus  in  small  enterprise
development strategies; establishing  equality or  equity between  different
family  types, notably  in respect  of  access  to programmes,  benefits and
services;  programmes  that increase  and  foster  the  self-sufficiency  of
families  and their capacity  to contribute  to personal  development and to
communities; affirmative action programmes for vulnerable family members  or
families in need,  such as singleparent  families; assistance programmes for
families in poverty; etc.

50.  In several  countries, an outcome of  the Year was  the development  of
policy discussion papers  and specific recommendations for consideration  by
national Governments.  Many  new policy developments or refinements included
an assessment of policies for their  congruence with internationally adopted
standards or  initiatives.  Policy recognition  and support  of families was
also  introduced or strengthened in existing broad national strategies, such
as multi-year development plans.

51.   In  many countries  the Year  was seen  as an  opportunity to  update,
refine or  develop legislation concerning families  and on  a broad spectrum
of familyrelated priority issues.   In particular, it served  as an occasion
to  identify   legislative  and   other  measures   required  to   implement
international conventions,  notably  the Convention  on  the  Rights of  the
Child and the Convention  on the Elimination of All Forms of  Discrimination
against Women.

52.  The  Year had an important impact  on the structure and functioning  of
institutions whose  work related to families,  by serving  as an opportunity
to  set up  or strengthen  them and  establish or  expand services.    These
included national research  institutions devoted to family issues;  national
observatories on family  policies; ministries  with a mandate  for a new  or
existing family policy; and working  groups or special task forces on family
issues.

53.   National  measures  for the  observance  of the  Year  also  contained
provisions  for international  cooperation  and experience  sharing.    This

included  bilateral  cooperation  and  development  assistance  as  well  as
national initiatives  to promote regional  and international cooperation  on
family issues,  some of which  are listed in  section VII  below.  Proposals
have  also been made  for a  centre on  family studies,  by the  Republic of
Korea; and for observatories on family  policy issues in the  Mediterranean,
by Malta, and in the Maghreb, by Tunisia.

 54.  National measures for the Year have been successful in raising  public
awareness of family  issues, including increased knowledge of the  economic,
social,  demographic, cultural  and  other factors  affecting  families  and
their  members.  Major  factors that  contributed to  this outcome included:
explicit recognition of awareness-raising as a  national goal for the  Year;
broad dissemination of information; promotion of research  on family issues;
concerted efforts  to  focus on  key  issues  that were  identified  through
public  discussions,  which   were  complementary  to  national  development
objectives; a process of extensive consultations; and intensive  involvement
and interest  at the grassroots level  in the  underlying substantive issues
and  their relevance  to diverse  professional  and  other groups.   Several
countries  reported hundreds of events, projects and initiatives, with broad
popular participation.

55.  Among the  most common concerns  addressed in  the context of the  Year
was the  relationship between work and  family life.   The double burden  of
domestic and paid work  by women was a major issue.  In developed countries,
emphasis was  placed  on the  roles  and  responsibilities of  employers  in
achieving a balance between work and family life, as well as on  the role of
men, particularly  fathers, in  family responsibilities  and domestic  work.
Promoting gender equality  in society and in  family life was another common
basic concern.  Related specific issues included  the situation  of the girl
child;  access  of  women  to  education,  training  and  services; property
rights; domestic violence; women's legal protection concerning marriage  and
divorce; and increasing  numbers of single-parent families headed by  women.
The need  for continuing efforts to  promote gender equality in families and
the role that families  can play in achieving gender equality in the greater
society was widely recognized.

56.   National  observances  of the  Year  were mostly  organized  around  a
functionalist perspective on  families, focusing on  their real or potential
contributions  to development  and on  the  problems  within or  external to
families which  undermined constructive family  functioning.  This  approach
generally  proved very useful  as a basis  for consensus  building and joint
action, although a  number of issues  still remained divisive.   A  critical
outcome of  the Year  at the  national level  was the recognition  that much
existing policy and practice could be improved.

57.  The intense involvement of  the non-governmental sector at the national
level was perceived as  an important element for  the successful outcome  of
the Year.


VII.  MAJOR INSTRUMENTS, CAMPAIGNS AND SPECIAL INITIATIVES

58.   In  addition to  measures  already  described, numerous  other special
initiatives, campaigns and projects for the  Year were undertaken by several
actors.    To  the extent  possible,  these are  mentioned  in the  relevant
publications of  the secretariat  for the  Year, including  the calendar  of
events.   The   secretariat   played   a   catalytic,  facilitative   and/or
implementing role  for many  of them.   Some  of the  major initiatives  and
projects are briefly described below.

 59.  Official emblem.  An official emblem for the Year was  chosen in 1990.
Guidelines  on its  use, in  the  six  official languages,  and camera-ready
copies were widely distributed.

60.  Booklet on the Year.  A booklet on the Year, containing detailed  basic
information on its substantive and  organizational aspects, was published as

early  as  1990  in  English,  and   subsequently  in  French  and  Spanish.
Approximately 110,000 copies  were distributed.   The booklet was translated
into the national languages in several countries.

61.  Theme  song.  A  theme song for  the Year, entitled  "The family",  was
selected in  1992.  Its  lyrics and music  were widely  distributed; its use
was promoted and national language versions were sung in several countries.

62.  "Testimonials of IYF patrons".  As a means of promoting action for  the
Year  and recognizing  outstanding  contributions,  testimonials designating
their recipients as the Year's patrons  were established by the  Coordinator
for the  Year in  1992.   Since  then,  almost  500 testimonials  have  been
awarded  to individuals,  governmental  institutions,  national coordinating
committees,  intergovernmental  and voluntary  organizations,  research  and
academic institutions, and private firms from around the world.

63.   Bulletin  on  the  Year.   The  secretariat for  the  Year  published,
quarterly, "The family:  bulletin  on the International Year of the Family",
in English, French and Spanish;  its 18 issues between 1991  and 1995 had an
average distribution of 12,000 copies each.

64.  IYF Occasional  Papers Series.  In  1992, the secretariat initiated the
IYF Occasional  Papers Series, as a  vehicle for reportage  on the state  of
current  thinking  on  some  of  the  pivotal  issues  concerning  families.
Seventeen issues  have  been published  in  English,  and three  issues  are
scheduled for  publication in  1995.   An average  of 3,000  copies of  each
issue were distributed.

65.  "First Ladies for the  Family".  In 1991, the  then First Lady of Costa
Rica,  Madame Gloria  de Calderon-Fournier,  launched  a campaign  among the
First Ladies of the world to support the Year, with the theme "First  Ladies
for the  Family". As  part of this  campaign, in September  1993, the  First
Ladies of  Latin America and the  Caribbean adopted the Declaration of Costa
Rica in support of the Year.

66.   "North Americans  for IYF".   "North Americans  for IYF"  has been  an
ongoing  regional voluntary  initiative in  support  of  the Year,  begun in
early 1992 and  organized in cooperation with the  San Diego Chapter of  the
United Nations Association  of the United States of America.  The initiative
continues to  carry  out a  major  information  campaign focusing  on  local
activities  and   strengthening   networks  of   people  and   organizations
interested in family issues.

67.   Ad hoc  inter-agency meetings  on the  Year.   In order  to achieve  a
harmonized  and coordinated  approach and  action by  the organizations  and
agencies of the United Nations system,  ad hoc inter-agency meetings  on the
Year were instituted  by the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC).
These meetings were organized annually from 1991 to 1995.

 68.   Regional  and interregional  preparatory meetings  for the Year.   In
order to  provide impetus  and support  for national  and local  activities,
four regional and interregional preparatory meetings  for the Year were held
in 1993, attended  by representatives of a total  of 110 countries, some  of
which attended more than one meeting:

  (a)  United Nations  Africa and Western  Asia Preparatory Meeting for  the
International Year  of the Family,  held from 29  March to 2  April 1993  at
Tunis, organized  by the secretariat  for the Year  in cooperation  with the
Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and  the Economic and Social Commission
for Western Asia (ESCWA), at the invitation of the Government of Tunisia;

  (b)  United Nations Europe  and North America Preparatory  Meeting for the
International  Year  of  the Family,  held  from  26  to  30  April 1993  at
Valletta, organized by the secretariat for the Year in  cooperation with the
Economic Commission  for Europe (ECE), at  the invitation  of the Government
of Malta;

  (c)    United  Nations  Asia  and  Pacific  Preparatory  Meeting  for  the
International  Year of the Family, held  from 24 to 28 May  1993 at Beijing,
organized by  the Economic and  Social Commission for  Asia and  the Pacific
(ESCAP) in cooperation with the secretariat for the Year, at the  invitation
of the Government of the People's Republic of China;

  (d)   United Nations Latin America  and Caribbean  Preparatory Meeting for
the International  Year of  the Family,  held from  9 to 13  August 1993  at
Cartagena de Indias, organized by the  Economic Commission for Latin America
and the Caribbean (ECLAC) in cooperation with the secretariat for the  Year,
at the invitation of the Government of Colombia.

69.  The meetings adopted specific recommendations  and political statements
of  support  for  the  Year:    the  Declaration   of  Tunis,  the  Valletta
Declaration, the Beijing Declaration on the Family in Asia and the  Pacific,
and  the  Cartagena  Declaration,  respectively.    Further  details on  the
meetings are contained  in the Secretary-General's report on the Year to the
General Assembly at its fortyeighth session (A/48/293).

70.   World Non-Governmental  Organizations Forum  Launching the  Year.  The
World Non-Governmental Organizations Forum Launching the International  Year
of the  Family was held  from 28  November to  2 December 1993  at Valletta,
with  the theme "Promoting  families for  the well-being  of individuals and
societies".    It  was  organized  by  the  Non-Governmental   Organizations
Committee  on  the  Family  at  Vienna,   in  cooperation  with  other  non-
governmental  organization (NGO)  committees  and the  secretariat  for  the
Year, at the invitation  of the Government of  Malta. Attended by  more than
1,000 participants from  over 100  countries, the Forum  was the first  such
gathering of NGOs working on  family issues.  It highlighted the involvement
of the NGOs in the  Year and provided a unique impetus for local action  all
over  the  world,  especially  by  providing  a   platform  for  networking,
information exchange  and fostering  ideas.   The Forum  endorsed the  Malta
Statement of the World NGO Forum.

71.  International Day  of Families.  In its resolution 47/237, the  General
Assembly decided that,  beginning in 1994,  15 May  of every  year shall  be
observed as  the International  Day of Families.   The  secretariat for  the
Year promoted  the observance of the  Day in 1994  and 1995 and  distributed
suggestions for activities.  In 1994, the Day  was observed under the  theme
of  the Year  -  "Family:    resources and  responsibilities  in a  changing
world".    The theme  for  the Day  in  1995 was  "Tolerance  begins  in the
family", in view  of the observance  of 1995 as the United  Nations Year for
Tolerance.  The  Fifth Ad Hoc Inter-Agency  Meeting on the Year  recommended
the following  themes for the  Day's observances in the  forthcoming years -
1996:  "Families -  victims of poverty  and homelessness"; 1997:   "Building
families  on equality and  equity"; 1998:  "Family -source  of education for
human  rights"; 1999:   "Families  for all  ages"; and  2000:   "Families  -
agents of development and social progress".

72.  Family themes  for observance of international days  in 1994.  In 1994,
family-specific  themes were  adopted for  the observance  of  international
days other than the International Day of  Families:  World Environment  Day,
5  June, under  the theme  "One earth,  one family";  World Habitat  Day,  3
October, with  the theme  "Home  and the  family";  and  World AIDS  Day,  1
December, under the theme "Families take care".

73.   International  conference:    "Today's  families:    a bridge  to  the
future",  and  the  International Family  Policy  Forum.    An international
conference of governmental and  non-governmental sectors, entitled  "Today's
families:   a  bridge to the  future", was  held at  Montreal from  12 to 15
October 1994.   It was organized by  the International Conferences on Social
Development  in  cooperation with  the  secretariat  for  the  Year and  the
Canadian Committee for the  Year.  The Conference  was attended by  over 500
participants   from  more  than  55  countries,  and  adopted  the  Montreal
Statement.   Discussions held in the  context of the  Conference led to  the
launching of  an International  Family Policy  Forum, which  is expected  to

become operational  in  Montreal  in  1995.   The  Forum's objective  is  to
support   policy-making  at   all   levels  by   promoting   and   providing
partnerships,  information,  expertise  and   a  developmental  approach  to
emerging policy issues as well as international dialogue.

74.   United Nations  Interregional Meeting  of National  Coordinators/Focal
Points  for the  International  Year  of  the Family.    The United  Nations
Interregional Meeting  of National  Coordinators/Focal Points  for the  Year
was convened from 4 to 9 February  1995 at Bratislava by the secretariat for
the  Year,  in collaboration  with the  Bratislava International  Centre for
Family Studies and at  the invitation of the Government of Slovakia.  It was
attended by representatives  of 73  countries and  observers from  concerned
organizations.  The meeting reviewed the  global observances of the Year and
their  implications  for   national  social  policies  in  the  process   of
sustainable development;  considered  concepts  and forms  of  international
cooperation on  family issues,  with  particular emphasis  on assistance  to
developing  countries;   and  identified   strategies  and   recommendations
regarding national, regional and international follow-up to the Year.

75.    IYF Patron  Cities  Program and  World  Conference  of  Mayors, Local
Government and Private Sector  Partners.  The IYF Patron Cities Program  was
initiated  in  1993  by  Salt  Lake City,  Utah,  United  States,  with  the
objective of promoting active participation of cities, local government  and
private-sector partners in the Year and  stimulating specific action by them
on behalf  of  families.   The programme  organized  a  World Conference  of
Mayors, Local Government  and Private Sector Partners,  from 16 to 19  March
1995 at Salt Lake City, in  cooperation with the secretariat of the Year and
hosted by Salt Lake City and  Salt Lake County. It was  attended by some 500
participants from  more than 50 countries.   It adopted  the Salt Lake  City
Declaration  on  Family-friendly Communities  and  initiated  a  network  of
cities, local governments and private-sector corporations and businesses  on
families.

76.   Bratislava International  Centre for  Family Studies.   The Bratislava
International Centre for  Family Studies was  established by  the Government
of Slovakia in  September 1993.   It serves  as a  national centrepiece  for
Slovakia  on family issues  and as  an international  platform for promoting
global  cooperation  in   family  research,  training  and  exchange.    Its
affiliation  with the United  Nations has  been proposed  by the Government.
In its  resolution 47/237,  the General  Assembly noted  with interest  "the
proposal by  the Government  of Slovakia that  the Bratislava  International
Centre for Family Studies be affiliated with the United Nations".

77.   Center for  Family-friendly Cities.   The  Center for  Family-friendly
Cities was  established in  1994 at  the University  of Akron, Ohio,  United
States.   The Center  will serve  as an  international resource  for cities,
public  and   privatesector  organizations,  educational  institutions   and
businesses that work on urban matters.  It has established a  communications
network that  is  designed to  search,  retrieve  and store  information  on
family-friendly programmes in urban settings.

78.   Australian Institute  for Family  Studies' research  network on family
issues.  The Australian Institute  for Family  Studies, with  the support of
the secretariat for the Year, published  the International Directory of  IYF
Research Activities and has initiated an interactive international  research
network on family issues.

79.   The Austrian Institute  for Family Research.   The  Austrian Institute
for Family  Research was  established by  the Austrian  Federal Ministry  of
Youth  and Family.  The  Institute's objectives are to improve conditions of
family  life for the  general welfare  of families and to  promote a network
for cooperation in national and international research on families.

80.   Austrian  Visitors' Programme  for Studying Exemplary  Family Benefits
and Family  Services.   The Visitors' Programme  was also  initiated by  the
Austrian  Federal  Ministry  of  Youth  and   Family  as  an  incentive  for

international cooperation and exchange of information  on family issues.  It
offers an opportunity  to representatives  of developing countries to  study
family issues and programmes in Austria.


VIII.  ACTION BY THE SECRETARIAT

81.  In  June 1990,  the Secretary-General  designated the  Director of  the
Social Development  Division as  Coordinator for the  International Year  of
the  Family.   A small  organizational  secretariat for  the Year  was  also
established.    In  the context  of the  restructuring  of the  economic and
social sectors  of the United Nations  Secretariat in  1993, the Coordinator
and  the secretariat  remained at  Vienna,  as  part of  the Department  for
Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development.

82.  The Secretary-General, in addition  to addressing the relevant  plenary
meetings of the  General Assembly, issued 11 messages in connection with the
Year.

83.   A priority  task of the  secretariat for the  Year, which served  as a
catalyst,  facilitator  and  coordinator  of  action,  was  mobilizing   and
assisting the numerous potential actors to undertake  effective measures for
the   Year.   Other    priorities   included   substantive   servicing    of
intergovernmental bodies  and meetings; promoting  and anchoring the  Year's
substantive   orientation  and  objectives;  initiating  and  conducting  an
intense promotional and information campaign; and resource mobilization.

84.  Based on an assumption  that the subject of the  family lends itself to
a cross-sectoral approach in social policy  and offers a unique  convergence
and comprehensiveness of issues, efforts were made  to promote coverage of a
broad  spectrum of substantive  issues, while  maintaining the  focus on the
Year's  basic  objectives.    This  proved  effective  and  instrumental  in
achieving  broad  support  for  the  Year  and  in  alleviating  any initial
concerns.

85.  The secretariat maintained close contacts with  the Year's major actors
throughout the  process.   A series of  discussions was  held with  numerous
high-level government officials  and policy makers, heads of  organizations,
leaders  of  research and  academic  institutions  as  well  as the  private
sector.    In response  to  requests,  advisory  services  were provided  to
Governments,  national  coordination  mechanisms  and  the  non-governmental
community.   Substantive contributions to and  participation in  a series of
special events were made.  Numerous articles and introductory statements for
publications were provided. Valuable resources were  mobilized for the  Year
from the  public and private sectors,  including the  business community, in
both cash contributions to the Voluntary  Fund for the Year,  totalling more
than $2 million, and numerous in-kind  contributions to the secretariat  for
the Year.

86.   Concerted efforts  were made,  and harmonized  approaches adopted,  to
highlight  and  promote  the  family-related  aspects of  the  major  United
Nations conferences  and international  years.   The  secretariat worked  in
close  cooperation with  the  secretariat units  responsible  for  servicing
those  events.  A  memorandum of  understanding  was  signed  regarding  the
collaborative  arrangements  between the  secretariat for  the Year  and the
International  Olympic  Committee,   the  Bureau  of  Coordination  of   the
International Year of Sport and the Olympic Ideal, 1994.

87.  The secretariat for the Year prepared reports and provided  substantive
services  to the General  Assembly, the Economic and  Social Council and the
Commission for  Social Development  in their  deliberations relating  to the
Year and  family  issues.   This  included  organizational support  for  the
meetings of the General Assembly for the official  launching of the Year and
for the International Conference on Families.

 88.   A priority  concern  was to  mobilize  and  assist Member  States  in

preparing  for  and  observing  the  Year.    Suggested  guidelines  on  the
establishment of  national coordination  mechanisms were  made available  in
1991.  A Guide  for a  National Action Programme on  the Year was issued  in
1992.   The  national coordinating  mechanisms  and  focal points  were kept
abreast of  developments through circular letters  and periodic mailings  of
materials.  Regular  reports and updated lists were widely circulated on the
formation of national  coordinating mechanisms, the designation of  national
focal  points and on  emerging national  plans, to  encourage and facilitate
such  developments in  other countries.   Two  editions of  an  Inventory of
National Action were published,  the first in  1992 and the second in  1994.
Four regional and  interregional preparatory meetings  were undertaken.  The
United  Nations Interregional Meeting of  National Coordinators/Focal Points
for  the  International Year  of  the  Family  was held.    An Interregional
Meeting  on the  Role  of  the Family  in  the Socialization  of  Youth  was
organized.   Moreover, throughout the  process, extensive documentation  and
material to launch promotional and information activities was provided.

89.    The secretariat  also  paid  special  attention  to mobilizing  other
partners,  assisting them  in their  efforts and collaborating  closely with
them.    It  provided  substantive  support   for  the  activities  of   the
organizations and agencies  of the  United Nations  system, promoted  inter-
agency collaboration,  organized  and followed  up  on  five annual  ad  hoc
inter-agency  meetings on the  Year and  took the lead  role in implementing
their recommendations.   It  published a  compilation of the  family-related
mandates and  activities of  the concerned  entities of  the United  Nations
system, entitled "United Nations System and the IYF".

90.   The secretariat  maintained an  extensive network  of cooperation  and
support  with several  other  intergovernmental organizations  and  a  large
number   of    international,   regional   and   national   non-governmental
organizations.    During  the  early  preparatory  stages,  three   informal
consultative meetings  of representatives of non-governmental  organizations
committees and groups on the family were held  to explore ways of  effective
and  advance  cooperation.  Particularly  noteworthy was  the  secretariat's
close cooperation with the Non-Governmental Organizations Committees on  the
Family at Vienna, New York and Paris.  They were invited to participate,  in
an observer capacity, in  the ad hoc inter-agency meetings on the Year.  The
secretariat provided  extensive organizational  and substantive  support for
holding the World Non-Governmental Organizations Forum Launching the Year.

91.   The secretariat  worked closely  with numerous  academic and  research
institutes, encouraged research on family issues and promoted  collaboration
among  family-related research  institutes.   More  than  200  institutions,
working  in family-related  areas in  116  countries,  were contacted.   The
secretariat  signed  a  memorandum  of  understanding  with  the  Australian
Institute for Family Studies and closely cooperated with it.

92.   The  secretariat initiated,  implemented  and/or provided  support for
numerous special  undertakings for  the Year,  as described  in section  VII
above.  Substantive and  promotional support  was  also  provided to  a wide
range  of  other   meetings,  events  and  initiatives,  including   through
participation, messages  and provision of material.   Several  of these were
held in cooperation with the secretariat.

93.   The secretariat was responsible  for the substantive management of the
Voluntary Fund  for the International Year  of the Family.   It carried  out
work for the allocation of the  Fund's resources, reviewed numerous requests
for   funding,  processed   grants   for  projects   and   monitored   their
implementation.   It published a  Project Catalogue, containing  information
on  projects supported by the Fund and on those identified for consideration
by donors.

94.   The  secretariat conducted  a substantive  publications programme  and
supported publications  on family issues.   Several of  its publications are
mentioned above.  Seventeen issues of the IYF Occasional Papers Series  have
been published,  on the  following topics:   Family matters; Family:   forms

and  functions; Family and  crime; Older  persons in the family:   facets of
empowerment; Family as an environment:   an ecosystem perspective on  family
life; Partnership  families:  building the  smallest democracy  at the heart
of society;  Family leave:   changing needs of  the world's workers;  Family
enrichment:   programmes   to  foster   healthy   family   development;  The
intersection  of  family,  gender  and  economy  in  the  developing  world;
Families  and  disability; The  family  and  youth:    issues, problems  and
opportunities;  Migration and  the family;  The  elderly  and the  family in
developing countries; Reinventing fatherhood; The concept of family  health;
Families:  agents and beneficiaries of  social development; and Families  in
exile:   reflections from the experience  of UNHCR. Three closing issues are
scheduled, on:   Families and  education; Families  function; and Empowering
families.  In cooperation with the secretariat,  United Nations Publications
is finalizing a  book containing the  first 15  papers of this series.   The
secretariat is  also finalizing  an indicative  guide for  action on  family
issues, to serve as  a stimulus for long-term  follow-up action to the Year.
Also  planned for publication  is a  compilation of  the Secretary-General's
statements and messages in connection with the Year.

95.    The secretariat  carried  out  an  extensive  public information  and
promotional  campaign in  close cooperation  with  the Department  of Public
Information  of  the  United Nations  Secretariat  and  promoted  the active
involvement of  the mass media  and the private  sector.  In  addition to  a
basic  booklet,  the  official  emblem  and  a  theme  song,  numerous other
materials  were  developed  and  widely  disseminated  from  an early  stage
onwards.   These included  two introductory  posters, published  in 1990 and
1991,  and a major campaign  poster in the six official languages, published
in  1992;  a  press  kit,  three  public  television  announcements  and two
documentary films  on single-parent families and  on the  family and ageing,
produced  by the  Department  of  Public  Information; a  regularly  updated
calendar  of events  related  to  the Year;  stickers  on the  Year and  the
International Day of Families.

96.  As part  of its promotional  and information campaign, the  secretariat
initiated and  supported  the implementation  of  numerous  projects.   This
included  world-wide   information  campaigns   specifically  addressed   to
television  and  radio  networks,  newspapers,  magazines  and  airlines  to
encourage topical  coverage and promotion;  numerous gift and  commemorative
items displaying the  logo of the  Year, such as timepieces,  cloth emblems,
T-shirts,  keychains, calendars,  umbrellas,  earrings,  balloons, brooches,
pins,  etc;  souvenir items  by the  United  Nations  Sales Section  and the
UNICEF  Greeting  Card  Operation; a  special  series  of commemorative  IYF
stamps by  the United  Nations Postal  Administration and  some 60  national
postal  administrations;  art   and  photo  exhibitions  and   competitions;
promotional publications; and concerts devoted to the Year.


IX.  REGIONAL LEVEL ACTION

97.   A  wide array  of activities  was undertaken  at the  regional  level,
including  four  regional  preparatory  meetings,  with  the  objective   of
supporting  and supplementing  national  and  local efforts.   The  regional
commissions of the United  Nations played a leading role in this regard,  in
close cooperation  with the  secretariat for the  Year and  in harmony  with
regional intergovernmental  and  non-governmental organizations  as well  as
the   regional   offices   and   affiliates   of   concerned   international
organizations.  Several of these measures  were described in the  Secretary-
General's  earlier  reports  as well  as  in  the  secretariat's publication
entitled United Nations System and the IYF.  Mentioned below are  indicative
features  and examples of  major activities  of the  regional commissions of
the United Nations.

98.  The activities of ECE included studies  on family change and  policies;
a project entitled "Promotion of fertility  and family surveys in developing
ECE countries"; the  convening of the  European Population Conference, which
had  fertility  and  family  as one  of  its  themes; and  sensitizing  non-

governmental   organizations   about    the   Year   and   promoting   their
participation.

99.  The  pivotal role of  the family  in development  is recognized in  the
Social  Development Strategy for the  ESCAP Region Towards the Year 2000 and
Beyond, adopted  by the Fourth Asian  and Pacific  Ministerial Conference on
Social  Welfare  and Social  Development,  held  in  October  1991.   Issues
relating to  the family  are an important  element of the  Strategy.   ESCAP
published  studies  on  the  changing  role  of  the  family   as  a  social
institution  in  development  in  the  Asian-Pacific  region,  on   national
policies and programmes for  the family in  Asia and the Pacific and  on the
role of  the family  in development.   The  Commission also enhanced  public
awareness of  family issues  in the  region through  a special issue  of the
Social Development Newsletter, which focused on the family and development.

100.     ECLAC  promoted  national  efforts   and  helped   to  improve  the
coordination of regional  efforts of the  United Nations  agencies; provided
information and  analysis of  the current situation  of families;  conducted
policy-oriented  studies; and elaborated proposals  for governmental action.
ECLAC's  publication  entitled  Social  Panorama  included  studies  on  the
conditions under  which families may  hinder the  educational achievement of
children and youth.  The Commission  convened meetings and workshops,  which
addressed:    a  regional  diagnosis  of  the  situation  of  families; data
collection  techniques  and   methodologies  for  the  improvement  of   the
statistical visibility of family issues; family, development and  population
dynamics in Latin  America and the  Caribbean; and  information requirements
for the design of social policies on family issues.

101.   ECA  focused on  analysing  and promoting  accurate knowledge  on the
impact of socio-economic changes and developments on  the family.  The Third
African  Population Conference  was convened  by  ECA  at Dakar  in December
1992; its agenda included  the topic "African family systems in the  context
of socio-economic  development".  ECA organized  an expert  group meeting on
the impact of economic and social changes on the African family.

102.  ESCWA focused on reviewing and analysing  the impact of socio-economic
changes  on the  Arab  family, harmonizing  the  role of  women  within  and
outside the family, assessing  the needs of the family in terms of  shelter,
and surveying families in war-torn areas.  It  prepared a regional study  on
the impact of social  and economic changes  on the Arab family; organized  a
regional  seminar on the  role of the  family in  integrating disabled women
into  society; and  convened an  expert group  meeting on  the  Arab family.
Studies were also  carried out on family  planning, health and family  well-
being;  the  role  of  the  informal  sector,  particularly  the  family, in
providing support  and services  to  the elderly  in the  ESCWA region;  the
situation of  families in Western Asia;  and an assessment  of the situation
of Arab women returnees and their families as a result of the Gulf war.


            X.  ACTION BY THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM AND INTER-AGENCY
                COOPERATION

103.   The General Assembly,  in its  resolutions 44/82,  45/133, 46/92  and
47/237,  invited the  specialized agencies  and organizations  to exert  all
possible efforts in the  preparation for and  observance of the Year and  to
cooperate with the Secretary-General in achieving  its objectives.  A  total
of  34  concerned entities  of  the  United  Nations  system, including  the
regional  commissions, undertook  numerous  and diverse  specific  measures.
Within the United  Nations Secretariat, the following offices were  involved
in  activities  for  the  Year:    Department  for  Policy  Coordination and
Sustainable Development (the secretariat  for the International  Year of the
Family, Division for Social Policy  and Development and the Division for the
Advancement of  Women), Department for Economic  and Social Information  and
Policy Analysis (Population Division and Statistical Office), Department  of
Administration and  Management (Conference Services),  Department of  Public
Information, ECE, ESCAP, ECLAC, ECA, ESCWA,  United Nations Office at Vienna

(Crime  Prevention and  Criminal Justice Branch), United  Nations Centre for
Human  Rights, United  Nations  Centre for  Human Settlements  (Habitat) and
United Nations Environment Programme.   The United Nations  bodies concerned
included:  Office  of  the United  Nations  High  Commissioner  for Refugees
(UNHCR),   United   Nations  Children's   Fund   (UNICEF),   United  Nations
Development Fund  for Women, United  Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United
Nations  Development Programme  (UNDP),  United Nations  International  Drug
Control  Programme  (UNDCP), United  Nations  Relief  and  Works Agency  for
Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (UNRWA) and United Nations  University.
Research  institutes  included:   United  Nations  Interregional  Crime  and
Justice Research  Institute, United  Nations Research  Institute for  Social
Development  and  International Research  and  Training  Institute  for  the
Advancement of  Women.   Two joint  bodies were  involved:   the World  Food
Council and  the World Food Programme.   The  specialized agencies included:
International Labour Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of  the
United  Nations,  United   Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and   Cultural
Organization  (UNESCO),  World  Health   Organization  (WHO),  World   Bank,
Universal  Postal Union, World Meteorological Organization and International
Fund for Agricultural Development.

104.  A  detailed description of each  entity's activities and the  measures
for  inter-agency   cooperation  and  coordination   is  contained  in   the
SecretaryGeneral's  earlier reports  and  in the  secretariat's  publication
entitled "United Nations System and the IYF".

105.   At  an early  stage of  preparation, the  concerned entities  of  the
United Nations  system designated a  focal point for  the Year,  in order to
facilitate and  coordinate contributions.  They  also undertook  a review of
their  respective  family-related  mandates  and  programmes and  identified
priorities as well  as venues for involvement.   Whereas activities  for the
Year were generally undertaken within the  context of ongoing programmes,  a
number  of  new  projects  were  also  initiated.    Efforts  were  made  to
reformulate  and   reorient  programmes,   so  as  to  reflect   the  Year's
objectives, incorporate  and highlight  familyspecific elements and  provide
more emphasis on different aspects of the functioning of families.

106.   The Year  also led  to the  adoption of  a family-centred or  family-
oriented  approach  in  programme   implementation  and  service   delivery,
strengthening of programme elements relating to  the family and specific new
mandates  for familyrelated work from intergovernmental bodies,  such as the
World Health  Assembly. Specific activities  undertaken included substantive
studies, technical and  statistical publications, seminars and expert  group
meetings,  research  and   the  promotion  of  research,  data   collection,
formulation of policy and programme recommendations, provision of  technical
assistance  and   advisory  services   to  Governments   and  organizations,
implementation   of  family-oriented   projects,   collaboration   with  and
provision  of  technical and  financial  support  for  the  non-governmental
sector,   promotion   of   family-dimensions   in   various   contexts   and
participation in the work  of the ad hoc  inter-agency meetings on the Year.
Issues covered included:  gender equality  and advancement of women;  social
integration and  issues relating  to young persons, persons  with disability
and the  elderly;  children's rights;  role  of  families in  education  and
cultural development;  crime prevention  and criminal  justice; drug  abuse;
human  rights within the family and  the role of the family  in promotion of
the  individual's  rights;  living  conditions  of  families;  the  role  of
families   in   environmental  protection;   poverty   alleviation;   family
reunification,   refugee   families   and   Palestinian  refugee   families;
population   and   development;   socio-economic   development   activities;
employment   promotion    and   protection    of    workers   with    family
responsibilities;  agricultural  and rural  development; food  security; and
family and health.

107.  The organizations and agencies also served  as a valuable channel  for
the  promotion  and  dissemination  of  information.    Their  communication
channels  and  substantive  contacts  were  effectively  utilized  to  raise
awareness.    Several  of  them  also  conducted  targeted  promotional  and

information campaigns.

108.  Several organizations and  agencies functioned as  effective catalysts
for generating  activities at the  national and  local levels,  particularly
through  their  regional  and  field  offices,  by  disseminating  material,
providing technical support, organizing activities and participating in  the
work of national coordination mechanisms  for the Year.   In particular, the
United Nations information centres and the  country and regional offices  of
UNDP, UNHCR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNESCO and WHO were effectively  involved at the
national and local levels.

109.  The  ad hoc inter-agency  meetings on  the Year  were instrumental  in
refining  and sustaining a jointly elaborated substantive  direction for the
Year  and on numerous  important projects.   They  imparted and demonstrated
the endorsement of the Year's objectives by numerous entities of the  system
and helped to achieve coherence of  approaches regarding the complex issues,
thus helping to  dispel initial concerns regarding  the Year.  They provided
an  effective platform  for the  entities  of the  United Nations  system to
coordinate  their efforts;  ensured a continuous and  vitally important flow
of  information  and   exchange;  and  were   instrumental  in  achieving  a
significantly  increased level  of participation  of the  various  entities.
Projects undertaken  included a  joint statement  on the  Year, a  long-term
inter-agency  project  on  support  for  capacity-building  and   empowering
families, numerous  substantive papers,  a manual on provisions  relating to
the  family contained in  United Nations  conventions and other instruments,
and  a series  of promotional  activities.   A  significant feature  of  the
meetings was  the consistent  effort to reinforce  the substantive  linkages
between the Year  and relevant major  events and conferences.   The meetings
also served  as a forum for  partnership building  with the non-governmental
community.


XI.  ACTION BY INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

110.   Several  intergovernmental organizations,  including those  in  which
families do  not figure prominently as  a focus  of activities, participated
in  the  observance  of  the  Year.     In  particular,  they   disseminated
information,  organized or  sponsored meetings  and seminars,  conducted  or
promoted research,  provided assistance and  guidance in policy  development
and strengthened the focus  on the family in ongoing activities.  Several of
them identified  a focal point for  the Year.   Statements and decisions  of
governing bodies were adopted, expressing support  for the Year and  calling
for   specific   action.      Through   their   work   in   related   areas,
intergovernmental  organizations played  an  important supportive  role  for
national  action.  They  provided financial  and other  support for national
projects  and  involved their  networks  of  organizations,  affiliates  and
national contacts in activities for the Year.

111.   Intergovernmental organizations that  participated in the  observance
of  the Year included:   African  Development Bank,  Asian Development Bank,
Association of  South East Asian  Nations, Caribbean Community, Colombo Plan
for  Cooperative   and  Social   Development  in   Asia  and   the  Pacific,
Commonwealth  Secretariat, Council  of Europe,  Economic Community  of  West
African  States,  Commission  of  the  European  Union,  European   Economic
Community, League of Arab States, Fund  for International Development of the
Organization  of  Petroleum Exporting  Countries,  Organization  of  African
Unity,  Organization  of   American  States,  Southern  African  Development
Coordination  Conference and South  Pacific Commission.   A  few examples of
their activities are described below.

112.  The African  Development Bank centred  its activities for the Year  on
the  theme "Food  resources:   production,  distribution,  availability  and
preparation and family income".  The  Organization of African Unity  adopted
a resolution in support of the Year and collaborated  with ECA in holding an
expert group  meeting on the impact  of social and  economic changes on  the
African family.   The Asian Development Bank contributed to the Year through

its  programmes of  support for  economic  and  social development,  as they
related  to  household  income,  welfare  of  children  and  the  social and
economic status  of  women.   The Committee  on  Social  Development of  the
Association of South East  Asian Nations decided that  its Plan of Action on
Social Development  should include strengthening the  role of  the family as
one of its  major strategic thrusts  and that existing programmes  should be
strengthened and  new cooperative  programmes  developed on  families.   The
Association is also undertaking a feasibility  study on the establishment of
a  regional   centre/network  for  family  and   child  development.     The
Commonwealth Secretariat  utilized its  network to  disseminate information.
The  Fund for  International  Development of  the Organization  of Petroleum
Exporting Countries supported numerous projects,  including special measures
to promote family welfare,  through loans and grants.  Major features of the
activities  of the  Caribbean Community  included the  consideration of  the
Year by  the fifth  meeting of  ministers responsible  for women's  affairs;
adoption  of a regional  focus, centred on family  issues related to working
wives and  mothers, street children and  the impact  of migration; research;
and support to Caribbean families through  field projects.  The Organization
of  American  States worked  through  its  focal point,  the  Inter-American
Children's  Institute,  which  developed  an  inventory  of  policy  makers,
institutions and  other concerned  bodies; promoted  research and  exchange;
and  developed a  bibliographic service.    The  Commission of  the European
Union  conducted  an  opinion  survey;  supported  numerous  meetings;   and
developed supporting  mechanisms for exchange on family related issues, such
as  through the European  Observatory on  Family Policies  and a  network on
work and family responsibilities.  The  Council of Europe undertook  several
special  initiatives,  such  as  a  survey  of  national  family  policy,  a
comparison  of levels  of responsibility  for family issues,  discussions on
the  Year by the Conference  of Ministers responsible  for Family Affairs at
various   sessions,   adoption  by   the   Committee   of  Ministers   of  a
recommendation  on  coherent  and integrated  family  policies,  as  well as
numerous   activities  on  childhood   policies,  adult  education,  health,
bioethics and  family  law.   The Nordic  Council, in  cooperation with  the
Nordic  Council of Ministers,  held the  Nordic Forum 1994  on "Women's work
and life".   The League of Arab  States convened an  expert group meeting on
rights  and law  with respect  to families  and  an  Arab Conference  on the
Family, which adopted an Arab Statement on Family Rights.


XII.  ACTION BY NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

113.   Non-governmental organizations  were a  major partner  for the  Year.
They served  as a vital  mobilizing and advocacy  force, an effective  actor
and an essential  link to the grass roots.   They generated and  implemented
thousands of activities throughout the world.  Their ingenuity,  innovation,
resourcefulness  and  grass-roots networks  played  a  central role  in  the
successful observance  of the Year.   They have  also already  initiated and
are engaged in  extensive measures for an  effective follow-up to the  Year.
Several hundred  international, regional  and national  NGOs were  involved,
including those with a broad social  development or a family-specific  focus
as well as hundreds of others covering sectoral or group-specific issues.
  114.  The  single most  important contribution  of NGOs  was bringing  the
message  of  the  Year  to  the  grass  roots,  community  organizations and
families  themselves  and  motivating  and  assisting  their  participation.
Other  contributions included  promoting awareness  and achievement  of  the
Year's substantive goals;  mobilizing political support and resources at all
levels;   mobilizing   Governments   to   establish  national   coordination
mechanisms  and  participating in  them;  identifying  priority  issues  and
strategies;  undertaking substantive  studies; implementing  programmes  and
delivering   services;  contributing   to  the  international   exchange  of
experience  and  information;  conducting   special  campaigns;   organizing
myriads  of local,  national  and international  activities;  and  promoting
concepts and initiating measures for follow-up.   In numerous countries they
played a significant role in the  work of national coordination  mechanisms.
In  a  few  countries  they  were  entrusted  with  the  responsibility  for
coordinating the  Year's observances.   Furthermore, in  some countries they

set up non-governmental coordinating committees.

115.   Non-governmental  organizations adopted  a multitude  of  strategies,
approaches  and measures.   They made  the most effective use  of their wide
network  of contacts  and communication  channels.    For example,  from the
early stage of preparation onwards, numerous organizations incorporated  the
Year's  official emblem in  their materials  and included  articles in their
publications.     Several   organizations  set   up  special  organizational
structures for the Year.  Special sessions  on the Year were held during the
regular  meetings  and a  series  of  special  events  and publications  was
undertaken.   Some organizations drew  up policy and position  papers on the
family, while others adopted pertinent resolutions.

116.   Numerous NGOs incorporated multifarious  measures in their  programme
activities.   Some developed  specific programmes,  focusing on  substantive
areas  of direct concern  to them.  Whereas  several organizations sought to
address  a  broad variety  of  issues  in  the context  of  the  Year,  some
concentrated  on sectoral  or group-specific  issues.   Field projects  were
undertaken  to assist  families, such  as supporting thousands  of destitute
families in their various needs, building  houses, providing clean water and
assistance  in the  educational needs  of children.   Efforts  were made  to
promote   research  and  data  collection.  Attention  was   also  given  to
introducing a  family focus  into training programmes  and to  incorporating
family components in training activities.

117.   An important  feature of  the non-governmental  community's effective
participation  and contributions  was the  significant  role  of a  few non-
governmental  platforms.  Most prominent among them was the Non-Governmental
Organizations  Committee  on  the  Family  in  Vienna, which  contributed  a
distinguished record  of hard work and  major achievements.   Also prominent
were the Non-governmental Organizations Committee on  the Family in New York
and  the Non-governmental  Organizations Group  on  the  Family of  the Non-
governmental Organizations (UNESCO) Standing Committee in Paris.

118.    Major  elements  of  work   of  the  Non-governmental  Organizations
Committee on  the Family  in Vienna  included:   a  series of  international
seminars  on family  issues, from  1987  to  1995; a  world-wide information
sharing  network  consisting  of   some  1,500  grass-roots   family-related
organizations   from  120   countries;  extensive  promotional   efforts  to
stimulate awareness and action and  to link up the  international and grass-
roots  levels;  promotional  and  information  material,  consisting  of   a
"Checklist  of activities  for  an effective  IYF",  "National  coordinating
bodies for IYF", "Putting IYF into  your events", "Checklist for  activities
in  the interest  of  families now  and in  the  future", four  editions  of
"Highlights  of  IYF  action"  and  19  issues  of  a  newsletter,  entitled
"Families   international";  a   substantive   document   entitled  "Guiding
principles on  the family",  to serve as  a framework for  a declaration  on
family rights  and responsibilities; participation  in and contributions  to
the  relevant sessions  of the  Commission  for  Social Development  and the
General  Assembly;  and  holding  the  World Non-governmental  Organizations
Forum Launching the Year.  Details on the Forum  are provided in section VII
above.   In order  to facilitate its work, in  April 1992, the Committee set
up an IYF-NGO Executive Secretariat, which  was supported by the Governments
of  Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein  and Switzerland  as well  as other NGOs
and individuals.   In  cooperation with  the secretariat for  the Year,  the
Committee  also published  a  cookbook, entitled  "Family  favourites",  and
through its sale generated money for the Voluntary Fund for the Year.

119.  The activities of the  Non-governmental Organizations Committee on the
Family in  New York  included contributions  to intergovernmental  meetings;
numerous meetings on  such issues as  the advancement of women,  drug abuse,
the  situation of  refugees, mental  health, disability,  shelter,  cultural
change  and development  programmes; special  programmes on  topics such  as
"the   family  as   the  first  community",  "families   and  strategies  of
development",  "fathers  in  contemporary  life",  "spiritual  and   ethical
resources  of the  family", "family  dynamics  in the  fast-changing world",

"the well-being  of families"  and "beyond  the IYF";  and inputs for  major
international conferences.

120.   The Non-governmental Organizations  Group on the  Family of the  Non-
governmental Organizations (UNESCO)  Standing Committee  in Paris  undertook
various activities, with a major focus  on educational and cultural aspects.
Issues of particular concern  were the family  and the rights of the  child,
parents  and education, the  family and  education, the  family and cultural
rights, the family in difficult circumstances  and the family and tolerance.
Highlights  of  its  activities  included  an  international  symposium   on
educational functions of the family and  cultural change, and a  substantive
publication entitled "The family, new dynamics".

121.   Other NGO  forums that  were involved  in the Year  included the Non-
governmental Organizations  Development Committee in  Geneva and its  Family
Life Education  Subcommittee, the  Non-governmental Organizations  Committee
on UNICEF, the United Nations/Non-governmental Organizations Group on  Women
and   Development,  the  Conference  of  Non-governmental  Organizations  in
Consultative Status with the Economic and  Social Council and the  Executive
Committee of  Non-governmental Organizations associated  with the Department
of Public Information of the United Nations Secretariat.

122.   Numerous international  and regional  NGOs participated  in the Year.
Their activities were extensive, as described  in the earlier reports of the
SecretaryGeneral   (A/47/362,  A/48/293  and  E/CN.5/1993/3).    Many  other
activities were listed in the calendar of events related to the Year.

 123.   International and  regional NGOs  that informed  the secretariat for
the Year of  their participation included:   Asociacion Latinoamericana para
los  Derechos Humanos,  Association for  Psychotherapy and  Family  Therapy,
Association Mondiale des  Amis de l'Enfance, Association Internationale  des
Femmes  Francophones,  Association of  African Universities,  Association of
Former International  Civil Servants, African  Association of Education  for
Development,  African Association  for  Literacy and  Adult  Education,  All
India Women's  Conference, Associated  Country Women  of  the World,  Baha'i
International  Community,   Brahma  Kumaris   World  Spiritual   University,
Brothers  of  Christian  Schools,   Caritas  Internationalis  (International
Confederation  of  Catholic  Charities),  Catholic  International  Education
Office,   Christian   Children's  Fund,   Inc.,   Confederation  of   Family
Organisations in the  European Community,  Crossways International,  Defense
for  Children  International  Movement,  Disabled  Peoples'   International,
Eurolink Age, European  Family Therapy Association, European Federation  for
the  Family, European Federation  for the  Welfare of  the Elderly, European
Foundation for the  Improvement of Living  and Working  Conditions, European
Network Parenthood and Drug Abuse, European  Monitoring Centre for Drugs and
Drug  Abuse,  European Parents  Association,  European  Society  for  Mental
Health  and Deafness,  European Union  of  Women,  Federation des  Unions de
Familles,  Federation   Internationale  Terre  des   Hommes,  Friends  World
Committee  for Consultation  (Quakers),  Foundation for  the  Rights  of the
Family   -  International   Secretariat  (PRODEFA),   General  Arab  Women's
Federation,  General  Conference  of  the  Seventh-day  Adventists,   Global
Family,  Helpage International,  IPS  - Inter  Press  Service  International
Cooperative,  International  Abolitionist Federation,  International Academy
of   Family  Psychology,  International  Academy   of  Matrimonial  Lawyers,
International  Alliance of  Women -  Equal Rights,  Equal  Responsibilities,
International  Anglican   Family  Network,  International  Association   for
Volunteer  Effort,  International  Association  of Charities,  International
Association  of  Juvenile   and  Family  Court  Magistrates,   International
Association  of  Lions  Clubs  -  Lions  Club  International,  International
Association of  Schools of  Social Work, International Association  of Women
in Radio and Television, International Catholic Child Bureau,  International
Catholic Committee  of  Nurses and  Medico-Social Assistants,  International
Centre  for  Study   and  Development,  International  Community   Education
Association, International  Confederation  of  Christian  Family  Movements,
International   Confederation   of   Free   Trade   Unions,    International
Confederation    of    Midwives,   International    Cooperative    Alliance,

International  Council of  Catholic  Men, International  Council  of  Jewish
Women,   International  Council   of   Nurses,  International   Council   of
Psychologists,  International Council  of  Women,  International Council  on
Alcohol  and Addictions, International  Council on Disability, International
Council  on Social  Welfare,  International  Council on  the  Management  of
Population   Programmes,  International   Family  Federation,  International
Family Foundation, International  Family Policy Forum, International  Family
Therapy   Association,   International   Federation   for   Child   Welfare,
International   Federation   for   Family   Life  Promotion,   International
Federation  for   Home  Economics,   International  Federation   for  Parent
Education,  International  Federation of  Business  and Professional  Women,
International Federation  of  Disabled  Workers  and  Civilian  Handicapped,
International Federation of Educative  Communities, International Federation
of Pedestrians, International Federation of Rural Adult Catholic  Movements,
International   Federation   of   Settlements  and   Neighbourhood  Centres,
International  Federation of  Social  Workers, International  Federation  of
University  Women,  International Federation  of  Women  in  Legal  Careers,
International  Federation   on  Ageing,   International  Friendship  League,
International  Group   of  Catholic   Parents  Associations,   International
Humanist  and  Ethical  Union, the  International  Initiative, International
Inner  Wheel,  International   Kolping  Society,  International  League   of
Societies for  Persons with Mental  Handicaps, International Leprosy  Union,
International  Movement  ATD Fourth  World,  International  Organization  of
Consumers    Unions,    International   Planned    Parenthood    Federation,
International  Progress  Organization,  International Round  Table  for  the
Advancement   of   Counselling,  International   Social   Science   Council,
International  Social  Security  Association, International  Social Service,
International   Society   of   Family    Law,   International   Sociological
Association,   International  Study   Center  for   Children  and  Families,
International Union  of Family Organisations,  International Women's  Rights
Action Watch, La Leche League International  Inc., Law Association for  Asia
and the  Western Pacific, League  of Red Cross  and Red Crescent  Societies,
Ligue  pour   la  Lecture   de  la  Bible,  Medical   Women's  International
Association, Mother  and Child International  (International Association for
Maternal  and Neonatal Health),  Movement for  a Better  World, Muslim World
League, National Council of German Women's  Organizations - Federal Union of
Women's  Organizations and Women's  Groups of German Associations, E.V., New
Humanity Focolare  Movement, Non-aligned  Students and  Youth Organizations,
Pan-Pacific  and  South-east   Asia  Women's  Association,  Pax  Christi   -
International  Catholic   Peace   Movement,   Pax   Romana,   Rehabilitation
International,  Rotary  International,  Salvation  Army, Save  the  Children
Fund,  Service  and Research  Foundation  of  Asia  on  Family and  Culture,
Socialist  International,   Socialist  International   Women,  Society   for
International  Development,  Soroptimist  International,  SOS  -  Kinderdorf
International, Steering  Group of Catholic  Family Organizations in  Europe,
The  Experiment  in International  Living,  Union  of Arab  Jurists,  United
Schools  International,  Universal Esperanto  Association,  Vesper  Society,
Women for  Racial and  Economic Equality,  Women's International  Democratic
Federation,  Women's International  League for  Peace and  Freedom,  Women's
World Summit,  World Alliance of Young  Men's Christian Associations,  World
Assembly of Youth, World Association  of Girl Guides and  Girl Scouts, World
Christian  Life Community, World  Council of  Churches, World Federation for
Mental Health,  World Federation  of Methodist  Women,  World Federation  of
Therapeutic Communities, World Federation of Trade Unions, World  Federation
of  Ukrainian Women's  Organizations, World  Federation of  UNESCO  Centres,
Clubs and  Associations, World  Federation of  United Nations  Associations,
World Goodwill, World Leisure and  Recreation Association, World Movement of
Mothers,   World  Organization   for   Early  Childhood   Education,   World
Organization for  the Family,  World Organization of  Family Doctors,  World
Organization  of the Scout  Movement, World  Peace Council,  World Peace Day
Association,  World Union for  Progressive Judaism,  World Union of Catholic
Women's   Organizations,    World   Veterans   Federation,   World    Vision
International,  World Young  Women's  Christian Association,  Youth  with  a
Mission and Zonta International.

124.   The  Inter-Parliamentary  Union  contributed  a valuable  measure  of

support,  including  discussion  of  the  Year   at  the  meeting  of  women
parliamentarians of the  Inter-Parliamentary Conference and the adoption  of
a resolution by the Inter-Parliamentary Council. 

125.  In addition, hundreds of  national, local and community  organizations
and grass-roots  groups, including the  national associations or  committees
for the  United Nations,  UNICEF and  UNESCO, were  engaged in the  Year, as
illustrated by  nearly  200  organizations  from  over  60  countries  which
informed the secretariat for the Year of  their actions, as well as  the 486
projects of 285 organizations in 95 countries, listed in the fourth  edition
alone of the "Highlights of IYF  Action", published by the  Non-Governmental
Organizations Committee on the Family in Vienna.


XIII.  ACTION BY RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS

126.  Numerous research and academic  institutions were actively involved in
the  Year.    Universities  often  played   a  pivotal  role  in  animating,
supporting  or  leading local-level  action.    Specific  measures  included
projects devoted to  family issues,  special meetings of experts,  educators
or  researchers,  educational   or  research  programmes  or   publications.
Research and  academic institutions played a major role in the activities of
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations as well as in the  work
of national coordination mechanisms.

127.   The priority assigned to research in national plans of action for the
Year resulted  in a significant increase  in national  and subnational level
research on  families, by both governmental  and other  institutions.  There
has also  been  greater  public  interest  in  family research  as  well  as
improved  dialogue  and  cooperation  between  the  research  and   academic
community and policy makers. Institutional capability to undertake  research
or  promote  teaching and  skills  development  in  family  issues was  also
greatly increased.  Special interdisciplinary initiatives were launched  and
studies or  publications undertaken.   Through  increased cooperation  among
the  users and producers  of social  science research  on families, numerous
initiatives in support of such research were undertaken.

128.   Priority issues pursued in  research varied  broadly, consistent with
the priorities identified by national plans  of action.  Research activities
included:     comparative   analyses,   database   development;   curriculum
development;  demographic  studies;  opinion polls  and  surveys; evaluative
research;   census   data   development,   refinement   or   expanded   use;
bibliographies; and case-studies.

129.     Research  and   academic  institutions   also  undertook   numerous
publications,  including through their regular publications programmes, such
as scholarly journals, or special issues  and publications devoted to family
issues.  Regular new publications programmes  were also established, as were
other  initiatives, such as bibliographic services, network  supports or the
introduction  of new  services or  facilities through  official  statistical
agencies.   Information  on 439  research  activities  from 60  countries is
provided in the International Directory of IYF Research Activities.


XIV.  IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONS

130.   Numerous in-kind contributions were  made to the  secretariat for the
Year  by  Governments,  organizations,  firms  in  the  private  sector  and
individuals. Table  1 lists the in-kind  contributions made by  Governments.
Table 2 lists the in-kind contributions  made by organizations, the  private
sector and individuals.
            Table 1.  In-kind contributions to the secretariat for the
                      International Year of the Family by Governments

  Country                          Type of contribution


AustraliaFinancing  participation of a representative of a  country from the
Pacific  region at  the United  Nations  Interregional Meeting  of  National
Coordinators/Focal Points for the Year

Austria a/Associate expert for two years

Contribution towards  financing participation  of  representatives of  least
developed countries at  the United Nations Interregional Meeting of National
Coordinators/Focal Points for the Year

CanadaNon-reimbursable loan of staff for three years and five months

ChinaHosting the  United Nations  Asia and  Pacific Preparatory  Meeting for
the Year

ColombiaHosting the United  Nations Latin America and Caribbean  Preparatory
Meeting for the Year

FinlandNon-reimbursable loan of staff for six months

Printing of booklet on the Year in English, 60,000 copies

FrancePrinting of booklet on the Year in French, 11,000 copies

ItalyProviding associate expert for two years

MaltaHosting  the  United  Nations  Europe  and  North  America  Preparatory
Meeting for the Year

Hosting the World Non-governmental Organizations Forum Launching the Year

Slovakia  Hosting  the United  Nations  Interregional  Meeting  of  National
Coordinators/Focal Points for the Year

SpainPrinting of booklet on the Year in Spanish, 25,000 copies

SwedenFinancing  participation of  a  representative each  from  an  Eastern
European, a southern European and an African  country at the United  Nations
Interregional Meeting of National Coordinators/Focal Points for the Year

TunisiaHosting  the  United Nations  Africa  and  Western  Asia  Preparatory
Meeting for the Year


  a/   The  Government  of Austria  also  supported  the  work of  the  Non-
Governmental  Organizations  Committee  on  the  Family  in  Vienna  through
financial assistance  amounting to  S 1,650,000 (approx.  US$ 145,000)  from
1992 to 1995.
            Table 2.  In-kind contributions to the secretariat for the
                      International Year of the Family by organizations,
                      the private sector and individuals



Organization, firm
   or individual                           Type of contribution


Austrian Worker'sPrinting of booklet on the Year in English,
Compensation Board  7,500 copies

Floraprint Austria50,000 miniature poster bags

Hans Helf KGIYF stickers, 150,000 copies

Jablonski,  EvaDesigned the  IYF cookbook,  Family  favourites, and  two IYF
stickers

Lion's Club  InternationalStickers for  the International  Day of  Families,
108,000 copies

Littasy-Rollier, CatherineDesigned and donated logotype of the Year and  IYF
season's greetings cards

Olivetti  Austria   GmbHData-processing  equipment  (six  workstations  plus
server, one laser printer, one docking station and one monitor)

Phillips Dictation SystemsVoice manager dictation system

Piatnik-Playing Cards8,000 IYF season's greetings cards

Reinach, JacquelineWrote, composed and donated the theme song for the Year

University of Akron,  OhioStickers for  the International  Day of  Families,
100,000 copies

Wang AustriaLoan of word-processing workstation for three years

Wiener Stadtische450 lapel pins depicting the logotype of the Year

Wiener  Graphische Kunstanstalt,Paper  for and printing of  a large quantity
of
Otto Sares GmbH  stationery for the Year

Wiener PapierA large quantity of Pacific paper for
Grosshandlung GmbHproducing a special folder for the Year



XV.  VOLUNTARY FUND FOR THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE FAMILY

131.   The  Voluntary Fund  for the  International  Year  of the  Family was
established  in early 1991, pursuant to General  Assembly resolution 45/133.
In  that  resolution,  the  Assembly  requested  the  Secretary-General  "to
establish a voluntary  fund for the  preparation for and  observance of  the
Year" and invited "all States and  interested organizations to contribute to
that fund".

132.  As  at 3 July 1995, a  total cash contribution  of $2,071,524 had been
received  by  the  Fund,  of  which  $740,485  had  come  from  Governments,
$1,198,519  from  the private  sector,  organizations  and  individuals  and
$132,520  from other sources.   A group of business and professional leaders
from  Hong Kong contributed over $1 million to the Fund.   Table 3 lists the
contributions made by Governments.


        Table  3.  Contributions  by Governments  to the  Voluntary Fund for
the
                  International Year of the Family, as at 3 July 1995
(United States dollars)



  Country                                        Contribution


Austria39 778
Belgium20 000
Chile2 000

China20 000
Cote d'Ivoire3 461
Cyprus2 000
France104 788
Germany298 347
Greece10 505
Holy See2 073
Italy17 793
Jordan2 000
Luxembourg17 150
Mauritius500
Monaco3 000
Namibia1 000
New Zealand51 757
Panama15 000
Philippines1 500
Poland4 500
Portugal8 123
Republic of Korea2 000
Saint Lucia1 000
Sao Tome and Principe918
Spain40 532
Switzerland22 917
Thailand3 000
Tunisia2 000
Turkey 42 843
     Total740 485
133.  As  at 3  July 1995, estimated  expenditures and resource  allocations
from  the   Fund   totalled  $1.6   million.      Major  elements   of   the
expenditures/resource  allocations comprised  grants to  projects; the  four
regional  preparatory  meetings,  including  participation  costs  for least
developed  countries; two  expert  group meetings,  undertaken  by  regional
commissions,  and one  interregional consultation;  support to  projects  of
bodies and organizations of  the United Nations  system; substantive studies
and  publications on  family issues  and  the  Year; public  information and
promotion; and technical, advisory and substantive services.

134.    Provision  of  seed-money  grants  to  small-scale   family-specific
projects  has been  a major  priority of  the Fund and  the largest  item of
expenditure.  So far,  grants have been provided for 52 projects.  Seventeen
of these projects  were earmarked for grants by  donor Governments.  Ten  of
the  supported projects have been  undertaken by Governments, 38  by NGOs, 3
by academic/research  institutions and  1 by a  field office  of the  United
Nations  Volunteers.   Thirty-four of  these  projects  are at  the national
level, 5 at the  regional level and  13 at the international level.   Out of
the 39 national  and regional projects, 17 are  in Africa, 12  in Asia, 6 in
Central, Eastern  and/or southern  Europe and  4 in  Latin  America and  the
Caribbean.   The  grants provided  by the  Fund,  though  small in  terms of
amount and mostly serving as  seed money, have proved to be invaluable as  a
catalyst and  have enabled the initiation  of concrete  activities of direct
and  long-term benefit to families in all parts of  the world, mostly at the
local level.   Detailed information on  the projects  supported is contained
in a project catalogue of the Fund.


                XVI.  SPECIFIC PROPOSALS ON THE FOLLOW-UP TO THE
                      INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE FAMILY

135.  In interpreting the General  Assembly's request, in resolution 47/237,
"to  submit specific  proposals on  the follow-up to  the Year,  including a
draft  plan  of  action,  if  deemed  appropriate,"  the   Secretary-General
concluded  that  basic  to  the  follow-up  process  is  the  consistent and
effective  implementation   of  decisions   and  recommendations   regarding
families  as  reflected in  the  outcomes  of  the  relevant United  Nations
conferences, taking  into account the  national experience of  the Year.   A
concise analysis  of  those conferences  is provided  in sections  V and  VI

above.    This  interpretation  is  also  based  on  Commission  for  Social
Development  resolution  34/3,   in  which  the  Commission  requested   the
Secretary-General "to prepare a concise draft  reflecting the outcome of the
relevant  United  Nations  conferences  and  national  experiences  of   the
International Year of the Family".

136.    In  the  light  of  the  foregoing,  pursuant  to  General  Assembly
resolution 47/237  and Commission  for Social  Development resolution  34/3,
and based on  the conclusions drawn  from the  observance of  the Year,  the
following specific proposals are made on  the follow-up to the International
Year of the Family:

  (a)  Follow-up to the International  Year of the Family  should constitute
another  major phase  in the  long-term  process  of supporting  families as
basic social units.  It should be guided  by the principles established  for
the Year and should be based on a functional approach to families;
    (b)   The basic  objective of  the follow-up  to the  Year should  be to
translate the increased awareness regarding families and family issues  into
concrete measures (a) to support families  in performing their societal  and
developmental  functions  and (b)  to  promote  appropriate  changes  within
families and build upon their strengths;

  (c)  Pursuant to the successful approach adopted for the Year and  bearing
in  mind  the  diversity  of  families and  their  socio-economic  contexts,
follow-up  activities  should  focus  on  the  local  and  national  levels.
Decisions regarding  specific measures  and strategies  to  be taken  should
rest  with each  country,  organization  or other  entity,  as  appropriate,
taking  into  account  the  diversity  of  economic,  social,  cultural  and
political conditions;

  (d)   Follow-up  measures should  be  fully  congruent with  duly approved
international conventions, instruments  and standards in the field of  human
rights and  social policy and should  contribute to the realization of their
provisions  as they  apply  to  the individual  members of  the family.   In
particular, they should contribute to the  implementation of the  Convention
on  the Elimination of  All Forms  of Discrimination  against Women  and the
Convention on the Rights of the Child;

  (e)   Follow-up  to the Year  should form part  of a holistic  approach to
development and social progress.  Measures  should be fully harmonized  with
overall development efforts.  To the  extent possible, activities should  be
integrated  into  existing  policies  and  programmes,  making  use  of  the
comprehensive and integrative platform that the subject of families offers;

  (f)   A cornerstone  of the  follow-up to  the Year  and long-term  action
regarding families should be the implementation  of family dimensions of the
outcomes of  major  international conferences  of  the  1990s.   Agenda  21,
adopted by the  United Nations  Conference on  Environment and  Development,
the  Vienna  Declaration and  Programme  of  Action,  adopted  by the  World
Conference  on Human Rights,  the Programme  of Action  of the International
Conference on  Population and  Development, and  the Copenhagen  Declaration
and  Programme   of  Action,  adopted  by   the  World   Summit  for  Social
Development, contain specific  provisions relating to  families.   They also
identify  specific objectives and  actions in  these areas.  The Platform of
Action to  be adopted  by the forthcoming  Fourth World Conference  on Women
and  the  Plan  of  Action to  be  adopted  by  the  Second  United  Nations
Conference  on  Human  Settlements  should  contain  further  family-related
provisions and objectives.   All these encompass a  broad spectrum of  areas
and call  for  concerted efforts  at  all  levels.   Corresponding  measures
should  constitute   a  basic  element  of   the  follow-up   to  the  Year.
Consequently,  family issues and  family dimensions  should also continue to
receive adequate  attention  in the  coordinated  efforts  to implement  the
outcome of  the international conferences  and other relevant  undertakings,
at all levels;

  (g)  Continued measures to sustain and increase  awareness of the role  of

families and  family  issues will  remain  important,  in order  to  develop
further  and  maintain a  strong  constituency  for  families.   The  annual
observance of  the International  Day of  Families, on  15  May, provides  a
valuable occasion  around which  appropriate measures  could be  undertaken.
Special attention should be given to the role and impact of the media;
    (h)   A participatory approach in  policy and  programme development and
implementation  is essential.   Enlisting the  participation of all segments
of society  in the elaboration and  implementation of  activities in support
of families should  be a priority  task.  Broad  consultative processes  are
essential to build up commitment and consensus;

  (i)  The active involvement of  family associations, other grass-roots and
local   networks,  NGOs   and  the   private  sector   should   be  ensured.
Participation   of  family   associations  and   grass-roots  networks   are
especially important  to ensure relevance  and effectiveness of policies and
programmes.    Non-governmental organizations  provide,  in  particular,  an
effective  means  of  focusing  on  local   and  national  initiatives   and
addressing  most pressing concerns.   The  culture of  partnership with them
should be  reinforced and their work  facilitated.   The reciprocal linkages
between  families  and   the  private   sector  should  be  recognized   and
cooperation with the private sector on family matters intensified;

  (j)  All policy and programme decisions and actions at the national  level
have an  impact on families.   Subsequently, the  refinement and integration
of  a  family  perspective   in  development  efforts  and  a  family-impact
consideration  in policies  and programmes  should be  a major  goal.   This
should  lead  to  taking due  account  of  the  impact  on  families of  all
policies, programmes  and legislation. Effective  tools should be  developed
to gauge the  impact of social change and  policy measures on families  and,
subsequently, on the well-being of individuals;

  (k)  Sound  knowledge and information on  families is essential to  ensure
that policies,  programmes and services  are well-founded.  This information
should  be regularly updated,  in order  to reflect  the constantly changing
realities of  families  and societies,  and  research,  data collection  and
information exchange  should receive due attention.   Research and  academic
institutions have a central  role to play  in, and should provide input  to,
the policy development processes at all levels;

  (l)   Other important prerequisites for effective  national action include
political commitment  at the highest  levels, adequate resource  allocation,
formal    infrastructures   and    institutional   arrangements,   personnel
development and training.  Effective measures should be taken to meet  these
prerequisites. Developing  institutional capacities  and personnel  training
should be given due priority;

  (m)  As in the case of the Year, elaboration of a  long-term national plan
of action  on families  can  be a  valuable  measure  to guide  and  monitor
action.    In  elaborating  such  plans,  the   national  and  international
experience gained  through the Year and  the resources  of existing national
and international  institutions  devoted to  family issues  should be  fully
utilized.   In accordance  with national  circumstances and  approaches, the
plans may  bring  together the  various  familyrelated  aspects of  existing
policies  and  impart  coherence,  or  may  promote  specific  policies  and
approaches.  They may identify national  and local-level measures to support
families and to strengthen national capacities  to deal with family  issues.
They may identify short-, medium-  and long-term national  goals, priorities
and commitments as well  as specific measures for  achieving them. They  may
also establish institutional responsibilities for implementation;

   (n)  National  experiences of the  International Year of the  Family have
revealed  numerous  substantive concerns  and  goals  for  long-term  action
regarding families.  These include:

  (i)Reinforcing  the   interrelationship  between  family  well-being   and
sustainable development, which encompass such aspects as integrating  family

well-being and development  strategies, sustained economic  growth, poverty,
environmental protection;

    (ii)Facilitating  societal  conditions  that   are  family-friendly  and
supportive of  families, which encompass  public awareness, knowledge  about
families,  family  empowerment,  family  impact  consideration,  review  and
enactment of legislation, infrastructure to address family issues;

   (iii)Promoting  families  based  on  partnership  and  democracy,   which
encompass  the human rights  of individual members of families, particularly
children, women and vulnerable members, and  the enjoyment and violation  of
those  rights  within  families,  including  domestic  violence,  abuse  and
neglect;  changes in  family  organization;  equal  sharing  of  rights  and
responsibilities;

    (iv)Promoting family  strengths and  providing for  family needs,  which
encompass supporting the  societal and developmental functions of  families;
enabling  reconciliation  of  family and  work  responsibilities;  assisting
families and family members in difficult circumstances;

  (o)  The experience of the Year also  suggests that, despite the diversity
of family issues and approaches, effective international  action is possible
and appropriate  regional and international  cooperation and mechanisms  for
that purpose  can prove valuable in  facilitating and  supporting actions at
the local and national levels.  Constructive activities  at the regional and
international levels should be continued.  They should be integrated in  the
ongoing  programme of  activities of  concerned organizations.   The  United
Nations  Secretariat should play an active promotional and facilitative role
in this regard;

  (p)  Major areas  of focus for regional and international action should be
the exchange  of information and experience;  mobilization of resources  and
expertise as well as provision of technical assistance,  with a focus on the
least developed and developing countries; and  the promotion of networks and
partnerships in support of families, involving  collaboration at the  local,
national, regional and international levels;

  (q)  Consideration might be given to the continuation of a voluntary  fund
for families, to  serve as  a means of  resource mobilization and  financial
assistance  for specific  activities  that  would  strengthen  the  role  of
families in development and social progress,  and projects of direct benefit
to families,  with  special focus  on  the  least developed  and  developing
countries.     Particular   attention   should  be   given   to   mobilizing
contributions  from  the  private  sector  through  innovative  fund-raising
approaches;

   (r)    At  the  international  level,   consideration  may  be  given  to
undertaking periodic  reviews  of progress  made  in  the follow-up  to  the
International Year  of the Family and  in taking  long-term action regarding
families.


Notes

  1/  E/CN.5/1995/5.

  2/  E/CN.5/1991/2.

  3/  E/CN.5/1993/3.

  4/  E/CN.5/1995/5.

  5/  A/CONF.171/13, annex, chap. II.

  6/  A/CONF.166/9, chap. I, resolution 1.

  7/  See ibid., annex I, sect. C, para. 29.


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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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