United Nations

A/50/368


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

30 August 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Item 143 of the provisional agenda*


UNITED NATIONS DECADE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

 I.  INTRODUCTION  ............................................1 - 84

II.  ANALYTICAL PRESENTATION OF THE REPLIES RECEIVED FROM
  STATES AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS..................9 - 1006

  A.  Promotion of the acceptance of and respect for
    the principles of international law.................9 - 306

    1.  Promoting the acceptance of multilateral treaties 9 - 126

    2.  Assistance and technical advice to States to
      facilitate their participation in the process of
      multilateral treaty-making......................13 - 237

    3.  Ways and means of implementation of multilateral
      treaties........................................24 - 3011

  B.  Promotion of means and methods for the peaceful
    settlement of disputes between States, including
    resort to and full respect for the International
    Court of Justice....................................31 - 3913



________________________

  *  A/50/150.

95-26667 (E)   260995/...
*9526667*
CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

    1.  Suggestions by States for the promotion of means
      and methods for the peaceful settlement of
      disputes between States.........................3113

    2.  Suggestions by international organizations and
      bodies and national societies for the promotion
      of means and methods for the peaceful settlement
      of disputes between States......................32 - 3914

  C.  Encouragement of the progressive development of
    international law and its codification..............40 - 4718

  D.  Encouragement of the teaching, study, dissemination
    and wider appreciation of international law.........48 - 9320

    1.  Promotion of the United Nations Programme of
      Assistance in the Teaching, Study, Dissemination
      and Wider Appreciation of International Law.....4820

    2.  Promotion of the teaching of international law
      for students and teachers at schools and at
      higher education levels and international
      cooperation for that purpose....................49 - 5321

    3.  Organization of and participation in
      international and regional seminars and symposia
      for experts on international law................54 - 6122

    4.  Training in international law for legal
      professionals and government officials organized
      by States and international organizations.......62 - 7124

    5.  Publication of the practice of States and
      international and regional organizations in the
      field of international law......................72 - 7827

    6.  Publication by States and international
      organizations of international legal instruments
      and legal studies...............................79 - 8628

    7.  Wider publication of the judgements and advisory
      opinions of international courts and tribunals
      and summaries thereof.........................8730

    8.  Publication by international organizations of
      treaties concluded under their auspices,
      publication of the United Nations Treaty Series
      and the United Nations Juridical Yearbook.......88 - 9330
CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

  E.  Procedures and organizational aspects..............94 - 10031

    1.  Role of the Sixth Committee of the General
      Assembly of the United Nations.................9431

    2.  The United Nations Congress on Public
      International Law..............................95 - 9832

    3.  Establishment of national, subregional and
      regional committees for implementation of the
      programme......................................9933

    4.  Question of the provision of adequate financing
      for the implementation of the programme for the
      Decade.........................................10033

III.  ACTIVITIES OF THE UNITED NATIONS RELEVANT TO THE
  PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND ITS
  CODIFICATION...........................................101 - 13534

  A.  The law relating to human rights...................101 - 10334

  B.  The law relating to disarmament....................104 - 10534

  C.  The law relating to outer space....................10635

  D.  The law relating to economic development...........107 - 10835

  E.  The law relating to international trade............10935

  F.  The law relating to crime prevention and criminal
    justice  ............................................11036

  G.  The law relating to environment....................111 - 11436

  H.  The law of the sea.................................115 - 12336

  I.  Work of the International Law Commission...........124 - 12938

  J.  Work of the Special Committee on the Charter of the
    United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role
    of the Organization................................13039

  K.Work of the Sixth Committee........................131 - 13539  
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A/50/368
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I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   By  its resolution  44/23 of  17 November  1989, the  General  Assembly
declared the  period 1990-1999  the United Nations  Decade of  International
Law.   The  main purposes of  the Decade,  according to  paragraph 2  of the
resolution, should be, inter alia:

  (a)    To  promote  acceptance  of  and  respect  for  the  principles  of
international law;

  (b)  To promote  means and methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes
between States, including resort to and  full respect for the  International
Court of Justice;

  (c)   To encourage  the progressive  development of  international law and
its codification;

  (d)     To  encourage  the  teaching,   study,  dissemination  and   wider
appreciation of international law.

2.   On  28 November  1990, the  General Assembly  adopted resolution 45/40,
entitled "United Nations Decade of International  Law", to which was annexed
the  programme for  the activities  to be  commenced during  the  first term
(1990-1992)  of the  Decade.   On  25 November  1992, the  Assembly  adopted
resolution 47/32,  to which was annexed the programme for the activities for

the second term (1993-1994) of the Decade.

3.   On 9  December 1994,  the General  Assembly  adopted resolution  49/50,
entitled "United Nations Decade of International  Law", to which was annexed
the  programme  for the  activities to  be commenced  during the  third term
(1995-1996) of the  Decade.  In  that resolution, the Assembly,  inter alia,
invited  all  States   and  international  organizations  and   institutions
referred to in the programme to  undertake the relevant activities  outlined
therein and to provide information in  this respect to the Secretary-General
for transmission to the  General Assembly at its fiftieth session or, at the
latest, its fifty-first session; requested the Secretary-General to  submit,
on  the  basis  of such  information  as  well  as  new  information on  the
activities of the United Nations relevant  to the progressive development of
international law and its codification, a report to  the General Assembly at
its fiftieth  session; also requested  the Secretary-General to proceed with
the organization  of the  United  Nations Congress  on Public  International
Law, to be  held from 13  to 17  March 1995,  within existing resources  and
assisted  by  voluntary contributions,  taking  into  account  the  guidance
provided  at  the  forty-eighth  and forty-ninth  sessions  of  the  General
Assembly,  and to  keep the  Member States  informed of  the status  of  the
preparations;  invited  all   States  to  disseminate  widely  the   revised
guidelines for  military manuals and instructions  on the  protection of the
environment in times of armed conflict  (A/49/323, annex) received from  the
International Committee  of the Red Cross  and to give  due consideration to
the possibility of incorporating them into  their military manuals and other
instructions  addressed  to  their  military  personnel;  and  invited   the
International  Committee  of  the  Red  Cross   to  continue  to  report  on
activities  undertaken  by the  Committee  and  other relevant  bodies  with
regard to the protection  of the environment in times of armed conflict,  so
that the  information received may  be included in  the above  report of the
Secretary-General.

4.    By  a  note  dated 26  January  1995,  the  Secretary-General  invited
Governments to submit information on the  implementation of the programme or
any  views  on possible  activities for  the  next  term of  the Decade.   A
similar request was transmitted by letters dated 20  and 27 January 1995  to
intergovernmental   organizations,  United   Nations  bodies,  international
courts  and tribunals,  and non-governmental  organizations working  in  the
field of international law.

5.   As at  10 August 1995, replies  had been received from  two States, the
Cook Islands  and Cyprus.  Relevant information had also  been received from
the   following   United   Nations   bodies,   international  and   regional
organizations  and institutions:   International  Institute of  Humanitarian
Law,  Court of First  Instance of  the European  Communities, United Nations
Conference  on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Organization for Security and
Cooperation  in Europe  (OSCE),  United Nations  Institute for  Training and
Research  (UNITAR),  International  Council  of  Environmental  Law  (ICEL),
International  Labour Organization  (ILO), Institute  of International  Law,
United  Nations  International  Drug  Control  Programme (UNDCP),  Permanent
Court  of  Arbitration  (PCA),  International  Committee of  the  Red  Cross
(ICRC),  United   Nations  Environment   Programme   (UNEP),  World   Health
Organization  (WHO),  United Nations  Educational,  Scientific and  Cultural
Organization (UNESCO),  Asian-African Legal  Consultative Committee (AALCC),
International  Institute   of  Space  Law   (IISL),  Food  and   Agriculture
Organization  of   the  United   Nations  (FAO),   International  Court   of
Arbitration  of  the International  Chamber  of  Commerce (ICC),  and United
Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development.

6.     The  replies   from  States   and  international  organizations   are
analytically  summarized in  section II  of  the  present report  under five
headings, corresponding to the five main  sections into which the  programme
is divided.   As  a rule,  the specific  paragraphs of  the sections of  the
programme containing  requests  to  States and  international  organizations
have  provided the subheadings  for the  organization of  the material under
each heading of section II of the report.

7.    The supplementary  information  on  recent  activities  of the  United
Nations  in the field  of the  progressive development  of international law
and its  codification  is presented  in  section  III, on  a  topic-by-topic
basis, following the format  of the analysis presented in the last report of
the Secretary-General on this item (A/49/323 and Add.1 and 2).  The work  of
the International Law  Commission and that of  the Sixth Committee are dealt
with separately.

8.  The full texts of the  replies, in the original language  of submission,
are available in the Codification Division of the Office of Legal Affairs.
              II.  ANALYTICAL PRESENTATION OF THE REPLIES RECEIVED
                   FROM STATES AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

             A.  Promotion of the acceptance of and respect for the
                 principles of international law

1.  Promoting the acceptance of multilateral treaties  Under paragraph 2  of
this section of the programme, States are invited  to consider, if they have
not yet  done so,  becoming parties  to existing  multilateral treaties,  in
particular those  relevant to the  progressive development of  international
law and its codification.   International organizations under whose auspices
such  treaties are concluded  are invited  to indicate  whether they publish
periodic  reports  on the  status  of  ratifications  of  and accessions  to
multilateral treaties,  and if  they do  not, to  indicate whether  in their
view  such a process would be useful.  Consideration  should be given to the
question of treaties which have not  achieved wide participation or  entered
into  force after a considerable lapse of time and the circumstances causing
the situation.

9.  UNDCP reported that, on the basis  of information provided by the Office
of  Legal Affairs,  it  was  preparing a  monthly  report on  the status  of
adherence to the United  Nations drug control treaties as well as an  annual
report  on  the status  of  reservations,  declarations  and  understandings
entered under those treaties.

10.   UNEP observed that, with  a view to promoting  wider adherence to  the
existing  international  environmental agreements,  it  had  continued  wide
dissemination of  information  on international  law  in  the field  of  the
environment.   Its Executive  Director has  been submitting  to each regular
session of  the Governing Council  a report  on the status  of international
conventions  and  protocols  in  the  field   of  the  environment  for  its
consideration and  subsequent  transmission to  the General  Assembly.   The
report  contains information  on new  international environmental agreements
and changes  to  the status  of existing  instruments.   Most recently,  the
report was submitted to  the Governing Council at  its eighteenth session in
May 1995, and should,  in accordance with  Council decision 18/25 of 25  May
1995, be transmitted  to the General Assembly at  its fiftieth session.   In
the same  decision, the Council called on States that had not yet done so to
sign, ratify or accede  to those conventions  and protocols in the field  of
the environment to  which they were eligible  to become parties. Meetings of
the contracting  parties to  the conventions  concluded under UNEP  auspices
have  similarly invited  Governments  to  become parties  to the  respective
conventions.    In the  same  decision,  the  Governing  Council noted  with
appreciation the  quality and  usefulness of the  Register of  International
Treaties  and Other Agreements  in the  Field of  Environment, requested the
Executive Director  to  continue  regular publication  of the  Register  and
invited  her to consider  the possibility  of updating  and disseminating it
more frequently.    UNEP has  been  issuing  and distributing  the  Register
biennially


 since 1977.   The 1993 version of the Register, which was issued in the six
official languages of  the United Nations, was  sent to all  Governments and
relevant organizations.   The preparation of  its 1995 version  is to  start
soon.

11.   IISL reported that its  Standing Committee on  the Status of Space Law
Treaties monitored  the signature, ratification  and accession or  adherence
to the United Nations space treaties.

12.  AALCC reported that,  pursuant to the mandate of the 1995 session,  its
secretariat  was to  continue to  urge member  States which had  not already
done  so  to  consider   ratifying  or  acceding  to  relevant  multilateral
codification conventions.    In the  sphere  of  international economic  and
trade law  matters, AALCC at  its 1995 session,  held at  Doha, Qatar, urged
member States to  consider the UNCITRAL Model  Law on Procurement of  Goods,
Construction and Services as they reformed  or enacted their legislation  on
procurement.  The Committee also urged  member States to consider  adopting,
ratifying  or acceding to  other texts  prepared by  UNCITRAL, including the
United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea 1978 (the  Hamburg
Rules).


        2.  Assistance and technical advice to States to facilitate their
            participation  in  the process  of  multilateral  treaty-making 
Under   paragraph  3  of   this  section   of  the   programme,  States  and
international  organizations  are  encouraged  to  provide  assistance   and
technical  advice  to  States, in  particular  to  developing  countries, to
facilitate  their  participation in  the  process  of  multilateral  treaty-
making,   including  their   adherence  to   and  implementation   of   such
multilateral treaties, in accordance with their national legal systems.

13.    OSCE observed  that,  primarily  through  its  Office for  Democratic
Institutions  and  Human  Rights,  it  was  pursuing  an  active  policy  of
consolidating  its  norms  and  standards through  the  monitoring  of their
implementation and  the assistance  offered to  States in  carrying out  the
OSCE provisions.

14.   UNITAR indicated that,  in collaboration with UNEP  and in association
with  the United  Nations Centre  for  Human  Settlements (Habitat),  it had
organized the second Training Programme in  Environmental Law and Policy  at
Nairobi.  The training programme was  designed for government officials from
developing  countries and countries  with economies in transition working in
the  field of  environmental law and  policy and related  institutions.  The
programme   was  developed  to   enhance  endogenous  capacity-building  for
improved sustainable development.  Its aim  was to provide participants with
information about legal and institutional developments at the  international
and  national levels in the  field of environmental law;  to inspire greater
interest in and commitment  to the use of environmental law as an instrument
for translating sustainable development policies into  action; and to enable
participants   to   take   initiatives   regarding   the   development   and
implementation of  environmental  law on  a  more  informed basis  in  their
respective home  countries.  UNITAR also  organized, inter  alia, a workshop
on international legal instruments for Geneva-based

  diplomats  aimed  at  providing  them  with   a  sound  knowledge  of  the
techniques regarding the drafting and interpretation of international  legal
instruments.

15.  The International Institute of Humanitarian Law  stated that in 1995 it
had  organized  five  military courses  on  the law  of  armed conflict  for
officers  of national  armed  forces.   It  also organized  two  refugee law
courses for government officials and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

16.  ILO reported that its  multidisciplinary teams, whose mandate  includes
assistance  to  developing and  transition  countries  to  facilitate  their
adherence  to and  implementation  of international  labour  standards,  had
become regularly established and operational.   The Organization also stated
that its  activities directly addressed, inter  alia, such  issues raised in
the  programme for  the  third term  of the  Decade  as  the problem  of ILO
Conventions that had  not achieved wide ratification, institutional means of
action regarding the  implementation of international labour standards,  the

ILO programme  of  work relevant  to  the  progressive development  of  such
standards and future trends in this regard in ILO's specialized field.

17.  UNDCP pointed out that it was  providing a wide range of legal services
to  requesting  States  to  assist  them  in  becoming  parties  to  and  in
effectively implementing  the international  drug control  conventions.   It
was advocating the adoption  of adequate drug  control legislation, advising
on  adjusting  national laws  as  well  as  policies  and infrastructure  to
implement  the requirements  of the  conventions,  helping  to draft  new or
amended  laws  and providing  post-adoption advice  for implementation.   In
1994-1995, UNDCP provided legal assistance to  27 African States, 17  States
of  Europe and the Near  and Middle East  and 9 States  in the  Asia and the
Pacific  region.  A set of model laws covering all requirements of the three
drug  control treaties  has been  prepared  to  support legal  assistance to
States from  both the common-law  and the Roman-German  systems.  UNDCP  was
also collecting national drug  control laws and regulations, publishing them
to  ensure  mutual  disclosure  among  parties   and  preparing  an   annual
analytical index of that legislation to allow for  the easy retrieval of the
laws'  contents.   Tools prepared  by UNDCP  for  the implementation  of the
conventions also included  an annual directory listing national  authorities
competent to  take action under specific  articles of  the conventions, such
as article 7 (on  mutual legal assistance) or article 17 (on illicit traffic
by  sea)  of  the  United  Nations  Convention  against  Illicit  Traffic in
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of  1988.  The directory assisted
Governments in identifying their counterparts and in communicating  directly
with  them.  Pursuant to  Economic  and  Social  Council resolution  1993/42
entitled  "Measures to assist  in the  implementation of  the United Nations
Convention  against  Illicit Traffic  in  Narcotic  Drugs  and  Psychotropic
Substances  of 1988", UNDCP was  working at the  preparation of a commentary
to  that   Convention,  in   order  to   provide  States   with  a   uniform
interpretation  as   well  as   with  practical   recommendations  for   the
implementation of the Convention.

18.  PCA reported  that it was making available modern procedural rules and,
by providing  its International Bureau's  administrative support at  minimal
cost,  ensuring  the cost-effectiveness  of  the  arbitral  process.   As  a
further  step  in  that  direction, the  International  Bureau  has  adopted
measures  aimed at decentralizing the  functioning of PCA.  The new measures
facilitate  the  convening  of  a  tribunal,  or  other  dispute  settlement
mechanism, at any location agreed  upon by the disputing  parties because of
cost-effectiveness or for any other reason, and  for the provision there  of
administrative support,  arranged in collaboration  with the Members of PCA.
The International Bureau continued to encourage  States to become parties to
The Hague Convention on the Pacific  Settlement of International Disputes of
1907, by sending information  on PCA to Governments, raising the matter with
representatives  attending meetings  of the  Sixth Committee of  the General
Assembly  and  inviting  interested  Governments to  be  represented  at its
Steering Committee meetings.

19.  ICRC  considered that the dissemination and promotion of the guidelines
for military manuals and instructions on  the protection of the  environment
in times  of armed  conflict prepared  by it  were part  of its  activities,
including  the  appropriate representations  which  it  planned  to make  to
States.   Specialized publications such as  the International  Review of the
Red Cross and the  American Journal of  International Law were to report  on
them in 1995.  ICRC emphasized  that international humanitarian law remained
an  area  of  particular  relevance   and  pointed  out   that  humanitarian
instruments should be promoted  worldwide and effectively  implemented.   In
this connection,  ICRC noted that the  meeting of intergovernmental  experts
for  the  protection of  war victims  (Geneva, January  1995) had  adopted a
number  of  recommendations  for  the  exploration  of  practical  means  of
promoting full  respect for international  humanitarian law. These  included
the provision by ICRC of advisory services to  help States in their  efforts
to  implement and  disseminate international  humanitarian law.   The States
and organizations concerned  were invited to assist  ICRC in this new  task,
for which the appropriate structure was being set  up.  ICRC further  stated

that all necessary attention  should be given to  the strengthening of means
to  implement instruments  on the  protection  of  cultural property  in the
event of armed conflict.   Efforts to this  effect were being  monitored and
encouraged by  ICRC.   The agenda  of the  seminar on the  implementation of
international humanitarian law, jointly organized by  ICRC and UNESCO, to be
held in September 1995 for the countries of  Central Asia, also included the
protection of  cultural  property  in  the  event  of armed  conflict.    To
contribute   towards   efforts   to   promote   respect  for   international
humanitarian  law, the  90th  Conference of  the  Inter-Parliamentary  Union
(Canberra,  September  1993)  had  adopted  a  resolution  recommending  the
setting  up of an  ad hoc  committee which was mandated  to follow, with the
help  of ICRC,  the issue  of  respect  for international  humanitarian law,
particularly  the   ratification  status   of  the  relevant   international
instruments  and the implementation  of measures  at the  national level, as
well as  to disseminate  information and make  observations with  a view  to
promoting  respect for international humanitarian law.  The work of the 26th
International Conference of  the Red Cross and Red  Crescent, to be held  at
Geneva in December 1995, is to be centred  on problems of implementation  of
humanitarian  law  and  a  search  for  appropriate  solutions  to  put  the
humanitarian rules into  full effect.   It will provide  an opportunity  for
the international community  as a whole to  demonstrate its support for  the
universally  recognized  humanitarian   principles  and  its  commitment  to
improved protection for the victims of armed conflicts.

20.   UNEP reported  that it had  been carrying  out activities  in order to
enhance the capacity and capabilities of  developing countries and countries
with  economies  in  transition  to  enhance  their  participation  in   the
development   of,  adherence   to   and  implementation   of   international
environmental agreements.   UNEP continued  to provide such countries,  upon
request,  with technical  assistance for  developing national  environmental
policy,  legislation  and   institutions.    It  also  provided   government
officials with training through seminars and  workshops at the regional  and
global levels.  UNEP, jointly with UNITAR and  the United Nations Centre for
Human Settlements, had organized  a second global environmental law training
programme at Nairobi in March/April 1995  that aimed, among other things, at
promoting  the   effective  implementation  of  international  environmental
agreements.   UNEP also noted  that it had  been utilizing various  meetings
convened   under  its   auspices   for  promotion   of,  adherence   to  and
implementation  of international  environmental agreements.   Thus  it  had,
together with the Economic Commission for  Africa (ECA) and the Organization
of African Unity (OAU), convened an African subregional ministerial  meeting
of conventions at  Nairobi from 6  to 8 March 1995, in  conjunction with the
African Ministerial Conference on the Environment.  At the meeting a  number
of  recommendations  had  been  made  relating   to  the  implementation  of
international  environmental  agreements,  including a  coordinated strategy
for  strengthening  Africa's  preparedness for  effective  participation  in
environmental  conventions, and  strategic elements  for  enhancing national
capacity for participating in such  conventions.  Furthermore, UNEP provided
financial  support for  government  officials of  developing  countries  and
countries  with economies  in  transition to  participate  in  international
meetings relevant  to the  development and  implementation of  international
environmental  agreements  convened  by  UNEP  or  UNEP-supported convention
secretariats.    UNEP   had  continued  to   contribute  to   the  effective
implementation  of  a  number  of   international  environmental  agreements
concluded  under  its auspices  by providing  administrative support  to the
secretariats  of  such   agreements.    Those  agreements  included:    1992
Convention on Biological  Diversity; 1973 Convention on International  Trade
in Endangered Species of  Wild Fauna and Flora;  1985 Vienna Convention  for
the Protection of the  Ozone Layer and 1987 Montreal Protocol on  Substances
that Deplete the Ozone  Layer; the 1989 Basel  Convention on the  Control of
Transboundary  Movements of Hazardous  Wastes and  Their Disposal; 1979 Bonn
Convention on  the  Conservation  of  Migratory  Species  of  Wild  Animals;
regional seas  conventions and related protocols  concluded in nine  regions
of  the  world.   Regarding  the  Convention  on  Biological Diversity,  the
Conference of  the Parties  at its  first meeting,  held at  Nassau from  28
November to 9  December 1994, decided  to designate  UNEP to  carry out  the

functions  of the  secretariat  of  the Convention.   That  decision  of the
Conference of the Parties was welcomed by the UNEP Governing Council in  its
decision  18/36 (A) of 26 May 1995.  In order to  facilitate the task of the
secretariats of the conventions concluded under its  auspices, UNEP convened
the  Second  Meeting  on  Coordination  of  Secretariats  of   Environmental
Conventions at  Nairobi on  14 and 16  May 1995.   The third meeting  was to
take place  at Geneva  from 3  to 5  July 1995.   UNEP  further noted  that,
according to  Governing Council  decision 18/9  of 26  May 1995,  it was  to
monitor the implementation  of international legal instruments in the  field
of the  environment, to elaborate and  recommend, where  necessary, means to
enhance their  effectiveness  and to  provide  support,  as agreed,  to  the
convention secretariats.

21.    AALCC  stated  that  its  secretariat  was  to  continue  to  furnish
assistance to  the  States members  of  the  Committee to  facilitate  their
participation in the process of multilateral treaty-making, their  adherence
thereto  and the implementation  thereof in  accordance with  their national
legal systems.
  22.   IISL  observed that  one of  its  standing committees  was providing
clarity  in the  definitional  questions of  legal terminology  presented by
space activities.

23.  FAO reported  that, in support of its technical advisory assistance  to
member countries in the  field of water law  and its administration,  it had
issued  in 1994 a  publication entitled  "Preparing national regulations for
water  resources management:    principles and  practice"  (FAO  Legislative
Study Series,  No. 52),  which consisted  of a  manual providing  conceptual
material  for  use  in  the  preparation  of  national  regulations  for the
management,  development,  use   and  protection  of  freshwater  resources.
Particular attention  was  being devoted  to  the  link between  policy  and
legislation, and  to the interface between  the two.  Country experiences in
the  review  and  formulation  of  water  resources  policy  and  supporting
legislation  have   been  surveyed  and   published  as  "Water  policy  and
legislation  review and  reform:   selected country  experiences  (Australia
(State of  Victoria), Chile,  England and  Wales,  France (occasional  paper
FAO/WPL/2))". An  approach was  being developed to  technical assistance  to
FAO member countries, whereby policy advice in the field of water  resources
and advice  on water legislation are  mutually complementary.   Research was
also in progress  on the legal  aspects of privatization of  water services,
with  emphasis on  irrigation water  use, and  on customary  water rights in
African  countries.  This  research was expected  to result  in two separate
publications in the  Legislative Studies series.   FAO also  noted that  its
development of  the International  Code of  Conduct for  Responsible Fishing
had progressed  during 1994  through wide-ranging  consultation and  review.
The Code  of Conduct  was to  provide comprehensive  guidance to States  and
promote  responsible behaviour among  all those  involved in  fisheries.  It
was to implement and  complement the 1982 United  Nations Convention on  the
Law  of  the  Sea,  as  well  as  other  international  instruments  on  the
conservation  and development of fisheries.   A revised version of the draft
Code  was subsequently prepared  by the  FAO secretariat,  taking account of
discussions  at the technical level.  It was to  be submitted in March 1995,
for  further  consideration  and   endorsement  to  the   FAO  Committee  on
Fisheries, and subsequently to the Organization's  governing bodies - to the
Council in June and to the Conference in November.


3.    Ways and  means  of  implementation  of multilateral  treaties   Under
paragraph 4  of this  section of  the programme,  States  are encouraged  to
report  to the  Secretary-General on  ways  and means  provided for  in  the
multilateral   treaties  to   which   they  are   parties,   regarding   the
implementation of such treaties.  International organizations are  similarly
encouraged  to report to  the Secretary-General  on ways  and means provided
for by the  multilateral treaties concluded under their auspices,  regarding
the implementation of such treaties.   The Secretary-General is requested to
prepare a report  on the basis of that information  and to submit it to  the
General Assembly.

24.   OSCE indicated  that,  indirectly or  directly, it  was the  political
guardian of far-reaching arms control agreements  which could form the basis
of a  new  order  of military  security in  Europe, such  as  the Treaty  on
Conventional  Armed  Forces  in  Europe  (CFE),  and  the  CFE 1  A  Act  on
Personnel.  These instruments had
 introduced strict  limits on key military  equipment and  personnel held by
the States of the North  Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)  and the States
in the  area of the former  Warsaw Treaty Organization.   It also  indicated
that  Europe, which  had for  many years  been  the area  of the  most tense
confrontation  and  highest concentration  of weapons,  had  embarked on  an
unprecedented  demilitarization  process, resulting  in  the liquidation  of
tens  of thousands  of pieces  of equipment.    A  very intensive  system of
information exchange and intrusive verification had  been put in place.  The
Vienna Document  on Confidence- and  Security-building Measures had  created
an  elaborate system  of  politically binding  confidence-building measures.
It allowed control of  military activities and provided at the same time for
a number of early warning indicators.

25.    ILO   reported  that  it  had   sponsored,  jointly  with   FAO,  the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the  Nuclear Energy Agency of the
Organization for Economic  Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA), the  Pan-
American Health Organization (PAHO) and WHO, the  International Basic Safety
Standards for  Protection against Ionizing Radiation  and for  the Safety of
Radiation Sources (BSS) which had recently  been published by IAEA  (interim
edition).  The BSS were relevant to the  implementation of the ILO-Radiation
Protection Convention (No.  115) (article 3)  and Recommendation  (No. 114),
1960,  which provided  in particular  that:  "Every  member should  have due
regard to the  recommendations made from  time to time by  the International
Commission  on  Radiological  Protection  and  standards  adopted  by  other
competent organizations" (para. 3).

26.  UNESCO reported that,  under article 26 of the  1954 Convention for the
Protection of  Cultural Property in the  Event of Armed Conflict, States are
required  to  report  to  the  Director-General  every  four  years  on  the
implementation of  the Convention.  The  most recent report  on this subject
was issued  in 1989; the next  was scheduled to be  published at  the end of
1995.   The  strengthening  of the  Convention  and ways  of  improving  its
implementation were on  the agendas of two meetings  of experts held at  The
Hague in July  1993 and at Lauswolt in  February 1994 at  the request of the
Government  of  the  Netherlands.  After  studying  the   results  of  those
meetings, the Director-General proposed that a  meeting of States parties to
the Convention  should be convened during  the twenty-eighth  session of the
General Conference in November  1995.  The purpose  of the meeting should be
to consider measures to  be taken in order to improve the implementation  of
the Convention.   The  Executive Board  approved the  proposal at its  145th
session.

27.   FAO reported  that, in  order to  facilitate international cooperation
and  coordination  in  the  wake  of   the  United  Nations  Conference   on
Environment and  Development (UNCED),  it had been  designated Task  Manager
for  various  chapters  of  Agenda  21  and  had  provided  chairmanship for
relevant  subcommittees,  with  the  Commission  on  Sustainable Development
providing  guidance  and   monitoring  progress  in  implementing  the   Rio
agreements.  Besides its  role as task manager, FAO contributed actively  to
the  implementation  of the  UNCED agreements,  in  particular by  providing
technical  and  legal  advice  to  the   interim  secretariat  of  the  1992
Convention on Biological Diversity and to the Intergovernmental  Negotiating
Committee of  the 1994 International  Convention to combat  desertification.
FAO acted as technical secretariat and  provided documentation for the three
sessions of  the United  Nations Conference  on Straddling  Fish Stocks  and
Highly Migratory Fish  Stocks.   It also contributed  to the United  Nations
Global Conference on the Sustainable Development  of Small Island Developing
States (Bridgetown,  Barbados,  26 April-6  May  1994).   In  addition,  the
Organization  prepared  a  monograph  on  capacity-building in  agriculture,
forestry and fisheries,  to assist in the  development of the UNDP  Capacity
21 programme in these sectors.

28.  UNDCP pointed  out that it was closely monitoring implementation of the
drug control  treaties.  It was  issuing annual questionnaires  to States on
the  legislative,  administrative and  operational  steps  taken by  them to
implement the  treaties.  The  results were summarized  and reviewed by  the
Commission on Narcotic Drugs.

29.   UNEP reported that a Global Programme of Action  for the Protection of
the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities,  which was expected to be
adopted at  an intergovernmental conference  on the  subject to  be held  in
Washington  from  23  October  to  3  November  1995,  would  provide norms,
principles  and certain  procedures  for Governments  to protect  the marine
environment from  land-based activities.   After its  adoption, the document
could  contribute to the effective implementation of  relevant provisions of
the  1982 United  Nations  Convention on  the Law  of  the Sea  and  various
regional maritime conventions and protocols.

30.   AALCC reported  that it had  directed its secretariat  to monitor  the
implementation   of   recent  multilateral   instruments  relating   to  the
environment.


          B.  Promotion of means and methods for the peaceful settlement
              of disputes between States, including resort to and full
              respect  for  the  International  Court  of  Justice     Under
paragraph 1  of this section  of the programme,  States, the  United Nations
system  of organizations  and regional  organizations, including  AALCC,  as
well as  the International Law Association,  the Institute of  International
Law,  the Hispano-Luso-American  Institute of  International Law  and  other
international institutions working  in the  field of international law,  and
national societies of international law, are invited  to study the means and
methods for the peaceful  settlement of disputes  between States,  including
resort to and  full respect for the International  Court of Justice, and  to
present suggestions for the promotion thereof to the Sixth Committee.


               1.  Suggestions by States for the promotion of means
                   and methods for the peaceful settlement of
                   disputes between States

31.  No comments to be reported under this heading.
             2.  Suggestions by international organizations and bodies
                 and national societies for the promotion of means and
                 methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes
                 between States

32.   OSCE  pointed  out  that it  had made  available to  the participating
States instruments for peaceful settlement of  disputes.  At their  Valletta
meeting (January-February 1991), experts of CSCE  - as the Organization  was
then   known  had  adopted  a  report  containing   principles  for  dispute
settlement and provisions for a CSCE  procedure for the peaceful  settlement
of disputes.  The  procedure, also known as  the Valletta Mechanism,  may be
applied in any dispute between participating  States, with a few exceptions.
The  Valletta   Mechanism  provided  for   political  instruments  for   the
settlement  of disputes  between participating  States  in  the form  of the
establishment of so-called dispute settlement mechanisms.  These  mechanisms
consist of  one or  more independent members  which may be  selected from  a
list of experts.  At their December 1992  meeting at Stockholm, the  Foreign
Ministers of the participating  States further developed  the machinery  for
the peaceful  settlement of disputes.   In order  to further and  strengthen
their commitment  to settle disputes exclusively  by peaceful  means, and in
accordance with  the Helsinki Decisions of  1992 to  develop a comprehensive
and  coherent  set  of  measures  available  within  CSCE  for  the peaceful
settlement of disputes, the Ministers have:

  (a)    Adopted   measures  to  enhance   the  Valletta  Mechanism  through
modification of the procedure for selecting a dispute settlement mechanism;

  (b)   Adopted the  text of  a Convention  on Conciliation and  Arbitration
within  CSCE 1/ providing  for general  conciliation and  for arbitration on
the basis of  agreements ad hoc  or, in advance, on the  basis of reciprocal
declarations,   and  declared   it   open  for   signature   by   interested
participating States;

  (c)    Adopted  a  conciliation  procedure   as  an  option  available  to
participating States on  the basis of agreements ad  hoc or, in advance,  on
the basis of reciprocal declarations;

  (d)   Decided that  the Council or  the Committee of  Senior Officials  of
CSCE may direct any  two participating States to seek conciliation to assist
them in  resolving a dispute that they have not been able to settle within a
reasonable period of time.

None  of the  procedures for the  peaceful settlement of  disputes have been
used thus far.

33.   UNITAR stated  that a long-term  goal of  the UNITAR-Interpress Agency
(IPA) Fellowship Programme  on Peacemaking  and Preventive Diplomacy was  to
develop  an institutional  capacity  for  debriefing  and the  retrieval  of
United  Nations  practices and  experience  in  peacemaking  and  preventive
diplomacy  in  order   to  strengthen  the  United  Nations  potential   for
institutional learning  and  memory. Case  material presented  by staff  and
assembled by  fellows is  to serve  as the  basis for  further research  and
study  to develop a  collection of  case histories  which document important
lessons  and issues.  The goal  is to develop  a repository of knowledge for
use within  the fellowship  programme and,  more widely,  within the  United
Nations  and  the   international  community  as  a  whole.  Development  of
materials, such as a Case Handbook  on Peacemaking and Preventive Diplomacy,
was planned.  The  coordinator of the fellowship  programme was given an 18-
month grant  by the Ford  Foundation to  carry out research on  the topic of
"The United  Nations as a dispute  settlement system:   improving mechanisms
for the  prevention and  resolution of  conflict".   The project involved  a
review  of the causes  of contemporary  disputes and  dispute escalation; an
analysis of  the mechanisms available within  the United  Nations system for
preventing and resolving disputes; and proposals  for making the system more
effective.   It also made a number of specific suggestions for strengthening
pre-conflict peacebuilding and preventive diplomacy.   The project was to be
presented in the form of a book, for which publication was pending.

34.    The  Institute  of  International  Law  observed  that  its  Eleventh
Committee (Rapporteur:  Mr. Rudolf Bernhardt) was working on the topic  "The
settlement of  international  disputes involving  more  than  two States  by
judicial means and through arbitration".

35.   The Permanent Court  of Arbitration emphasized  that the  beginning of
the Decade, in 1990, had coincided with  the start of an extensive effort to
revitalize  the  Court.   That effort,  which took  many forms,  including a
programme  of  research  and  publication  in  the  field  of  international
arbitration, and  participation in international  conferences and  symposia,
was aimed  at  increasing awareness  of,  and  ultimately recourse  to,  the
various dispute resolution  mechanisms offered by  the Court.   In the  past
year,  PCA  had made  further  progress  in a  number  of  areas  previously
reported on  and undertaken  activities in  new areas.   Thus its  Financial
Assistance Fund established on 3 October  1994, to which contributions  were
made on  a voluntary basis, was  aimed at providing  financial assistance to
qualifying States  to enable them  to meet,  in whole or in  part, the costs
involved in international  arbitration or other means of dispute  settlement
offered by  The Hague  Conventions.   As  a  result  of a  generous  initial
contribution of  the Government  of the  Netherlands, the  Fund had  already
become  operational.   Other  countries  had  indicated  their readiness  to
contribute  to the Fund  in the  near future.  The  Court further noted that
its  Steering  Committee,  in  analysing  the  historical  development   and
practical application of  methods of dispute settlement, had explored, inter
alia, at  a  meeting  held  on 28  March  1995, the  issue  of the  form  of

potential changes to the  Hague system of dispute  resolution.  Reserving at
that stage any  decision with respect  to formal  amendment of the  existing
treaty provisions, the Steering  Committee considered making recommendations
in three specific areas:

  (a)  The development of rules  of procedure for international  commissions
of inquiry;

  (b)   The  inclusion  of  international organizations  as  parties  having
"standing" in PCA dispute settlement proceedings;

  (c)  The establishment of an express basis for conciliation.

At  the same meeting, the Steering Committee exchanged  views on these draft
recommendations  and  on  first  drafts  prepared   by  two  of  the   three
rapporteurs:     draft   rules  for   arbitration  involving   international
organizations,  and provisions concerning  commissions of  inquiry.   At the
end of the meeting,  the members of the  Steering Committee were  invited to
submit written comments on the draft texts  and draft recommendations.   The
Court noted that new drafts, including  draft rules for conciliation, should
be circulated  among the members  of the Steering  Committee as they  became
available.  The Steering  Committee was scheduled to  meet again in the fall
of 1995.   The Court also reported that,  as part of a continuing  programme
aimed  at   promoting  awareness  of  the   Court  and   its  services,  the
International Bureau had sent  copies of the PCA Optional Rules to the legal
advisers of the ministries  of foreign affairs of all States Members of  the
United Nations, as well as to the legal  advisers of the major international
organizations and a  large number  of private lawyers.   The proceedings  of
the  First Conference  of Members  of  the  PCA (September  1993), published
early in 1994, had also been widely  distributed.  The Secretary-General  of
the Court had  participated in several international conferences,  including
meetings of the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly (New York,  November
1994)  and the  United Nations  Congress  on  Public International  Law (New
York, March 1995). Participating  in the debates  of the Sixth Committee  of
the  General Assembly, on  behalf of  the International  Bureau as Permanent
Observer on  15 November  1994, the  Secretary-General made  a statement  on
agenda  item 136  (United Nations  Decade  of International  Law).   In  his
statement, the Secretary-General summarized  the innovative measures adopted
by the Court;  emphasized that, by providing facilities and procedures for a
broad range of methods of settling  international disputes, the Court  could
complement the role of the International Court  of Justice as the  principal
judicial  organ of  the United  Nations; and  drew attention  to  the recent
establishment of the Financial  Assistance Fund and  to the decentralization
of  the  functioning  of  the  Court.   In  conclusion,  he  reiterated  the
Administrative  Council's  invitation  to  all  States  that  did  not   yet
participate in  the work  of the  Court, to  consider acceding to  the Hague
Convention  of  1907.    The  Secretary-General  and  other  members  of the
International Bureau continued to address an  increasing number of groups of
lawyers,  students  and other  visitors  to the  Peace  Palace.   The  Court
further  indicated  that  a  number  of  experts  in  environmental  law had
encouraged its International Bureau to establish  a working group to examine
the  need  for  the  establishment  of  new  international  arrangements  or
institutions for resolving environmental disputes and  to explore a possible
role for the  Court in that  connection.   The International  Bureau of  the
Court had requested two experts in  international environmental law to draft
an initial  working paper for discussion  by the working  group once it  had
been constituted.

36.  UNEP pointed out that it was studying dispute avoidance and  settlement
among  various relevant emerging  legal issues  in the  light of sustainable
development.   Relevant  activities were  to be  continued in late  1995 and
subsequently, according to its decision 18/9 of 26 May 1995.

37.  AALCC observed  that it had  always attached great significance to  the
cardinal principle of the peaceful settlement  of disputes.  Its secretariat
had proposed  to continue to  monitor the work  of the  Special Committee on

the  Charter of the United Nations  and on the  Strengthening of the Role of
the Organization  with regard to the  peaceful settlement of  disputes.  The
AALCC secretariat had also proposed to  organize an International Seminar on
the "Work  and role  of the  International Court  of Justice".   The seminar
would aim at  promoting awareness of the work of the World Court  on the eve
of its fiftieth anniversary.  The Seminar was  intended to be convened  with
the assistance of the International  Court of Justice.   As regards disputes
stemming  from  international economic  and  trade  law  matters, the  AALCC
secretariat would, during  the term of  the Decade, continue  to exhort  and
urge  member States  to resolve  their  differences  in accordance  with the
arbitration  and/or  conciliatory   rules  framed  by  the  United   Nations
Commission  on  International  Trade  Law  (UNCITRAL).    AALCC  would  also
endeavour to  expand and enlarge the  activities of its  regional centres of
arbitration  functioning  at Cairo,  Kuala  Lumpur  and  Lagos.   The  Lagos
Regional  Centre for  International  Commercial Arbitration  was reactivated
recently and has facilities for handling  arbitration.  The Centre  provided
secretariat  support services, of  which parties  and arbitrators  alike may
avail  themselves.    Steps  had  been   initiated  to  establish  and  make
operational a similar  centre at Nairobi to  serve the countries  in eastern
and  southern Africa.  The  question of the resolution  of disputes relating
to  international economic  and trade  law  had also  been discussed  at  an
international seminar on  globalization and harmonization of commercial  and
arbitration laws organized by the AALCC secretariat in March 1995.

38.   IISL pointed out that one of its  Standing Committees was dealing with
dispute  settlement and also  had begun  to collect  examples from different
national jurisdictions  of case-law arising from  space activities with  the
intention of publishing them.

39.  The International Court of Arbitration  of the International Chamber of
Commerce (ICC) observed that progress made  in the world-wide acceptance  of
international arbitration was exemplified by the fact that parties  involved
in ICC arbitrations had originated from 100 countries  last year.  The Court
also indicated  that a  report of a working  group of the ICC  Commission on
International  Arbitration,  examining  intellectual  property  disputes  in
arbitration, was expected to be released in 1996.


                C.  Encouragement of the progressive development
                    of  international law  and  its codification       Under
paragraph 1 of  this section of the programme, international  organizations,
including  the   United  Nations  system   of  organizations  and   regional
organizations, are invited to submit to  the Secretary-General of the United
Nations  summary information regarding  the programme  and results  of their
work relevant  to the progressive development  of international  law and its
codification,  including  their   suggestions  for  future  work  in   their
specialized field, with an indication of  the appropriate forum to undertake
such  work. Similarly,  the  Secretary-General  is  requested to  prepare  a
report on relevant activities of the United Nations (see sect. III below).
  
  Under  paragraph 2 of this  section of the  programme, States are invited,
on  the  basis of  the  information  mentioned  in  paragraph  1, to  submit
suggestions  for  consideration by  the  Sixth  Committee.   In  particular,
efforts should be  made to identify areas  of international law which  might
be ripe for progressive development or codification.

40.     ILO  stated   that  it   had   adopted  175   Conventions  and   182
Recommendations, including the most recent Convention and Recommendation  on
part-time work  of June 1994.   The agenda of  the eighty-second session  of
the  International  Labour  Conference  to  be  held  in  June  included the
consideration  of the adoption  of international  labour standards on safety
and  health in mines and  the extension of  the Labour Inspection Convention
of 1947 (No. 81) to activities in the  non-commercial services sector.   The
agenda of the maritime session of the International Labour  Conference to be
convened  in January  1996  included the  adoption of  revised international
labour standards on maritime labour  inspection, seafarers' wages,  hours of

work  and  manning  at  sea,  recruitment  and  placement  of  seafarers and
additions to  the appendix  to the  ILO Convention  on minimum  standards in
merchant shipping.  ILO further observed that it  had sponsored jointly with
FAO, IAEA,  WHO,  the OECD/NEA  and  PAHO,  the International  Basic  Safety
Standards for  Protection against Ionizing Radiation  and for  the Safety of
Radiation  Sources  (BSS),  which marked  the  culmination  of efforts  over
several  decades  towards the  harmonization  of  radiation  protection  and
safety   standards  internationally.     Moreover,   ILO  hoped   that   the
establishment of the  Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound  Management
of  Chemicals,  involving UNEP,  FAO,  WHO,  the United  Nations  Industrial
Development  Organization  (UNIDO),  OECD  and  ILO,  would  facilitate  the
elaboration of a legally binding instrument  on prior informed consent  (see
also  para.  111  below).    ILO  had  also  been  involved  in  preliminary
discussions  on  possible  means  for  international  harmonization  of  the
classification and labelling of chemicals.

41.   WHO  observed  that, on  14 May  1993,  the forty-sixth  World  Health
Assembly  had adopted resolution 46.40,  by which it  decided to request the
International Court of Justice to give an  advisory opinion on the  question
whether,  in  view of  the  health and  environmental  effects,  the  use of
nuclear weapons by a State in  war or other armed conflict would be a breach
of its obligations under international law, including  the WHO Constitution.
Consequently, the Director-General filed  in the Registry of  the Court on 3
September 1993  said request  for an  advisory opinion.   WHO  also observed
that it had held an inter-regional meeting at  New Delhi from 13 to 16 March
1995  regarding prevention and  control of  a plague  epidemic, which, inter
alia,   considered  the  need  to  revise  any  of  the  provisions  of  the
International  Health  Regulations.  Subsequently,  the  forty-eighth  World
Health  Assembly  adopted  resolution  WHA48.7  of  12  May  1995,  entitled
"Revision and  updating of the  International Health  Regulations", in which
it urged  member States to participate in the revision  of the International
Health  Regulations and  requested the  Director-General  to take  steps  to
prepare a  revision of the  Regulations for submission to  the Assembly. The
Assembly  also adopted  resolution WHA48.11  of  12  May 1995,  entitled "An
international strategy  for  tobacco control",  in  which  it requested  the
Director-General to report to the forty-ninth  World Health Assembly on  the
feasibility of developing an international instrument  to be adopted by  the
United  Nations, taking  into account  existing trade  conventions and other
treaties.

42.  FAO indicated that it was elaborating an International Code of  Conduct
for Responsible  Fishing.   Moreover, the 1983 International  Undertaking on
Plant Genetic  Resources was  being revised,  and the  possibility that  the
revised  text  might become  a  protocol  to  the  Convention on  Biological
Diversity  was being  considered.    Further proposed  action  included  the
development  of a holistic normative framework to facilitate the cooperation
of all  concerned in  meeting conflicting  demands on  land resources  while
avoiding  land  degradation, as  well  as  the  negotiation  of regional  or
subregional cooperative  agreements on  mountains, possibly  leading to  the
development of a global mountain charter and action plan.

43.  OSCE stated  that the Code  of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects  of
Security adopted at Budapest in December 1994 was an  important milestone on
the  road  leading to  cooperative  security.    The  Code, reaffirming  the
continuing  validity   of  the  comprehensive   concept  of  security,   set
politically binding  norms and principles guiding  the role  of armed forces
in  democratic societies  and the  relation,  among  States as  well as  the
relations of States vis-a-vis  their nationals in the  military field.   The
Code underscored, inter  alia, the determination of participating States  to
act  in  solidarity if  OSCE  norms and  commitments  were violated  and  to
facilitate concerted responses to security challenges they might face.

44.   AALCC indicated  that it  continued to study  the progress of  work of
both the International Law Commission and  the United Nations Commission  on
International  Trade Law  and  to comment  thereon  as part  of  its  modest
contribution   to   the   progressive   development   and   codification  of

international law.   The Consultative Committee attached great  significance
to the  items currently on the  agenda of the  International Law Commission,
as they were of particular relevance to its  members.  The Committee further
reported that its secretariat  had drawn up model legislation on the  rights
and  duties  of  refugees  in  the  light  of  the  codified  principles  of
international  law  and   the  practice  of  States  in  the  region.    The
secretariat  would   also  continue   to   examine  the   question  of   the
establishment of  safety  zones for  displaced  persons  in the  country  of
origin.

45.    ICRC  pointed out  that,  following a  meeting  of technical  experts
(Geneva,  August  1990), Switzerland,  the  depositary  State of  the Geneva
Conventions  and their Additional Protocols, had invited  the States parties
thereto  to  revise  annex I  of  Additional  Protocol  I,  relative  to the
identification  of  installations  and  means  of medical  transport.    The
proposed  amendments  entered into  force on  1 March  1994 and  covered the
latest technological  developments that  facilitated  the identification  of
means of medical transport  in times of armed  conflict.  Moreover,  as part
of  the preparations for  the Review Conference  of the  1980 United Nations
Convention on  Certain Conventional Weapons, scheduled for September-October
1995, ICRC  had participated  in the work  of governmental  experts and  had
submitted  proposals on the  regulation of  the use  of land-mines, blinding
laser weapons and other new weapons.

46.    The  International  Bureau  of  the  Permanent  Court  of Arbitration
observed that  a Steering  Committee had  been established  to consider  the
possible revision  of  the 1907  Convention  on  the Pacific  Settlement  of
International Disputes.

47.   ICEL reported  that it  had cooperated  over the  past years  with the
International Union  for the Conservation  of Nature  and Natural  Resources
(IUCN) and the Natural Resources Commission on Environmental Law on a  draft
International Covenant  on Environment  and Development.  The  project aimed
at  consolidating major existing  and emerging  legal principles relating to
environmental   conservation    and   sustainable   development   into    an
internationally   binding  legal   instrument,  thus   contributing  to  the
progressive  development of  international environmental law.   In 1994, the
fifth  and final  draft was completed  and the document  was launched during
the United Nations  Congress on  Public International Law  held in New  York
from  13 to 17 March 1995.   It was also distributed at the third session of
the Commission  on Sustainable  Development. Moreover,  in cooperation  with
the IUCN  and the  Natural Resources  Environmental Law  Centre, UNESCO  and
ICRC,  ICEL  had  continued  preparatory  work  on  drafting  an  instrument
designed to  improve the  protection of  the environment in  times of  armed
conflict.


              D.  Encouragement of the teaching, study, dissemination
               and wider appreciation of international law

            1.  Promotion of the United Nations Programme of Assistance
                in the Teaching, Study, Dissemination and Wider
                Appreciation of  International Law     Under  paragraph 1 of
this section  of the programme,  States and other  public or private  bodies
are encouraged  to contribute  to the  strengthening of  the United  Nations
Programme  of Assistance  in  the Teaching,  Study, Dissemination  and Wider
Appreciation of International Law.

48.    UNITAR  observed  that  158  persons  from  67  countries  had  filed
applications for  the 1995  Hague Fellowship  Programme organized under  the
United   Nations  Programme   of   Assistance  in   the   Teaching,   Study,
Dissemination and Wider Appreciation of International  Law.  Nominations had
been received  from five different  regions:  66  from Africa,  50 from Asia
and the  Pacific, 26  from Latin  America and  the Caribbean,  14 from  Arab
States  and  2  from  Europe.    A  Joint  Selection  Committee  under   the
chairmanship of  the  Legal Counsel  of the  United Nations  had awarded  18

fellowships.  The training programme was  to take place at The Hague, from 3
July to  11 August  1995.   Participants would  attend the  special seminars
organized by  UNITAR as  well as  selected lectures  on  private and  public
international law held at the Hague Academy of International Law.


          2.  Promotion of the teaching of international law for students
              and teachers at schools and at higher education levels and
              international  cooperation  for   that  purpose    *     Under
paragraph 2 of this section of the programme, States should encourage  their
educational  institutions to  introduce  courses in  international  law  for
students  studying  law,  political  science,  social  sciences  and   other
relevant  disciplines; they  should  study the  possibility  of  introducing
topics of international law  in the curricula of schools at the primary  and
secondary levels.   Cooperation between institutions at the university level
among developing  countries, on  the one  hand, and  their cooperation  with
those of developed countries on the other, should be encouraged.

  Under  paragraph  3,  States  should  consider  convening  conferences  of
experts at the national  and regional levels in order to study the  question
of  preparing model  curricula and  materials  for courses  in international
law, training of teachers in international  law, preparation of textbooks on
international  law  and the  use  of  modern  technology  to facilitate  the
teaching of and research in international law.

  Under paragraph 7,  cooperation is encouraged among developing  countries,
as well as between developing countries,  in particular among those  persons
who are  involved  in the  practice  of  international law,  for  exchanging
experience and  for mutual  assistance in  the field  of international  law,
including assistance  in providing  textbooks and  manuals of  international
law.

49.  UNEP pointed out  that it continued its assistance  to the law  faculty
of  a  university  in  Sri  Lanka  for  the development  of  a  postgraduate
programme in environmental  law, including international environmental  law,
expected  to commence  in  October 1995.    That  was  the first  of  UNEP's
projects  regarding assistance  for  the development  of  environmental  law
curricula in universities of developing countries.

50.   UNESCO  observed  that  it was  preparing  a manual  for human  rights
teaching   for  university-level   use,  which   contained  a   chapter   on
humanitarian law and human  rights.  It further  stated that the  network of
UNESCO chairs  on education  and training  for human  rights was  especially
active in  the area  of international  humanitarian law.   Thus, the  UNESCO
chairs  at Nicolas  Copernicus University  of  Torun, Poland,  and  Comenius
University  of Bratislava,  Slovakia, were  carrying out activities  in this
area  in close cooperation  with their  national Red  Cross organizations as
well as  ICRC.  UNESCO also published in 1994 the third edition of the World
Directory of Human Rights Research and  Training Institutions and the fourth
edition of the World Directory of Peace Research and Training Institutions.

 51.   The  Institute of  International  Law  indicated that  the  Committee
established  in   1991  to  consider  the   question  of   the  teaching  of
international  law  was  continuing  its  work  under  the  guidance  of its
Rapporteur, Professor Ronald St. John Mcdonald.

52.  The International Council of  Environmental Law observed that, with the
assistance of  the Karl Schmitz  Scholl Fund,  it had set up  a special fund
for legal studies in the field of trade and the environment.

53.    The  International  Institute  of  Space  Law  of  the  International
Astronautical Federation  reported that  it had  sponsored an  international
moot court competition, named in honour of Manfred  Lachs, late Judge of the
International Court of Justice.  Preliminary rounds had been  held in Europe
and in the United  States of America, with the final competition being  held
as part  of the  annual Conference  of the  Institute, and  judged by  three

Judges of the International Court of Justice.


        3.  Organization of and participation in international and regional
            seminars  and symposia for experts on international law    Under
paragraph 4 of  this section  of the programme,  States, the United  Nations
system  of   organizations  and  regional   organizations  should   consider
organizing seminars, symposia,  training courses, lectures and meetings  and
undertaking studies on various aspects of international law.

54.  The  Cook Islands suggested that the  United Nations convene a  meeting
of the legal advisers of the Ministries of  Foreign Affairs of small  States
to discuss their role, the special  operational and logistical problems they
faced,  inter alia,  regarding  participation in  the  multilateral  treaty-
making process  and the  fulfilment of  reporting obligations, and  possible
means  to resolve  such problems  through  cooperation  at the  regional and
global levels.

55.   UNCTAD observed that  from time  to time it organized  seminars on the
legal aspects  of restrictive  business practices,  technology and  maritime
multi-modal transport.

56.   UNEP  stated that  it had  organized  a working  group of  experts  to
discuss liability  and compensation for  environmental damage from  military
activities (London, February 1995)  as well as expert meetings to be held in
1995 and 1996 to discuss the concept, the requirements and the  implications
of  sustainable   development;  compliance  implementation  mechanisms;  and
dispute  avoidance and settlement  procedures.  These meetings were convened
within the framework of studies conducted by UNEP on the above issues.

57.   ILO  reported  that  it  had  organized  the  following  seminars  and
workshops  in 1995:   a Central  American subregional  tripartite seminar on
the  application  of  international  labour   standards  (11-22  September);
tripartite  seminars   on  national  legislation  and  international  labour
standards for selected French-speaking African countries (24-28 April  1995,
Libreville and 2-6  May, Ouagadougou); a subregional tripartite seminar  for
economies  in transition  in  East Asia  on  the promotion  of  equality  of
opportunity  and treatment  in  employment (24-28  April 1995,  Thailand); a
southern  African  subregional workshop  on  international labour  standards
relevant  to women  workers  (Lilongwe); a  tripartite  seminar  on national
legislation  and  international  labour  standards  for  Portuguese-speaking
African  countries  (30  May-2  June,  Portugal);  a  Caribbean  subregional
employers'  seminar on  international labour  standards (Port-of-Spain); and
an Asian-Pacific regional workers' education seminar  on basic human  rights
and development  (24-28 April, Manila).   The International Training  Centre
of  ILO organized  a seminar  on  international  labour standards  (22 May-2
June, Turin/Geneva) and a tripartite programme  on the dissemination of such
standards (2-11 October, Mexico City).

58.  UNESCO  indicated that it  had organized an international  symposium on
the right to humanitarian assistance from 25 to  27 January 1995, at  UNESCO
headquarters.      Participants   included    jurists,   theoreticians   and
participants   in   intergovernmental,  governmental   and  non-governmental
humanitarian assistance.  The symposium provided  an opportunity to  explore
different aspects  of the concept of  the right  to humanitarian assistance,
to consider  the sudden growth of  ideas and guidelines  for action in  this
area  and to  identify the  main  directions  and possible  options for  the
various  organizations concerned.  Furthermore, the  UNESCO Chair  of  Human
Rights  and Democracy in  Moscow, in  cooperation with  the Russian National
Commission for  UNESCO and  ICRC, organized  an international conference  on
international humanitarian law in Moscow on 25 April 1995.

59.  AALCC  stated that it  had organized  a seminar on  the question of  an
international criminal court in January 1995 which furnished a  forum for an
informal exchange  of views on  the draft adopted  by the International  Law
Commission at its forty-sixth session.  It also  proposed to hold a  seminar

on  international nuclear law in collaboration with the International Atomic
Energy Agency.

60.  The International  Institute of Humanitarian Law indicated that it  had
organized the  following seminars  and round  tables:   eleventh seminar  of
European governmental experts  regarding the East-West European dialogue  on
current  refugee problems  and  displaced  persons; fifth  seminar for  Arab
experts on current  problems of  refugees in  Arab countries;  meeting of  a
group  of  experts on  current  problems  of  migration;  and the  twentieth
international round table on current problems of international  humanitarian
law (San Remo, 6-9 September 1995).

61.    The  International  Institute  of  Space  Law  of  the  International
Astronautical Federation  pointed out  that its annual  colloquium had  been
held  at the same time and  place as the annual Congress  of the Federation,
which  included a round table on scientific and legal questions.  Currently,
the  following issues, inter  alia, were  being discussed  by the Institute:
intellectual   property,   space   debris,  developments   in  international
organizations  dealing  with space  matters,  verification  and  the  common
heritage  of  mankind.    The  Institute   further  observed  that  it   had
established  a number  of standing  committees  and working  groups dealing,
inter alia,  with the  clarification of  the legal  terminology relating  to
space activities and dispute settlement.

               4.  Training in international law for legal professionals
                 and government officials organized by States and
                 international organizations     Under  paragraph 5 of  this
section  of  the  programme,  States  are  encouraged  to  organize  special
training in  international law  for legal  professionals, including  judges,
and  personnel  of  ministries  of   foreign  affairs  and   other  relevant
ministries as well as military personnel.  The United  Nations Institute for
Training  and  Research, the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and
Cultural  Organization,  The   Hague  Academy  of  International  Law,   the
International Institute of Humanitarian Law, regional organizations and  the
International  Committee  of   the  Red  Cross   are  invited   to  continue
cooperating in this respect with States.

  Under  paragraph  6, and  in  connection  with  the  training of  military
personnel, States  are encouraged to  foster the  teaching and dissemination
of  the principles governing the  protection of the  environment in times of
armed conflict and  should consider  the possibility  of making  use of  the
guidelines  for   military  manuals   and  instructions   prepared  by   the
International Committee of the Red Cross.

62.  Cyprus reported  that the management  courses which its Police  Academy
had organized upon the promotion of members of the Police  Force to the post
of Inspector, Chief  Inspector, Superintendent and Chief Superintendent  had
included, in the curriculum for the last two  years, lectures on the subject
of  human  rights.   The precise  theme of  the lectures  was "International
conventions and human  rights" and they contained a detailed analysis of all
conventions concerning  human rights,  with particular emphasis on  those to
which the Republic of Cyprus had become  a signatory and thereafter ratified
by law.   The first part of the  lectures covered the  Charter of the United
Nations  and  treaties, declarations,  covenants,  etc.,  under  the  United
Nations  regime as  well as international agreements  brought into operation
by international organizations such as the  ILO.  This included  conventions
covering a  variety of human  rights as well  as those  focusing on specific
rights  such as racial discrimination, torture, etc.   The second part dealt
with conventions at the regional level.  Particular attention was devoted to
the  oldest one, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights,
since it had  proved a unique international legal instrument both as regards
the extent  of the rights it  protected as well as  the machinery for  their
implementation.  The lectures also dealt  with other European Conventions as
well as the  Organization of Security  and Cooperation in  Europe. Owing  to
the growing importance attached to human rights and the keen interest  shown
in the  lectures, the  idea of doubling  their number was  being considered.

The lectures were given by an Officer of the Legal Service of the Republic.

63.   Cyprus  also indicated  that  the  International Association  for  the
Protection of  Human Rights  in Cyprus  was a  very active  non-governmental
organization.  It organized lectures, seminars  and conferences on a regular
basis  covering various aspects  of the  international law  of human rights.
Eminent jurists as well as  distinguished practising lawyers in the field of
international  law from  across  Europe participated  in  such  conferences,
making valuable  contributions.  Through such  meetings the opportunity  was
given   to  Cypriot  lawyers  and  other  legal  professionals  to  acquaint
themselves better  with the principles in this area. The organization by the
Association,  on   an  almost  biannual   basis  in   conjunction  with  the
Directorate  of  Human  Rights  of  the  Council  of  Europe,  of a  two-day
conference featuring  distinguished speakers, was  by now well  established.
The one held  recently on 6 May  1995 on the topic  of "Human rights  in the
emerging  European order"  covered  the  following subjects:   (a)  European
Convention on Human Rights and the  Central and Eastern European  countries;
(b) effects of  the 9th and  11th Protocols  to the  European Convention  on
Human Rights; (c) the  European Union and human  rights:  current issues and
prospects; (d) emergence  of particular protection  of minorities in Europe;
and  (e) problems  regarding the  implementation  of  human rights  norms in
Europe.   Contributions had been made  by members of the European Commission
of Human Rights as  well as professors of international law from the  United
Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern   Ireland,  Greece,  etc.     The
conferences  had proved very  successful and  the detailed  minutes of their
proceedings were published by the Association.

64.  Other activities  of the Association for the Protection of Human Rights
in Cyprus included  the issuance of a bulletin  and a newsletter on  current
matters in Cyprus and world affairs in the area of human rights.  A  seminar
organized  by the  Association  was  to be  held in  October 1995,  in which
jurists  and professors  of international  law holding  seats in  well-known
universities in  Europe would participate.   The seminar would deal with the
Report on  Human Rights of the State  Department of the United States to the
Congress,  and in particular  the parts  which concerned  Cyprus, Greece and
Turkey.    The   Association  had  also  called  on  major   establishments,
companies, etc., to provide  funds for the enlargement of the library of the
Association.  The  ultimate goal was for the  offices of the Association  to
become a Centre  for International Law  in Cyprus. Serious thought  was also
being  given to the organization  by the Association,  in cooperation with a
university or  an institute  abroad, of  two-month courses  on the  European
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights, to  cover a thorough study of
the rights  protected, the  procedure available  with respect  to individual
petitions and, generally,  an effective examination  of the  whole mechanism
available.

65.  UNITAR indicated that it provided training to legal professionals in  a
variety  of areas.   It  thus  organized the  second training  programme  in
environmental  law  and policy  in  association  with  UNEP  and the  United
Nations  Centre  for   Human  Settlements  (Habitat),  aimed  at   enhancing
endogenous capacitybuilding  for improved sustainable  development.   UNITAR
also organized  jointly with  the International  Peace Academy  a Fellowship
Programme in  Peacemaking and  Preventive Diplomacy  which offered  advanced
training in  conflict analysis, negotiation  and mediation to  international
and national civil servants  wishing to learn  or refine these skills.   The
programme was based on the latest knowledge in  the field and was taught  by
distinguished experts  from both  academic and  applied settings,  including
current and former United Nations Secretariat staff.   Development of a Case
Handbook on Peacemaking and Preventive Diplomacy  was also planned.  UNITAR,
moreover,  had   organized  a  Training  Programme  in  Debt  and  Financial
Management  for senior  officers,  mid-level managers,  law  professors  and
lawyers.   The  programme  focused  on  the legal  elements  in the  overall
process  of international  loan  negotiations, dealing  in  particular  with
those clauses in a loan agreement of most relevance  to the borrower and for
which  improvements could  be sought  in its  favour.   From time  to  time,
UNITAR  also  held  high-level  awareness  seminars  for  senior  government

officials  with a view to keeping  them abreast of  and involved in the move
towards better debt  and financial management  through proper involvement of
lawyers  at every  stage  of the  borrowing  process.    UNITAR had  further
developed   a  training   package  for   workshops  in   multilateral   loan
negotiations.   Regarding international  trade law, UNITAR  had organized  a
workshop  on procedures  for the  settlement  of  trade disputes  within the
framework  of the World  Trade Organization  (WTO) for  members of permanent
missions in Geneva and, upon request, in  developing countries.  Members  of
permanent  missions  in  Geneva  could  also  attend  a  UNITAR  workshop on
multilateral  treaty-making  as well  as  a  seminar  on  the practices  and
procedures  of  selected  United  Nations bodies  and  organizations  of the
United Nations system based in Geneva.  A  similar seminar was organized  at
Vienna.

66.  The United Nations International  Drug Control Programme reported  that
it carried  out seminars  to train  judges and  prosecutors in  drug-related
matters. It  also organized and conducted  regional legal  workshops to help
States identify and overcome legal cooperation problems.

67.   UNEP indicated  that it  provided officials  from developing countries
with legal  training in order  to enhance their  capacities in dealing  with
international  environmental  law,   including  the  implementation  of  the
conventions and guidelines concluded under its auspices.

68.   ILO  observed that  its International  Training  Centre  in Turin  had
recently published in French and Spanish  a Trainers' Guide on International
Labour Standards and Development, already published  in English in 1992  and
in Arabic in 1994.   A videotape  accompanying the Trainers' Guide was  also
available in English, French and  Spanish.  A human rights reporting package
comprising a Manual  on Human Rights Reporting,  a Trainers' Guide  on Human
Rights  Reporting and a pocket  guide on Basic Human  Rights Instruments was
also due to be published in 1995 in English and French by the Turin Centre.

69.   ICRC indicated  that as  part of  the follow-up  to the  International
Conference for the Protection of War  Victims (Geneva, 1993), the meeting of
the  intergovernmental group of  experts for  the protection  of war victims
which had  met at Geneva  in January 1995  adopted a recommendation  calling
upon  ICRC to prepare, inter  alia, in cooperation with experts from various
geographical  regions,  a  model  manual  for armed  forces  on  the law  of
international  and non-international  armed  conflicts.    To  that  end,  a
meeting  of government  experts might  be convened  in  1996.   The experts'
future work  on the model  manual would also  include an  examination of the
guidelines for  military manuals and instructions  on the  protection of the
environment in times of armed conflict.

70.   The International Institute of  Humanitarian Law reported  that it had
organized in 1995 five courses on  international humanitarian law for  armed
forces.   It  had also  organized  two refugee  law courses  for  government
officials.

71.    The  International  Institute  of  Space  Law  of  the  International
Astronautical Federation stated that it had been  organizing for a number of
years  a symposium  on  space  law  matters  for  the  delegates  and  staff
attending the  meetings of the  Legal Subcommittee of  the Committee on  the
Peaceful  Uses  of  Outer  Space.    The topic  of  the  1995  programme was
technical and policy issues related to the use of the space environment.


          5.  Publication of the practice of States and international and
              regional organizations  in the field of  international law    
Under   paragraph  8  of   this  section   of  the   programme,  States  and
international and  regional organizations  should endeavour  to publish,  if
they have not already done so, summaries,  repertories or yearbooks of their
practice.

72.  The United Nations International  Drug Control Programme reported  that

it collected national drug control laws  and regulations, published them  to
ensure  mutual disclosure  among parties  and prepared  an annual analytical
index  of  such  legislation  allowing  for  easy  retrieval  of  the  laws'
contents.

73.  UNEP observed that, in order to  inform Governments and other  relevant
parties regularly  about its activities in  the field  of environmental law,
it  had started  issuing a  Biannual  Bulletin  of Environmental  Law, which
contained information on UNEP's work on international legal instruments,  in
particular  legislation,  as well  as information  on  recent activities  of
convention secretariats administered by UNEP.

74.    ILO indicated  that it  would publish  in  1995 a  revised Manual  of
Procedures    relating    to   International    Labour    Conventions    and
Recommendations.   A new  edition of the  ILO computer-based  system of  ILO
Conventions  and Recommendations  and  recent practice  of  ILO  supervisory
bodies (ILOLEX) had  been issued earlier  in the year, holding  56,000 full-
text documents.  A new edition of ILOLEX,  including all general surveys  on
law and practice under selected ILO  Conventions and Recommendations of  the
Committee of Experts  on the Application  of Conventions and Recommendations
as from  1985, would be issued during 1996.  The most recent general survey,
concerning  the   Termination  of  Employment   Convention  (No.  158)   and
Recommendation (No. 166), 1982,  was examined by the Committee of Experts in
February  1995 and  published  in April  1995.    A  general survey  on  the
Discrimination (Employment  and Occupation)  Convention (No.  111) would  be
examined by the Committee  of Experts at its next meeting in December  1995,
with publication expected for early 1996.   ILOLEX information seminars were
organized throughout the year in various regions.

75.  UNESCO  observed that an information  document was elaborated  for each
session of the General Conference on  the standard-setting activities of the
Organization.

76.   FAO reported  that it  had issued  the publication  "Water policy  and
legislation  review and  reform:   selected country  experiences  (Australia
(state of Victoria), Chile, England and Wales, France)".

77.    The  International  Council  of  Environmental  Law  stated  that, in
partnership with  the Environmental Law Centre  of IUCN,  it maintained what
was  probably  the  world's  most  extensive  collection   of  documents  on
environmental  law   and  policy   (international  treaties,   supranational
instruments, national  legislation, soft  law, literature  and documents  of
international  organizations,   especially  the   United  Nations   system).
Material was collected from  all countries and in all languages in order  to
maintain as broad a  coverage as possible.   Bibliographic references to the
documents were entered  into the computerized Environmental Law  Information
System (ELIS)  data bank.   ELIS was a special sectoral  source for the UNEP
information referral service INFOTERRA.  Upon  request, it also carried  out
information retrieval for the United Nations and its specialized agencies.

78.    The  International  Institute  of  Space  Law  of  the  International
Astronautical Federation  stated  that  it  would publish  a  collection  of
national judicial decisions relating to space activities.


             6.  Publication by States and international organizations
                 of international legal  instruments and  legal studies     
Under   paragraph  9  of   this  section   of  the   programme,  States  and
international organizations  should encourage  the publication  of important
international legal instruments and studies by highly qualified  publicists,
bearing in mind the possibility of assistance from private sources.

79.  UNITAR observed that it had just  published the fifth, entirely revised
edition  of  Shabtai Rosenne's  comprehensive  study  on the  structure  and
functioning  of  the  International  Court of  Justice,  entitled  The World
Court: What  it is  and how  it works.   Moreover,  publication is  expected

shortly of the report  on a research project conducted by the coordinator of
the UNITAR/IPA Fellowship Programme in Peacemaking and Preventive  Diplomacy
on the topic "The United Nations as a  dispute settlement system:  improving
mechanisms for the prevention and resolution of conflicts".

80.   UNESCO  stated  that  it  had  published  in  1994:    "Human  rights:
principal  international instruments  (as  of  31 May  1994); The  Universal
Declaration  of Human  Rights:   Forty-fifth  Anniversary,  1948-1993";  the
second  edition of  Access to  Human Rights  Documentation:   Documentation,
Bibliographies and Data Base on Human Rights; and Jiri Toman, La  protection
des biens culturels en cas de conflit arme (Commentaire de la Convention  de
La Haye du 14 mai 1954).

81.  FAO reported that it had published the following studies:   "Evaluation
des impacts sur l'environnement pour un  developpement rural durable:  etude
juridique";  "Regime juridique  du controle  et  de  la certification  de la
qualite  des denrees  alimentaires:   puissance  publique  et  producteurs";
"Preparing  national regulations for  water resources management -Principles
and  practice"; "Le  droit international et l'amenagement  du littoral"; and
"Legal and institutional  aspects of  integrated coastal area management  in
national legislation".   Moreover,  research was  in progress  on the  legal
aspects  of privatization  of water  services, with  emphasis  on irrigation
water use, and on  customary water rights in  African countries, which would
be published in the Legislative Studies series.

82.   AALCC observed that the reports of its annual sessions continued to be
published, also  including research studies prepared  by the secretariat  on
select topics.   The Consultative Committee  also published  the outcome and
proceedings  of the  special meeting  on developing  legal and institutional
guidelines for  privatization and  post-privatization regulatory  framework,
held  at Tokyo  in  January  1994, which  included  the draft  text of  such
guidelines.  The Secretariat  had taken steps to ensure the widest  possible
dissemination of the above publications in the Afro-Asian region.

83.    The  International  Bureau  of  the  Permanent  Court  of Arbitration
indicated  that,  as part  of  a  continuing  programme  aimed at  promoting
awareness of  the Court  and its  services, it  had sent  copies of the  PCA
Optional  Rules to the  legal advisers of the  ministries of foreign affairs
of  all  States Members  of the  United Nations,  as  well as  to the  legal
advisers of  the major  international organizations  and a  large number  of
private lawyers.  The proceedings of the first conference of members of  the
Court (September  1993),  published early  in  1994,  had also  been  widely
distributed.   The  International  Bureau  had also  contributed papers  and
articles  on  the  Court  to  a  number  of  conferences  and  publications,
including  a conference  on "International  legal issues  arising under  the
United Nations  Decade of International Law"  in Doha,  Qatar, (March 1994);
UN Forum  94/1, the  publication of  the Dutch  Association  for the  United
Nations; the Yearbook Commercial Arbitration;  the Venice Conference  on the
Environment;  the XIIIth  meeting of  the International  Association  of Law
Librarians  (The  Hague,   September  1994);  and  the  Leiden  Journal   of
International Law.

84.  ICRC reported that the work of  experts on the law of war at sea, which
had begun in 1987, had  led to the adoption in 1994  of the San  Remo manual
on international  law  applicable to  armed conflicts  at sea  and an  annex
entitled Explanation.  ICRC had taken an active  part in that work, and  the
Manual could be viewed as a modern version of the  Oxford manual on the laws
of naval war  adopted by  the Institute  of International Law  in 1913.   In
addition to  State practice, the new  Manual took  into account developments
in  modern  technology  and  their  effects  in  certain  areas  governed by
international law, such as the air, the sea and the environment.

85.  ICEL  indicated that it  had issued  the following  publications:   the
journal   Environmental   policy   and   law,   which  highlighted   current
developments in  the field; a  loose-leaf collection entitled  International
environmental  law:  multilateral   treaties  -  in  cooperation  with   the

Environmental  Law  Centre of  the IUCN;  a  loose-leaf collection  entitled
International  Environmental  Soft Law;  a  loose-leaf  collection  entitled
Conservation in  Sustainable Development  (formerly International Protection
of  the Environment);  the  bibliography ICEL  References;  and  the monthly
Environmental Notes  for Parliamentarians - in  cooperation with the  Inter-
Parliamentary Union.

86.    The  International  Institute  of  Space  Law  of  the  International
Astronautical  Federation  pointed  out  that  the  American  Institute   of
Aeronautics  and  Astronautics  published  the  proceedings  of  its  annual
colloquium.

          7.  Wider publication of the judgements and advisory opinions of
             international courts  and tribunals  and summaries thereof     
Under paragraph 10 of this section  of the programme, the  Secretary-General
of   the  United  Nations,   in  cooperation   with  the   Registry  of  the
International Court  of Justice,  is encouraged  to  update the  publication
Summaries  of   the  Judgments,   Advisory  Opinions  and   Orders  of   the
International  Court of  Justice (1949-1991), in all  the official languages
of   the   Organization   and   within  the   existing   overall   level  of
appropriations.

  Under  paragraph 11,  international courts  and tribunals,  including  the
European  Court  of Human  Rights  and  the  Inter-American  Court of  Human
Rights,  are  invited  to  disseminate  more  widely  their  judgements  and
advisory  opinions,  and  to  consider  preparing  thematic  or   analytical
summaries thereof.

87.   Updating  of the  publication  Summaries  of the  Judgments,  Advisory
Opinions  and Orders of  the International  Court of  Justice (1949-1991) to
cover the  period 1992-1995  is already  under way,  and is to  be completed
during the present term of the Decade.


            8.  Publication by international organizations of treaties
                concluded under their auspices, publication of the
                United Nations Treaty Series and the United Nations
                Juridical Yearbook  **  Under  paragraph 12 of this  section
of  the programme,  international  organizations are  requested  to  publish
treaties  concluded under  their auspices,  if  they have  not yet  done so.
Timely  publication of the  United Nations  Treaty Series  is encouraged and
efforts directed  towards adopting an  electronic form of publication should
be continued.  Timely publication of  the United Nations Juridical  Yearbook
is also encouraged.  

88.  UNEP  reported that it  disseminated the  texts of international  legal
instruments concluded under UNEP's auspices as  well as a biannual  Register
of  International  Treaties  and  Other  Agreements  in  the  Field  of  the
Environment   to   Governments,   intergovernmental   and   non-governmental
organizations and, upon request, to universities, research institutions  and
students.  It had thus disseminated the recently  adopted Code of Ethics  on
the  International Trade  in  Chemicals  to regional  and national  industry
associations  throughout  the world,  to  all  governments  and to  relevant
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations.

89.    ILO  observed   that  an  updated   edition  of  its  compendium   of
International Labour Conventions  and Recommendations would be published  in
late August 1995, to be followed by updated editions in French and Spanish.

90.    UNESCO  indicated  that it  had  published  the  Convention  for  the
Protection  of Cultural  Property  in the  Event of  Armed Conflict  and its
Protocol  and  had distributed  it  widely  in  a  four-language version  to
intergovernmental organizations,  delegations and  national commissions, and
also    to    research   establishments,    universities,   non-governmental
organizations and individuals who, for professional reasons, were  concerned
with international  and public law.  Moreover, it  published periodically an

updated   supplement   to   the    publication   UNESCO's   Standard-Setting
Instruments.

91.   Efforts have  continued to  be made  to eliminate  the backlog  in the
publication  of the  United Nations Juridical  Yearbook.  The  1990 and 1986
editions came  out in 1993  and 1994, respectively,  and the  1991, 1992 and
1987 editions are in  the press.   The calendar of production of  subsequent
editions provides  for submission of the  1993 edition by  the end of  1995,
the 1994 and 1988 editions  in 1996 and the 1995 and 1989 editions in  1997.
This calendar, under which work proceeds  simultaneously at both ends, will,
it is  to be hoped,  make it possible  to bridge  the gap and  eliminate the
backlog  by the end of 1997, while  at the same time keeping  readers of the
Yearbook abreast of contemporary developments.

92.  With the objective of ensuring an  effective service by providing  easy
access  to  its treaty  collection  (over  40,000  at  present), the  Treaty
Section of the  Office of Legal  Affairs is rapidly advancing  its programme
of  computerization of the United  Nations Treaty Series.   Funding has been
approved  by the General  Assembly for the  current biennium  to convert the
text of  the Treaty  Series to optical  disk format and  to provide  on-line
access to  text and  editorial data to Member  States and other users.   The
project is expected to be completed by the end of 1995.

93.   The publication  Multilateral Treaties  deposited with the  Secretary-
General, Status as at [31 December of each year],  which is now available on
electronic  format, will be  accessible on-line  to Member  States and other
users  in  the  course of  1995.    This  project  is  being implemented  in
conjunction  with   the  Electronic  Services   Division  Internet   access.
Consideration is being given to levying a fee from users.


E.  Procedures and organizational aspects

1.  Role of the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly
    of the United Nations                             

94.  No comments to be reported under this heading.


2.  The United  Nations Congress on  Public International Law  By  paragraph
10 of General Assembly resolution 48/30, the  Assembly decided that a United
Nations Congress  on Public International  Law should be  held in  1995.  By
paragraph 9 of its resolution 49/50 and paragraph  3 of this section of  the
programme, the Assembly requested the Secretary-General  to proceed with the
organization of  the Congress to  be held  from 13 to 17  March 1995, within
existing  resources and  assisted by  voluntary contributions,  taking  into
account the guidance  provided at the  forty-eighth and forty-ninth sessions
of the  General Assembly,  and to  keep the  Member States  informed of  the
status of the preparations.

95.  Pursuant to General Assembly resolutions 48/30  of 9 December 1993  and
49/50  of  9  December  1994,  the  Secretariat  proceeded, within  existing
resources and taking into account the  guidance provided at the forty-eighth
and forty-ninth sessions of the General  Assembly, with the organization  of
the United  Nations Congress  on Public  International Law  and kept  Member
States informed of  the status of the preparations.   The Congress was  held
at United Nations Headquarters from 13 to 17 March 1995, during the year  of
the  celebration  of the  Organization's  fiftieth  anniversary,  under  the
general theme:  "Towards  the twenty-first century:  international law as  a
language  for international relations".   The  purpose of  the Congress was,
inter alia, to assist the legal  profession, the international community, in
particular, States that have recently  joined it, and the  general public in
meeting the challenges and expectations of the present-day world.

96.  The Congress  was organized within the framework of the United  Nations
Decade  of  International  Law  and   it  marked  the   Decade's  mid-point.

Consequently, the  four aims  of the  Decade were  reflected in four  of the
five topics  which were  chosen for  the plenary  meetings of  the Congress.
The  first  topic,  which provided  the  theme  for  the  first  day of  the
Congress,  concerned "The principles of international law:   theoretical and
practical  aspects  of  their promotion  and  implementation".    The  topic
selected for the second day of the Congress  was entitled "Means of peaceful
settlement of disputes between States, including  resort to and full respect
for the  International Court  of Justice".  The  topic of the third  day was
entitled  "Conceptual  and   practical  aspects  of  the  codification   and
progressive  development   of  international   law:  new   developments  and
priorities".  The topic for the fourth day was "New approaches to  research,
education and  training in  the  field of  international law  and its  wider
appreciation".  Finally, the  fifth day of  the Congress was devoted to  the
theme "Towards the twenty-first century:  new challenges and expectations".

97.  The Congress, a unique event in the history of the United Nations,  was
opened  by the  Legal  Counsel of  the United  Nations  and closed  with  an
address  by  the   Secretary-General  of  the  Organization.    It   offered
participants,   including  members  of  parliaments,   diplomats  and  other
government  officials,   members  of  international  courts  and  tribunals,
national  and   international  judges,   arbitrators,  practising   lawyers,
professors of international law  and other members  of academe  representing
all geographical regions of  the world an  opportunity to exchange views  on
the  codification,  progressive  development  and  implementation  of public
international  law, both  in  theory  and in  practice,  as well  as on  its
teaching and dissemination.

98.    The  Secretariat  is  currently  compiling  the  proceedings  of  the
Congress.


             3.  Establishment of national, subregional and regional
                 committees  for implementation  of the  programme     Under
paragraph 5  of this  section  of the  programme, States  are encouraged  to
establish,  as  necessary, national,  subregional  and  regional  committees
which may assist in the implementation of the programme for the Decade.   

99.   The  Cook  Islands pointed  out that  while  there  was no  society of
international  law yet established  in the  Cook Islands,  the Government of
the  Cook Islands had  followed with  interest developments  relating to the
Decade and deliberations within the United Nations in relation thereto.


           4.  Question of the provision of adequate financing for the
               implementation  of  the  programme  for  the  Decade    Under
paragraph 6 of this  section of the programme, it is recognized that, within
the  existing overall  level of  appropriations, adequate  financing for the
implementation of the  programme for the Decade  is necessary and should  be
provided.     Voluntary   contributions   from   Governments,  international
organizations  and other  sources, including  the private  sector, would  be
useful and  are strongly encouraged.   To this  end, the  establishment of a
trust fund to be administered by  the Secretary-General might be  considered
by the General Assembly.       

100.   With reference to  paragraph 7 of General  Assembly resolution 49/50,
in which the  Assembly appealed, inter  alia, to international organizations
to make financial contributions or contributions  in kind for the purpose of
facilitating  the implementation of the programme for the  third term of the
Decade (1995-1996), UNESCO indicated that it  was pursuing this objective on
a general  level through the promotion  of international  cooperation in the
field of  international law,  and  more specifically,  was distributing  its
numerous publications world wide.



III.  ACTIVITIES OF THE UNITED NATIONS RELEVANT TO

      THE PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL
      LAW AND ITS CODIFICATION                   

A.  The law relating to human rights

Commission on  Human Rights -  Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination
and Protection of Minorities

101.  Currently, the Commission on Human  Rights is working, on the basis of
a study and a  draft body of principles  elaborated by the Subcommission, on
a draft  declaration  on  the rights  and responsibilities  of  individuals,
groups and organs of society to  promote and protect universally  recognized
human rights and fundamental freedoms; it  is also working on  a declaration
on the rights of indigenous peoples  on the basis of a draft prepared by the
Subcommission.   The Commission  is, moreover, elaborating a  draft optional
protocol  to the  Convention against  Torture  and  Other Cruel,  Inhuman or
Degrading  Treatment  or Punishment,  designed  to  establish  a  preventive
system of visits to places of detention.   It is also working on an optional
protocol to the Convention on  the Rights of the Child on the involvement of
children in armed conflicts and on a possible optional protocol to the  same
Convention  on   the  sale  of   children,  child   prostitution  and  child
pornography.   The Commission  is further  considering the  question of  the
elaboration, on  the basis of a  study prepared by  the Subcommission, of  a
third  optional   protocol  to  the  International  Covenant  on  Civil  and
Political Rights aimed at guaranteeing under  all circumstances the right to
a  fair trial and a remedy,  as well as the question of minimum humanitarian
standards.

102.   The Subcommission  is studying  a number  of questions,  such as  the
right to restitution, compensation and  rehabilitation for victims  of gross
violations  of human rights  and fundamental  freedoms and  human rights and
the environment.

  Commission on the Status of Women

103.   The Commission  is considering  the elaboration  of a  draft optional
protocol  to   the  Convention   on  the   Elimination  of   All  Forms   of
Discrimination against Women  that would introduce  the right of individuals
to  petition the  treaty's  monitoring body  in cases  of violations  of the
Convention.


B.  The law relating to disarmament

Conference of the Parties  to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear
Weapons

104.  The 1995 Review and Extension  Conference of the Parties to the Treaty
on the Non-Proliferation of  Nuclear Weapons decided on 11 May to extend the
Treaty indefinitely.   The  Conference also adopted  texts on  strengthening
the review process for the  Treaty, on principles and objectives for nuclear
non-proliferation and disarmament  and on  the creation  of a  zone free  of
nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East.

 Conference on Disarmament

105.  The Conference on Disarmament  is currently working on the elaboration
of  a  comprehensive  and  verifiable  nuclear  test-ban  treaty.    It also
recently established an ad hoc committee for the negotiation of a treaty  on
the prohibition  of the production of  fissile material  for nuclear weapons
and  other nuclear explosive  devices.   The Conference  is further pursuing
its deliberations  on effective  international arrangements  to assure  non-
nuclear-weapon States against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons.


C.  The law relating to outer space

106.  The Legal Subcommittee of  the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer
Space  is currently  continuing,  inter alia,  its consideration  of matters
relating to  the  definition and  delimitation of  outer  space  and to  the
character   and   utilization   of  the   geostationary   orbit,   including
consideration of ways and means to ensure the rational and equitable use  of
the geostationary orbit without prejudice to  the role of the  International
Telecommunication Union, as well as its  consideration of the legal  aspects
related  to  the application  of  the  principle  that  the exploration  and
utilization of outer space should be carried  out for the benefit and in the
interest  of  all  States,  taking  into  particular  account  the  needs of
developing countries.


D.  The law relating to economic development

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

107.      The  Joint   UNCTAD/International   Maritime  Organization   (IMO)
Intergovernmental  Group  of Experts  on Maritime  Liens  and Mortgages  and
Related  Subjects, at  its  seventh session,  held at  Geneva  from 5  to  9
December 1994, began  the consideration of the  possible review of the  1952
International Convention for the  Unification of Certain  Rules Relating  to
the Arrest of Seagoing Ships.

108.    The  United  Nations  Conference   on  Natural  Rubber  adopted  the
International Natural Rubber Agreement on 17 February 1995.


E.  The law relating to international trade

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

109.   The United Nations  Commission on International Trade  Law adopted at
its twenty-eighth session a  draft convention on  independent guarantees and
stand-by letters  of credit.  UNCITRAL  is also continuing  work on a  draft
model law  on legal  aspects of  electronic data  exchange in  international
trade.


F.  The law relating to crime prevention and criminal justice

110.    The  Commission  on  Crime   Prevention  and  Criminal  Justice   is
considering  the   question  of   the   elaboration  of   a  convention   on
transnational  crimes   not  already  covered   by  existing   international
instruments and  a convention against illicit  trafficking in  children.  It
is  also  working  on  a  draft  code of  conduct  aimed  at  preventing the
corruption of public officials.


G.  The law relating to environment

United Nations Environment Programme

111.    UNEP  is   continuing  its  work  towards  the  development  of   an
international  legally binding  instrument for the application  of the prior
informed consent procedure for certain hazardous chemicals in  international
trade, in  cooperation with other  relevant international organizations  and
taking  into  account  the need  to  harmonize  the  provisions  of  such an
instrument  with relevant  international  trade  rules (see  also  para.  40
above).

112.  Regarding protection of the  marine environment, the Global  Programme
of  Action for  the Protection  of  the  Marine Environment  from Land-based
Activities,  expected to  be adopted  at an intergovernmental  conference on
the  subject to be  held in Washington, D.C., from  23 October to 3 November
1995,  would  contribute   to  the  effective  implementation  of   relevant

provisions of the 1982 United Nations  Convention on the Law of  the Sea and
various regional maritime conventions and protocols.

113.  UNEP  assisted, through its coordinating  role, in the development  of
the  Lusaka Agreement  on  Cooperative Enforcement  Operations  directed  at
Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora, concluded  on 9 September 1994, which
is the first regional agreement on  enforcement measures to counter  illegal
trade in wildlife in Africa.

114.  UNEP is  further preparing a study on  the need for and feasibility of
new   international   environmental   instruments   aimed   at   sustainable
development.


H.  The law of the sea

115.  The significant  development in the area of  the law of the sea during
1995 centred around the establishment of  the three institutions called  for
under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.   The other major
development  during the  year  was the  adoption of  the  Agreement  for the
implementation  of  the  provisions  of   the  Convention  relating  to  the
conservation  and management of straddling fish stocks  and highly migratory
fish stocks.

116.     The  Convention   authorizes   the  establishment   of  three   new
institutions,  the   International  Seabed   Authority,  the   International
Tribunal for  the Law  of the Sea  and the Commission  on the Limits  of the
Continental Shelf.

 117.   Two organizational  meetings of  the Assembly  of the  International
Seabed Authority were held during 1995.  At the first meeting, held from  27
February to  17 March, the  Assembly elected its  President and adopted  its
rules of procedure. The Assembly also  devoted substantial attention to  the
composition  and election of  the members  of the Council but  was unable to
come  to a  final  agreement  on the  matter.   The  second  meeting,  which
constituted the third and final part of the  first session of the  Assembly,
was  held in Jamaica from 7 to 18 August 1995.  At that meeting the Assembly
was expected to  set up the Council and  elect the Secretary-General of  the
Authority.  The Council is one of the  two main organs of the Authority, the
other being the Assembly.  The  Assembly consists of all the  parties to the
Convention as well as all those States which have agreed to the  provisional
application of the 1994 Agreement relating to the implementation  of Part XI
of  the United Nations  Convention on the  Law of the  Sea. 2/   The Council
will consist  of 36  members elected by  the Assembly, reflecting  four main
elements:   States with a  special interest in  deep seabed  mining, such as
the largest consumers or largest producers  of the categories of minerals to
be  mined from the seabed; States that have  pioneered large investments and
activity in the Area; developing countries  with special interests, such  as
land-locked   or   populous   States;   and   an   equitable    geographical
representation,  as well  as  a  balance between  developed  and  developing
States.

118.  Two  Meetings of States Parties to  the Convention were scheduled  for
1995, to  deal with  organizational matters and  practical arrangements  for
the establishment  of the  Tribunal.  An  earlier Meeting of  States Parties
was  held in November 1994  at which a  decision was  taken to postpone once
only the  election of  the judges,  bearing in  mind the  desire to  achieve
universal participation  in the Convention and  the provisions  of annex VI,
articles 2 and 3,  of the Convention. 3/   The Meeting also decided that the
elections of  judges for  the Tribunal would  be held on  1 August 1996  and
requested the Secretary-General to  designate a United  Nations staff member
to  be charged  with  making  preparations  of a  practical  nature for  the
organization  of the  Tribunal, including  the establishment  of a  library.
That request was subsequently endorsed by the General Assembly.

119.   The States parties held the second Meeting in New  York from 15 to 19

May 1995 and decided  on a series  of organizational matters, including  the
official languages of the  Tribunal, which will be English and French.   The
States parties also decided  to discuss the initial  budget of the  Tribunal
at  the next Meeting,  which will be held in New  York from 27 November to 1
December 1995. 4/

120.  The third  institution envisaged under  the Law of the Sea  Convention
is the  Commission on  the Limits of  the Continental Shelf.   A meeting  of
group  of experts  is  scheduled to  be  held in  New  York from  11  to  14
September 1995 in order to assist the Secretariat in finalizing the  working
papers  which would  facilitate the  start-up activities  of the Commission.
The  States parties  will meet in  New York on  29 April  to 10  May 1996 to
elect the members of the Commission.

121.  Another major development in the law of the sea  was the adoption on 4
August  1995 of  the Agreement for  the Implementation of  the Provisions of
the United Nations  Convention on the  Law of  the Sea  of 10 December  1982
relating to  the Conservation and Management  of Straddling  Fish Stocks and
Highly  Migratory  Fish Stocks.  5/   The  Agreement  was elaborated  by the
United  Nations Conference  on Straddling  Fish Stocks  and Highly Migratory
Fish Stocks, which had been convened by the  General Assembly in response to
a  recommendation of  the  United  Nations  Conference  on  Environment  and
Development in its Agenda 21, chapter 17, programme area C.

122.  The elements of the Agreement are the following:

  -Basic   principles   and   minimum   international  standards   for   the
conservation and management of the fish stocks;

  -Obligations to ensure  the compatibility  of measures  taken both  within
and outside areas under national jurisdiction;

  -Effective  mechanisms  for   securing  compliance   and  enforcement   of
regionally and  globally agreed  management measures  through enhanced  flag
State duties and a scheme for boarding and inspection by non-flag States  on
the high seas;

  -A  globally agreed  framework  for stronger  regional cooperation  in the
conservation and management of fisheries  resources, taking into account the
requirements of developing States;

  -A   compulsory  binding   dispute  settlement   mechanism  which   relies
essentially on the UNCLOS system.

123.  The  Agreement will  be opened  for signature on  4 December 1995  and
will  enter  into force  30  days  after the  date  of  the  deposit of  the
thirtieth instrument of ratification or accession.


I.  Work of the International Law Commission

124.    At its  forty-seventh session,  the  Commission  dealt with  all the
topics on its agenda.

125.   As regards the draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of
Mankind,  the Commission received  from the  Drafting Committee  a number of
articles adopted on second reading by  the Committee.  Noting, however, that
those texts  were  of  an  interim character  and  should  in any  event  be
accompanied by commentaries, it  decided to defer the final adoption of  the
texts  in question  until after  the  Drafting  Committee had  completed its
second reading of the entire draft.

126.   In connection with the  topic "State  responsibility" the Commission,
after  considering the Special Rapporteur's seventh report which was devoted
to the question of the legal  consequences of internationally wrongful  acts
characterized as crimes in article 19  of Part One of the  draft, decided to

refer the draft articles  contained therein to the  Drafting Committee.  The
Commission furthermore  adopted for inclusion in  Part Three of  the draft a
set of  seven articles and  an annex thereto  on the  settlement of disputes
arising out of the interpretation and  application of the future  convention
on the topic.

127.     Concerning  the  topic   "International  liability  for   injurious
consequences arising out of acts not  prohibited by international law",  the
Commission, after considering the tenth and  eleventh reports of the Special
Rapporteur, established  a Working Group  under the topic  to deal with  the
identification  of dangerous  activities.   The  conclusions of  the Working
Group were endorsed by  the Commission in an  amended form.   The Commission
furthermore  adopted   four  articles  concerning   the  general  principles
applicable in  this area of the  law, namely articles  A (Freedom of  action
and  the limits  thereto), B  (Prevention) and  D (Cooperation)  plus, as  a
working hypothesis, article C on liability and reparation.

128.   The  Commission also  started  its consideration  of two  new topics,
namely, "The  law and  practice relating  to reservations  to treaties"  and
"State succession and  its impact on  the nationality of  natural and  legal
persons".

129.  As to its future programme of work, the Commission decided to  propose
to  the  General  Assembly  "Diplomatic  protection"  as  a  new  topic  for
inclusion in  its agenda  and to  prepare a  feasibility study on  the topic
provisionally entitled  "Rights and duties of  States for  the protection of
the environment".


             J.  Work of the Special Committee on the Charter of the
                 United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role
                 of the Organization                               

130.   At its 1995 session, the  Special Committee continued its work on the
basis  of  the  mandate  contained  in   paragraph  4  of  General  Assembly
resolution 49/58 of  9 December 1994.   It  completed and  submitted to  the
Assembly  for  consideration  draft  United  Nations  Model  Rules  for  the
Conciliation  of  Disputes  between  States.    The Special  Committee  also
continued  its work  on the  question of  the implementation of  the Charter
provisions  related  to  assistance   to  third  States   affected  by   the
application of sanctions under Chapter VII of the Charter.  In addition,  it
examined the question  of the deletion  of the  enemy State  clauses of  the
Charter,  and started  consideration of  a  proposal  on establishment  of a
dispute settlement service  offering or responding  with its  services early
in disputes.


K.  Work of the Sixth Committee

131.  As  regards the progressive  development of international law  and its
codification,  the  Sixth  Committee,  at  the forty-ninth  session  of  the
General Assembly, completed the  elaboration of what subsequently became the
Convention on  the  Safety  of  United  Nations  and  Associated  Personnel,
adopted by the General Assembly on 9 December 1994.

132.   Concerning  the draft  statute  for  an international  criminal court
elaborated  in  1994  by  the  International  Law  Commission,  the  General
Assembly  decided,  on  the  recommendation  of  the   Sixth  Committee,  to
establish  an  ad  hoc  Committee  to   review  the  major  substantive  and
administrative issues  arising out of  the draft and,  in the  light of that
review,  to consider  arrangements  for  the convening  of an  international
conference of plenipotentiaries (resolution 49/53 of  9 December 1994).  The
Committee met from 3 to 13 April and from 14 to 25 August 1995.

133.   As regards the draft articles on the law of the non-navigational uses
of  international watercourses  also originating  in the  International  Law

Commission,  the General  Assembly decided  that,  at  the beginning  of its
fifty-first session, the Sixth Committee shall  convene from 7 to 25 October
1996 as a  Working Group of the Whole to elaborate a framework convention on
the law  of the non-navigational uses  of international  watercourses on the
basis of  the draft articles and  in the light of  the written comments  and
observations of States  and views expressed in the debate at the forty-ninth
session of the Assembly (resolution 49/52 of 9 December 1994).

134.   With respect to  the draft articles on  the jurisdictional immunities
of States and their property completed  by the International Law  Commission
in 1991, the General Assembly accepted  the recommendation of the Commission
for the  convening of an international  conference to  conclude a convention
on  the  subject  and  decided  to   resume  at  its  fifty-second   session
consideration of the issues of substance arising out  of the draft articles,
in  the light of  the reports of  the Working Group  on the  subject and the
comments submitted by States thereon, and  to determine, at its fifty-second
or  fifty-third session,  the arrangements  for the  conference  (resolution
49/61 of 9 December 1994).

135.   The General Assembly,  on the recommendation of  the Sixth Committee,
also  adopted two declarations:   the  Declaration on  Measures to Eliminate
International  Terrorism  (resolution  49/60 of  9  December  1994)  and the
Declaration on  the Enhancement  of Cooperation between  the United  Nations
and Regional  Arrangements or  Agencies in the Maintenance  of International
Peace  and  Security,  elaborated   within  the  framework  of  the  Special
Committee on the Charter (resolution 49/57 of 9 December 1994).


Notes

  1/   The Convention, opened  for signature  on 15  December 1992,  entered
into force on 5 December 1994 with 12 ratifications.

  2/  See A/49/323, paras. 175 and 176.

  3/  See SPLOS/3, para. 10.

  4/  See SPLOS/4, para. 43.

  5/  A/CONF.164/37.


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