United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

11 September 1995


Fiftieth session
Item 99 (b) of the provisional agenda*


State of South-South cooperation

Report of the Secretary-General


Chapter    Paragraphs  Page

Foreword .....................................................1 - 44

  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM ......................5 - 225

  A.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations ............................................6 - 75

  B.  Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for
    Desertification ....................................8 - 96

  C.  International Labour Organization .................. 106

  D.  International Trade Centre ......................... 117

  E.  United Nations Centre for Human Settlements
    (Habitat) .......................................... 127

  F.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development .13 - 158


  *  A/50/150.

95-27809 (E)   131095/...
CONTENTS (continued)

Chapter    Paragraphs  Page

  G.  United Nations Development Programme ............... 168

  H.  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
    Organization ....................................... 179

  I.  United Nations Environment Programme ............... 189

  J.  United Nations Industrial Development Organization . 1910

  K.  United Nations Population Fund .....................20 - 2110

  L.  United Nations regional commissions ................ 2211

  MONETARY AND FINANCIAL COOPERATION .....................23 - 6211

  A.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations ............................................23 - 2511

  B.  International Trade Centre .........................26 - 3112

  C.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development .32 - 3715

  D.  United Nations Development Programme ...............38 - 4117

  E.  United Nations regional commissions ................42 - 6019

  F.  World Bank .........................................61 - 6224


  A.  International Trade Centre .........................63 - 6425  

  B.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development .65 - 6625

  C.  United Nations Development Programme ...............67 - 6926

  D.  United Nations Industrial Development Organization .70 - 7327

  E.  World Bank ......................................... 7428

  F.  International Labour Organization ..................75 - 7828


  A.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations ............................................79 - 8529
 CONTENTS (continued)

Chapter    Paragraphs  Page

  B.  United Nations Development Programme .............86 - 8732

  C.  World Bank ....................................... 8832

  AND TECHNOLOGY .......................................89 - 12233

  A.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations ..........................................89 - 9033

  B.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development  9133

  C.  United Nations Development Programme .............92 - 9334

  D.  United Nations Educational, Scientific and
    Cultural Organization ............................94 - 12134

  E.  United Nations Population Fund ................... 12242


  A.  Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for
    Desertification ..................................123 - 12642

  B.  United Nations Environment Programme .............127 - 13743

  C.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations ..........................................138 - 14246

  D.  United Nations Development Programme ............. 14347



  A.  United Nations Development Programme .............162 - 16452

  B.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations ..........................................165 - 16653

/...  A/50/340/Add.1



1.     The  promotion  and  strengthening  of   economic  cooperation  among
developing   countries/technical  cooperation   among  developing  countries
(ECDC/TCDC) is a priority in the  United Nations development system, working
closely with Governments,  intergovernmental organizations for ECDC/TCDC and
other ECDC actors.  Significantly, South-South  cooperation is probably  one
of  the areas  in  which  the United  Nations has  particular  relevance and
potential,  and where the  proposed United Nations conference on South-South
cooperation will  offer a  major opportunity for  the system as  a whole  to
display its ability to adapt to new  and emerging challenges and to  come up
with practical solutions to increased ECDC/TCDC.

2.  The policy commitment of the United Nations  to ECDC/TCDC is reviewed in
the  first chapter  of  the  present report.    In keeping  with its  policy
commitment to  ECDC/TCDC, the United Nations  development system  has in the
past  supported a wide  range of  initiatives designed  to promote increased
South-South  cooperation. Examples  of such  activities are provided  in the
subsequent chapters.

3.   The review  of policy  commitment and  activities in support  of South-
South   cooperation  is   organized  by   major  subject   area  and/or   by
agencies/organizations,  listed  alphabetically.    It  is by  no  means  an
exhaustive  review,  but  rather  an  illustrative  one.    In  citing these
examples, one  would not  wish to  lose sight  of the  fact that  it is  the
developing countries  themselves which  are the prime  movers of  ECDC/TCDC.
The  United Nations  development system  perceives its  role as  being  of a
catalytic and supportive nature as well as, to the extent feasible,  dynamic
and innovative in developing new concepts and approaches.   It will have  to

be  recognized   that  in   many  of   the  United   Nations  agencies   and
organizations,  activities in  support  of ECDC/TCDC  are  implemented  with
technical  and financial  support  from  the  developed countries  (such  as
contributions to  trust funds).  Support  to South-South  cooperation by the
United Nations therefore has an element of North-South cooperation as well.

4.   Broadly  speaking, the  ECDC/TCDC  support  activities executed  by the
United Nations system  include compilation and dissemination of  information
on  TCDC capacities  and needs  as well  as their  matching;  orientation of
national  and United  Nations staff on TCDC/ECDC  mechanisms and procedures;
identification of "success  stories" and unique experiences and promotion of
their  adoption  and adaptation  elsewhere;  use  of  developing  countries'
inputs  (experts,   training  facilities,   equipment)  in  programmes   and
projects; promotion  of linkages between  professionals and institutions  as
well as  close collaboration  with regional  and subregional  organizations;
support   for  subregional   and   regional  integration   initiatives   and
organizations; promoting  South-South trade  expansion by  way of  improving
trade  and monetary  and financial  cooperation and  related services;  and,
through  the  ECDC/TCDC modality,  promote  sectoral  development objectives
like food  security and agriculture,  education and culture,  communications
and technology, environment and population.


5.   The  United Nations  development  system has  incorporated  South-South
cooperation  activities  in its  work as  recommended  by various  meetings/
conferences/declarations  including:   the Buenos  Aires Plan  of Action for
Promoting and Implementing Technical Cooperation among Developing  Countries
(1978); the  relevant resolutions of the General Assembly such  as 44/211 of
22  December  1989  stressing  the  need  to  increase  and  strengthen  the
promotion and  implementation  of  technical  cooperation  among  developing
countries  on  a  priority  basis;  decisions  of  the  Economic  and Social
Council;  recommendations of the  legislative bodies  of the  various United
Nations development agencies; and the Report  of the South Commission (1990)
which gave  strong support  to ECDC/TCDC. The  promotion of  ECDC/TCDC is  a
central  mandate and feature  of the  development activities  of many United
Nations development agencies, while in  others development programmes at the
regional level are implemented which contribute  to enhancing ECDC and TCDC.
This  can be  gleaned from  the discussion  in this  chapter on  the  policy
commitment and approach to ECDC/TCDC of  a selected number of  organizations
of the United Nations system (listed alphabetically).

A.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

6.  FAO regards South-South cooperation as a  key element in the  developing
countries'   search   for  collective   self-reliance   and   an   essential
contribution to  the necessary  structural changes required  for a  balanced
and equitable process of world economic  development.  Accordingly, ECDC and
TCDC are among  the priorities  of FAO's  activities under  its regular  and
field programmes, with  FAO's governing bodies,  the FAO  General Conference
and Council,  and the respective FAO  regional conferences giving  continued
attention to  the matter.  The Medium Term  Plan 1994-1999, approved  by the
Twenty-seventh  session of  the FAO  Conference (November  1993), provides a
general framework  for FAO's future  support to  TCDC/ECDC as cross-sectoral
thematic priorities.   The  Conference underlined  the need  for support  to
both TCDC and ECDC to be continued and intensified.

7.  FAO's support to TCDC has concentrated on key areas in  the broad fields
of land and water development, dairy  and animal production, crop production
and protection, fisheries,  forestry, nutrition and rural development.   The
support  has  encompassed   several  means:    inter-country  consultations,
training  workshops,  seminars  and  study  tours  designed to  promote  the
exchange of  experience and  technical knowledge;  expansion of  information

systems to disseminate TCDC data; and  support to regional organizations and
networks.   FAO  established  a TCDC  focal point  in  January 1979;  as  of
January 1992 the focal point had assumed the  coordinating role for ECDC  as
well and is assisted by a network of  focal points in the various  divisions
and regional offices  as well as by the  FAO representatives at the  country
level.   A TCDC agreement on the use of experts is among the new initiatives
launched  by FAO to increase  the effectiveness and  impact of programmes in
developing countries.   The scheme calls for  a sharing of  expenses between
the country  providing the experts,  the beneficiary  country and  FAO.   By
June 1995, more  than 60 countries had signed  the agreement with FAO and  a
large number of other countries have  expressed interest and are  completing
their internal  consultative  procedures to  join  the  scheme.   A  similar
scheme has been launched  by FAO to promote technical cooperation in the use
of the experts among countries in transition in  Central and Eastern Europe.
Both  agreements  provide  for the  use  of  an  expert  from  a country  in
transition by a developing country and vice versa.

B.  Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for Desertification

8.   INCD adopted  on 17 June 1994  the United Nations Convention  to Combat
Desertification  in  those  Countries  Experiencing  Serious Drought  and/or
Desertification,  particularly in  Africa.   The Convention  was opened  for
signature in Paris,  on 14 and  15 October  1994.   The Convention  contains
four  regional implementation annexes:   the  African, the  Asian, the Latin
American and Caribbean and the Northern Mediterranean annex.

9.  The  benefits to be  derived from cooperation among  affected developing
countries, and the importance of such  cooperation, were recognized from the
early days  of the negotiations.   Accordingly, the  Convention now provides
for such cooperation in many areas  including:  (i) environmental protection
and the  conservation  of land  and  water  resources; (ii)  preparation  of
subregional   and/or   action   programmes;  (iii)   transfer,  acquisition,
adaptation and  development  of environmentally  sound, economically  viable
and socially acceptable  technologies; (iv) protection  and use  of relevant
traditional  local  technology,   knowledge,  know-how  and  practices;  (v)
exchange  of  information on  local and  traditional  knowledge; (vi)  joint
research for  the development of  technologies for sustainable  development;
and  (vii)  public  awareness  and  education  programmes.  Generally,   the
Convention  corrupts developed countries to support the  efforts of affected
developing  countries   in  combating  desertification  and  mitigating  the
effects  of  drought,  including  through  the  mobilization  of   financial
resources. However, at the same time,  the Convention (art. 20.6) encourages
other Parties  to provide,  on a  voluntary basis,  knowledge, know-how  and
techniques related  to desertification and/or  financial resources to  these
affected  developing  countries.     The  wording  "other  Parties"   covers
developing  countries which are  in a  position to  provide assistance  of a
financial or  technical nature in  all or some  of the  areas of cooperation
outline above.

C.  International Labour Organization

10.    The  80th  Session  (1993)  of  the  International  Labour Conference
reaffirmed  the  commitment   of  the  organization  to  further   fostering
technical cooperation among  developing countries.   The Governing Body,  in
its turn, re-endorsed  this policy when  it examined,  at its 261st  Session
(November  1994),  the  future  strategy  for  ILO's  technical  cooperation
programmes.    ILO  attaches  particular  importance  to  the  promotion  of
TCDC/ECDC, in  particular  through funds  made available  under its  regular
budget technical  cooperation.  These have  contributed to  the creation and
activities of  a  network of  regional  programmes  and centres  which  have
recently  been  replaced  by  14  multidisciplinary  teams  operating  on  a
subregional  basis.   Additionally,  because of  its  tripartite  character,
efforts are made by ILO to promote TCDC among the "social partners":  worker
and employer  organizations.  The  thrust of the effort  is towards creating

an enabling  capacity within  these organizations  in developing  countries,
principally   through  provision   of  grants,   fellowships  and   training
activities. Lately, ILO has been intensifying  efforts to involve the social
partners and  other local NGOs  in activities for  the elimination of  child
labour.   It  is expected  that  the  organizations participating  in  these
activities will  extend services to other  organizations in  need of support
in the same country or subregion.

D.  International Trade Centre

11.  ITC supports South-South cooperation  at the operational level,  rather
than through analysis and policy advice.   ITC's approach to trade promotion
between  developing  countries  is  based  on   three  pillars:    (i)   the
identification  of trading  opportunities,  particularly at  the subregional
and  regional  levels;  (ii)   assistance  to  economic  operators  to  take
advantage of those opportunities; and (iii)  support for the improvement  of
trade  promotion  infrastructure, such  as  trade  information  systems  and
institutional  networks  at  the  subregional,  regional  and  interregional
levels.  The low  level of trade among developing countries in general,  and
sometimes between countries in the same  geographical area in particular, is
often interpreted  to signify the  absence of  South-South trade  potential.
ITC is of a different  view and has in many instances been able to  identify
and  quantify  trading opportunities,  pointing  to  trade  potentials  that
exceed  current trade levels by several times.   The importance ITC attaches
to South-South trade promotion, ECDC and TCDC is illustrated clearly in  the
composition  of  inputs  to,  and  inputs  of,  its  technical   cooperation
activities. A large percentage  of the experts hired by ITC are nationals of
developing countries - 38 per cent  in 1993 - and account for 45 per cent of
all  related work-months during  the year.   A growing  number of developing
countries provide direct trust fund contributions; these contributions  more
than doubled between 1991 and 1993. 

E.  United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)

12.   ECDC/TCDC is  central to  the mandate and functions  of UNCHS, and has
been  promoted in a  number of ways.   In  the selection  of consultants and
project personnel, UNCHS  takes into  account their  technical capacity  and
working  experience  in  developing  countries.    UNCHS  operates  with  an
extensive roster  of experts, many of  whom come  from developing countries.
Consequently, the  vast majority  of its  consultants and project  personnel
are drawn from developing  country expertise.  In  addition, close to 60 per
cent of  the equipment  and subcontracts in  its projects are  procured from
developing countries.    The  fact  that UNCHS  has  its headquarters  in  a
developing country  (Kenya) greatly  facilitates the  promotion of  economic
and technical cooperation among developing countries.

 F.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

13.   UNCTAD has  been associated  with ECDC  as far  back as  1968 when  it
established a special programme on trade  expansion and economic integration
among developing countries.  The activities carried out by UNCTAD fall  into
two  major  categories:    first,  intellectual  underpinning  for  ECDC  is
provided  through research,  analysis  and suggestions  which have  played a
role in shaping the ECDC debate over the  past decades; second, advisory and
technical  assistance is  provided  to help  establish  ECDC  programmes and
institutions and implement cooperation activities in Africa, Asia and  Latin
America  and  the  Caribbean.    The   activities  are  aimed  primarily  at
strengthening  subregional  and   regional  economic   integration  and   at
facilitating  and expanding South-South  trade, as  well as  contributing to
strengthening   monetary   and   financial   cooperation  among   developing
countries,  encouraging  and  facilitating   cooperation  among   developing
country  enterprises   in  support  of   South-South  trade  expansion   and
technology cooperation programmes.

14.   The eighth  session of  UNCTAD held  in 1992  at Cartagena,  Colombia,
placed ECDC firmly as  one of the core  activities of UNCTAD  in the  period
ahead and established  a Standing  Committee on  Economic Cooperation  among
Developing Countries.   The Standing  Committee held  three sessions  (1993,
1994  and 1995). At its first session the Standing Committee established its
programme of work  dealing with the  promotion and expansion of  trade among
developing  countries,  the encouragement  of  enterprise  cooperation,  the
strengthening of subregional and regional integration  and the fostering  of
interregional  cooperation,  the  enlargement  and  deepening  of  monetary,
financial  and  investment  cooperation   among  developing  countries,  the
establishment   of  regular  consultations   between  participants  in  ECDC
programmes and projects and  the donor community, as  well as the  review of
technical support, assistance and skill development.

15.  At its second and third sessions, the Standing Committee,  as a policy-
making  intergovernmental  body,   reviewed  and  monitored  the   different
components  of  its  work  programme  and  made  recommendations  for  their
implementation.   To deal with  regular consultations, an  intergovernmental
group of experts  met in 1994 and  made recommendations which  were endorsed
by the Standing Committee at  its second session the same  year.  The  third
session  was held from 19 to  23 June 1995  and, as requested by the General
Assembly in  resolution 49/96,  its outcome  was taken into  account by  the
intergovernmental meeting of experts  which met in New York from 31 July  to
4 August  1995, in order to  formulate recommendations  for expanding South-
South  cooperation.    For  its  part,   the  UNCTAD  secretariat  has  been
implementing  the work  programme  through research  and  studies,  advisory
missions, seminars, technical assistance and other suitable means.

G.  United Nations Development Programme

16.  The promotion of ECDC/TCDC has been  a priority of UNDP since  the mid-
1970s following  the  adoption by  the UNDP  Governing Council  of the  "new
dimensions"  decision  in 1975.    The  United  Nations  Conference on  TCDC
(September 1978) assigned a  special role to UNDP for the promotion of  TCDC
(while also  supporting ECDC initiatives).   Since then  UNDP has  sought to
pursue  a  systematic  programme  of  TCDC  in  support  of  the development
objectives  of the developing countries.  At the same time emphasis has been
placed  on  increased  utilization  of   the  technical  resources   of  the
developing  countries in  traditional technical  cooperation  activities and
building  up centres of excellence in  the South.  In its  decision 90/34 of
June 1990, the  Governing Council of UNDP identified  TCDC as one of the six
priority themes  for technical  cooperation in  its Fifth  Programming Cycle
(1992-1996).   The Special Unit on  TCDC was created  within UNDP which  has
prime responsibility  for promoting TCDC.   In addition  to providing direct
support  to  South-South cooperation  through promoting  TCDC, UNDP,  as the
major funding organization of  the United Nations, plays  a crucial role  in
the  technical assistance  provided by  all  the United  Nations development
bodies for development  activities including those pertaining to  ECDC/TCDC.
A particularly significant  development in the area  of TCDC during 1995 was
the  endorsement by  the ninth  session of  the High-level  Committee on the
Review of  Technical Cooperation  among Developing  Countries (New  York, 30
May-2 June 1995)  of the recommendations as contained  in the report on  new
directions  for technical cooperation among  developing countries (TCDC/9/3)
which  calls for  a more  strategic  focus  for technical  cooperation among
developing  countries and on  selecting priority  issues, such  as trade and
investment,  debt,  the  environment,  poverty  alleviation, production  and
employment, macroeconomic policy coordination, as well as eduction,  health,
transfer  of  technology  and  rural  development,  other  institutions  and
entities in both the public and  private sectors, particularly in  developed
countries,  to incorporate  the  new directions  for  technical  cooperation
among developing countries into their programmes for technical cooperation.

                  H.  United Nations Educational, Scientific and
                      Cultural Organization

17.   UNESCO has  undertaken a  number of activities  and initiatives within
the framework of South-South cooperation in  the areas of education, natural
sciences, culture and communication.  With  respect to natural sciences, for
example, the first of a newsletter  of the South-South cooperation programme
on environmentally  sound socio-economic development  in the humid  tropics,
entitled "South-South  Perspectives",  was launched  in October  1994.   The
newsletter  is  a  joint  effort  of  UNESCO,  the  Man  and  the  Biosphere
programme,  the  United Nations  University  and  the  Third World  Academy.
UNESCO is  executing  over 50  national  and  regional projects  within  the
framework  of South-South cooperation.  These projects, which concern mainly
education and which are executed in  the least developed countries, financed
mainly from funds provided by regional  development banks or from  funds-in-
trust, represent  a total  budget of  US$ 8,194,000  of which  US$ 4,149,000
were foreseen for execution during 1994.

I.  United Nations Environment Programme

18.  UNEP does not have many activities which can be categorized  as TCDC in
the  traditional sense.   UNEP, however,  has quite  extensive programmes at
the  regional level,  many of  which  would enhance  the direct  and  mutual
collaboration  among  developing  countries  or  foster  the  generation  of
regional  common positions on  important political  agenda issues.   UNEP is
also undergoing  a transition  with a  view to  becoming more  proactive and
responsive to the needs of countries.  One of  the most important changes is
what could be called regional integration:  strengthening of UNEP's regional
offices,  integration  of  programming  between  the  regional  offices  and
headquarters  and increased regional delivery of UNEP's activities.  Through
their  daily contacts  with  Governments, UNEP's  regional  offices  provide
information  and,  whenever relevant,  liaise  with  the programme  units at
headquarters for information and assistance.  In  addition, regional offices
have  a limited amount  of scholarships  and consultancy  funds available to
Governments  upon  their  request.   Normally, such  assistance  is provided
through bilateral negotiation/discussion between  the environmental ministry
and the regional director.

J.  United Nations Industrial Development Organization

19.   Given the prevailing limited  resources for  development purposes, the
value  of  ECDC/TCDC  as  a  vehicle   for  the  industrial  advancement  of
developing  countries is fully  recognized by  UNIDO.   Its Medium-Term Plan
(1996-2001)  places  considerable   emphasis  on  ECDC/TCDC  programmes  and
activities.   The programme draws  its inspiration from the  need to develop
capacity  and  self-reliance in  developing  countries.    To  that end,  it
attempts to stimulate and support industrial  development through the use of
ECDC and TCDC mechanisms  such as cooperation at  the enterprise level,  the
development and  implementation of investment promotion programmes, transfer
of  technology  and   fostering  of  mutually  beneficial  relations   among
entrepreneurs from  the South.   Most ECDC/TCDC  promotional and  supportive
programmes/activities involve  twinning of industrial research institutions;
identification  and strengthening  of centres  of excellence  in  developing
countries  to provide industrial  training and  expert advice;  promotion of
joint  research  and  development programmes  and  linking  of  chambers  of
commerce  and   industry,   industrial  associations   and  other   relevant
institutions in various developing countries.

K.  United Nations Population Fund

20.  UNFPA has incorporated TCDC  activities throughout the programme  areas
of its  mandate.  UNFPA finds itself in a fortunate situation in that it has
a  world-wide network  of field  offices:   one  in almost  every developing
country, either  through the posting of  a UNFPA  national programme officer
within  the UNDP  office, or by a  separate UNFPA Office headed  by at least
one  international  staff  member  (country  director);  there  are  68 such

offices.    More  then  half  the   country  directors  are  recruited  from
developing countries.   To ensure the  quality of the  implementation of the
country  programme  it supervises,  the  UNFPA  field  office  can count  on
technical   backstopping  from  a  country  support  team   located  in  the
subregion.   UNFPA finances  eight such field  offices strategically  spread
out over the world.

21.  General  monitoring and supervision of  TCDC activities is  provided by
UNFPA's geographical  divisions and its  Technical and Evaluation  Division,
located  at its  headquarters in  New  York,  supplemented by  the technical
support services  established in a number of United Nations agencies such as
WHO,  ILO,  UNESCO,  FAO  and  in  the Department  for  Economic  and Social
Information and  Policy Analysis  of the  Secretariat.   For more  effective
monitoring  of TCDC activities, UNFPA has appointed since  June 1994 a full-
time  senior   programme  officer  for   South-South  cooperation,  who   is
responsible for  the  formulation  and  monitoring of  the  new  South-South
programme in support  of "center of excellence"  activities, and at the same
time is UNFPA's focal point for  South-South activities. In addition,  UNFPA
also has nominated TCDC contact officers  in each geographical division  and
in each  branch of the Technical and Evaluation Division.   Currently, UNFPA
is in the process  of devising ways and  means for more  effective recording
of TCDC-related programmatic  and financial information  from UNFPA-assisted
activities; this information needs in fact  to be adequately incorporated in
the UNFPA management information system database.

L.  United Nations regional commissions

22.  The promotion of ECDC/TCDC could be characterized as the raison  d'etre
of the United Nations regional  commissions, namely the  Economic Commission
for  Africa  (ECA),  the  Economic  Commission  for  Latin  America  and the
Caribbean  (ECLAC), the  Economic and  Social  Commission  for Asia  and the
Pacific (ESCAP)  and the  Economic and  Social Commission  for Western  Asia
(ESCWA).  The Economic Commission for  Europe (ECE) also supports activities
directed  at  promoting regional  cooperation  for  development  in  Europe.
Since  their  establishment, the  regional  commissions  have  shaped  their
structures in  order  to cope  with  the  implementation of  various  action
programmes  adopted  by their  governing  bodies. As  will  be seen  in  the
following sections, the  support of  the regional  commissions to  ECDC/TCDC
covers a wide range of activities including  support to subregional/regional
economic  integration and  to specific  sectors such  as trade,  investment,
agriculture  and industry,  transport  and communications  through  studies,
meetings, technical  assistance, workshops, etc.  in cooperation with  other
organizations of the United Nations system.


A.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

23.  FAO's  work on global and  regional strategies and policies  emphasizes
production  complementarities,  trade  possibilities   and  programmes   and
policies designed  to overcome  resource and  institutional constraints  and
promote collective and regional self-reliance.   FAO is cooperating with the
Organization  of African Unity (OAU) in the preparation  of a common African
agricultural programme which is to provide the basis for the preparation  of
a  protocol on food and agriculture for the African Economic Community being
established by OAU.   FAO has also  collaborated with the Preferential Trade
Area  for  Eastern   and  Southern  Africa   (PTA),  the   Southern  African
Development Community (SADC) and the Intergovernmental Authority on  Drought
and  Development  (IGADD) on  subregional  food  security and  related  food
information  systems,  harmonizing  their  action  programmes  and  avoiding

 24.   In Asia  and the  Pacific, FAO activities in  agribusiness policy and
analysis  have  been  organized  jointly  with  the  Agricultural   Planning
Development Centre of the Association  of South-East Asian  Nations (ASEAN),
and  FAO maintains a constant dialogue with  various committees/subgroups of
ASEAN  concerned  with  agriculture,  livestock  and  fisheries.    FAO  has
continuing ties with the South Pacific  Commission, especially in the fields
of pest control and forestry development.

25.   In Latin America assistance was  provided by FAO  to the Common Market
of  the   Southern  Zone   (MERCOSUR)  for   analysis  of   competitiveness,
complementarity  and  cooperation  projects in  agricultural  products  with
export potential.   Also, an important  regional food  security project with
activities at the national and regional  levels is being implemented through
the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA).

B.  International Trade Centre

26.  ITC has traditionally supported the  process of economic integration at
the pan-African level,  in particular through technical cooperation with OAU
in  the organization of  the all-African  trade fairs  and other activities.
ITC formulated detailed technical proposals for  the establishment of a pan-
African trade  information system  (PANAFTIS) and  prepared a  comprehensive
proposal for  the establishment  of a  pan-African company  register at  the
request  of the  African Development  Bank.    Such a  computerized facility
would contain data  of the most important  economic operators in Africa  and
would assist  the African Export/Import Bank  in the  effective execution of
its  trade financing  and trade  promotion functions.   In addition,  ITC is
implementing  a  programme  for  the quantification  and  promotion  of pan-
African  trading opportunities,  in  support  of  the establishment  of  the
African Economic  Community.   The  programme  serves  the dual  purpose  of
assisting  African  enterprises  in their  intra-African  trade  development
efforts, and of demonstrating the economic  benefits of creating a  regional
African market.  The  ITC concept for  the promotion of intra-African  trade
is based  on  the sequential  undertaking  of  supply and  demand  analysis,
enterprise  selection  and  the  organization  of  buyers/sellers  meetings.
Since 1987, 20 buyers/sellers meetings have been held on 17 product  groups;
a total  of 800 buyers and  sellers have participated,  of whom  over 10 per
cent were women. (A regional programme  of buyers/sellers meetings for women
entrepreneurs and  women in business  in Africa  has been developed  and its
implementation is  contingent on securing financing.)   These meetings  have
generated  over  US$  230  million  in new  business  transactions,  clearly
demonstrating   the   untapped   potential    of   intraregional    business
opportunities.  To  give an example,  the ITC-organized  pan-African meeting
of manufacturers  and buyers of medical  supplies and  hospital equipment in
Nairobi  (December 1993) initiated  significant new trade and contributed to
the development of  business relations among African traders,  manufacturers
and investors.   Similarly, numerous  high-level workshops  and expert group
meetings  have led  to better  exchanges  of  experience in  trade promotion
among participating developing countries.

27.   At the  subregional level in Africa ITC  completed in 1993 the initial
phase of an integrated programme for countries of the  Economic Community of
West African  States  (ECOWAS) which  aimed  at  supporting the  process  of
economic  cooperation and integration in West Africa through the development
of  a  subregional  market.    The  main element  of  the  project regarding
"promotion of commerce-oriented production and trade development in  ECOWAS"
was  the systematic undertaking  of supply  and demand  surveys for products
identified as  representing attractive  intra-ECOWAS trading  opportunities.
The project, financed by the Government of Italy,  carried out 36 surveys on
sawn timber, veneer and plywood, paper  and paper products and  manufactured
fertilizers; organized buyers/sellers  meetings on these product groups  and
undertook    specific   follow-up   activities;   systematically   collected
information on products,  companies and markets  to form the  basis for  the
future  ECOWAS Trade  Information  Network; and  published handbooks  on the
legal, financial and economic framework for  intra-ECOWAS trade for a number

of member  States.   In 1994,  a programming  mission was undertaken  to the
countries  of  the subregion  for  the  formulation  of  a follow-up  phase.
Similarly, another  programming mission was  undertaken to  the countries of
the  Central African  subregion  with a  view  to assessing  the  scope  for
fostering regional cooperation  through trade and production development  in
the subregion  within the  framework of  the Economic  Community of  Central
African States  (ECCAS).   It is  anticipated that  a technical  cooperation
programme for this purpose will become operational in 1995.

28.  In mid-1993, ITC embarked on a new phase of technical cooperation  with
PTA (now  the Common Market for  Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)) under
a  four-year project on  "trade development  and promotion  programme in the
PTA".   It provides  for an  expansion of the PTA  Trade Information Network
(TINET)   to  incorporate   chambers   of  commerce   and   other   business
representative organizations.  In 1993, 10 business-sector organizations  in
eight PTA  countries were  provided  with equipment,  computer software  and
data; the information officers of these  organizations were trained in TINET
operations.   The  programme also  addresses  issues  of product  and market
development through supply  and demand surveys, buyers/sellers meetings  and
direct  support   to  selected  PTA  enterprises.     In   1994,  the  first
buyers/sellers  meeting for  women in  business  was organized,  support was
provided to  the  organization  of  the Fifth  PTA  Trade  Fair and  to  the
launching of the Eastern and Southern Africa Business Organization  (ESABO).
The  programme   will,  moreover,   assist  the  PTA  Bank   in  introducing
appropriate  export financial services  to member  States, in particular for
financing of intra-PTA trade.   The programme is funded by UNDP, with  cost-
sharing contributions from  the Governments of Belgium and the  Netherlands.
In addition, under  a UNDP-financed  joint pilot project  of UNCTAD and  ITC
called "TRAINFORTRADE", ITC organized two workshops  on "How to do  business
in the  PTA", in cooperation  with the PTA  secretariat and  the Eastern and
Southern  Africa Trade Promotion  and Training  Centre.   The first workshop
was attended by PTA  business operators and the second one by trainers  from
selected institutions of the PTA member States.

29.   ITC  has  been  cooperating with  SADC  since its  inception  and  has
followed  closely  its   programmes  in  relation  to  industry  and   trade
development designed to achieve a harmonious  development of the SADC member
States.   In this context, through  projects entitled  "direct assistance in
packaging to  selected enterprises in  SADC member  States" and "development
of  effective quality-control  standards  and testing  services  for  export
products and packaging in SADC member  States", financed by the  Governments
of Finland and Italy respectively, ITC has assisted at  two specific levels:
(i)   to  provide  direct   technical  advice   and  guidance  to  packaging
manufacturers to assist them to better serve the export sector; and (ii)  to
help  establish national standards  bureaux in  those countries  of the SADC
subregion which do not  yet have such services.  The programme of assistance
in export  packaging and  quality control  terminated at  the  end of  March

30.  In  the Arab  region in 1992  and 1993,  ITC implemented  a project  of
technical  cooperation  on "establishment  of  systems  and  procedures  for
financing intra-Arab trade" in  collaboration with the  Arab Trade Financing
Programme (ATFP).  This project aimed  at contributing to the  establishment
of an Intra-Arab Trade Information Network  (IATIN) at ATFP headquarters  in
Abu Dhabi, under  cost-sharing between UNDP and ATFP.   Phases I and II were
successfully completed  in  1994  and  resulted in  the  setting up  of  the
central core of  IATIN at ARFP headquarters.   Phase III of the project  has
recently been  approved by UNDP  and ATFP  and work on the  development of a
regional network covering all Arab States is scheduled to start soon.   This
will be carried out by ATFP in cooperation  with ITC as part of  a 1995-1997
regional programme  of technical  cooperation activities  supported by  UNDP
and  ATFP on  a  cost-sharing basis.   IATIN  is  expected to  provide  Arab
business  enterprises and  their trading  partners in  other countries  with
relevant  trade,  economic and  financial  information  thus  promoting  the
development of trade and accelerating the Arab market integration process.

31.    In  Latin  America  and  the  Caribbean,  ITC  undertook  in  1993  a
programming mission to the headquarters of  the Permanent Secretariat of the
General  Treaty  on   Central  American  Economic  Integration  (SIECA)   in
Guatemala, at  the latter's  request, with  a view  to determining  possible
support  for fostering  regional  cooperation through  trade  promotion  and
export  development   among  member  countries.     A  project  profile  was
formulated  and sources  of financing  are now  being sought.   In addition,
between  July 1990 and  October 1994, ITC  implemented a  project on "export
promotion and development assistance to selected enterprises exporting  wood
manufactures from Bolivia".  Among its objectives, the project aimed at  the
increase of trade  (in wood  manufactures) between Bolivia and  neighbouring
regional  markets, by  fostering industrial  and marketing  cooperation  and
complementarity.    For  this  purpose  field  supply/demand  surveys   were
conducted in  1990  in Peru,  Chile, Argentina,  Brazil  and  Uruguay.   The
approach adopted  was to concentrate on  areas with  natural trade prospects
due  to their geographic  location and  better communications and transport.
The surveys  and  contacts established  paved  the  way for  trade  missions
carried out  by  enterprises between  1991  and  1992; besides  opening  new
relations,  these contacts  contributed to the finalization  of an agreement
on industrial  cooperation  and marketing  complementarity between  Bolivian
and  Uruguayan  wood  manufacturing  enterprises.    The  experience  of the
project in  Bolivia, which attained  the objective of an  export increase of
over  15 per cent  starting in  1993, obtained through  a rationalization of
the production  chain and  a stronger  export reorientation  of the  sector,
generated interest  in  the  region.   Several  information  workshops  were
organized  in Paraguay, Argentina,  Uruguay and  Ecuador, the  latter two as
TCDC activities financed by the Chambers of Industry and LAIA respectively.

 C.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

32.   In addition to a  number of activities  undertaken jointly with  other
United Nations  organizations (see the  discussion under UNDP, for example),
UNCTAD delivers  assistance supporting subregional  and regional integration
and interregional cooperation  for the development  of trade  in particular.
With respect to economic integration UNCTAD  is assisting SADC in  designing
a trade cooperation  programme and, in particular,  the drafting of a  trade
cooperation protocol  to the  SADC treaty.   A  first reading  of the  draft
protocol  was undertaken  by the SADC  Council of Ministers.   As part  of a
programme of assistance to the  Arab Maghreb Union (UMA), UNCTAD finalized a
study  on   mechanisms  of  compensation  of   losses  resulting  from   the
application of the  tariff and trade  convention of UMA.   UNCTAD  continued
providing  technical  support towards  the  implementation  of  the  Central
American  Integration  System  (SICA),  particularly  with  respect  to  the
participation of  the private  sector in  the integration  process.   UNCTAD
provides advisory services (including participation in a technical  capacity
at meetings), upon  request, to many  subregional and regional organizations
of developing countries such as ASEAN,  Bangkok Agreement, COMESA, OAU, SADC
and SICA.

33.   With  respect to  South-South trade  the second  round of negotiations
under the  Global System  of  Trade Preferences  among developing  countries
(GSTP)  which was  launched  in November  1991 has  entered  into  an active
phase.   Negotiations among  participating countries are  continuing in  all
areas for which negotiating groups have  been established:  facilitation  of
access,    product-by-product    negotiations,    across-the-board    tariff
negotiations,  direct   trade   measures,   and  non-tariff   and   sectoral
agreements.   The servicing of  negotiations and  technical assistance  were
provided through the GSTP project located in and supported by UNCTAD.

34.   UNCTAD  also  supports the  promotion of  services  relating to  trade
development in the following sectors:

  (a)  Ports:

  (i)Training in  a subregion with  limited populations in each  port can be

centralized  in one port  which would  benefit all ports.   Training courses
can be developed and delivered centrally  or instructors from the centre can
travel to ports in the region to deliver  courses. UNCTAD has been  actively
promoting  this concept through the development of  national and subregional
training capacity  with its  TRAINMAR programme;  regional TRAINMAR  centres
exist  in  Cote  d'Ivoire,  Nicaragua,  Guadeloupe,  Uruguay,  Malaysia  and
Morocco with additional centres planned for Peru, Fiji and Viet Nam;

  (ii)A  recent  UNDP/UNCTAD  port  management  rehabilitation  project  for
Somalia provided for a team  of mangers from Indian ports to be involved  in
the running and management  of the ports of Mogadishu  and Kismayu.  This is
an example whereby port organizations could set up  a roster of experts that
could  be utilized on  a cost-plus  basis by others, for  example the United
Nations or  commercial parties, for managing  other ports.   This expertise,
which is well aware of conditions in developing countries, could cover,  for
instance, cargo  handling, equipment  management, environmental  protection,
liability questions, cost accounting, port statistics and port pricing;

  (b)    Maritime  transport.    In  connection  with  the  formulation  and
implementation of programmes under the Transport and Communications  Decades
UNCTAD, in collaboration with the  regional commissions concerned,  has been
actively involved in formulating objectives and strategies  of programmes on
maritime transport  for the  execution of specific  projects under  regional
action programmes for the Decades.

35.  UNCTAD has  long supported efforts aimed at strengthening monetary  and
financial cooperation.  For example, assistance is provided to  multilateral
clearing  and  payments arrangements  of developing  countries.   Thus,  the
Asian Clearing  Union (ACU)  was  assisted  in the  preparation of  a  study
dealing with the  prospects of  broadening, deepening  and diversifying  the
ACU's  functions in  the light  of current  and prospective  changes  in the
economies of the members  and the global economy.  The paper, entitled  "The
ACU:   an  Assessment and  Prospects",  was  presented to  the twenty-second
annual meeting  of the Board  of Directors in Yangon (August  1994).  At the
request of the West African Clearing House (WACH), a technical paper on  the
conversion of  the WACH  into the  West African  Monetary  Agency (WAMA)  is
being prepared by UNCTAD.   In its capacity as the technical secretariat for
the  Coordination  Committee  on   Multilateral  Payments  Arrangements  and
Monetary  Cooperation among Developing  Countries, UNCTAD provided technical
support for its eighth  session held in Santa  Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, from
28 February to 1 March 1994.  UNCTAD also provided assistance  to the second
Conference  of Governors  and Senior  Officials  of  Central Banks  of Latin
American and African Countries which took place from  2 to 3 March 1994, and
to the  meeting of  the Follow-up  Committee of  this Conference  held on  3
October 1994 in Madrid.

36.   In response  to emerging  needs and  requests,  UNCTAD is  undertaking
analytical  studies on  the  development  of  regional capital  markets  and
trade-financing facilities of developing countries.

37.  Since 1975  UNCTAD has provided technical support  to the Group  of 24,
mostly in  the  form of  research  papers  on  issues under  discussion  and
negotiation  at the International Monetary  Fund (IMF) and World  Bank.  The
purpose  of the projects, which have  been financed by UNDP and  by a number
of Governments, has been to assist  developing countries to strengthen their
technical preparedness and ability to participate  in and contribute to  all
phases of  discussion and negotiation within  the framework of  the Fund and
the  Bank.  A  five-volume set  of these research studies  was published (by
North Holland Publishers) between 1987 and 1989.  Six new volumes have  been
published  since  1990  (by the  United  Nations)  and a  seventh  is  under
preparation.  The proceedings of a  major conference (April 1994)  organized
by the  G-24 on  the occasion  of the  fiftieth anniversary  of the  Bretton
Woods  conference   was  published   as  Volume  IV   (special  issues)   of
International Monetary and Financial Issues for the 1990s.   The emphasis of
current research  activities is on the  new implications  of the integration
of developing countries  into the international financial system,  including

the   effects  of  the   macroeconomic  policies  of  the  major  industrial
  D.  United Nations Development Programme

38.   In  respect of global  cooperation initiatives, UNDP  (Special Unit on
TCDC) has  supported activities aimed at  arriving at  solutions for dealing
with  common problems  faced  by  the  developing countries  by  way of  the
preparation of  casestudies, subject-specific workshops, joint  negotiations
strategies and collaborative research.  These  activities have proved to  be
a  very  efficient  method  of  dealing  with  common  problems  through the
exchange of relevant  experience and  appropriate technology.  For  example,
UNDP  supported efforts  to  bring  developing  countries and  countries  in
transition together  to exchange views and  experiences and,  on this basis,
to  identify replicable  practices pertaining  to:    (i) management  of aid
between Arab-African  countries (workshop  in Jordan,  January 1994),  Latin
American  countries and  between  Eastern European  countries  (workshop  in
Turkey, October 1994); (ii) management of  foreign ministries for  countries
in  Eastern European  and the  Commonwealth of  Independent States  together
with Turkey, Egypt, Tunisia and Malta (June  1993), resulting in the setting
up  of  a   programme  for  diplomatic  training;  (iii)  identification  of
innovative  approaches   for  tackling  poverty;   and  (iv)   collaborative
programmes on economic reforms  such as privatization  (TCDC workshops  held
in  Ethiopia and  Poland), macroeconomic  issues in  transitional  economies
(symposium in China), external debt management (swap arrangement  discussion
in Honduras), policy issues  related to structural adjustment (African case-
studies and Cotonou workshop).

39.  UNDP is also implementing  technical assistance programmes directed  at
assisting developing countries  in addressing common problems.  For example,
UNDP is assisting in the implementation of  the programme of action  adopted
at the  Global Conference  on the  Sustainable Development  of Small  Island
Developing Countries (Barbados, April-May 1994).  It is, moreover,  involved
in promoting technical cooperation between African  and Asian countries as a
follow-up to the Tokyo International Conference  on African Development.   A
seminar was  held in  Indonesia (December  1994)  which identified  concrete
opportunities  for  Asian-African cooperation  in  such  areas  as  improved
agricultural  productivity,  human  capital   formation  and   institutional

40.   In addition,  in South-East  Asia UNDP  is backing  the two  important
joint  initiatives  for  evolving  common  solutions.    The  first  one,  a
collaborative effort  in respect of the  Tumen River  Basin, brings together
five countries in a  shared strategy for the  development of areas in North-
East  Asia along  the  Tumen River.   The  programme  provides a  forum  for
discussion and  agreement on a set  of legal  and institutional arrangements
between China, the Democratic People's Republic  and the Republic of  Korea,
Russia and  Mongolia.  A programme  management committee  was established in
July 1994  and agreements  are being  worked out  to set  up a  consultative
commission,  a coordinating committee  and a  secretariat. UNDP  serves as a
neutral  chair  for  the  negotiations.    The  preparation  of   investment
profiles,  pre-feasibility   studies,  an   environmental  policy,  resource
mobilization  strategies and border  and customs  procedures is envisaged in
the future.   The second is the Mekong  Committee, which manages the  Mekong
River Basin water  resources.  Despite the  conflicts in the subregion,  the
Committee  has functioned successfully and a new comprehensive agreement was
signed  in 1994.    UNDP has  been providing  the  executive agent  for  the
Committee and in the  past 37 years has  provided $45 million  in assistance
which has resulted in  an investment of approximately $600 million.  Some of
the innovative  activities carried  out under  the programme  include:   (i)
work  on  a natural  resource  accounting system  for  the planning  of  the
utilization  of  water  resources;   (ii)  preparations  for  setting  up  a
sustainable development network for the  river basin; and (iii) a scheme for
future self-financing of the core functions of the Mekong secretariat.

41.   In respect  of subregional  and regional  cooperation UNDP's  regional
programmes,  in  cooperation  with  regional  institutions  in  the  various

regions, have undertaken activities  in support of ECDC/TCDC.  In some cases
regional  institutions,   including  regional  commissions,  have   received
financial support from UNDP  in carrying out their  activities and, in  many
cases, act as executing agents.

  (a)    The  Regional  Directorate  for  Europe  and  the  Commonwealth  of
Independent  States  (CIS)  is  supporting  initiatives  in  regional  trade
promotion. The programme for the development of trade in the CIS and  Baltic
States, for  example, involves four United  Nations organizations:   UNCTAD,
ITC, ECE and UNDP. The objective of the programme is to expand trade  within
the region  and to strengthen the  external trade of  these countries.   The
programme was launched with  a regional workshop in  the Republic of Moldova
in January 1994;

  (b)  The Regional Bureau for Africa has supported initiatives relating  to
the establishment  of  the  African  Economic Community.    New  initiatives
include the establishment  of mechanisms for intra-African trade  promotion,
including  trade  and  investment  information  systems,  and  regional  and
subregional  trade  organizations,  including   business  associations   and
clearing houses.   One of  the major  programmes supported  by the  Regional
Bureau  for Latin  America and  the Caribbean  deals with  trade policy  and
preparations for multilateral trade negotiations.  The  programme, which was
launched in August  1993, supports studies, training programmes, setting  of
standards,  quality  control  mechanisms  and  finalization  of  negotiating
briefs.    These   activities  involve  government  trade  negotiators   and
legislators,  as   well  as  private   sector  representatives  and   others
interested  in foreign  trade.   This is a  collaborative effort  of UNCTAD,
ECLAC,  UNDP,  the  Inter-American  Development Bank  (IDB)  and  the  Latin
American Economic System (SELA);

  (c)   One  of  the  three  thematic  programmes  under  the  regional  IPF
(indicative  planning figures) and  the Regional  Bureau for  Arab States is
economic integration  and trade.  A number of activities are being supported
under this  programme  including  support  for the  setting  up of  a  trade
information network by  the Arab Trade  Financing Programme  (also discussed
under ITC);  support for a  symposium in Abu  Dhabi (April  1993); follow-up
action on  economic and trade integration  which is  proceeding with support
from  the  regional  programme  and  also   involves  UNCTAD,  ITC  and  the
Department  of   Development  Support   and  Management   Services  of   the
Secretariat; and capacity-building in  the secretariat of  the Arab  Maghreb

  (d)  The  Regional Bureau for Asia and  the Pacific has  supported a large
programme on international trade and investment  in which all United Nations
organizations are participants.   This programme has carried out a number of
activities  relating  to  standardization,   market  exploration,  training,
harmonization of practices  and the preparation  of negotiating positions in
respect  of the  promotion of  integration  arrangements.   Two  other major
initiatives  relate  to  trade  cooperation  in  ASEAN   countries  and  the
expansion  of  trade and  investment  in  the  South  Asian Association  for
Regional Cooperation (SAARC).

E.  United Nations regional commissions

Economic Commission for Africa

42.   The  ECA  has  been providing  continuous  assistance to  most of  the
African   subregional   economic   integration   groupings,   in   terms  of
institutional  support, formulation  of policies  and strategies  and  their
implementation,   preparation  of   projects   for   resource  mobilization,
undertaking of studies, organization of meetings/workshops and provision  of
a wide range of advisory services.  In  support of its subregional  efforts,
ECA has  decentralized staff  to Multinational  Programming and  Operational
Centres  (MULPOCs)  in   five  subregions.     ECA's  activities  have  been
implemented jointly  with other  United Nations  agencies such  as UNDP  and

with bilateral donor countries.

43.  Since the inception of  the UNDP-financed ECA-executed project entitled
"Multisectoral  assistance to ECCAS"  in 1989  and until  its termination in
1993,  several master plans  and programmes  were delivered  to ECCAS member
States. These  included a food  security programme; interconnection of roads
and telecommunications  networks; sectoral industrial  master plans for  the
development  of  steel,  petrochemicals  and  forest-based  activities;  and
provision of  machinery and hand  tools.  In  the Economic  Community of the
Great Lakes  Countries (CEPGL), the ECA  secretariat, through  its MULPOC in
Gisenyi,  Rwanda,  embarked  upon  a  comprehensive  programme  of  economic
cooperation and integration among member  States which achieved some success
in the areas of energy, agronomic  research and transport.  ECA's assistance
to ECOWAS spans 20 years. The results achieved  by the ECA-implemented UNDP-
financed project "Multisectoral  assistance project to  ECOWAS (RAF/88/047)"
include:   (i)  an  industrial  master plan  for  West Africa;  (ii) a  food
security programme;  and (iii)  a monetary  integration scheme  and a  trade
liberalization  scheme.   It is  expected  that  the recommendations  of the
study   on   rationalization   of   the   West   African   intergovernmental
organizations produced  in 1994 will be considered by member  States and the
organizations  themselves.   ECA  has  been  assisting  COMESA  and SADC  to
intensify their subregional cooperation and integration.   In order to  help
these institutions coordinate,  harmonize and rationalize their  activities,
ECA has already initiated consultations with  the secretariats of COMESA and
SADC in order to organize a joint special summit on its issue.

44.  ECA and OAU have been working  closely to promote economic cooperation,
and  integration of  African  countries.   The signing  of the  Abuja Treaty
establishing the African Economic Community  can be seen as a culmination of
these joint efforts.   A joint secretariat  has been established  among OAU,
ECA and ADB to  play a  key role in the  implementation of the Treaty  which
came into full force in  June 1994 after  its ratification by two thirds  of
the signatory countries.

 45.     The  South-South  cooperation  in   the  field   of  transport  and
communications among the countries of Africa has been  carried out under the
umbrella  of the  Second United Nations Transport  and Communications Decade
in  Africa (UNTACDA  II).   In  general, the  accent  of the  programmes  of
UNTACDA II is  on implementation of subregional  and regional projects.  Two
important regional projects are presently  under way:  the  development of a
regional  transport   database,  and   human  resources  and   institutional
development in  African transport and communications.  ECA actively provided
technical  support  to  various  regional  and  subregional  transport   and
communications organizations, dealing with individual modes.   These are the
Pan-African Telecommunication  Union in  telecommunications, the Pan-African
Postal   Union  in  postal   services,  ports  and  maritime  agencies,  the
Ministerial  Conference of  West and  Central African  countries in maritime
transport (MINCONMAR) the African Civil  Aviation Council in civil aviation,
the  Union of African  Railways in  railways, etc.  In  shipping, an ongoing
project on development of coastal shipping  among the States of West/Central
Africa involves  ECCAS and ECOWAS  and is  sponsored by  ECA.   ECA is  also
cooperating with  UAR  and National  Railways  Authorities  with a  view  to
restructuring African  railways, including rehabilitation and  modernization
of railways, rolling  stock, equipment,  telecommunications and  signalling,
human resources  development,  exchange of  information, studies,  equipment
and spare parts.

46.  With regard  to cooperation among the  developing regions, in 1989 ECA,
together with  ESCAP, organized  a joint  seminar on  port organization  and
management in Leningrad, Russia, funded by  the former Soviet Union  through
UNDP.  In 1994  ECA was  represented at  the Third Ad  Hoc Intergovernmental
Meeting on Phase II of the Transport and Communications Decade for Asia  and
the Pacific.

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

47.   In general  ECLAC's activities  to support  and promote ECDC/TCDC  are
implemented through specific  technical assistance projects, a few  examples
of which are given below.

48.   In the area of financial, investment and enterprise cooperation, ECLAC
participates  with  UNDP  (project RAL/89/001)  in the  implementation  of a
regional  programme with  regard to  the  supply  and production  of capital
goods.   The  project aims  at  strengthening  the cooperation  of  economic
agents  in   technological  management,  marketing   and  quality   control.
Activities include  the establishment of  national coordination centres  for
the  supply and  production of  capital goods;  evaluation of self-sustained
operation  of the information  networks; publication  of a  catalogue on the
production capabilities of LAIA members; and  analysis of the procedures and
conditions  of bidding in the region. Within the  framework of the programme
of technical cooperation financed  by IDB, ECLAC and the Latin American  and
Caribbean Institute for Economic  and Social Planning undertook to encourage
exchange  of regional experiences  on investment  opportunities.   Under the
project "Strategy  of investment programmes in  Central America", ECLAC,  in
collaboration  with IDB and  the Central American Economic Integration Bank,
carried  out activities  aimed at  supporting  cooperation  in the  field of
investment in the production of edible oils and  fats.  ECLAC also completed
a  project  designed  to   promote  closer  ties   among  Central   American
federations of savings and loan cooperatives.
  49.   In  the  area  of  infrastructure,  ECLAC  carried out  projects  on
planning and  management of water resources  in the  Andean region; economic
cooperation among Latin  American countries in  the establishment  of inland
freight terminals; and development of urban planning in selected countries.

50.   With  regard to  information,  ECLAC,  in collaboration  with  UNESCO,
completed the formulation of a  regional information programme to strengthen
cooperation among national information networks and systems for  development
in  the region.  ECLAC also  carried out  projects to  support networks  for
cooperation in the field of information in the Caribbean countries.

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

51.  TCDC activities implemented by ESCAP in recent years involve  effecting
transfer and  exchange of equipment  and technology, experience,  expertise,
information, etc. and  cover a  wide range of  subject areas within  ESCAP's
programme of  work, including:   development research  and policy  analysis;
environment  and  natural  resources  management; industry  and  technology;
international  trade   and  economic   cooperation  including  transnational
corporations; population; rural  and urban development;  social development;
statistics and  transport;  communications and  tourism.    It is  generally
accepted that such sharing of experience  and expertise among the developing
countries  using  the TCDC  modality often  develop into  ECDC arrangements,
which comprise  practical and collective  economic actions among  developing
countries,  requiring  for the  most  part  capital investment  and/or major
joint ventures.

52.    Through relatively  modest  funding  support,  from  January 1993  to
January 1994,  33 operational  TCDC activities  were financed  by the  ESCAP
TCDC  supplementary   fund;  of  those   activities,  25  were   implemented
specifically for the benefit of the  least developed, land-locked and island
developing  countries as well  as the disadvantaged economies in transition.
In  each of these  activities, the  fund financed the  cost of international
travel, while  the local  costs were  borne  either by  the host  Government
and/or institution  or were financed  from other sources,  such as  the UNDP
country IPFs.   The primary objective  of the ESCAP  fund was to  facilitate
the representation  and participation  of the  least developed,  land-locked
and  island  developing   countries  and  the  disadvantaged  economies   in
transition  in  various  seminars,  study  visits,  training  workshops  and
bilateral and multilateral exchanges of experience organized by  Governments
and institutions, including NGOs, of the  developing countries in the  ESCAP
region.    The   fund's  operations  were  made  possible  through  generous
financial contributions from donors including  the Governments of China, the

Netherlands,  Norway and  the Republic  of Korea. Together  they contributed
US$ 170,000 in 1993. 1/

53.   Under the Thematic Committee  on Regional  Economic Cooperation, ESCAP
has  been   implementing  the   Action  Programme   for  Regional   Economic
Cooperation in Trade  and Investment, which was adopted by the Commission in
1993.   Under  the terms  of the  Action Programme,  particular emphasis has
been accorded to  the study and analysis  of regional and  subregional trade
flows, strengthening of  the regional trade information network,  networking
of trade-related  research institutions, review  of sectoral foreign  direct
investment  inflows and  policies, establishment  of a  regional  investment
information   and    promotion   service,   regional   commodity   problems,
environmental  issues  related to  trade  and  investment,  and  cooperation
between  subregions.   The  Action  Programme  also  addresses  the role  of
regional cooperation  in  stimulating the  development of  small and  medium
export-oriented  enterprises  and  the  integration  of  its  new   members,
especially the Central  Asian republics, into  the region.  Since  trade and
investment  is the core  of all  integration initiatives,  the activities of
ESCAP  also  encompass the  organization  of  trade fairs,  publication  and
dissemination  of  trade  manuals,  and  issues  relating  to   agricultural
commodities of  importance  in the  region's  trade.   ESCAP  is,  moreover,
pursuing  activities   in  support  of   harmonization  of  foreign   direct
investment policies within subregions.

54.     For  example,  ESCAP  prepared   a  macro-study   which  focuses  on
disaggregated information on trade  flows in the region and the analysis  of
macroeconomic policies for increasing productivity.   The lack of such  data
and  information  had   impeded  analytical  work  on  intraregional   trade
expansion in the past.   With regard to exchange of trade information  among
countries  of  the  region,  the  secretariat  is  seeking  to  enhance  the
usefulness of  the Regional Trade Information  Network of  ESCAP through the
introduction  of the Electronic  Data Interchange.   The  Action Plan places
emphasis  on  greater interaction  between  private  sectors,  the  national
chambers  of commerce  and  industry  and trade-related  institutions.   The
secretariat has initiated activities to pursue  these objectives which would
provide  further  impetus  to promoting  ECDC.    In  fact,  in  the planned
activities  for the  trade-related  research institutions  network,  special
focus is being given to promotion of intraregional trade and investment.

55.  With regard  to promotion and assistance  of existing ECDC networks and
other cooperative arrangements, ESCAP has established and supported  several
arrangements in  the fields of  preferential tariff agreements, clearing and
reinsurance   arrangements  and   commodity  forums   among  the  developing
countries.  These include the  Bangkok Agreement,  the Asian  Clearing Union
and  the  Asian   Reinsurance  Corporation  as  well  as  four   commodities
arrangements regarding coffee, jute, silk and  tropical timber.  In  respect
of the commodity  arrangements, a number  of technical assistance programmes
have  been  developed  and  implemented  by   ESCAP  as  follow-up  to   the
recommendations made by the intergovernmental bodies with  the assistance of
extrabudgetary funding from donor countries.

56.  In addition, ESCAP is  fostering dialogues between various  subregional
organizations  in Asia  and the  Pacific with  a view  to  promoting greater
inter-subregional  cooperation  by  identifying the  complementarities among
them and  encouraging exchange and mutual  assistance in various fields.  As
part  of this process  memorandums of  understanding (MOU)  have been signed
between ESCAP  and the following:   Economic  Cooperation Organization (ECO)
(July  1993),  South Asian  Association  for  Regional  Cooperation  (SAARC)
(February  1994),  South  Pacific Forum  (SPF)  (May  1994),  South  Pacific
Commission (SPC) (December 1994). A similar  agreement is being proposed  to
ASEAN.   Through the  MOU, ESCAP  and the  integration institution concerned
agree to cooperate and collaborate, to  the extent possible, on  development
issues and concerns of mutual interest. Furthermore, a consultative  meeting
between  the  executive  heads  of  the   secretariats  of  the  four  major
subregional organizations, ECO, SAARC and SPF  was held at Bangkok (February
1994), at the initiative of ESCAP.  The  meeting was beneficial and fruitful

in   fostering   free-flowing  discussions   on  the   ways  and   means  of
strengthening  substantive cooperation  between  ESCAP and  the  subregional
organizations on the basis  of their relative expertise  and interests.   It
is envisaged  that this  meeting could  become a  regular event.   Thus, the
ASEAN  secretariat hosted the  second meeting  at Jakarta,  in January 1995,
with the executive heads of ESCAP, ASEAN, SAARC,  ECO, SPC and SPF  present.
A third meeting will  be hosted by  the ECO secretariat, tentatively in  May

57.   The role  of transport  and communications in promoting  ECDC is self-
evident.  Modernization  and   upgrading  of  the  region's  transport   and
communications infrastructure  is the primary  objective under the  Regional
Action   Programme  for   Phase  II   (1992-1996)  of   the   Transport  and
Communication Decade for Asia and the  Pacific. 2/  It may  be noted that as
recommended  by  the  Intergovernmental  Meeting  of  Highway  and   Railway
Officials (December  1991), ESCAP at its  fortyeighth session  in April 1992
endorsed as a  priority a special integrated project on Asian land transport
infrastructure  development  comprising the  Asian highway,  the trans-Asian
railway and facilitation of land transport.   ESCAP continues its efforts to
implement  the project.   Moreover, ESCAP's  efforts at  assisting the land-
locked and  in  transition developing  countries  to  overcome some  of  the
constraints arising  out of their  geographical handicap  have been  focused
mainly on  the fields of land  transport, transit arrangements,  environment
and  natural  resources  management,  technological  development  and  trade

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

58.  ESCWA has been working to strengthen its role in technical  cooperation
at  the  regional  level  by   improving  regional  advisory   services  and
intensifying  attempts  to  secure  more  funds  for  technical  cooperation
projects.  It has carried out  numerous activities to strengthen  collective
efforts  at  the  regional  and  interregional  levels.    In  general these
activities  have  taken  the  form  of  preparation  of  technical  studies;
implementation of technical  cooperation projects; convening of meetings  of
experts,   seminars   and   training   workshops;   and   participating   in
intergovernmental meetings.  These activities are often implemented  jointly
with other  United Nations  agencies/organizations,  donor countries  and/or
other organizations such  as the  Friedrich Ebert  Foundation, the  Outreach
Consultation  Project  at  the  University  of  Jordan  and  the  Arab  Gulf
Programme for United Nations Development Organizations (AGFUND).

59.  These  activities are being implemented  in the following sectors:  (i)
energy (a  study was prepared  on the prospects for  regional cooperation in
solar energy and presented  to the Fifth Arab  Energy Conference (Cairo, May
1994));  (ii) water resources development and management (ESCWA has convened
a number  of  meetings on  this issue  and  the  Commission is  implementing
several projects including one financed jointly  with UNEP on the assessment
of water resources in the ESCWA  region using remote-sensing techniques  and
another  supported   by  the  Government   of  Germany;  (iii)   sustainable
development   activities   relating   to   combating   desertification   and
establishing environmentally sustainable settlements  and to the  management
and sustainable development of drylands in  the Arab region; (iv) industrial
development activities  regarding software  industry activities,  assistance
to  countries  in  diagnosing  and  alleviating  problems  facing   existing
industries, upgrading entrepreneurial skills of managers, implementation  of
a project  with the Arab Industrial  Development and  Mining Organization on
the  establishment of  engineering  infrastructure in  Arab  countries,  and
participating  (as  associated  agency)  with  UNDP  and  the  Programme  of
Assistance  to the Palestinian  People in  implementing the  "Start your own
business"   training  programme;  (v)  science,   technology  and  education
activities;  transport, such as  following up  on the  implementation in the
region of  Phase II (1992-1996) of  the Transport  and Communications Decade
for Asia  and the Pacific; social development such as  the implementation of
a project  to produce  the Arab Declaration  for Social  Development to  the
World   Summit   for   Social    Development   (Copenhagen,   March   1995),

implementation  of a  UNDP-funded project  called "The  autonomous  village"
that promotes  appropriate techniques for  building houses, local  community
development, promotion  of activities on the  role of  women in development;
and implementation of projects in the sector of statistics.

60.  ESCWA  cooperates with the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
and the League of  Arab States (LAS) in implementing a number of activities.
For  example,  ESCWA  and  OIC  in  December  1994  signed  a  memorandum of
understanding  on  water resources  development  and  management  and  ESCWA
cooperates  with  LAS  and  its  subsidiary  bodies  (the  Council  of  Arab
Ministers  Responsible  for   Environment  (CAMRE),  for  example)  in   the
coordination,   promotion   and   selection   of    activities   for   joint
implementation of sustainable development projects in the  Arab region (such
as those relating to the regional priorities of Agenda 21).

F.  World Bank

61.  The World Bank actively  encourages trade, including through  financing
mechanisms.  Although the Bank does not fund regional  projects directly, it
has  been  actively  involved  in   MERCOSUR  and  the  Caribbean  Community
(CARICOM) with  Colombia and Venezuela, and other initiatives.  The Bank has
lent in  fiscal  year  1994  $20 million  from  the International  Bank  for
Reconstruction   and  Development   (IBRD)   and  $11   million   from   the
International Development Association  (IDA) to the Caribbean Regional  Bank
for on-lending to  countries in the Caribbean.   The Bank also has  seconded
staff  to  SADC in  support of  its regional  efforts on  transportation and
other cooperative efforts for the southern African region.

62.  In its  publication Guidelines:  Procurement  under IBRD Loans  and IDA
Credits  (World  Bank,  1992),  the  World  Bank   provides  guidelines  for
procurement that may  support South-South cooperation within the context  of
international   competitive  bidding.    Regarding   domestic  and  regional
preferences, at  the request of the  borrowing country  and under conditions
to be agreed with the Bank  and set forth in the bidding documents, a margin
of preference may  be accepted under international competitive bidding  for:
(i)  goods  manufactured in  the borrowing  country when  comparing domestic
bids with  those  from  foreign manufacturers;  (ii) goods  manufactured  in
other member countries  which have  joined with the  borrowing country in  a
regional  preferential tariff agreement among  developing countries designed
to foster their economic integration by a customs union or free trade  area,
when  comparing bids from  such manufacturers  with other  foreign bids; and
(iii) civil works, in  member countries below  a specified level of GNP  per
capita, when comparing  bids from eligible  domestic contractors  with those
from  foreign contractors.  In 1994, 46 per cent of the  value of and 65 per
cent of the number of the  contracts for consultant services  were disbursed
to developing country firms.


A.  International Trade Centre

63.    The ITC  programme  in  support of  South-South  cooperation  is,  by
definition, enterprise centred.  Following the systematic identification  of
trading  opportunities  in  the  subregional,  regional  and   interregional
contexts, enterprises  in different developing  countries are stimulated  to
establish  business  relationships  and are  assisted  in  doing  so through
buyers/sellers meetings.   As these  initiatives are frequently  product-and
sector-specific, they  also make  an important  contribution to  South-South
cooperation at  the industry level.   Business sector  organizations such as
chambers  of  commerce and  industry  and  manufacturers'  associations  are
provided  with   trade  development  tools   and  assisted  in   South-South
networking,  in particular through  trade information systems.  Examples are
the   COMESA  Trade   Information   Network  (TINET),   the   ECOWAS   Trade
Opportunities   Information  System   (TOPS)   and   the  Intra-Arab   Trade

Information  Network  (IATIN).   Trade support  services aimed  at improving
enterprises'  trading performance  in such  areas as  quality management and
packaging have been provided particularly at the subregional level.

64.  In  view of the importance trade fairs can play in  the development and
strengthening  of  economic   trade  and  investment  activities,  ITC   has
traditionally supported the all-African  trade fairs and participated in the
first  Afro-Arab trade fair  (Tunis, 1993).   Equally, ITC  contributed to a
round-table discussion held in connection with the first Afro-Arab  business
week (Cairo, March 1995).  Moreover, several activities were carried out  in
the  context of improvement  of logistics  management at  the enterprise and
institutional level in  intra-Latin American trade within regional  projects
on  improvement in  the management  of international  physical  distribution
strategies  at  the  enterprise  level  during  the  period  1989-1992,  and
efficient  management of  international trade  logistics in  Latin  American
foreign  trade transactions since 1993.   The latter is an ongoing programme
ending in 1996.

B.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

65.   Within the overall context  of support for increased South-South trade
UNCTAD promotes  cooperation among enterprises  of developing countries  and
their associations (chambers of commerce and industry, trading  enterprises)
with  a view to  developing contacts,  cooperation and  business as  well as
stimulating  joint investment.    Thus, UNCTAD  and  Promociones  Exteriores
Canarias of  Spain will jointly  organize a forum  in 1995  of African, Arab
and  Latin  American trading  enterprises to  explore  the possibilities  of
cooperation among these enterprises and provide  an opportunity for them  to
enter into new trade relations.  UNCTAD  attended the first Afro-Arab  trade
fair (Tunis,  1993)  and participated  in  a  symposium on  trade  expansion
between African  and Arab  countries as  well as  presented a  paper on  the
subject.  The  second fair is scheduled  to be held  in South  Africa (1995)
and UNCTAD expects to  make a similar  contribution.  UNCTAD also  organized
jointly with OAU and LAS a  symposium on economic cooperation and investment
between African and Arab countries during  the first Afro-Arab business week
(March 1995), held in conjunction with the Cairo International Fair.

66.  With assistance  from UNCTAD a meeting  of ministers of  Latin American
and  Asian and  Pacific developing  countries will  be organized  in 1995 to
provide  a political  framework for  supporting efforts  aimed at  expanding
trade and  other economic  relations between these countries,  in particular
through the involvement of  enterprises.  It is  envisaged that prior to the
interregional ministerial meeting, a meeting of  ministers of Latin American
countries  will  be  organized  to  adopt   a  common  policy  on   economic
cooperation in the Pacific basin.

C.  United Nations Development Programme

67.    In  the  context  of  supporting  bilateral  economic  and  technical
cooperation  between  enterprises  of  developing  countries,  UNDP  assists
developing countries in  the organization of  capacities and  needs matching
exercises (CNMs) at which bilateral agreements are reached on  collaborative
TCDC  activities.  A  compendium of  needs and capacities of  one or several
countries is  prepared  and  exchanged between  the participants.    Country
missions are  sometimes undertaken for  briefing and sensitization  purposes
and  to  promote  agreements  on  needs   and  capacities.    Finally,   the
participating countries gather for several days for comprehensive  bilateral
and multilateral  negotiations.   Several  CNMs  have  been held  with  UNDP
support since December 1993 in Africa  (Uganda, Nigeria, Zimbabwe) and  Asia
(Bangladesh,  Myanmar).   Some of  these TCDC  activities have  led to joint
investments  or twinning  of institutions  and  enterprises  as well  as the
establishment  of  networks and  joint ventures.    In addition,  technology
based  on cooperation  between enterprises  has facilitated  the exchange of
experts,  training,  the  convening  of  symposiums  and  workshops  and the

granting  of awards. For example, cooperation in ethno-botany between Africa
and Asia is  supported by an  award programme.   A workshop  on spare  parts
reconditioning  held  in  Cuba in  1993  has  resulted  in  the  mounting of
training  courses  in  Venezuela,  and  agreements  between  enterprises  in
Brazil, Egypt, India, Mexico and Venezuela.

68.   Since 1989 UNDP has supported an initiative of the Group of 77 for the
establishment of  a  South chamber  of  commerce  and  industry.   A  recent
Egyptian  initiative on  this subject  is designed  to set  up  an elaborate
information network.  With UNDP, regional  centres have been established  in
Benin, Colombia and  Pakistan.  The broad objective  of the programme is  to
contribute to  the promotion of trade  and investment  and the establishment
of  an information  network on  trade  opportunities  and capacities  of the
developing countries (see also discussion under  UNIDO).  The development of
skills for  international  trade negotiations  and preparation  of a  master
plan  for South-South trade  are also targeted.   The long-term objective is
the  establishment  of a  comprehensive  third  world  information  network.
Similarly,  UNDP  is  also  supporting  an  initiative  for   multi-sectoral
cooperation and  integration involving Argentina,  Bolivia, Chile and  Peru.
A meeting of mayors held  in the last quarter of  1993 launched a  programme
to  set up an  information network  to promote  collaboration mainly between
private  sector  enterprises  in trade  as  well as  other  sectors such  as
education, tourism,  health and  culture.   Another noteworthy  information-
related activity  is the establishment of a regional subcontracting exchange
system to promote economic integration and  improved efficiency of small and
medium industries in the Arab region.

69.    In  respect  of  investment   promotion  and  consultation  UNDP,  in
collaboration with UNIDO, held the first  investment round table in  central
Asia (March  1994). At this  round table, which  was held  in Uzbekistan, 14
countries participated and relations  were established between  a number  of

D.  United Nations Industrial Development Organization

70.   UNIDO's  ECDC/TCDC programme  for industrial development  gave special
attention  to the  development of  interregional, regional  and  subregional
programmes     including     continued    collaboration     with    regional
intergovernmental  organizations and  the  regional commissions.    In  1993
several  regional  training  programmes  were implemented,  including  those
provided  by  India   to  other  Asian  countries  on   environment-friendly
pesticides; by the Philippines and the Republic of Korea on quality  control
in  pesticides;   and  workshops  in   Malaysia  on  pesticide   application
technology  and in the  Republic of  Korea on  impurities in technical-grade
pesticide  materials.   A seminar  was organized on  refractories production
for the  West African  region in  Ghana (Accra,  October 1994)  in order  to
promote  development  of the  refractory  industry  based on  abundant local
materials  and to foster subregional cooperation through  establishment of a
subregional information  network.   The regional  cooperation programme  for
the industrial  recovery  of Latin  America  and  the Caribbean  included  a
number of  activities  such as:    (i)  a bio-technology  programme  whereby
special  assistance was offered to  both the public and  the private sectors
for  the industrial  application of  research  outputs and  assimilation  of
techniques and  experiences achieved  in industrialized  countries; (ii)  an
agro-industries programme  beginning with  a subregional  programme for  the
identification,   development  and   promotion  of   fruit-  and  vegetable-
processing  industries;  and  (iii)  a  regional  programme  for  industrial
modernization of  the capital goods  sector in Latin  America under which  a
techno-economic study to define specific areas  of action was completed with
participating research and development institutions.

71.   One  of  the  main comparative  strengths of  UNIDO is  its  wealth of
information sources, networks and statistical data  banks on all aspects  of
industrial development.   Mention  can be  made of  a number  of recent  and
ongoing  activities  aimed  at  strengthening  ECDC/TCDC-related  aspects of

information   sources,   including   the   assignment   of  the   TCDC-INRES
(Information  Referral  System)  database  to  the  industrial   information
section as a logical extension of its information  work in support of South-
South cooperation.  In  order to enhance the information flow within, to and
from  the  African  countries,  including  the  possible  establishment   of
national and  subregional  INTIB (Industrial  and Technological  Information
Bank)  networks  with  linkages  to  international  information  systems,  a
project is being implemented for the development  of an INTIB industrial and
technological  information network  for Africa.   The  project includes  the
preparation  of   an  assessment  report   covering  10  African   countries
(Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana,  Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, United Republic of
Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) through  its cooperation with  the Solidarity
and  Assistance  Fund for  the  Development  of  the  West African  Economic
  72.   Great efforts have  been made to  ensure the  maximum utilization of
the  relevant  activities  and  services  of  UNIDO  for  the  promotion  of
investment among  developing countries,  such as  consultation meetings  and
investment  forums.   An investors'  forum  for Central  Africa was  held in
Yaounde (November 1993) together with the European  Union and the Centre for
Development of  Industry.  Potential investors  from the  11 ECCAS countries
participated at  the forum,  giving it  a very  distinct ECDC/TCDC  flavour.
Bilateral  discussions   resulted  in  the   conclusion  of  3   preliminary
agreements and 22 letters of intent, including cooperation agreements  among
developing  countries.   As a  result  of  previous promotion  activities in
north-west  China, Nepal  and  Viet  Nam, several  investment licences  were
issued  and  investment projects  with  high  investment  values started  to
become  operational.    For the  third  time,  the Viet  Nam  programme  was
extended and  the project  budget increased  accordingly with  plans for  an
investment forum at  Hanoi.  It is worth noticing in this context that there
is an increasing trend towards  investment between developing countries and,
in particular, in the east  and south Asian regions.  A workshop on  country
and investment  project promotion  was held  in Dubai  (November 1993)  with
more than  100 participants  from 17  Arab countries to  discuss the  roles,
functions,  structure and work  methods of  investment promotion agencies in
the region.

73.   Renewed efforts  were made  by UNIDO  to increase  the utilization  of
experts,  services  and  equipment  from  developing  countries  in  UNIDO's
technical  cooperation projects  in  1993.   A total  of 1,200  experts from
developing countries  were appointed,  including 544  national experts,  who
represent 45.3 per cent of all experts appointed.  Even though  data for the
year  1994 will  only be  available in 1995,  it was determined  that in the
first ten  months  of  the  year a  total  of  734 experts  from  developing
countries  were recruited.   In 1993,  equipment and  supplies totalling US$
26.6 million  were purchased  for technical cooperation  projects, of  which
US$ 5  million (19 per cent) were provided by developing  countries.  In the
same year 239 new contracts for technical cooperation  projects with a total
value of US$ 12.8  million were awarded,  of which  US$ 5.4 million (42  per
cent) were awarded to developing countries.

E.  World Bank

74.   The privatization of  enterprise is often  designed to make  countries
competitive in  investment and trade  activities.  The World  Bank is active
in  the area  of private  sector development,  including through South-South
cooperation.  World  Bank  adjustment  loans  and  credits  help  produce  a
competitive and  attractive business environment as  well as  help reform in
the financial  sector. In  addition, the  Bank Group  is supporting  private
investment activities estimated at $25 billion annually.

F.  International Labour Organization

75.   In the past ILO's global network of 14 regional centres and programmes
in  the  fields  of  training,  labour  administration  and  employment  was

particularly  successful in  promoting genuine  TCDC approaches  that  often
benefited  from  contributions  from  the  more  advanced countries  in  the
region,  mostly   through  twinning  and   networking  arrangements.     The
activities of  some of these  regional centres/programmes  have lately  been
taken  over by  14 new  multidisciplinary  teams,  located in  the different
developing regions, in  the framework of a newly introduced policy of active
partnership.  It is expected  that this new policy  will progressively serve
as a  catalyst  and enhance  TCDC  approaches  in  fields central  to  ILO's
mandate.   The  geographic coverage  of  each  multidisciplinary team  is  a
subregion  where the  extent of  "like-mindedness" between the  countries is
obviously higher.

76.   In regions that have a tradition of TCDC - Latin America, for instance
the willingness and ability to share  is more in evidence.   In that region,
training programmes  in container operations  and handling for port workers,
for  instance,  have  drawn  upon  the  experiences  and  resources  of  the
comparatively   better-endowed  countries   in   the   region  since   1986.
Currently, 17  countries are  involved.  Such  successful experiments  along
TCDC lines  are currently  being pursued  in East  Africa and  the Asia  and
Pacific region as well.

77.    In  Africa, ILO  implements  a project  which  aims at  strengthening
management training  institutions and associations,  drawing heavily on  the
expertise  available  within  the  network  of  participating organizations.
Twinning  is at the  heart of this  system.   Also, in  cooperation with the
West African Central Bank, an ILO-executed  programme in the region promotes
harmonized approaches to village banks through,  inter alia, the creation of
data banks  and the  use of  experts from  the same  region.   ILO was  also
active,  initially, in the Asian  and Pacific region  and subsequently, on a
global  basis,  in promoting,  under  its  INTERCOOP  programme,  commercial
exchanges,   business   partnerships   and   exchange   of   know-how  among
cooperatives in  developing countries  and their  counterparts in  developed
ones.  Another successful experiment, INTERMAN,  ensures, on a global basis,
transfer of  experience in  entrepreneurship and  management development  to
countries and institutions  that stand to benefit from  it.  Efforts by  ILO
in  the same  field led  to the  creation  of  the Pan  African Productivity

78.    In  the  Asian  and Pacific  region,  examples  include the  regional
programme  on  the  Asian network  of  human  resource  development planning
institutes  and  the  Asian networking  of  national  institutes  of  labour
studies.  In  both cases, the  participating institutions meet  part of  the
costs involved in mounting jointly agreed projects.


A.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

79.   In respect  of the  promotion of food security,  FAO has continued its
collaboration with several groups of  countries.  In addition to IGADD, SADC
and  PTA,  technical  support  was  provided  to  the Permanent  Inter-State
Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) in the establishment of  a
regional  unit for  food security.    FAO also  provided assistance  in  the
formulation  of subregional  food security programmes for  ECOWAS, ECCAS and
the Union  douaniere et  economique de  l'Afrique centrale  (UDEAC).   These
strategies  aim  at  dissemination  of  research  results  for   traditional
agriculture and  fisheries as a  priority for achieving  food security.   In
Latin America, 10 LAIA member countries  and four Central American countries
are being  assisted in identification and characterization of the population
at risk of  food insecurity, analysis of the main causes and problem-solving
action.   Three  Latin  American  workshops  on  food  security  programming
analysed  methodological  work   in  assisted  countries  and   consolidated
experiences  in a methodological  compendium.   In Asia  FAO cooperated with
the  Food  Security  Reserve  Board  of  ASEAN in  exchanging  early-warning
information, providing technical assistance in research and development  and

mobilizing  international assistance.   A recent joint  activity resulted in
the preparation  of a  project proposal  on a  comprehensive study  of ASEAN
food security.  FAO continues to cooperate with  ASEAN in the development of
a policy-driven model to assess food  security policy alternatives to attain
shortand long-term food security objectives at the national and  subregional
levels. FAO also  provided technical support to SAARC in establishing a food
security  reserve for use  in emergencies.   Again in the  Asian and Pacific
region FAO provides  assistance to countries  through regional  and national
projects to make food production safer for human health  and the environment
while  ensuring yield  increases through  the implementation  of  integrated
pest management.

80.  In early  1995, FAO launched  the Special Programme on Food  Production
in Support  of Food Security in  Low-income Food-Deficit  Countries which at
present number 88, with an estimated total population  of 3.5 billion.   The
main objective of the programme is  to assist these countries,  particularly
those where the food security situation  is becoming increasingly  critical,
to increase food production rapidly  in order to stem  the growing incidence
of under- nutrition among  their populations.  TCDC will be a key instrument
to achieve the  objectives of the special programme.   At the global  level,
this will  involve the identification  of successful  technologies which can
be transferred from one country to  another with similar agro-ecological and
socio-economic  conditions, as  well as  making available  the know-how  and
experience  in  the process  of  technological  change  itself.   This  will
concern different categories of  actors (such as high-level decision makers,
extensionists, research  workers,  farmers'  groups,  NGOs,  private  sector
groups)  who could,  through workshops,  exchange  visits, study  tours  and
apprenticeship  programmes  for fellow  farmers,  cooperative  managers  and
trainers,  share  their practical  experiences  and  "success  stories"  and
demonstrate  concrete  examples  of  management  know-how,  techniques   and
practices.  Consultations with Governments have already started.

81.   Activities  for the  development  of  agriculture generally  that  are
delivered  by FAO  through TCDC/ECDC  mechanisms cover  agricultural  trade,
nutrition,  fisheries  and  forestry.    Regarding  agricultural  trade  and
commodities,  FAO,   in   collaboration   with  subregional   and   regional
organizations,  supports numerous  activities  aimed at  promoting  economic
cooperation in  agricultural trade.   Also,  in this  regard, following  the
conclusion of  the Uruguay Round  of multilateral  trade negotiations (April
1994), which  included  agriculture for  the  first  time in  a  substantive
fashion, there  has  been a  growing  interest  by developing  countries  in
coming  to  grips  with the  changed international  trading  environment for
agriculture  and FAO  has been  developing a  programme to  respond to  this
need.  Additionally,  the  FAO  Committee  on  Commodity  Problems  and  the
intergovernmental commodity groups  continue to provide forums for  exchange
of information, consensus-building on emerging problems and flexibility  for
remedial  action.  Often in  collaboration  with  subregional  and  regional
organizations, FAO supports numerous activities aimed at promoting  economic
cooperation in agricultural trade.  Examples include  an expert consultation
and a  study  on  the impact  of structural  adjustment  programmes on  rice
economies in selected countries in West Africa with  a view to assisting the
countries in assessing the future outlook of their rice industry.

82.    Regarding  nutrition,  food  quality  control  and  food  safety  the
harmonization  of  food quality  control requirements  and procedures  is an
important  requisite  for  eliminating  non-tariff  barriers  and  promoting
intra-regional and interregional food trade.   For example, FAO supported  a
workshop for the Gulf Cooperation Council  (GCC) countries on food additives
and  contaminants in  which 55  professionals  from Bahrain,  Kuwait,  Oman,
Qatar,  Saudi  Arabia  and  the  United  Arab  Emirates  participated.   The
workshop permitted those  professionals to review the subregion's  situation
with regard to the control of food additives and contaminants and to  define
a  common strategy  and action  plan  to  strengthen their  capabilities and
exchange information in this field.  In Latin America,  laboratories from 11
countries  were  assisted  in  a  study  on  mycotoxin  standards  and  food
contamination  monitoring and  control.   Assistance  was given  to MERCOSUR

countries in setting up harmonized procedures  for the registration of  food
and food  industries, classification  of food,  standardization of  priority
commodities and  harmonized procedures  for the  inspection/certification of

83.    Concerning  fisheries, FAO  has  been  collaborating with  developing
countries in realizing the  potential arising out of the new legal regime of
the  seas.   Of  particular relevance  are  activities  in support  of FAO's
network  of  regional  fishery  bodies  which  provide  a   well-established
mechanism   for   cooperation   in   fisheries   research,   management  and
development.   The subcommittee on fish  trade acts as a global consultative
mechanism on  international trade  matters.   It further  aims at  promoting
collaboration  among  developing  countries  in  improving  their  share  of
international trade in fish and fishery products.  Also in respect of  fish,
the  global  fish  marketing   information  system  set  up  by  FAO  is   a
comprehensive   network  consisting   of   four  regional   fish   marketing
information and  technical advisory  services.   These assist  participating
countries with international fish trade matters within and between  regions.
The system includes INFOFISH for Asia and  the Pacific, INFORPESCA for Latin
America and  the Caribbean, INFOPECHE for Africa and INFOSAMAK  for the Arab
region.    GLOBEFISH is  another  key  element of  the  FAO  fish  marketing
information system.   It collects and  regularly updates  information on the
medium and  long-term outlook  for fishery commodities  and distributes  and
disseminates it among developing countries through the regional  information

84.  As concerns forestry, interregional  and regional forestry projects  of
particular  importance to  ECDC/TCDC are  being  implemented  by FAO  in all
developing regions.   Examples are projects on forest industries, production
and  marketing  of  timber,  wood-energy  development,  forest  policy   and
planning, management  of forest resources  for environmental protection  and
arid zone  sand dune stabilization.   The tropical  forests action programme
promotes intercountry  cooperation through the  exchange of information  and
expertise for  developing and strengthening  national capacity to  formulate
and implement policies, strategies and action programmes.

85.  Other activities  with an ECDC/TCDC dimension  are being pursued by FAO
in  various  areas.   One such  area concerns  cooperative research  in food
crops,  plant protection  and  post-harvest losses,  cooperation  in  animal
health measures, and plant  and animal biotechnology.   A second area is the
development of a sound  information base on the capacities and needs of  the
developing countries  for systematic and  well-organized TCDC programmes  in
the area  of food  and agriculture, such  as assistance  provided to  member
countries in the preparation of inventories  in various fields (agriculture,
forestry and  fisheries) and  in dissemination  of related  information.   A
third area relates to  the use of  institutions in the developing world  for
inter-country training  of technicians, such as  the use  of institutions of
the Republic of Korea in intercountry training in the fields of  sericulture
and tidal  land reclamation.   The  project also  typifies the  cost-sharing
concept of TCDC.   The Government of the Republic of Korea covered all local
costs including  board, lodging and internal  transport.   FAO assisted with
technical advice and covered international trade and essential equipment.

B.  United Nations Development Programme

86.   UNDP  is also  lending support  to food  security efforts.   The  Arab
regional  programme  includes several  activities  relating  to  cooperative
efforts in  food production.  The  network for  supplementary irrigation and
improved  water  management  at  the  farm   level  is  aimed  at  enhancing
collective research  and extension capacity in  five North  African and four
Middle  Eastern Arab countries  which are  heavily dependent  on irrigation.
The programmes for the productivity increase  of barley, pastures and  sheep
in Iraq,  Jordan and  the Syrian  Arab Republic  and the  programme for  the
oilseeds  crop in  the Sudan,  Somalia and  Yemen are  all directed  at  the
promotion  of collective  measures  for  research  and improvement  in  food


87.  In  Africa, a highly  innovative TCDC  activity is  being supported  by
UNDP.  The aim  of food  technology transfer  and the  promotion of  private
investment is to  bring together entrepreneurs, researchers, financiers  and
policy-makers to  transform research  results into commercial ventures.   An
NGO in  Kenya has prepared  a source  book of successful  technologies which
will  be used  to mobilize  venture capital.    The programme  envisages the
exhibition  of   consumer  products,  a   workshop  for  entrepreneurs   and
researchers, and training sessions on intellectual property rights  relating
to joint ventures.

C.  World Bank

88.   The World  Bank played  an important  and active role  in coordinating
food security needs  in southern  Africa during the  period when the  region
was threatened by food scarcity because of the  prolonged drought.  The Bank
worked  closely with  the various  affected  countries  and with  the United
Nations agencies involved to monitor needs and support efforts  to make food
available  in the  appropriate areas.    The parties  which worked  on  this
effort agree  that  serious shortages  and  possible  famine were  in  great
measure averted through such regional coordination.

                     SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 3/

A.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

89.    Technical  workshops  and  group   training,  which  are  among   the
traditional  modes  of  TCDC  promotion,  concentrate  on  dissemination  of
successful  technologies.    Examples  of  such  technologies  include  fish
smoking,  low-cost meat  preservation, rural  household bio-gas,  fertilizer
block demonstration, small-scale cheese processing in mountainous areas  and
rural milk  cooperatives. A TCDC  workshop hosted by  Senegal on simple  and
cost-effective methods  of meat  preservation and  attended by  participants
from some 15 African countries typifies  this approach and demonstrates  the
potential of learning from experiences.

90.   FAO has,  within its  fields of  competence, used  networks to  foster
research   and   technical   collaboration,    upgrade   national   research
capabilities   and  facilitate   information   exchange  and   transfer   of
technology.  Networking takes various forms  and approaches depending on the
problems to be solved, the capacities  of the institutions involved  and the
funding  mechanisms.   FAO has  so far  promoted over  140 networks  in  the
developing  regions of  the world.    Twinning arrangements  between similar
organizations and  institutions are also  promoted, where  feasible, with  a
view to  increasing their management capabilities,  training their staff  or
improving their operational procedures.  For  example, the Asian Network  on
Forestry Education, the Asian-Pacific  Association of Agricultural  Research
Institutions and  the Association of  Agricultural Research Institutions  in
the Near East  and North Africa, the  plant quarantine networks in  southern
and  eastern Africa  and the  Latin  American  citrus network  link renowned
institutions in a collaborative  framework, very much along the lines of the
"South  network  of  centres  of   excellence"  recommended  in   the  South
Commission's report.   The  network approach  employed by  FAO reflects  the
conviction that  TCDC initiatives should not  only institute collections  of
ad hoc activities but should have  a strong institutional framework,  within
which dialogue  and cooperation  among groups  of institutions  or countries
can be carried out on a sustained and continuing basis.

B.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

91.  In the field of technology, a workshop was  held at New Delhi (November
1994)  to address three  main issues,  namely (i)  the increasing complexity
and rising  costs of research and  development; (ii)  the rapid obsolescence
of technologies  and of  products; and  (iii) the  difficulties in  blending
technologies and  start-up finance  for ensuring  sustained and  sustainable
economic growth  and development.  Senior executives coming from enterprises
and  from   research  and  development   organizations  from  12   countries
(Bangladesh,  China,  India,  Indonesia,  the  Islamic  Republic  of   Iran,
Malaysia,  Nepal, Pakistan,  the Philippines,  the  Republic of  Korea,  Sri
Lanka and Viet Nam)  met with policy makers in  order to discuss the ways in
which  multi-enterprise  and multi-country  initiatives  could help  address
these  concerns.  The  Asian and  Pacific Centre for  Transfer of Technology
(APCTT) of ESCAP, with UNCTAD and  UNDP, actively participated in all phases
of preparation  and  the actual  holding  of  the workshop.    Subsequently,
UNCTAD  made  available  to  APCTT  a draft  proposal  concerning  follow-up
activities.  University-industry relations  have also been considered in the
Latin American and Caribbean context.

C.  United Nations Development Programme

92.   Commercialization of  the results  of research and  development is  an
issue  receiving  attention  in  many  developing  countries  and  TCDC   is
considered  an  appropriate  modality for  promoting  this  objective.   The
establishment of linkages between  the scientific community  and the private
sector for  the  commercialization  of  research  and  development  was  the
subject of an interregional gathering supported  by UNDP in Argentina (March
1993).   Similarly,  in Africa another interesting  initiative launched with
the  support  of  UNDP  is  inter-university  collaboration in  research  on
development  policy.   The programme  was launched  in  July 1993  under the
sponsorship of Addis Ababa  University and will  be completed by the end  of
this year.  This  is the first African  initiative in  this field and it  is
likely to generate ideas for solution of common  problems as perceived by  a
group of collaborators from the South.

93.   TCDC-INRES  (information referral  system)  has  been developed  as  a
valuable  resource  on  capacities  in  developing  countries.    A  careful
screening  process  has  been  followed  in  order  to  compile  and  update
information from 31 countries.   The coverage will  be expanded at  the rate
of 20  countries  each year.    At  the same  time  a system  of  continuous
updating has  been instituted.  Also  important is the  ease of access  that
has been  built into the data-processing technology. INRES-LITE will provide
diskettes  to UNDP country  offices, national  TCDC focal  points and agency
TCDC focal points in order to make the information readily available to  end
users.  The other  agencies, in turn, contribute  to expanding and improving
the information  database.   This will  revolutionize the  scope for  South-
South  cooperation  by  making  information more  readily  available  at the
national level.

                  D.  United Nations Educational, Scientific and
                      Cultural Organization

94.   In  the  area of  education  UNESCO is  implementing  a  comprehensive
programme   encompassing   basic   education,   education   innovation   for
development  and higher  education.   Moreover, activities  in the foregoing
fields are executed at the regional  level by the UNESCO  Principal Regional
Office for Asia and the Pacific at Bangkok.

95.   In the  field of basic  education, particular attention  is paid to  a
number  of  important   issues  such  as:    cost-effectiveness;   education
opportunities  for  girls and  women  and  for  other disadvantaged  groups;
improvement   of  relevance   and   quality  of   education   and   learning
achievements;  promotion  of  innovative  approaches;  linking  school  with
community to obtain its support; and linking school with the world of  work.
In  this  spirit UNESCO  attempts  to  develop international  cooperation in

education  including both  North-South  and South-South  cooperation.    The
programme "Education for  all, making it  work" is  a pragmatic and  action-
oriented strategy to  support and  promote innovations  in basic  education.
The following are some  illustrative examples of  the innovations  programme
concerning South-South cooperation:

  (a)   Inter-project  workshops  and  visits.   The  innovations  programme
organized  four   inter-project  basic  education   workshops  in  1994   in
Bangladesh, China, Senegal and Zimbabwe.  Besides being important  platforms
for the exchange of experiences from  the grass-roots to ministries, another
important   function  of   the   workshops  and   their  follow-up   is  the
establishment or  reinvigoration of  networks for  educationists to  enhance
regional and subregional collaboration in the  field.  A UNDP-funded project
is  operated by  UNESCO  for and  with  NGOs,  local  education experts  and
government counterparts in the  Asian region.  A similar project in  Africa,
also  funded by  UNDP, is  implemented by UNESCO-Harare  for and  with NGOs,
local educationists  and government counterparts  from southern and  eastern

  (b)   Innovations  series.   The programme  aims to  collect,  analyse and
promote  successful basic education  projects in  the developing  world.  By
October  1994  five  issues   had  been  published   covering  projects   in
Bangladesh, India, Mali and Trinidad and  Tobago, and distributed widely  to
disseminate  worthwhile  basic  education   experiences  from  third   world
countries  to a wide  range of  educationists, from decision makers/planners
in  ministries  to  grassroots  people,  thus  contributing  to  South-South

96.  The project  "Education for all in the nine high population  countries"
includes  Bangladesh,  Brazil,  China,  Egypt,  India,  Indonesia,   Mexico,
Nigeria  and Pakistan, which  together account  for over 70 per  cent of the
world's adult  illiterates and more than  half of  the world's out-of-school
children.    Under  this project,  many activities  took  place such  as the
Education for  All Summit  (New  Delhi, December  1993) and  the meeting  at
Geneva  of Ministers  of Education  as a  follow-up to  the Summit.    Other
activities  are being implemented or elaborated such as  the use of distance
education to reach people living in remote areas.

97.    UNESCO executes  four  regional  programmes  for  renewal of  primary
education  and elimination of  illiteracy in  Africa, the  Arab States, Asia
and the Pacific  and Latin America and the  Caribbean that are mainly  based
on South-South cooperation in terms of substance and technical issues.

98.  In  the field of education innovation  for development UNESCO has  five
networks of which four are concerned  with developing regions (Africa,  Arab
States, Asia  and the  Pacific, Latin  America and  the Caribbean).   South-
South cooperation  develops  within  the framework  of these  four  regional
networks,  while  interregional  cooperation involves  both  North-South and
South-South cooperation.

99.    In  the field  of  higher  education,  UNESCO  launched  in 1991  the
UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs  Cooperative Programme  in Higher  Education with  the
objective  of  promoting  and  strengthening  inter-university  cooperation.
Although  North-South linkages are given  particular importance, South-South
cooperation has  been given  a high  priority within the  framework of  this
programme.   A number  of UNITWIN  networks have  been already  established.
Among these,  the following  examples of  inter-university networks  involve
cooperative and joint activities undertaken by universities  from the South:
(i) UNAMAZ, a network in environmental  studies involving 30 universities in
the  countries  of  the Amazon  region;  (ii)  the Utrecht/Southern  African
University network,  which links institutions  in the Netherlands,  Germany,
Sweden,  Zimbabwe,  Mozambique, South  Africa  and  Namibia  and focuses  on
health, environment,  science and  human rights; (iii)  the PEACE  programme
network,  which associates  Palestinian  and European  universities  of  the
Coimbra  group;  (iv)   the  UNESCO/NATURA  network,  linking   agricultural
universities in  Europe and  Africa; and  (v) the UNITWIN  project with  the

Santander  group of universities  which networks European and Latin American
institutions and will include six UNESCO Chairs.

100.  The activities  executed at the regional level by the UNESCO Principal
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (PROAP) at Bangkok serve 40  member
States.  4/    The  national  commissions of  UNESCO  in  the member  States
themselves form  a network of  cooperation which  is further supported  by a
number  of networks  of  specialized educational  institutions  and  several
thousand key educators in Asia and  the Pacific participating in South-South
cooperation through a number  of mechanisms.  One is the Advisory  Committee
on Regional  Cooperation in  Education in Asia  and the Pacific,  set up  by
UNESCO  in 1980 to  provide advice,  consultation and guidance  to UNESCO on
regional cooperation in education through the highest  level of intellectual
expertise available in the region in the field of education.  The  Committee
has  held  several  sessions.    It  also  oversees  the  implementation  of
education  projects and  programmes  based on  North-South  and  South-South
cooperation  and  makes  recommendations  to  the  periodic  conferences  of
Ministers of Education and those responsible  for economic planning in  Asia
and the Pacific.

101.  Another mechanism is the Asia and  the Pacific Programme of  Education
Innovation  for  Development,  which  encourages  educational innovation  in
response to the felt  needs and emerging priorities.   Activities under this
programme encompass  all  levels and  forms  of  education from  primary  to
tertiary as  well as  educational technology,  distance learning,  education
and employment, science and technology education and environment  education,
to mention only the important ones.

102.  A third  mechanism is the Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for  All
(APPEAL).  5/   APPEAL  has  been  specially  formulated  by  UNESCO on  the
recommendation of the Fifth  Regional Conference of  Ministers of  Education
and those  Responsible  for Economic  Planning  and  was launched  in  1987.
APPEAL is  responsible for implementing  activities generally to  facilitate
the  achievement  of  "Education   for  All"  and  particularly  to  promote
universal  primary education,  eradicate illiteracy  and provide  continuing
education especially to  adult illiterates and out-of-school children,  with
special  provision for  women and  other  disadvantaged  groups.   APPEAL is
fully operational in 29 States of  the region through national  coordinating
committees  of  APPEAL  and  a  number  of  participating  institutions.   A
regional  coordinating mechanism of APPEAL  has also been  set up to promote
South-South  cooperation for  improving the  education and  literacy in  the
region. For the first time since the beginning  of 1994 the absolute  number
of  adult illiterates in the  region has started  to decline  as a result of
sharing of knowledge between participating institutions.

 103.   A fourth mechanism is  the Regional Cooperative  Programme in Higher
Education for  Development.    The programme,  which became  operational  in
1982, was developed by  PROAP.  It  succeeded in  creating a network of  110
universities and  other institutions of higher  learning in  16 countries of
the  region.  The  basic aim  is to improve the  quality of higher education
through   training  of   higher  education   administrators  and   managers,
curriculum  planners and  higher  education  management information  systems
specialists.   UNESCO  was  also instrumental  in  the  setting  up  of  the
Association  of Asian Open  Universities as  well as  the Distance Education
Regional  Resource  Centre to  promote  the  networking of  institutions  of
higher education  specializing in distance  education programmes to  improve
the  outreach  of  higher  education  programmes.    UNITWIN/UNESCO   Chairs
Cooperative Programme has been launched in  this region.  Furthermore, PROAP
cooperates  extensively with  ESCAP to  strengthen regional  cooperation  in

104.  A  fifth mechanism is technical and  vocational education.  UNEVOC  is
the acronym for the new "international  project on technical and  vocational
education" launched by UNESCO in 1992.  In the  Asian and Pacific region the
project  was  successfully launched  in  1993  and  15  key institutions  of
technical and vocational education are  now participating in a collaborative

exchange  of ideas, experiences  and studies on policy issues, strengthening
international research and development capabilities, facilitating access  to
databases  and  promoting  innovations  in  staff  development.    UNEVOC is
basically a  cooperative endeavour  of the  member States  sharing a  common
need  to  further  develop  and  improve  their  systems  of  technical  and
vocational education  and training,  taking due  account of  the changes  in
science  and  technology   affecting  the  workplace.  The  most   important
objective of this project is to  network technical and vocational  education
policy planners,  teacher training and  technical institutions, schools  and
students  throughout each  region  as well  as  globally to  assist  in  the
sharing  of  experiences   for  the  reform   of  technical  and  vocational

105.   A sixth  mechanism is  educational planning  and management,  an area
where PROAP has been active for over two  decades in assisting member States
in policy formulation  and implementation of monitoring, particularly  using
educational  management  information  systems.    A   network  of  about  60
institutions  in 20  member States  has  been  established under  a regional
programme of educational planning and management.   In this area also  PROAP
cooperates  with  ESCAP  in  a  regional  project  on  resource  development
perspectives  in education  planning under  the  Jakarta  Plan of  Action on
Human Resource  Development, mainly in  a South-South cooperation  modality.
This project alone  has so far trained about 50  persons in two years.   The
network  is assisting  the member  States  in  improving their  planning for
Education for All and  its implementation and monitoring.   A related  field
where PROAP  has  been active  is  education  facilities development.    The
lowcost school  building and furniture designed  by PROAP  have already been
adopted/adapted by  a number  of countries  in the  region, with  particular
emphasis  on the use of local materials.  PROAP has  also been active in the
field  of environment  and population  education  and information  for human
development and  has developed a  regional conceptual  framework for  inter-
agency      cooperation     (comprising     different     United     Nations
agencies/organizations and other  regional and national institutions).   The
framework  emphasizes  cooperative  development  of  project  proposals  for
action and resource  generation, narrowing the  knowledge gaps  and devising
strategies to do so through action focusing on South-South dialogue.

106.   A seventh mechanism is the Asia-Pacific Information Network in Social
Science  (APINESS).   APINESS was set  up in 1986  with a view  to providing
national-level academic  groups in  the social  sciences field  appropriate,
relevant  and   pertinent  international   as  well   as  indigenous   data,
documentation and information, so that professionals  in the field of social
sciences  may meaningfully  contribute to  national development.    National
social science councils and other academic  organizations were encouraged to
take action  to create  and strengthen infrastructures  for social  sciences
information and documentation, essential for both research and teaching.

107.   An  eighth  mechanism is  the  Association of  Asian  Social  Science
Councils  Research  (AASSREC).   AASSREC was  launched  in 1973  and has  at
present a membership of  16 national councils.  AASSREC's main tasks are  to
help develop national social sciences policies,  to canvass support for  the
social sciences  and the  social  scientists and  to promote  intra-regional
cooperation.    The most  recent  activities of  AASSREC  were:    its tenth
biennial  conference,   held  at  Kawasaki,   Japan  (September  1994),   in
conjunction  with  the AASSREC  symposium  on  environment  and  sustainable
development (September 1994) and a regional  symposium on the new strategies
for  social development  in Asia  and  the  Pacific (Manila,  November 1994)
where  social scientists  discussed  national papers  highlighting  specific
national problems relating to social development,  with a view to  preparing
a paper  integrating issues  on alleviating and reducing  poverty, expanding
productive  employment  and   enhancing  social  integration.    The   paper
constituted  AASSREC's   contribution  to  the   World  Summit  for   Social
Development (Copenhagen, March 1995).

108.   A ninth mechanism is the General Information Programme (PGI).  In the
context of  improving the flow  and use of information  for development, PGI

has for several years  been implementing in the Asian and Pacific region two
information networks, namely  ASTINFO (Regional Network  for the Exchange of
Information and  Experiences  in Science  and  Technology  in Asia  and  the
Pacific),  with  18  countries in  the  region  actively  participating, and
APINMAP  (Asian  Pacific Information  Network  for  Medicinal  and  Aromatic
Plants),  with 14  participating  countries.   Participating  countries  are
helping each other through TCDC and resource-sharing arrangements,  promoted
and  catalysed  by  UNESCO/PGI  and  ASTINFO,  specially  among   developing
countries.   For example,  India has  provided expertise  to Nepal, Malaysia
and Bangladesh and China has provided  technical and financial assistance to
the  Democratic People's Republic  of Korea  and Mongolia.   Through ASTINFO
and APINMAP,  bilateral programmes of  several participating countries  have
included information and library services as  an area eligible for technical
cooperation, bringing information  closer to being included in the  priority
areas of  national  development programmes  of developing  countries in  the

109.  In the area of culture UNESCO  executes activities through the  South-
South  cooperation  modality primarily  in the  fields of  physical cultural
heritage and  books and  reading.   Examples of  physical cultural  heritage
cooperation are not very frequent.   However, developments are being noticed
in this regard and  it is one  of the  objectives of several programmes  and
projects in UNESCO to develop and enhance regional cooperation.

110.    In Africa  the  Niamey  Regional  Training  Institute for  Museology
(Niger), created in  1986 under an  international convention  concerning the
French-speaking  countries,  has functioned  under  the  auspices  of  UNDP,
UNESCO  and  the  Agence  de  cooperation  culturelle  et  technique.    The
Institute has trained  many museum technicians.  Unfortunately, the training
was  interrupted due to  funding difficulties; it  is important  to find new
funding sources so that the Institute can resume its activities.

111.   Among Arab  States a  very important  project, in  terms of  regional
cooperation,  is being initiated  in Tunisia  at the  National Institute for
Cultural Heritage,  where a special two-year  course is  open for architects
from  the countries  of  the Maghreb,  who  benefit  from  fellowships.   In
another activity UNESCO sent  a legal consultant from Algeria to assist  the
Moroccan  authorities in  redrafting the  legislation for  the protection of
cultural heritage.

112.  In Asia regional cooperation is  notably effective in South-East  Asia
where the Regional Centre for Archaeology  and Fine Arts organizes  training
sessions, study  tours  and exchanges  of  experts  and of  information  for
member  States.  UNESCO   collaborates  regularly  with  this   institution.
Another  important  example  of  cooperation  is  the  one  which  has  been
provided, on  an exclusive  bilateral basis,  by India  to Cambodia  for the
restoration of the temple of Angkor Wat.

113.   In  Latin America  and the Caribbean  within the  overall UNDP/UNESCO
project  for cultural,  urban and  environmental heritage,  cooperation  has
been developed among the countries of the region.   The University of  Bahia
in Brazil has become  a training institution for specialists in the field of
architectural  heritage, with the  support of  UNESCO.   Also, expertise was
provided  to  assist Mozambique  under  this  project.  The  project of  the
National  Centre for  Conservation,  Restoration and  Museology  at  Havana,
financed  by  UNDP  and  executed  by  UNESCO,  has  permitted  notably  the
provision of technical assistance for the  creation of the museum  of Belize
and  for the preservation  of immovable  cultural property  in the Dominican
Republic.    It  should  also be  noted  that  within  the  context  of  the
international  safeguarding   campaigns,  financial   assistance  has   been
provided by  South  countries to  other  South  countries, for  example  the
United Republic of Tanzania to  Yemen and Pakistan, Thailand  and Nigeria to
Pakistan,  Saudi  Arabia to  Mauritania.   In  the  field of  the intangible
cultural heritage,  a regional network  of traditional musical  institutions
for Africa was  established and the first  coordination meeting was held  at
Niamey in December  1994.  Similar  networks will  be created  in the  Latin

American and Arab regions during the 1996-1997 biennium.

114.   The  promotion and  development  of  South-South cooperation  are key
elements  in the  drafting  and implementation  of  policies  and programmes
undertaken by UNESCO  in the field of books  and reading.  This approach  is
also adopted by regional representatives in  the allocation of the  relevant
decentralized  funds.  Within  the  framework  of  the  various   activities
coordinated  by  UNESCO's programme  for  books  and  reading (namely  those
relating to  national book policies, training,  stimulating young people  to
read and the free  flow of books), regional and national executing  agencies
are encouraged,  whenever possible and appropriate,  to ensure  a high level
of involvement  of  partners from  the  South.  The following  presents  and
exemplifies  a   regional  outline  of   initiatives  involving  South-South

  (a)   The  establishment  of  the Asia-Pacific  Cooperative  Programme  in
Reading Promotion and Book Development (APPREB),  an information network  to
which 20  of  UNESCO's  member  States  have  joined to  date,  has  greatly
enhanced  UNESCO's capability  to meet  the challenge to  promote meaningful
exchanges  among  partners of  the  South.   The  activities  of  APPREB are
coordinated through the  Asia-Pacific Cultural  Centre for  UNESCO which  is
based at Tokyo.   A regional consultation  with member States of the  APPREB
network will  be held  from 1 to  5 August  1995 at Bangkok  to discuss  the
development and follow-up  strategies of activities relating to  South-South

  (b)   The Regional  Centre for  Book Promotion  in Latin  America and  the
Caribbean (CERLALC),  UNESCO's regional coordinating  partner in this  area,
has effectively carried out a  number of activities which  have involved the
participation and input of the 15 States members  of CERLALC in the  region.
Particularly  noteworthy are the development of prototypes  of national book
policies,  which have been  successfully adopted  by eight  countries of the
region, and  the Acuerdo de  Alcance Parcial, relating  to the  free flow of
books.   Based in  Mexico, a  unique and highly  successful project entitled
"Periolibros" aims to promote reading by  utilizing local newspapers as  the
medium.     The  project,  which  continues   to  be   financed  largely  by
extrabudgetary  contributions from  Iberia Airlines,  represents a  creative
and  motivating approach  to  encouraging reading  and the  dissemination of
information.  In  view of its  success, the  "Periolibros" model  is in  the
process  of being  developed in  the  Arab States.   Entitled  "Al-Kitab al-
Jarida", the  project  will avail  itself  of  the experiences  gained  with
"Periolibros" and aim  to duplicate its  success.  Funds  allocated for  the
development of "Al-Kitab al-Jarida" amounted to US$ 10,000 in 1994;

  (c)  Within the framework of the 1994-1995  "Reading for All" campaign for
Africa,  developed by  UNESCO  in  order  to  respond  to the  challenge  of
encouraging reading and  the promotion  of books, the following  South-South
initiatives can  be cited:   (i) convening of  a consultation of  publishers
and  education specialists  in  Abidjan to  develop  practical  and concrete
steps to  stimulate  the  book market  in francophone  Africa;  and (ii)  in
anglophone  Africa,  significant  partnerships  have  been  developed   with
organizations  that  promote  exchanges  among  and  training  for   African
publishers  and stimulate the marketing  of African books in  the region and
overseas.   UNESCO's support to the  African Publishers  Network (APNET) and
book marketing  schemes such as the  African Books Collective is expected to
continue and  possibly to grow into  cooperative efforts  which involve both
French-  and Portuguese-speaking  partners.   On  the  occasion of  the 1995
Zimbabwe  International Book  Fair,  UNESCO provided  financial  support  to
APNET for  the  organization of  an  international  seminar "Books  for  the
Millions" dealing with the social dimensions  of human rights, including the
right of access  to affordable, locally produced books and to development of
a national publishing industry.

115.   In respect  of communication  UNESCO has  consistently contributed to
the reinforcement  of regional communication  institutions, including  those
for  broadcasting,  research,  training,  audio-visual  production  and news

agency exchanges.  Through these institutions,  UNESCO has developed a  wide
network of experts and consultants from  the developing countries and  these
have served  in most UNESCO-initiated programmes  and activities.   Only for
highly technical advice (design of computer networks  or major communication
development   planning  or  high-level  policy   missions)  are  consultants
recruited from outside  the developing regions,  but in most cases  they are
accompanied by consultants from the South.

116.   In  Africa,  considerable efforts  have  been  made  to  develop  and
strengthen the technical and human capacity of national news agencies in  35
countries through  projects  in  West, Central,  East and  southern  Africa.
Assistance has also been given to  restructuring and strengthening the  Pan-
African  News Agency. The news agency development  projects have contributed
to  improved collection  and dissemination  of  news and  information  among
African  countries  and  between Africa  and developing  countries  in other

117.   Among the Arab  States, the Radio  and Television  Training Centre of
the Arab States Broadcasting Corporation has  been assisted in its programme
of  training radio and television  personnel from the region.   The training
activities have contributed to enhancing networking and collaboration  among
media  professionals  in  the region.    The exchange  of  news and  feature
programmes among national television stations has been supported.

118.  In Latin  America and the Caribbean, a  concrete example of  action to
address the  specific communication needs of  the region  and promote South-
South  cooperation is  the  Communication  for Integration  project.    This
recent  joint initiative by  UNESCO and  the Latin  American Economic System
(SELA)  aims  at  the  setting  up  of  a  regional  network  of  newspapers
specializing  in economic and  financial matters,  as a  contribution to the
overall integration of the region.

119.   In Asia  and the  Pacific, the Pacific  Women's Television  Programme
Exchange  project   aims  at  encouraging   collaboration  among  television
stations  in four Pacific  Island States  in the  production, evaluation and
exchange  of local  programmes, especially  by women  television  producers.
The  Pacific Video  Training Project helped to  develop communication skills
in the  Pacific Islands  and strengthen  cooperation among  those States  in
organizing training programmes in radio  broadcasting, print media and video
at the subregional and  regional levels.   Assistance has been given to  the
Organization of  Asia-Pacific News  Agencies, the Asia-Pacific  Broadcasting
Union and the Asia Mass Communication Research and Information Centre.

120.   In respect  of information in  Latin America and  the Caribbean,  all
UNESCO's information  activities contribute  to  South-South cooperation  in
the region.   In 1994-1995 for  example, four  consultants from Chile,  Cuba
and Venezuela worked in  Argentina, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Panama.   In
Asia and  the Pacific, as  referred to in  paragraph 108, UNESCO  assistance
for  the  regional  information  networks  ASTINFO  and  APINMAP  should  be
mentioned.  These are cooperative programmes  which promote the exchange  of
information and experience among countries in the region.

121.  Regarding informatics the Intergovernmental Informatics Programme  has
given high priority  to the development of  computer networks and their  use
in the South.   In Africa, this priority  has materialized through the RINAF
project (Regional Informatics  Network for Africa) which enables  scientists
and practitioners to exchange information, knowledge and experience  through
existing  computer networks.  Since computer networks  involve link-ups with
institutions in both  North and South, they  are the starting-point for  the
establishment of information highways in the South.   It is hoped that  such
an approach will reduce the existing imbalance in this field.

E.  United Nations Population Fund

122.  Since  1993 UNFPA is  providing support  to Indonesia  for its  South-

South  training  activities,  with  multi-bilateral  assistance from  Japan,
Australia and the Netherlands totalling US$  1,760,000.  In addition to this
ongoing support to, in particular, Indonesia, but also  to Tunisia, UNFPA is
preparing an interregional  programme of support of South-South  cooperation
for a  number of  selected "centres of  excellence", to be  included in  the
next four-year  programme cycle  (1995-1999).  Criteria have  been developed
according  to  which  for  the   time  being  four  countries  (as  well  as
institutions) have been identified to become  "centres of excellence".   The
identified "centres  of excellence"  will receive special  UNFPA support  to
increase  their  capability  to  assist  other  countries  in  the  field of
population and  reproductive health.   The support will be,  inter alia, for
international   training   and   exchange  programmes,   technical  advisory
services, inter-country research and long-term partnership building.


                   A.  Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee
                       for Desertification

123.   The  United Nations  Convention  to  Combat Desertification  in those
Countries Experiencing Serious Drought  and/or Desertification, particularly
in Africa (1994)  was adopted by the INCD.   Under article 4.2, all  parties
to the  Convention  commit themselves  first to  "promote cooperation  among
affected country Parties in the fields  of environmental protection and  the
conservation   of   land  and   water   resources",   as   they  relate   to
desertification and drought.

124.   Second, within  the relevant  regional implementation  annexes of the
Convention,  affected country  parties  are  required  to cooperate  in  the
preparation of subregional and/or regional action  programmes (art. 11).  In
particular,  African country  parties  are responsible  for  cooperating  in
preparing  and  implementing  subregional  action  programmes  for  central,
eastern, northern,  southern and  western  Africa.   To that  end, they  may
delegate   certain   duties  to   relevant   subregional   intergovernmental
organizations which will act as focal  points for preparatory activities and
as  coordinators   for  the   implementation  of   the  subregional   action
programmes.    The  general  purpose  of  subregional  and  regional  action
programmes is  to harmonize, complement and  increase the  efficiency of the
most important  obligation under the  Convention, namely the  implementation
of national  action programmes.  Cooperation  in the  context of subregional
and regional  action  programmes includes  agreed joint  programmes for  the
sustainable  management of  transboundary natural  resources, scientific and
technical cooperation and strengthening of relevant institutions.

125.   Thirdly, all  affected parties  are compelled,  under articles  18.1,
18.2 and  16 of  the Convention, to  undertake cooperation in  the areas  of
technology   and    traditional   knowledge.       Technologies   that   are
environmentally sound,  economically viable and  socially acceptable  should
be  developed  and disseminated  by  way  of  cooperation  in the  transfer,
acquisition,  adaptation   and  development  of   the  technologies.     The
cooperation entailed is of a financial and  promotional nature and could  be
carried  out   either  bilaterally   or  multilaterally   to,  inter   alia:
facilitate  technology cooperation  among affected  country  parties through
financial  assistance   or  other   appropriate  means;  extend   technology
cooperation  with  affected  developing  country  parties  including,  where
relevant, joint  ventures, especially  to sectors  which foster  alternative
livelihoods; and  fully utilize relevant  information systems and  clearing-
houses  at all  levels for  the  dissemination  of information  on available
technologies, their  sources, their environmental  risks and the broad terms
under which  they may be acquired. Perhaps  for the first  time in this sort
of legal instrument, the Convention recognizes  the relevance of traditional
knowledge.    The parties  are  required  to  cooperate  in the  protection,
promotion and  use of traditional and local technologies.   For example, the
parties may actively support the improvement  and dissemination of local and
traditional  technology,  knowledge,  know-how  and  practices  or  of   the

development of new technology based on them.

126.   Fourthly, the  Convention requires  cooperation among  parties in the
areas of  research and public  awareness.  The  objective of research  (art.
17.1)   is  the   development  of   improved,  affordable   and   accessible
technologies for  sustainable development  to be carried out  in cooperation
with  local populations and communities.   To that  end parties are required
to support  research activities that promote  the conduct  of joint research
programmes  by national,  subregional, regional  and international  research
organizations,  in both the  public and  private sectors.   Regarding public
awareness, the Convention (art. 19.3) recognizes  the urgent need to promote
an understanding  of the causes and  effects of  desertification and drought
and,  therefore,  imposes  upon  parties  the  obligation  to  cooperate  in
undertaking  and  supporting public  awareness  and  educational  programmes
which  would  promote  the  objectives  of  the  Convention.  Some  ways  of
achieving  this include  the  development  and exchange  of educational  and
public  awareness  material, where  possible  in  local  languages, and  the
exchange  and  secondment   of  experts  to  train  personnel  of   affected
developing  countries  parties  in  carrying  out  relevant  education   and
awareness programmes.

B.  United Nations Environment Programme

127.  UNEP's activities  are devoted to protecting the environment.  Some of
these are undertaken by  UNEP's Regional Programme.  Thus, in Latin  America
and   the  Caribbean  region,   UNEP  has   an  umbrella   project  for  the
implementation of the  Action Plan for the  Environment in Latin America and
the Caribbean adopted at the  7th Ministerial Meeting (October  1990).  This
project has  24 subprojects, including the  provision of  the secretariat, a
regional   programme  on   development   planning   and  the   environmental
legislation   and   institutional  framework,   a   regional  programme   on
environmental education,  a regional  environmental training  network and  a
regional environmental  information service.   FAO  and the  Organization of
American States (OAS) are major partners in this project.

128.   In Asia  and the Pacific,  the following  could be mentioned.   As  a
follow-up to the  forty-seventh session of  ESCAP, an Inter-Agency Committee
on Environment and  Development was  established under  the chairmanship  of
ESCAP's Executive Secretary with UNEP's Regional  Director for Asia and  the
Pacific as  Vice-Chairman.   The Committee  has been  active in  information
exchange concerning the agencies' activities in  the region, and has  agreed
to explore  the feasibility  of establishing  a regional  funding mechanism.
Two sessions  of the UNEP-ESCAP joint programming meeting have been held and
three  joint  projects  (chemicals  and  wastes,  development  planning  and
desertification)  are  being implemented.   UNEP  has  also been  supporting
subregional   programmes,  namely   the  Asian   Subregional   Environmental
Programme, the  South Asia Cooperative  Environment Programme  and the South
Pacific Regional  Environment Programme. UNEP  is actively  involved in  the
elaboration of the North East Asia  Regional Environment Programme.   ESCAP,
UNDP,  UNEP and  the Asian  Development Bank  have agreed  to co-sponsor the
1995 ministerial-level  Conference on  Environment and  Development in  Asia
and the Pacific.

129.   In  Africa the  following could be  mentioned.  UNEP  plays a central
role in  the implementation  of the  African Ministerial  Conference on  the
Environment  (AMCEN) programme.   The  secretariat  is  provided by  UNEP in
close  cooperation  with  ECA and  OAU.    When  UNDP  convened  the African
Regional Workshop for  the implementation of Agenda  21 at Abuja, which  was
co-sponsored by  UNEP, the African  countries specifically recommended  that
AMCEN be enabled to  play a lead  role in the African post-UNCED  follow-up.
An African  meeting of ministers on  the Convention  on Biological Diversity
was held  under the auspices  of AMCEN in  October 1994  for consultation to
forge  an  African common  position  regarding  the  Convention.   UNEP  has
fruitful cooperation agreements with many African subregional  organizations
and support is being provided, for example with  respect to the SADC natural

resources  policy for  southern  Africa, the  southern  African  subregional
environment group and  the SADC technical committee, the Zambezi Development
Action  Plan,  the  ECOWAS  masterplan   on  desertification  and   the  PTA
environmental  action plan for member countries.   Additionally, the African
NGOs  Environment  Network  was  established  by  UNEP  for  the  purpose of
enhancing the  participation of African  NGOs in environmental management in

130.  In  Western Asia the  following merits  mentioning.   After the  UNEP-
ESCWA  joint programming  meeting in  November 1989, several  joint projects
were initiated, including formulation of national  plans of action to combat
desertification  and  preparation   and  follow-up;   assessment  of   water
resources  in  the  ESCWA   region;  regional  survey   of  production   and
consumption  of materials  harmful to  the  ozone layer;  and  strengthening
environmental planning and  management capabilities in Jordan.   Cooperation
with the Council of Arab Ministers  Responsible for the Environment  (CAMRE)
has  led  to   the  implementation  of  three  projects  in  the  fields  of
desertification  control, control of  industrial pollution and environmental
education  and  awareness.   In  terms  of  cooperation  with Arab  regional
organizations,  UNEP has  cooperation  projects with  CAMRE and  Arab League
Education, Culture and Science Organization (ALECSO).

 131.  In Europe,  UNEP has participated in the development of multinational
projects for  the Eastern  European countries.   The  Lucerne Conference  on
Environment for Europe in 1993 came up with  concrete project proposals, and
UNEP  will  make appropriate  contributions  to  them  within its  available
resources  while making full  use of information and  expertise in the field
of the environment.

132.  Activities delivered at the  regional level comprise another  category
of UNEP's  activities.  Regarding the  management of  tropical forests, UNEP
provides assistance through  the International Centre on Forest Research  to
assess the  state of  West African humid  forests, with special  emphasis on
sustainable  management  and  forestry  development  practices.    In   this
project,  important managerial gaps  and practical  methodologies on  how to
practice sustainable management  and development of forests in Africa  would
be identified.   UNEP also provides  assistance through  OAS for preparation
of a  forest management plan in  border areas, and  to La Amistad  Biosphere
Reserve,  Costa Rica  and Panama.  Furthermore,  in collaboration  with FAO,
UNEP has  initiated regional dialogues to  review the  implementation of the
forestry chapter of Agenda  21 and the Forest Principles.  The dialogue  has
taken place  in Africa,  Asia and  the Pacific,  and Latin  America and  the
Caribbean.    They  reviewed  available  information  on  progress  made  in
implementing Agenda  21 and the Forest  Principles and  identified issues of
particular importance to the region to be reported  to the third session  of
the Commission on Sustainable Development.

133.  Concerning desertification control, UNEP provides assistance,  through
joint undertakings  with the regional  commissions (ESCWA,  ESCAP) and  with
FAO,  to  Governments  for  the  formulation  of  national  plans  to combat
desertification. UNEP  also supports,  in cooperation  with other  agencies,
the  establishment of networks  and mechanisms  for mobilizing other actions
for  the implementation  of  the United  Nations Plan  of  Action  to Combat
Desertification  (PACD), Agenda  21 (chap.  12),  the Convention  to  Combat
Desertification  and its  urgent action  for Africa (for  example, research,
training   and  development   of  methodologies   for  the   assessment   of
desertification).  The UNEP-UNDP joint  venture (through the  United Nations
Sudano-Sahelian Office, has been assisting Governments to  implement PACD in
the Sudano-Sahelian region, channelling  additional financial and  technical
assistance  from other sources.   In  addition, UNEP  continues to cooperate
with subregional and regional  organizations like SADC, IGADD, CAMRE, ALECSO
and the  Arab Centre  for the Study  of Arid Drylands  (ACSAD) in  providing
assistance through them to their member  countries for the implementation of
PACD and Agenda 21 (chap. 12).

134.    In  respect of  the protection  of  wildlife, genetic  resources and

ecosystems, UNEP provided support for the  preparation of country studies on
costs, benefits  and  un-met  needs of  biological conservation  within  the
framework of  negotiations under the  Convention on  Biological Diversity in
the Bahamas, Guyana,  Nigeria, Poland, Peru and  Thailand.  At the  national
level, the objective  is to help the countries  in the preparation of  their
national  strategies  and  action  plans  for  effective  conservation   and
sustainable use of biological diversity.   At the global  level, the support
was  expected to  facilitate agreement  on the  establishment  of a  fund in
support of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

135.   Concerning the management  of oceans and coastal  areas, the Regional
Seas  Programme,  created  in  1974  by   the  UNEP  Governing  Council  and
coordinated by the Oceans and Coastal  Areas Programme Activity Centre since
its  formation in 1985,  at present  comprises 13  regional programmes world
wide,  involving 140  States and  cooperation  with  over 40  United Nations
agencies and  regional organizations including  NGOs and development  banks.
Action  plan  secretariats  coordinating   regional  activities  have   been
established at Athens  (Greece), Kingston (Jamaica), Santiago (Chile),  Apia
(Western  Samoa),  Kuwait,   Jeddah  (Saudi  Arabia),  Monaco  and   Bangkok

136.   In terms of environmental law and institutions, UNEP provided support
for a  workshop on  environmental legislation  for countries  in South  Asia
sponsored jointly  by  UNEP and  the South  Asian Cooperative  Environmental
Programme.  UNEP also  hosted a regional workshop for countries in Asia with
rapidly  advancing  economies   on  institutional   capacity  building   for
industrial compliance and enforcement.  In addition, initiatives were  taken
to develop inter-agency cooperation in the  area of national legislation and
institutions and  training with UNDP and  the World Bank.   Those with  UNDP
were further  developed through consultations between  UNEP and  UNDP on the
strategy,  scope and content of  a joint programme of  assistance to African
countries with financial support from the Government of the Netherlands.

137.    Regarding  environmental  education  and  training,  UNEP  runs  two
successful  environmental  training  networks  in  Latin  America  and   the
Caribbean and  the Asian  and  Pacific regions.    The  main aims  of  these
networks  are South-South  cooperation, information  exchange and  curricula
and  education materials development  and policy.  It  is hoped to stimulate
and  assist  tertiary-level  education  institutions  in  those  regions  to
develop  their  centres  of  excellence  for  environmental  education   and
training.  Similar  networks are  being developed  for Africa  and the  West
Asian regions.

C.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

138.  Through its  normative and field programmes  at the global,  regional,
national and  local levels in assessment  and monitoring  of land resources,
policy and  planning assistance, development  and transfer of  technologies,
capacity  building and  demonstration  in agriculture,  livestock, forestry,
fisheries and  rural development.  FAO  continues to  contribute actively to
desertification control, drought preparedness  and mitigation and integrated
dry land development in affected countries.

139.  In  addition to its Special Programme on Food Production in Support of
Food Security in  Low-income Food-Deficit  Countries, FAO has several  major
programmes  which  contribute  to  desertification  control  and  dry   land
development and provide support  to affected countries  in implementing  the
objectives  of   the  Convention,  particularly   in  Africa,  notably   the
International  Scheme for  the Conservation  and Rehabilitation  of  African
Lands,  the  Global  Information  and  Early  Warning  System  for  Food and
Agriculture and the  Food Security Assistance  Scheme, the  Tropical Forests
Action Programme  and the Forests, Trees  and People  Programme, the African
Real  Time Environmental Monitoring using Imaging Satellites Project and the
African Land Cover Map and Digital  Geographic Database Project, the  Global
Forest Resources Assessment Programme.

 140.    FAO  provides  special  assistance  to the  Government  of  Mali in
cooperation with UNDP and the Government  of Germany for the  formulation of
its  national action programme which is to start  by several subnational and
one national workshop (October  1995) involving local  populations and  NGOs
as well as international  partners.  FAO is to assist the IGADD  secretariat
and member  countries in the formulation  of a  subregional action programme
within the framework of the Convention.   This cooperation will  concentrate
on the formulation  of the food security component  of the programme and  be
facilitated through the recently approved FAO-funded project "Assistance  to
develop a drought and disaster preparedness strategy in the IGADD region".

141.  FAO contributed to several  workshops organized by member  Governments
and  subregional  organizations   to  discuss  the  formulation  of   action
programmes within the framework of the  Convention (e.g. Cape Verde,  Egypt,
CILSS, IGADD) and will continue to do so.

142.    The  FAO  Interregional  Conference  of  Small  Island  Countries on
Sustainable   Development  and  Environment  in  Agriculture,  Forestry  and
Fisheries  (Barbados,  7-10  April  1992)  gathered,  for  the  first  time,
developing  island  nations  from  across  oceans.    It  provided  a unique
opportunity for those countries to  discuss their objectives  and priorities
in agricultural  development.  Attended  at ministerial  level, it  provided
the  political   framework  within  which   collaboration  for   sustainable
development actions  might be  taken.  The Ministerial  Declaration endorsed
at this conference was  subsequently presented to UNCED.   In the  follow-up
to this Conference,  FAO is organizing two  workshops for the South  Pacific
and Caribbean regions (1996).  The objective of  the workshops is to  assist
the Small Island Developing States in  implementing the Programme of  Action
on  Sustainable Development of  SIDS endorsed  at the  United Nations Global
Conference  (Bridgetown,  April-May  1994).    Subregional  programmes   for
sustainable  development in  agriculture,  forestry and  fisheries  will  be
formulated.  The implementation of subregional  programmes will be based  on
networking and cooperation of SIDS for capacity building in this field.

D.  United Nations Development Programme

143.   UNDP is involved in two regional programmes  on the environment.  One
is the North East Asia Subregional  Programme covering China, the Democratic
People's  Republic of Korea,  Mongolia and  the Republic  of Korea initially
dealing  with  an  environmental cooperation  programme  involving temperate
zone cropping,  coal combustion  and air  pollution problems.   Launched  in
February 1993, 12  project proposals have now  been developed in two  areas,
namely capacity building and eco-system management.   The issues for  urgent
action have also been identified, namely, forest and grassland  degradation,
sustainable  development of  Russian Far  East forests,  biodiversity  loss,
watershed  degradation and  issues arising  from economic  integration.  The
second programme  is the Caspian  initiative aimed at  preparing a plan  for
resource  management and  the conservation  of biodiversity  in  the Caspian
Sea.    UNDP  played  a  catalytic  role in  a  joint  fact-finding  mission
consisting of  UNEP,  the  World  Bank  and  UNDP.    A  concept  paper  for
intergovernmental cooperation  on  an  integrated  environmental  management
plan  for the  Caspian Sea  is currently  being prepared.    This initiative
represents  a pioneering  effort in  the  field and  has the  potential  for
replicability elsewhere.


144.   The primary organization delivering support in the area of population
is UNFPA and its  activities are the  subject of this chapter.   Observation
study tours and other types of  exchange visits between developing countries
have been  funded by  UNFPA over  the past  15 years  or more, allowing  the
participants to  learn from  the experiences  of their  colleagues in  other
countries  with similar  conditions.   The best  known in  this category  of
activities  are  the observation  study  tours  organized by  the Indonesian

Family  Planning Association  for a  multitude  of  countries from  the East
Pacific, Asia, Africa and Latin America.  UNFPA is providing support to this
programme with Australian  multi-bilateral assistance for the Pacific,  with
multi-bilateral  assistance   from  the   Governments  of   Japan  and   the
Netherlands for  study tours (and training  programmes) for  other Asian and
African countries.   In Latin America  alone, a  yearly average  of 125  key
persons in  the population  programme  of their  country visit  neighbouring
countries  for  the exchange  of  experiences  and  exposure  to new  ideas.
Mexico was the country that received the most visitors  from other countries
from the  Latin American region  to learn from  the Mexican family  planning
programme and to  study management  integration processes in population  and
development.   In other  continents also  study tours  have been a  standard
activity  in many  projects:  Zimbabwe  and  Kenya  have  received  numerous
visitors  to  study  their  family  planning  programme  activities,   while
countries  such  as  the  United  Republic  of  Tanzania  and  Botswana have
received  project  staff  to  study  the  long-term  training in  demography
established at their universities.

145.  An important part  of UNFPA's support for TCDC  activities went to the
exchange of expertise  and training of  trainers.  For  example, with  UNFPA
assistance:   an education  specialist from  the Indian  National Council of
Educational  Research and  Training  assisted the  Government  of  Bhutan in
organizing training in population education; an expert on  income-generation
activities for women, from the Philippines,  assisted a number of developing
countries  to  design  special   programmes  for  women;  and  a  population
education expert  from  Trinidad  and  Tobago  developed  a  curriculum  and
teaching  manual for family life  education in school for Barbados.  Another
example  involved training of  physicians from  the Syrian  Arab Republic in
Egypt and Tunisia.   UNFPA also made use  of consultants from China to train
medical staff  in the  Democratic People's  Republic of  Korea in  designing
clinical studies for contraceptive research.

146.   UNFPA has  provided support both  to the production  of contraceptive
supplies in  developing countries,  as well  as to  the testing and  quality
control of  contraceptives.   For example,  with UNFPA's  support Viet  Nam,
India and China have set up  contraceptive production facilities; the Indian
Institute of  Technology has been involved  in testing  and quality control;
and  an expert from Mexico helped in devising quality-control measures for a
proposed Cuban contraceptive production plant.

 147.  World wide, UNFPA has provided  support to institutions in developing
countries to  offer substantial  training programmes  for participants  from
other developing countries.   This was for  short-term as well as  long-term
training.  Care  was  taken  that  the  training  programmes  were  designed
according  to the needs  of the  participants, keeping in  mind the relative
strength  of the  host country  or  institution.   Examples  involving Asian
countries included Indonesia,  Thailand and the  Republic of Korea providing
TCDC-based training  to participants from other  countries of  the region as
well  as  from Africa  and Latin  America.   In Indonesia  the International
Training  Programme  of the  National  Family  Planning  Board  and, in  the
Republic  of  Korea,  the  Institute  of  Population  and  Health,  provided
training on  family planning  methods,  communication and  management.   The
Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand  hosted trainees from Zimbabwe  to
acquire micro-computer  skills.    Thailand's  Mahidol  University  provided
courses  on  reproductive health  and family  planning for  other developing
country participants.    In India  the  Centre  for Development  Studies  in
Trivandrum and the Indian Institute for  Population Sciences in Bombay  have
continued  to offer,  with UNFPA's  assistance, highly  successful  training
programmes  in population  and development  and  in  demography.   These two
Centres have brought together both trainees  and experts from the developing
countries of Africa,  Asia and Latin America.   The Cairo Demographic Centre
in  Egypt,  the  recently  started  training  programme  in  population  and
development  for Spanish-speaking  participants  in Chile,  the  Centre  for
Regional  Planning at the  University of  Mines Derais  in Brazil (providing
training to students  from Portuguese-speaking African countries) are  among
some of  the other important regional  and global  training centres actively

involved in TCDC-based training.

148.   In  Africa, the  regional  training  institutes for  demographic  and
statistics training in Accra  and Yaounde are supported  by UNFPA, as is the
Mauritius  Family  Planning/Maternal  and  Child  Health  (FP/MCH)  Training
Centre in  Pamplemousse. The Statistics  Training School in Abidjan receives
trainees from  abroad with UNFPA support,  while UNFPA  has strengthened the
Institut africain de developpement economique et  de planification in  Dakar
in the area of  population studies.  The  Centre for Research  on Population
and Development in Mali has received  institutional support for training and
to  provide technical  backstopping to  population projects  in the Sahelian

149.  UNFPA is in the  process of arranging that all  five components of the
Global Training on Population and Development  will be located in developing
countries; the course at  The Hague will  be transferred to Morocco and  the
course  in Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)  to Botswana.   The  FP/MCH management
and   information   training  courses   currently   organized  at   Canadian
universities will also be transferred to Africa.

150.   The International Council on  Management of  Population Programmes in
Malaysia has  played  a very  active role  in training  staff of  population
programmes  of English-speaking  developing countries  around the  world  in
family planning programme management.

151.  Culturally  acceptable information, education and communication  (IEC)
programmes  for family  planning have  been  developed  with the  support of
local NGOs, the  private sector and  local expertise.  One  example involves
workshops  in community-participation  techniques for  IEC workers organized
by the Republic of  Korea.  Locally produced  films were purchased  by UNFPA
for use  in neighbouring culturally similar  countries.   "My daughter shall
not be  circumcised" made in Burkina  Faso, "Too late"  made in Jamaica  and
many other movies were made in  developing countries.  Culturally  sensitive
IEC training courses have  been mounted in Kenya and Cote d'Ivoire.  Another
example consists of support provided to  set up IEC training facilities with
culturally adapted  curricula at the Kenya  Institute of Mass  Communication
at Nairobi  and Abidjan.   A  third example  is the  Centre for the  African
Family  based  at  Nairobi  and  Lome   which  has  been  supported  through
fellowships  for  its  innovative  IEC/FP  training  programmes.    A fourth
example is  the publication  of the  book The  Legacy of Family  Planning in
Islam by Al Azhar University in Cairo which has become an  important tool in
IEC campaigns in  support of MCH/FP  programmes in an  increasing number  of
African countries.  The "travelling seminars"  initiated by Al Azhar  during
which the  position of Islam vis-a-vis  issues such as family health, family
planning  and female circumcision  are presented  and debated  have become a
very welcome innovation in IEC campaigns.

152.   Extensive  assistance  has  been  provided for  workshops,  seminars,
conferences  and similar gatherings  which serve  as forums  for exchange of
technical information  and experiences  and further  contacts among  experts
and officials  of developing  countries.    For example,  the staff  of  the
demographic  unit of  the University  of  Lesotho  visited similar  units in
Botswana   and  Swaziland.  High-level   government  officials  from  China,
Ethiopia and  Yemen visited Egypt to  discuss and  observe population policy
and programmes.   Physicians from  the Syrian Arab Republic  were trained on
how  to  use  the  contraceptive  NORPLANT  in  Egypt and  Tunisia.    Women
programme  managers   from  Yemen  visited   Jordan  for   training  in  the
administration  of  women's  projects.    TCDC-oriented  training  was  also
supported in Morocco, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia.

153.   International training  in developing  countries and other activities
have  been supported  to enhance  the status  of women.   For  example,  the
Organization of African Female Journalists was  helped to organize a meeting
for  its  members on  issues regarding  population and  reproductive health.
Another example is  the Centre  for Research, Documentation and  Information
for Women  based at  Tunis, which  is providing training  and research  with

support  from  UNFPA  and  the  Arab   Gulf  Programme  for  United  Nations
Development Organizations (AGFUND).

154.   Research is  another area  where South-South  collaboration has  been
taking place.   For example, in  cooperation with AGFUND  and the League  of
Arab  States,   the  Pan-Arab  Programme  for  Child  Health  has  completed
demographic  surveys in  Egypt,  Mauritania  and Yemen.   Another  important
initiative  was  taken to  encourage  field-oriented  training  in  research
methodologies in  Bangladesh, utilizing the  resources of the  International
Centre  for  Diarrhoeal Diseases  Research.    Trainees from  Africa,  Latin
America  and  other  Asian  countries  have  started participating  in  this
programme.   In  Latin  America,  Honduran  and Colombian  experts  provided
research  support to  design  socio-demographic indicators  for  studies  in
Costa Rica.  Similarly, a database  for El Salvador's Population Secretariat
was developed with the assistance of experts from Costa Rica.

155.   In  case  of emergency,  in case  of  over-estimation of  needs,  for
example,  countries   have  assisted   each  other  in   the  provision   of
contraceptive supplies  through the intermediation  of UNFPA field  offices.
For example,  the United  Republic of  Tanzania and  Malawi received  excess
IUDs from Cape  Verde, GuineaBissau  received oral  contraceptives from  the
Gambia and Mauritania received injectables from Senegal.   These experiences
are typical of what is happening among developing countries in this field.

156.  UNFPA field  offices have undertaken  since the early 1980s to  assist
Governments and NGOs with the integration  of TCDC elements when formulating
and  implementing  population   policies  and  programmes.    For   example,
Profamilia, the  family  planning NGO  in  Colombia,  served as  a  regional
centre for training in voluntary surgical contraceptive methods.

157.   Assistance has been provided  for the  establishment of institutional
networks among developing countries for exchanging knowledge, expertise  and
materials  in mutually beneficial  areas.   For example,  the Latin American
Population Documentation  System and  the Latin  American Council  of Social
Sciences used UNFPA  assistance to promote  information exchange,  through a
computerized database,  among national  agencies.  Experts  from Costa  Rica
helped to develop a database for the Population Secretariat in El  Salvador.
Moreover, a number  of South  Asian countries (India, Pakistan,  Bangladesh,
Nepal  and Sri  Lanka) have set up  a working group to  share experiences on
successes  in  population  programme  execution  and  to  promote  programme
cooperation.   UNFPA will provide secretarial  support to  the working group
through  the country  support  team  (CST)  based  in  Nepal.    UNFPA  also
continued to provide support  to the Regional  Population Information Centre
and Databank at ESCAP, Bangkok.

158.   A start has been made with the promotion  of cooperation and exchange
among NGOs in developing countries, with  particular emphasis on transfer of
innovative concepts and techniques.  For example:

  (a)   Prior to  the regional  conferences preparing  for the International
Conference  on Population and  Development, seminars  were held  for NGOs of
each continent to sensitize  them to population  issues and TCDC.  The  Safe
Motherhood Initiative that  started in Nairobi  resulted in  active national
programmes.   The Planned  Parenthood Federation  of the  Republic of  Korea
organized regional training workshops  in community-participation techniques
for women family  planning programme managers.   Regional meetings initiated
by Ministers  of Women's Affairs on  the subject of  female circumcision and
locally initiated activities to combat circumcision in  several West African
countries were supported by UNFPA;

  (b)  UNFPA also  provides support to  regional NGOs  such as the Union  of
African  Population   Studies,  an   organization  which  promotes   African
expertise in the  area of population, by subsidizing research,  publications
and conferences  on subjects of  prime concern  such as  population and  the
environment, and reproductive health.

159.   UNFPA headquarters, with the  collaboration of  UNFPA country offices
and the UNFPA  CSTs, has started to establish  a roster of national  experts
and institutions available  for technical  backstopping of  projects.   This
roster will also be useful for  the TCDC-INRES (Information Referral System)
database for population-related information.  TCDC-INRES is currently  being
finalized by UNDP (Special Unit on TCDC).   The UNFPA consultants roster  is
already being used.

160.  Developing countries and expertise are also extensively  used by UNFPA
in its  programme  review and  strategy  development  exercises and  in  the
design  and  evaluation of  UNFPA-assisted  projects ("peer-review"),  while
training  is  being  undertaken  to  strengthen  the  national  capacity  in
programme  formulation, planning,  management/administration and evaluation.
For  example, experts  from developing  countries have  been  systematically
included in most of the teams  undertaking evaluations and programme  review
and  strategy development exercises  on behalf of UNFPA.   Also, ILO, ESCAP,
FAO, the International Council on Management  of Population (Malaysia),  the
Center for  Development and  Population Activities  (Washington, D.C.),  the
Japanese Organization for  International Cooperation in Family Planning  and
others  have  been   very  active  in   assisting  developing  countries  in
developing skills for project design, management  and evaluation.  ILO,  for
example, has  carried out a  comprehensive training  programme for  national
authorities,   employers'  organizations   and  other   concerned  NGOs   on
population and family welfare in relation to labour.


161.  The  building of increased awareness in the South of the importance of
economic and technical cooperation is  essentially the responsibility of the
developing countries themselves.  Nevertheless, United Nations agencies  and
organizations have made contributions to that  effect as already alluded to,
for  example,  those  activities  geared  to  facilitating  an  exchange  of
experiences and sensitization workshops/seminars/training.

A.  United Nations Development Programme

162.  In view of the importance of  the report of the South Commission, UNDP
arranged  for  its  widespread  distribution  to  its  country  offices  and
Governments of  member countries.  The  meeting of  the High-level Committee
on the Review  of TCDC held  in May/June 1993  invited developing  countries
and  United Nations  organizations  to  examine, for  possible inclusion  in
their activities  of technical cooperation  among developing countries,  the
recommendations   of  the   South  Commission,   and  also   requested   the
Administrator  of UNDP  to report  to  the  next session  of the  High-level
Committee on this question.   It should be added that the implementation  of
the recommendations of  the report of the  South Commission is monitored  by
the High-level Committee, which  is to meet in May/June 1995.  The Committee
at its meeting in  1993 endorsed the Strategy for TCDC for the 1990s wherein
guidelines on setting up TCDC  national focal points and the articulation of
national   policies  on  TCDC   were  systematized   and  which  was  widely
disseminated  to  all countries  as  well  as  United  Nations agencies  and
organizations.  A  review of progress  on the subject  will be  made at  the
Committee's next session.

163.  UNDP has also assisted  countries in organizing workshops and training
programmes  aimed at  the relevant  personnel  both  within and  outside the
Government  on the  need, value  and opportunities  for mutual  cooperation.
Sensitization workshops  were held  in Nigeria  (September 1993) and  Zambia
(October 1993).   In March 1994  a unique interregional conference  was held
in  Sierra  Leone  at  which  African  NGOs  sought  to  identify innovative
approaches  for strengthening  South-South cooperation.   Regional  meetings
were held  in  Bolivia  (May  1994) and  Turkey  (July  1993) in  which  CIS
countries also  participated. SELA also held  meetings of  TCDC focal points
of  the  region  both  in  1993  and 1994.    As  a  matter  of policy  TCDC

sensitization activities have been largely decentralized and nationals  have
been  trained to  undertake  these activities.  These initiatives  have also
helped  to strengthen  the capacity  of  Governments to  articulate national
policies on TCDC and ECDC.

164.   Finally,  UNDP has  recently  established,  in consultation  with the
Group  of 77,  the  G-77/UNDP  award  for TCDC/ECDC  to  mark the  thirtieth
anniversary of the G-77.   The first award will be  made in 1995  from among
proposals  that  will  be  invited  from  Governments  and  institutions  in
developing countries.   The  award will  be made  to the  proposal which  is
likely to make the greatest contribution to TCDC and/or ECDC.

B.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

165.   FAO's  experience  in  its support  to TCDC  and ECDC  activities are
regularly  evaluated  and  analysed  with  a  view  to  drawing  lessons and
disseminating them for  future application.  A TCDC/ECDC newsletter,  issued
twice a year, continues to sensitize  FAO and inform government  authorities
of innovative TCDC and ECDC approaches  and opportunities and to disseminate
information on completed/planned activities (see also  chap. III).  In early
1995, FAO issued a substantive document entitled  "Learning from experience:
technical cooperation among developing countries" analysing six  experiences
and drawing lessons therefrom for wider adaptation and replicability.

166.   The  integration of  TCDC  with  the technical  cooperation processes
depends  primarily  on the  familiarity of  the national  as well  as United
Nations  staff  with  the  TCDC  mechanisms, financing,  and  its  use as  a
modality  in  programme/project   development  and  implementation.    Three
orientation workshops had already been held  for the FAO headquarters  staff
besides briefing  of regional offices  and FAO  representation staff  during
their visits to headquarters or headquarters'  staff missions to the  field.
TCDC/ECDC  is  now a  regular  topic  for  the  National Project  Directors'
seminars organized at headquarters  as well as on a regional and subregional
basis.  Apart from other TCDC/ECDC  publications, the FAO handbook  on TCDC,
currently available  in all  the five official  languages (Arabic,  Chinese,
English, French and Spanish)  of the organization, is  a very useful tool in
enhancing awareness and understanding of TCDC  concepts and procedures.   To
promote  its wider use at the local level, the production of the handbook in
local languages  is  also being  encouraged  and  assisted.   Several  local
language  versions  have  already been  produced  in  cooperation  with  the
respective Governments and  their institutions:  Bengali, Hindi,  Indonesian
Bahasa, Kiswahili, Korean, Persian and Portuguese.


  1/   Furthermore,  it  may be  noted  that  in  1993, ESCAP  received  US$
16,020,000 in  cash  from various  sources  within  and outside  the  United
Nations system for the implementation of  its overall economic and technical
cooperation activities.    The donors  that contributed  to ESCAP's  overall
activities in 1994 were:   Australia, Bangladesh,  Brunei Darussalam, China,
Democratic  People's  Republic  of  Korea,  Fiji,  France,  Germany,  India,
Indonesia, Iran  (Islamic Republic  of), Japan,  Kiribati, Macau,  Malaysia,
Maldives,   Marshall  Islands,   Mongolia,   Myanmar,   Nepal,  Netherlands,
Pakistan,  Papua  New  Guinea,  Philippines,  Republic  of  Korea,   Russian
Federation, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu.

  2/  The  Decade was proclaimed by the  General Assembly in its  resolution
39/227 of  18 December  1984 and  its Phase  II was adopted  by the  General
Assembly in decision 46/453 of 20 December 1991.

  3/   For an  up-to-date review  of the  activities of  the United  Nations
system undertaken  in the  area of  science and  technology for  development
generally, see the UNCTAD report entitled  "Activities of the United Nations
system  in the field  of science  and technology  for development, including

cooperation  in technology assessment"  (E/CN.16/1995/7).  It should also be
mentioned that today  technology is  an important variable underpinning  the
process  of  social  and  economic  development.    Accordingly,  supportive
activities  delivered  by  the various  agencies  and  organizations  of the
United Nations  in their respective sphere  of expertise invariably  embrace
elements  of  joint  scientific  and  technological  cooperation  to  create
conditions  for  investing  in,  supporting  and  developing   technological
capabilities and skills.  This can be gleaned from the discussion under  the
other chapters.

  4/  It would be prudent  to bear in mind that the Asian and Pacific region
is the most diverse  in terms of economic and  social indicators as  well as
in  culture, history and tradition.  Some of the most populous and the least
populous, some of the richest and  some of the poorest, the  largest and the
smallest countries are to be found in this region.

  5/  The  background to the APPEAL programme  is the fact  that the biggest
asset of  the  Asian  and  Pacific  region  is its  abundance  of  manpower;
unfortunately, for the moment, this is also  its biggest liability in  terms
of illiteracy.   Successive regional  conferences of Ministers of  Education
have highlighted the  importance of Basic Education  for All for the  region
as its absolute priority before the turn of the century.



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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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