United Nations

A/50/34


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


A/50/34
Report of the
Joint Inspection Unit
Official Records T Fiftieth Session
Supplement No.34 (A/50/34)
NOTE

Symbols  of  United  Nations  documents  are  composed  of  capital  letters
combined with figures. Mention  of such a symbol  indicates a reference to a
United Nations document.
ISSN 0255-1969
--CONTENTS
Chapter  Paragraphs  Page
  FOREWORD .........................................................v
I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................1 - 41
II.  PARTICIPATING ORGANIZATIONS ..........................   52
III.  COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT INSPECTION UNIT .............6 - 73
IV.  SECRETARIAT ..........................................8 - 164
V.  WORK PROGRAMME .......................................17 - 276
VI.  MEASURES TO ENHANCE THE FUNCTIONING OF THE UNIT ......28 - 488
VII.  RELATIONS AND COOPERATION WITH THE PARTICIPATING
  ORGANIZATIONS, EXTERNAL OVERSIGHT BODIES AND OTHER
  A.  Participating organizations ......................  50 - 5911
  B.  Other external oversight bodies ..................  60 - 6412
  C.  Office of Internal Oversight Services ............  65 - 7013
  D.  Other concerned organizations ....................    7114
VIII.  RESULTS, FOLLOW-UP AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE
  RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE JOINT INSPECTION UNIT .........72 - 12915
    implementation of the Joint Inspection Unit
    recommendations ..................................  81 - 8316
  C.  Overall analysis of the results and follow-up of
    the Joint Inspection Unit recommendations ........  84 - 8916
    1.  Management, budgetary and administrative
      issues .......................................90 - 11318
      (a)  Accountability, management improvement
        and oversight ...........................  92 - 10318
      (b)  Information technology ..................  104 - 10721
      (c)  Human resources management ..............  108 - 11321
    2.  Operational activities for development .......114 - 12322
    3.  Peace-keeping activities and humanitarian
      assistance ...................................124 - 12924
CONTENTS (continued)
Chapter              Page
Annexes
  of participating organizations ...................................27
II.  1995 work programme and preliminary work programme for 1996 and
  beyond ...........................................................29
FOREWORD
  The  Joint Inspection  Unit (JIU)  was  created  on an  experimental basis
Unit  became   a  subsidiary  organ  of   the  legislative   bodies  of  the
organizations within  the  United Nations  system  which  have accepted  the
statute of the Unit.   Those organizations, hereinafter  referred to as  the
participating  organizations,  are  listed  in chapter  II  of  the  present
report.  The main  purpose of the  Unit is to enhance the efficiency  of the
administrative and financial functioning of the United Nations system.

  According to its statute, the Unit shall,  inter alia, satisfy itself that
the activities  undertaken by  the participating  organizations are  carried
out in the most economical manner and that  optimum use is made of resources
available for  carrying out their activities.   The Unit  is composed of  11
Inspectors having  experience in  national  or international  administrative
and  financial matters, including management questions, and are appointed by
the General Assembly  on the  basis of equitable geographical  distribution.
They serve in their  personal capacity for a  term of five  years, renewable
once.

  Inspectors  have  the  broadest powers  of  investigation  in all  matters
having a bearing on  the efficiency of services  and proper use of resources
and may  make  on-the-spot inquiries  and  investigations.   They  are  also
mandated  to  inspect  and evaluate  the  activities  of  the  participating
organizations and  make recommendations  aimed at  improving management  and
methods and at achieving greater coordination among those organizations.

  At its  forty-eighth session,  the General  Assembly, in  the preamble  of
resolution 48/221 of 23  December 1993, reaffirmed the statute of the  Unit,
as   the   only   independent   system-wide   inspection,   evaluation   and
investigation body.

  The Unit  prepares reports,  notes and confidential  letters addressed  to
one  or more organizations and/or  of interest to the  United Nations system
as  a whole.   In addition, the Unit submits  an annual report, covering its
main  activities  during  the  year, to  the  General  Assembly and  to  the

legislative organs of the participating organizations.

  The present report is the twenty-seventh of its  kind prepared by the Unit
since its establishment.

--I.  INTRODUCTION


1.  The present  report gives an  account of  the activities carried out  by
the Joint  Inspection Unit (JIU) during  the period from 1  July 1994 to  30
June 1995.
2.   The  quality of  JIU work  depends  on  several factors,  including the
performance of  members and  staff of  the  Unit, the  guidance and  support
received from legislative bodies and Member  States, and the cooperation  of
other external oversight bodies as well as that  of the secretariats of  the
participating organizations.

3.   The  overall  performance and  impact  of  the  Unit could  be  further
enhanced  if the individual  Member States  that propose  candidates and the
General  Assembly  could  take  the  necessary  action  to  ensure  that the
selection of Inspectors  is governed  by the  qualifications and  experience
stipulated in article 2,  paragraph 1, of  the JIU  statute.  It would  also
seem   advisable  for   the   legislative  bodies   of   the   participating
organizations to devote the necessary attention  to, and take action on, the
reports and recommendations of  the Unit, instead of  simply taking note  of
them or thanking the  Inspectors, which has been the prevailing practice  to
date.  The secretariats of the participating organizations should  ascertain
the  implementation and  follow-up of  the  recommendations  of the  Unit as
approved by their legislative organs. 

4.  Furthermore, the Secretary-General of  the United Nations, in  complying
with  article 17  of the  JIU  statute, should  provide the  facilities  and
administrative support  required by  the Unit.   Chapter VI  of the  present
report contains  the recommendations  of the  Unit for  enhancing its  role,
functions and productivity.

II.  PARTICIPATING ORGANIZATIONS


5.   The  following organizations  have  accepted the  statute of  the Joint
Inspection Unit:


     United Nations and its affiliated bodies

  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  
  International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
    
  International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
  
  International Labour Organization (ILO)
  
  International Maritime Organization (IMO)

  International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  
  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
  
  United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
  
  Universal Postal Union (UPU)
  
  World Health Organization (WHO)

  World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

  World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
  
III.  COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT INSPECTION UNIT


6.   The composition of the Joint Inspection Unit as at  30 June 1995 was as
follows:


  Mr. Fatih Bouayad-Agha (Algeria),**  Chairman
  Mr. Homero L. Hernandez-Sanchez (Dominican Republic),** Vice-Chairman  
     Mr. Andrzej Abraszewski (Poland)*****
  Mrs. Erica-Irene Daes (Greece)*
  Mr. Richard Hennes (United States of America)*
  Mr. Tunsala Kabongo (Zaire)*
  Mr. Boris P. Krasulin (Russian Federation)**
  Mr. Sumihiro Kuyama (Japan)****
  Mr. Francesco Mezzalama (Italy)**
  Mr. Khalil I. Othman (Jordan)**
  Mr. Raul Quijano (Argentina)***


7.   In accordance  with article  18 of its  statute, the  Unit elected  Mr.
Fatih Bouayad-Agha  as Chairman  and Mr. Homero L.  Hernandez-Sanchez, Vice-
Chairman for  1995.   During 1994,  Mr. Andrzej  Abraszewski  and Mr.  Fatih
Bouayad-Agha were, respectively, Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Unit.











                       

      *  Term of office expires on 31 December 1995.

        **  Term of office expires on 31 December 1997.

       ***  Term of office expires on 31 December 1998.

      ****  Term of office expires on 31 December 1999.

     *****  Term of office expires on 31 December 2000.
IV.  SECRETARIAT


8.   The Joint  Inspection Unit  has a  small secretariat, consisting  of an
Executive Secretary,  7  research officers,  2  research  assistants at  the
principal General Service level and 8 other General Service staff.   Despite
the increase  in workload over the  years, the JIU secretariat manning table
has  decreased from  21  at  its inception  to  18 at  present.    Moreover,
turnover  in research officer  posts has  further constrained  the output of
the Unit.  In  November 1994, a  new Executive Secretary was appointed  upon
the retirement of the former Executive Secretary.

9.  The JIU  has stressed the need  for additional research staff.   In  its
resolution  43/221 of  21 December  1988  the  General Assembly  invited the
Secretary-General,  in  his  capacity  as  Chairman  of  the  Administrative
Committee   on  Coordination  (ACC)  and  in  consultation  with  the  Joint
Inspection  Unit, to ensure  the maintenance  of an  efficient and effective
research capability within the secretariat of the Unit.   In paragraph 3  of

its resolution  45/237 of 21 December  1990, the  General Assembly requested
the Secretary-General  to review, in the  context of  the proposed programme
budget for the biennium 1992-1993, the  research and analytical capacity  of
the  secretariat of  the  Joint Inspection  Unit  in order  to  enhance  its
performance, with due respect for the statute of the Unit.

10.  In  its report to the  forty-sixth session of  the General  Assembly 1/
the  Unit requested  two additional  Professional  posts.   In  its decision
46/446  of  20  December  1991,  the  General  Assembly  decided  that those
proposals  had to be  examined by  the Advisory  Committee on Administrative
and Budgetary  Questions  (ACABQ).   In  responding  to that  decision,  the
ACABQ, in  its report  on the  functioning of  JIU, expressed the  following
opinion:   "The  Advisory  Committee  is of  the  view that  an increase  in
resources  should not be entertained at the present  time; it would consider
an increase in computer  resources in the context of the proposed  programme
budget, taking account of  the contribution computers  may make as a way  of
improving productivity" (see A/47/755, para. 42).

11.  In their  report to the General Assembly's forty-eighth session, 2/ the
Inspectors stated that they would refrain  from reiterating the requests  to
strengthen   the  staffing   capacities   made  in   previous   reports   in
consideration  of  the  existing  financial  constraints.    They  observed,
however, that the proposals remained valid and hoped that they could be  met
at  a more  favourable  juncture.  Thus,  in  its  resolution 48/221  of  23
December 1993,  the General  Assembly, inter  alia, recognized  the need  to
give adequate  means to  the JIU  in order  to enable  it to  carry out  its
functions and  requested the  Secretary-General and the  executive heads  of
the  participating  organizations, without  prejudice to  article 20  of the
statute  of the Joint Inspection  Unit, to consider  providing the Unit with
extrabudgetary   resources  and   programme  support   funds  for   specific
activities of inspection, evaluation and investigation in  those areas which
were linked to those resources.

12.   With regard to the  Secretary-General's proposed  programme budget for
the biennium 1996-1997,  the Unit opted for a  more modest request than  for
the previous  biennium by proposing to  upgrade one P-5 post  to D-1 and  to
obtain one  additional P-4  post to be  financed, if  feasible, through  the
support  account of  peace-keeping operations,  taking into  account,  inter
alia, that in  resolution 48/221, the General Assembly requested the Unit to
study and  to report to  it on  means by which  the Unit  could enhance  its
inspection  and evaluation  of  specific activities  such  as  peace-keeping
operations and humanitarian assistance.
  13.   Since out of the  12 reports the Unit  is currently  carrying out, 4
(one third) deal with peace-keeping operations and humanitarian  assistance,
the  Unit has  only two  options  open to  it to  meet the  General Assembly
requirements,  namely, either  to request  additional staff resources  or to
redeploy resources from other areas of  interest, such as administration and
management and development and technical cooperation.   In this respect, the
Joint Inspection Unit wishes  to emphasize that in its report of the eighty-
second session held in London in  February 1995, the Consultative  Committee
on Administrative  Questions (CCAQ) stated that organizations which were not
involved  in peace-keeping activities  questioned the  extent of  the use of
the Unit's  resources,  which were  jointly  financed,  for those  types  of
studies,  in  particular  given  the  fact  that  the  cost-sharing  formula
excluded expenditure on peace-keeping.

14.   Although articles 17  and 20 of  the statute of  the Joint  Inspection
Unit are  clear  in defining  the procedure  for  the  consideration of  the
budget  of the  Unit  and  although the  Unit  was willing  to  provide  any
clarification, those proposals were not included in the  Secretary-General's
proposed programme  budget for  the 1996-1997  biennium, and  no reason  was
given to  the  Unit  for  the  omission.   The  United  Nations  Secretariat
proposals for the JIU budget show a real negative growth of 0.27 per cent.

15.   In  complying with article 20,  paragraph 1, of its  statute, the Unit
was invited to  present its budget  estimates to  the ACABQ.  All  the facts

included  in the  present  report  were explained  in detail  to  the ACABQ,
which,  in turn,  expressed  its  position  in  its  report to  the  General
Assembly on the proposed programme budget for the biennium 1996-1997. 3/

16.  In  that report, the ACABQ, inter  alia, expressed its belief that  the
Secretary-General's  budget  proposal  for  JIU  for  1996-1997  should   be
considered in the light of the  requirements of General Assembly  resolution
48/221, with regard to the Unit's programme of work, as  well as the need to
strengthen the external  oversight control mechanisms, as emphasized by  the
Assembly in  its resolution 48/218  B of 29  July 1994.   The ACABQ  further
recalled, in particular,  paragraph 12 of  resolution 48/221 and recommended
that the Secretary General  report on the steps  taken and arrangements made
for  providing the Unit with extrabudgetary resources  and programme support
for  specific activities  of  inspection, evaluation  and  investigation  in
those areas  linked to  those resources.   The  action and  guidance of  the
General Assembly in this regard would be extremely useful to the JIU.

V.  WORK PROGRAMME


17.   The Unit has established its work programme for 1995 and a preliminary
work programme  for  1996  and  beyond (see  annex  II  and A/50/140).    As
explained  in  document  A/50/140,  the  list  is  tentative  and  does  not
necessarily  imply  that the  JIU  will  undertake  all the  studies.   Work
programmes are  flexible enough  to allow  the addition  of priority  issues
that may emerge.

18.   In  drawing up  the  work  programme, the  Unit has  been guided  by a
fundamental  objective, namely,  to continue  the trend  of good performance
and improve the quality  and relevance of its  output.  The  Inspectors were
aware that a well-balanced, flexible and realistic work programme  was a key
element for that  purpose.  The work  programme for 1995, then,  constituted
an important  step for further shaping  an action-oriented  strategy for the
Unit's activities.

19.   All efforts were made to comply with the  provisions of the statute of
the  JIU, in particular  articles 5  and 9; the relevant  resolutions of the
legislative organs  of the  participating organizations,  especially General
Assembly resolutions 47/201 of 22 December 1992 and  48/221 (paras. 3, 4 and
13); and the internal guidelines and procedures of the Unit.

20.  In establishing  its work programme, under  article 9, paragraph  1, of
its statute, the Unit  strived as much  as possible to satisfy the  concerns
expressed by the legislative bodies of  the participating organizations  and
their secretariats and internal and external  oversight bodies.  Indeed, the
secretariats have  been active  in making  suggestions for  the Unit's  work
programmes, unlike  the legislative  bodies and  several external  oversight
organs. Other external oversight bodies have also been requested to be  more
active  in  commenting  on  JIU  work  programmes.    Those  bodies  are  an
indispensable source of ideas on issues to be taken up by the JIU.

21.   None the  less, the Unit endeavoured to  include in its work programme
important priority items falling within its  competence and aimed at  making
a  substantial  contribution  to  the  solution  of  concrete  problems   by
providing practical and action-oriented recommendations.

22.  Efforts  were made to coordinate the  JIU work programme with those  of
other  external oversight bodies.  Consideration was also  given to the need
to achieve a better mix of evaluation, investigation and inspection in  line
with the relevant General Assembly resolutions.

23.  The  current JIU annual report cycle  is July-June, while the JIU  work
programme  previously covered  the calendar  year.   Since most  legislative
organs  of participating  organizations meet  between the summer  and autumn
seasons, there  was  a lack  of  synchronization  between the  calendars  of
meetings of  participating organizations  and the  JIU work  programme.   To

avoid  this discrepancy, the  Unit has  decided to shift  its work programme
cycle  from  January-December  to  July-June.    The  main  purpose  of this
decision  was  to  spread  the  reviews  contained  in  the  work  programme
throughout  the new  cycle  and  thus even  out the  workload to  the extent
possible in order  to ensure the timely presentation  of JIU reports to  the
pertinent   legislative    organs,   especially    the   General   Assembly.
Consequently,   the   1995-1996  work   programme   should   be   considered
transitional and will overlap somewhat with the 1995 work programme.

24.  The work  programme also attempts to  concentrate the Unit's efforts in
areas of  importance and  relevance to the  United Nations system,  having a
bearing  on the efficiency  of services;  on optimal  management methods; on
attaining  common   or  comparable  standards   and  on  achieving   greater
coordination among participating organizations.

25.   Of  the  total,  five topics  concern  the United  Nations, seven  are
system-wide and two  are of concern to  several organizations.  With respect
to field  of activity, eight are  devoted to  administration and management,
two fall under  development cooperation, two under peace-keeping  operations
or related matters and two under humanitarian assistance.

26.   Since the  description and  analysis of  its work programme  appear in
document A/50/140,  they are  not included  in the  present report, and  the
Unit considers  it  timely to  discontinue  the  practice of  repeating  the
description and analysis of its work programmes in future annual reports.

27.  In  its resolution 45/237  of 21  December 1990,  the General  Assembly
requested the JIU  to include in its annual report a summary  of its reports
and  recommendations.  The  JIU has been  doing so over  the years.   In its
view, experience  has proved this exercise  to be  an unnecessary repetition
of  JIU recommendations  that  have been  previously  approved  by pertinent
legislative  bodies,  including  the  General  Assembly.    If  the  General
Assembly does  not object, the Unit  considers it timely to discontinue this
practice and instead to  concentrate its efforts on the actual follow-up and
implementation  of  the JIU  recommendations  approved  by  the  legislative
organs.
VI.  MEASURES TO ENHANCE THE FUNCTIONING OF THE UNIT


28.  The improvement of any  activity is a continuous process.   The General
Assembly has adopted several resolutions encouraging  the JIU to improve its
performance, effectiveness  and efficiency.  The  Unit has  in turn remained
attentive to  all comments and  recommendations concerning its  performance,
has responded  positively  to them  and continues  to make  efforts in  this
regard.

29.   The impact  of the  work of  the Unit should  not only  be regarded in
terms of  its reports and recommendations.   The  interactions of Inspectors
with  the various  heads  of participating  organizations  and  other United
Nations system  officials during the  course of inspections,  investigations
and evaluations have proved to be a key  advisory tool for encouraging those
heads  and   officials  to   take  concrete   steps  for   solving  specific
difficulties  faced by the  various services  of the  United Nations system.
Those  heads  and  officials  have  benefited  from  the  broad  system-wide
experience of the Inspectors and in  many cases have anticipated suggestions
and  recommendations  which  later  appear  in  the  Unit's  reports.   This
intangible role  of the JIU should  always be kept in  mind when the  Unit's
performance is being assessed.

30.  The JIU  has, on several occasions,  submitted to the  General Assembly
proposals to improve its  work, some of  which are contained in its  reports
for  1991,  1992,  1993  and  1994.    In  its  1994  report,  4/  the  Unit
recapitulated the  actions taken  to implement a  number of  recommendations
which had been  addressed to it,  in particular those  contained in  General
Assembly resolution 48/221. 

31.    The  Unit  also  presented  its  views  on measures  to  improve  the
effectiveness  and   possible  strengthening  of   the  external   oversight
mechanisms,  as requested by  the General  Assembly in  its decision 47/454,
paragraph (b), of 23  December 1992, and reaffirmed in its decision 48/493 A
of 29 July 1994.

32.  Furthermore, the General Assembly  has regularly reaffirmed the statute
of the Unit.   Resolutions 48/218 and 48/221 are of particular relevance  in
this respect.   In section  II, paragraph  6, of  resolution 48/218 A  of 23
December 1993, the  Assembly emphasized the need  to ensure respect for  the
separate  and  distinct   roles  and  functions  of  external  and  internal
oversight mechanisms and also to  strengthen the external  oversight control
mechanisms.  In its resolution 48/221,  the Assembly reaffirmed the  statute
of  the   Joint  Inspection  Unit  as   the  only  independent   system-wide
inspection, evaluation and investigation body.

33.  Without  wishing to repeat  its previous proposals, the  Unit considers
it necessary to call  to the attention of  the General Assembly  the actions
it has taken and the  recommendations it has made over  the years to improve
its performance,  as described, in particular,  in its 1993  report.  It  is
hoped  that  such  a  review   of  internal  improvement  initiatives  would
contribute to  the ongoing debate in  the Assembly's Fifth Committee on ways
and means of strengthening the external oversight bodies. 

34.   The Unit established  a working  group to  develop a  set of  internal
standards and guidelines for inspection, evaluation  and investigation.  The
Unit  is  engaged  in  refining those  important  tools  for  its  work,  as
envisaged in article 8 of its statute.

35.    The Unit  is  gradually  developing  a  solid internal  technological
information  system that  will be  the core  element of  an  information and
documentation centre which it plans to establish soon and which should  help
to improve  the Unit's productivity  in issuing reports and recommendations.
The Unit wishes to recall its  request for additional computer  workstations
included in its 1991 report. 1/

36.  Subsequently, in  paragraph 42 of its report  on the functioning of the
JIU, as  cited in  paragraph 10 above,  the ACABQ indicated  that "it  would
consider an increase  in computer resources  in the context of  the proposed
programme budget, taking account of the  contribution computers may make  as
a  way  of  improving  productivity".    Although  this  recommendation  was
approved by  the General Assembly,  corresponding provision was not included
in the proposed programme budget for 1994-1995.

37.   When the Unit was moved in 1993 from the  Palais des Nations, where it
was at  least technically connected to  the United Nations  main library and
technological  information  systems,  to  a  building  outside  the   Palais
complex,  it  became  disconnected  from  such  systems.    This  and  other
inconveniences have constituted a setback in the Unit's performance.

38.  After continuous efforts,  most of the technical requirements are being
met  and the Unit  will be able to set  up its own technological information
system,  provided  it  receives  the  necessary   resources  for  both   the
acquisition and  the installation  of the  additional computer  workstations
that are needed.

39.  The Unit expects to increase tangibly  its research capacity when  such
a system  is in place,  particularly through having  a more  solid database;
making more  feasibility studies before choosing  new items for  inspection,
investigation or  evaluation; making a thorough analysis of the discussions,
reports, resolutions  and  decisions of  the  General  Assembly and  of  the
legislative organs  of other  participating organizations,  as expressed  in
paragraph 28  of  its 1994  report,  4/  and  establishing a  very  accurate
follow-up mechanism.   The importance  and the  impact of  such systems  are
described in paragraph 66 of the 1994 report.

40.   In paragraph  5 of  resolution 48/221, the  General Assembly requested
"the Joint  Inspection Unit,  when appropriate,  to provide  in its  reports
information on  estimated financial  implications  or possible  cost-savings
resulting  from implementation  of the recommendations  formulated therein".
The Unit  wishes to  recall that in  its report entitled  "Analysis of  cost
savings from JIU  reports, 1985-1992" (see A/48/606),  it gave an account of
the  cost-savings  resulting  from  its  past  recommendations.    The  Unit
considers  its useful  for the  General Assembly  to  take that  report into
account when discussing the Unit's performance.

41.   In general, the Unit  is increasingly exercising the collective wisdom
approach in preparing its  reports, as envisaged in article 11, paragraph 2,
of  its  statute  and   consistent  with  the   relevant  General   Assembly
resolutions and  its internal  guidelines and procedures  in developing  its
programmes of work.

42.  None the less, along with its  internal efforts and endeavours, the JIU
also needs  more engagement  and  support  from the  Member States  and  the
participating  organizations and  other associated  bodies.   This  requires
analysing the JIU reports and drawing concrete conclusions from them.

43.   Finally, the  Unit wishes  to add  certain observations  on issues  of
particular concern  to it  and to  its constituencies.   It  is, of  course,
aware  of certain  proposals made  and  discussions  under way  among Member
States and officials of the United Nations system.

 44.     The  main  issues   relate  to  the  strengthening  of  the  Unit's
secretariat, the selection  of inspectors, the budgetary and  administrative
independence of the Unit, and the Unit's leadership.

45.   First,  as discussed  in chapter  IV, despite  the  General Assembly's
recognition  of the Unit's  support staff  needs, its  requirements have not
yet been  met.   The  Unit remains  of the  opinion  that  its requests  for
strengthening  its support staff  continue to  be in the  interest of Member
States in having a more effective oversight performance of the Unit.

46.  Secondly, the  Inspectors would like to reiterate their belief that the
General Assembly should continue to pay  special attention to the  selection
and   appointment  of   inspectors,  in   accordance  with   the   requisite
qualifications stipulated  under article 2, paragraph  1, of  the statute of
the Unit.

47.   Thirdly, the  very fact  that, in  accordance with  article 20  of the
statute,  the Unit's budgetary  proposals are  assessed and  decided upon by
the SecretaryGeneral  of the United Nations  after consultation, within  the
ACC, with  the executive heads of  the participating  organizations, who are
precisely  the  subjects   of  the  Unit's  inspection,  investigation   and
evaluation responsibilities,  poses an  institutional dilemma  for both  the
Unit  and the  Secretary-General and  ACC.    Although the  General Assembly
stipulated in article 7  of the Unit's statute that:  "The Inspectors  shall
discharge their duties in full independence and in  the sole interest of the
organizations", the  Unit's independence has  been compromised in  practical
terms by  existing interpretations of  articles 17  and 20  of the  statute.
The General Assembly may wish to clarify this dilemma.

48.  Fourthly,  and within the  context of  article 18  of its statute,  the
Unit is  studying ways  of having  more  effective leadership  roles by  its
Chairman and Vice-Chairman, including modifying the rotational practice.
              VII. RELATIONS AND COOPERATION WITH THE PARTICIPATING
                   ORGANIZATIONS, EXTERNAL OVERSIGHT BODIES AND OTHER
                   RELEVANT BODIES WITHIN THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM


49.   The Unit is fully  aware of the importance  of its  relations with the
participating   organizations    and   with    bodies   bearing    oversight
responsibilities  as  a   fundamental  working  tool  aimed  at   exchanging

information  and  views, improving  the quality  and accuracy  of background
information and avoiding overlapping and unnecessary duplication of effort.


A.  Participating organizations

50.  The Unit  has continued to  make efforts to strengthen its  cooperation
and coordination  with both the legislative  bodies and  the secretariats of
the  participating organizations.   In this  regard, the  Unit has regularly
called upon legislative bodies to give greater attention to its reports  and
recommendations and  to  provide  it with  their comments,  suggestions  and
instructions.

51.  In accordance with article  6 of its statute, the  Unit is empowered to
make on-the-spot inquiries and investigations, some  of which may be without
prior  notification, as and  when the  Inspectors themselves  may decide, in
any of the services  of the organizations.  However, the Unit has  refrained
from  exercising  that  prerogative  in  order  to  allow  the  secretariats
involved enough time and full opportunity  to interact with the  responsible
Inspectors  and the  Unit and  also to  satisfy the  essential  requisite of
transparency.

52.   During the  period of  the present  report, JIU  members attended  the
forty-ninth session of the General Assembly,  in particular the meetings  of
the Assembly's Second, Third, Fourth and  Fifth Committees, to introduce and
discuss the Unit's reports.

53.   It is useful to  point out that  the practice of presenting reports of
concern to  the Economic and  Social Council  was re-established.   The Unit
wishes to  recognize  the cooperation  granted  by  the secretariat  of  the
Council  in  this regard  and  is pleased  to  continue  and  reinforce this
practice.

54.  The Chairman  attended the first  part of the thirty-fourth session  of
the Committee  for Programme and Coordination  (CPC), held in  New York from
16 to 23 May 1994, at which JIU reports were considered. 

55.   The  Chairman,  the Vice-Chairman  and individual  Inspectors attended
meetings of legislative  bodies of participating organizations where  issues
of  concern to the  JIU would  be discussed.  The  following meetings, among
others, were attended by Inspectors:

  -twenty-sixth meeting  of representatives  of Internal  Audit Services  of
United Nations Organizations and Multilateral Financial Institutions,  22-24
May 1995, New York;

  -meeting  of  the  Consultative  Committee   on  Administrative  Questions
(CCAQ), 1 and 2 June 1995, Geneva;

  -thirtieth session  of the  Economic Commission  for Africa,  twenty-first
meeting of the Conference of Ministers, 1-4 May 1995, Addis Ababa;

   -eighty-second  session of  the General Conference,  International Labour
Organization, 6-23 June 1995, Geneva;

  -forty-first session of  the Trade  and Development Board, United  Nations
Conference on Trade and Development, 20-31 March 1995, Geneva;

  -substantive session  of the Economic and  Social Council,  26 June28 July
1995, Geneva;

  -fifty-first session  of  the Commission  on  Human  Rights, 30  January10
March 1995, Geneva;

  -eighteenth  session of  the  Economic and  Social Commission  for Western
Asia, 22-25 May 1995, Beirut.

56.    The  exchange   of  views  and  contacts  with  the  secretariats  of
participating organizations, especially with internal oversight units,  have
increased  over  the  years.    The  Chairman,  usually  accompanied  by the
Executive  Secretary, held  meetings in  Geneva with  a number  of heads  of
agencies  and  programmes.   The discussions  dealt with  ways and  means of
improving  the  working  relations  with  the  respective  secretariats,  as
requested by the General Assembly in its resolution 48/221.

57.   In general, the executive  heads concerned  expressed appreciation for
the  work  of the  JIU  and  recognized its  contribution  to  the  internal
administrative  and management functioning  of the respective organizations.
The Unit welcomes constructive criticism  supported by objective analysis of
its reports.

58.  The relations  with the ACC and  its subsidiary bodies  continue to  be
constructive and pragmatic.   The ACC has been  attentive to JIU reports and
is making efforts to  produce joint comments on time in accordance with  the
JIU reporting procedure as envisaged in article 11 of its statute.

59.   The ACC  and its  subsidiary bodies  are aware  of  the importance  of
issuing their comments as  expeditiously as possible.  The JIU is  committed
to circulating  its reports on  time in  order to  allow the ACC  to produce
meaningful and timely comments.


B.  Other external oversight bodies

60.  The  Unit has continued its working relations and practical cooperation
with other external oversight bodies.   A joint ACABQ-JIU meeting took place
in Geneva in  September 1994.   It was  an opportunity  for a discussion  of
issues of common interest in order to maintain a  close relationship between
the  two  bodies,  as  recommended  in   paragraph  7  of  General  Assembly
resolution 48/221  of 23 December 1993.  On various occasions, the Chairman,
the Vice-Chairman and other  members of the Unit met with their counterparts
in the  ACABQ.  For  example, the  presentation by  the Chairman of  the JIU
budget proposals became a  good opportunity for the  Unit to exchange  views
with the ACABQ.

61.  In accordance with article 11, paragraph  4 (d) of the JIU statute, the
ACABQ  is entitled to  issue comments  and observations on any  of the JIU's
reports which fall within its competence.   Furthermore, in accordance  with
article 9 of the  statute, in preparing its  work programme, the  Unit shall
take  into account suggestions  received from,  among others,  bodies of the
United  Nations  system concerned  with  budgetary  control,  investigation,
coordination and evaluation. The Unit is aware of  the heavy workload of the
ACABQ but  it hopes that  the Committee will  make an  extra effort  in this
regard.         

62.   The working interactions with  the CPC are also  meaningful.  The  CPC
has traditionally  been interested in considering  JIU reports and  normally
makes concrete comments,  suggestions and recommendations for  consideration
by  the General Assembly.  It has also been active in making suggestions for
issues to  be included  in the  JIU work  programme.   The JIU  welcomes and
commends this cooperation between the two external oversight bodies.

63.   The close  relationship between  the JIU  and the International  Civil
Service Commission (ICSC) should be highlighted.   The ICSC has  been active
in providing  comments on  the JIU  work programme.   The JIU  has benefited
from the experience of the  ICSC in its field of  competence and intends  to
develop  further this cooperation by more practical means.  The Chairman and
the Executive Secretary of  the ICSC held  a meeting with the Inspectors  in
Geneva.   It was also an  opportunity for a discussion  of issues of  common
interest.

64.   The JIU's relations with the Panel of External Auditors and the United
Nations Board of Auditors further expanded  during the reporting period both

through  exchange of documents  and information and through consultations on
common  issues, including  relations with  the Office  of Internal Oversight
Services.


C.  Office of Internal Oversight Services

65.   The Office  of Internal Oversight  Services (OIOS)  was established by
the General  Assembly through its  resolution 48/218 B  of 29  July 1994, in
which  the Assembly  again emphasized  the need  to ensure  respect for  the
separate and distinct  roles of  internal and external oversight  mechanisms
and to strengthen  the external  oversight mechanisms,  and also  reaffirmed
the role of the JIU in accordance with its mandate.

66.  As part of the reporting procedure  of the OIOS, the role of the JIU in
the area of oversight services was  highlighted in paragraph 5, subparagraph
(e)  (iii) of  resolution  48/218  B, which  stated  that:   "The  Board  of
Auditors and the Joint Inspection Unit shall be  provided with copies of all
final reports  produced  by  the  Office as  well  as  the comments  of  the
Secretary-General  on  them  and  shall  provide  the  Assembly  with  their
comments as appropriate".

67.  The Unit  welcomes this additional responsibility and has approached it
seriously  in its  determination to  satisfy  Member  States to  whom it  is
accountable.   It has  done so  despite the  added strains on  its resources
which that responsibility has entailed.

68.  Working relations  between the JIU and  the OIOS are  excellent.   Both
units are  aware of  their separate and  distinct roles, the  former as  the
only external  system-wide oversight body  accountable to  the Member States
and the latter as the United Nations internal oversight  body accountable to
the Secretary-General.

69.   The JIU  is satisfied  with the current  operational relations between
the two units and intends to improve,  strengthen and refine them.  In fact,
several issues  included  in  the  work  programme  of  the  JIU  have  been
suggested to it by the OIOS as an example of constructive cooperation.

 70.   The JIU wishes to reiterate the proposal contained in its 1994 report
to  the General Assembly 4/  that compliance with  and follow-up of approved
recommendations  concerning  the  United  Nations  emanating  from  external
oversight bodies  should be included in the functions assigned  to the OIOS.
The General Assembly may wish to take action on that recommendation.


D.  Other concerned organizations

71.  The JIU,  as a system-wide external  oversight body with  broad powers,
has  in the  course  of  its work  developed over  the years  relations with
organizations  and  institutions  outside  of  the  United  Nations  system,
including  governmental institutions;  regional  organizations such  as  the
European  Union,  the League  of  Arab  States,  the  North Atlantic  Treaty
Organization,  the Organization  of  American States,  the  Organization  of
African  Unity,  the  Organization of  the  Islamic  Conference,  the  Latin
American  Economic System and  the Organization for Security and Cooperation
in Europe; non-governmental  organizations, and research institutions.   The
JIU  is currently taking  steps aimed  at increasing  and further developing
relations with specialized institutions like the International  Organization
of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI).

               VIII.  RESULTS, FOLLOW-UP AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE
                      RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE JOINT INSPECTION UNIT

A.  General comments

72.   Follow-up is an  active concept and  a continuous  process that starts

immediately after a JIU  report is sent out  for action (the so-called "blue
cover  report").   Indeed, this  constitutes  the  most important  phase and
starting-point  for testing the quality and the potential  impact of the JIU
recommendations.

73.   The General Assembly has always  been aware of this fact and very keen
in  stressing  the  need  for  the  various  secretariats  of  participating
organizations and  the  JIU to  develop  practical  procedures to  ascertain
compliance with the reporting and follow-up procedures.

74.   In its  resolution 32/199 of  21 December 1977,  the General  Assembly
decided that the reports of the  Secretary-General on implementation of  the
recommendations  of the  JIU should  provide concise  information  only with
regard to  those reports  that have  been  indicated by  the Unit  to be  of
interest  to  the  Assembly,  one  of  its  Main  Committees  or  its  other
subsidiary  organs.  Since then,  the Unit has been providing the Secretary-
General with such indications.

75.   In  its  decision  46/446 of  20 December  1991, the  General Assembly
requested the  heads of participating organizations  and the  ACC to observe
strictly the time-limit  for commenting on JIU  reports.  In its  resolution
44/184 of  19 December  1989, the  Assembly invited  the JIU to  continue to
make every possible effort to issue its reports well in advance of  meetings
of the legislative bodies of its  participating organizations to ensure that
the  comments  of  the  Secretary-General  and   those  of  the  ACC,  where
pertinent,  are  issued in  accordance  with  existing  regulations for  the
timely receipt of documentation. 

76.  In  its resolution 48/221, the General  Assembly called upon the JIU to
follow up on  the implementation of its  recommendations and to  include the
relevant information regularly in its annual reports.

77.  Thus it  can be seen that  the timely presentation of  JIU reports  and
the required  comments by the Secretary-General  and by  individual heads of
other participating  organizations  and/or the  ACC,  as  appropriate, is  a
common endeavour between the JIU and those bodies.

78.   The  JIU  is committed  to meeting  this  target  but sometimes  it is
difficult  for  the  Unit  to  abide  by the  internal  timetables  for  the
completion  of its  reports.    One major  difficulty faced  by the  Unit in
speeding  up the preparation  of its reports  is obtaining  from the various
secretariats timely and required information.

79.  At its  twenty-fourth session, the CPC requested that it be  authorized
to examine  the  pertinent  reports  of the  JIU  even without  the  written
comments of the Secretary-General if they  were not available and added that
those comments  could be  made orally. 5/   In its  resolution 39/238 of  18
December  1984,  the General  Assembly  approved  the conclusions  and other
recommendations  of the  CPC.  The General  Assembly  and  other legislative
bodies of the  participating organizations may wish  to decide to proceed in
the same way.

80.    In a  new  attempt  to  respond positively  and  efficiently  to  the
invitation of  the General Assembly,  the Unit is  taking concrete steps  to
achieve   a   punctual  and   systematic  follow-up   of  its   reports  and
recommendations  from an early  stage until  the full  implementation of its
recommendations  as approved  by  the legislative  organs  of  participating
organizations.   Among  other measures,  the  Unit  intends to  request  the
concerned heads  to provide it  with a timetable  for the implementation  of
approved  JIU  recommendations  after they  are  approved  by the  concerned
legislative bodies.   The General Assembly  and other  legislative bodies of
participating organizations may wish to support JIU in this effort.


              B.  Comments on the report of the Secretary-General on
                  implementation of the JIU recommendations

81.   In conformity  with  the current  practice described  in paragraph  94
below, the Secretary-General issued a report  on 4 November 1994  (A/49/632)
on  implementation of  the recommendations  contained  in four  JIU reports:
African  Institute for Economic Development and Planning;  Assessment of the
environmental focus of  projects financed by the United Nations  Development
Programme  and  other  United Nations  agencies;  Concluding  report on  the
implementation of  General Assembly resolution  32/197 on the  restructuring
of the economic and  social sectors of the United Nations system; and  Grade
overlap.

82.  In its  1994 report, the Unit  stated that  it intended to provide  its
comments on  the Secretary-General reports in  an addendum,  but taking into
account that that report will be  considered together with the  present one,
the Unit has decided to include its comments in the present report.

83.    Since the  comments  of the  Secretary-General  on the  four  reports
provide a detailed account of what is being  done by the United Nations  and
by  other  participating  organizations  concerned,  especially  the  United
Nations Development  Programme, in implementing  the JIU recommendations  as
approved  by the  General  Assembly and  the Unit  is  satisfied  with those
accounts, it  decided not to  make a detailed analysis of  each of them this
time as has been the past practice.


               C.  Overall analysis of the results and follow-up of
                   the JIU recommendations

84.   For the past four  years, the  JIU has been particularly  engaged in a
process  and dialogue designed to  improve the substance  and results of its
work.   The objective is  to ensure that  its limited  resources are used to
produce reports  that make the  maximum possible  contribution to  improving
the programmes and performance of the United Nations system.  This  evolving
process has been reflected in each of the most recent JIU annual reports.

  (a)   The 1991  report 1/ summarized  actions being taken  to enhance  JIU
workprogramming,  particularly   through  more   active  consultation   with
participating  organizations and development  of a more systematic and long-
range  programming strategy.   It also  responded to  the General Assembly's
request that JIU  provide more detailed commentary  in its annual reports on
the implementation  of its recommendations by  the United  Nations and other
participating organizations.

  (b)   The 1992  report 6/ analysed  the significantly  different types  of
impact of JIU reports:

  (i)the impact  of JIU reports over a decade or longer  in such major areas
as  programme planning  and budgeting,  development  cooperation, conference
services, evaluation and personnel matters;
      (ii)significant  implementation  actions  taken  by  organizations  in
relatively rapid response  to some JIU recommendations, particularly in  the
evaluation,  management, budgetary  and administrative  areas to  which  the
General Assembly had requested that the Unit give greater attention;

   (iii)deferred  impact,  where major  JIU  recommendations  had eventually
proven valid,  but only  after the  organizations had moved  very slowly  to
take the necessary corrective actions;

    (iv)cost-savings resulting from JIU recommendations, and a review  which
the Unit had launched to make a quantitative analysis of recent results.

  (c)  The 1993  report 2/ discussed the establishment of a new longer-range
JIU  work  programme  structure  divided  into   the  four  priority  areas:
administration  and  management;  operational  activities  for  development;
peace-keeping  operations and  related issues;  and humanitarian assistance.
It also discussed the analysis of cost-savings contained in JIU reports  for
the 1985-1992  period; and, as requested by the General Assembly, the Unit's

views and proposals for enhancing its productivity and performance.

  (d)  The 1994  report 4/ discussed the  Unit's ongoing efforts  to sharpen
the  focus of  its current  and future  work programmes  on priority  issues
identified  by  legislative  bodies and  secretariats,  and  the  status  of
measures taken within  the JIU to improve its working procedures and methods
and enhance the quality of its reports.

85.   Several years ago a practice  was established that  every year the JIU
would  indicate four of  its reports  issued three or four  years earlier to
the  Secretary-General  for follow-up,  obtain  summary  comments  from  him
concerning follow-up actions taken on  its reports and  recommendations, and
provide brief comments thereon in its annual report.

86.  The follow-up  of those actions, however, remains unsatisfactory.   The
lack  of objective  criteria for  selection has proved  this practice  to be
non-operational and restrictive.  It ignores  the whole interplan of impacts
from (a) recommendations which are  quickly acted on, (b)  those where major
action  is finally  taken, but  only  after a  decade or  more, and  (c) JIU
reports which  progressively follow  up on  needed corrective  actions in  a
major management  or programme  area with  a series  of successive  studies.
Under these  circumstances, the Unit has  decided to  discontinue it because
all  the recommendations of  the JIU,  as approved by  the General Assembly,
must be subjected to a follow-up.

87.   The  Unit intends  to draw  on the experience  of the  past concerning
follow-up  of  reports.   Each future  JIU  annual report  will provide  the
General  Assembly and  all the  participating organizations with  a clearer,
more comprehensive,  coherent and up-to-date  follow-up analysis of  results
that the Unit's reports have achieved and are  achieving.  The JIU will also
relate  action  on  these  recent  and   ongoing  reports  to  the  priority
directions and topics  being developed for future  JIU work programmes.   In
this way,  the  organizations will  be in  a better  position to  understand
JIU's activities and contribute  their ideas and  guidance in order to  keep
JIU work focused on the priority concerns of Member States.

88.    The  Unit  will  seek  other  measures  to  improve  the  process  of
consideration  and   implementation  of  its   individual  reports  by   the
participating organizations throughout the United  Nations system.  One such
step is to include  in the JIU annual reports specific information on delays
for submitting  comments on individual JIU  reports.  A  table on delays  in
preparing agency  comments was  most recently  included in  the 1991  annual
report.  In  the future, this  data will  be updated  in each annual  report
until the situation becomes satisfactory.

89.  The new  results and follow-up chapter  being introduced in the present
report will be included  each year according to the major categories of  JIU
work. Currently, there are three such categories, as presented below.

  1.  Management, budgetary and administrative issues

90.   During  its  first  two decades,  the work  of  the JIU  in this  area
concentrated  primarily   on  programming,   budgeting  and,   subsequently,
evaluation  issues.    The  Unit  also  reviewed  areas  such  as personnel,
conference  services,  control  of documentation,  and  other administrative
systems and processes  which Member States  and the organizations identified
as priority concerns.

91.  The  JIU concentration on programme  plans, budgets and evaluation  was
most intense  during the 1970s and early 1980s.  Then, as those systems were
largely  established  throughout  the  United  Nations  system,  this   work
diminished.   In part two of its 1991 annual report, 1/ the Unit reported in
some detail on the  essential completion and results  of its series  of more
than  20  reports  on  evaluation  methodology,  establishment  of  internal
evaluation systems, and specific evaluation of programmes undertaken  during
the 1976-1991  period.  The Inspectors stated that while they would continue

evaluation work as requested,  they would in future  respond more to General
Assembly resolutions  calling for increased  in-depth reviews of  management
system problems.    The  result  has  been  a  concentration  on  the  three
following areas, with continued work in some other requested areas as well:

  (a)  Accountability, management improvement and oversight;

  (b)  Information technology;

  (c)  Human resources management.

  (a)  Accountability, management improvement and oversight

92.   During the 1985-1990 period, several JIU  reports began the transition
to a much stronger  emphasis on oversight and improvement of management  and
accountability  in the  United  Nations  system.   In a  1985 report  on the
status of internal evaluation in organizations  of the United Nations system
(see  A/41/201),  the  JIU recommended  above  all  that  the  organizations
develop  an integrated and  continuous system of performance information and
management  development to  provide  managers and  legislative  bodies  with
streamlined and up-to-date information on programme  results.  A 1989 report
entitled  "Budgeting in organizations  of the  United Nations  system:  some
comparisons" (see  A/45/130) provided analysis  and comprehensive tables  on
budgeting practices.   A  1990 report entitled "Extrabudgetary  resources of
the  United Nations:   towards transparency  of presentation, management and
reporting" (see A/45/797) examined the need  for transparency in  management
and reporting in this area.  The Secretariat  never provided comments to the
General  Assembly on this  report, but significant reforms have nevertheless
been  made, as  the  JIU  report  had recommended,  in  the presentation  of
extrabudgetary resources  in Programme  Budget Implications  (PBIs) and  the
creation of independent audit functions.

 93.    Most  directly,  however,  the General  Assembly's  Fifth  Committee
expressed very strong dissatisfaction  in 1985 with the almost total lack of
information provided  to it  on past  Secretariat performance.   A  1988 JIU
report entitled "Reporting on the performance  and results of United Nations
programmes: monitoring,  evaluation and management  review components"  (see
A/43/124)  recommended   decisive  action  to   correct  the  very   serious
inadequacies of the  existing Secretariat monitoring and evaluation  reports
and to  begin  to provide  regular  and  analytical reporting  on  programme
results and quality to governing bodies.

94.  The  General Assembly agreed with  the JIU, emphasizing the  importance
of measuring  results against  objectives.   However, the  Secretary-General
reported  in 1989,  in  essence,  that existing  monitoring  and  evaluation
systems were  too weak to provide  adequate reporting  of programme results.
In 199l the General  Assembly requested the ACABQ and the CPC to  reconsider
the JIU report.  They joined the  JIU in criticizing the lack of improvement
in  analytical  reporting  and  urged  a  "change  of  culture"  within  the
Secretariat.   However, a 1991 report  of the  Secretary-General proposed no
major changes.  In fact,  it emphasized that reporting  on programme quality
would "remain  outside the  scope"  of Secretariat  monitoring of  programme
performance.

95.   In 1992  the Secretariat finally  acknowledged that evaluation  was "a
somewhat  sickly  child".    The  CPC  also  called  for  more  analysis  of
implementation instead  of  "output-counting"  monitoring reports,  and  for
strengthened individual  accountability through  United Nations  programmes.
Those matters  have subsequently been  pursued with demands  by the CPC  and
then  the General Assembly  in December 1993 that  the Secretariat install a
new  system of "accountability  and responsibility"  by 1  January 1995, and
further pursued by JIU, as discussed below.

96.    A two-part  JIU  report on  United  Nations  system  cooperation with
multilateral financial institutions  7/ concentrated on the performance  and
innovation  challenges  involved  in  closer  operational  work  with  those

institutions.   The Inspectors concluded that organizations will indeed find
partners, even in  the highly competitive international development area, if
they  have  high-quality  programmes  and  can  deliver  them  promptly  and
efficiently.  JIU  identified ten key success  factors, such as a  strategic
approach,  identifying  a "niche"  of  comparative  advantage,  and  quality
control.  The Inspectors urged organizations  to develop much more creative,
responsive  and performance-oriented  programmes  and to  have  much  better
performance  reporting to  their  legislative bodies.    The  organizations'
response acknowledged  those  points, but  argued  that  JIU had  not  fully
reflected their recent actions (omitting the  fact that their joint comments
were  not issued until  16 months  after the JIU report  was published).  In
May 1993, the CPC commended the JIU report and  its strong emphasis on high-
quality performance to the organizations of the system.

97.   Also in 1993,  to respond to  all the above  concerns the  JIU began a
broad-scale review of  accountability, management improvement and  oversight
processes throughout the  United Nations system.   As part of  this process,
the Inspectors issued an interim report  on accountability and oversight  in
the  United Nations  Secretariat (see  A/48/420), which  identified  serious
weaknesses in  the small internal oversight  units and  in other Secretariat
accountability and oversight processes as  well.  The Inspectors recommended
that  a single,  consolidated  oversight  unit  be  established,  which  the
Secretary-General did in August  1993.  (In 1994, this transitional unit was
established by  the General Assembly as  a new Office  of Internal Oversight
Services, following most of  the modalities proposed by the JIU for this new
office.)   In addition, the  General Assembly, in  resolution 48/218, of  23
December   1993,  on   management   improvement  regretted   the   lack   of
responsiveness  of  the Secretary-General's  report  on  accountability  and
responsibility,  noted with  appreciation the  above JIU  report, and called
for  the  establishment   of  a   "transparent  and   effective  system   of
accountability and responsibility" in the United  Nations by 1 January 1995,
as recommended by the CPC.

98.   The JIU  issued its first comprehensive  survey in 1995 in  a two-part
report  entitled "Accountability,  management improvement  and oversight  in
the  United  Nations  system:   Part  I,  Overview  and  analysis;  Part II,
Comparative  tables (see  A/50/503  and Add.1).    Part II  of  this  report
includes detailed  tables summarizing the recent  actions and  reforms of 39
different  organizations  in  13  major  subject  areas.    Part  I analyses
patterns, problems and developments in the following  major management areas
of the system:

  -   internal oversight units;

  -  management systems (internal controls and information technology);

  -human  resources   management  (management   development  and   training,
management improvement programmes);

  -strategic   planning  and   performance   management:     the  integrated
management of change;

  -  inter-agency activities;

  -  external system-wide oversight bodies; and

  -oversight  governing bodies:  oversight activities, reporting and        
external review.

99.   The Unit  regards the  report not  only as  a comprehensive  "baseline
survey" of  present activities  and  plans of  organizations throughout  the
system for  use  by  secretariats  and  governing  bodies, but  also  as  an
important input for  future JIU work,  as in  the key  areas of  information
technology and human resources management discussed below.

100.    Finally, JIU  is  completing  for  the  General Assembly's  fiftieth

session  a report on  progress in  installing the new  management systems in
the United Nations.  At the  Assembly's forty-ninth session, the Secretariat
provided two reports outlining  planned new systems and  reforms:  the  1995
report will follow  up on accomplishments and  gaps in installing those  new
system components,  as well as the  challenges posed  in determining exactly
who  the  "United Nations  managers"  are,  by  the  "downsizing" of  system
organizations,  and  by  the  continuing  need  to  establish much  stronger
reporting to  the General  Assembly on  programme  performance and  results,
which JIU raised in its 1988 report and which is still very much lacking.

101.  Recent  related JIU reports and notes,  namely, the note on  transport
operations  of   the  United  Nations   Children's  Fund  (programming   and
management issues); 8/ the report on  management of buildings in  the United
Nations system  (see A/49/560); and the  report entitled  "Analysis of cost-
savings  from JIU  reports,  1985-1992" (see  A/48/606);  already  discussed
above  (para. 40) could  also be regarded as  important managerial tools for
the secretariats concerned.
  
 102.  The JIU is currently carrying  out investigations on common  services
of the  United  Nations  in New  York  and  on  the  management-staff  union
relationship  in the  United Nations  system and  has included  in its  work
programme  for  1995-1996  inspection  of  common  services  in  Geneva  and
investigation of the efforts to streamline  United Nations activities and of
contracting out in the United Nations system.   All these reviews should  be
regarded  as an  effort aimed  at  providing  an integrated  and coordinated
follow-up in the area of administration and management.

103.  The  JIU included in its 1995 work programme inspection  of the United
Nations  Access Control System  (Card Access  System).   However, aware that
the  OIOS was  conducting an  investigation on  the  same subject,  the Unit
decided to wait for  the pertinent information.   The OIOS promised the Unit
to put at its disposal the outcome of  its investigation, but it has not yet
been received.

  (b)  Information technology

104.    A  1985  JIU  report  entitled "The  changing  use  of  computers in
organizations of  the United Nations system  in Geneva:   management issues"
(see A/40/410) called  especially on the urgent  need to develop and exploit
the potentials of computer systems.   The JIU 1995 system-wide survey report
identified  information technology  as a  key recent  development,  together
with  human  resources  management, of  great  significance  for the  United
Nations system.  In  its 1995-1996 work programme, the Unit has envisaged an
investigation  of the use  of information  technology in  the United Nations
system.  This new  broad-scale study will not  only review the  key elements
of information technology use throughout the  United Nations system but also
will identify  many  important  substantive and  management aspects  of  the
effective  use  of these  powerful  new  tools  and  systems, discuss  their
potential  advantages  and   disadvantages  and  propose  alternatives   for
potential common use at system level.

105.   The  JIU  reports  entitled "Problems  of  storage and  its costs  in
organizations  of the United  Nations system"  (see A/41/806  and Corr.1 and
A/42/724 and Corr.1) and, especially, "From  the optical disc pilot  project
at the United  Nations Office  at Geneva to an  optical disc system for  the
United  Nations"  (see A/44/684)  discussed  large  applications  and  cost-
savings now  emerging in the system  despite slow implementation.   The Unit
considers   that  the  United  Nations  Secretariat  should   speed  up  the
application   of   this   new   technological   information   system,   thus
systematically replacing other more costly services like facsimile.  

106.   In  1992 the  JIU issued  a report  entitled "Towards  an  integrated
library network of the United Nations system" (see A/47/669).

107.   A 1995 report  entitled "A review  of telecommunications and  related
information  technologies  in the  United  Nations  system" 9/  followed the

reports of  1972 and  1982 and  has been  an important  contribution to  the
current  debate  on this  important  matter.    Several  user agencies  have
praised the JIU for  this report.   The comments of  the ACC on this  report
have not yet been issued.

  (c)  Human resources management

108.   JIU work  on personnel matters  goes back to  a 1971 report  entitled
"Summary  of  the  report  on  personnel  problems  in  the  United  Nations
(professional  category and  above)" (A/8454).  The  1995 system-wide report
identifies  the  area  of  human  resources   management  as  a  second  key
development  in improving  management  in  the  United Nations  system  (see
A/50/503 and Add.1).
  109.  The 1994 report entitled  "Advancement of the status of women in the
United  Nations Secretariat in  an era  of 'human  resources management' and
'accountability':    a  new  beginning?"  (see  A/49/176)  illustrated   the
critical importance of good human resources  management.  The recommendation
on  human resources  strategy  and  a  new planning  unit  has already  been
endorsed by the General Assembly  and is being introduced, as  well as a new
strategy  for the advancement of  women.  In addition,  the 1995 system-wide
report entitled "The advancement  of women through and in the programmes  of
the United  Nations system: what happens  after the  Fourth World Conference
on  Women"  (see A/50/509)  contains  an  analysis  of  important new  human
resource issues which the organizations need  to address, such as  mobility,
work/family, counselling and  communication, sexual harassment and codes  of
conduct. 

110.   The 1994  JIU report  entitled "Towards  a new system  of performance
appraisal in the  United Nations  Secretariat:  requirements for  successful
implementation"  (see  A/49/219)   noted  stronger  new  appraisal   systems
elsewhere  in the  United  Nations system;  investigated  and  confirmed the
seriously defective United  Nations system which exists; and identified  key
elements  needed  if  the  new  performance   appraisal  system  is  to   be
successfully installed  and in  full formal  use by  1997.  The  report also
noted recurring cost-savings  amounting to millions  of dollars  which could
be obtained  by not routinely  awarding salary step  increases each  year to
staff  whom the  new performance appraisal systems  identify as sub-standard
performers.  

111.  A JIU  inspection led to the issuance in  January 1995 of part I of  a
report  entitled   "Inspection  of   the  application   of  United   Nations
recruitment, placement  and  promotion policies"  (see A/49/845).   All  the
recommendations  were specifically endorsed  by the  General Assembly at its
forty-ninth  session;  although  it  is  too  early  to  determine  specific
results, it  is expected  that their  implementation by  the United  Nations
Secretariat will improve the  situation in this important area.  In its 1995
work  programme, the JIU included part II (placement  and promotion) of this
inspection.

112.  Upon a  request from the UNESCO secretariat,  the Unit is carrying out
a  closely  related   system-wide  evaluation  of  comparative  methods   of
geographical distribution  of posts in the  various secretariats.   The Unit
hopes  that  this review  will  contribute to  the  current  debate  on this
matter.

113.  Other reports on the rotation of  staff within the United Nations (see
A/46/326),  on   grade  overlap  (see   A/47/140)  and   on  advantages  and
disadvantages  of the post classification system (see  A/47/168) have proved
to very useful tools for staff administration and management.

  2.  Operational activities for development

114.   Because operational  activities for  development continue  to claim a
substantial portion  of  the financial  and  human  resources of  the  JIU's
participating organizations, the  Unit has maintained and recently  expanded
its inspection and evaluation coverage of  the economic, social and  related

sectors of the United Nations development system.

115.   The central objective of the Unit in this major  area of its work has
been to assist the organizations in devising  more cost-effective strategies
and institutional arrangements for building the self-reliant or  sustainable
development capacities of  the developing countries.   To that end,  the JIU
has, since its inception,  issued numerous reports  and made recommendations
on specific themes of development cooperation,  such as rationalization  and
coordination of the  system's operations at country level, harmonization  of
programme  and  budget  cycles  and  programme  support  procedures,  common
premises  and services  in  the field,  decentralization to  the operational
level, and government (national) execution of projects.

116.   The Unit's progressive emphasis  on these themes  over the years  has
formed the  core  substance of  legislative directives  for the  operational
activities  for  development  of  the  organizations,  as  illustrated  more
comprehensively by  the General  Assembly in  its resolutions  44/211 of  22
December 1989 and 47/199 of 22 December 1992.

117.  In the past several years the Unit has  intensified its inspection and
evaluation of  the development cooperation  activities of the  organizations
by issuing,  between  1990 and  1994, some  20 reports  containing over  100
recommendations.  Twelve (60  per cent) of those reports were of system-wide
scope or of  direct concern to  all the  participating organizations of  the
Unit, while eight were of specific  interest to individual organizations  of
the  system.  Because of  the  lack  of  systematic  reporting on  follow-up
actions on JIU reports and recommendations, the Unit  has still to develop a
comprehensive picture  of  the aggregate  results  and  impact of  its  more
recent work in development cooperation.

118.   None the less, most of the reports issued by the Unit since 1990 have
generally received favourable  reviews by legislative bodies of the  system.
A  number  of  reports either  contributed directly  to  enhance operational
efficiency  and cost-savings  in programme  operations or  identified  areas
where  improved  redesign  of  policies  and   systems  could  sharpen   the
effectiveness of technical cooperation programmes.

119.   Examples  of such  reports include  the 1991  JIU note  on  transport
operations of  the United Nations Children's  Fund, 8/  which enabled UNICEF
to achieve recurrent annual  cost-savings in the order  of US$ 15 million; a
report entitled "A  forward-looking assessment of the technical  cooperation
programme of  the International Civil  Aviation Organization, 10/ which made
a  significant  contribution to  the  reorganization  and  strengthening  of
ICAO's  technical   cooperation  programme;  or   the  two-part  report   on
decentralization  of organizations  within the  United Nations  system  (see
A/48/78) which,  inter alia,  has contributed  to concrete  actions in  some
specialized agencies,  especially  FAO,  IMO, ITU,  UNESCO, UNIDO  and  UPU;
those  agencies have  reorganized  or  reinforced  their field  presence  in
accordance with the report's main recommendations.

120.   Increased institutional collaboration  among partners in  development
cooperation in  their support of the  developing countries  has been another
major theme of  the Unit's reports  since 1990.   Foremost in this  vein was
the two-part report  on United Nations system cooperation with  multilateral
financial institutions,  7/ which urged the  organizations of  the system to
foster creativity,  competitiveness, programme responsiveness and  sustained
performance improvement to enable them  to collaborate more effectively with
the multilateral  financial institutions.   The ILO is  cited in  the report
for its  cooperation with the multilateral  financial institutions.   Recent
trends in  the development  of cooperative  relationships between these  two
groups of development  partners, especially in  the field, are in  line with
the main recommendations of the report.

121.    Similarly,  the  report  entitled  "Working  with   non-governmental
organizations:    operational  activities  for  development  of  the  United
Nations system  with non-governmental organizations  and Governments at  the

grass-roots  and national  levels" (see  A/49/122-E/1994/44) has contributed
to heightened  awareness within the United  Nations system  of the potential
benefits for the developing countries  of expanded collaboration between the
organizations   of   the   United  Nations   system   and   non-governmental
organizations  at the grass-roots and national levels in order to enable the
organizations to reach  out more  directly to the  millions of rural  people
who  have  been  largely  left  behind  by  existing development  programmes
supported by the system.

122.  Recent  JIU reports have equally  emphasized the efficiency and  cost-
savings   benefits   of   more  streamlined   and   cohesive   institutional
arrangements  at  the  country  level,  especially  through  a  more unitary
approach  to field  representation of  United Nations  system  organizations
(see  A/49/133-E/1994/49) or  through  the implementation  of  a  world-wide
programme  of United  Nations system  common  premises  and services  in the
field  (see  A/49/629),  the   aggregate  cost-savings  of  which  could  be
substantial.

123.   The Unit  decided to  undertake a three-part review  to assess United
Nations system-wide  cooperation in science  and technology for  development
in the developing countries.   The Unit has completed its reviews  regarding
Asia and  Africa and intends to initiate the review concerning Latin America
and  the Caribbean region.   At  its 1995 substantive  session, the Economic
and  Social  Council  praised the  report  regarding  Africa (see  A/50/125-
E/1995/19) and took note of it.

  3.  Peace-keeping activities and humanitarian assistance

124.  The report on the coordination of activities related to early  warning
of possible refugee flows (see A/45/649 and Corr.1)  was the first issued by
JIU  in this  area.    One of  the main  conclusions of  the report  was the
necessity of  introducing early warning  as a regular  component of work  in
the  United  Nations  in a  coordinated manner,  by  making use  of existing
structures and designating a control focal  point within the United  Nations
system for monitoring factors related to  refugee flows and by  establishing
an  inter-agency consultative  mechanism.    The General  Assembly,  in  its
resolution   46/127  of   17  December  1991,  endorsed   the  relevant  JIU
recommendations.    Within  the  framework  of  implementation,  a  post  of
emergency relief coordinator was created  and an inter-agency  working group
on early warning of refugees and displaced persons was set up.

125.   In the note entitled "Some proposals for  improving the peace-keeping
operations  of  the United  Nations",  11/  JIU,  in  a selective  analysis,
addressed  certain  managerial and  financial  problems,  as  well as  those
related to the contribution  of troops.  As a result, the Unit made a number
of  proposals to  the Secretary-General  for  improvement  in each  of those
areas.  Financial  issues related  to peace-keeping operations were  further
pursued in  the "Note on an Agenda  for Peace:   some reflections on chapter
XI - financing". 12/

126.   The  report  on  staffing  of the  United  Nations peace-keeping  and
related  missions   (civilian  component)   (see   A/48/421)  analysed   the
functioning  of the different  departments and  units of  the United Nations
Secretariat  in  managing   peace-keeping  operations  and  the  extent   of
interdepartmental    coordination   and   cooperation   and   organizational
structures and  functions, both  at Headquarters  and in  the field, with  a
view  to  having   more  coherent  and  consolidated  management,   avoiding
duplication,  enhancing coordination  and sharpening  the process  of  early
warning,  planning,  deployment, and  monitoring  and  evaluation.  It  also
looked  into  measures  recommended and/or  adopted  by  the Secretariat  to
improve its management.   The  report was favourably  commented upon by  the
Secretary-General (see  A/48/421/Add.1).  Some  of its recommendations  have
already been implemented.  The report was also  considered in the Fifth  and
Special  Political  Committees at  the forty-eighth  session of  the General
Assembly and was  referred to in resolution  48/42, adopted by the  Assembly
on 10 December 1993.   Following an in-depth  discussion of the  report, the

CPC  expressed  appreciation  for  its timeliness  and  agreement  with  the
diagnosis of the imperfections in the  civilian component of the staffing of
United Nations peace-keeping and related missions.   The CPC also  expressed
satisfaction that some of the recommendations made by the Inspectors in  the
report had already been implemented.

127.  Concerned with the increasing  United Nations burden in  peace-keeping
operations, JIU  produced a  report on  sharing  responsibilities in  peace-
keeping: the United Nations and regional  organizations (see A/50/571).  The
report  put forward findings  and recommendations on cooperation between the
United Nations  and regional organizations in  the maintenance  of peace and
security.    Its  objective  is  to  contribute to  the  current  efforts to
increase the involvement  of regional organizations in collective  security,
in the hope that this would ease the burden on the United Nations.

128.    A  report   entitled  "Investigation  of  the  relationship  between
humanitarian  assistance   and  peace-keeping  operations"  (see   A/50/572)
focuses  primarily on how to  improve and make  effective the mechanisms for
cooperation  and coordination  both at  Headquarters and field  levels among
the different  actors in complex emergencies.   It  explores the possibility
and feasibility of reviewing and  formulating rules of  conduct (guidelines)
of  agencies participating  in  complex situations,  bearing  in  mind their
competence, priorities,  the new demands  on peace-keeping and  humanitarian
assistance,  with   full  respect  for   the  principles  of   independence,
neutrality,   humanity  and  impartiality   in  international  and  internal
conflicts.   Some emblematic  cases of  complex operations  are examined  to
draw  lessons  from both  past  successes  and  negative  experiences.   The
protection and security of United Nations personnel are also addressed.

129.    The concerns  and interests  expressed  by  Member States  are being
followed by JIU in the following ongoing studies:

  (a)    A  report on  the  involvement  of  the  United  Nations system  in
providing and coordinating humanitarian assistance aims  (i) to look at  the
progress  and  problems  of  United  Nations  coordination  mechanisms   for
humanitarian assistance,  its  overall  stand-by capacity,  operational  and
organizational mechanisms, and  its planning and preparedness techniques  in
handling complex emergencies; and  (ii) to shed light on the major areas  in
which humanitarian operations can be  further improved.  The recommendations
include action  to further shift from  the fragmented  approach to emergency
response  and consolidate  comprehensive frameworks  for operations  in  the
field, with  lateral cooperation at Headquarters,  in the  field and between
the two.

  (b)  The  Unit is also  conducting a  review on  strengthening the  United
Nations system capacity  for conflict prevention.   The  report aims (i)  to
review the past and current activities and capacities  of the United Nations
system in  dealing with conflicts  and (ii) to  highlight the importance  of
conflict  prevention on the  basis of  a comprehensive  approach to conflict
prevention  which  would  include  addressing  root  causes  of   conflicts,
upgrading  the United Nations  capacity in  preventive diplomacy  as well as
active  involvement of  all  actors. The  recommendations  contain  concrete
proposals for action to be taken by Member States  and the Secretary-General
and at  the inter-agency level  in order to  strengthen the  capacity of the
United Nations system for conflict prevention.

  (c)  The report on the  military component of United Nations peace-keeping
operations  complements  and builds  upon  the  previous  JIU  study on  the
civilian  component.    Through  examination  of  a  number  of  issues, the
Inspectors hope to contribute to current  efforts to improve the  capability
of the United  Nations in  planning and managing  the military component  of
peace  operations.  Thus, the  Inspectors examine and  deal with three broad
issues.  The first is the managerial  aspects of mandates for peace-keeping,
emphasizing  the importance  of consultations among members  of the Security
Council, troop-contributing countries  and the  Secretariat, as well as  the
importance of unity of command and control.   The second is the availability

of troops  and equipment and their  readiness and  timely deployment. Within
this context,  some of the ongoing  efforts to improve  the effectiveness of
peace-keeping  operations  are  discussed,  namely:    rapid-reaction force,
stand-by  arrangements, rapid-reaction  capability and other  related issues
such  as rotation  of troops,  safety and security  of personnel,  death and
disability benefits  and reimbursements for equipment.   The  third issue is
the  capacity of  the  United  Nations Secretariat  to manage  peace-keeping
operations.   It  deals with  the  functioning  and recent  restructuring of
different   departments,   especially   the   Department   of   Peacekeeping
Operations, concentrating on elements such as planning, legal  arrangements,
training,  information and  logistic  support services.   The  importance of
communication  and  coordination  within  Headquarters  and  the  field  and
between them  is also  discussed.   The recommendations  follow up  on these
issues in detail.


Notes

  1/    Official  Records  of the  General  Assembly,  Forty-sixth  Session,
Supplement No. 34 (A/46/34).

  2/  Ibid., Forty-eighth Session, Supplement No. 34 (A/48/34).

  3/  Ibid., Fiftieth Session, Supplement No. 7 (A/50/7), part IX.B.

  4/  Ibid., Forty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 34 (A/49/34).

  5/  Ibid., Thirty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 3 (A/39/38), para. 387.

  6/  Ibid., Forty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 34 (A/47/34).

  7/  E/1993/18 and Add.1.

  8/  JIU/NOTE/91/1.

  9/  JIU/REP/95/3.

  10/  JIU/REP/92/3.

  11/  JIU/NOTE/92/1.

  12/  JIU/NOTE/93/1.
ANNEX I

List of reports before the General Assembly and legislative
bodies of participating organizations


A/49/423Review  and  assessment  of  efforts  to  restructure  the  regional
dimension of United Nations economic and social activities

A/49/564Staff turnover and delays in recruitment (the lapse factor)

A/49/629United Nations system common premises and services in the field

A/50/113 andNational execution of projects
Add.1

A/50/125-  United Nations system support for science and technology in
E/1995/19  Africa

A/50/126Communication  for  development  programmes  in the  United  Nations
system

A/50/503 and  Accountability, management improvement, and oversight in the
Add.1    United Nations system, parts I and II

A/50/507Management in the United Nations:  work in progress

A/50/509  The  advancement of women  through and  in the  programmes of  the
United Nations system:   what happens after  the Fourth World Conference  on
Women?

A/50/571Report on  sharing responsibilities  in peace-keeping:   the  United
Nations and regional organizations

A/50/572  Investigation of the relationship between humanitarian  assistance
and peace-keeping operations

E/1993/119Relationship  agreements   between  the  United  Nations  and  the
specialized agencies:   review and strengthening  of sections pertaining  to
the common system of salaries, allowances and conditions of service

JIU/REP/95/3A   review  of   telecommunications  and   related   information
technologies in the United Nations system

JIU/REP/95/7United  Nations system  support for  science and  technology  in
Asia and the Pacific

Ongoing studies

Travel in the United Nations:  issues of efficiency and cost savings

Evaluation  of the implementation  of the United Nations  New Agenda for the
Development of Africa in the 1990s

Military component of United Nations peace-keeping operations
  Strengthening the United Nations system capacity for conflict prevention

Involvement  of  the  United Nations  system in  providing  and coordinating
humanitarian assistance

ANNEX II

1995 Work programme


A.  Management, budgetary and administrative issues

1.An  investigation into  the  management-Staff Union  relationship  in  the
United Nations system

2.Advancement of women through and in  the programmes of the  United Nations
system:  what happens after the Fourth World Conference on Women

3.Management in the United Nations Secretariat

4.  Common services of United Nations organizations in New York

5.A system-wide comparative review of methods of geographical distribution

6.Travel in the United Nations:  issues of efficiency and cost savings

7.United Nations access control system (card access system)

8.Inspection of  the application  of United  Nations recruitment,  placement
and promotion policies:  part II - placement and promotion

B.  Operational activities for development

1.United Nations system  development cooperation in science and  technology:
Latin America and the Caribbean

2.Evaluation of the implementation  of the United Nations New Agenda for the
Development of Africa in the 1990s

C.  Peace-keeping and related operations

1.Military component of United Nations peace operations

2.Strengthening   the  United   Nations   system's  capacity   for  conflict
prevention

D.Humanitarian assistance

1.Investigation  of  the  relationship between  humanitarian  assistance and
peace-keeping operations

2.Involvement of  the United  Nations system  in providing  and coordinating
humanitarian assistance


Preliminary work programme for 1996 and beyond

A.  Management, budgetary and administrative issues

1.Common services in Geneva:  part II (initiated internally)

2.Use of  information technology  in the  United  Nations system  (initiated
internally)

3.Inspection of the Economic and Social  Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
(initiated internally)

4.System-wide review  of ways to improve  programming methodology:   system-
wide review  of planning, programming and budgeting procedures (suggested by
ESCWA)     

5.Review of procurement policies and procedures (suggested by FAO)

6.A  review  of  printing  arrangements  within  the United  Nations  system
(suggested by FAO)

7.Costs involved for  the system as a  whole in preparing  and disseminating
the  larger number of reports  and studies mandated by  General Assembly and
Economic  and  Social  Council  resolutions  (suggested  by  the World  Food
Programme)

8.Cost/benefit  analysis  of   the  restructuring  of  the  United   Nations
Secretariat  and related  efforts to  streamline United  Nations  activities
(suggested by OIOS)

9.Investigation of the Centre for Human Rights (suggested by OIOS)

10.Construction  of a United  Nations Conference  Centre at  Addis Ababa for
the  Economic Commission  for Africa  and at  Bangkok for  the  Economic and
Social  Commission for  Asia and  the Pacific  (suggested by  the Office  of
Conference and Support Services of the United Nations Secretariat  )

11.Subcontracting in the United Nations system (initiated internally)

12.An analysis  of  the number,  size  and  cost of  conferences,  seminars,
workshops and  other meetings  and gatherings  in the technical  cooperation
programmes of the United Nations system (suggested by UNDP)

B.Development and cooperation

1.Relationship  between the  funding agencies  of the  United Nations system
and the  United Nations Secretariat,  particularly regional commissions  and

the  United Nations  Population Fund  (suggested by the  Economic Commission
for Latin America and the Caribbean)

2.Cooperation  between Global Environment Facility implementing agencies and
the specialized agencies of the United Nations system (suggested by FAO)

3.Financial and  administrative applications of  a meaningful UNDP  presence
and activities in the net contributor countries (suggested by UNDP)

 4.Strengthening  field representation  and  operations in  the  context  of
decentralization   of  organizations   within  the  United   Nations  system
(followup Note) (suggested by UNIDO)

C.Peace-keeping and related operations

1.Problems of the start-up  phase of peace-keeping operations (upon specific
request from the General Assembly at its forty-eighth session)

2.Coordination at Headquarters and field level,  within the framework of "An
Agenda for Peace",  between the  United Nations agencies in  peace-building:
an assessment of the possibilities (suggested by UNESCO)

3.Peace-keeping  operations  office and  living-quarters  camps;  budgeting,
procurement, management  and removal from  one mission and reinstallation in
another mission (initiated internally)

D.Humanitarian affairs and related operations

1.An  assessment  of   the  Department   of  Humanitarian  Affairs  of   the
Secretariat  and other  bodies concerned  on their  humanitarian  activities
(initiated internally)


































95-31106 (E)   071195-31- 


 

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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org