United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

[14 September 1995]


Report of the
High Commissioner for Refugees
Official Records T Fiftieth Session
Supplement No.12 (A/50/12)

Symbols  of  United  Nations  documents  are  composed  of  capital  letters
combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol  indicates a reference to  a
ISSN 0251 8023
--[Original:  English]


Chapter  Paragraphs  Page

  I.  INTRODUCTION ........................................   1 -101

 II.  INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION ............................  11 -373

  A.  Introduction ....................................  11 - 123

  B.  Protection in its current context:  asylum,
    solutions and prevention ........................  13 - 263

  C.  Securing the rights of refugees .................  27 - 296

  D.  Promotional activities ..........................  30 - 376

III.  ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES ...............................  38 -1989

  A.  Major trends in assistance ......................  38 - 619

    1.  General and Special Programmes ..............  38 - 419

    2.  Types of assistance .........................  42 - 619

      (a)  Emergency preparedness, response and
        assistance .............................  42 - 489

      (b)  Care and maintenance ...................  49 - 5011

      (c)  Voluntary repatriation .................  51 - 5211

      (d)  Local settlement .......................  53 - 5511

      (e)  Resettlement ...........................  56 - 6112

  B.  Programme themes and priorities .................  62 - 7913

    1.  Refugee women ...............................  64 - 6713

    2.  Refugee children ............................  68 - 7014

    3.  Environment .................................  71 - 7414

    4.  Refugee/returnee aid and development ........  75 - 7915

  C.  Programme management and implementation .........  80 - 8816

    1.  General .....................................  80 - 8216

CONTENTS (continued)

Chapter  Paragraphs  Page

    2.  Military support to UNHCR activities ........  83 - 8416

    3.  Evaluation ..................................  85 - 8817

  D.  Regional developments in Africa .................  89 - 11717

    1.  West Africa .................................  89 - 9417

    2.  Great Lakes Region ..........................  95 - 10318

    3.  Eastern Africa and the Horn of Africa .......  104 - 108 19

    4.  Southern Africa .............................  109 - 11720

  E.  Regional developments in the Americas and the
    Caribbean .......................................  118 - 12922

    1.  Central America and Mexico ..................  118 - 12422

    2.  South America and Caribbean .................  125 - 12923

  F.  Regional developments in Asia and Oceania .......  130 - 15023

    1.  South Asia ..................................  130 - 13623

    2.  East Asia ...................................  137 - 15025

  G.  Regional developments in Europe .................  151 - 17126

    1.  Western Europe ..............................  151 - 15426

    2.  Central and Eastern Europe ..................  155 - 16627

    3.  Former Yugoslavia ...........................  167 - 17129

  H.  Regional developments in South-West Asia, North
    Africa and the Middle East ......................  172 - 19830

    1.  South-West Asia .............................  172 - 18030

    2.  Central Asian Republics .....................  181 - 18632

    3.  North Africa ................................  187 - 19033

    4.  Middle East .................................  191 - 19833


  V.  RELATIONS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS ..................  203 -21536

  A.  Cooperation between UNHCR and other members of
    the United Nations system .......................  203 - 20836

     CONTENTS (continued)

Chapter  Paragraphs  Page

  B.  Relations with other intergovernmental
    organizations ..................................      20937

  C.  Relations with non-governmental organizations ..  210 - 21537


  1.  UNHCR expenditure in 1994 by regional bureau/country and main
  types of assistance activities ...................................39

  2.  Contributions to UNHCR assistance programmes .....................43



1.   During 1994  and the first  quarter of 1995,  the Office of  the United
Nations  High  Commissioner for  Refugees (UNHCR)  continued its  efforts to
bring  protection  and assistance  to  refugees  and  returnees  and to  the
increasing  numbers  of internally  displaced  persons  and  other  affected
populations it had  been called upon to assist.   The massive new exodus  of
over 2  million refugees  from Rwanda  cast a  deep shadow  over the  period
under review.   A number of  other regions, including the former Yugoslavia,
the  Transcaucasus,  the  Horn  of  Africa  and  parts  of  western  Africa,
continued  to suffer from  massive population  displacements, while  a major
new crisis  erupted in  the northern  Caucasus.   These  tragic events  were
offset  by  new or  continued repatriation  movements  as possibilities  for
solutions, albeit sometimes  fragile, presented themselves in various  parts
of the world.

2.  World wide, the refugee population had decreased to under  15 million by
the end of 1994.  That  decrease was offset, however, by  an increase in the
total number of persons considered to be of  concern to UNHCR, which rose to
some 28 million, including over 5  million internally displaced persons, 3.4
million others of humanitarian  concern, predominantly populations  affected
by  conflict,  and, more  positively,  some  4 million  returnees  requiring
assistance to re-establish  sustainable reintegration in their countries  of
origin.  Those figures were reflected in a  strengthened focus by the Office
on work in countries of origin. 

3.   In  providing  protection  and  assistance during  1994  and the  first
quarter of 1995, UNHCR continued to  implement its strategy of preparedness,
prevention and solutions.   It has aimed to  assure a level of  preparedness
so  as  to  respond  rapidly  to  emergencies;  to  provide  assistance  and
protection in such  a way as to avert, where possible, the occurrence of new
refugee  flows;  and   to  promote  concerted  efforts  to  achieve  durable
solutions to refugee problems, notably  through voluntary repatriation.  The
challenge  of this  strategy is  to  combine  the traditional  activities of
protection  and  assistance  with  more  innovative  approaches  to  refugee

4.   In the pursuit of this threefold strategy, UNHCR has been guided by the
concerns of the Economic and Social Council  to ensure the effectiveness  of
interventions  and  the  durability  of  results  by  making  sure  that its
activities,  especially in  complex  emergency situations,  are  coordinated
with those  of  the  rest  of  the  United  Nations system.    As  the  High

Commissioner has frequently  stated, a strategy of prevention,  preparedness
and  solutions  can  only  succeed  to   the  extent  that  UNHCR  draws  in
Governments,  United  Nations  agencies,   and  intergovernmental  and  non-
governmental organizations. 

5.  Throughout  the period under review,  UNHCR continued to consolidate its
capacity  to respond to  emergencies both  through internal arrangements and
external stand-by mechanisms.  Faced, however, in  the Great Lakes region of
Africa, with the most severe refugee crisis in  its history, the Office  was
again  challenged to  innovate.   It  appealed to  donor Governments  to  go
beyond their  normal  role of  providing  financial  support and  to  assume
operational  responsibility for various critical  assistance sectors through
the deployment  of resources  drawn largely  from their  military and  civil
defence  establishments. The positive  impact of  that new  approach has led
UNHCR into a process of consultation with Governments in order to  determine
how  such self-contained  "service packages"  can  best  be used  to further
enhance response to large-scale emergencies. 

6.   In 1994 and the first  quarter of 1995, solutions were  found for large
numbers of refugees.  Over 1.7 million refugees returned  to their countries
of origin, most notably to Mozambique,  Afghanistan and Myanmar.   Solutions
continued to  be consolidated  in a number  of other regions,  especially in
Central America, where the process launched by the International  Conference
on Central American Refugees was brought formally to  a close in June  1994,
and in South-East Asia  with the agreement of  the Steering Committee of the
International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees to  aim for the completion
of activities under the Comprehensive Plan of Action by the end of 1995. 

7.   Solutions to complex,  refugee-producing emergencies require  concerted
efforts in which humanitarian activities  are complemented by both political
initiatives  to  resolve  conflict  and  development  efforts  to  ensure  a
sustainable  livelihood for  the most  severely affected  areas and  people.
The  Office  has  continued to  reinforce  its  community-based approach  to
reintegration assistance and has pursued discussions with other  departments
and  agencies, particularly the  Department of  Humanitarian Affairs  of the
United  Nations Secretariat  and the  United Nations  Development  Programme
(UNDP),  on  how  institutional  gaps  can  be bridged  so  as  to  ensure a
meaningful  "continuum from relief  to development".  It  has also sought to
strengthen its  relationship with  the financial  institutions, notably  the
World  Bank.    Different  mandates,  institutional  cultures,  and  funding
structures and  procedures are among the  obstacles that  continue to hamper
optimal collaboration in this area.

8.  The  Office has also continued to  advocate strategies which could  pre-
empt refugee-producing  situations.   It has  strengthened its  institution-
building  activities in various  parts of  the world and, at  the request of
the  Secretary-General,  has  continued  or  expanded  its  involvement   in
assisting and seeking solutions for  groups of internally displaced persons.
In  1994, the Office launched  a process to develop a comprehensive approach
to the  problems of refugees, returnees,  displaced persons  and migrants in
the  countries  of  the  Commonwealth  of Independent  States  and  relevant
neighbouring States. 

9.   In  elaborating its  protection  and  assistance programmes,  UNHCR has
continued to give special emphasis to  policy issues identified as  priority
areas  by the Executive  Committee and  by the Economic  and Social Council.
Special attention has been paid to ways of  strengthening the ability of the
Office to  respond to the  particular needs of  refugee women  and children.
In addition, increased attention has been  given to the environmental impact
of the largescale presence of refugees in countries of asylum.

10.    In 1994,  UNHCR  received  a  total of  $1.07  billion  in  voluntary
contributions  towards its  General and  Special  Programmes.   By  31 March
1995, a total of  $281 million had been received against General and Special
Programmes requirements amounting to $1.29 billion. 



A.  Introduction

11.   The core functions of UNHCR remain those assigned by its 1950 Statute:
providing  international  protection  to  refugees  and  seeking   permanent
solutions  to their  problems by  assisting Governments to  facilitate their
voluntary  repatriation or  their integration  into local  communities.  The
Statute  of  the  Office,  contained  in   the  annex  to  General  Assembly
resolution  428 (V) of  14 December  1950, provides the legal  basis for its
functions.  In  the 45 years since adoption  of the Statute, the  day-to-day
work of the Office  has also been reinforced  and guided by  conclusions and
decisions of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme. 

12.  The most basic need of refugees remains access to safety.   Recognizing
that  the  Office of  the High  Commissioner  cannot  act alone  in ensuring
refugee protection, the Statute calls on  Governments to cooperate with  the
Office  in taking  steps to  protect  refugees;  granting them  admission is
cited by  the Statute as  a basic  step in  extending such protection.   The
granting of  asylum and the principle  of non-refoulement,  or not returning
refugees to  danger, remain  both the  legal  and the  moral foundations  of
international protection.   A  total of  128 States  are now parties  to the
1951 Convention relating  to the Status of  Refugees, its 1967 Protocol,  or
both;  42  States are  parties to  the  1969 Organization  of African  Unity
Convention  Governing the  Specific Aspects  of Refugee Problems  in Africa;
and the majority  of Latin American States adhere  to the principles of  the
1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees. 

                  B.  Protection in its current context:  asylum,
                      solutions and prevention

13.  The sheer scale of recent humanitarian  crises and their brutal nature,
which have  provoked the deep concern  of the  international community, have
also  attracted  renewed   attention  to  refugee   protection  needs.    In
particular, the challenges of refugee protection  in the context of internal
strife  of a  persecutory character,  the militarization  of  refugee camps,
pressures  for   repatriation  under   conditions  which   do  not   promote
sustainability, and  the compelling  needs of  internally displaced  persons
have come to the fore. 

14.  Those challenges  have underscored the need  to preserve and strengthen
international  commitment to asylum, while also prompting the exploration of
different models  of protection and solutions.   Such  concerns were clearly
reflected in  the  deliberations of  the  Executive  Committee of  the  High
Commissioner's Programme at its forty-fifth session,  held at Geneva from  3
to 7 October 1994. 

15.   The  Note on  International Protection  presented  to that  session 1/
examined   the   fundamental  concept   of   international  protection   and
underscored meeting  that need as  the guiding principle  for the action  of
the High  Commissioner  and of  the  international  community on  behalf  of
refugees.   It  reviewed the  foundations  of  refugee protection  in  human
rights principles and the international  legal framework which  provides the
basic tools  of protection,  and considered  ways of  meeting  the needs  of
persons of concern to  the Office, including those outside the scope of  the
1951 Convention and  its 1967 Protocol.   In  so doing,  it gave  particular
consideration to  temporary  protection  as  a pragmatic  tool  for  meeting
urgent protection needs in situations of mass influx.

16.   The Executive Committee expressed  its deep  concern and preoccupation
with  the immense human suffering and  loss of life in recent crises and the
scale  and  complexity  of  current   refugee  problems,  and  deplored  the

incidence  of armed  attack  and  of murder,  rape and  other  violations of
fundamental rights, as well as refoulement  and denial of access  to safety.
It  called on States  to uphold  and strengthen  asylum as  an indispensable
instrument for the international  protection of refugees,  and stressed  the
importance of  international  solidarity  and  burden-sharing  in  assisting
countries, in  particular  those with  limited resources,  that receive  and
care for large numbers of refugees and asylumseekers. 

17.   The Executive Committee noted that  a large number  of persons in need
of international  protection had been  forced to flee  or to remain  outside
their  countries of origin  as a  result of danger to  their life or freedom
brought about by situations  of conflict.  It recognized the desirability of
exploring further  measures to ensure  international protection  to all  who
need  it,  encouraged   the  High  Commissioner  to  promote   international
cooperation in that  regard and noted the  value of temporary protection  in
providing a pragmatic and flexible response to mass influx. 

18.   The granting  of asylum  is the basis  of temporary  protection.   The
fundamental elements of  temporary protection remain those of  international
protection  generally, namely,  admission to  safety, respect  for the basic
rights of refugees, and their non-refoulement. 

19.    One  premise   upon  which  temporary  protection  is  based  is  the
expectation  of   resolving,  within  a   reasonable  period  of  time,  the
underlying  cause  of the  outflow.    UNHCR  has  indicated that  temporary
protection  must not be  unduly protracted  before more  permanent status is
granted to the victims, in situations in which  the grounds for flight  have
not   been  resolved.     In  addition,   UNHCR  has   emphasized  that  the
beneficiaries of temporary  protection are,  in many cases, refugees  within
the  meaning of  the 1951  Convention relating  to  the Status  of Refugees.
Persecution, and  a lack of  effective protection  against persecution,  can
take  place during  a civil  war,  in international  armed conflict,  or  in
peacetime.    Many  beneficiaries of  temporary protection  have  fled their
countries because of well-founded fear of  persecution for reasons set forth
in the  Convention,  which may  have  found  expression in  military  action
targeting particular ethnic or religious groups. 

20.   As  requested by the  Executive Committee, UNHCR  continues to explore
further this form of protection and to take  the lead in providing  guidance
on its application. 

21.  In  addition to its  efforts to  ensure that asylum  is granted to  all
those who need  it, UNHCR seeks the  strongest support of the  international
community   and   international,  intergovernmental   and   non-governmental
organizations for  the promotion  of conditions which  would make  voluntary
repatriation  of  refugees possible  and sustainable,  and  it continues  to
advocate strategies which could pre-empt refugee-producing situations.   The
range  of actors who  must cooperate  in such  comprehensive approaches, the
degree  of political commitment  needed, and  the relative  absence of media
and public interest in situations which  have not yet engendered significant
outflows remain obstacles to concerted efforts at prevention. 

 22.    Nevertheless,   UNHCR  continues  to  promote,  wherever   possible,
strategies  which  may contribute  to  stabilizing  fragile  situations  and
attenuating the  underlying causes of refugee  flows.   These activities are
consistent with  the general conclusions of  the Executive  Committee at its
forty-fourth session  2/ calling on UNHCR  to consider,  in cooperation with
other  concerned bodies, further activities in the  context of comprehensive
approaches to displacement. 

23.  In  this connection, and further  to General Assembly resolution 49/173
of 23 December  1994, UNHCR is engaged in  preparations for a conference  to
address  the problems of  refugees, returnees  and displaced  persons in the
countries  of   the  Commonwealth   of  Independent   States  and   relevant
neighbouring States. 

24.  Both within  this conference process and more generally, in relation to
other regions,  the Office is devoting  greater attention to  the problem of
statelessness.  If  effective national  protection of  stateless persons  is
not ensured, they, too, may join the ranks  of the displaced.  The denial of
rights  and expulsion of  minorities is  a recurrent  theme in displacement,
and the  prevention and reduction of  statelessness is  a significant aspect
of securing  minority rights.  The  Executive Committee,  at its forty-fifth
session, called on UNHCR to strengthen its efforts in this domain. 

25.  Collaboration with  the human rights initiatives and mechanisms of  the
United  Nations  system  is  an  increasingly  important component  of  both
preventive  and  solution-oriented  efforts.    Addressing  the  fifty-first
session of the Commission  on Human Rights,  held at Geneva from 30  January
to 10 March 1995,  the High Commissioner underlined  the close link  between
human  rights  abuses  and the  causes  of  refugee  movements.    She  drew
particular attention to international  efforts to establish a more effective
operational  capacity  of  the  United  Nations   in  human  rights  through
intensified   field  operations   in  several   areas,  and   also  to   the
establishment of  international tribunals to  prosecute the perpetrators  of
grave  violations  of  human  rights  and   humanitarian  law.    The   High
Commissioner  pointed  out  that  UNHCR's  actions  on  behalf  of refugees,
returnees, and, increasingly,  internally displaced persons  also contribute
to the advancement of human rights.

26.  An important  aspect of the current  challenge to provide protection to
all  who need it and to prevent and resolve refugee flows relates to UNHCR's
increasing  level of  involvement with  internally displaced  persons.   The
Executive  Committee, at  its forty-fifth  session, adopted a  conclusion on
internally displaced persons, 3/ which, recognizing  that the plight of such
persons is a matter of grave humanitarian concern,  noted that the many  and
varied  underlying  causes  of  involuntary  internal  displacement  and  of
refugee movements are often  similar and may call for similar measures  with
respect to prevention,  protection, humanitarian  assistance and  solutions.
The Executive  Committee, emphasizing  that the  primary responsibility  for
the  welfare and protection  of internally  displaced persons  lies with the
State  concerned,   called  on  Governments  to   ensure  safe  and   timely
humanitarian  access  to  persons  in need  of  protection  and  assistance,
including  internally displaced  persons and  victims of  armed conflict, as
well as refugees within their territories.   The Executive Committee further
emphasized that activities on  behalf of internally  displaced persons  must
not  undermine the institution  of asylum, including  the right  to seek and
enjoy  in   other  countries   asylum  from  persecution.     The  continued
appropriateness  of General Assembly  resolution 48/116  of 20 December 1993
as  a  framework for  the  High  Commissioner's  involvement  in respect  of
internally displaced persons was recognized. 

 C.  Securing the rights of refugees

27.   UNHCR remains  concerned about actions in  various regions which might
undermine the  right to  seek and  enjoy asylum  and the  principle of  non-
refoulement.    While  the  overwhelming  majority  of  countries   continue
generously to receive persons in need  of international protection, many  in
spite of difficult domestic conditions, both  legal and practical  obstacles
continue  to  inhibit   access  for  asylum-seekers.    These  include   the
imposition  of   carrier  sanctions   and  visa  requirements;   restrictive
interpretations of refugee criteria  which serve to exclude some of the most
deserving cases  from recognition;  xenophobic attitudes  and actions  which
undermine the protection implicit in the  granting of asylum, and  pressures
to hasten the repatriation of refugees, notwithstanding inadequate  security
and poor prospects for both the safety and  sustainability of return.  UNHCR
continues to intervene  with the authorities in  cases in which refugees are
denied  the  protection they  require,  and  to  lend  its expertise,  where
required, in support of related doctrinal and legal questions.
28.   The Office remains committed  to elaborating  more detailed guidelines
on  the provision of  temporary protection in cases of  mass influx.  At the
same time,  however, the complexity of  certain situations  has raised basic

questions  regarding  the interpretation  of the  refugee definition  in the
1951 Convention. It seems clear from  the travaux preparatoires and from the
historical  context that  the Convention's  provisions  were intended  to be
given an  interpretation consistent with the  generous spirit  in which they
were  conceived.   The refugee  definition was meant  to have  an inclusive,
rather  than  a  restrictive meaning,  in  accordance  with the  fundamental
objective of providing  international protection to those lacking  effective
national protection, through the recognition of their refugee status.

29.  UNHCR has  also continued its  efforts to ensure the physical  security
of refugees.   Following the emphasis  placed by the Executive Committee and
the High  Commissioner  on  the  need to  ensure  the personal  security  of
refugees  and, in  particular,  the  conclusion  adopted  by  the  Executive
Committee  at its  fortyfourth  session  on refugee  protection  and  sexual
violence, 4/ which called  on the High Commissioner to monitor, prevent  and
redress  violations  in  this regard,  UNHCR  issued,  on 8  March  1995,  a
publication  entitled "Sexual  violence  against refugees:    guidelines  on
prevention and response".  Through  these means, UNHCR seeks  to highlight a
global  and massive form  of violation  of the human rights  of refugee men,
women and  children.  In doing so,  UNHCR also hopes to dispel the view that
such forms of violence can be tolerated as  an inevitable by-product of  war
or ignored as a personal matter for the refugee alone to handle. 

D.  Promotional activities

30.  During  the period under  review, the  Solomon Islands  acceded to  the
1951  Convention relating to  the Status  of Refugees,  and Dominica acceded
and the  former Yugoslav Republic  of Macedonia  succeeded to both  the 1951
Convention and its 1967 Protocol, bringing the  number of States Parties  to
one or both instruments to 128. 

31.    UNHCR's  promotional activities  sought to  strengthen  knowledge and
understanding  of  refugee  issues,  as  well  as  to  foster  the effective
implementation  of international  legal  standards on  behalf  of  refugees,
returnees  and other persons  of concern  to UNHCR,  including through their
incorporation into national  legislation and administrative procedures.   To
this  end, the  Office organized courses  on refugee law  and protection for
government  officials,  implementing  partners  and  other  non-governmental
organizations in all regions of the  world.  UNHCR's operational involvement
in new types  of situations has  resulted in an  increase in  the number  of
training   activities  organized   jointly  with   regional  bodies,   other
international  organizations and  non-governmental partners,  as well  as  a
widening   of  the  scope   of  those   courses  to   include  international
humanitarian and human rights law. 

32.   At the regional level, two  important events in the field of promotion
took place  at the  end of  1994.   The commemorations  of the  twenty-fifth
anniversary of the adoption of the  Organization of African Unity Convention
Governing the Specific  Aspects of Refugee Problems  in Africa and the tenth
anniversary of  the Cartagena Declaration on Refugees included the convening
of  a symposium  for the  former and  a colloquium for  the latter,  both of
which  were well  attended and  allowed for  in-depth discussion  on  a wide
range of issues related to refugee protection.

33.  The protection responsibilities of  UNHCR include protecting the  human
rights of refugees, returnees and other  displaced persons of concern to the
Office.   UNHCR is therefore closely following developments  in the field of
human rights within  the United Nations system  and is cooperating with  its
human  rights mechanisms.  The  crucial link between the human rights system
and the protection  of refugees serves a dual purpose.  On the  one hand, it
assists the Office in raising awareness  of the relationship between refugee
issues and broader human rights concerns,  particularly those related to the
right  to seek and enjoy asylum and the right  to freedom of movement, which
includes  "the right to return" and  "the right to remain".  Other rights of
special  interest  to  the Office  are related  to  protection of  women and

children.  On the other hand,  strengthening collaboration between UNHCR and
the human  rights bodies  enhances the ability  of the United  Nations as  a
whole  to  address complex  humanitarian  problems  in a  more comprehensive
manner.   In  addition, international  human rights  instruments  constitute
helpful  terms of  reference to  strengthen  the  protection of  refugees in
accordance with the protection mandate of UNHCR. 

34.   During 1994, UNHCR was increasingly  involved in the work of the human
rights treaty bodies and other human  rights mechanisms, through sharing  of
information,  exchange  of views  and promotion  of human  rights standards.
UNHCR  established an  active collaboration  with the  High Commissioner for
Human  Rights, especially at  the level  of field operations.   In addition,
UNHCR actively  contributed to the work  of the  Subcommission on Prevention
of Discrimination and  Protection of Minorities and the fifty-first  session
of  the Commission  on Human  Rights.   Ongoing contacts  with human  rights
working groups, rapporteurs, experts and monitors  are also an integral part
of  the  approach  of  UNHCR  to  bridge  human  rights  concerns  with  the
protection of refugees. 

35.  In  fulfilling its  responsibility to provide international  protection
to refugees, UNHCR must have access  to credible and trustworthy information
on   countries  that   are   the  sources   of   population   displacements.
Authoritative information supports decision and policy-making processes  and
ensures that the  actions taken by  the Office  are both readily  defensible
and oriented to effective solutions. 

36.  The Centre for Documentation on Refugees  (CDR) acts as the information
resource  arm of  the Division  of  International  Protection.   It provides
users with a broad and  relevant collection of refugee literature, legal and
country  of origin information.   Its  acquisitions policy  reflects, in the
main, literature  and documentation on  refugees and  durable solutions  for
refugees; human  rights violations;  advocacy and  remedies; minorities  and
displaced persons; and law, practice and opinion.

37.  In order  to ensure access  to information  on refugees, the CDR  began
over ten years  ago to develop  a refugee  literature database.   There  are
currently  14  databases, known  collectively  as  REFWORLD,  which  include
country  reports and United  Nations documentation  in full  text, case law,
instruments,  legislation, media  and an  on-line  thesaurus.   REFWORLD was
scheduled to be available over the  INTERNET in April 1995 and  to appear as
a CD-ROM. 



A.   Major trends in assistance

1.  General and Special Programmes

38.   UNHCR divides  its assistance  programmes into  two broad  categories:
General Programmes (including a Programme Reserve,  a General Allocation for
Voluntary Repatriation  and an Emergency Fund)  and Special  Programmes.  In
the context  of the preparation of the United Nations Medium-Term Plan 1998-
2001, UNHCR is seeking  to assure consistency in the way its programmes  are
presented to the Executive Committee and in the Medium-Term Plan.

39.    Expenditure  in  1994  amounted   to  $390.7  million  under  General
Programmes  and $776.1 million under Special Programmes.  Some 31.5 per cent
of the  Special Programmes  pertained to  UNHCR's programme  of humanitarian
assistance  in the  former  Yugoslavia and  a further  31  per cent  to  the
Burundi/Rwanda emergency operation.  Other important expenditures  concerned
the  Mozambique repatriation programme  and the Comprehensive Plan of Action
for Indo-Chinese Refugees.

40.  Total voluntary funds expenditures  related to 1994 activities amounted
to $1,166.8 million.   In addition,  expenditures relating  to a portion  of
administrative support costs at headquarters  and amounting to $23.6 million
were  covered by the  United Nations  Regular Budget  contribution to UNHCR.
Detailed  information  on  expenditure  levels  for  each  country  or  area
programme is given in table 1.

41.  The  initial 1995 General Programmes  target approved by  the Executive
Committee in October 1994 was $415.4 million.  That  amount was subsequently
increased by the Executive  Committee at its  meeting of 17 January 1995  to
$428.7  million, which  includes $14  million  as  a Programme  Reserve, $20
million  for the  General  Allocation  for  Voluntary Repatriation  and  $25
million  for  the  Emergency  Fund.    Projections  for  1995  under Special
Programmes amounted  to $866 million, of  which some  $290 million pertained
to  the  Burundi/Rwanda  emergency  and  some  $191  million  to  the former

2.  Types of assistance

(a)  Emergency preparedness, response and assistance

42.   As a result of  UNHCR's efforts since 1991,  its stand-by capacity  to
meet emergencies has reached  a high level.   Thus, during the  period under
review, the emphasis was  on maintaining and  improving established stand-by
arrangements rather than increasing their number.

43.  During 1994  and the first quarter  of 1995, UNHCR's emergency response
teams  were  deployed  to  17  operations.     The  five  senior   Emergency
Preparedness  and Response  Officers (EPROs),  who  are  on stand-by  at all
times  to  lead  emergency   teams  or  to   undertake  specific   emergency
assignments,   were   deployed  for   737   workdays;   the   11   emergency
administrative  staff   were  deployed  for   2,345  workdays.    They  were
complemented by over 20 staff drawn  from UNHCR's internal emergency roster,
who were  normally deployed for two-month  periods during  the initial phase
of  emergency operations.   United  Nations  Volunteers  has emerged  as the
largest  supplier of  seconded staff  to  UNHCR's  emergency teams,  with 77
Volunteers being deployed  to nine countries.   Another staffing arrangement
which has  worked very  well is  with Radda  Barnen International  (Sweden),
which seconded eight community services officers to  UNHCR's emergency teams
during the period under  review.  That arrangement, inter alia, has made  it
possible for  UNHCR to ensure  that the needs  of women,  children and other
vulnerable  groups  are  given  attention  from  the  initial  phase  of  an
emergency. Other agencies  with stand-by arrangements for staff  secondment,
such as the Danish  and Norwegian refugee councils,  the Centers for Disease
Control  (United  States)  and  Red  R  (United  Kingdom),  were  also  used
extensively;  a new stand-by  arrangement with  Red R  (Australia) was being

44.  UNHCR's  central emergency stockpile was used heavily during the period
under review.   Additions were  made to  the stock  level of  items such  as
vehicles,  plastic  sheeting  and   blankets.    Thanks   to  the  emergency
stockpile,  UNHCR was able, for  example, to deliver within  a 10-day period
sufficient non-food  items for  some 250,000 refugees  at the  onset of  the
influx into Goma, Zaire.   The stockpile of staff support equipment was also
found  to  be   indispensable  in  the  various  locations  where  emergency
operations  were established,  given  the  often  poor facilities  in  those
places.  UNHCR gave the  Commission on Human  Rights access to its stock  of
field survival kits for the Commission's  human rights monitors assigned  to
Rwanda.  At  the height  of the  emergency  operation in  Ngara, the  United
Republic of  Tanzania, UNHCR also called  on its  stand-by arrangements with
the Swedish Rescue Services Board  to assist with the construction of office
accommodation.  Also  under a  stand-by arrangement,  a fleet  of 30  trucks
with drivers  from the Russian governmental  agency EMERCOM  was deployed to
the Ngara operation.

45.    UNHCR  continued  to  provide  regional  emergency  training  to non-
governmental  organization  partners,  government  counterparts  and   UNHCR
staff.  In 1994, emergency management  training programmes were conducted in
Botswana,  Turkey and  Thailand for  some  110  participants.   The training
course  for UNHCR internal  staff on  stand-by for  emergency deployment was
further  improved;  of  the  50  staff  who  received  training,  most  were
eventually  deployed to  emergency operations.  Further attention  is  being
given to sharpening  the management and leadership  skills of the  EPROs who
lead the emergency teams during the initial phase of an emergency.

46.   In spite  of these arrangements,  UNHCR's response capacity  was fully
taxed by  the unprecedentedly  large refugee  movements in  the Great  Lakes
region of Africa.   Major emergency  resources were  deployed to the  United
Republic  of Tanzania, Zaire,  Burundi, Uganda  and Rwanda.   However, given
the extent of the needs and the fact  that substantial resources had already
been depleted by preceding emergencies, UNHCR  found it necessary to  appeal
to Governments for assistance beyond its  traditional resources in order  to
meet the  initial  critical  needs  of  the  more than  1  million  Rwandese
refugees who fled their country in July 1994.

47.   The innovative  form in which  this assistance was  sought came to  be
known  as "service  packages".   UNHCR  proposed  eight service  packages to
Governments: airport services,  logistics base services, road servicing  and
road  security, site  preparation, provision  of domestic  fuel,  sanitation
facilities, water management, and  airhead management.   These packages were
provided by  various Governments  by rapidly  mobilizing  military or  civil
defence  capacities to  complement UNHCR's  own resources.   As a  result of
this generally  positive experience,  and at  the request  of the  Executive
Committee,  UNHCR  undertook a  study  to  define  and  develop further  the
modalities  for deployment  of such  self-contained assistance  packages  in
future  major  emergencies.   An  informal  consultation  convened  by UNHCR
considered this  study on  3 April  1995 and  an informal  process has  been
launched to  consider further the broader questions relating to preparedness
for emergencies.   UNHCR is coordinating  closely with  and participating in
related initiatives sponsored by the Department  of Humanitarian Affairs  of
the United Nations Secretariat.

48.    Emergency assistance  provided by  UNHCR in  1994 amounted  to $273.4
million, representing  some  23 per  cent  of  UNHCR expenditure  under  all
sources of funds. In  the provision of such assistance, UNHCR was anxious to
assure a smooth transition from relief to development.  Ways to assure  such
a transition  are  under consideration  in inter-agency  discussions on  the
continuum from relief to development.

(b)  Care and maintenance

49.   After the emergency  phase of a refugee operation,  the basic needs of
the  refugee population  are covered  by  activities  described as  care and
maintenance.  During  1994,  $536.8  million,  or  45  per  cent  of UNHCR's
expenditureunderallsourcesof funds,werespentoncareandmaintenanceactivities.

50.    The  largest  programme  related  to  the  former  Yugoslavia ($222.7
million).  In  Africa,   sizeable  programmes  continued  in  Kenya   ($30.5
million), Guinea  ($15.3 million) and Malawi  ($14.2 million).   Other large
programmes were  in Pakistan  ($19.4 million),  Bangladesh ($15.8  million),
Hong Kong ($12.3 million) and Thailand ($12 million).

(c)  Voluntary repatriation

51.    Negotiations and  events under  way in  many areas  provide continued
grounds  for  hope  that  voluntary  repatriation,  the  preferred   durable
solution,  can soon  become a  reality for  a large  number of  the  world's
refugees.   During 1994, $173 million  were spent  on voluntary repatriation
under all sources of  funds. The bulk of  this expenditure was under Special
Programmes.    Of  the  modest  expenditure  ($21.3 million)  under  General
Programmes, some  $16.1 million were  incurred under  the General Allocation

for  Voluntary Repatriation;  this General  Allocation  has  proven to  be a
valuable funding mechanism  for addressing, under  certain conditions and in
an expeditious manner, opportunities for voluntary repatriation. 

52.  Of the  1.7 million refugees who returned, most notably to  Mozambique,
Afghanistan,  Togo  and  Myanmar, some  670,000  were  assisted directly  by
UNHCR. Initiatives to ensure  the durability of  voluntary repatriations are
described below (paras. 75-79).

(d)  Local settlement

53.   In situations in which voluntary repatriation is  not an option in the
foreseeable future,  local settlement of  refugees within  the host  country
may be  a viable  possibility.   Pending their  repatriation, refugees  are,
where possible,  assisted through specific projects aimed at promoting their
socio-economic self-reliance and  local integration, thus enabling UNHCR  to
phase  out its  assistance  on a  progressive and  sustainable basis.   Such
projects fall, for the most  part, into two broad  categories - agricultural
and non-agricultural.

 54.   Local settlements may be organized  or spontaneous.   In rural areas,
organized  schemes are  being developed  in  countries  such as  the Central
African Republic, China,  Ethiopia, Mexico, the United Republic of  Tanzania
and Zaire. Spontaneous settlements in local  host villages are supported  in
Benin, Cote  d'Ivoire,  Ghana, Guinea  and  Senegal.   Assistance  to  urban
refugees  is provided in  many countries,  including Brazil,  Kenya, Senegal
and  some European  countries. In  view  of  the degree  of self-sufficiency
achieved,  it was  planned to  phase down  local settlement assistance  in a
number of countries in 1995.

55.  Expenditures in  1994 for local settlement, under all sources of funds,
amounted to some $111.3 million.

(e)  Resettlement

56.   In 1994, UNHCR  sought resettlement for  some 58,860  persons, with an
additional 20,000 places  offered for temporary protection and  resettlement
for refugees from  former Yugoslavia.   Resettlement places were  identified
for 34,640 refugees, representing a 41  per cent shortfall against  forecast
needs, as compared to the 1993 shortfall of 39 per cent.

57.   From  the beginning  of the operation  in June 1991  until 28 February
1995,  12,629  Iraqis in  Saudi  Arabia,  out of  an  initial  31,828,  were
resettled, mainly in the United States and the Islamic Republic of Iran.   A
further 1,136 had been accepted for resettlement and  were in the process of
being transferred to their respective receiving countries.

58.   Resettlement requirements for refugees  from the  Middle East exceeded
those  of other regions,  with some  22,500 places required for  1995.  Over
2,143  Iranian  and Iraqi  refugees  were  resettled  from  Turkey in  1994;
requirements for 1995 were estimated  at 1,300.  UNHCR  continues to promote
burden-sharing for this caseload.

59.  In former Yugoslavia, from the beginning  of the emergency operation in
October 1992  to the  end of  1994, 26,304  persons, mainly from  Bosnia and
Herzegovina,  were  enabled  through  UNHCR  programmes  to  move  to  third
countries for  resettlement or  temporary protection.   In  addition to  ex-
detainees and their dependants, the operation included  victims or witnesses
of violence/torture, those with medical problems  and persons in acute  need
of  protection.      The  initial   international  response   to  the   High
Commissioner's appeal was positive,  with 26 Governments offering places for
temporary  protection  or resettlement.  In  recent  months,  however,  more
restrictive trends have become apparent.

60.   Major  resettlement efforts  in Africa  focused on  refugees from  and
located in the Horn  of Africa, notably Somalis.   In West  Africa, Liberian

refugees continued  to receive  resettlement assistance,  mainly for  family
reunification. In 1994, a total of  6,964 Africans were resettled, mostly in
Nordic  countries,  and  in  the  United  Kingdom  and  the  United  States.
Extraregional resettlement  efforts for  African refugees  aim primarily  at
reuniting families.   A smaller number  of resettlement  places is required,
predominantly  for   selected   individuals  whose   physical  security   is
threatened, or  for vulnerable  refugees for  whom resettlement  remains the
only suitable, durable and humane solution. UNHCR  projected a need for some
8,650 third-country resettlement places for African refugees in 1995.

61.     The  resettlement   of  Vietnamese   and  Lao   refugees  under  the
Comprehensive Plan of Action for Indo-Chinese  Refugees was scheduled to  be
completed  by early  1995.  A total  of 7,018 Vietnamese and  6,187 Lao were
resettled under  the programme  during 1994.   Although  a  target date  for
final resettlement offers was set for the end  of December 1994, there  were
still  1,088  Vietnamese without  firm  resettlement  acceptances  by  then.
Despite the  participation  of  many  Governments  in  this  camp  clearance
exercise, broader  participation and  increased flexibility on  the part  of
the  countries  of resettlement  are needed  to  successfully complete  this

B.  Programme themes and priorities

62.    In  all  the  phases  of its  assistance  cycle,  UNHCR  continues to
institutionalize its particular  concerns with regard  to refugee  women and
children  and to the environment,  and to integrate these special needs into
its programme  planning  and implementation.    The  three areas  have  been
singled  out by  the Executive  Committee  as  programmatic priorities.   In
1994, the Executive Committee, through an  informal Working Group on Refugee
Women  and Refugee  Children,  looked  into  the  diversity  and  persistent
character of  certain obstacles  hampering the protection  of refugee  women
and children.    The Executive  Committee endorsed  the special  initiatives
called for  in the report  of the Working Group.   The Office also continues
to explore ways to address the environmental impact of refugee movements.

63.   In addition,  in its  efforts to  ensure the  durability of  voluntary
return  movements,  UNHCR   continues  to  seek  to  interest   Governments,
development   agencies   and  financial   institutions   in  improving   the
infrastructure  in areas of  return often  devastated by war.   The theme of
the continuum  from relief  to development was  the subject of  a number  of
deliberations in  the Subcommittee on  Administrative and Financial  Matters
during the period under review.

1.  Refugee women

64.  The  Working Group on Refugee  Women and Refugee Children  recommended,
inter  alia,  that  staff members  or  consultants  with  specific expertise
should  be systematically  engaged to  ensure that  the particular  problems
affecting refugee  women are  addressed within  overall programme  planning.
It  has thus  been decided to create  four new posts of  Regional Adviser on
Refugee  Women; these  will  provide significant  reinforcement  to  present
activities aimed at improving programmes for refugee women. 

65.   The  same report  underlined  the  need for  expanded  People-oriented
Planning (POP), UNHCR's training programme covering  gender issues.  In this
context,  substantial  efforts  have  been  undertaken  to  coordinate   and
reinforce   training    efforts   with   particular   indigenous    training
organizations  so that  they can replicate  and ensure the  expansion of POP
training.    Furthermore, to  respond  to  a  growing  demand for  practical
applications of the POP approach to  actual field situations, new guidelines
to  assist  in  programming  have  been  prepared.    In  addition, training
materials were  translated into Arabic and  Russian and  new case-studies on
reproductive health were being  prepared.  A trainer's manual has also  been
developed to  assist trainers in  giving the UNHCR course  to any requesting


66.   Particular  care has  been taken  to  assure  coordination with  other
United Nations initiatives.  Cooperation with  the Special Rapporteur of the
Commission on Human Rights on violence  against women resulted in  extensive
coverage of refugee women's issues in her first  report.  Work initiated  in
UNHCR's Subcommittee  of the  Whole on  International Protection  related to
aspects of  sexual  violence culminated  in  the  release of  guidelines  to
enable  field staff to deal  with this pervasive problem.   Concerns related
to reproductive  health and  its particular  relevance to  the situation  of
refugee  women have  been highlighted  in  the  planning of  an inter-agency
symposium proposed by UNHCR and the  United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA);
it was hoped that  the symposium would contribute to a guidance manual which
would  ensure  that   future  refugee  health  programmes  integrate   these

67.  UNHCR  participated actively in all the preparatory conferences for the
Fourth  World Conference on Women;  as a result,  every regional Platform of
Action   included  issues   that  have  been  identified   through  a  field
consultation process as of concern to refugee women.

2.  Refugee children

68.   The revised  Guidelines on  Refugee Children, which was  issued in May
1994 and which  also contains UNHCR's Policy  on Refugee Children, has  been
extensively  promoted, with  12,000 copies  distributed to  UNHCR staff  and
implementing   partners  working  with  refugee  children.    A  new  manual
entitled, "Working  with unaccompanied minors in  the community  - a family-
based approach" gives further guidance.

69.   The quality of  UNHCR's response  to the needs of  refugee children in
emergencies  has   been  greatly  enhanced  by  the  deployment  of  trained
community workers  as part  of emergency  teams at  the outset of  a refugee
problem.   In the context of  a community approach,  the needs of  children,
especially  unaccompanied  children,  are  assessed  and  addressed.     For
example, community workers were  deployed in 1994 and  early 1995 in all the
countries  of asylum affected by the Rwanda and the Chechnya emergencies and
in Guinea for the new influx of refugees  from Sierra Leone.  In addition, a
regional support  unit for  refugee children  with three  staff members  was
deployed in the  Rwanda emergency.   This  pilot project  has the  following
objectives:  to ensure that field offices are sufficiently  equipped to meet
children's needs; to organize training and workshops for the staff of  UNHCR
and non-governmental organizations; to guide and  support field staff in how
to  respond to concrete  problems; and  to coordinate  policy and activities
with  the  United  Nations  Children's  Fund  (UNICEF),  the   International
Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and local authorities.

70.    UNHCR continues  to  pursue its  objectives  with regard  to  refugee
children in close  coordination with the  rest of the United  Nations system
and other  interested bodies; for example,  a joint  statement on evacuation
of unaccompanied children from Rwanda was issued  in June 1994 together with
UNICEF, ICRC and the International Federation of Red Cross  and Red Crescent
Societies.   UNHCR is actively  supporting the United  Nations study on  the
impact of  armed conflict  on children,  undertaken by  an expert  appointed
pursuant  to  General  Assembly  resolution  48/157  of  20  December  1993.
Together with UNICEF, UNHCR has, inter  alia, prepared and participated in a
field mission with the  expert and her  team to review the Rwanda  emergency

3.  Environment

71.   The  environmental dimension  of  the  refugee situations  is  gaining
increased  attention from  host countries,  the media  and the international
community at large.  The majority  of refugee populations are to be found in

the world's  ecologically fragile areas such  as arid  and semi-arid regions
and tropical rain forest areas.

72.   In  July 1994,  UNHCR  adopted  "Interim guidelines  for  environment-
sensitive management of  refugee programmes", which focus on preventive  and
proactive  approaches   to   alleviate  environmental   problems,  such   as
deforestation, associated  with refugee camps, and  are aimed  to respond to
General Assembly resolution 47/191 of 22 December  1992, on follow-up of the
United  Nations Conference on  Environment and  Development, held  at Rio de
Janeiro in 1992.

73.   As an  example, UNHCR's  response to the  Burundi/Rwanda emergency has
sought  to  address  environmental  issues.    In  the  United  Republic  of
Tanzania, an action plan focusing on the environment was drawn up by  UNHCR;
with  donor  support,  and  in  conjunction  with  the  Government  and  the
International  Fund  for  Agricultural  Development  (IFAD),  its  effective
implementation  has been  ensured.   The  impact of  Rwandese refugees  on a
national  park  in eastern  Zaire  is  also  being  addressed through  broad
collaborative   action  by   the  Government,   UNHCR,  UNDP,   UNESCO   and
conservation organizations.

74.  Further implementation of the  Guidelines, in particular the  promotion
of refugee-related  environmental projects through  active participation  of
government authorities,  donors, non-governmental organizations and refugees
themselves, was to be a key activity for UNHCR in 1995.

4.  Refugee/returnee aid and development

75.  The mandate  of the High Commissioner  to promote durable  solutions to
refugee problems  logically implies that the  activities of  UNHCR should be
linked to programmes aimed at long-term  development.  By building  mutually
supportive  linkages  between  humanitarian  and  developmental  activities,
dependency on  relief can be reduced,  solutions to  refugee problems better
guaranteed and the best investment in preventing them can be made.

76.   In the  period under review,  UNHCR participated  in discussions  with
Governments  and  intergovernmental and  non-governmental  organizations  on
assuring,  particularly  in crisis  and  post-crisis  situations,  a  better
interface between  humanitarian interventions and  development with the  aim
of  ensuring the sustainability  of solutions.   Among  such discussions was
that  of  the  Subcommittee  on  Rural  Development  of  the  Administrative
Committee  on Coordination, held  at Rome  in May 1994, on  returnee aid and

77.   In UNHCR's experience, implementation  of the concept  of a "continuum
from  relief to development"  should, on  the one  hand, enable humanitarian
assistance to  facilitate viable reintegration  of displaced  persons into a
process  of  social  and  economic  recovery   and,  on  the  other,   bring
development  endeavours closer  to people-centred  concerns and aspirations.
Without this  reinforcing link, solutions to humanitarian crises may regress
into new, divisive communal problems.

78.  In its  implementation of the "continuum concept", UNHCR is  addressing
humanitarian   needs  and  concerns  in  a  community  context  rather  than
individually.   This  approach,   effected  primarily   through   area-based
strategies and  so-called quick impact  projects (QIPs),  aims at supporting
reconciliation  and rehabilitation  in  post-conflict societies  by  placing
humanitarian  concerns  in   a  development  perspective.    A  policy   and
methodological framework  to this  effect has  been developed and  programme
management modalities  are being refined to  better meet  new situations and
needs.   In  these efforts  provisions are  made to  link UNHCR's operations
closer  with  UNDP and  other  United  Nations  agencies,  as  well as  with
bilateral actors.

79.    UNHCR,  at  times  in conjunction  with  UNDP,  continued  to  review

significant  reintegration experiences in order to benefit from lessons that
have  been  learned.   Recent  evaluations  covered  Cambodia,  Afghanistan,
Mozambique, Somalia,  Tajikistan and  the seven  countries participating  in
the   International  Conference  on  Central  American  Refugees  (CIREFCA).
Evaluations  were also  scheduled  of  the joint  UNHCR/World  Bank  income-
generating projects for refugee areas in  Pakistan and the joint  UNHCR/IFAD
south  Khorasan  rangeland  rehabilitation   and  refugee  income-generating
project  in the Islamic  Republic of Iran;  both projects  were scheduled to
conclude in 1995.

C.  Programme management and implementation

1.  General

80.   Throughout the  period under review, UNHCR  continued to implement the
recommendations  of   its  working   group  on   programme  management   and
operational  capacity,  whose recommendations  were  endorsed  by  the  High
Commissioner in July 1993.   One of the main recommendations, which has been
fully  implemented,  concerned  UNHCR's  programming cycle  and  procedures.
Under new procedures, there has been a reduction  in the level of  programme
detail  reviewed  at headquarters;  representatives  have  also  been  given
greater  flexibility  in   reallocating  budget  lines  within   operational
projects.  Such changes  have led not only  to more expeditious  approval of
operational budgets,  but also to greater  flexibility in  the management of
programmes.  Similar delegation of authority  has been institutionalized for
administrative budgets at both headquarters and in the field.

81.   The  field  version of  the computer  software  of the  Financial  and
Management Information System  was further  enhanced during  1994 and  other
improvements were planned for 1995.

82.    A  draft  programme  and   project  management  handbook  for   UNHCR
implementing  partners   was  being  finalized.     Simultaneously,  UNHCR's
programme management  training course has been  revised.   More emphasis was
being placed  in  such training  on  country-specific  courses, and  it  was
planned  to adapt  this  type  of training  to, and  make it  available for,
UNHCR's implementing partners.

2.  Military support to UNHCR activities

83.    Two types  of  relationships  between UNHCR  and  the  military  have
evolved. The  first results from  situations in which the  military has been
charged  to assist  humanitarian operations  in  a  security role,  and thus
normally  involves a  relationship between  UNHCR and United  Nations peace-
keepers.   In view  of the  increasing use  of United  Nations peace-keeping
operations  in support  of humanitarian  activities, the  High  Commissioner
recognized  the   need  for  improved   understanding,  new  doctrines   and
operational   procedures,  and   new   mutually  advantageous   systems  for
coordination  between UNHCR and the  military.  This  led to the appointment
in  1993  at headquarters  of a  special  adviser  on military  and logistic
issues.  In  addition, UNHCR has given support  to the Department of  Peace-
keeping  Operations of  the United  Nations  Secretariat in  developing  the
humanitarian  activities section  of the new training  curriculum for United
Nations peace-keepers.   Drawing on  experience in former Yugoslavia,  UNHCR
published in January 1995 the first edition of  a handbook for the  military
in  humanitarian operations  and  a complementary  internal  staff  training
module entitled "Working with the military".

84.  A second  form of relationship between  UNHCR and the military concerns
situations in  which unique or timely  military skills or  assets can be  an
essential  addition to  UNHCR's  emergency  relief activities  or  in  which
certain  unique  military skills  are  seconded  by Governments  to  support
ongoing programmes.  One aspect of this type of interface with the  military
has been touched on above in the discussion  of service packages (para. 47).

On a smaller but  no less important  scale, Governments have also  responded
to UNHCR  requests  for the  secondment  of  skilled military  personnel  to
support emergency or ongoing humanitarian operations.   The best known  case
is the Sarajevo airlift; it has involved seconded military personnel in  the
air operations cell  at UNHCR headquarters, as well  as in Zagreb and  Split
in  Croatia, Ancona  in Italy,  and  in the  case of  air drops  to besieged
communities  in Bosnia and  Herzegovina, in  Rheinmain airbase in Frankfurt,

3.  Evaluation

85.    The theme  of durable  solutions has  been a  major focus  of UNHCR's
evaluation  activities during  the period  under review.   These  activities
have included a comprehensive review of  resettlement policy and practice, a
study  of  returnee aid  and development,  and  a review  of UNHCR's  Kenya-
Somalia  cross-border   operation.     An  evaluation   of  the   Mozambique
repatriation operation  was initiated in  the first  quarter of 1995,  to be
followed  at  year-end by  an examination  of  the associated  reintegration

86.  UNHCR's activities in the former  Soviet Union provided a new focus for
the Central  Evaluation Section  in the past  year.  Two  studies have  been
undertaken: one seeks to derive lessons  from the Office's operations in the
Caucasus, and the other examines UNHCR's role in Tajikistan.

87.   A comprehensive evaluation  of UNHCR's policy and practice with regard
to urban refugees  was initiated in December 1994.  The first  stage of this
review  examines the  organization's  approach from  a  global  perspective.
This  will be followed  by a  number of  case studies  of UNHCR's  work with
urban refugees in selected field locations.

88.  On 1 March 1995, the Central  Evaluation Section was incorporated  into
UNHCR's new  Inspection and  Evaluation Service.   It  was anticipated  that
this   restructuring  would   significantly  strengthen   UNHCR's   internal
oversight capacity and its ability to conduct independent and  comprehensive
reviews of operational effectiveness and efficiency.

D.  Regional developments in Africa

1.  West Africa

89.  During 1994, all  efforts to bring peace to Liberia failed and, at  the
close  of  the   period  under  review,  the  situation  remained   fragile.
Hostilities,  which resumed  in September  1994, forced 56,000  Liberians to
flee into  Guinea and 118,000  into Cote d'Ivoire.   An  emergency programme
was  launched to  respond to  the urgent  needs.   While general  insecurity
precluded  large-scale repatriation,  6,700  returnees were  none  the  less
assisted by  UNHCR in  1994 and, subsequently,  approximately 60,000  Sierra
Leonean refugees in Monrovia and its environs.

90.   In Sierra  Leone, security  declined at  the end of  1994 and fighting
moved  closer   to  the  capital,  Freetown.     Fearful   of  the  worsened
circumstances,  924 Liberian  refugees repatriated by sea  in February 1995,
leaving some  6,000  mostly  Liberian refugees  in Freetown  assisted  under
UNHCR's  care  and  maintenance  programme.     However,  the  provision  of
assistance to some 10,000  returnees was very limited  owing to the  eastern
region's inaccessibility.

91.   Some  45,000  Sierra  Leoneans fled  Guinea  after an  incident on  24
January 1995 in  Kambia, a border town in  Sierra Leone.  UNHCR launched  an
emergency assistance  programme in February and  established a field  office
in Forecariah,  Guinea.   Guinea  is  currently  hosting more  than  600,000

92.  The appointment of a new Government in Togo  led to some improvement in
the security situation and  the economy.  A household survey of the  refugee
population in both Benin  and Ghana revealed that  the number had  decreased
by  some 121,400;  it  was  believed that  much  of this  decrease could  be
accounted for  by Togolese  refugees repatriating spontaneously.   With  the
adoption of a general amnesty  on 15 December  1994, it was hoped that  more
refugees would opt for voluntary repatriation in 1995.

93.  At the end of January  1994, violence between Konkombas and Nanumbas in
northern  Ghana displaced approximately  180,000 nationals.  In pursuance of
its strategy  of prevention, and at the request of the Ghanaian authorities,
UNHCR made $500,000 available  from the Emergency Fund  to meet the affected
population's immediate needs.   While the displaced  persons were  returning
to their  places of origin,  reports indicated that  the conflict  had begun
afresh, jeopardizing security in the region.

94.  About 40,000 Malian Tuaregs sought asylum  in Burkina Faso in the first
part of 1994 to  escape adverse security conditions  in northern Mali.   Two
UNHCR  field  offices  have  been  established  to  provide  protection  and
material  assistance.  The  Government  of  Niger  and the  Tuareg  movement
reached a new peace agreement in October 1994.

2.  Great Lakes region

95.    The April  1994  war  provoked  a massive  exodus  of  Rwandese  into
neighbouring countries.  By March 1995,  an estimated 2,202,130 refugees had
sought  refuge  in the  United  Republic  of  Tanzania,  Zaire and  Burundi.
However,  the presence of  military and  political elements  from the former
regime among  the  refugees engendered  a  high  level  of violence  in  the
refugee camps,  particularly in Zaire and  the United  Republic of Tanzania,
and refugees  were prevented from freely  expressing their  desire to return
and from benefiting from international assistance to do so.

96.   In consultation with the  Secretary-General, UNHCR  undertook a number
of  initiatives to establish,  at the  camp level,  a security  mechanism to
permit  refugees to live  in the  camps in relative safety  and security, to
have  unhindered access to  assistance and  to decide  freely about possible
future return.

 97.  In the  United Republic of Tanzania UNHCR supported the Government  by
increasing from  310 to 400 a police contingent to  tackle security problems
in the refugee camps.

98.  In Zaire, on  27 January 1995, an aide-memoire was signed between UNHCR
and the Zairian Government to have  the Contingent zairois de  securite dans
les  camps (CZSC) present  in the  Kivu area  monitored by  an international
Security Liaison Group, with  a mandate to:   improve  law and order in  the
Rwandese   refugee  camps;   prevent  intimidation   and  violence   against
candidates   for   voluntary   repatriation;   protect   installations   and
humanitarian  personnel;  and  provide  escorts  to  convoys  for  voluntary
repatriation from refugee camps to the border.

99.   The  regional conference  on  assistance  to refugees,  returnees  and
displaced persons in the  Great Lakes region,  held at Bujumbura from 15  to
17 February  1995, raised expectations in  the international  community of a
gradual increase in the rate of voluntary repatriation  to Rwanda.  The plan
of action  adopted by  the conference  was translated  by UNHCR into  a work
plan  to  facilitate  voluntary  repatriation  as  well  as  to  support the
voluntary and safe return home of  internally displaced persons remaining in
south-western  Rwanda. During  the first  two  months  of 1995,  some 60,900
refugees returned to  Rwanda. Of these,  approximately 45,300  were refugees
who left  in the  late 1950s  and early  1960s and  who have been  returning
spontaneously with their offspring.   The arrival of  the CZSC has helped to
improve security before  and during return movements  from the camps to  the
Rwandese  border.   Since their  arrival  in  mid-February 1995,  some 5,000

refugees from the 1994 caseload have been repatriated.

100.   In Burundi,  a pilot  project was  initiated at  the end  of 1994  to
facilitate  voluntary  repatriation to  Rwanda;  some  1,300  refugees  have
returned since 10 January 1995.

101.   Since the  beginning of  March 1995,  however, voluntary repatriation
movements  which  had  gained  momentum  as  a  result  of  the  initiatives
described above again slowed down.   Significant factors in this development
were  the increase  in security  incidents  in Rwanda,  the high  number  of
arrests of alleged  participants in the 1994 genocide  and the absence of  a
credible judicial system.

102.   Meanwhile, further  complications emerged  in countries  of asylum as
food shortages  increased  tensions in  refugee  camps.   In  addition,  new
refugees have fled violence in Burundi.

103.   Despite setbacks, UNHCR was  continuing to  prepare for repatriation.
In various parts  of Rwanda, the capacity  of transit and  reception centres
was  being expanded.    Community rehabilitation  projects continued  in the
major areas  of return.   In  addition, institutional  assistance was  being
provided to the Government, mainly through the Ministry of Rehabilitation.

3.  Eastern Africa and the Horn of Africa

104.  UNHCR activities in the  Horn of Africa during the period under review
focused  on  attaining  durable  solutions,  with  particular  emphasis   on
voluntary repatriation.   Planned  repatriation movements  which had  either
been  stalled or  put on  hold for  various  reasons -  including political,
security and  funding considerations  - again  gained momentum.   Thus,  the
long-awaited repatriation  of Eritrean refugees in  Sudan began in  November
1994 under  a pilot project  to repatriate 25,000  persons.   By the  end of
February 1995,  15,000 had repatriated with  the expectation  that the pilot
phase  would be completed by the  end of March  1995.  It was estimated that
some 100,000 of the 500,000 Eritrean refugees in  Sudan had already returned
spontaneously between  1992 and 1994.   The next  phase of the  repatriation
operation would  involve  some  135,000 persons  expected to  return  during
1995.   Limited donor  funding for  the rehabilitation  component in Eritrea
resulted   in  inadequate  preparation  of  settlement  sites   as  well  as
insufficient   infrastructure   and   services   to  guarantee   a   durable
repatriation and  reintegration operation.   An estimated $15.5  million was
budgeted for the repatriation and reintegration operation in 1995.

105.    Ethiopia,   meanwhile,  experienced  an  increase  in  the   refugee
population from 272,630 at  the beginning of 1994  to 348,080 in early 1995,
with a cumulative influx of over 76,000 Somalis  from north-west Somalia and
over 7,000 Sudanese from southern Sudan as a  result of renewed and  ongoing
conflict,  respectively. The  estimated number  of Djiboutian  (18,000)  and
Kenyan (8,188) refugees remained unchanged.

106.   Plans  for  the  repatriation of  Somali refugees  from the  camps in
eastern Ethiopia  during the course of 1994 were suspended  when the renewed
conflict in  north-west Somalia discharged a  fresh influx  of refugees into
eastern  Ethiopia. With  relative safety  returning to  north-west  Somalia,
plans  were being revived  to pursue  the voluntary  repatriation of Somalis
during 1995.  Similarly, arrangements for  the repatriation of up  to 60,000
Ethiopians  from Sudan in  1995 were  finalized, with  movements expected to
start  in  April.     Overall  programme  implementation  in  Ethiopia   was
constrained by  security and difficult access to programme areas, especially
in eastern Ethiopia, during 1994.   The improved situation prevailing  since
the beginning  of 1995 contributed considerably  to the  renewed impetus for
the various repatriation operations to and from Ethiopia.

107.   Other  significant organized  repatriation movements  to Somalia were
achieved in  1994 with  some 60,000  persons having  repatriated from  Kenya

within  the framework  of the  UNHCR-initiated cross-border  operation  from
Kenya into Somalia. A further 13,000  Somalis had repatriated by March 1995,
with the operation continuing  for a planned total  of 75,000 Somalis  to be
repatriated  and assisted  to reintegrate  in their  places of  origin.   In
spite of generally poor security in  southern Somalia, over 114,000  Somalis
returned from Kenya  with UNHCR assistance  to safe areas of  origin between
January 1992 and December 1994.

108.   The implementation  of community-based quick  impact projects  (QIPs)
with  the  active participation  of the  local  people, including  returnees
themselves,  continued  to   serve  as  the  main  instrument  for  bringing
assistance and  hence stability to  areas of return  in Somalia.   A similar
approach  was  being pursued  in  north-west  Somalia  in  order to  enhance
communal  infrastructure and  services for  the absorption  of returnees  in
their areas of origin.  An estimated $26.8 million was budgeted  for 1995 to
include the cross-border  operation from Kenya and reintegration  assistance
in north-west  Somalia.   Increased  inputs  from  development agencies  and
donors  were expected  to  ensure  the sustainability  of  the  repatriates'

4.  Southern Africa

109.   In  Angola,  between January  1994  and  the  signing of  the  Lusaka
Protocol on  21 November 1994, UNHCR  continued to  assist 112,000 returnees
and internally  displaced persons living mostly  in the  provinces of Zaire,
Uige,  Moxico  and Lunda  Sul.   The  continued  efforts of  the  Secretary-
General's  special  envoy enabled  agencies to  gain  access for  assistance
purposes  throughout  the  country  during  most   of  1994.    However,  an
escalation of  military activity  a few  days prior  to the  signing of  the
Lusaka Protocol prevented access by United Nations agencies, and  it was not
until January 1995 that UNHCR  was again able to obtain  access.  UNHCR also
participated  in   a  mission   that  prepared   the  1995  United   Nations
consolidated inter-agency  appeal  for  Angola,  which was  launched  on  21
February 1995.

110.   During early 1995,  the cease-fire was  holding, although there  were
reports of  violations from  both the  Angolan Government  and the  National
Union   for  the  Total   Independence  of   Angola  (UNITA).     While  the
implementation of  the peace  process is  slow, most  of the country  is now
accessible, thus improving the delivery of humanitarian assistance.

111.   UNHCR  is  updating  its 1992  plan  of operation  for the  voluntary
repatriation of Angolans.   During most of 1995,  emphasis was to be  placed
on the pre-positioning of food and non-food items  in areas of major return,
thus supporting spontaneous  movements back to  Angola.   At the same  time,
assistance would be provided to enhance activities in  the water, health and
education sectors.  UNHCR-organized transport should start in 1996.

112.   The  political situation  in Mozambique  remained stable in  1994, as
illustrated by the successful demobilization of  combatants and the free and
fair elections held  in October  under the  auspices of  the United  Nations
Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ).

113.    By  the  end of  1994,  some  1.6 million  persons  had  returned to
Mozambique  since  the signing  of  the  General  Peace  Agreement in  1992.
During 1994 alone, and in the context of  UNHCR's efforts to accelerate  the
repatriation process, some 271,000  persons were transported  back from  six
countries of asylum.  An additional 600,000 refugees returned  spontaneously
during the year.

114.   At the same  time, reintegration  activities in major  returnee areas
were  intensified through  the implementation  of  486  QIPs in  the health,
education,  water and road  sectors, the  distribution of  over 180,000 seed
and tool kits, and the continuation of mine-awareness activities.

115.  An estimated  100,000 remaining refugees were  expected to return from
Malawi,  Zimbabwe  and  South  Africa  in  1995,  mostly  through  organized
transport.  The first movements  had started  and were  expected to increase
after the April rainy  season.  A more intensified and targeted programme of
some 1,000 QIPs  was to be implemented in  1995, focusing on major  returnee
areas.  These  projects are aimed  concurrently at building the  capacity of
local communities and local government structures.

116.    In  Mozambique, UNHCR's  reintegration  strategy,  endorsed  by  the
Government  and major  donors, aims at establishing  linkages to longer-term
development  programmes.     Discussions  have   been  initiated  on   joint
programmes with various organizations such as  UNDP and the European  Union.
It  is  foreseen  that  established  linkages  with  other  programmes  will
contribute  to the sustainability  of activities  and enable  UNHCR to scale
down  its programme  and its  presence in  the field  by June  1996.   UNHCR
intended  to phase out  its involvement  in food logistics as  early as June
1995  through  the absorption  of  returnees  in  the  category of  affected
population.  The process of  phasing out food logistics and other assistance
programmes  could  be  hampered  by  adverse  climatic  conditions  such  as
drought, a lack of  funding, or the absence or slow take-off of  longer-term
development programmes supporting the Government's institutional capacity.
  117.  In 1994,  total expenditure in Africa amounted to $506.1 million, of
which $167.4 was expended under General  Programmes and $338.7 million under
Special Programmes.

E.  Regional developments in the Americas and the Caribbean

1.  Central America and Mexico

118.   The  process launched  by  the  International Conference  on  Central
American Refugees (CIREFCA)  was formally concluded on  29 June 1994 at  the
Third  International  Meeting  of the  Follow-up Committee,  held  at Mexico
City.  The seven  participating countries - Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala,  Honduras,  Mexico  and  Nicaragua  -   created  a  framework  to
coordinate action  in the post-CIREFCA period  and adopted  a Declaration of
Commitments to consolidate durable solutions in the region.

119.   The  international  colloquium held  at San  Jose to  commemorate the
tenth anniversary of the Cartagena Declaration,  organized by UNHCR and  the
Inter-American  Institute  of  Human  Rights  under  the  auspices  of   the
Government of  Costa Rica, adopted the San Jose Declaration  on Refugees and
Displaced  Persons in  December 1994.    The  Declaration addresses  the key
issue of harmonizing  legal criteria and  procedures to  consolidate durable
solutions  of  voluntary  repatriation  and  local  integration  in  Central
America,  Mexico  and Belize  and continuing  the voluntary  repatriation of
Guatemalan refugees from Mexico.

120.   Through the regional peace process, durable solutions have been found
for  the majority  of Central  American refugees.   During the  period under
review,  UNHCR activities in Central  America, though to  a lesser degree in
Guatemala,  emphasized  legal issues  and  international  protection.    The
Office attempted  to strengthen  the capacity  of Governments  to deal  with
refugee-related matters by assisting them to formulate national  legislation
on  asylum and  refugees, encouraging  the fruition of  national commitments
made  at the  meeting of  the  CIREFCA  Follow-up Committee,  and supporting
Governments in implementing the guidelines of the San Jose Declaration.

121.    Meanwhile, durable  solutions  continued  to  be  consolidated.   In
Belize,  quick impact  projects (QIPs)  were to continue  through 1995  at a
reduced  level, aimed  at  facilitating the  socio-economic  integration  of
10,600 refugees and undocumented persons in  refugee-like situations.  In El
Salvador, the QIP  programme, which helped the integration of  approximately
31,500 Salvadoran  returnees,  was  to be  completed  by  April  1995.    In
addition,  UNHCR has  continued with  voluntary repatriation  of  individual
cases and with  the integration of  refugees who  chose to  remain in  their

country of asylum.

122.   The voluntary  repatriation of  Guatemalan refugees  from Mexico  and
their  reintegration  and rehabilitation  remained the  region's outstanding
challenge.   A total  of 6,000  Guatemalan refugees  repatriated from Mexico
during  1994  despite  continuing security  problems, the  scarcity  of land
available to returnees and  the absence of a  peace agreement.  This brought
the  total number of  Guatemalan returnees  assisted by  UNHCR since January
1993, through QIPs and other assistance, to more than 11,000.

123.  While the human rights accord between the Government of Guatemala  and
the  armed opposition  Guatemalan  National Revolutionary  Union  failed  to
improve the  security situation  in the  country, it  was expected  that the
finalization of the  peace agreements, with United Nations mediation,  would
give some 10,000 refugees the possibility of repatriating during 1995.

124.  Improvements  to the Campeche and  Quintana Roo refugee settlements in
Mexico should be completed by  the end of 1995, enabling UNHCR to begin  the
gradual  transfer of responsibilities for infrastructure and services to the
Mexican authorities.   The  phasing down  of UNHCR  assistance, expected  to
begin in  1996, could  be delayed by  the turbulent  political and  economic
situation  in  Mexico.  Several  difficult  legal  issues   remained  to  be
resolved, including the  status of the refugees and  the tenure of the  land
they occupy.

2.  South America and the Caribbean

125.  The return of President  Aristide to Haiti on 15 October 1994 led to a
reduction in  violence  and political  instability  and  paved the  way  for
voluntary  repatriation of  Haitian refugees  who  had  found asylum  in the
Dominican Republic  and other  Caribbean countries  since late  1991.   Some
1,209 Haitian  returnees were  assisted by UNHCR  during 1994.   Despite the
still fragile political situation  in Haiti, voluntary repatriation of small
groups under UNHCR auspices continued without  interruption.  By the  end of
1995, about 1,000 refugees should have  been repatriated from the  Dominican
Republic,  Cuba and  other countries  in the  region.   An additional  1,400
Haitians may return spontaneously during the year.

126.  UNHCR's plans to assist  returnees and returnee-affected areas through
reintegration,  material  assistance  and  training  were  hindered  by  the
international community's  lack  of response  to the  United Nations  inter-
agency  appeal  for  Haiti.     Unless  adequate  international  support  is
provided,  the  country's   extreme  poverty  and  the  present   democratic
Government's uncertain future could lead to further outflows.

127.  Asylum-seekers from  outside the region continued  to arrive in  Latin
America, particularly  in  South America.    However,  the flow  of  asylum-
seekers  from Africa to Brazil decreased.  Local integration was promoted as
the durable solution for refugees in the region.

128.   As  in Central  America,  UNHCR  activities focused  on international
protection.  UNHCR concentrated on promoting  and disseminating refugee  law
and  actively participated,  together with  Governments, in  organizing  and
delivering specialized  courses on the  protection of refugees/returnees  to
military  personnel   who  participate  in   United  Nations   peace-keeping

129.  In 1994, total expenditure in the Americas and the Caribbean  amounted
to  $39.7  million,  of  which  $20.8  million  was  expended  under General
Programmes and $18.9 million under Special Programmes.

F.  Regional developments in Asia and Oceania

1.  South Asia

130.   Following the  signing of  a memorandum of  understanding between the
Government of Myanmar  and UNHCR in  November 1993,  UNHCR opened a  liaison
office in Yangon in  February 1994, and by year end had deployed 13 staff in
Rakhine State.

 131.   Between 30 April  1994, when UNHCR  involvement began,  and 28 March
1995, 126,471  Muslim residents  repatriated voluntarily  from the  camps in
Bangladesh  to  Rakhine  State,  Myanmar,  despite  serious  damage  to  the
repatriation  facilities  caused  by  a  cyclone  in  May  and  a three-week
suspension of  movements in  October to  contain the  spread of plague.   In
total, over  129,000 persons have returned. In Bangladesh, 8 camps have been
closed and the remaining  68,000 refugees are in  10 camps.   Few protection
cases have been  reported from the  Bangladesh camps,  and UNHCR staff  have
unhindered  access to  all  returnees in  Rakhine  State.    In January  and
February 1995, UNHCR visited all 30 returnees detained in prison in  Sittwe,
Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships.

132.  Returnees have been  provided with a repatriation kit, individual cash
and family housing grants,  and two month's  food rations.  In addition,  to
improve the livelihood of the population at large in  the returnee receiving
areas of Rakhine  State, over  120 small-scale  reintegration projects  were
being  implemented.    The  start-up  of  the  reintegration  programme  was
hampered  by the lack  of an  implementing capacity  and logistical problems
related to the absence of infrastructure in this  remote area.  The  problem
was   resolved  when   the  authorities  granted   certain  non-governmental
organizations permission to  operate.  Health,  water, sanitation  and rural
infrastructure  are priority sectors.   The  World Food  Programme (WFP) has
made  considerable progress in  a food-for-work scheme to provide employment
opportunities through  small-scale projects involving  the repair of  access
roads and the digging of ponds.

133.  Approximately  17,800 Sri Lankan refugees  returned to Sri Lanka  from
Tamil Nadu  during the period under review, leaving 53,000 refugees in camps
in  India. The cessation  of hostilities  between the  Sri Lankan Government
and  the  Liberation  Tigers  of  Tamil  Eelam  in  January  1995 favourably
affected  repatriation  movements.   From  27  February  to  20 March  1995,
approximately 10,000  persons  returned to  Sri  Lanka.   At  least  another
10,000  persons  were  expected  to repatriate  during  the  next movements,
scheduled for August 1995.

134.    The urban  refugee caseload  in  Delhi  decreased marginally.   Some
23,000 persons,  mainly Afghans,  were registered with UNHCR,  although only
50 per  cent  were receiving  financial  assistance.   An  ongoing  caseload
survey identified families with potential entrepreneurial skills; they  have
been provided  with a  one-time grant  to replace  monthly assistance.   The
survey  also  made  it  possible  to   identify  refugees  not  in  need  of
international  material assistance,  for  whom the  Office is  now providing
only legal protection.

135.   No durable solutions were  found for  86,000 Bhutanese asylum-seekers
and  refugees in  Nepal despite  two rounds  of talks  between the concerned
Governments,  in June  1994 and  February/March  1995.   Further  talks were
scheduled.   An  eventual solution  to  the  problem would  probably involve
voluntary repatriation and local integration.

136.   Emphasis  shifted from  relief  activities,  such as  construction of
shelters,  development  of  water  systems  and  the  provision  of adequate
sanitation  facilities, to  activities which  improve the  quality  of life,
such as  education, income-generating  activities  and vocational  training.
Greater  refugee involvement,  particularly the  participation of  women  in
camp management, has been given priority.

 2.  East Asia

137.  UNHCR  continued to maintain  a presence  in Cambodia in light  of the

worsening  security situation,  especially  in the  north-western provinces.
The reintegration  needs  of  vulnerable returnees  were addressed.    UNHCR
monitored the situation and sought durable  solutions for some 4,000  ethnic
Vietnamese  stranded at  Chrey  Thom on  the  border between  Viet  Nam  and
Cambodia.   The  Office  also  assisted Cambodian  refugees  returning  from
various countries.

138.   At  the start  of 1995,  the total  refugee population  in China  was
287,086. The  majority (285,500)  were Indo-Chinese  refugees of  Vietnamese
origin;  1,511 were of  Lao and 30 of Cambodian origin.   A total of 408 Lao
repatriated in 1994.  Although the voluntary  repatriation programme for Lao
refugees  was officially  concluded in  1994,  the possibility  of voluntary
return remained open for residual cases.

139.    In  1994,  in  an  agreement  with  the  Chinese  Government,  UNHCR
endeavoured to  reorient its  local assistance  programme for  the country's
Vietnamese refugees  by  targeting  the  poorest  settlements  in  order  to
promote long-term  selfsufficiency.  Implementation  of the programme  began
in 1995.

140.  The  influx of Vietnamese asylum-seekers  into Japan continued for  an
extended period in 1994, although at a  reduced level.  In 1994, 108 persons
arrived.  At the end  of 1994, the total caseload in Japan was 481  persons;
by the end of February 1995,  voluntary repatriation had brought  the number
down to 386.

141.   In 1994  and the first  two months of  1995, 672 Vietnamese  in Japan
returned under  the voluntary repatriation programme.   In  1995, UNHCR will
continue its  efforts, in cooperation with  the Government,  to seek durable
solutions  for  the remaining  Vietnamese  asylum-seekers  and  refugees  in

Comprehensive Plan of Action

142.   Voluntary repatriation of Vietnamese  non-refugees from  camps in the
region  decreased in 1994,  with only  12,551 voluntary  returns compared to
19,233 in 1993.   During the first quarter  of 1995, 2,743 persons returned.
As of March 1995, 43,815 Vietnamese remained in camps in countries of  first
asylum in Asia.  Of this total, 40,700  were screened-out cases expected  to
return  to Viet Nam.   In 1994, the  determination of first-instance refugee
status for  all Vietnamese asylum-seekers  was concluded successfully  under
the Comprehensive Plan of Action for Indo-Chinese Refugees (CPA).

143.   Agreements  between  Viet Nam,  the host  country  and UNHCR  on  the
modalities for return of the remaining  Vietnamese non-refugees in the camps
were concluded with Malaysia  on 24 January 1995 and with the Philippines on
5 February 1995,  complementing a  similar agreement reached with  Indonesia
in 1993.  In early 1995, arrangements were discussed to simplify  procedures
for the return of  all Vietnamese found  not to qualify for refugee  status;
this should lead to an accelerated rate of return.

144.  UNHCR continued  its monitoring of  returnees to ensure that they  are
received  and  reintegrated in  safety  and  dignity.    All allegations  of
persecution  have been  investigated by  UNHCR  and have  been found  to  be

145.   As of 31 March 1995, there were 8,610  Lao in UNHCR-assisted camps in
Thailand  for whom  durable solutions  continued  to  be pursued  within the
framework of the  CPA.  Voluntary repatriation  was promoted for some  7,400
of  this group, while  the resettlement processing for  some 1,200 was being
finalized.  No new arrivals were registered during the period under review.

146.  At the seventh tripartite meeting  among the Governments of  Thailand,
the Lao People's Democratic Republic and  UNHCR, held at Pattaya,  Thailand,
from  26 to  28 July 1994,  it was agreed  to intensify efforts  to identify
suitable  settlement sites in  the Lao  People's Democratic  Republic and to

introduce a  third reintegration option, namely,  return in  small groups to
existing  villages. To this  end, tripartite  working meetings  were held in
November  1994 and March 1995 in which the  positive repatriation results of
1994  were acknowledged -  5,593 Lao  returned in 1994 and  1,250 during the
first three months of 1995 - and discussions focused on efforts to  finalize
the repatriation of Lao.

147.   The Ban  Nasaad settlement site  in Khammouan  province, Lao People's
Democratic  Republic, where  a  first  group of  613  refugees  successfully
returned in February 1995,  was chosen to take on an initial 3,000 returnees
opting for that  form of reintegration.  The  project at Bokeo, financed  by
the  European Union, also  began receiving  returnees in 1994  and was being

148.   The  Steering Committee  of  the  International Conference  on  Indo-
Chinese Refugees met  at Geneva on 16 March  1995 and agreed by consensus on
the end of 1995  as a target date for completing all activities under CPA in
first-asylum countries.  It  was agreed that this  target would be  met soon
thereafter  in Hong Kong,  given the large  number of  camp residents there.
The Steering Committee noted with concern  that large numbers of  Vietnamese
who do not qualify for refugee  status have refused voluntary  repatriation.
It recognized the significance of the  simplified procedures and the monthly
target  of  at least  3,600  persons  agreed  upon for  the  return  of  the
remaining  non-refugees   in  the   camps  to   Viet  Nam,   and  also   the
appropriateness  of  the   timely  implementation  of  the  orderly   return

149.  The  Steering Committee acknowledged that the results of the voluntary
repatriation of  5,172  Lao from  Thailand  in  1994 had  been  particularly
encouraging:    it was  the  highest  yearly  figure  since the  programme's
inception in 1980.

150.  In  1994, total expenditure  in Asia  and Oceania  amounted to  $119.7
million, of  which $49.8 million was  expended under  General Programmes and
$69.9 million under Special Programmes.

G.  Regional developments in Europe

1.  Western Europe

151.  With  the admission of  Austria, Finland  and Sweden  to the  European
Union  on 1  January 1995,  the  European Union  and its  institutions  have
gained further  importance to UNHCR  as partners in terms  of both political
and  material  support. The  High  Commissioner  and  the  President of  the
European Commission  underlined their mutual  desire to strengthen  existing
cooperation.   Cooperation with the Council  of Europe  and the Organization
for Security and Cooperation (OSCE) was also intensified.

152.  Discussions between UNHCR and the Presidency of the European Union  on
harmonizing  asylum policy  concentrated on  minimum guarantees  for  asylum
procedures,  the  refugee  definition  and,  of  particular  importance  for
Central European  countries, the  use of  readmission  agreements and  "safe
third  countries"   in  asylum  procedures.     The  Office  continued   its
consultations  with Governments  on the concept of  temporary protection and
its implementation in connection with the former Yugoslavia.

153.   Provisional  figures showed  that  some  340,000 persons  applied for
asylum in  Western European  countries in 1994,  40 per cent  less than  the
1993 figure of 560,000.  A downward trend  was evident in Belgium,  Denmark,
Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland.   In other countries, such
as the  Netherlands and  the  United  Kingdom, however,  the number  of  new
asylum requests  increased dramatically.  Some  47,000 persons were  granted
refugee status,  compared to 48,000 in  1993.   Approximately 58,000 persons
were allowed to stay on humanitarian or similar grounds, compared to  59,000
in  1993.     Provisional  figures   indicated  that   some  380,000  asylum

applications were rejected, compared to 515,000 in 1993.

154.    UNHCR  advised  Governments  on   the  implementation  of  the  1951
Convention  relating to  the  Status of  Refugees,  particularly  within the
context  of  current refugee  flows.   The Office  has urged  Governments to
continue  allowing  those  in  need  of  protection  access  to  fair asylum
procedures,  notwithstanding  general  immigration  control  measures.    It
reiterated its  plea  for  the  development  of  comprehensive  policies  to
address refugee and migratory issues, while maintaining a clear  distinction
between refugees and migrants.

2.  Central and Eastern Europe

155.  UNHCR's  activities in Central and  Eastern Europe continued to  focus
on protection,  refugee law promotion,  institution-building, training,  and
limited assistance programmes for  asylum-seekers where national  structures
do not  exist for that  purpose.  Efforts  centred on  establishing fair and
effective eligibility  procedures to which  asylum-seekers can have  access.
While the number of recognized refugees  remained limited in Central Europe,
most  countries  provide temporary  protection  to  significant  numbers  of
persons fleeing conflict areas in former  Yugoslavia.  Those countries  were
also  affected  by  transit  migration  movements,  which  often  blur   the
distinction between  migrants and genuine asylum-seekers.  To stem irregular
movements of people, border controls were  intensified.  UNHCR also  stepped
up border missions to sensitize officials to the rights of refugees.

156.  While all  Central European States have become signatories to the 1951
Convention  relating to the Status  of Refugees and  its 1967 Protocol, only
two have adopted national legislation  implementing the provisions  of those
instruments.   UNHCR  is  providing  assistance  to  those  countries  whose
legislation remains  at the drafting  stage.  Meanwhile,  a large number  of
readmission agreements  have been concluded  both between the European Union
and  Central  European  countries  and  among  Central  European  countries.
Enacting  refugee   legislation  in  Central   European  countries   assumes
additional  importance   in  order  to   afford  asylum-seekers  access   to
eligibility  procedures.    UNHCR  continued to  support  the  nascent  non-
governmental  organizations  movement,  notably   in  cooperation  with  the
European Consultation on Refugees and Exiles.

157.   UNHCR continued  to assist the  Russian Federal  Migration Service in
establishing a  fair and effective  eligibility procedure.  Meanwhile, UNHCR
provided assistance to  some 5,000 destitute and vulnerable  asylum-seekers.
In  order  to  create public  awareness  of the  plight  of refugees,  UNHCR
launched  a  mass  information  campaign  that  has  gathered   considerable

158.  Following  the request of the  Russian Government and the  concurrence
of  the  Secretary-General,   UNHCR  was  assisting  some  210,000   persons
displaced  as  a  result  of  the events  in  Chechnya  to the  neighbouring
Republics of Ingushetia, Dagestan and North  Ossetia.  UNHCR's programme  is
part of  a  broader inter-agency  effort  reflected  in the  United  Nations
consolidated appeal launched  on 23 March 1995.   The programme is based  on
an elaborate  division of  work between  United Nations  agencies and  close
cooperation with  the ICRC.  It  has a  six-month implementation time-frame,
ending on  30 June 1995.   UNHCR has deployed  two emergency response  teams
and  has offices  in Vladikavkaz  (North  Ossetia), Nazran  (Ingushetia) and
Makhachkala (Dagestan).

159.   UNHCR's programmes in Georgia,  Azerbaijan and  Armenia, initiated in
late   1992,  continued  during   the  period   under  review.    Population
displacement remains a principal concern of  this region, with some  900,000
internally displaced persons and refugees in  Azerbaijan and some 420,000 in
Armenia  and an  estimated 280,000 internally displaced  persons in Georgia.
While  the  needs are  considerable,  particularly  for  shelter,  financial
constraints  compelled UNHCR  to  concentrate  its  assistance on  the  most

vulnerable groups only.

160.   In Georgia,  UNHCR's assistance  programme provided  limited care and
maintenance  to  internally  displaced  persons  from  Abkhazia  and   South
Ossetia.    A quadripartite  agreement,  signed on  4  April 1994,  for  the
repatriation of  some 250,000 internally  displaced persons to Abkhazia also
entrusted  UNHCR with the  chairmanship of  the quadripartite commission set
up to oversee the process. Organized repatriation  began in October 1994 but
came  to a  halt after  the return  of  311  persons.   Despite considerable
attention  devoted to the  problem in the United Nations-sponsored proximity
talks, in which  UNHCR actively participated, repatriation could not resume.
However,  large  numbers   of  people   were  reported   to  have   returned
spontaneously.  The overall situation remained volatile.

161.  Despite several Security Council  resolutions calling for the  removal
of  obstacles  to  repatriation, a  consensus  could  not be  reached  on  a
meaningful  timetable, although UNHCR  continued to  maintain a  presence in
Abkhazia.   The  deadlock also  affected  the  design of  UNHCR's programme,
which focuses on the most immediate needs  of displaced persons rather  than
voluntary repatriation. Regarding South Ossetia and a possible  repatriation
from North Ossetia to Georgia, UNHCR has been  invited to participate in the
work of  the joint  control commission dealing  with the settlement  of this
particular conflict.

162.   In Azerbaijan, where one out of every  eight people is displaced, the
emergency phase has been contained thanks to a major effort from the  United
Nations and  non-governmental organizations and  the provision of  bilateral
humanitarian  aid.   Nevertheless, most of the  internally displaced persons
are  still living  in  makeshift shelters,  railroad carriages  and dugouts.
Shelter is the priority sector in  UNHCR's assistance programme, which  also
covers health, water and  sanitation, as well  as self-reliance  activities.
Out of an estimated 900,000 affected  people, UNHCR's assistance focuses  on
the 300,000 internally displaced persons who are the neediest.

163.   In Armenia,  UNHCR's programme  covers  the neediest  150,000 of  the
country's  estimated  420,000  refugees  and  internally displaced  persons.
Shelter also figures prominently under this  programme, which aims to foster
skill  development  and  self-sufficiency   activities  in  an   environment
favourable to local integration.
  164.   UNHCR provided information  and gave advice  on the citizenship and
refugee  legislations of Armenia  and Azerbaijan,  both of  which acceded to
the 1951 Convention and  its 1967 Protocol in  1993.  Training  of officials
in refugee matters was also gathering momentum.

165.   Considerable emphasis has been  placed on  developing regular working
relationships with  the OSCE.   As  evinced in  Georgia, UNHCR and  the OSCE
cooperate  closely  on  the  solution  to  the  Abkhazia  and  South Ossetia
conflicts,  with  UNHCR  assuming  an  increasingly  prominent  role  in the
humanitarian dimension  of conflict  resolution.   Similar collaboration  is
taking place in  Nagorny Karabakh and Chechnya.   That cooperation will gain
further momentum  as problems relating  to displacement and migration assume
prominence on the OSCE's agenda.

166.    In  the course  of  1994,  UNHCR launched  a  process  to  develop a
comprehensive approach  to the  problems of  refugees, returnees,  displaced
persons  and migrants in  the countries  of the  Commonwealth of Independent
States (CIS) and relevant neighbouring States.   The process should  lead to
a conference  which would establish  a programme of  action for  the region.
Its primary  objective is  to provide a  broad forum  for the  international
community, and  affected countries  in particular,  to acknowledge,  analyse
and discuss problems related to disorderly  mass population movements in the
CIS and  the neighbouring  region within  a  humanitarian and  non-political
framework.   The  programme of  action  would  include measures  to  prevent
unnecessary  movements  and address  the consequences  of past,  present and
future displacements.  Such a programme would flow from a declaration  based
on existing principles of international law.   Three informal meetings  with

Governments and international organizations have been  held in Geneva, and a
series of  regional consultations have taken  place in  Ukraine, Belarus and
the Republic  of  Moldova, and  in Kyrgyzstan  for  the  five Central  Asian

3.  Former Yugoslavia

167.  At  the beginning of  1994, more  than 4  million refugees,  displaced
persons and  war-affected persons  were  receiving humanitarian  assistance.
As a result of developments mainly  in Bosnia and Herzegovina,  particularly
improved conditions in central Bosnia, the  overall planning figure has been
reduced since  August 1994  and, as  of January  1995, totalled  2.2 million
beneficiaries  located in  Bosnia  and Herzegovina  (1.4  million),  Croatia
(490,000),  the former  Yugoslav Republic  of Macedonia  (18,000),  Slovenia
(34,000)  and the Federal  Republic of Yugoslavia (302,400).   In the latter
part of 1994, 1.4 million refugees  were receiving food assistance, although
a wider distribution continued to be made for non-food items.

168.    While  the  establishment  of   a  federation  between  the  Bosnian
Government  and  Bosnian   Croat  parties   led  to   improved  access   for
humanitarian  assistance  in  central  Bosnia,  other  areas,  such  as  the
enclaves  of Bihac,  Sarajevo and  eastern Bosnia,  suffered from  irregular
deliveries.   Continued conflict  in the  Bihac pocket  and northern  Bosnia
fuelled  further outflows  of  refugees  into the  United Nations  Protected
Areas  (UNPAs) and  other parts  of Croatia.   In  the Federal  Republic  of
Yugoslavia, the  situation remained  relatively stable.   While the  country
was  still  affected  by  United Nations  sanctions,  humanitarian  aid  for
refugees  was delivered.   In the  Federal Republic  of Yugoslavia, Slovenia
and  the  former Yugoslav  Republic  of  Macedonia  the  number of  refugees

169.   In the latter part of  1994, UNHCR and WFP jointly  decided to reduce
food  distribution  throughout  former  Yugoslavia  while  maintaining  full
provisions for vulnerable groups.  UNHCR  provided food items to  complement
the WFP programme  and logistical support  to air  and land  routes for  the
delivery  of  food and  non-food items,  including contributions  from other
agencies.   UNHCR  non-food items  included domestic  and hygienic supplies,
shelter and winterization  materials.  Throughout 1994 and in the first part
of  1995,  UNHCR  provided  services  such  as  shelter,  health,  water and
sanitation projects,  community  services, education,  and legal  assistance
inputs.   An important component  was the spring and  autumn seed programmes
in Bosnia and  Herzegovina.  In the first  part of 1995,  efforts were being
made to  transfer more  responsibility for  assistance  programmes to  local
authorities and non-governmental organizations.

170.   UNHCR continued its  protection functions throughout  the region.   A
limited number of persons obtained  temporary protection or  resettlement in
countries outside former Yugoslavia.  The  absence of a peaceful  settlement
in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the  UNPAs prevented a repatriation  programme
from  being  implemented.    While  a   few  refugees  have  returned   home
spontaneously, continuing ethnic tensions, problems of property rights,  and
insecurity were  incompatible with a dignified  and peaceful  return for the
vast majority of internally displaced persons and refugees.

171.  In  1994, total expenditure in Europe  amounted to $281.6 million,  of
which $35.5 million was expended under  General Programmes and $246  million
under Special Programmes.

           H.  Regional developments in South-West Asia, North Africa
               and the Middle East

1.  South-West Asia

172.    Factional  fighting which  broke  out in  Kabul,  Afghanistan, on  1

January 1994,  continued throughout the  year, causing renewed  displacement
and imposing  a heavy burden on  rural communities recovering  from 15 years
of  war. In all,  it is  estimated that as  many as one  million people have
been displaced within Afghanistan, mostly from Kabul, since the fall of  the
Najibullah Government  in April 1992.   Nearly 300,000 internally  displaced
persons  have  been  settled temporarily  in  camps  in Jalalabad,  Mazar-i-
Sharif, Herat  and Kandahar.  An additional  250,000 persons  are living  in
private  homes  and public  buildings in  the  Jalalabad  area.   Entry into
Pakistan  for Afghans during  1994 was  officially restricted  to those with
valid travel documents  or those allowed in  on humanitarian grounds.   Over
76,000 Afghans have fled to Pakistan since January 1994.

173.    Repatriation  of  Afghan  refugees  during  1994  confirmed  earlier
projections  that  return   and  rehabilitation  would  continue  in   areas
unaffected  by  the conflict.    A  total of  329,327  persons  returned  to
Afghanistan  in  1994,  somewhat  below  the  original  planning  figure  of
400,000.  Monitors  in Pakistan observed  102,658 individuals  crossing into
Afghanistan, including 32,043 who were  assisted by UNHCR.  From the Islamic
Republic of Iran,  121,402 were provided assistance  by UNHCR at  the border
exit points and 105,267 returned spontaneously.   Since the commencement  of
a programme  for repatriation to  Afghanistan, a total  of over 2.8  million
refugees have returned from  Pakistan and the Islamic  Republic of Iran.  At
the end of 1994,  approximately 1.6 million refugees remained in the Islamic
Republic of Iran and 1.2 million in Pakistan.

174.  Assistance projects in Afghanistan  continued to be structured  around
quick  impact projects  (QIPs).   Reintegration  activities focused  on  the
survival  and  immediate  needs  of  those  living  in  provinces  receiving
refugees and internally  displaced persons.   Projects centred on increasing
the rural drinking-water supply in the  eastern provinces and improving  the
irrigation supply in the south-east.  Income-generating  projects for women,
widows  and  the disabled  were  begun.   In  cooperation  with  WFP,  UNHCR
provided 10,000  families in the western  provinces with food and with tools
to reconstruct their homes.

175.   To  ensure the  voluntary character  of  return,  UNHCR maintained  a
presence at border  crossings and along routes  of return.  The  Governments
of Afghanistan,  the Islamic Republic of  Iran and  Pakistan, in cooperation
with   UNHCR,   established   two  tripartite   commissions   on   voluntary
repatriation  to  facilitate the  return  and  successful  reintegration  of
Afghans from neighbouring countries.

176.   Following  the 1994  repatriation  movements,  the number  of  Afghan
refugees in  the Islamic Republic  of Iran decreased to  1.6 million, nearly
all  of them  living in  urban areas  throughout the  country.   Much of the
return  from the Islamic  Republic of  Iran was to the  western provinces of
Afghanistan,  which  have remained  relatively  unaffected  by  the  ongoing
conflict  in  Kabul.   Confronted  with  reduced  subsidies  for health  and
education,  as  well  as  high  unemployment,  the  Iranian  authorities  in
numerous instances  pressured refugees to return.   At  one point, temporary
and  permanent cardholders  had their  documents confiscated  by  provincial
authorities  with instructions to  either repatriate  or relocate  in a camp
established  by  the Government.    Following  interventions  by UNHCR,  the
practice was stopped after one month.

177.  At  the end of  1994, 107,272  refugees of Iraqi  origin lived in  the
Islamic Republic of Iran; of these 59,000 were  Iraqi Kurds and 48,272  were
Iraqi Shiites.  A  new case-load of 5,500  Iraqi Marsh Arabs was transferred
from settlements  in the  border area to  camps in the  interior during  the
first  quarter  of  1995.    During   the  year,  2,290  Iraqis  voluntarily
repatriated from the Islamic Republic of Iran with UNHCR assistance.

178.   During  1994, the  registered  Afghan  refugee population  figure  in
Pakistan  was adjusted to  1,212,000 to  take into  account repatriation and
migration  from  refugee  villages  of  families  who  have  attained  self-
sufficiency.   Since  January 1994,  out of  a  total  influx of  76,000 new

Afghans  entering Pakistan,  some 30,000  have been provided  with emergency

179.   In  consultation with  the Government  of Pakistan,  UNHCR has  begun
scaling down  the care and maintenance  programme.   Activities continued to
focus  on improving  the ability  of refugees  to support themselves  and to
assume responsibility  for basic services  through community  participation.
Future  assistance will be  targeted at vulnerable  refugees.   In line with
the  findings of the  1994 WFP/UNHCR  food assessment  mission, food rations
were reduced by 50  per cent beginning in January  1995.  It was proposed to
phase out  the campbased food  assistance programme by the  end of September
1995 and replace it with food-for-work  projects and feeding programmes  for
vulnerable  groups.    The  Government  has  expressed   concern  that  this
reduction would affect both the refugee and the local population.

180.  UNHCR continued to support  the environmental rehabilitation of  areas
in Pakistan  which  have suffered  from  the  long-term presence  of  Afghan
refugees.  In this connection, the third and  last phase of the  UNHCR/World
Bank  incomegeneration project in refugee areas, involving refugee and local
labour   in   flood   protection,   afforestation,  road   improvement   and
environmental education, was scheduled to end by December 1995.  UNHCR  will
continue to  act as  a catalyst  in mobilizing  interest and support  in the
international community for such rehabilitation programmes.

2.  Central Asian Republics

181.  The civil war which  erupted in Tajikistan in May 1992 resulted in the
displacement of approximately  500,000 persons, of whom 60,000 sought refuge
in northern  Afghanistan.  The  conflict also led  to the  migration of more
than 300,000  persons, mainly  ethnic Russians,  to other  countries of  the
Commonwealth of Independent States, particularly the Russian Federation.

182.   As  of  March  1995, it  was  estimated that  15,000 people  remained
internally  displaced, primarily in  the province  of Gorny  Badakhshan, and
some 18,000  Tajiks remained in northern  Afghanistan.   In conjunction with
the ICRC and  the United Nations Mission  of Observers in Tajikistan,  UNHCR
will  continue  to  facilitate  as  far  as  possible  the  repatriation and
reintegration  of the  Tajiks remaining  in  Afghanistan and  the internally
displaced persons who  choose to return  to their  areas of origin.   Of the
18,000 Tajiks remaining on  Afghan soil, 5,000 stayed at a camp near  Mazar-
i-Sharif, where  they received  assistance, and another 13,000  were located
in neighbouring  Kunduz  province.   UNHCR  expected  a sizeable  number  to
return  home by  mid-1995.   One-time  local  settlement assistance  will be
considered  to  support  the  integration  of   those  wishing  to  stay  in

183.  One of  UNHCR's main functions  in Tajikistan  is to assist the  local
authorities in  protecting returnees,  both former  refugees and  internally
displaced  persons.  By  supporting the  process of  conflict resolution and
mitigation in the area of return, UNHCR has  assisted in minimizing the risk
of incidents degenerating into  larger ethnic conflicts,  which could hinder
further  reintegration or  perhaps result  in  new  displacements.   A UNHCR
staff  presence  in  the   areas  of  return  has   led  to  a   measure  of

184.   With a target of  17,000 homes, UNHCR was  scheduled to finalize  its
shelter programme in Tajikistan  by mid-1995.  By  the end of 1994 materials
had already  been provided to  assist in the  reconstruction of over  14,000
homes.    UNHCR has  also  initiated a  programme  of QIPs  in  economically
depressed  regions.   The  QIPs  are  designed  to  assist communities  that
receive returnees by establishing viable and sustainable enterprises,  which
in turn support  the process  of reintegration.  After the  phasing down  of
UNHCR,  further  implementing   and  operational  responsibilities  will  be
undertaken by development agencies and non-governmental organizations.

185.    UNHCR continues  to  coordinate  its  activities  with other  United
Nations agencies and  international organizations  as part of an  integrated
approach involving the peacemaking,  peace-keeping and humanitarian elements
of the  United Nations  system.   In this  context and  on the  basis of  an
agreement with the Department of Humanitarian  Affairs of the United Nations
Secretariat,  UNHCR's  chief of  mission  in  Tajikistan  also  acts as  the
humanitarian coordinator.

186.   UNHCR chaired  a subregional  meeting on  issues concerning refugees,
internally  displaced persons and  migration held at Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, on
2 and 3 March  1995.  The meeting, which  was attended by representatives of
all the Central Asian  States, was part  of the preparatory process  leading
to the  conference of the Commonwealth  of Independent  States scheduled for
late 1995.

 3.  North Africa

187.    In  Algeria,  the  assistance  programme  for  an  estimated  50,000
nationals of Mali (29,000) and Niger (21,000) who sought  refuge in southern
Algeria was being  continued in 1995.   The Algerian authorities planned  to
regroup  them  in  four centres  located in  the  three provinces  of Adrar,
Tamanrasset and  Illizi.   The prevailing  situation in  Algeria has so  far
only marginally affected the implementation of the assistance programmes.

188.   For Malians  in Algeria, a  repatriation operation  was envisaged  in
1994,  and an  agreement was  signed by  Algeria,  Mali,  IFAD and  UNHCR at
Bamako, Mali, on 23  August 1994.  The  situation in northern Mali, however,
delayed its implementation until 1995.

189.   Despite  the  signing at  Bamako  on 6  April  1994 of  a  tripartite
agreement  for the  repatriation of  Malian  refugees from  Mauritania,  the
situation in  northern Mali  prevented a  repatriation operation from  being
organized.    During  March  1995,  the   population  of  Fassala  camp  was
transferred to  a new location at  M'beira, some 40  kilometres further from
the border.  Concurrently, a census carried out  with the assistance of  the
local authorities established the refugee population  of the three camps  at
some 4,000 in April 1995.

190.   On  28  August  1994,  the Identification  Commission  of the  United
Nations Mission for the Referendum in  Western Sahara began identifying  and
registering  potential voters  for the  referendum  in  Western Sahara.   In
February 1995, following the  Secretary-General's report of 14 December 1994
and Security  Council  resolution 973  (1995) of  13 January  1995, a  UNHCR
technical team  visited various sites  and potential repatriation  locations
in  the  territory, as  well  as  the  Tindouf camps,  to  collect technical
information for updating the 1991 UNHCR repatriation plan.   A revised draft
budget  was being  prepared for  the  repatriation  of an  estimated 105,000
persons.   Pending  confirmation of  progress achieved  in  implementing the
United  Nations Settlement  Plan,  UNHCR  will continue  with  the  required
preparation that can be undertaken at this stage.

4.  Middle East

191.   In 1994, some 8,000  Iraqi Kurds were  assisted by UNHCR to return to
their homeland,  notably from  the Islamic  Republic of  Iran.   The project
initiated   by  UNHCR   to   cover  their   needs   upon   arrival  included
transportation,  food and shelter,  and a  package aimed  at fostering their
economic integration.

192.   Following the  arrival in  April 1994  of Turkish  Kurds in  northern
Iraq, UNHCR initiated an assistance programme to  provide them with food and
relief items in towns  and villages a  few kilometres away from the  Turkish
border, where  they were  initially accommodated.   To  better ensure  their
safety, UNHCR  decided to relocate  them in two camps  in Dohuk governorate.

As of  January 1995,  their number  was estimated  at some 9,000  persons in
Atroush  A and  B, while  some 5,000  persons were  still in  Zakhu  and the
nearby  area pending their  transfer to  the Atroush  camps in  early spring
1995.   There were plans  to expand and  improve facilities  in the camps in
the course of 1995 to  provide for a total of 15,000 persons, including  new
persons arriving as a result of recent developments in northern Iraq.

193.  In addition, UNHCR continued to  carry out its traditional  activities
in Iraq for persons under its mandate, namely  3,800 Iranian refugees in the
three  northern governorates,  20,690 Iranian  refugees in  Al-Tash  refugee
camp in  Al-Anbar governorate, 20,000 Iranian  Ahwazi refugees  in Wasit and
Misan governorates, and some 1,200  urban refugees of various nationalities,
mainly Eritreans.   UNHCR  is also  pursuing its  efforts to  facilitate the
voluntary repatriation of Iranian  refugees in Al-Tash camp  as well as  the
resettlement of  cases considered to  be eligible under current resettlement

194.  In  1994, Saudi Arabia  continued to  extend its  assistance to  Iraqi
refugees living in Rafha  camp.  UNHCR made  special efforts to ensure their
protection and to help process for  resettlement those refugees meeting  the
selection requirements.  During the period  under review, some 6,000 persons
were accepted for resettlement  in over 12 countries,  1,136 of whom were in
the process  of being transferred to  their respective receiving  countries.
A total of 245 persons who formally requested  transfer to their country  of
origin  repatriated.  As  of  28  February  1995,  there  were  17,965 Iraqi
refugees in Saudi Arabia.

195.  At  the end of  February 1995, the  refugee population  in the  Syrian
Arab Republic  was  estimated  at 37,000,  comprising 35,350  Iraqis,  1,200
Somalis,  250  Eritreans, and  200  nationals  of  other  countries.   UNHCR
continued to  assist 3,500 persons accommodated  in El-Hol  refugee camp and
800 needy urban refugees  in Damascus.  During the period under review,  100
Iraqi  refugees were  resettled, and  100  persons  of various  origins were
either transferred to their  country of first  asylum or assisted to  return
voluntarily to their homeland through third countries.

196.  The Al  Koud camp, located in the Abyan governorate in southern Yemen,
was  demolished as a  result of the civil  disturbances which affected Yemen
from  May to July 1994.   Out of 9,093 refugees registered in southern Yemen
since  the end  of the  hostilities, 5,235  Somalis and  441 Ethiopians have
been relocated temporarily  in Al Gahin camp  in the Abyan  governorate, and
3,417 other Somali refugees were living in Aden  suburbs.  UNHCR, with CARE-
Australia, is rehabilitating the  former Al Koud camp,  which is to serve as
a transit centre for refugees who  have already registered for  repatriation
and  whose departures  have  been  suspended because  of  the  deteriorating
situation in  Somalia. Activities  will also  be developed  to render  self-
reliant those refugees who cannot be repatriated while  they await a durable
solution to their predicament.

197.  The number  of Somali refugees in Sana'a, northern Yemen, reported  to
be  3,000 in December 1994, was estimated to have  increased to 4,500 by the
end  of  February 1995  as the  result of  a  recent influx.   The  refugees
receive medical assistance and, when needed, a financial allocation.

198.  In 1994,  total expenditure in  South-West Asia, North Africa and  the
Middle East amounted to  $103.3 million, of which $59.8 million was expended
under General Programmes and $43.5 million under Special Programmes.



199.   In  1994,  UNHCR's  final budget  was  some  $1.2 billion,  a  figure
comparable to  1993.  Donors provided  some $1.07 billion  in both cash  and
kind, compared to total contributions of $1.1 billion  in 1993.  Japan,  the

Netherlands, the Nordic countries, the United  Kingdom and the United States
maintained  their  excellent  funding  levels,  while  the  European   Union
substantially  increased its  contribution.   Donations  from  both  private
donors and non-governmental sources continued at levels  comparable to 1993.

200.  In 1994,  the funding of  General Programmes remained a top  priority.
Those programmes  represent core  activities for  refugees  and provide  the
High Commissioner  with considerable  flexibility to  deal with  emergencies
and voluntary repatriations.   In 1994, the downward trend in the funding of
General  Programmes  was  reversed.   As  at  31  December 1994,  UNHCR  had
received  $329 million  towards  General  Programmes  as compared  with  the
previous year's figure of  $311 million.   Secondary income, in the form  of
cancellations of  prior years'  obligations, interest  earnings and  various
transfers, allowed UNHCR to carry over $56 million  into 1995.  This  carry-
over  helped cover expenditure in  early 1995, in advance of confirmation by
donors of $154 million  announced at the pledging conference in New York  in
November 1994.

201.   In  1994 special  operations again  amounted to  some two  thirds  of
UNHCR's operational activities.  Appeals  were launched, in conjunction with
the Department of Humanitarian  Affairs of the  United Nations  Secretariat,
for operations in  former Yugoslavia, the Afghan repatriation programme  and
the Rwanda-Burundi emergency  as well as  programmes in  the Horn of  Africa
and the republics of the former Soviet Union.   UNHCR issued its own appeals
for  Central America, the  Mozambican repatriation  and the  repatriation to
Myanmar  and  for a  number of  emergency  operations.   The Rwanda  refugee
crisis, the most sudden  and acute emergency the  Office has ever faced, led
UNHCR for the  first time to call on  donor Governments to provide  services
and personnel  directly in a  massive international humanitarian  operation.
During  1994, the Office  raised over  $700 million  for special operations,
repatriations  and emergencies,  in addition  to the  amounts under  General

202.   UNHCR entered  a fifth  consecutive year  of exceptional expenditure,
the fourth in which expenditure and budgets exceed the $1 billion level.   A
1995 General Programmes target  of $428.7 million has been set, the  largest
ever.   For  Special Programmes,  the  Office  requires some  $860  million.
Requirements for the Rwanda-Burundi operation,  as well as  repatriations in
Africa and  Asia,  remain urgent  priorities,  as  do programmes  in  former
Yugoslavia, the countries of the Commonwealth  of Independent States and the
Baltic States. 



                A.  Cooperation between UNHCR and other members of
                    the United Nations system

203.   During the period  under review,  UNHCR continued  to strengthen  its
collaboration   with  departments   of  the   United   Nations  Secretariat,
particularly the Department  of Peace-keeping Operations, the Department  of
Political Affairs and the Department of  Humanitarian Affairs.  With  regard
to the  last, UNHCR  participated actively  in  all meetings  of the  Inter-
Agency Standing Committee, as  well as in the task forces and working groups
established  by the that  Committee. During  the period  under review, UNHCR
both  loaned and seconded  staff to  the Department  of Humanitarian Affairs
and assisted  in the  strengthening of  field coordination,  inter alia,  by
releasing staff to act as humanitarian coordinators. 

204.   UNHCR continued  to strengthen  bilateral collaboration  arrangements
with other agencies  of the United Nations  system, in particular with  WFP,
UNICEF, WHO and UNFPA, notably in  the context of humanitarian  emergencies,

such as in UNHCR  operations in the former  Yugoslavia, the Great Lakes area
of central Africa, West Africa, the Central Asian Republics and the Horn  of

205.     UNHCR   collaborated  with   non-governmental   organizations  and,
increasingly, with agencies and programmes of  the United Nations system  in
activities such as food aid,  immunization and health care, water supply and
sanitation, mother and child medical care, family planning, and education. 

206.    Apart from  cooperating  closely  with UNDP  in  development-related
activities,  UNHCR  has  also  participated  actively  in  various   forums,
particularly in the context  of the work of  the Administrative Committee on
Coordination and  the Consultative  Committee on  Programme and  Operational
Questions, where  system-wide guidelines  have been drawn  up for  practical
work  within  the continuum  from  emergency  relief  to  development.   The
launching of quick impact projects (QIPs)  in various operations world wide,
to assist  in consolidating  repatriation programmes,  has  resulted in  the
signing  of country-specific inter-agency  agreements, thus advancing inter-
agency  cooperation.  In  order to highlight  issues and  challenges, and to
arrive at  common solutions, UNHCR  staff continued  to take  part in  field
coordination  workshops for  senior United  Nations system  representatives,
which have  proven a useful  tool in  furthering inter-agency  collaboration
and understanding. 

207.  With a view to  streamlining inter-agency cooperation, UNHCR continued
in  1994  to  analyse  its  formal  cooperation  with  other  United Nations
agencies and programmes with an emphasis  on regional commissions and banks.
The  signing of  country-specific memoranda  of understanding with  UNDP and
WFP in Mozambique signified concrete results  which have emerged from  those
activities.  Similar agreements were expected to  be signed during 1995 upon
the  conclusion  of  the  indepth  assessment  of  all  aspects  of  UNHCR's
cooperation with other United Nations agencies. 

208.   In conjunction  with other  United Nations  organizations, UNHCR  has
participated  in preparatory  work for  United Nations-sponsored  world-wide
conferences and events and has actively taken part in the events.  The  work
has mainly concentrated on the International Year of the Family (1994),  the
United Nations Year  for Tolerance  (1995), the International Conference  on
Population and Development (1994), the  World Summit for  Social Development
(1995), the Fourth World Conference  on Women (1995) and  the United Nations
Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) (1996). 

B.  Relations with other intergovernmental organizations

209.   Apart from close collaboration with its traditional intergovernmental
partners,  such  as the  International  Organization  for  Migration,  UNHCR
continued to  enhance  its cooperation  with  the  OSCE, especially  in  the
Caucasus and  other areas of the  Commonwealth of  Independent States (CIS),
and  with  various  European  Union  organs,  in  particular  the   European
Community  Humanitarian  Office.    During  1994,  UNHCR  collaborated  with
intergovernmental organizations  on  the  basis  of ad  hoc  agreements;  no
formal  memoranda of understanding were  concluded.  In 1994,  UNHCR and IOM
continued their fruitful collaboration in the execution of mass  information
campaigns  targeted  in particular  at potential  migrants from  the Russian
Federation and other CIS countries. 

C.  Relations with non-governmental organizations

210.  The  series of six regional  Partnership in Action (PARINAC) meetings,
which  involved   the  bringing  together   of  some  450   non-governmental
organizations  from all  over the  world,  culminated  in a  four-day global
conference held at Oslo from 6 to 9 June 1994.   The meeting synthesized the
proposals that  had emerged  from the regional  conferences into  a plan  of
action  for  improved  collaboration   between  UNHCR  and  non-governmental

organizations,  which, together  with the  Oslo Declaration, was  adopted by
the meeting. 

211.  During  the latter part  of 1994,  UNHCR field  offices were asked  to
identify  priority  PARINAC  recommendations  for  implementation  in  their
countries/regions. The  recommendations were discussed with non-governmental
organization  partners  in   order  to  identify  proposals  for   follow-up
activities by  PARINAC in 1995. Priority  areas identified  by field offices
included  coordination activities,  training,  and capacity-building.    The
field offices  have also included PARINAC  items in  their monthly situation
reports to headquarters, and quarterly briefings  are provided to the Senior
Management Committee by the non-governmental organizations coordinator. 

212.  The first regional PARINAC follow-up meeting  for the southern African
region, held  at Johannesburg on  19 and 20  January 1995, brought  together
UNHCR and focal points  of non-governmental organizations from all countries
in the region to review implementation  of PARINAC proposals resulting  from
consultations  at the  regional  level,  to identify  proposals  which  have
regional  implications,  to share  the  successes  and difficulties  in  the
initial stage  of the  process, and  to establish  a set  of objectives  for
PARINAC  follow-up in 1995  and 1996.   Further  regional follow-up meetings
were planned during 1995. 

213.   The  PARINAC process  has  strengthened  UNHCR's dialogue  with  non-
governmental organizations and has  renewed commitment to  the common search
for solutions.

214.  In  1994, in addition  to the regular pre-Executive  Committee meeting
of UNHCR  and non-governmental  organizations a  consultation was  organized
between   non-governmental   organization  representatives   and   Executive
Committee members to discuss  those aspects of  the PARINAC  recommendations
that have particular implications for Governments. 
  215.   Three briefing sessions  with non-governmental organizations on the
Rwanda emergency were held,  in September and November  1994 and March 1995,
and one  on protection matters, in  December 1994.   Quarterly meetings were
planned   in  order   to  continue   the  dialogue   with   non-governmental
organizations on UNHCR operations.


  1/  A/AC.96/830.

  2/  A/AC.96/821, para. 19.

  3/    Official  Records  of the  General  Assembly,  Forty-ninth  Session,
Supplement No. 12A (A/49/12/Add.1), para. 20.

  4/  A/AC.96/821, para. 21.
--                                           Table 1.   UNHCR expenditure in
1994 by regional bureau/country and
                                                  main  types  of assistance

(All sources of funds)

(Thousands of United States dollars)

Regional bureau/country
or area
Type of assistanceTotal
Emergency assistance
Care and maintenance
Voluntary repatriation a/
Local settlement

Administrative support
1.         Africa     b/Angola7.55    094.559.92.2139.25    303.3Benin508.03
491.496.75.1172.04    273.2Burundi31    674.2656.17     300.0259.46.5196.640
092.8Cameroon161.143.8423.3103.6731.8Central        African        Republic2
349.514.5195.016.62  576.6Cote   d'Ivoire1  000.0108.270.06   267.05.7283.17
734.0Djibouti2   522.0534.27.3145.83   209.3Eritrea446.83.03    183.92137.53
773.2Ethiopia9    781.31    426.93    757.1111.6770.815     847.7Ghana796.22
518.210.0117.20.2156.33  598.1Guinea15 317.2500.09.02.2296.016  124.4Kenya30
454.49  145.9744.1707.51  648.042 699.9Liberia170.41  565.82 614.255.8281.44
687.6Malawi14   205.95  925.62.0310.120   443.6Mozambique907.342   485.37.31
311.244    711.1Rwanda31    001.864.423.1351.331    440.6Senegal1     413.91
333.510.1390.13  147.6Sierra Leone849.9563.4215.51.534.41  664.7Somalia67.24
495.34  562.5Sudan2  838.42  497.38   526.5298.61  005.415   166.2Swaziland1
219.4154.2179.6111.11  664.3Uganda1   774.34  631.8852.710   699.93.3428.818
390.8United   Republic   of   Tanzania70  083.9876.41   733.51  675.6286.974
656.3Zaire96   160.85  709.5748.82   501.127.1304.6105  451.9Zambia1  318.51
435.92  472.52.1295.75  524.7Zimbabwe2 937.07  887.516.70.6173.811 015.6West
Africa1 628.22 747.31 503.8248.314.9203.06 345.5Other countries in Africa

2 131.8
6 745.7
1 423.7
11 253.6
     Subtotal235  244.6110 854.4106 966.941 310.81  212.710 501.5506 090.92.
Asia     and      OceaniaBangladesh25.015     751.12
475.8Cambodia27.42   627.0107.32   761.7China25.0179.683.02   202.72.0209.92
702.2Hong     Kong12     307.74     063.90.5421.7408.717     202.5Indonesia1
984.3799.71.039.12    824.1Malaysia3    324.8329.4213.5204.24    071.9Nepal6
275.3274.6242.66      792.5Philippines2      121.3520.10.34      359.9148.07
149.6Thailand12 036.21  326.349.0300.2610.514 322.2Viet  Nam1 563.21  906.19 747.6Other  countries in  Asia25.013 423.113 078.7899.9467.91
668.829 563.4Australia and New Zealand



1 112.6
     Subtotal75.069   894.227   009.112   697.45  772.14   278.3119  726.13.
EuropeArmenia4        293.3114.44        407.7Austria412.941.3749.80.8270.01
474.8Azerbaijan6     323.7Belgium14.21      069.5282.21
365.9France160.41   627.30.3132.71   920.7Georgia5   145.72.91   351.9148.86
649.3Germany147.90.72     040.8315.72    505.1Greece1    597.
690.0Hungary2 963.69.2272.60.3166.43  412.1Italy1 428.95.21  567.139.9446.23
487.3Russian            Federation500.07             848.667.8300.97.4410.09
134.7Spain714.0195.1909.1Turkey2    913.3380.08.1441.0438.84     181.2United
Kingdom27.7150.01  361.3145.71   684.7Former  Yugoslavia222   714.84.2219.13
586.7226   524.8Central   and  Eastern   countries1  725.015.1625.82.0295.22
663.1Western countries

2 167.3
3 259.2
     Subtotal11  901.4246   673.62  214.012   504.6724.67  575.2281  593.44.
AmericasBelize2  641.9130.52  772.4Canada10.133.0851.183.5977.7Guatemala2.24
941.71    394.30.6281.86   620.6Mexico1    994.72   164.37   084.84.5758.412
006.7United  States  of  America149.838.11  843.7353.02 384.6Northern  South
American  countries153.12  256.0986.4905.541.3374.54  716.8Central  American
countries6.0229.64 446.91.3433.25 117.0Southern South American countries

2 258.6
2 066.6
5 112.9
    Subtotal302.96  527.68 798.321  234.871.82 773.339  708.75.   South-West
Asia, North Africa and
    the  Middle  EastAfghanistan4  053.41 062.55  617.2186.210 919.3Algeria7
743.90.92.495.47       842.6Cyprus12      596.34.01.389.012      690.6Egypt1
954.519.6105.927.8249.42   357.2Iran  (Islamic   Republic  of)440.85  797.69
533.3114.0529.316  415.0Iraq973.91 950.41  342.832.5270.34  569.9Mauritania6
402.     578.8Pakistan19     365.61     995.517.817.4834.022
230.3Yemen2  785.7337.581.65.6139.23  349.6Central Asian  Republics7  579.21
500.08.6336.89  424.6Other  countries  in North  Africa1 234.593.0142.850.61
520.9Other countries in Western Asia

3 938.4
5 411.8
    Subtotal12  606.559   475.516  797.710   708.3303.43  419.2103   310.66.
Headquarters and other programmesGlobal and regional projects
13 259.6
43 354.5
11 236.1
12 792.9
59 250.3
139 957.1
273 390.0
536 779.8
173 022.1
111 248.8
8 143.3
87 797.8
1 190 386.8
of  which:   General Programmes20  672.8239 741.521  335.275 892.84  584.828
470.3390 697.4              Special Programmes252 717.2297 038.3151  686.935
356.03 563.559 327.5 c/776 064.7           United Nations regular budget
23 624.7
23 624.7
     a/   Including assistance to returnees in countries of origin.

     b/   Excluding North Africa which is included in 5.

     c/    Including expenditure for the  Fund for International Field Staff
Housing and basic amenities.



This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org