United Nations


General Assembly
Economic and Social Council

Distr. GENERAL  

14 June 1995


Fiftieth session  Substantive session of 1995
Item 20 (a) of the preliminary   Item 5 of the provisional
  list*        agenda**

Report of the Secretary-General


  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................1 - 53


III.  THE CHALLENGE OF COORDINATION ........................25 -697

  A.  Department of Humanitarian Affairs ...............26 - 338

  B.  Inter-Agency Standing Committee ..................34 - 369

  C.  Central Emergency Revolving Fund .................37 - 4410

  D.  Support for in-country coordination ..............45 - 5812

  *  A/50/50/Rev.1.

    **  E/1995/100.

95-16549 (E)  060795/...
CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

  E.  Consolidated appeals process .....................59 - 6714

  F.  Information sharing ..............................68 - 6916


  A.  Operational capacity .............................74 - 11217

  B.  Financial capacity ...............................113 -12824

V.  RECOVERY AND TRANSITION ..............................129 -13528


  A.  Early warning capacity and action on such warnings140 -14530

  B.  Training programmes ..............................146 -15032

  C.  Building national capacity for natural disaster
      management .......................................151 -15433

VII.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................155 -16434


I.  Casualties among United Nations civilian personnel ...............37

II.  Central Emergency Revolving Fund .................................38

III.  Analysis of United Nations consolidated inter-agency humanitarian
  assistance appeals ...............................................42

IV.  Budgets, emergency expenditures and emergency reserves in 1994 of
  selected organizations ...........................................48


1.   Humanitarian assistance  has been  subjected to  profound and  dramatic
change in recent  years.  An unprecedented number  of people are caught  in,
and made vulnerable by,  disasters and violent upheaval which kill, maim and
displace and destroy vital means of survival.

2.    In man-made  disasters,  humanitarian  organizations are  compelled to
operate in  war-torn societies where  conflicting parties  are often  openly
contemptuous  of fundamental  humanitarian norms.    A major  challenge  for
these organizations  is  safeguarding the  well-being of  civilians and  the
provision  of   assistance  in   a  manner   consistent  with   humanitarian

3.  In addition,  the international community  is faced with the paradox  of
needing  ever larger resources  to address  the immediate  survival needs of
victims  while  simultaneously recognizing  that  such  action  may  deflect
attention and support from initiatives essential  to undoing the root causes
of  vulnerability  and  strife.    Faced  with  these  conflicting   trends,
humanitarian organizations  have been reassessing  the processes that  shape
the nature and impact of their interventions.

4.  The onslaught of sudden crises, new  challenges and competing needs have
repeatedly highlighted  the importance  of a  well-organized and  adequately
resourced   mechanism  for   coordination,  both   within  the   multi-actor
humanitarian  arena  and with  other  elements  of the  international system
involved in crisis management and preemptive  action.  This is  particularly
evident in  rapid and simultaneous mass  population movements.   It is often
difficult to mobilize and  deploy resources quickly in  a manner which  will
prevent   avoidable  deaths.  However,  notwithstanding  the  importance  of
support  from the international  community, it is the  people of the country
directly affected who are primarily responsible  for their own recovery  and
that of their communities.

5.   Some vital progress has  been made both in  responding to the needs  of
victims  and  in generating  a  more  cohesive  approach  within the  United
Nations system.    However, as  outlined in  the present  report, there  are
continuing  areas   of  concern  which  weaken   and  impede   the  work  of
humanitarian  organizations.  The  report opens  with an  examination of the
volatile context within which the bulk  of humanitarian assistance is  being
provided today.  It  examines the capacity of  the United Nations  system to
respond to emergencies and  reviews issues which affect recovery programmes.
Recent activities in prevention and preparedness, especially with  reference
to natural disasters,  are also highlighted.   It  should be  noted that  an
extensive examination of  natural disasters and disaster reduction  activity
will be the exclusive focus of a separate report to  the Economic and Social
Council in  July  1995 on  the  International  Decade for  Natural  Disaster
Reduction.   Finally, the present report concludes  with recommendations for
the consideration of Member States.


6.   The volatile context within  which humanitarian  assistance is provided
is a major determinant in the overall capacity of the United Nations  system
to  preempt and  respond to  crises in  a  manner which  minimizes avoidable
suffering.  The formal  organization  of humanitarian  assistance,  and  the
principles   that  have   been  codified   in  refugee   and   international
humanitarian  law, reflect a  belief that  individuals have  rights that are
implicit in  our shared  humanity.   In  struggling to  render these  rights
meaningful,  the  international community  has  saved  countless  lives  and
enabled numerous survivors  to commence the difficult process of  rebuilding
their lives and their societies.

7.    However,  while  there is  a  greater understanding  of  the processes
through which  needs are  identified, and  much worthwhile  action has  been
taken to improve the response capacity of  the United Nations system,  there
are, none  the less,  major challenges  which need  to be  addressed in  the
dramatically changed climate of the post-cold-war era.

8.  The growth in  the frequency and  brutality of internal conflict is  one
of the defining features  of the 1990s.  The reality of contemporary warfare
is self-evident.   Victims  are primarily  civilians.   They represent  more
than 90  per cent of casualties in  most of the recent conflicts.  Women and
children bear the brunt  of the fighting and  are, invariably, a majority of
those seeking refuge either as refugees  or as internally displaced persons.
In addition to physical abuse  and deprivation, the victims  of violence are
often severely traumatized.  Women must often  contend with rape and  sexual
abuse and must assume sole responsibility for the safety  of their families.
Children  are particularly  vulnerable to  violence  and many  are  forcibly
recruited into  combat. People  who are  trapped in  war zones,  or who  are
unable or  unwilling to flee, face  major problems which  have not yet  been
adequately dealt  with by the international  community.  The  absence of the
protection and assistance which is generally  available for refugees adds to
the dangers faced  by internally displaced persons and war-affected  groups.
In some  situations, people in flight from the horrors of war are obliged to
cross  an  international  border   in  order  to   receive  assistance  from
humanitarian agencies.

9.   The violence  of modern warfare  is compounded  by the  increase in the
number of people affected.   In 1960 there were 1.4 million refugees  around
the world. By 1985,  that figure had risen to  11.6 million and it had risen
substantially again to 18.2  million by 1992.   Currently, there are some 25
to 30 million people who are internally displaced and in need of  assistance
from the international community.   In addition, there  are many other  war-
affected  civilians,  as  well as  individuals  who  suffer  tremendously in
natural disasters.

10.    The  phenomenal   increase  in  the  number  of  people  in  need  of
humanitarian assistance is directly related to  the growing number of crises
that erupt  in violent conflict.  In  1959, 10 wars  were raging, while some
50 conflicts scar the  international landscape in  1995.  The bulk of  these
wars are  within States,  a fact which  has major implications  for ensuring
compliance with humanitarian law.

 11.  The scale  and depth of suffering  in conflict situations  confronting
the international community today is too often a consequence of a  disregard
for fundamental  humanitarian  norms.    In many  instances,  the  suffering
endured by civilians  is not an incidental element of political and military
strategies but constitutes its major objective.   Bosnia and Herzegovina and
Rwanda are alarming examples of what occurs  when civilians are subjected to
the  full brutality of  contemporary warfare  and gross  violations of human
rights.  Determination must be shown  to enforce the rule of law and to hold
accountable   those  who   are  responsible   for  heinous   crimes.     The
establishment   of   an  international   tribunal   to   prosecute   alleged
perpetrators  of   genocide  and  crimes  against  humanity  in  the  former
Yugoslavia  and Rwanda is a significant development which  signals an end to
a culture of  impunity.  The  inclusion of rape  as a war  crime is  equally
significant  and  demonstrates   an  unwillingness  to  ignore  abuse   that
specifically targets women  and girls.  Taking  action that will advance the
cause of justice  in these conflicts  will also act as a  deterrent to gross
violations of human rights in other volatile situations.

12.   Action  on human  rights may  also assist  in resolving  crises, or at
least  facilitate  the  development  of  an  environment  conducive  to  the
homeward return of uprooted  people.  It  is within this context that  funds
from the Central Emergency Revolving Fund  were made available to accelerate
and support activities undertaken by the Centre for  Human Rights in Rwanda.
The United  Nations  Children's Fund  (UNICEF),  the  Office of  the  United
Nations   High  Commissioner   for  Refugees   (UNHCR)  and   other   relief
organizations also offered logistical and other  support.  Human rights  and
related  action  is  of   critical  importance  to   the  effectiveness   of
humanitarian programmes.

13.    Disregard for  humanitarian  norms  has  major  implications for  the
overall impact and effectiveness of humanitarian  action and the  well-being
of those it is intended  to support.  The situation in the former Yugoslavia
is but one example  of the way in  which humanitarian activity is restricted
and  supplies  are  diverted  and  abused  to  achieve  objectives  that are
diametrically  opposed  to  those  of  humanitarians.    In  other  conflict
settings, such  as Liberia, access to  humanitarian assistance  as an urgent
and inalienable right  has been disrupted and denied for the express purpose
of achieving political objectives.

14.  The limited means of  humanitarian organizations to provide  protection
is   particularly  glaring   in   conflict  settings   and   in   situations
characterized by gross violations of human  rights.  The Rwandan  experience
illustrates the way in  which the capacity of the United Nations to  provide
protection  and  assistance  is  undermined  when  inputs  and  distribution
mechanisms  are  used  for  purposes  that  are   inimical  to  humanitarian
objectives.  Finding  the means to reach  those in need without  entrenching
the  power  of abusive  elements is  one  of the  most difficult  challenges
facing the humanitarian community in recent times.

15.   Disrespect for  humanitarian norms also  often implies  added risk for
relief  workers.   As  the  number of  conflicts increases  so too  does the
number  of  practitioners  who  have  been  wounded  and  killed,  sometimes
deliberately, while carrying  out their  humanitarian tasks  (see annex  I).
Left unchecked,  this pattern  is likely  to have  a negative impact  on the
capacity  of organizations  to  protect and  provide assistance  to disaster
victims.    Disruption  and  diversion  of  relief  supplies  has  seen  the
emergence of "negotiated access" as a  widely used tool, notwithstanding its
potential ramifications.  Dependence on the  agreement of armed groups often
makes  the  provision  of humanitarian  assistance  tenuous  and subject  to
unacceptable  and dangerous  conditions.   Significantly,  such  "negotiated
presence"   often  serves   to   undermine  the   protection   capacity   of
organizations  involved  in  humanitarian  activities.    Safeguarding   the
concept and reality of "humanitarian space"  when the needs of  war-affected
groups are  deemed secondary to political  and military priorities is one of
the most  significant  challenges  currently  confronting  the  humanitarian

16.  The major obstacle facing humanitarian organizations is the absence  of
sufficient political will and support for  action to address the  underlying
causes of crises.   The provision of humanitarian assistance in a vacuum  is
tantamount  to managing  only the  symptoms of  a crisis.   Experience shows
that,  in most  instances, the  effectiveness of humanitarian  endeavours in
conflict  settings  is  largely  predicated  on  successful  action  by  the
international community to resolve the problems that provoked the crisis.

17.  In some situations, such as Angola and Mozambique, a determined  effort
has been made to  stop the fighting and to  consolidate the peace.  In other
settings,  such as Haiti, assertive action has been  taken to end oppression
and the  potential for violent conflict.   This is  in dramatic contrast  to
other settings, such as  the Sudan where conflict  has smouldered for  28 of
the last 39 years.  In Burundi and Liberia, a volatile  mix of circumstances
points to the need for action to strengthen the push for peace.

18.  Liberia, Rwanda  and the former  Yugoslavia illustrate how the work  of
humanitarian  organizations  is  severely  constrained  in  the  absence  of
measures focused on resolving the underlying causes of  crises.  In sum,  it
is critically  important that the  international community acknowledges  the
vital but  limited role  of humanitarian action  in complex crises.   It  is
equally  important to ensure that humanitarian programmes are  not used as a
substitute  for  action needed  to  reverse  the dynamics  of  war  and  the
circumstances which led to armed conflict.

19.   The  humanitarian agenda  is  often shaped  by political  attitudes to
particular crises, strategic  interests in specific areas and the  attention
span of  the media.  Such  factors, which  are for the most  part beyond the
control  of humanitarian organizations,  play an  important role  in the low
level of attention and support provided  to victims of "silent" emergencies.
Ideally, and in a  more humane world, assistance would be provided according
to need and the core principle  of impartiality would have greater relevance
when responding to emergencies.

20.  Action taken  by the international community to end oppression or bring
about change  by non-military means can  have major  ramifications for those
who  are   already  victimized   by  inequitable   political  and   economic
structures.  Economic  sanctions  hit  the  poor  hardest  and  can  have  a
deleterious impact on the work of  humanitarian organizations.  As  outlined
in the  position paper of the  Secretary-General entitled  "Supplement to an
Agenda for  Peace" (A/50/60S/1995/1), there is  a need  for prior assessment
of  the  likely  impact  of  sanctions  and  how  these  affect humanitarian

 21.   The scourge of land-mines is yet another major  concern.  The reality
of  this   insidious  weapon   demands  greater   accountability  and   more
accelerated action  to curtail  its use.   Land-mines  are both  a cause  of
suffering and an  obstacle to its alleviation.   Mines kill some 800  people
every month, maim  thousands and are a  major hazard for  impoverished rural
dwellers uprooted by war.   For many people unable  to cultivate land  or to
return  home, the  presence  of land-mines  precludes meaningful  peace long
after  wars  have officially  ceased.    An  international  meeting on  mine
clearance,  to  be  held  in  July  1995,  is being  organized  to  heighten
awareness  regarding  issues  of  uncleared mines  and  the  coordination of
assistance  in mine  clearance.   However,  de-mining  by  itself  is not  a
satisfactory solution.   The solution is a total  ban on all  forms of land-
mines and the components to make them.

22.   Other factors which have an impact on the  effectiveness of relief and
protection  organizations include  the  relationship between  the  level  of
resources and attention devoted to the  prevention of, preparedness for  and
recovery from disasters,  and the amount of  resources required to meet  the
daily needs  of people  in camp  situations.  Rwanda  is but one  example of
current trends.  Some  US$ 1 billion was  spent in the first  six months  of
the crisis.   The bulk of this  was used for the immediate survival needs of
the millions who were  uprooted and displaced in  1994.  Although  resources
were  requested  at  an  early  stage for  confidence-building  measures  to
facilitate and encourage the  return of those  who had fled, and for  action
focused on the  problem of genocide, only a  minuscule amount has been  made
available for  activities that are essential  to ameliorating and  resolving
the underlying causes of the cyclical  strife which now characterizes Rwanda
and other parts of the Great Lakes region.

23.  In more  general terms, refugee spending doubled between 1990 and 1992.
The cost  of peace operations increased  5-fold in the  same period and  10-
fold in  1994.   Between 1989  and 1994,  the amount  of resources used  for
humanitarian programmes  has tripled from $845  million to  some $3 billion.
The implications of these figures cannot  be ignored, particularly given the
diminishing amount of resources available to strengthen indigenous  capacity
and to reduce vulnerability to crises.

24.    There  are  obvious  limitations  to  the  capacity  of  humanitarian
organizations  to  assist  people  whose  usual  means  of  coping  has been
violently disrupted or destroyed.  Human insecurity and marginalization  fed
by  oppression,  deprivation,  abuse  of  fundamental  rights,  social   and
economic imbalances, or a  combination of these, are  common features of the
many  crisis situations now  confronting the  international community.   The
need to tackle the root causes of suffering  and vulnerability is more acute
than ever.


25.   Much  attention has  been devoted  in  recent  years to  improving the
overall coordination of the  multi-actor humanitarian relief system.  Member
States,  the United  Nations system,  non-governmental organizations  (NGOs)
and international organizations  continue exploration of the most  effective
methods  of   cooperation  and  coordination   among  themselves  and   with
indigenous authorities and  communities.  Lessons  from past experience have
helped to  identify and develop  specific coordination  mechanisms and tools
to  facilitate response to emergencies.  This section examines some of those
mechanisms,identifies recentdevelopmentsandnotes areasofoutstandingconcern.

A.  Department of Humanitarian Affairs

26.  The Department  of Humanitarian Affairs is the entity within the United
Nations charged with  ensuring the effective  coordination of United Nations
humanitarian assistance, and with promoting actions  to prevent, or at least
mitigate, the  effects  of natural  and  man-made  disasters.   Within  this
larger context, the Department has focused its efforts on five areas  during
the past year and will continue to do so in the coming year.

27.   A  major  focus for  the Department  of  Humanitarian Affairs  is  the
advancement of humanitarian concerns.  It is actively  aware of the need  to
ensure  respect for  the impartiality and neutrality  of humanitarian action
and is a strong advocate of strengthening compliance with humanitarian law.
28.  A second theme is the ongoing refinement of  the main tools provided to
the  Department  to   promote  coordination:    the  Inter-Agency   Standing
Committee,  the  Central  Emergency  Revolving  Fund  and  the  consolidated
appeals process.

29.  The third focus is the broadening  and strengthening of the involvement
of  all  relevant  entities  in  emergency  coordination  activities.    For
example,  the United  Nations High  Commissioner  for  Human Rights  and the
representative  of the  Secretary-General for  internally displaced  persons
are now invited to attend Inter-Agency  Standing Committee meetings on items
of concern  to them.  A  "framework for coordination" between the Department
of Humanitarian  Affairs and  the Departments  of Political  Affairs and  of
Peace-Keeping  Operations has  been  initiated.   This  process  strengthens
cooperation in  the analysis of early  warning information  and the planning
of preventive  action,  as well  as  fact  finding and  operations  planning
during a crisis.   In  Rwanda, NGOs have formed  part of the United  Nations
coordination  structure.   NGOs also  participated in  several  consolidated
appeals.  The Department of  Humanitarian Affairs is working with the Office
of  the  United  Nations  Security Coordinator  to  strengthen  further  the
capacity of that Office for quick action.

30.    The  fourth theme  is  the strengthening  of  support for  in-country
coordination.    With  respect  to  natural  disasters,  the  Department  of
Humanitarian  Affairs  has  strengthened  stand-by  capacities  through  the
further development of  United Nations disaster assessment and  coordination
teams and the  military and civil defence assets  project.  With respect  to
complex emergencies, the  Inter-Agency Standing Committee agreed in 1994  on
the  terms of reference  for humanitarian  coordinators and  the process and
circumstances  under  which  they  would  be  appointed.   The  restructured
Department includes a Rapid Response  Unit, which has  strengthened stand-by
mechanisms to provide staff  in the field with the necessary support for the
coordination of humanitarian assistance.

31.  The fifth  focus is the promotion of system-wide improvements by acting
upon lessons learned from humanitarian experience  and the identification of
new  opportunities.     Early  warning   systems,  de-mining  and   disaster
management  training  are areas  in  which  the Department  of  Humanitarian
Affairs is  taking a lead to  add value to  the United Nations  humanitarian
system.    Recognizing the  opportunities  inherent  in the  new information
technologies,  the  Department  has been  working  closely  with  the United
Nations organizations concerned, NGOs and Governments to develop  ReliefNet,
an international  information sharing system  focused on humanitarian  needs
and responses.

32.   In  addition  to  these five  programmatic themes,  the  Department of
Humanitarian  Affairs continues  to engage in continuous  efforts to improve
its internal  functioning.   In  1994,  the  Department addressed  its  most
pressing internal  concerns with a  reorganization, creating  a unified desk
officer  structure in  New  York  as the  core  of a  new Complex  Emergency
Division.   Among  other changes  was  the  consolidation of  the Mitigation
Branch and the secretariat of the  International Decade for Natural Disaster
Reduction  into one division  dealing with  natural disaster  reduction.  In
1995, the  Department initiated a strategic  planning process  which will be
followed by a  management study to identify  the core resources required  by
the  Department to  discharge  its  mandate, as  well as  ways and  means to
enhance its effectiveness.

33.   The  Department of  Humanitarian  Affairs  has steadily  progressed in
achieving  greater effectiveness.   One  major impediment,  however, is  the
funding pattern  it inherited at  its inception.  Only a  third of the staff
of  the  Department  are  funded  from  the regular  budget  and  since  the
beginning  efforts have been  made to  establish more  regular-budget posts.
Efforts  to  elaborate a  financial  strategy  to  put  the  funding of  the
Department on a viable and sustainable basis will continue.
B.  Inter-Agency Standing Committee

34.   The Inter-Agency  Standing Committee  is a  unique forum  in that  its
membership   brings  together  the  United  Nations  organizations  directly
involved in humanitarian response activities and also extends  participation
beyond  the   United  Nations  to   include  NGOs  and  other  international
organizations.    The  Committee  therefore  has  the  potential to  provide
collective leadership and to articulate principles  and policy on  strategic
issues geared to enhancing the effectiveness of humanitarian operations.

35.   In  1994,  the Inter-Agency  Standing Committee  agreed  on a  set  of
guidelines relating  to the humanitarian mandate  and to  the appointment of
and terms  of reference for humanitarian  coordinators.   The Committee also
designated  the Emergency  Relief Coordinator  as  the reference  point  for
matters  concerning internally  displaced  persons and  established  a  task
force  to develop recommendations  regarding them.   In  1995, the Committee
will continue to examine policies and  general implications with respect  to
the humanitarian  impact of  sanctions, de-mining  and internally  displaced
persons.   It will  also examine  and adopt an inter-agency  approach to the
utilization  of   military  and  civil   defence  assets  for   humanitarian
assistance and pursue increased operational coordination and cooperation  in
emergency telecommunications.

36.  Members of the Inter-Agency  Standing Committee recognize the  need for
it to focus on key policy issues which require  discussion and action at the
executive level.  The working group of the Committee is designed to  address
operational  issues and  to manage  the work of  task forces  established to
address specific topics.  The adoption  by the Committee in 1994 of a set of
action-oriented procedures should  facilitate the tasks of the working group
in discharging its supportive and managerial  functions.  The full potential
of the Committee has yet  to be realized.  This will require the  collective
commitment  of all  its members  and  the leadership  of the  Department  of
Humanitarian Affairs to make it a reality.

C.  Central Emergency Revolving Fund

37.   The usefulness of the Central Emergency Revolving Fund in facilitating
a timely  response to emergencies is  well-recognized by  the United Nations
operational  organizations.  Details of advances made  to and reimbursements
received from operational  organizations and on the  status of the  Fund are
given in annex II.  The  Fund has served as a  predominant source of funding
for  United  Nations  organizations   in  the  critical   initial  phase  of
emergencies  to supplement their  own emergency  funding capacity.   Despite
these very encouraging results,  however, the level of resources of the Fund
and certain  constraints in its utilization  need to be  addressed to ensure
its continued effectiveness.

38.    These concerns  were  acknowledged by  the  General Assembly  in  its
resolution 49/139 A of  20 December 1994, where the Assembly noted the  need
to increase the resources available in  the Central Emergency Revolving Fund
and the need to  ensure that the Fund is  maintained at an adequate level to
respond to  new emergencies at  any time.   The  Assembly invited  potential
donors to make  additional contributions to the  Fund and, in that  context,
requested  the Secretary-General  to explore the feasibility  of seeking in-
kind donations.

39.   The  Department  of  Humanitarian  Affairs  has  undertaken  extensive
consultations with its  humanitarian partners and with both the  traditional
and non-traditional  donor community in  order to increase financial support
for  and broaden  the donor  base of  the Central Emergency  Revolving Fund.
The current status of contributions made to the Fund is shown in annex II.

40.  The Department of Humanitarian Affairs, in cooperation  with its United
Nations  humanitarian partners,  has reviewed  the implications  of  in-kind
contributions as  a possible additional  resource for  the Central Emergency
Revolving  Fund.   The general consensus among  operational organizations is
that in-kind contributions  would be  neither practical nor consistent  with
the  envisaged use  and revolving  nature of  the  Fund.   Concern  was also
expressed  about  management and  overhead  costs  associated  with  in-kind
contributions.   Furthermore,  certain   humanitarian  supplies,   such   as
agricultural  seeds  and   medicines,  must  conform  to  strict   technical
specifications  of recipient  organizations.   Questions  have  been  raised
concerning  the  mechanism  for  accounting  and  reimbursement  of  in-kind
contributions, in  the light of  the revolving  nature of  the Fund.   It is
generally  agreed,  however, that  in-kind contributions  are useful  in the
context of overall emergency response and  therefore should be encouraged as
direct bilateral contributions to the organizations concerned.

 41.   The need for timely replenishment of  the Central Emergency Revolving
Fund cannot be overemphasized.  Delayed  reimbursements could have a serious
impact on the Fund's ability to  meet requirements in emergency  situations.
In  efforts to  ensure the  timely recovery  of advances, the  Department of
Humanitarian  Affairs has  taken steps  to strengthen  existing  procedures,
shortening the  period  for  reimbursement,  encouraging  partial  repayment
whenever  possible  and  drawing  the attention  of  donors  in consolidated
appeals  to  prior  utilization  of  the  Fund.  Despite  such  initiatives,
however, a  number of  advances have  remained outstanding for  more than  a
year  owing  to weak  responses  to  certain  consolidated  appeals.   These
include advances  drawn by  the World  Food Programme  (WFP) for  Tajikistan
($2,463,879), by the United  Nations Centre for  Human Settlements (Habitat)
for  Lebanon  ($3,306,724)   and  by  the  International  Organization   for
Migration (IOM) for Zaire ($350,153).

42.   In  such  cases, measures  were taken  to restore  the balance  of the
Central Emergency Revolving Fund, in accordance  with the provisions of  the
guidelines 1/ governing its operation, paragraph  16 of which states,  inter
alia, that the Emergency Relief Coordinator may:

  (a)   Utilize such balances of  the Fund,  including accumulated interest,
as may exceed the target level of $50 million;

  (b)  Appeal to  donors to make specific contributions to the Fund to cover
the amounts advanced;

  (c)   Require  the operational  organization to  repay the  balance of the
advance from its own resources.

43.   Given that  the Central  Emergency Revolving  Fund, interest included,
remained at a level  only slightly above the minimum $50 million level,  and
therefore could not be utilized for  absorbing the outstanding advances, the
Department of Humanitarian Affairs requested the organizations concerned  to
consider reimbursing the Fund from their  own resources.  The  organizations
responded that, in the  absence of donor contributions,  they were not  in a
position   to  repay  the  Fund   from  their  own  resources.    Under  the
circumstances, the  only remaining  alternative is  to seek  the support  of
donor Governments  to make  specific contributions to cover  the outstanding
advances  so that  the level of resources  of the Fund can  be maintained at
the minimum level  of $50 million as stipulated  by the General Assembly  in
its resolution 46/182 of 19 December 1991.

44.    On  occasion,  United Nations  organizations  have  requested Central
Emergency  Revolving Fund  resources  for ongoing  emergency  programmes  in
order  to  avoid  serious  interruption  or  scaling  down  of  much  needed
humanitarian  relief  activities.    While  these  demands  go  beyond   the
envisaged  scope of  the  Fund, the  judicious  use  of  the Fund  for  such
purposes  has proved to  be necessary  under exceptional  circumstances.  It
has,  however, been pointed out  that the Fund  was established primarily to
ensure a timely response  in the initial phase of an emergency.  The General
Assembly may wish therefore  to authorize the use of the Fund, in compelling
circumstances, for meeting critical humanitarian requirements of  protracted
  D.  Support for in-country coordination

45.   In recent  years,  as the  number  of  major complex  emergencies  has
increased, so too  has the United Nations  been increasingly called upon  to
play an  active coordination  role in such  circumstances.  In  the case  of
Somalia, the Security  Council, in its  resolution 733 (1992) of  23 January
1992,   requested   the  Secretary-General   to   appoint   a   humanitarian
coordinator.  Subsequently, the size and complexity  of the crises in Angola
and  Mozambique  led  to  similar  appointments  by  the  Emergency   Relief
Coordinator  on behalf of  the SecretaryGeneral after consultations with the
Inter-Agency Standing Committee.

46.    The  Inter-Agency  Standing  Committee  has  recognized  that  a more
systematic  approach  is  needed  for  the  selection  and  appointment   of
humanitarian  coordinators in special  circumstances.   This led  in 1994 to
the  approval  by the  Committee of  specific  terms of  reference for  such
coordinators,   their  desired   profile  and   the  procedure   for   their
appointment,  as well  as the  creation  of a  stand-by roster  of qualified
potential  coordinators.   The terms  of  reference  also apply  to resident
coordinators  when   they  serve   as  the   coordinator  for   humanitarian
assistance.   These steps were  designed to ensure  the provision in  larger
complex  emergency   situations  of  coordinators   who  have  the   special
experience and skills needed for such work and for them to be able to  focus
their full attention on the tasks involved.

47.   While this  mechanism is still relatively new,  it is possible to make
some general observations on its use  to date.  The mechanism is being used,
as appropriate,  in support  of and  as a  complement to the  United Nations
resident coordinator system.   As at May 1995, a total of five  humanitarian
coordinators had been appointed; in Afghanistan, Angola, Mozambique,  Rwanda
and  Somalia. Thus,  for the  majority  of  emergencies, United  Nations in-
country  coordination   is  undertaken  by   the  United  Nations   resident
coordinator,  under   the  direct  supervision   of  the  Emergency   Relief

48.  The humanitarian coordinator post is meant  to be temporary, reflecting
the large scale and  acuteness of the emergency in  question.  As the relief
phase  of  the complex  emergency  recedes  and  the  focus of  humanitarian
efforts shifts towards rehabilitation and recovery, the remaining  functions
of the  humanitarian coordinator are phased  over to  the traditional United
Nations coordination  mechanisms.   For conflict  situations, one  important
indicator for  the need  for such  a transition  has been  the creation  and
initial implementation of a formal peace process.

49.  Thus, for example, in Somalia the  humanitarian coordinator is now also
the same  person  as the  United  Nations  resident coordinator  and  United
Nations   Development  Programme   (UNDP)  resident   representative.     In
Mozambique, the  post of humanitarian coordinator  has been  phased out, and
the United Nations resident coordinator also  serves as the coordinator  for
humanitarian assistance.

50.    Humanitarian coordinators  work  closely  with  national  Governments
regarding humanitarian assistance matters.  While  in exceptional cases such
national  Governments may  not exist,  such  as Somalia  or in  the  initial
period  of  the  Rwanda  crisis  in   1994,  this  remains  the   exception.
Humanitarian  coordinators, like  resident  coordinators, are  committed  to
supporting  the capacity  of Governments  to  take responsibility  for their
countries' own  recovery.  In Rwanda,  the humanitarian  coordinator has set
up an  integrated  structure with  the  Ministry  of Rehabilitation.    This
structure,  staffed  by  United Nations,  NGO and  government  officials, is
responsible for  ensuring the  daily  coordination of  relief activities  as
well as encouraging recovery programmes.

51.    Lastly, the  process  of  designating humanitarian  coordinators  has
allowed  the Emergency  Relief  Coordinator to  tap effectively  the broader
pool of  talent  among the  various  United  Nations organizations.    Thus,
humanitarian coordinators have been appointed from  among the staff of UNDP,
UNHCR, WFP, UNICEF and the Department of Humanitarian Affairs.

52.  The complexity  of recent crises  has highlighted the need to  initiate
or implement key  coordination and planning actions at  the very onset of  a
complex emergency.  The United Nations  resident coordinator is tasked  with
the  immediate response  to an  emergency,  but the  scope or  complexity of
emergency  activities  may   necessitate  the  strengthening  of  in-country
coordination  capacity.   In  the  light  of  past  experience, most  United
Nations  operational  organizations  have  tried to  build  up  their  rapid
response capacity in their appropriate sectoral  area in order to facilitate
the emergency response (see sect. IV below).

53.   The Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs has  developed rapid response
facilities for both natural and man-made disasters which aim to support  the
immediate in-country emergency coordination efforts of national  authorities
and the United Nations resident representative  as they confront the demands
of emergency response.

54.  United Nations disaster assessment  and coordination teams were created
specifically  for natural  disasters.    These  teams consist  of  emergency
management experts who can  be deployed within  hours of a disaster to  work
with local  authorities.   The  teams aim  to facilitate  a coordinated  and
effective response to natural and environmental  disasters.  They can assist
local authorities  with coordination,  provide for  immediate assessment  of
damage  and  humanitarian  relief  needs,  facilitate  access  by   national
Governments  to international  stand-by resources  and promote  exchange  of
know-how and techniques.

55.   The Department of Humanitarian  Affairs is  strengthening regional and
national capacities to manage disaster response  by increasing the number of
countries  participating   in  the   system  of   disaster  assessment   and
coordination teams.   It has also  established a Latin American team staffed
by local personnel familiar  with local conditions.   Steps were also  taken
in  1994 to  reinforce the  readiness  of  such teams  through training  and
increasing the number of team members available.   Missions by such teams in
1994  assisted  in the  assessment and  coordination  of appropriate  relief
responses  following torrential  rainstorms  in China,  floods in  Egypt and
Djibouti,  tropical storms  in  Haiti and  in preparation  for a  cyclone in

56.  The  Department of Humanitarian  Affairs also continues  work with  the
International  Search and  Rescue  Advisory  Group, which  was initiated  to
benefit from experience in dealing with  major disasters involving collapsed
structures. Today,  the Advisory Group,  through its International  Steering
Group,  regional  groups and  working  groups,  addresses  a  wide range  of
international  cooperation  issues   in  the   mobilization,  dispatch   and
coordination of international relief resources in sudden-onset disasters.

57.   With  respect to  complex or  man-made emergencies, the  Department of
Humanitarian  Affairs  has  established  a  Rapid Response  Unit  to  deploy
experienced personnel to work  with the United  Nations resident coordinator
or the humanitarian coordinator so as  to ensure immediate coordination  and
to build  systematic support  for coordination activities  as the  emergency
evolves.     The  Department   has  deployed  its  rapid  response  capacity
repeatedly.    In Kigali  in  April  1994,  the  advance humanitarian  team,
staffed  with  Department   of  Humanitarian  Affairs  and  United   Nations
organization representatives, re-established a  United Nations  humanitarian
presence during a very  difficult period and was able to lay the  groundwork
for the  expansion of  humanitarian activities  as the situation  permitted.
In Haiti,  a  combined  Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs/UNDP  team  was
deployed  to  support  the  United  Nations  coordinator  for   humanitarian
assistance in the immediate aftermath of  United Nations action in September
1994.    The  team  focused on  providing  increased  information  services,
liaising with NGOs  and bilateral/United  Nations Mission in Haiti  military
forces and preparing the humanitarian  strategy and the  consolidated appeal
for  Haiti.    During  the  crisis  in  Chechnya,  Russian  Federation,  the
Department  worked  closely   with  UNHCR,  focusing  on  facilitating   the
establishment  of  operating procedures  and  assisting  in the  start-up of
humanitarian assistance deliveries by WFP and UNICEF.

58.   In order to  ensure the provision  of immediate  and effective support
for  in-country coordination,  the Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs  has
expanded its cooperative arrangements with the  Norwegian and Danish Refugee
Councils and  with  the Swedish  Rescue  Services  Agency to  utilize  their
capacities on a stand-by basis for  supporting field coordination in complex

E.  Consolidated appeals process

59.   In 1994, 14  consolidated inter-agency humanitarian assistance appeals
were  launched,  reflecting  the  needs  of  15  countries  and  covering  a
population of 39.5 million.   Of the $2.76 billion  requested, $2.13 billion
was pledged to the organizations participating in  the appeals.  Although at
the aggregate level contributions equalled 77  per cent of requirements, the
rate of response varied from 14.8  per cent for the appeal  for Yemen to 105
per cent for the appeal for the  former Yugoslavia.  Although the  number of
appeals declined from 21 in 1993 to 14 in 1994, the average required  amount
for an appeal increased  by approximately 35 per cent.  Though an average of
77 per  cent is encouraging,  additional funding is  sorely needed  for many
critical  emergency situations.   A  detailed  analysis  of the  response to
consolidated appeals in given in annex III.

60.   The consolidated  appeals  process  was envisaged  as a  mechanism  to
promote integrated needs assessments and  greater prioritization and to help
to mobilize financial support for humanitarian programmes.  In  order to set
priorities  among  the  funds  requested  in  appeals,  the  Department   of
Humanitarian Affairs  seeks consensus from  the individual organizations  on
the priorities  for emergencies  in recognition  that each  organization can
best evaluate the urgency  of their activities.  In many cases, the  process
has proved useful in presenting donors with a  balanced view of humanitarian
needs and  funding requirements.   In 1995,  appeals for  NGO projects  were
included  in  a   number  of   appeals,  a  development  which   strengthens
coordination and complementarity between United Nations and NGO  programmes.
Given the particular status of  the International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) and the  International Federation of the  Red Cross and  Red Crescent
Societies  (IFRC), their  programmes are  not integrated  into  consolidated
appeal  documents, although ICRC  and IFRC  data may appear in  the annex of
relevant documents.

61.  Unfortunately, the quality of  consolidated appeals continues to  vary.
One  important factor is  the coordination  and support  that exists  in the
field.  Poor  in-country cooperation may result  in the perception that  the
consolidated  appeals process  is a burden  rather than an  opportunity.  In
such  situations, the  appeal does  little more  than present  unprioritized
programmes of  the organizations.   Where effective field-level  cooperation
does  exist,  the  development  of  a  consolidated  appeal  reflects  joint

62.    Experience  has also  shown  that highly  integrated  appeals do  not
necessarily guarantee good donor response.   In ongoing emergencies such  as
in Iraq, improved coordination on the  ground may contribute to  an improved
appeal  that may  nevertheless receive  little  funding  because of  lack of
political  or  media   interest.    Despite  a  deteriorating   humanitarian
situation,  the 1994  appeal for Afghanistan  received a little  over 35 per
cent funding,  whereas  the  1994 appeal  for the  countries  of the  former
Yugoslavia received nearly 106 per cent.  The funding for Rwanda was  barely
40 per  cent in 1993.   After the  mass exodus of July  1994 drew world-wide
attention, the new appeal raised almost 96 per cent of the funds requested.

63.   In addition, appeals  with a high  degree of  geographical or sectoral
complementarity are  nevertheless funded in a  selective manner;  there is a
tendency   to  provide   strong  support   only  for   certain   life-saving
interventions and to particular United  Nations organizations.  For example,
within  the 1994  appeals for  Angola, Burundi  and  Tajikistan (1993-1994),
responses  to the  food  components were  at least  100  per cent  for  each
appeal.  This  was in stark  contrast to  funding provided  to the  non-food
sectors,  which  was  barely  52  per  cent  for  Angola, 40  per  cent  for
Tajikistan  and  21 per  cent  for  Burundi.  Likewise,  there are  dramatic
variations in  response to different United  Nations organizations.   In the
case  of the 1993  Somalia appeal,  UNHCR received 78 per  cent of requested
funds, compared to an average of 24 per cent for other organizations.

64.   However, this uneven response is due, in part, to the effectiveness of
each  organization's  own  fund-raising efforts  and  its  track  record  in
emergency situations.   A  coherent response  to an  emergency requires  the
availability  of  funding for  a  balanced  response  to  vital sectors  and
activities.    Additional   funding  is  therefore  needed  for   relatively
neglected yet critical relief activities such as health, agriculture,  water
and  sanitation,  as  well  as for  immediate  rehabilitation  and  recovery

65.    As  a  result  of  growing  resource  requirements  and  intensifying
competition  for  scarce  funds,  some  donors  are  increasingly  providing
earmarked contributions.  A balance must  be found between the  donors' need
for accountability in the utilization of  funds and the organizations'  need
for flexibility so as to enable them to respond rapidly.

66.   In an  attempt to  broaden the  donor base  for consolidated  appeals,
consideration is being given to a  coordinated effort among organizations to
approach  new donors  to increase  their  familiarity with  the multilateral
humanitarian  system.   Given  that  success  in  mobilizing  resources  for
emergencies is  often linked  to media coverage,  the Inter-Agency  Standing
Committee is  examining ways  in which the humanitarian  organizations might
collectively  (through   pooling  the  efforts   of  media/public  relations
officers  of  the organizations  concerned)  keep  the  focus  on both  high
profile and less visible, protracted emergencies.

67.  When an emergency first occurs and a first-time consolidated appeal  is
necessary, the  challenge for the Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs is to
foster an integrated appeals  process without unduly  delaying the  response
of individual organizations.  Flash appeals  have been issued, for  instance
in Rwanda and Chechnya, Russian Federation,  to facilitate a timely  appeal;
these appeals  were subsequently  followed by  a more  thorough consolidated
appeal.   The  Department recognizes  the need  to increase  the speed  with
which consolidated  appeals are  processed and  issued and  to maximize  the
inter-agency  collaborative  planning aspects  of  flash appeals,  including
initial agreements regarding division of responsibility.

F.  Information sharing

68.  Exchange of timely, relevant and  reliable information is an  essential
tool  for  assessing an  emergency  situation  and  for coordinating  inputs
designed to prevent it, reduce its impact, or  respond to it.  Communication
technology available today  provides an opportunity for humanitarian  actors
to  share information  more  efficiently and  effectively than  ever before.
While there is informal exchange  of information between organizations, work
needs  to  be  done  to  increase  the  exchange   in  order  to  facilitate
consistency  in the  assessment  of changing  situations,  determination  of
priorities and progress towards objectives.

69.     In   cooperation  with   interested  Governments,   United   Nations
organizations,  and  NGOs,   the  Department  of  Humanitarian  Affairs   is
presently establishing an international information sharing system known  as
"Reliefnet".  Reliefnet's  primary objective is  to make available emergency
information  that  will  be of  operational  use for  emergency  actors.   A
secondary  objective  is  to  devise  an  information  system  that  will be
available globally, irrespective of the information technology available  in
a particular  location.  The realization  of these  objectives is critically
dependent on the sharing of information among humanitarian partners.

70.  While coordination is  crucial to an effective  system-wide response to
humanitarian   emergencies,  humanitarian   organizations  have   found   it
necessary  to strengthen  their  response  capacity to  crises,  which  have
increased both in number  and in magnitude.   As a result, the international
community has  witnessed in recent  years a rapid expansion  in the capacity
of humanitarian  organizations, which are now  quite capable  of moving with
speed to address most crises.

71.  At the same time, humanitarian organizations  have also come to realize
that,  in order  to respond  to crises of  the magnitude seen  in the recent
past,  they must  work  closely with  and rely  on  the expertise  of  other
organizations,  NGOs  and  interested  Governments  to  augment  their   own
capacity.  In  this context, it is  also important that  these organizations
should be able to draw on available stand-by capacity  available both within
and outside interested Governments, including  the possible use  of military
and civilian assets.

72.  More importantly, it has  increasingly been recognized that  indigenous
capacities  to  cope must  be  strengthened  and  fully  utilized since  the
affected   communities  and  authorities  are   ultimately  responsible  for
ensuring that the needs of victims are met.   This approach is  particularly
important for  ensuring the timely and  effective transition  from relief to
recovery and rehabilitation, for which the  people of the country  concerned
must assume primary responsibility.

73.   It would  therefore be appropriate  in reviewing the  capacity of  the
United Nations  system  to take  into  account  the need  for  international
humanitarian  organizations   to  support  the   strengthening  of  national
capacities.  Such  a review should  facilitate efforts  by Member States  to
address possible constraints, gaps and imbalances  in the system, which  has
evolved rapidly in an ad hoc manner in recent years.

A.  Operational capacity

74.   United Nations  organizations have adapted their  operational capacity
to the growing demands  either through reorganization to give more focus  to
emergency response or  through the development  of new  management, staffing
and administrative  structures.  It is  clear that  flexibility and adequate
delegation of authority are two of the key elements of a rapid response.

1.  Emergency management structures

75.     United  Nations  organizations   differ  considerably  in  terms  of
management structure,  delegation of authority,  human resources, degree  of
centralization   and  organization   of  their  emergency   and  development
capacities.  Such  variation gives rise to  different strengths in terms  of
flexibility,  rapidity   of  response,  accountability  and  integration  of
rehabilitation  and  recovery   activities.    While  decentralization   and
delegation of authority may increase flexibility  and speed of response,  as
well  as allow organizations  to work  more closely  with local communities,
concerns about accountability and transparency may increase.
  76.  The  fast breaking nature  of most  natural and  many complex  crises
necessitates  access to  people with  the right  profile and the  ability to
deploy them at  short notice.  High turnover  of staff is characteristic  of
many relief organizations.  This high turnover,  due to the stressful nature
of  the  work  and  the  short-term,  temporary  nature  of  most employment
contracts, means  that  valuable experience  and  lessons  are lost  to  the
employing  organization.     Rapid  staff  turnover  sometimes  results   in
personnel ill-prepared to perform  the role required of them.  Whether staff
are  trained or  inexperienced,  their commitment  to humanitarian  goals is
generally very strong.

77.    Some  imbalances still  need to  be addressed  in order  to give  the
overall system  the possibility to  adjust to the fast-changing humanitarian
environment. A brief summary of the  crisis management structures of  United
Nations organizations is provided in paragraphs 78 to 88 below.

78.   UNHCR  has established  additional  mechanisms  during the  past three
years to increase the efficiency of  its emergency response, including rapid
deployment  teams  and  stand-by  arrangements  with  external  partners  to
increase its staffing and programme delivery  capacity.  In addition,  UNHCR
has considerable  structural flexibility to respond  to emergencies.   UNHCR
country representatives are  authorized to reallocate up  to 15 per cent  of
their budget  between sectors without reverting  to headquarters.   In cases
of sudden large population movements, a  UNHCR representative can request an
allocation  from the UNHCR  Emergency Fund  and authority  to disburse funds
under an emergency letter  of instruction.  Upon  issuance of such a letter,
the representative  may initiate  a letter  of intent  with an  implementing
partner  to  incur  expenditures,  pending   signature  of  a   more  formal

79.  WFP's operations  rely heavily on its  network of field  offices, which
implement  relief  programmes  jointly  with  recipient  Governments,  local
authorities and NGOs and provide first  assessments of relief  requirements.
Until  recently, WFP  relied upon  its  development  personnel to  deal with
emergencies as well.   Now, however,  the growth of relief  operations world
wide  has necessitated  the deployment  of dedicated  emergency personnel to
the field as  well as to  headquarters.   The sudden  increase in  emergency
requirements  has given  rise  to short-term  contracts,  substantial  local
recruitment  of both  expatriate and  local  staff  and additional  need for
volunteers,  both  United  Nations and  others.    WFP's emergency  training
capacity has been enhanced as a result.

80.   WFP has created a rapid response facility  with staff ready for travel
at a  moment's notice  and the  immediate availability  of funds  to set  up
operations, including  communications, offices  and other  support services.
Funding  for the  rapid  response team  has now  been incorporated  into the
regular  WFP support budget.   In  addition, WFP  has delegated considerable
authority to the  country offices,  both in  terms of  cash allocations  for
local food purchases and setting up of response structures.

81.   The formalities for accessing resources are minimal; requests for food
and  funds can  be  submitted  through WFP  country offices  or  directly to
headquarters,  are  processed immediately  and are  subject to  either local
assessment or  assessment with  headquarters participation,  often on  joint
inter-agency missions.

82.     UNICEF  is  a highly  decentralized  organization with  a  ratio  of
staffing between headquarters and the field of 20 to 80.  Over the past  two
years,  UNICEF has strengthened  its emergency  management structures in New
York  and Geneva,  and, through  the use  of short-term  staff,  in regional
offices  in  Africa. UNICEF's  strong  field  presence,  including  external
relations,  networks and counterpart mechanisms in most countries, ensures a
linkage between preparation, response and post-emergency activities and  the
ability to mobilize local resources quickly.

83.     UNICEF's emergency  operations  have been  reviewed to  improve  its
emergency  responsiveness.   Within its  headquarters, a  weekly  high-level
task  force reviews  all ongoing  emergencies  and  reports directly  to the
Deputy Executive Director. The rapid  response team is the heart of UNICEF's
rapid  response  capacity,  with  five  or   six  staff  members  per  team,
participating on a voluntary basis, all  selected for their emergency skills
and experience.  The  specific objectives of the rapid response team are  to
support  existing UNICEF  presence, set  up operations  (programme,  supply,
communication,   security  and   logistics   systems);  undertake   a  rapid
assessment  of the situation  of women  and children;  undertake the initial
distribution of assistance;  establish initial contacts with the  Government
and prepare a plan of action. 

84.   UNDP's  emergency  capacity is  structured around  three  areas:   its
national development  programmes in  prevention and  mitigation, support  to
coordination  of  relief activities  and  support  to  national efforts  for
recovery and rehabilitation.  The Emergency  Response Division is the  focal
point for emergency-related policy, funding and  training matters as well as
in-house  and  external  coordination.    Regional  bureaux,  each  with  an
emergency focal point, provide operational  guidance and support  to country
offices.   The country offices  have considerable programme,  administrative
and financial authority  to react to  a budding  crisis.  In  the case of  a
declared emergency,  there are simplified  procedures for the  establishment
of  local  funds,  recruitment  and procurement.    UNDP  has  a  roster  of
experienced staff available on short notice  and 15 budgeted posts  reserved
for strengthening offices in emergency affected countries. 

85.    The World  Health Organization  (WHO) has  a three-tiered  management
structure.    Its  headquarters,  including  a  Division  of  Emergency  and
Humanitarian Action, is responsible for overall policies,  which are carried
out at  the regional  level by  regional offices  in collaboration with  WHO
country representatives acting at the country  level.  Country offices  have
only limited  authority and latitude to  decide on  major administrative and
financial  actions.  WHO  is  reviewing  its   procedures  with  a  view  to
augmenting   the   operational   latitude   and  responsibilities   of   its
representatives, as has  already been done in  the African region, where WHO
representatives  can  reprogramme  regular  country  resources  for  funding
emergency response activities with the agreement of the Government. 

86.     WHO country  offices  are also  being strengthened  with  additional
international and  national staff.   In  addition, WHO is  taking the  steps
necessary to permit a  rapid mobilization of its  technical staff in support
of its country representatives.  WHO  is establishing a system  of emergency
health assessment teams and emergency health  coordinators, which will be on
stand-by within the WHO structure.

87.    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has
a  Global Information  and Early  Warning  System  for Food  and Agriculture
(GIEWS), which  is responsible for the  assessment of  food needs, including
food-aid  requirements  in  emergency situations.   The  Office  for Special
Relief Operations  is in charge of  assessing immediate  emergency needs and
the  mobilization, coordination,  transport  and distribution  of  emergency
relief  assistance.  The  number of  Special Relief  Operations personnel at
headquarters is  limited, as ample use  is made of  external consultants and
of  FAO's  resources in  technical  expertise.    The  Office also  receives
crucial support from FAO representatives in the field.

88.   The United Nations Educational,  Scientific and Cultural  Organization
(UNESCO) has  an Emergency  Operations Unit, which coordinates  the agency's
work  in the early  stages of an emergency.   Focal points within the UNESCO
secretariat are  designated for specific operations.  Both the  Unit and the
focal  points report  directly  to  the Director-General  or  the  Assistant
Director-General  for   the  Directorate.    Simplified  administrative  and
financial procedures for emergency situations have also been elaborated. 

2.  Technical requirements and bilateral stand-by capacity

89.   A  key  element  for a  successful response  to an  emergency, whether
natural or man-made, is access  to technical support, special skills and the
minimum  requirements  to  initiate  the  assessment  of  and  response   to
emergency  needs. United Nations organizations have developed the full gamut
of  rapid deployment  teams,  field kits,  stand-by arrangements  with donor
Governments and stockpiles of equipment and relief supplies.
90.   Essential  requirements  for  a rapid  response  to a  crisis  include
logistics,  telecommunications, office  equipment and  living  arrangements.
The personnel  and equipment necessary  to set up  field operations  must be
established  quickly  and  in  most  cases  with  little  reliance  on local
procurement  or  support.   To  meet  the  needs of  field  personnel,  some
organization,  have  developed  field kits  with  a  comprehensive range  of
survival items. 

91.  In  collaboration with the  Department of Humanitarian  Affairs at  the
warehouse  located at  Pisa, Italy,  WHO stockpiles essential  logistics and
communication equipment for quick delivery and  use by countries affected by
emergencies.   WFP has  similar strategic  stocks of  equipment at  Nairobi.
Along with its well-known  ready-to-use medical kits,  UNICEF has  developed
and  assembled  other  field-support-oriented  ready-to-use  kits  and   has
communication and security equipment for use in most emergency situations. 

92.   While  the vast  majority of  humanitarian assistance is  delivered by
existing capacities, organizations  cannot maintain a level of readiness  on
the  scale  required  to  guarantee  rapid  mobilization  of  personnel  and
equipment  to meet  extraordinary  crises.   Various donor  Governments have
offered  stand-by facilities  with  staff, turnkey  services  and  equipment
available at short notice. Most organizations  are improving the speed  with
which they can  assemble and deploy a team  at short notice by resorting  to
these bilateral arrangements with Governments.

93.   A recent  innovative means of  improving operational  capacity is  the
UNHCR  concept of  the "service  package":   self-contained  facilities  and
services provided by  donor Governments when traditional emergency  response
mechanisms are insufficient.  This  "service package" was used in Rwanda and
is  in the process of  being developed and  refined in  order to ensure that
the   packages    are   truly    self-supporting    and   require    minimum

94.   The military and  civil defence assets of many  Member States are well
situated  to  provide support  to  a  full  range of  emergency  services in
natural disasters in  the fields of, inter alia, communications,  transport,
medical  services  and  search  and  rescue  activities.    In  addition  to
provision of support  for emergency  field operations, defence assets  could
carry  out  critical   infrastructure  construction  and  repairs.     Their
structures are  intended to respond rapidly  in a  self-contained and highly
mobile  fashion.   The  military and  civil  defence  assets project  of the
Department  of  Humanitarian  Affairs is  similarly aimed  at  improving the
management of military assets in natural  and technological emergencies.  In
the  framework  of  this  project,  a  network  of  networks  among relevant
international   and   regional   institutions   was   launched   to  enhance
cooperation.   It  includes close  cooperation  with  the Partner  for Peace
programme, as well as the establishment of a  dedicated database on national
military and civil defence capabilities.

95.  In 1994, military  assets continued to play a  vital role in  the UNHCR
airlift  to Sarajevo and were mobilized on a large  scale in response to the
massive  exodus of Rwandans  to eastern Zaire.   Military  and civil defence
expertise was integrated into field missions to the Republic  of Moldova and
Algeria in connection  with floods in those countries.  In the  light of the
potential  of military  and civil  defence assets, an  Inter-Agency Standing
Committee  task force is  developing a  common framework for  their use when
appropriate in support of all types of humanitarian operations.

96.   WFP's  capacity to move large quantities  quickly by sea, air and land
is  renowned and many relief organizations, from both within and outside the
United Nations system call upon WFP to  assist.  While the cost is extremely
competitive, the  transport costs  are relatively  high in  contrast to  the
costs of the basic  commodities, such as grains, that  are shipped.  WFP has
often brought  in outside truck  fleets in  order to  augment the  transport
capacity of hosting countries.
97.   WHO is  developing stand-by  arrangements to  complement its  staffing
resources  with  the  medical  emergency  response  units  of  a  number  of
countries, as well as  with schools of public  health and other  specialized
centres.  In  Rwanda, UNICEF reached an  agreement with the American  Public
Health Association,  Center for  Disease Control.   Building  on the  Rwanda
experience,  UNICEF   has  commenced   negotiations  with  Governments   and
institutions  to develop  additional stand-by  response facilities  to  meet
needs  in health,  nutrition,  water and  sanitation,  logistics,  security,
unaccompanied children, education, social mobilization and publicity. 

98.    UNICEF is  developing  basic  assistance  kits  to support  emergency
response in the areas  identified above.  In  addition, UNICEF has developed
and assembled  medical, school  and office  ready-to-use kits.   UNESCO  has
developed  a teacher emergency  package, comprising  a kit  of materials for
teaching basic  literacy and  numeracy accompanied  by a training  programme
for  implementation based on  a "train  the trainer"  approach for emergency

99.   An  additional important  component  of  stand-by capacity  for  rapid
response to both natural and man-made emergencies is the  existing system of
stockpiles of emergency supplies run by  the United Nations, Governments and
NGOs.   These stockpiles provide a  stand-by source for relief supplies that
can  be flown  to  the site  of  an emergency  within  hours of  a  disaster

100.   Many organizations  have stockpiles  of  pertinent assistance  items.
UNICEF  has a  well-established stockpile  facility at  Copenhagen with  the
capacity to  respond  globally  at competitive  prices.   WFP  and WHO  have
joined  the  Department  of  Humanitarian Affairs  in  stockpiling  food and
medical supplies in  a warehouse at  Pisa, Italy.   This  warehouse aims  to
fill gaps  which cannot be  met by  another United  Nations organization  or
donor nation.

101.   In order  to improve  the usefulness  of the various  stockpiles, the
Department of Humanitarian Affairs has established  a register of  emergency
stockpiles, which includes both specifications and available quantities  and
provides  easily accessible  information as  to the potential  for immediate
shipment  of  relief consignments  to affected  areas.   The register  is an
important  tool to  increase  awareness  of  existing capacities  among  the
humanitarian  community and  recipient countries.   The  Department  is also
working  with the World  Customs Organization  on a  model agreement between
the United Nations and a Member State, which  would expedite the movement of
humanitarian  consignments and  disaster relief  teams  in  the event  of an

102.  In the  past, the best efforts of humanitarian organizations to deploy
supporting  telecommunications  equipment  such  as   radios  and  satellite
communications  have sometimes  been delayed  at  national borders  owing to
lack  of prior  customs clearance.    In  October 1994,  the Plenipotentiary
Conference  of  the  International  Telecommunication  Union  (ITU)  adopted
resolution 36, in which Member States are urged  to take all practical steps
for  facilitating   the  rapid   deployment   and  the   effective  use   of
telecommunication equipment for disaster mitigation and for disaster  relief
operations by  reducing and,  where possible,  removing regulatory  barriers
and strengthening transborder cooperation between States.   It is hoped that
steps will be taken by the  Economic and Social Council in 1995 to move this
process  forward.     It   is  recommended   that  an   open-ended  ad   hoc
intergovernmental working group of experts be  established by the Council to
examine proposals and draft  a basic text for consideration and adoption  as
a convention on emergency telecommunications.

 3.  Cooperative arrangements

103.  Humanitarian response to many  emergencies is a multifaceted operation
calling upon the  capacity of  numerous organizations,  both indigenous  and
international.    Within the  existing system,  no  single organization  can
possibly meet  all the  needs of  a  suffering population.   Several  United
Nations humanitarian  organizations have  moved to  optimize the  collective
response   through  regularizing   coordination   with   other  humanitarian
organizations  within  the United  Nations and  with  NGOs, as  well as  the
above-mentioned bilateral arrangements.

(a)Memoranda of understanding among United Nations organizations

104.  Most of the United  Nations humanitarian organizations have recognized
the  importance  of  relying  on one  another's  comparative  advantages and
special skills.   Memoranda of understanding  have been  signed between many
United   Nations   organizations   to  provide   guidance   to  inter-agency
collaboration.  Some of these memoranda  extend beyond a specific emergency;
almost all  refugee food requirements are  channelled through  WFP under the
WFP/UNHCR  memorandum of understanding.   Other  memoranda, such  as the one
between  UNDP  and  UNHCR,  are  country-level  agreements  that  spell  out
collaborative arrangements between the organizations in order to  facilitate
seamless  programme  support to  affected populations.   UNICEF  is actively
seeking to develop memoranda of understanding with WFP, UNHCR and WHO. 

105.   In addition,  some inter-agency  relationships, like  the one between
UNHCR  and   UNICEF,  are   based  on  mostly   field-oriented  letters   of
understanding and other  ad hoc arrangements.   FAO  and WFP collaborate  in
food  assessments  and  in  early  warning  based  upon their  long-standing

106.   Longer-term arrangements  between United  Nations organizations  have
also been  developed.  The increase  in industrial  accidents, the magnitude
and  potential  consequences of  which  demand  an  international  emergency
response, has led  to a joint  Environment Unit between  the United  Nations
Environment Programme  (UNEP) and  the Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs.
UNEP retains  substantive  responsibility  for  dealing  with  environmental
aspects  of   emergencies,   including  industrial   accidents,  while   the
Department of Humanitarian Affairs assures operational coordination.

107.  Organizations of  the system have also increased cooperation with  the
United  Nations  Volunteers  Programme  in meeting  some  of  their staffing
requirements in the field.

(b)Collaboration between United Nations organizations and NGOs

108.   The  humanitarian community  could  not  function without  local  and
international NGOs.    Their  enormous  contribution  goes  beyond  that  of
implementing  partners.   Use of  indigenous  NGOs  should be  encouraged to
mobilize local resources  and to ensure  that there  is a proper  transition
from relief to rehabilitation and recovery.

 109.  NGOs have  emerged as mainstream partners  in emergencies.  UNHCR and
UNICEF have  long  experience in  working  closely  with NGOs  in  emergency
settings.   To strengthen collaboration,  both organizations have  developed
guidelines to enhance their partnership with NGOs.   In addition, UNICEF has
been pursuing  initiatives to enhance relationships  with NGOs  in the field
by  concluding  memoranda of  understanding,  and  to  strengthen  capacity-
building and  other links with indigenous  NGOs.  WFP and FAO systematically
engage  NGOs as  implementing partners  to  assist  in the  distribution and
monitoring of humanitarian  assistance because of their relevant  experience
and presence in the field. 

110.  WHO has regularly  worked with NGOs in many areas  of the world.   WHO
is  presently  consulting  with  major  medical  NGOs  to  define  how  such
collaboration can be further developed.   UNESCO has established cooperation
with  national  and  international bodies  such  as  the  Norwegian  Refugee
Council  and the  Jesuit Refugee  Service  to  provide short-term  staff for
emergencies.  UNICEF presently relies on stand-by/turnkey arrangements  with
Swedrelief  and  the Norwegian  Refugee  Council  for training  in emergency
preparedness and staff security. 

(c)Potential of "White Helmets"

111.  The General Assembly, in its resolution 49/139 B of 20 December  1994,
envisages  the  participation  of  volunteers  or  "White  Helmets"  in  the
activities of  the  United Nations  in  the  field of  humanitarian  relief,
rehabilitation and technical cooperation for development.   The main benefit
accruing  to the United Nations  from the White Helmets  initiative would be
the easing of the  capacity and resource problems encountered by the  United
Nations system  as a result of  the high level  of instability and  friction
world wide.  In  addition, the White Helmets concept could strengthen South-
South collaboration and enhance national operational capacities.

112.    The  Department  of  Humanitarian  Affairs  and  the  United Nations
Volunteers   Programme,   in    consultation   with   Member   States    and
intergovernmental  organizations, have  looked at  the feasibility  of  this
proposal  and  considered  how  qualified  national  volunteer  teams  could
complement  existing arrangements.  Successful implementation  of  the White
Helmets initiative will depend on the  willingness of Governments to marshal
qualified manpower for such voluntary  service under United Nations auspices
and on the availability  of the necessary  resources.  A detailed report  on
the  White  Helmets  initiative,  prepared  pursuant  to  General   Assembly
resolution 49/139 B, will be issued as an addendum to the present report.

B.  Financial capacity

113.  In 1994, United Nations organizations had access to almost $3  billion
for humanitarian assistance.  Adding to that figure  the amount spent by the
rest  of the  humanitarian  community (non-United  Nations  partners,  NGOs,
IFRC,  ICRC  and  aid  agencies  of   major  donors  having  an  operational
capacity),  substantially  more  than  $5  billion  was  spent  in  1994 for
programmes of humanitarian assistance.

114.   The rising number of complex crises has placed  a great burden on the
capability of the United  Nations system to respond to emergencies.  In some
organizations,  Member   States  responded   by  providing   more  financial
flexibility  and increasing access  to emergency  funds.   These efforts are
laudable and must be pursued,  and additional funds and  flexibility must be
provided  to  enable  the  United Nations  system  as  a  whole  to  take  a
multifaceted  approach  to  tackle the  complexity  of  the consequences  of
crises,  as well  as their  root  causes.   The situation,  organization  by
organization, is  described in paragraphs 115  to 127 below.   The table  in
annex IV  shows the budgets, emergency  expenditures and emergency  reserves
of selected organizations.

115.  In  UNHCR, within the general  programmes budget approved annually  by
the  Executive Committee, there are three possibilities for funds to be used
in  response to  new humanitarian  situations.   As a result  of flexibility
provided by  the Executive  Committee, these  budgetary arrangements,  which
are not earmarked to regions or commodities,  have been created or increased
over the past few years. 

116.   These budget allocations ensure significant resources and flexibility
to allow an immediate response to crises.   The Emergency Fund now stands at
$25  million, from  which up  to $8  million  can be  allocated to  any  one
emergency  during the  year.    If this  fund  is depleted,  UNHCR can  draw
temporarily up to $8  million from its Working Capital and Guaranteed  Fund,
established at $50 million.  The programme reserve,  currently set at 10 per
cent of annual programmed  activities (or some $34 million in 1995) can also
be used to respond  to needs resulting from new influxes of refugees  within
existing  case-loads.  Finally,  UNHCR  is  authorized  to  use  a   general
allocation  for  voluntary repatriation,  currently set  at $20  million, to
promote  or   initiate  voluntary  repatriation   activities  whenever   the
possibility arises.
117.  WFP relies  for its funding  for relief operations principally on  the
International Emergency Food Reserve, which has  an annual target of 500,000
tons.    Although this  target  has  invariably  been  exceeded, it  remains
insufficient to respond to  all emergency situations.  The second source  of
funding, a subset of  the regular WFP budget, is for protracted refugee  and
displaced persons  relief operations.   This mechanism depends  on voluntary
pledging for specific operations and provides  no guarantee of continuity in
the long term. 

118.  The third  source of funding is  the immediate response account, which
has an annual  target of $30 million to  allow for early interventions  when
an  emergency  occurs.    This  account  has  never been  fully  funded  and
therefore tends to get  exhausted early in  the year.  An additional  source
of funding  for relief operations is  bilateral pledges,  either in response
to WFP requests for specific emergency operations or  as a result of donors'
decisions  to  channel  their  bilateral  contribution  through  WFP.   This
funding  has  been  extremely  useful  in  resolving  many  acute  emergency
requirements, such as road repairs and  airlifts, and to finance  operations
not  falling into  the classic  group  of  natural and  manmade emergencies.
However, pledges  are often for specific  emergencies and  thus restrict WFP
action considerably.

119. Although  contributions to  the protracted relief  operations are  more
secure,  some of  them are  also  specifically  directed and  do not  permit
reallocation by WFP to the most  deserving operations when shortages  occur.
WFP can  borrow from development resources,  both financially  and for food,
which allows for rapid access to essential supplies  of food.  However, such
loans  are constrained  by the  reduction in  development-oriented  resource
flows; furthermore some  recent emergency  operations are situated in  areas
where  little development  activity takes  place.   In  order to  ensure the
availability  of cash for management of emergency  operations, WFP emergency
budgets now include delivery and administration costs.

120.  UNICEF mobilizes  resources for emergency activities through diversion
of funding already  allocated to the  country, reprogramming,  the Emergency
Programme  Fund,  supplementary  funds  received  against  appeals  and  the
Central Emergency Revolving Fund.  Diversion  of funds already available  to
the country  is often  the first  recourse.   For diversions  up to  $50,000
Government consent is sought, although  UNICEF headquarters approval  is not
necessary.  Reprogramming involves the reallocation  of more than $50,000 of
country   programme   resources   previously   earmarked   for   development
programmes.   For reprogramming  and diversion,  if there  are no recognized
authorities with which to  negotiate, the representative  has the discretion
to reallocate or divert funds as long as there is headquarters approval. 

121.    UNICEF has  a  biannual  Emergency  Programme Fund  of  $30 million.
Resources from  the Fund  are used  to provide  the cash  necessary for  the
initial response in  complex emergencies in order  to meet interim needs  in
expectation  of  the  launching of  a  consolidated  inter-agency  appeal or
pending receipt  of donor  contributions against an  appeal.   Occasionally,
resources from  the Fund  will be  used to  initiate action  at the  initial
stage  of an  emergency  when  there is  no  appeal and  are thus  allocated
without the expectation of being replenished.

122.   UNDP  emergency relief  assistance  is  largely funded  from  special
programme resources, which are  approved by the Executive Board over a five-
year planning cycle for the purpose  of disaster mitigation.  All activities
proposed for funding under special programme  resources must have been fully
discussed at the country level with  the United Nations disaster  management
team.   Requests  for approval  of  special  programme resources  funds  for
specific  activities must  be  directed  to UNDP  headquarters from  country
offices,  except in selected  countries classified  as highly  vulnerable to
sudden  natural disasters,  where  approval authority  for  emergency  phase
activities has been delegated to the UNDP resident representative.

123.  Two subcategories of special  programme resources funds are  available
to meet  immediate humanitarian assistance requirements.   The  first is for
emergency phase activities,  and usually  contains an average annual  amount
of $1  million for  allocations to  a maximum  of $50,000  per disaster  per
country.    These  funds can  be  used  for  emergency-related coordination,
support services for deployment of relief  supplies and for direct emergency
assistance  (provided  that the  relief  supplies  to  be  procured are  not
covered  under the mandate  of a  different United  Nations organization and
they are not to be used for rehabilitation and/or reconstruction purposes).

124.     The  second   subcategory,  for  refugees,  displaced  persons  and
returnees, is  funded at  an average annual  level of $1.4  million.   Funds
from  this category  also have  spending caps.    A  maximum of  $50,000 per
situation  is available  for emergency  assistance to  internally  displaced
persons  to  fill  crucial gaps  not  met  by  other  United  Nations system
resources  and  for  activities oriented  to  needs  assessment and  project
development   pertaining  to   refugees  and   returnees.  Funds   for   the
coordination of assistance to displaced persons  are limited to $100,000 per
displacement situation.

125.    WHO has  an  Emergency Revolving  Fund  of  $900,000  in unearmarked
resources  available for  immediate emergency  response for  each  biennium.
The Fund  is divided into a  $400,000 replenishable component and a $500,000
allocation.   WHO  must rely  on  resources mobilized  through  consolidated
appeals or  the limited amounts available  through regional  offices for its
response to urgent emergency requirements.

126.    Emergency projects  undertaken  by  the  Office  for Special  Relief
Operations of  FAO are financed by  its own  technical cooperation programme
from  contributions from  governmental, non-governmental  and United Nations
organizations.   There is no  flexibility in the  use of  funds allocated by
donors  for specific activities.   FAO has recognized the  need to establish
an emergency  revolving fund to meet  immediate requirements, including  for
teams to  assess the impact of a calamity on the  agricultural sector and to
formulate interventions.

127.    In 1993,  UNESCO's  General  Conference  approved  $2.4 million  for
addressing  emergency needs  in 1994  and  1995.   There is  an  accelerated
procedure to process requests for emergency  assistance.  Such requests must
be addressed  to UNESCO by the  Government concerned.   The Director-General
has also financed UNESCO emergency operations  with savings from the regular
budget, that  is, limited  reallocations of  funds foreseen  for a  specific
activity.   Essentially,  however,  UNESCO's emergency  operations  rely  on
extrabudgetary funding.  An Emergency Relief  Fund has been established  for
voluntary contributions.  UNESCO does collect  funds for countries  emerging
from emergency  situations.   Significant funding is  collected within  this
context for  activities within the Culture  of Peace Programme  and the unit
dealing with refugee education.

128.  Given the  recent increase in the number and complexity of emergencies
to which the United  Nations system has  been called upon to respond,  it is
timely for  Member States  to  review  the capacity  of the  United  Nations
humanitarian  organizations.   In doing  so,  Governments  may wish  to take
appropriate measures to strengthen the operational and financial  capacities
of these organizations so  that the system as  a whole can  respond quickly,
effectively and  equitably to the range  of critical  short- and medium-term
needs of those affected by disasters and emergencies. 


129.   The  ability of  the  humanitarian  community effectively  to  assist
countries damaged by systemic breakdowns or  societal implosion to move from
relief  assistance to steps  towards rebuilding  a civil  society depends on
the political  resolve of the international  community to  address fully the
underlying  problems of emergencies.   This ability is also  affected by the
intricate  process of  identifying,  engaging with  and  making  accountable
local  community authorities  and  structures.   Without  such  commitments,
humanitarian  organizations and  development  agencies, such  as  UNDP,  the
World Bank and bilateral  aid agencies can do little to assist societies  in
their  transition from  dependency upon  relief assistance  to  affirmative,
engaged  participation  in the  restructuring  of  their  nation.   In  this
context,  it is often  difficult to  define the  appropriate transition away
from humanitarian operations.

130.  Until recently, traditional wisdom  argued that responsibility for the
convalescence  of a  society was  transferred  from humanitarian  actors  to
development  partners in  a linear  progression  along  what was  called the
"relief  to development  continuum".   The  assumption  was that  such baton
hand-overs  could  be  accomplished  smoothly  and  that  donor  momentum or
interest would remain  constant throughout the  process.   In fact, in  many
situations,  success  by the  international  community  in  stabilizing  the
humanitarian crisis is  not accompanied by longer-term political  stability.
Protracted  political   instability  often   results  in   a  reduction   of
international assistance,  thus limiting  resources available  to support  a
transition to recovery.  The  experiences of Rwanda, Somalia  and the Sudan,
as well as concerns about  the future of such ongoing operations as those in
Angola, reveal a fundamental  flaw in the traditional notion of a relief  to
development continuum.

131.   Recent experiences  have highlighted  difficulties which  have to  be
addressed in  dealing with recovery and  transition.   Such problems include
the following:

  (a)   A perceived scarcity  of empowered local leadership able to interact
with  the international  community to  take  over  and guide  the transition
process. A classic example is  Somalia, where only limited  numbers of local
leaders  who could  assume  the responsibility  for  peacemaking,  political
accommodation and rehabilitation emerged;

  (b)   Frequent donor fatigue when a protracted conflict or emergency seems
to lead  nowhere.  After years of war and crisis, the situation in the Sudan
only occasionally grabs the international community's attention;

  (c)  An absence of significant donor resources for the rehabilitation  and
recovery  phases.   Most  donor  funds  are  earmarked  for either  disaster
assistance or long-term development.   In Burundi and  Rwanda, opportunities
for breaking the cycle  of impunity and starting on a path to reconciliation
are being forfeited because  of delays in and lack of resources targeted  to
the judicial systems.

132.   The goodwill  associated with  a  successful international  emergency
operation  provides a  window of  opportunity upon  which the  international
community must  capitalize.  A community's  goodwill and  its willingness to
compromise among  its  own  members  and  with  others  are  often  lost  if
resources for  recovery  and follow-up  support  are  not forthcoming  in  a
timely manner.

133.   To  begin to  address  these  problems, the  international  community
should, at the very inception of an  emergency, focus on the  sustainability
of  the   impact  of   humanitarian  assistance,   especially  through   the
empowerment  of  local   authorities  and  structures.    Supporting   local
structures  in  their  efforts  to guide  the  humanitarian  endeavour  will
greatly  enhance  the  international  community's  ability  to  address  the
essence of a crisis and to  identify and support opportunities for diffusing
tensions.   Continued support to representative local  structures beyond the
emergency  relief stage through  the recovery  process has  the potential to
assist nascent and fragile peace efforts to flourish.

134.  To date, attempts by the United Nations system to bridge the  recovery
funding gap have focused  on a number  of mechanisms, of which the  two most
prominent   are  the   consolidated  appeal   and  round-table  discussions.
Recognizing  the protracted  and complex  nature  of  many crises,  UNDP has
expanded  the  roundtable  concept  to   assist  States  in   situations  of
protracted instability; a round  table was held  for Rwanda.  Round  tables,
in  facilitating  the   interaction  between  donors  and  the   Governments
concerned,  are,  by  their  very  nature,  country  specific,  and  require
significant preparation.   In situations  such as  Somalia where  government
structures remain to be established, round tables remain fairly  complicated
to  organize.    The  consolidated appeal  has  also been  utilized  in some
instances to address immediate recovery requirements.   Such appeals aim  to
address  the  totality  of  needs  in  an  emergency  situation  and provide
sufficient  time  for  the preparation  of  follow-up  activities  by  other
partners.    Recognizing  the  potential  overlap  between  the  round-table
mechanism  and   the  consolidated  appeals   process,  the  Department   of
Humanitarian Affairs  and UNDP are  currently reviewing  these mechanisms to
ensure complementarity.

135.  One critical  constraint which organizations of  the system face  in a
period  of transition is  the availability  of upfront  resources to address
immediate recovery needs.   In conflict situations where peace has just been
restored, such  activities could  be critical to  stabilizing and  improving
fragile  situations. The window of opportunity for such activities, however,
is often limited  and should be fully utilized.   Experience has shown  that
the  response of  donors to  longer-term rehabilitation  requirements  often
takes time.   In the  light of  these circumstances,  it is proposed  that a
window of  an additional  $30 million  be created  in the Central  Emergency
Revolving Fund to  be used for  quick action  to support immediate  recovery
and transition activities undertaken  by organizations of the United Nations
system.   This new  facility is intended  to be a  bridge between  emergency
relief operations  and the beginning  of reconstruction and  rehabilitation.
The Department of Humanitarian Affairs and  UNDP, in consultation with other
partners of the United Nations  system, will jointly work out modalities for
the use of this new facility.


136.  With respect to natural  disasters, the response capacity discussed in
the  previous  section  (rapid  response  teams,  stockpiles  and   stand-by
capacities) provides critical life-saving support at  the onset of a natural
disaster.    However, support  for  the  building  of  national capacity  in
natural  disaster  management  is  well-recognized  as  the  most  effective
ongoing  assistance   the  international  community   can  provide.     This
principle,  enunciated  in Yokohama  in  1994  at  the  World Conference  on
Natural Disaster  Reduction, must  be translated  into action through  early
warning programmes, training, workshops, education and technical support.

137.  Over  the last  25 years,  the damage caused  by natural phenomena  to
people  and  the  productive  infrastructure  of  developing  countries  has
steadily risen. Economic damage  has more than tripled  from $40 billion  in
the 1960s to $140 billion in the  1980s.  There are strong  indications that
this  trend will  continue.   Natural disasters,  like  complex emergencies,
absorb  increasing amounts  of global  resources  and set  back  development
agendas.  Besides human and  economic losses, they also  can destabilize the
social and political fabric.

138.   Successful disaster preparedness and  mitigation programmes can  save
thousands of  lives.   In 1977,  some 10,000  persons died  when a  tropical
cyclone hit the coast of Andhra Pradesh in  India.  Thirteen years later,  a
storm of similar  force struck the  same area,  but less  than 1,000  deaths
were  reported because 600,000 persons had been evacuated  in the previous 2
days.  Nations  once known for their devastating  droughts have set up  food
security arrangements that now almost totally  protect them from the  impact
of major droughts.

139.   However,  the challenge  remains.   The  factors that  make countries
vulnerable to disasters increase in dimension much faster than  the means of
Governments  to control  them.   The  Governments  concerned,  international
development  organizations   and  donors   realize  that   vulnerability  to
disasters has  become a major obstacle  to economic  and social development.
It is estimated that the impact of natural disasters is 20  times greater in
poorer  countries than  in industrialized  settings.   While  many disaster-
prone developing countries have to contend  with competing demands on  their
scarce resources,  vulnerability reduction programmes  are considered as  an
important, integral part of their development strategies.

A.  Early warning capacity and action on such warnings

140.   Radar systems  installed in  countries bordering the  Bay of  Bengal,
rainfall  monitoring  stations in  the  Himalayas,  the  data-gathering  and
evaluation mechanisms in the  Sahel countries detecting  the development  of
drought  situations,  together  with  other  early  warning  systems,   have
undoubtedly  saved  many  lives.   New  technologies,  particularly in  data
gathering  and  communication,  have  made  possible  many  advances in  the
predictability of potentially destructive natural phenomena.

141.   Although  technological improvements  have increased the  capacity of
early warning systems, they have also, to a certain degree, widened the  gap
between the  alert message  and the  end receiver  in developing,  disaster-
prone countries. The discrepancy lies in  the often highly technical content
of the  warning itself  and the  capacity of  communities in  disaster-prone
areas to  first  of  all  understand  and  secondly  act  upon  it.    This,
obviously, is particularly  important in countries with different  languages
and  local  dialects.   The  point  to  note,  and  one  needing  continuous
attention,  is that early warning is not yet a disaster preparedness measure
in  itself.   It  takes a  functioning disaster  preparedness system  at the
national  and  local levels  to  translate  early  warning  signals into  an
understandable message for the end users at  the community level. An example
of such  a system is  the cyclone  preparedness project  in Bangladesh.  The
project  draws  on the  services  of  more than  20,000  volunteers  in  the
country's  cyclone  exposed  coastal  areas  who,  when  the  meteorological
service  gives the alarm  over pre-established  communication lines, go with
megaphones to  villages and ensure a  prompt reaction.   Here is an  obvious
area for disaster mitigation work at the local  level for the United Nations
organizations concerned  in collaboration with  Governments and  grass-roots
non-governmental organizations.

142.   The United Nations is  currently reviewing  existing natural disaster
early warning arrangements and a report will  be presented in September 1995
to the General Assembly at its fiftieth session.

143.   Within the  United Nations  system, there are  various early  warning
capacities focused  by  sector.    To  name  but  a  few,  FAO's  GIEWS,  in
association  with WFP,  has the  overall responsibility for  crop monitoring
and food-needs  assessments, for the  assessment of emergency  requirements,
as  well as  for the  rapid dissemination  of  its  assessments.   The World
Meteorological  Organization  (WMO)   has  the  responsibility  and   strong
capacity  for early  warning information  relating to  meteorological  data.
Outside the United Nations system, the  Famine Early Warning System  (FEWS),
sponsored  by  the United  States  of  America,  and  work on  vulnerability
assessment maps,  a collaborative effort of Save the Children  UK, FEWS, FAO
and WFP and  funded by both  the European Union  and the  Government of  the
United States, are mechanisms that contribute  to a better understanding  of
the development of complex and man-made emergencies.

144.   As a coordinating  body for humanitarian  affairs, the  Department of
Humanitarian  Affairs has been  involved in  the development  of a mechanism
which cuts across sectors for early  warning information.  The  Humanitarian
Early  Warning  System  (HEWS)  is  being  developed  to provide  up-to-date
warnings  of country situations  through analysis  of its  database, drawing
upon  the  various   early  warning  mechanisms  of  other  United   Nations
organizations,  as  well as  non-United Nations  information sources.   HEWS
completed  its  prototype in  January  1995  and  has  expanded its  country
coverage since then.   It will  become operational  very shortly.   UNDP  is
developing  a  risk  analysis  and  vulnerability  indicators  programme  to
analyse the risks arising from social, economic and political tensions.

145.   In  the case  of complex  crises,  even  with the  presence of  early
warning  mechanisms,  the  international  community  may  only  be  able  to
mitigate the  suffering.  However, even  this response  requires action that
is  often  lacking,  as  was  the  case  in  Somalia.    The  Department  of
Humanitarian Affairs is looking at means  of encouraging action upon receipt
of an early warning.   A recent development  is joint, ad  hoc consultations
between the  Departments of  Humanitarian Affairs,  Peace-keeping Operations
and Political Affairs to ensure a  common understanding and appreciation  of
the nature and potential  impact of looming crises.  When appropriate, these
meetings  will   produce  joint  proposals   for  preventive  measures   for
consideration by the senior task force on United Nations operations.

B.  Training programmes

146.  The scarcity of resources  for humanitarian assistance highlights  the
importance of  investment in  human resources  development, particularly  at
the local and national levels.

147.   The  efforts  of  the United  Nations  to implement  the  concept  of
disaster  mitigation as  a  multisectoral  and inter-ministerial  discipline
rely heavily upon training.  Disaster  mitigation in the multisectoral sense
is of recent origin, and consequently  requires intensive awareness  raising
among government officials  at all levels.  Specialized training  activities
are  an excellent means  to reach  a large number of  officials concerned as
well as representatives from the non-governmental sector.

148.    The Department  of  Humanitarian  Affairs/UNDP  disaster  management
training programme facilitates national capacity-building for all phases  of
emergency management  (prevention through reconstruction).   Fifty per  cent
of the participants in disaster management  training events are nationals of
developing countries, and the training programme  has recently enlarged  its
target group to 70 emergency-prone countries.   In countries where  national
workshops  for disaster management  training are conducted, UNDP may propose
funding  for   projects  to  strengthen   national  capacity  for   disaster
prevention, mitigation and  management from its special programme  resources
up to $250,000.

149.    Specific sectoral  emergency  training  programmes  are  the key  to
sectorally   appropriate  emergency   response,  and   most  United  Nations
humanitarian  organizations  have   developed  and  refined  such   training
programmes  for their  staff.   For  instance,  UNICEF has  a well-developed
training  programme  for emergency  preparedness  and management,  including
security  and critical stress  management.   It has  trained over  300 staff
members  at  all  levels,  as  well  as  staff  from  other  United  Nations
organizations  and  NGOs.    The  disaster  management  training  programme,
envisaged as  a training programme for  natural disasters,  draws upon these
existing  training  capacities  and  adds  to  them  through  its  focus  on
coordination and team-building among  United Nations organizations,  donors,
NGOs  and  national Governments,  particularly  in  the  field  but also  at
headquarters.     The  training   programme  is  working   to  enhance   the
participation of and  full coordination among United Nations  organizations.
The  programme  also aims  to  generate  and  disseminate  new doctrine  and
concepts and lessons learned from past emergencies.

150.   On  the basis  of experience  from disaster  management training  for
natural disasters,  the Inter-Agency  Standing Committee  working group  has
agreed  that  an inter-agency  core  group  will  be  established to  pursue
humanitarian  training issues  in the  complex emergency  sphere,  including
development of linkages between humanitarian training, human rights,  peace-
keeping and peacemaking.
 C.  Building national capacity for natural disaster management

151.    Building  national  capacity  for  natural  disaster  mitigation and
management takes  the form of  advisory services,  group training,  seminars
and  workshops, fellowships,  field  projects and  publications.    Numerous
United  Nations organizations,  working within  their mandate,  promote  and
assist  countries to  implement disaster  reduction programmes  and  develop
institutional  capabilities for  disaster  management.   These organizations
provide further  service to countries by  making international knowledge  on
disaster reduction  experiences, concepts  and approaches  accessible.   For
example, UNESCO  promotes research on the causes of hazards and on technical
and engineering  means  to mitigate  their  effects,  and works  to  further
public   awareness  through   education,   information   and  communication.
Recently, in response to  the risks from volcanoes for the very large  local
and refugee population in  eastern Zaire, UNHCR, UNICEF  and WHO as  well as
ICRC  and IFRC delegates  and national officials, held  a series of meetings
coordinated by  the Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs  to contribute  the
perspective and knowledge of their organizations for disaster reduction.

152.   The Department of  Humanitarian Affairs is often  an orchestrator and
promoter of disaster-reduction efforts.  It  aims to reduce human  suffering
and damage and destruction  from natural disasters  through activities  that
address  the  preventive  aspects  of  humanitarian  assistance  and  create
awareness  and  opportunities  for  disaster  reduction  in  a   development
context.   For instance, the Department  worked in  close collaboration with
UNDP, UNICEF,  FAO, WMO, ITU  and Habitat to  hold subregional workshops  in
Africa to promote and plan activities for disaster reduction.

153.     In  its facilitation  role, the  activities  of the  Department  of
Humanitarian Affairs include  servicing of International Decade for  Natural
Disaster Reduction bodies, international  liaison, information dissemination
and the development of  new initiatives to contribute to the development  of
national and  regional disaster-reduction  capabilities.   This approach  is
complemented  by  other  technical  support activities,  including  advisory
services,  group training,  seminars and  workshops, fellowships  and  field
projects.  A full  report on the International  Decade for Natural  Disaster
Reduction will be  before the General Assembly  at its fiftieth session  and
the Economic and Social Council at its substantive session of 1995.

154.  Disaster reduction efforts of  the Department of Humanitarian  Affairs
have  traditionally been  carried  out  in liaison  with  national  disaster
management  authorities.    While it  remains  important  to facilitate  and
support  adequate  attention  for  pre-disaster  measures  by  the  disaster
management  authorities, the need  to increase  the involvement  of national
and  United Nations  development institutions  is becoming  apparent.   This
will require much closer cooperation with development planning  authorities,
local government and public and private investors.   The Department and UNDP
are  developing tools  to allow  development  officials to  assess potential
disaster risks  and integrate these  considerations into  their daily  work,
and  UNDP is expected  to fund  the UNDP/Department  of Humanitarian Affairs
project on disaster impact assessment for development projects.


155.   Humanitarian  organizations  are  on the  front lines  today  both in
meeting  the immediate  needs of  disaster  victims  and in  confronting the
challenges inherent in the dramatically changed environment of  humanitarian
assistance.   There  is greater  awareness  of  the dynamics  which generate
marginalization and disintegration  and of the limited, albeit  significant,
role  of humanitarian  assistance in  the  alleviation  of suffering  and in
helping  people  to survive.  Humanitarian  organizations  are  also in  the
forefront  of  devising  innovative  strategies  both  to  strengthen   core
capacities that  form the backbone of relief operations and  to identify new
means of responding to  the unprecedented needs. However, in the absence  of
effective  measures to  address the  root  causes of  conflict, humanitarian
assistance will be reduced to merely  a tool to contain crises  and the most
visible aspects of their destructiveness.

156.   The ability  of humanitarian  organizations to  respond to  disasters
that  destroy lives and  means of livelihood is  seriously compromised by an
alarming disrespect  for fundamental humanitarian norms.   One  of the great
challenges  in responding  to crises  is to  find ways  to ensure compliance
with international humanitarian law.

157.  The well-being  and integrity of victims  of armed conflict, and their
right  to humanitarian assistance,  must be  recognized and  respected.  The
international community  has both  a moral  and a  legal obligation to  hold
accountable  those who  violate  fundamental  humanitarian  norms.    It  is
recommended that,  in accordance with the  four Geneva  Conventions of 1949,
Member States should use  their influence with parties to an armed  conflict
to strengthen  compliance with  international humanitarian  law and  respect
for the activities  undertaken by impartial humanitarian organizations  such
as ICRC.  For its part, the United Nations, and in particular those  charged
with  preventive  diplomacy and  peacemaking tasks,  will endeavour  to make
compliance with humanitarian law a central focus of its activities.

158.   Commensurate  with the  protection  and  provision of  assistance  to
civilians  is   the  security   that  must  be   afforded  to   humanitarian
practitioners  who carry out  these activities.   Member  States should take
greater cognizance  of the  myriad dangers  and threats  to personal  safety
faced  by  humanitarian workers  and  support  the  enhancement of  existing
security arrangements,  as recognized  in the  Convention on  the Safety  of
United Nations  and Associated  Personnel. Specifically,  it is  recommended
that the United Nations should  have the capacity to  make adequate security
arrangements  from  the onset  of  any  crisis  that  has  the potential  to
endanger humanitarian workers.  This may require rapid deployment  of one or
more officers provided  by the United Nations Security Coordinator's  office
at  the  beginning  of  a  crisis  either  to  supplement  existing security
arrangements or to establish  a presence where none  previously existed.  To
deploy  this  capacity quickly,  it  is  further  recommended that  interest
accrued on  the  Central Emergency  Revolving  Fund  should be  utilized  to
support  the deployment  to initiate  security arrangements and  that donors
should respond positively  to requests for  funding of security arrangements
that are included in consolidated appeals in order to reimburse the Fund.

 159.   Within the  humanitarian community,  much has  been accomplished  in
defining  common  objectives and  strategies  geared  to  achieving  greater
complementarity  of inputs  and  more  effective use  of limited  resources.
However,  greater synergies could  be achieved  if the  advice and direction
given by Member States  to the governing  bodies of individual agencies  and
programmes was geared to a more  unified approach within the  United Nations
system.   Thus, it  is recommended that  Member States take  account of  the
larger context within which humanitarian assistance  is provided in order to
ensure  greater coherence in the  direction given to the governing bodies of
United  Nations  specialized  agencies  and  programmes.    It  is   further
recommended that Member States give adequate  support to all United  Nations
organizations and  give  due  consideration  to the  importance  of  funding
consolidated  rather  than  individual  appeals  to  ensure  more   coherent
implementation of humanitarian programmes.

160.    The  consolidated  appeals  process  has proved  its  worth  in both
generating coherent programmes and in mobilizing  resources in a manner that
facilitates  a balanced response to needs.  However,  it is fully understood
that,  in some  instances,  needs  are poorly  prioritized  within  specific
crises  and  there  is  room  for   additional  streamlining  in  both   the
organization   and  the  presentation   of  appeals.     The  Department  of
Humanitarian Affairs,  and its collaborating  partners, are fully  committed
to  strengthening the appeals  process.   However, the  effectiveness of the
consolidated  appeals  process is  largely dependent  upon  the response  of
Member  States.    There  is,  for  example,  a  continuing  discrepancy  in
resources  made  available  for  food  and  for  non-food  requirements, and
rehabilitation  programmes  are  often  poorly  funded  compared  to   other
activities. The availability  of additional unearmarked contributions for  a
particular crisis would help ensure that all vital  needs are met and  would
strengthen the  capacity of organizations to  work together  in developing a
consolidated  programme.   It is  recommended  that  Member States  give due
consideration to  the possibility of furnishing such support when responding
to future appeals.

161.   One of the most glaring  deficiencies in the  overall response of the
international  community is  the general  lack of support  for strengthening
indigenous  capacities and  local  mechanisms to  cope throughout  a crisis.
Yet the  strength of these  local mechanisms is  a major  determinant in the
struggle of affected communities to recover.   It is recommended that United
Nations humanitarian organizations, as well as international NGOs,  consider
the  greater  use of  local  NGOs  and other  indigenous  expertise  in  the
planning and execution of relief and rehabilitation activities.

162.    Despite   recognition  of  the  importance  of  rehabilitation   and
confidencebuilding measures, there is a dramatic  dearth of funding for such
activities. Even  when donor support  for rehabilitation programmes  exists,
the  funding  mechanisms  are  often  too  slow  to  maintain  the necessary
momentum to  break  the cycle  of violence  or address  the conditions  that
perpetuate instability.  It  is important that  funds which can be  accessed
quickly are  set aside  for immediate  rehabilitation activities.   In  this
connection, it is recommended that a separate window  with an additional $30
million be opened  within the Central Emergency Revolving  Fund to act as  a
catalyst for such activities.

163.    The  Central  Emergency  Revolving  Fund  has  proved its  value  in
facilitating   a  both   rapid  and   joint   response  by   United  Nations
organizations to fast-breaking  emergencies.  However, the revolving  nature
of the  Fund demands that  resources are replenished  quickly to ensure  its
full utility.  Except on three  occasions, United Nations organizations have
been able  to repay funds  extended to them.  In order  to maintain the Fund
at the minimum  level of $50 million as  stipulated by the General  Assembly
in  its resolution  48/186, it  is  recommended  that Member  States respond
favourably to  the proposal  to replenish the  Fund to  cover advances  that
have  been outstanding for more than a year in  the amount of $6.12 million.
It  is also recommended that the scope of the Fund be expanded to facilitate
the  provision   of  emergency  assistance   in  the   case  of   protracted
emergencies.  The  Fund would only be drawn upon in such  circumstances in a
judicious manner.

164.    Recent  experience  has  demonstrated  the  necessity  and  value of
coordination  of  international  humanitarian  efforts  in  managing  crisis
response.    Ensuring adequate  interaction,  exchange  of  information  and
coherence in  policy and approach  between all actors  at various  levels in
fast-moving,  complex  crisis   situations  demands  a  structure  that   is
adequately  resourced and able to function in a timely and effective manner.
While much  has been  accomplished, as  evidenced by  the rapid  system-wide
response to  recent crises, coordination  of the United Nations humanitarian
system  remains an ongoing  challenge.   The limited  regular budget funding
available to the Department of Humanitarian  Affairs due to overall resource
constraints of  the Organization, poses limitations  in its  capacity in the
face of  accelerated incidence of humanitarian  emergencies.  It is a matter
of  some  importance  that  Member  States  consider  ways  to  provide  the
necessary extrabudgetary support to the  Department on a  sustainable basis.
This will help ensure both continuity  and strengthening of the Department's
key  coordination role  within the  international humanitarian  system.   In
this  context,  the proposal  for donors  to earmark  a percentage  of their
contributions  to  consolidated appeals  for  the  Department's coordination
activities merits serious consideration.

  1/  ST/SGB/251.

Casualties among United Nations civilian personnel

  Source:  Office of the United Nations Security Coordinator.

  Note:  For  details on these incidents, consult  the annual report of  the
Secretary-General  to  the  General  Assembly  regarding  respect  for   the
privileges  and  immunities  of   officials  of  the   United  Nations,  the
specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Central Emergency Revolving Fund

A.  Advances and reimbursements

(as at 31 May 1995)

Operational organization
Project area
Date of advance
Amount of advance
Date of reimbursement
Amount of reimbursement
Amount  outstanding1992UNICEFKenya24 Aug. 19922  000 00031  Dec. 1992 and 22
Oct. 19932 000 000-UNICEFSomalia24 Aug. 19925 000 00022 Dec.  19925 000 000-
UNCHASSomalia10 Sep. 1992500 00029 Jan. 1993500 000-FAOSomalia30 Sep.  19921
600 00024  June 19931 600  000-WHOSomalia24 Oct. 19922 000  00029 Mar. 19932
000  000-UNICEFIraq11   Nov.   19925   000  00015   Apr.  19935   000   000-
UNHCRAfghanistan24   Nov.   19925    000   0006   Jan.   19935   000    000-
1993UNICEFMozambique22 Jan. 19932 000  0002 Feb. 1994 and  1 Aug. 19942  000
000-WFPTajikistan25 Mar. 19934 500 0003 May 1994 and 10 June 19942 036  1212
463 879WHOFormer
 Yugoslavia26 Mar.  19932 500  0005  May 19942  500 000-UNHCRGeorgia22  Apr.
19932  000 00016 Sep. 19932  000 000-UNICEFIraq14 June  19935 000 00021 Oct.
19935  000 000-UNHCRTajikistan18  June 19935  000  00029  Dec. 1993  and May
19945 000 000-WFPIraq21 June  19934 000 0003 May 1994  and 9 Aug.  19944 000
000-UNICEFHaiti23 July 19931 000  00025 Apr. 1994 and 1 Aug. 19941 000  000-
WFPLebanon3 Sep.  1993560 0003 Jan.  1994560 000-HabitatLebanon9 Sep.  19935
000 00021  Mar. 1994  and 17  June 19941  693 2763 306  724UNICEFIraq27 Oct.
19937 000  0001 Feb. 19947 000  000-UNHCRBurundi19 Nov. 19935  000 0001 June
19945  000  000-WFPBurundi22  Dec.  19935  000   0003  May  19945  000  000-
1994UNICEFAngola6  Jan. 19941  500 00019  May 19941  500  000-IOMZaire6 Jan.
19941  000 0008 July  1994649 846350  154UNICEFSudan17 Feb.  19941 000 00020
June  19941   000  000-FAOSudan23  Feb.   1994200  00016  May  1994200  000-
 Yugoslavia16 Mar.  19941  000 00031  Aug.  19941  000 000-UNDPKenya18  Mar.
1994500 00013 Apr. 1995500 000-WHOFormer
 Yugoslavia29  Mar. 19942 500  00031 Oct. 19942 500 000-UNICEFSomalia28 Apr.
19944 870  00022  July 1994  and 24  Oct. 19944  870 000-UNREORwanda28  Apr.
1994200 0008  Sep. 1994200 000-UNHCRTajikistan 20  May 19943  000 00021 Dec.
19943 000  000-UNHCRRwanda1 June  199410 000  00029  Sep. 1994  and 21  Nov.
199410  000 000-UNICEFRwanda21  July 19943  000  00030  Dec. 19943  000 000-
WFPRwanda22 July  19945  000 00030  Dec. 19945  000 000-HCHR/HRRwanda7  Oct.
19943  000 000-3  000 000UNICEFSudan28  Dec. 19943 000  00024 May  19951 684
7211 315 2791995UNICEFNorthern
 Iraq4 Jan.  1995930 00026 Apr. 1995930  000-UCAHAngola27 Jan. 1995480  600-
480 600WFPRwanda7 Mar. 19955 000 000-5 000  000Total115 840 60099 923  96415
916 636

  Note:  UNCHAS = United Nations  Coordinator of Humanitarian Assistance  in
         UNREO = United Nations Rwanda Emergency Office.
         HCHR/HR = High Commissioner for Human Rights/Human Rights.
         UCAH = Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit.

B.  Status of contributions

(as at 26 June 1995)

(United States dollars)
(United States dollars)
Date  paidAlgeria20  00020 0007  Dec.  1994Australia800  000743  60027  July
1992Austria500   000500   00030  Mar.   1992Belgium330  000327   32717  Sep.
1992Canada2  300 0002 195 32116  and 22 June  1992Colombia10 00010 0004 Feb.
1993Denmark2 000 0001  999 98531 Aug. 1992Finland1  500 0001 533  80418 June
1992France5  600 000934 57916 Nov.  19924 545 4558 and  27 Jan. 1993Germany5
000 0005 000 00030  June 1992Holy See50  00050 00022 May 199220 00020  00020
Dec.  1994Iceland10  00010  0006  July  1992Ireland100  000100  00018   June
1992Italy5  000 0004  284  18410  Dec. 1992Japan5  000 0005  000  00027 July
1992Libyan  Arab Jamahiriya5  000 5 0006 Oct.  1993Liechtenstein7 0006 64110
Apr. 1992Luxembourg100  000100 00013  Aug. 1992Malaysia20  00020 00015  June
1993Mauritius10  00010 0001  July 1992Monaco40  111.7320 00019  July  199422
2604 May 1995Netherlands3 000 0003 083  59012 June 1992New Zealand140 000136
82523 Mar.  1992Norway1 850 0001 849  9705 May and  10 June 1992Republic  of
Korea50 00050  00011 June 1992Russian  Federation250 00023 May  1995Spain750
000671  5447  June 199388  4534 Mar.  1994Sweden2  750  0002 408  74425 Nov.
1992Switzerland2  000  000999  98525  Aug.  1992999  98513  Jan.  1993United
Kingdom5 000 0005 000 00024 Apr. 1992United States6  200 0002 500 00015 Apr.
19923 700 00023 Feb. and 19 July 1993NGOs1 0001 00017 June 1992
50 163 111
49 198 252
C.  Status of utilization of the Fund

(United States    

      Contributions received49 198 252

      Less:  advances(115 840 600)
      Add:  reimbursements99 923 964
      Add:  interest earned (as at 30 April 1995)  2 560 789

           Fund balance (as at 31 May 1995)35 842 405

(up to 31 May 1995)Total number of advances713153
Total number of reimbursements2 9303

Analysis of United Nations consolidated inter-agency
humanitarian assistance appeals

A.  List of appeals launched or ongoing

(mid-1992 to mid-1995)

(Compiled by the Department of Humanitarian Affairs on the basis of
information provided by the respective appealing organizations.)

AppealLaunch  date  (inclusive  dates)Revised  requirements  (United  States
dollars)Income (contributions/
pledges   and    carryover)    (United    States    dollars)Needs    covered
(percentage)Target  beneficiaries1992Afghanistan  a/June  1992-Dec.  1992179
700  00085 167  56247.42 500  000DESAJune  1992-May  1993950 621  543724 236
15576.225  876 775Iraq (phase  IV) b/Jan.  1992-June 1992145  000 000120 000
00082.82  775 000Iraq  (phase V)  b/July  1992-Mar.  1993265 000  000217 000
00081.92 775 000Liberia  c/July 1991-Sep.  1993149 958  000102 012  00068.01
400 000SEPHAJan. 1992-Dec. 19921 145 765 086913 298 76279.719 000 000
Total for appeals launched in 1992:
Number of appeals:  6
Number of countries:  18
2 836 044 629
2 161 714 479
54  326 7751993Afghanistan  a/Oct. 1993-Mar.  199459 828  00029 440 63849.22
000  000Afghanistan  a/Jan. 1993-Sep.  1993112  600  00047 231  02641.91 300
000AngolaMay 1993-Apr.  1994226 054 100104  054 45046.01 963  000ArmeniaJuly
1993-Mar.  199426 204  20114 380  58454.91 820  000AzerbaijanJuly  1993-Mar.
199425 592  20318 203 47171.11 000  000BurundiNov. 1993-Feb.  19947 949 7224
781 28660.11 827 000EritreaJan. 1993-Dec. 199380  511 85543 475 43454.01 560
000EthiopiaJan.  1993-Dec. 1993300  965 048146  322 46948.68  261  500Former
YugoslaviaJan. 1993-Dec. 1993993 856 315989 423 70299.63 820  000GeorgiaMar.
1993-May  199427 454  02514 351 74352.3250 000Haiti  c/Mar. 1993-Sep. 199362
727  00011 907 33619.06 500 000Iraq (phase VI)  b/Apr. 1993-Mar. 1994467 067
650122  962 59326.32  775  000KenyaJan.  1993-Dec.  1993185 651  470124  322
50767.02 373  000LiberiaNov. 1993-Dec. 1994168  435 17985  398 36350.73  000
000Mozambique  d/May   1993-Apr.  1994616  170   254542  205  54588.08   250
000RwandaApr. 1993-Dec.  199378 533  51930 816  10539.21 192  000SomaliaMar.
1993-Dec.  1993148  086   95036  086  95024.44  447  000South   Lebanon/West
BekaaAug. 1993-Jan.  199428 745 2003  447 46212.0350 000SudanJan.  1993-Dec.
1993194 536 780124  228 36363.93 270 000TajikistanJan. 1993-Mar. 199432  517
84017  523 47453.9400  000ZaireOct. 1993-June 199476 222  52010 085 98913.22
247 000
Total for appeals launched in 1993:
Number of appeals:  21
Number of countries:  24
3 919 709 831
2 520 649 490
58 605 5001994Afghanistan a/Oct. 1994-Sep. 1995106  393 0006 904 9826.51 700
000Afghanistan  a/Apr.   1994-Sep.  199462  067   00021  372  93434.41   000
000AngolaFeb. 1994-Dec. 1994181  229 482158 253 59287.33 284  300BurundiMar.
1994-Aug.  199459  189 82736  816  02962.21  368  000CaucasusApr.  1994-Mar.
1995123  900  90577 261  62462.43  077  000Former  YugoslaviaJan.  1994-Dec.
1994721 169 025761 215 468105.64 259  000HaitiDec. 1994-May 199578 005 00040
316 06651.72 220 000Iraq (phase VII) b/Apr. 1994-Mar.  1995288 514 23792 499
62132.11  300  000KenyaJan.  1994-Dec. 199496  413  99754  860  33156.91 620
000Mozambique  d/May   1994-Dec.  1994205  979   833128  155  13862.28   250
000RwandaJuly 1994-Dec.  1994589 403  829562 127  17195.43 900  000SudanJan.
1994-Dec. 1994185  936 129157 892  85684.96 500 000TajikistanApr.  1994-Dec.
199442 539 51025 706 90560.4605 000YemenAug.  1994-Feb. 199521 715 2403  205
01814.8375 000
Total for appeals launched in 1994:
Number of appeals:  14
Number of countries:  19
2 762 457 014
2 126 587 735
39  458  3001995AngolaJan.  1995-Dec.  1995212  766  4091  962  0020.93  226
543CaucasusApr. 1995-Mar. 1996118  004 5815 236 5924.43 170  737ChechnyaJan.
1995-June 199525 053 6608 079 80232.2220 000Former YugoslaviaJan.  1995-June
1995241  731  697171 859  98271.12 244  400Iraq  (phase VIII)Apr.  1995-Mar.
1996183 311  662Update pending0.01 300  000LiberiaJan. 1995-June 199565  348
94726 931 72341.21 500 000Rwanda/SubregionJan. 1995-Dec. 1995766 512  672309
672 94740.43 700  000Sierra Leone/GuineaMar. 1995-Dec. 199514 672  958Update
pending0.0500  000SomaliaJan. 1995-June  199570  310 2356  693  3399.51  550
000SudanJan. 1995-Dec.  1995101 082 4623  196 3363.25 866  816TajikistanJan.
1995-Dec. 199537 289 9239 965 22126.7600 000
Total for appeals launched in 1995:
Number of appeals:  11
Number of countries:  17
1 836 085 206
543 597 944
23 878 496
  Note:  DESA = Drought emergency in southern Africa.
         SEPHA = Special emergency programme for the Horn of Africa.

  a/   As reported  by the  United Nations  Office for  the Coordination  of
Humanitarian Assistance to Afghanistan.

  b/  As reported by the special emergency programme for Iraq.

  c/  As reported by the Department of Humanitarian Affairs, New York.

  d/  As reported  by the United Nations Office for Humanitarian  Assistance
Coordination, Mozambique.

B.  Summary of requirements, contributions and target populations

(mid-1992 to mid-1995)

YearNumber   of   appeals    launchedNumber   of   countries   included   in
appealsRequirements (United States dollars)Funding as reported by  appealing
organization (contributions/
(United  States  dollars)Target populationsNeeds  covered  (percentage)June-
Dec. 1992  6182 836  044 6292  161 714  47954 326 77576.22199321243  919 709
8312 520  649 49058  605 50064.31199414192 762  457 0142 126  587 73539  458
30076.98Jan.-May 199511171 836 085 206543 597 94423 878 49629.61
D.  Analysis of donor response in 1994

Other a/ (3.35%)

EC b/ (22.03%)

      a/      Includes  Andorra,  Australia,  Bangladesh,  Belgium,   Brunei
Darussalam,  Cyprus, Czech  Republic,  Gabon, Greece,  Hong  Kong,  Iceland,
Indonesia,  Ireland,  Israel,  Jamaica,  Republic  of Korea,  Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg,  Malaysia,  Micronesia, Monaco,  New  Zealand,  Oman,  Pakistan,
Portugal, Russian Federation, San Marino, Spain, Thailand and Turkey.

      b/    Total for European  Community does not  include aid accorded  by
Member States (amounting to approximately $365.3 million).

E.  Summary  of donor  contributions in  1994 as  percentage gross  national

Andorra a/

Monaco a/

United States

San Marino a/

Micronesia a/

Brunei Darussalam a/

Republic of Korea

  Source:  World Bank World  Atlas, 1995, pp. 18-19,  except where otherwise

  a/  Data  taken from World Data  Book, second edition, Guiness  Publishing
Ltd., pp.  54-59.  Dates  for GNP are  as follows:   Andorra  (1992), Brunei
(1989), Micronesia (1989), Monaco (1992), San Marino (1992).for stripping

/...  A/50/203

Budgets, emergency expenditures and emergency reserves in 1994
of selected organizations

(United States dollars)

percentage to emergencies Emergency
(if  any)FAO673 114  000 a/5  603 600  b/N/AUNHCR1 200  000 000    N/A25 000
000UNICEF801 000 000216 000 000
27%    9 000 000WFP1 400 000 000980 000 000
70%    c/WHO1 000 000 00034 000 000
3.4%   900 000 d/
  a/  Biennium 1994-1995.

  b/    Technical  cooperation  programme;  expenditures  from  trust  funds
amounted to $30,868,514.

  c/  International Emergency Food Reserve.

  d/   Comprises $500,000 per  biennium (non-replenishable) suballocated  to
Division of  Emergency and  Humanitarian Action  from Development  Programme
and $400,000  transferred from the WHO  Voluntary Fund  for Health Promotion
to the Special Account for Disasters and Natural Catastrophes.



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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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