United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

22 August 1995


 Fiftieth session                                                
    Report of the
    on the work of the

    August 1995



1 - 27

Coordinating a comprehensive strategy  
28 - 179

A.  Organs of the United Nations  
28 - 151

B.  Ensuring an adequate financial base  
152 - 158

C.  The fiftieth anniversary  
159 - 167

D.  United Nations University  
168 - 179

The foundations of peace: development,  humanitarian action and human rights

180 - 580

A.  Implementing "An Agenda for Development"  
180 - 189

B.  Global development activities  
190 - 284

C.  Operational activities for development  
285 - 387

D.  Regional development activities  
388 - 468

E.  The humanitarian imperative  
469 - 532

F.  Protection and resettlement of refugees  
533 - 554

G.  Protection and promotion of human rights  
555 - 580

Expanding preventive diplomacy and conflict resolution  
581 - 988

A.  Implementing "An Agenda for Peace"  
581 - 589

B.  Preventive diplomacy and peacemaking  
590 - 596

C.  Peace-keeping in a changing context  
597 - 612

D.    Current  activities in  preventive diplomacy,  peacemaking  and peace-
613 - 834

E.  Major comprehensive efforts  
835 - 929

F.  Cooperation with regional organizations  
930 - 946

G.  Disarmament  
947 - 957

H.  Post-conflict peace-building  
958 - 988

989 - 1006

Contents (continued)

    List of figures


General Assembly  resolutions and agenda items,  1989-1995, as  at 10 August

Participation of Heads of State and Government in  the general debate of the
General Assembly, 1989-1994  

Security  Council:  formal meetings  and consultations  of the  whole, 1988-
1995, as at 17 August 1995  

Security Council: resolutions and presidential statements, 1988-1995, as  at
17 August 1995  

Security Council: resolutions adopted since 1946, as at 10 August 1995  

Status of  contributions (peace-keeping and  regular budget), 1989-1995,  as

at 10 August 1995  

Revised appropriations for the biennium 1994-1995  

Voluntary contributions  to the United  Nations Development Programme  (core
and non-core), 1989-1995  

Summary of financial activities: funds and  trust funds administered by  the
United Nations Development Programme, 1990-1994  

Cost-sharing activities of  the United Nations Development Programme,  1992-

Income of the United Nations Children's Fund, 1990-1994  

Voluntary  contributions to  the United  Nations Population  Fund  (core and
non-core), 1990-1994  

World Food Programme expenditure, 1990-1994  

Regional commissions: revised appropriations for the biennium 1994-1995  

United Nations  consolidated inter-agency  humanitarian assistance  appeals,

Civilian personnel in peace-keeping missions, 1994 and 1995  


Total fatalities  in peace-keeping  operations, 1988-1995,  as at 17  August

Fatalities of United Nations civilian personnel, 1992-1994  

Requests  from  Member  States  for  electoral  assistance:  annual   number
received and accepted since 1989  

    List of tables

Natural disasters: casualties, damage and contributions  

Peace-keeping  troops, military  observers  and civilian  police  in  peace-
keeping operations on 31 July 1995  

Peace-keeping operations as at 31 July 1995  


1.    Few events  in recent history have generated as much confidence in the
future  and such high  hopes for a  better world as  the fall  of the Berlin
Wall some  five years ago, symbolizing  as it did the  end of the cold  war.
The spectre  of global nuclear cataclysm,  which has  haunted humanity since
the dawn of the nuclear age, has receded,  and in its place has  emerged the
promise of an era  of international peace freeing the energies of nations to
work  together  towards  economic  and  social  progress  for  the  whole of

2.      At the  time,  there was  a widespread  belief that  when no  longer
fuelled by  military assistance  provided by  rival major  Powers, the  many

regional conflicts flaring in  different parts of the world could be quickly
extinguished. The global  economy was expected to derive significant benefit
from a huge  "peace dividend" accruing as a result of the abandonment of the
costly arms race. It  was hoped that  an important share of those  resources
would be invested in  poor countries starved of capital and skills and  thus
help to accelerate economic growth and development world wide.

3.      Sadly, the  record  of world  affairs over  the past  few years  has
largely belied  those optimistic expectations.  Many old conflicts  continue
to  defy  the efforts  of  the  international community  to  bring  about  a
settlement and new wars  have continued to erupt, almost all of them  within
States. Most disappointingly, the total  volume of assistance  to developing
countries has not only failed to show growth but has, in fact, declined.

4.     The fiftieth anniversary of the United  Nations is therefore not only
a time to review  the Organization's first  half century and prepare it  for
its second: it  is also an occasion to  address ways to  regain the momentum
in  world affairs  that  appeared  so  dramatically at  the  outset of  this

5.     In the same manner  as my first  three annual reports to  the General
Assembly, my fourth report  endeavours to place in  focus the efforts of the
Organization to  respond effectively  to the  multitude of  new demands  and
problems resulting  from the dramatic changes  engendered by the  end of the
cold war. Those efforts  relate both to the  long-term goals embodied in the
Charter  of the United Nations    now apparently more accessible as a result
of  the sea change in international  relations    and to the immediate tasks
arising from the outbreak  of new conflicts in  different parts of the world
and  the resulting  increase  in demand  for the  Organization's preventive,
peacemaking, peace-keeping and peace-building services.

6.      Addressing  the implications  for the  Organization of  the  massive
increase  in  the  number and  complexity of  peace-keeping  operations, and
their profoundly  changed nature, I pointed,  in my  previous annual report,
to  the widespread misperception  of the  United Nations  as an organization
dedicated primarily  to peace-keeping. I underscored  that, in  the midst of
its efforts to contain and resolve  immediate conflicts by peace-keeping and
other means,  the United Nations remained  determined to  pay more attention
to  the foundations of peace, not least those lying in the realm of economic
and social development.

7.     During the  past year  acute armed conflicts have  continued to place
heavy  demands on the  Organization's financial  and human  resources and to
dominate  public perception of  the United  Nations role  and effectiveness.
The problems presented by  conflicts such as those in the former Yugoslavia,
Afghanistan,   Liberia,  Rwanda,  Burundi  and  Somalia  are  in  many  ways
unprecedented. More  often than not the  mandates and  resources provided to
the Organization to deal with them have proven  to be inadequate to  address
effectively  the  complex  tasks at  hand.  When  journeying  into uncharted
territory  with less  than adequate  means, set-backs  are unavoidable.  But
these  must not  be allowed  to become  a  source  of disillusionment  or to
overshadow the successes that,  notwithstanding formidable challenges,  have
been  achieved by  peace  operations in  various parts  of  the  world, from
Cambodia  to Mozambique  to El  Salvador to  Angola. Nor  must adversity  be
allowed to weaken our  resolve to carry forward  efforts to save human lives
and prevent  larger  conflicts, for  which  the  United Nations  remains  an
irreplaceable instrument. On  the contrary,  the set-backs  suffered in  the
quest for peace and  security must reinforce our  determination to take  the
hard  decisions   required  and  seek   continuously  to  develop   improved
approaches as  a means  of enhancing  our capacity  and effectiveness.  With
these  objectives in mind,  I issued,  in January 1995, a  Supplement to "An
Agenda for  Peace"  (A/50/60-S/1995/1), which  has  been  the subject  of  a
presidential statement in the Security Council and  is now being studied  by
the  General Assembly. The experience  of the past several  months has given
added force to the recommendations in the Supplement.

8.     While the  issues before  the international community in  this regard
require careful  and urgent attention, it  is also  extremely important that
the difficulties  encountered in  peace-keeping operations,  significant and
disturbing  as  they  may  be,  should   not  divert  attention  from  other
dimensions  of the work of the Organization, which, though less visible, are
equally essential and  serve to lay  the economic and social  foundation for
lasting peace.

9.     In the domain of  economic and social development,  as in the area of
peace-keeping, the  international context  within which  the United  Nations
operates and  the  challenges that  it faces  have greatly  changed. In  the
economic and  social  fields,  as  in the  political,  many areas  of  great
concern  remain where the  United Nations  has not, as yet,  proved equal to
the challenge. The situation  of the least developed  countries and of  many
parts  of Africa  remains critical.  At the  same  time,  the effort  of the
United  Nations in  support of  development is vast  and rich  with distinct
accomplishments.  As  such, it  deserves  better  recognition  and  enhanced
political and public support.

10.     At both the  practical and the conceptual levels, the period covered
by  the  present  report  has  been  marked  by  notable  advances  in   the
Organization's  capacity  to   guide  the  response  of  the   international
community to  global change  and to  the new  forms of  economic and  social
problems facing the world.

11.        I  attach great  importance,  in  this  regard,  to  the  ongoing
discussions  within the framework of  the General Assembly on "An Agenda for
Development".  The first  report on  the subject,  which I presented  to the
Assembly in  May 1994 (A/48/935), was  followed by  hearings and submissions
by  a variety  of sources  and was  then drawn  upon in  a large  number  of
statements made during the general debate at the forty-ninth  session of the
General Assembly. In  that light, I submitted  to the Assembly, in  November
1994,  a  set  of recommendations  aimed at  giving  practical force  to the
emerging  consensus  on   the  priorities  and  dimensions  of   development
(A/49/665).  Such consensus is  being further  advanced through  the working
group that  is preparing  the further  consideration of  the  matter at  the
fiftieth session of the General Assembly.

12.      In the  same context,  I have  been particularly  encouraged by the
support that  the role  of the  United Nations  in the  economic and  social
fields  and  the  current  work  on  the   elaboration  of  "An  Agenda  for
Development"  have received at the  annual summit meeting of  Heads of State
and Government  of the  seven major  industrialized nations.  The communiqu_
issued at Halifax in June 1995  (A/50/254-S/1995/501, annex I)  specifically
declared the readiness of the  Group of Seven  to work with others in  order
to set out a  fresh approach to international  cooperation and to define the
particular contribution expected of United Nations bodies.

13.      At the same time,  the ongoing series of  global conferences on key
issues of development  was carried forward with  the World Summit for Social
Development, held  in March 1995,  at Copenhagen.  On that occasion  a start
was  made towards combined  and effective  action across  borders to address
poverty,  unemployment and  social  disintegration. In  Beijing,  where  the
Fourth World  Conference on  Women will be  held this  September, the  world
will act  upon the newly achieved  recognition that the advancement of women
is  fundamentally critical  to  the  solution of  many of  the  world's most
pressing social, economic and political  problems. These conferences will be
followed  next year by  the United  Nations Conference  on Human Settlements
(Habitat  II) and  the ninth  session of  the United  Nations Conference  on
Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

14.     A  sustained, coordinated  follow-up to those  conferences, together
with a renewed effort in support of African  development, has been the  main
focus of extensive consultations  I have held during the year with the heads
of  the Bretton  Woods institutions  and the  executive heads  of the  other
agencies represented in the Administrative Committee on Coordination.  These

are covered  in the  section of  the  report dealing  with the  work of  the
Secretariat,  as  well  as  in  the  chapter  of  the  report  dealing  with
development,  humanitarian action  and human  rights  as the  foundations of
peace, chapter III.

15.    During the period covered by the present  report, I have continued to
emphasize  the essential  linkages  between the  political  and  development
missions of the United Nations and to advance a comprehensive vision of  the
role  of  the  Organization  where  the  advancement  of  human  rights  and
democracy are essential elements of both of those missions.

16.     In parallel with the efforts  to enhance the Organization's capacity
in the field of  peace and security and  to introduce an improved conceptual
framework for  pursuing the Organization's  development mission, reforms  in
the  structures  and  methods  of  work  of  the  Organization  are  gaining

17.    To this end, I have put forward a management plan designed to  create
a  mission-driven and  result-oriented  organization. In  carrying  out  the
plan, the achievement of five objectives is fundamental:

  (a)   Better management of human  resources, together  with improvement in
staff member capabilities and accomplishments;

  (b)    Better  management   of  the  Organization's  programme,  from  the
identification of  strategic priorities,  through the  budgetary process  by
which  resources are  allocated  to  achieve those  priorities  and  finally
through  a performance  measurement system  by which programme  managers are
held accountable for achieving the strategic priorities;
  (c)     Better  information   with  which   to  manage,   and  its  timely

  (d)   Better management  of technology  and extension  of its availability
throughout the Organization;

  (e)    Better management  of  the  Organization's  cost  structure and  an
enhanced programme for promoting efficiency and cost effectiveness.

18.     Reforming the United Nations  into a simpler,  more focused and more
integrated organization, capable of  pursuing the different  aspects of  its
mission  in a  mutually reinforcing  way and  in  the most  efficient manner
possible, has continued  to be a key objective of my efforts during the past
year, as it has been  since I took office in  January 1992. As  described in
the report,  the past 12 months  have seen further tangible progress towards
streamlining  operations, strengthening accountability, tightening personnel
and  management standards, and  eliminating waste  and redundancy.  I am, in
this context,  deeply committed to continuing  to reduce  the budget further
while improving the quality of service to Member States.

19.       In  pursuing those  efforts, I  am keenly  aware  that Secretariat
reform, to  be truly  effective,  must  be part  of a  larger  restructuring
effort including the  intergovernmental machinery to adapt the  Organization
as a whole to the demands  of the post-cold-war era. Such a process requires
the determination and full commitment of all Member States.

20.      A crucial  component of  that larger  reform process should  be the
achievement of a more dynamic  relationship among the main intergovernmental
organs    the  General Assembly,  the Security Council and  the Economic and
Social Council.  I hope  that the  account of  developments in  the work  of
those organs  in chapter  II of  the present  report will  prove helpful  in
considering what adjustments and  further improvements can  be introduced in
this regard.

21.     Within the  realm of activities covered  by the  Economic and Social
Council,  further steps  to ensure  more coherent  management of operational
activities carried  out under the aegis  of the various programmes and funds

of the United Nations,  as well as improved coordination of the humanitarian
activities  carried out  by various  parts  of  the Organization,  are other
essential   elements  of   reform  requiring   renewed  attention   at   the
intergovernmental level.

22.    In the same context, I am firmly convinced that no reform effort  can
succeed without  addressing the  basic issue  of providing  the Organization
with a more  adequate and reliable financial  base. This issue  is developed
in chapter II  of the present  report, where  I endeavour  to highlight  the
seriousness  of the financial  crisis facing the Organization. The difficult
financial  situation  is  compounded  by  the  continuing  late  payment  of
contributions by  many Governments.  It is  increasingly proving  to be  the
most  serious obstacle to  the effective  management of  the Organization. I
therefore particularly appreciate the serious effort  under way in the High-
level  Open-ended   Working  Group   on  the  Financial  Situation   of  the
Organization,  established during  the forty-ninth  session of  the  General
Assembly, to devise constructive and long-lasting  solutions in this crucial

23.     Two  other, related dimensions of the ongoing  reform effort need to
be highlighted and are given prominence in the present report.

24.      One relates  to  the expansion  in the  depth and  coverage of  the
assistance provided by the Organization to  Member States in the  process of
democratization. Requests for electoral assistance continue to grow.  Beyond
this  type of  assistance, there  is  a growing  demand for  United  Nations
support  in preparing the social,  as well as institutional, ground in which
democracy  can take  root. I  hope that  the development of  a comprehensive
approach to the  role of the  United Nations in these areas  will be further
advanced at the fiftieth  session of the General  Assembly, in the  light of
the report  on the subject  I have  submitted pursuant  to General  Assembly
resolution 49/30 of 7 December 1994 (A/50/332).

25.     The past year has also deepened awareness that the efforts of States
to  democratize  will   have  an  increased   likelihood  of   success  when
democratization  extends to  the  international arena.  The  United  Nations
progressive opening to civil  society is an important part of this  process.
Also in this respect,  the global conferences held by the United Nations  in
recent years are making a crucial  contribution. By bringing together  State
as  well as non-State actors  they are serving  to create strong, world-wide
issue-based  constituencies   around  key  dimensions  of  development.  The
democratic nature  of this  conference series  contributes immensely to  the
legitimacy and effectiveness of the programmes of action being adopted.

26.     Indeed,  the new world  environment clearly  demands more systematic
cooperation  between the  United Nations  and  all  other actors  engaged in
promoting  political and economic  security at  all levels,  whether they be
regional or  subregional organizations (progress  in cooperation with  these
entities  is  covered in  chapter IV  of the  present report),  or non-State
actors such  as citizen groups,  grass-roots movements and  non-governmental
organizations  of   all  types.  The   strengthening  of  coordination   and
cooperation between  these actors  and the  various elements  of the  United
Nations  system can serve  only to  enhance effectiveness  in fulfilling the
goals of the Charter.  It also serves to reinforce democratic principles  in
world affairs and in the emerging international system.
27.     I have  sought in this  report to provide a  clear and comprehensive
account of the  work of the Organization as  it helps Member States to  make
the transition to a  new international era. I firmly believe that success in
this great  task requires nothing  less than the  full participation of  all
concerned      not only  the  United  Nations  and  its  Member States,  but
individuals,  the   private  sector,   the  academic   community  and   non-
governmental, regional  and international  organizations. It  is to  inspire
the widest reflection upon and assessment of  the only world Organization at
our  disposal, and  in  accordance  with Article  98 of  the Charter  of the
United Nations, that I submit the present annual report.

    Coordinating a comprehensive strategy

  A.  Organs of the United Nations

28.     While pursuing  an extremely heavy  work schedule, the organs of the
United  Nations have consolidated  reforms in  their work  programmes during
this year, allowing for greater gains in efficiency.

  1.  General Assembly

29.     During its forty-ninth  session, the General Assembly has  continued
to  focus  on  issues  related to  the  maintenance of  peace  and security,
economic and social development and strengthening  and reform of the  United
Nations  to enhance  its ability  to fulfil  the goals  of the  Charter in a
world that has changed dramatically since the Charter was drafted.

30.    By comparison with 20 years ago, there has been a shift of  emphasis.
The Assembly  now devotes somewhat less  attention than it  did then to  the
main regional  conflicts, several  of which  have fortunately been  resolved
during  the last  decade,  and devotes  more  time  to  economic and  social
matters and to  a number of generic  questions of primordial importance  for
the  effective  functioning  of  the  Organization,  notably  a  cluster  of
financial  issues. These  arise  from the  failure of  Member States  to pay
their  assessed contributions  in full  and  on time  and from  the enormous
expansion in the  cost of  peace-keeping, which  has risen  from about  $626
million per annum in 1986 to about $3.6 billion in 1995.

31.     The Organization now faces a very serious financial  situation. In a
statement to  the Assembly  on 12  October 1994,  I drew attention  to this,
emphasizing  that  it  had  become  an  urgent  political  question.  I  was
gratified by  the Assembly's subsequent decision  to establish a  high-level
working group and to entrust to it the consideration of additional  measures
to  ensure a  sound and  viable financial basis  for the  Organization. That
working group has worked intensively during 1995. I  addressed it on 22 June
and sought its urgent assistance  in averting a serious financial crisis. In
parallel, the Assembly established another working  group of experts on  the
principle of capacity to pay.

32.      An  index  of  the severity  of the  current problems  is  that the
Organization as at January  1995 owed some  $850 million to Governments  who
have  contributed troops  and equipment  to peace-keeping  operations.  This
debt  represents an involuntary  loan to  the Organization  by Member States
who have  in addition  accepted the  risk of  exposing their  young men  and
women to the perils of peace-keeping. This is manifestly unjust.

33.     Another index  is the number of  Member States whose arrears  exceed
the contributions due for  the last two  years and who are therefore,  under
Article 19 of  the Charter, unable  to vote  in the General Assembly.  As at
mid-August,  they numbered  17, nearly  10  per cent  of the  membership.  A
number  of  other  Member States  have  indicated to  the  President of  the
Assembly that they are  not able to meet their obligations under Article  17
and will therefore also soon lose their right to vote.

34.      As regards  the financing  of peace-keeping,  the General  Assembly
reaffirmed at  its forty-ninth session that  the costs  of peace-keeping are
the collective  responsibility  of  all  Member States  in  accordance  with
Article  17  of  the  Charter.  The  Assembly  also  adopted  procedures  to
strengthen  the  administrative  and  budgetary  aspects  of  peace-keeping,
including  the  establishment of  a financial  year  for each  peace-keeping
operation  starting on  1 July  and a  request to  the Secretary-General  to
submit  twice a year,  for the  Assembly's information,  a table summarizing

the proposed budgetary requirements of each operation.

35.    Development continued to receive  special attention from the  General
Assembly,  emphasizing   that  the  importance   of  this   aspect  of   the
Organization's activities should  not be overshadowed by the intense  public
interest in  its peace-keeping  activities. The  holding of three  important
United Nations conferences during a  period of 12 months  (on population and
development in Cairo in September 1994,  on social development in Copenhagen
in March 1995 and  on women in  Beijing in  September 1995) was evidence  of
the importance that Member  States attach to the Organization's role in  the
economic and social fields.

36.     On  6 May 1994, I published "An  Agenda for Development" (A/48/935).
In response  the General Assembly established  an ad  hoc open-ended working
group to  elaborate further  an action-oriented,  comprehensive agenda  that
would  take  into  account  reports  and  recommendations  presented by  the
Secretary-General,  the  work of  the  Economic  and  Social Council,  views
expressed in the Assembly itself and a number of other views and proposals.

37.       The question  of enlargement  of  the Security  Council  attracted
intense interest throughout the period under review, as a possible means  of
making more  efficient and  democratic the work  of the Organization  in the
field  of  peace  and  security.  In  September  1994  the  General Assembly
reviewed  the  progress  report  of  the  Open-ended  Working  Group  on the
Question of  Equitable Representation on and  Increase in  the Membership of
the Security Council and other matters related to the Security Council,  and
decided that the Working Group should continue its  work and submit a report
before  the end of  the forty-ninth  session. The Working Group  has held 21
meetings and  a  number of  informal  consultations  and has  addressed  two
clusters  of issues,  the first  covering the  size  and composition  of the
Council,  including   permanent,  non-permanent   and   new  categories   of
membership, and  the second  the Council's working  methods and  procedures,
its efficiency  and effectiveness,  and its  relationship with other  United
Nations organs.

38.      The  Assembly has  increasingly  adopted  the informal,  open-ended
working  group as  an effective  instrument  in  seeking solutions  to major
problems  relating  to  the  efficient working  of  the  Organization. These
bodies, each comprising  the entire  membership, have  been instrumental  in
allowing a  concentrated and issue-specific  exchange of  views on  Security
Council reform,  "An Agenda  for Peace",  "An Agenda  for Development",  the
financial  situation   of  the  United   Nations  and,  most  recently,  the
strengthening of the United Nations system.  The activities of these working
groups, their  interrelated  mandates, the  depth  and  complexity of  their
deliberations and the frequency  of their meetings  pose a challenge to  the
capacity  of  the  Secretariat  to  provide  the  required  substantive  and
technical support from within already scarce resources.

39.      The  agenda for  the  forty-ninth session  comprised 164  items,  a
reduction from 180 items in the previous session (see fig. 1). This  results
from the consolidation of related items and the  decision to discuss some of
them  only  every  second  or  third  year.  Further  rationalization  seems
possible. Broadly worded agenda items allow  flexibility to examine  several
topics  or aspects  of a  question under  a  single  item. Areas  where this
possibility could  be explored  are disarmament (18  items on the  agenda of
the  forty-ninth  session),  cooperation  between  the  United  Nations  and
intergovernmental organizations (5),  decolonization (5), and  the financing
of  peace-keeping operations (19).  There are  also 10  items that  have not
been considered at all for several years.

40.     An issue closely related to the number of items on the agenda is the
number and periodicity of reports requested by the Assembly. In addition  to
the reports  of  principal organs  and  their  subsidiary bodies,  over  200

reports  of the  Secretary-General were  issued at the  forty-ninth session,
not including  several reports of special  rapporteurs and of  the Office of
Internal  Oversight  Services. The  difficulties  and  expense  involved  in
producing  so  many reports  in  a  timely manner  are  evident,  given  the
frequency with which the Assembly and  other principal and subsidiary organs
now meet.  Streamlining and cost-cutting  efforts cannot ultimately  succeed
unless the number of reports requested is significantly reduced.

41.    During the forty-ninth  session of the General Assembly,  its General
Committee and  its Main  Committees held 377  meetings, as  compared with  a
total of  401  during the  forty-eighth session  and 426  during the  forty-
seventh  session.  The  Main  Committees  held  237  informal  meetings  and
consultations,  a  decrease  from  the  285  held  during  the  forty-eighth
session. Meetings held by working groups increased to  141 from the previous
session's 86.  The Assembly has  so far adopted  324 resolutions during  its
forty-ninth  session, compared  with 333  during the  forty-eighth  session.
Some 79 per  cent were adopted without a  vote or by  consensus, as compared
with 81 per cent  at the previous session. The number  of Heads of State and
Government who participated in the general debate  of the Assembly fell from
51 (28  per cent) of  the membership to 45 (24 per  cent) at the forty-ninth
session (see fig. 2).

  2.  Security Council

42.     During the period under  review, the Security  Council has continued
to meet, on an  almost daily basis,  to review the issues on its  agenda, to
warn about the threats to  peace around the world, to call on antagonists to
restrain  their  ardour  for combat,  to  take various  types  of action  to
control and  resolve conflicts,  and  to muster  regional and  international
support  for those  measures (see  fig.  3).  Towards these  objectives, the
Security Council  has demonstrated  a determination  to unify  its ranks  in
order to address more effectively the  various complex issues that  confront
it  today. One of the  Council's greatest contributions has been its patient
and deliberate  search for  consensus within  its own  ranks. This  positive
trend has enabled Council  members to approach the issues on its agenda with
a greater degree of harmony and cohesion (see figs. 4 and 5).

43.     The main focus of the Security Council's concern has been the former
Yugoslavia  and  central  Africa.  In  the  former  Yugoslavia  the  Council
endeavoured  to defuse  the  conflicts,  prevent their  further  spread  and
mitigate  their impact on  civilian populations.  To that  end, it addressed
many  issues,  including  the  changing  peace-keeping  role of  the  United
Nations, humanitarian emergencies, mass violations  of human rights  and the
difficult  issues arising from  the use of United  Nations troops to protect
humanitarian relief deliveries.  The Council also offered active support  to
efforts by  interested  Member States,  in particular  those comprising  the
Contact  Group,  as well  as  the  International  Conference  on the  Former
Yugoslavia, to  bring about  negotiated solutions  to the  conflicts in  the
region. The Council continued  to make active use of mandatory sanctions  as
a means  of achieving  the above  purposes. The  Council's determination  to
ensure the resolution  of the crises in a  comprehensive way, as  well as to
strengthen  cooperation between  the United  Nations and  relevant  regional
organizations, in particular the European Union  (EU) and the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization  (NATO), still offers  the best hope  of bringing to  an
end the human tragedy in the former Yugoslavia.

44.      At the beginning of  the period under review,  the Security Council
had  authorized the  deployment of  six  major peace-keeping  operations  in
Africa, more than in  any other continent. Four of  them remain, the  one in
Mozambique  having completed  its mandate  with conspicuous  success and the
one  in  Somalia  having  been  withdrawn after  it  had  succeeded  in  its

humanitarian efforts  but had been denied  the necessary  cooperation of the
Somali parties with  efforts to promote national reconciliation. In addition
to the four remaining peace-keeping  operations, in Angola,  Liberia, Rwanda
and  Western Sahara,  the  Council  has  been  concerned  with  peace-making
efforts in  other African  countries, especially Burundi  and Sierra  Leone.
During  the  period  under review  the Council  dispatched  an unprecedented
number of  missions, all of them  to African  destinations: Burundi (twice),
Mozambique,  Rwanda, Somalia and  Western Sahara.  The conflicts  in Africa,
like those  in the former Yugoslavia, are primarily internal,  but they have
major implications for the  security of the subregions concerned. As in  the
former Yugoslavia, they  have disastrous humanitarian consequences, and  the
Council has  had to devote  as much attention  to alleviating  the misery of
the civilian populations affected as to  efforts to control and  resolve the
conflicts.  Cooperation with  the Organization  of African  Unity (OAU)  and
with subregional  organizations in Africa has  been an  important feature of
the Security Council's efforts.

45.    Seven sanctions regimes remain  in effect and generate much  work for
the  Council.  In order  to ensure  the  adequate  servicing of  the various
sanctions committees and  the expeditious  processing by the Secretariat  of
applications  for  humanitarian   supplies,  I  have  reinforced  the   unit
responsible in  the Department  of Political  Affairs. For  their part,  the
sanctions  committees,  drawing on  their  own  experience,  have  initiated
measures  to  streamline  their working  procedures  and  to ensure  greater
transparency  in the  conduct  of  their work  in conformity  with a  set of
measures decided by the Security Council (see S/1995/234).

46.        Cooperation on  sanctions  with regional  organizations  has been
important, with special  reference to the  contributions of the Organization
of American  States (OAS)  in  Haiti and  of  EU  and the  Organization  for
Security and  Cooperation in  Europe (OSCE)  in the  former Yugoslavia.  The
temporary  assignment  of  liaison  officers  from  the  EU/OSCE   Sanctions
Assistance Missions Communications  Centre has provided the Secretariat  and
the relevant  committees  with customs  expertise  and  with advice  on  the
practical implementation  and monitoring of  sanctions. Member States  could
further  assist  the  efforts  of  the  committees  and  the  Secretariat by
screening more effectively  their nationals' applications to the  committees
and by cooperating in further streamlining of the committees' procedures.

47.     In order to  ensure that sanctions remain a  credible instrument for
promoting  international peace  and security,  Member  States will  need  to
address a range of problems encountered  in the implementation of sanctions.
Recommendations in  this regard  were put forward  in my  Supplement to  "An
Agenda for Peace" (A/50/60-S/1995/1).

48.     The Security Council's methods of work received consideration during
an extensive  debate on  the annual  report of  the Council  to the  General
Assembly at  its forty-ninth  session. Member  States exchanged  views on  a
broad  range  of issues  related  to the  functioning  of the  Council.  The
Council made  known its  intention, as part  of its efforts  to improve  the
flow  of information  and  the  exchange  of ideas  between  members of  the
Council  and  other  Member  States,  to  have  increased  recourse  to open
meetings, in  particular  at  an early  stage  in  its  consideration  of  a
subject, on  a case-by-case  basis. The  Council has  already initiated  the
holding of orientation debates. Briefings by  the President of the  Security
Council   for    States   non-members   of    the   Council   have    become

49.     In the face of persisting  conflict in Africa, Europe and elsewhere,
the  Security Council  has demonstrated  that  it  remains committed  to the
goals of  strengthening peaceful  and cooperative  relations between  Member
States  and helping communities  within States  to live  peacefully with one
another, to rebuild and to work towards stable and productive societies.

50.     It must  be emphasized, however,  that only if the  decisions of the
Security Council enjoy the full support  of the international community, and

only if the parties to the  conflict carry out those decisions  in full, can
the Council  fulfil its responsibilities under  the Charter  to maintain and
consolidate international peace and security.

  3.  Economic and Social Council

51.     The Economic and Social Council held its substantive session from 26
June to 28 July 1995 in Geneva. The  Council's high-level segment dealt with
one  of  the  most  pressing  issues   on  the  international  agenda:   the
development of Africa. A spirit of  partnership prevailed during the  debate
in  the  Council and  conclusions  were  reached on  conflict-prevention and
resolution,  natural  disasters,   external  debt,  resource  flows,  trade,
capacity-building,  agriculture and  food  security, and  other  areas.  The
segment was attended  by a large  number of  ministers and other  high-level
representatives. One day was  devoted to a policy  dialogue with Mr.  Michel
Camdessus, Executive Director of the International  Monetary Fund (IMF), Mr.
James  Wolfensohn,  President  of  the  World  Bank,  Mr.  Renato  Ruggiero,
Director-General  of  the World  Trade Organization  and Mr.  Carlos Fortin,
Officer-in-Charge of UNCTAD, on major issues in the world economy.

52.    The Council's coordination segment addressed  the coordinated follow-
up  and  implementation  of  the  results  of  major  recent   international
conferences  in   the  economic,  social  and  related  fields.  The  agreed
conclusions envisage  the integrated consideration  by the General  Assembly
of  themes common  to those  conferences  with  a view  to promoting  better
coherence  and integrated  policy guidance.  This  may involve  measures  to
improve  the coherence of  the work  of the relevant Main  Committees of the
Assembly. The Council, for  its part, decided to carry out an annual  review
of cross-cutting themes  common to  major international  conferences and  to
take  action  to ensure  the  necessary  coordination  of  agendas and  work
programmes of  the functional commissions involved  in the  follow-up to the
various international  conferences. Attention was also given to measures for
the strengthening of inter-agency  coordination at the  regional and country
levels,  and  to the  role  of  the  resident  coordinators in  facilitating
national  reporting  on  progress  achieved  in  the  follow-up  to   global
conferences.   The   Council  invited   the   Administrative  Committee   on
Coordination to bring  system-wide coordination  issues to the attention  of
the  Council  and to  make  recommendations  thereon. Implementation  of the
agreed conclusions  will enhance complementarity  and coherence between  the
Council  and the  General Assembly,  including their  subsidiary bodies,  as
well  as  interaction between  the  United  Nations  and  the Bretton  Woods
institutions  and the  World  Trade Organization.  The  complementary  steps
initiated  by  the  Administrative  Committee  on  Coordination  to   pursue
conference agendas within a common framework  will promote unity of  purpose
and action in the United Nations system as a whole.

53.    The operational activities segment began to exercise its new  mandate
to  provide policy guidance to the United Nations  funds and programmes. The
guidance  provided  covers  priorities   in  budget  allocations,   improved
coherence   in  country   programmes  and  improved   cost-effectiveness  of
administrative   services,   including   the   possible    use   of   common
administrative services at the field level.  The Council reaffirmed the need
to  increase  substantially  the  availability  of  resources  allocated  to
operational  activities for  development on  a predictable,  continuous  and
assured basis commensurate with the needs of developing countries.

54.      In  line  with  these conclusions  and in  accordance with  General
Assembly  resolution  47/199 of  22  December  1992,  I will  submit  to the
Assembly  a  range  of  specific  recommendations,  in  the  context  of the
triennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities, on  further
steps to  strengthen the  role of the  Economic and Social  Council in  this
field and  on important  subjects such  as improved substantive  operational
coordination at the country  level, increasing the predictability and levels
of resources,  strengthening  of  the  resident  coordinator  system  and  a
variety of programme tools such as the country strategy  note, the programme
approach and national execution.

55.     The Council  initiated a  review of  arrangements for  consultations
with non-governmental organizations. By its resolution 1993/80, the  Council
established the Open-ended Working Group on  the Review of Arrangements  for
Consultations  with non-governmental  organizations. A  primary objective is
to update and introduce coherence in  the rules governing the  participation
of non-governmental organizations in  international conferences convened  by
the United Nations. The Council  requested the Working Group to examine ways
and means of improving practical arrangements for  the work of the Committee
on  Non-Governmental Organizations  and the  Non-Governmental  Organizations
Unit of the Secretariat.
56.      The Working Group held its first  substantive session from 20 to 24
June 1994. An inter-sessional  meeting took place on 7 and 8 November  1994.
Its second substantive session  was held from  8 to 12, 26 and 31  May 1995.
At  its substantive session,  the Economic  and Social  Council approved the
recommendation of  the Working Group  that its mandate  be extended for  one
year and  that  its  final  report  be  presented  to  the  Council  at  its
substantive session of 1996.

57.    In accordance with Economic  and Social Council resolution 1994/24, a
Committee of  Co-Sponsoring Organizations was  constituted by  the heads  of
the six co-sponsors of  the joint programme on HIV/AIDS (the United  Nations
Children's Fund (UNICEF),  the United Nations Development Programme  (UNDP),
the United Nations Population  Fund (UNFPA), the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and  the World Bank), known as
UNAIDS.  As  the  United  Nations  system's  main  advocate  for  the global
response  to the  HIV/AIDS epidemic,  UNAIDS has three  mutually reinforcing
roles:  to  provide   globally  relevant  policy  on  HIV/AIDS  and  promote
international best practice and research;  to provide technical  support for
an expanded response to HIV/AIDS, particularly in  developing countries; and
to  advocate a  comprehensive,  multisectoral response  to  HIV/AIDS,  well-
resourced and strategically, ethically and technically sound.

58.     At its  second meeting,  on 12 December  1994, the Committee of  Co-
Sponsoring Organizations unanimously recommended Dr. Peter Piot as  director
of the  UNAIDS programme  and the  Secretary-General appointed  Dr. Piot  as
Executive Director for a  period of three years starting on 1 January  1995.
On  5  May,  the  Economic  and  Social  Council  decided  on  the  regional
distribution  of  seats  for 22  Member  States  to be  represented  on  the
Programme Coordinating Board of UNAIDS. It decided that each of the six  co-
sponsoring organizations,  as well as  five non-governmental  organizations,
would  participate in  the  work  of the  Board.  The Board  held its  first
meeting on 13 and 14 July at Geneva.

59.      The Commission  for Social  Development began its  consideration of
arrangements for the follow-up to the  World Summit for Social Development's
Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development and  Programme of Action at its
34th session, held  in New York from 10 to  20 April 1995. The Economic  and
Social  Council  concluded  that the  scope  and  methods  of  work  of  the
Commission should  be adapted to enable it  to play a more effective role in
promoting an integrated approach to social  development in the aftermath  of
the  World Summit.  It decided  that  the Commission  should hold  a special
session  in  1996 to  review from  this  perspective  its mandate,  terms of
reference  and scope of work,  elaborate a multi-year programme  of work and
make  recommendations to the  Council on  the frequency  of the Commission's

60.     During its session the Commission also heard the first report of Mr.
Bengt Lindqvist,  the Special Rapporteur on  the Monitoring  of the Standard
Rules for the Equalization of  Opportunities for Persons  with Disabilities.
The  Commission also  started  preparations for  the  International  Year of
Older Persons, to  be observed in 1999, and  advanced the preparations of  a
world programme of action for youth, to be  adopted by the General  Assembly
during its fiftieth session.

61.     The  Commission on Sustainable  Development held  its third session,
including its  high-level segment,  in New  York from  11 to 28  April 1995.
More   than  40   ministers  attended,   holding  portfolios   such  as  the
environment,  forestry,   agriculture,  tourism,  development  and  finance.
Fifty-five Governments  submitted national  reports on  their activities  in
support of sustainable development by the twenty-first century. The  session
included  panel  discussions  between  senior  officials  from  Governments,
international  financial   institutions,   United   Nations   agencies   and
programmes, the business community  and non-governmental organizations.  Two
days were dedicated to the sharing  of national experiences in  implementing
Agenda  21, adopted  by the  United  Nations  Conference on  Environment and
Development  in June 1992 and  a "Day of Local  Authorities" examined grass-
roots  efforts  to   achieve  sustainable  development.  These   initiatives
received  welcome  support   from  the  large  number  of   non-governmental
organizations  attending   the  session,  who  see   in  the  Commission   a
transparent   and   participatory   mechanism  for   addressing  sustainable
development concerns, including those  at the national and community levels.
The Commission agreed to establish an  intergovernmental panel to  formulate
by 1997  coordinated proposals  for action  with regard  to the  management,
conservation  and  sustainable  development  of all  types  of  forest.  The
Commission  also endorsed  work  programmes on  consumption  and  production
patterns,  the elaboration  of sustainable  development indicators  and  the
transfer of environmentally sound technology.

62.     The  concluding high-level segment  (26-28 April)  of the Commission
addressed challenges on the path towards  the full implementation of  Agenda
21.  The Chairman's summary  noted that  the insufficiency  of the financial
resources available to support national efforts, particularly in  developing
countries  and economies  in transition, remains a  continuing constraint to
achieving sustainable development.

63.      The Committee on New and Renewable  Sources of Energy and on Energy
for  Development,  a subsidiary  expert  body  of  the  Economic and  Social
Council, held a special session on rural development  from 6 to 17 February.
It  proposed  a  strategy   that  would  include   development  of  national
sustainable   energy   action  programmes   for   agricultural   and   rural
development; priority  for rural  energy  development; capacity-building  in
rural energy  development; new  directions in  management and  institutional
arrangements;  new   financial  and  investment  arrangements;   accelerated
development  and  implementation  of  new  technologies;  new  international
actions  for rural  energy  development; and  strengthening  of  sustainable
energy  activities within  the  United  Nations system.  The  Commission  on
Sustainable  Development  agreed  at its  April  1995  session to  encourage
Governments  to integrate  renewable  forms  of energy  into their  national
strategies for sustainable  and rural development.  It urged  Governments to
support efforts of  interested developing countries towards the  sustainable
use of  an appropriate  mix of  fossil and  renewable sources of  energy for
rural communities.

64.        The  Fourth  World  Conference  on Women:  Action  for  Equality,
Development  and  Peace  is  intended  to  coalesce  reflection  about   the
advancement  of  women  and propose  new  directions  into the  twenty-first
century. During the autumn of 1994  regional preparatory meetings were  held
in four regions, a  number of expert group meetings on specific themes  were
organized  and informal consultations  were held  with Member  States on the
draft  of the platform for action. From 16 March  to 7 April, the Commission
on the Status of Women, acting as preparatory committee for the  Conference,
met  and continued negotiations  on the  platform for  action. Subsequent to

the  session, the  focus shifted  to promoting participation  by Governments
and  non-governmental  organizations  in  the  Conference,  ensuring  public
information  about  it  and  supporting  the  intergovernmental  negotiation
process. From 31 July  to 4 August, informal consultations were convened  by
the chairperson of  the Commission to continue negotiations. The  Conference
preparations  have   involved   the  largest   number  of   non-governmental
organizations ever  accredited for a United  Nations conference  and a major
effort has been made to facilitate their participation in the process.

65.     The Division for the  Advancement of Women completed, as  conference
documents,  two major  studies, one  entitled  "Women  in a  Changing Global
Economy: The  1994 World Survey  on the Role  of Women  in Development", and
the second a review and appraisal  of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies
for the Advancement of  Women. In-depth studies of  women and education  and
training,  women in  international  decision-making and  women  in  economic
decision-making were  also completed. Steps have  been taken  to ensure that
the relevant  human  rights  mechanisms  of  the  United  Nations  regularly
address  violations  of  the  rights  of  women,  including  gender-specific
abuses,  through provision  of gender-based  information to  treaty  bodies,
work on  the development of an  optional protocol to  the Convention on  the
Elimination  of  All Forms  of  Discrimination  against  Women  and work  on
guidelines for integrating gender into human rights monitoring.

66.    The issue of how best to  ensure advancement of women in the  work of
the Secretariat  and the United  Nations system  as a  whole is  one of  the
major areas central to the Conference  and its follow-up. The  institutional
mechanisms for  this are  being reviewed  internally and  by Governments  of
Member States.

  4.  Trusteeship Council

67.     In 1994,  with the termination  of the Trusteeship Agreement for the
last Trust  Territory of the  Pacific Islands and  Palau's admission  as the
185th Member  of the United Nations,  the Trusteeship  Council completed the
task entrusted to  it under the Charter with  respect to the 11  Territories
that  had  been  placed  under the  Trusteeship  System. The  other  10, the
majority  of  them  in  Africa  and   the  Pacific,  had  already   attained
independence, either as  separate States or by joining neighbouring  States.
The Trusteeship  Council thereupon amended its  rules of  procedure and will
in future meet only as and where occasion may require.

68.      In  a letter  dated 2  June 1995  addressed  to me  (A/50/142), the
Permanent  Representative of  Malta requested, on behalf  of his Government,
that the General  Assembly include an item entitled  "Review of the role  of
the Trusteeship Council" in the provisional  agenda of its fiftieth session.
The  Government of Malta  would like  the Assembly  to consider transforming
the Council's role so  that, in addition to its  role under the Charter, the
Council  would hold  in trust  for humanity  its common  heritage and common

69.      In  my 1994  annual  report on  the  work  of the  Organization,  I
recommended that  the General Assembly proceed  with steps  to eliminate the
organ, in  accordance with  Article 108  of the  Charter. I  regret that  no
decision to abolish the Trusteeship Council has been taken.

  5.  International Court of Justice

70.      The International Court  of Justice at  The Hague  is the principal
judicial  organ  of  the  United  Nations  and,  as  such,  holds  important
responsibilities in the settlement of disputes of a legal nature.

71.      In 1994-1995,  the Court  continued to have  a record number  of 13
cases before it.  Eleven were contentious  cases in  which the parties  were
States from different parts of the world. Two  were requests for an advisory
opinion, one submitted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the  other
by the General Assembly.

72.     In the  period under review, judgments have been given in two cases,
in one  of which  hearings were held.  In a third  case, hearings have  been
postponed.  In other  cases  a great  number of  pleadings  have  been filed
within the prescribed time-limits. One contentious  case and one request for
an advisory opinion were brought before the Court.

73.      The hearings in the  case concerning the Aerial  Incident of 3 July
1988 (Islamic Republic of  Iran v. United States  of America), scheduled  to
take place  in September, were  postponed sine die  at the  joint request of
the two parties.
74.    Written comments  were filed by  several States by 20 June 1995,  the
time-limit fixed by the President of the Court  by an Order of 20  June 1994
on written statements  submitted in connection with  the request by  WHO for
an advisory  opinion on  the  Legality of  the Use  by  a  State of  Nuclear
Weapons in Armed Conflict. The written proceedings are thus closed.

75.      In December  1994, the  General Assembly  laid before  the Court  a
request for  an advisory  opinion on  the Legality of  the Threat or  Use of
Nuclear Weapons.  In  February 1995,  an Order  was  made  fixing two  time-
limits, one within which written statements  relating to the question  might
be submitted to the Court by  States entitled to appear before the Court and
by the United  Nations, and one within which States and organizations having
presented  written statements  might present  written comments  on the other
written statements.  Written  statements have  been  filed  by a  number  of
States. Written comments are expected by 20 September 1995.

76.      Public  sittings for  the purpose  of  hearing  oral statements  or
comments  will open on  30 October  1995. These oral  proceedings will cover
the  requests  for  advisory  opinion  submitted  by  WHO  and  the  General

77.      As  each  of  the parties  in the  case concerning  the  Gab _kovo-
Nagymaros  Project  (Hungary/Slovakia) had  filed a  counter-memorial within
the prescribed  time-limit of  December 1994,  the President  of the  Court,
also  in December, made an Order  fixing the time-limit for the  filing of a
reply by each of the parties.   Each party having filed its reply within the
prescribed time-limit, the written proceedings are now closed.

78.        In  the  case concerning  Maritime  Delimitation  and Territorial
Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar  v. Bahrain), the Court,  in July
1994,  had delivered  a judgment  in which  it found  that the  exchange  of
letters of December 1987 between the King  of Saudi Arabia and the  Amirs of
Qatar and Bahrain, and the minutes signed at Doha on 25 December 1990,  were
international agreements  creating rights and  obligations for the  parties,
and that, by the  terms of those agreements,  the parties had  undertaken to
submit to it the  whole of the dispute. The  Court fixed 30 November 1994 as
the time-limit  within which the parties were jointly or  separately to take
action to that end and reserved any other matters for subsequent decision.

79.    In February  1995, the Court  delivered a judgment by which it  found
that it  had jurisdiction to adjudicate  upon the dispute  between Qatar and
Bahrain that had  been submitted to it; that it  was seized of the whole  of
the dispute; and that the application of Qatar as formulated on 30  November
1994 was admissible. In April the Court issued  an Order fixing a time-limit
for the filing by each of the parties of a memorial on the merits.

80.     Hearings in the  case concerning East Timor (Portugal  v. Australia)
were held in January and February 1995. On 30  June, the Court delivered its
judgment,  by  which it  found that  it could  not,  in the  absence of  the
consent  of  Indonesia,  adjudicate  upon  the  dispute  referred  to  it by

Portugal  concerning  a  treaty  of  December  1989  between  Australia  and
Indonesia on exploitation of the continental  shelf of the so-called   Timor

81.       In  the case  concerning  Application  of the  Convention  on  the
Prevention and Punishment of the Crime  of Genocide (Bosnia and  Herzegovina
v. Yugoslavia  (Serbia  and Montenegro))  the  President  of the  Court,  in
March,  made  an Order  extending  the  time-limit  for  the  filing of  the
counter-memorial of Yugoslavia  (Serbia and Montenegro). Yugoslavia  (Serbia
and  Montenegro)  filed preliminary  objections  in  June 1995  relating  to
admissibility  and jurisdiction. In  July 1995,  the President  of the Court
made  an  Order  fixing   the  time-limit  for  the  filing  by  Bosnia  and
Herzegovina of  observations on the  preliminary objections, proceedings  on
the merits having been suspended by operation of the rules of court.

82.     In the cases concerning  Questions of Interpretation and Application
of  the  1971  Montreal  Convention  arising  from  the  Aerial  Incident at
Lockerbie  (Libyan Arab  Jamahiriya  v.  United Kingdom)  and  Questions  of
Interpretation  and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from
the Aerial  Incident at Lockerbie (Libyan  Arab Jamahiriya  v. United States
of  America) the  respondent  States  filed  preliminary objections  to  the
jurisdiction of the Court on 16 and 20 June respectively.

83.     On 28 March  1995, Spain instituted proceedings against  Canada with
respect to a dispute relating to  the Canadian Coastal Fisheries  Protection
Act, as amended  on 12 May  1994, and to  the rules of  application of  that
Act, as well as to certain  measures taken on the basis of that legislation,
more  particularly the boarding on the  high seas, on 9 March,  of a fishing
boat, the  Estai, sailing under  the Spanish  flag. Taking into  account the
agreement concerning the procedure reached between  the parties at a meeting
with the  President of the  Court, held on  27 April, the  President, by  an
Order  of 2  May,  decided that  the  written proceedings  should  first  be
addressed to the question of the jurisdiction of  the Court to entertain the
dispute and fixed time-limits  for the filing  of the memorial of Spain  and
the counter-memorial of Canada.

84.     By a letter dated  9 August, the Government  of New Zealand gave the
Court  formal advance  notice of  its intention to  bring France  before the
Court in connection with the French nuclear testing in the South Pacific.

85.      Because of the  new cases mentioned  above, the Court's  docket has
remained well-filled. Besides the cases referred  to, the following were  on
the Court's list during the period under review:

  (a)   Maritime  Delimitation between  Guinea-Bissau and  Senegal  (Guinea-
Bissau v. Senegal);

  (b)    Oil  Platforms (Islamic  Republic  of  Iran  v.  United  States  of
  (c)  Land  and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v.

86.      Following  the death,  on  28  September 1994,  of Mr.  Nikolai  K.
Tarassov   (Russian  Federation),  Mr.  Vladlen   S.  Vereshchetin  (Russian
Federation) was  elected to fill  the resulting vacancy on  26 January 1995.
The  vacancy created  by  the death,  on 24  February,  of Mr.  Roberto  Ago
(Italy) was filled by the  election, on 21 June, of Mr. Luigi Ferrari  Bravo
(Italy). The  vacancy created  by the  resignation, as  at 10  July, of  Sir
Robert  Yewdall Jennings  (United  Kingdom  of Great  Britain  and  Northern
Ireland) was  filled by the  election, on 12  July, of  Mrs. Rosalyn Higgins
(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).

  6.  Secretariat

87.     The purpose  of my management plan is to create a mission-driven and
result-oriented Organization, with  specific goals of enhanced  performance,
better productivity and increased cost-effectiveness. The foundation of  the
management plan is the new system  of accountability and responsibility that
I  have  established. The  system is  designed  to create  a new  management
culture,  assisting  and supporting  programme  managers  in  achieving  the
strategic  objectives  of the  Organization  and  in  executing  legislative
mandates.  In effect, the  new system  of accountability  and responsibility
empowers managers with the freedom to  manage   streamlining  administrative
procedures,   introducing  considerable   decentralization  and  delegation,
allowing greater flexibility  in the management of resources and encouraging
greater innovation and initiative.

88.    The first  of the five major objectives is better management of human
resources,   together   with   improvement   in   staff   capabilities   and
accomplishments.  An   entirely  new  strategy   for  human  resources   was
introduced in  the Organization  and subsequently  endorsed  by the  General
Assembly at its forty-ninth session. The  implementation of the system  will
modernize   and  reform  the   management  of  human  resources.  Among  the
components  of  this new  system  is a  new  work  planning  and performance
appraisal system,  which is  based on  staff/management-agreed work  outputs
and performance measurements.

89.       The  strategy is  based on  the  need to  access the  continuously
changing and  evolving  role of  the  Organization  and the  requirement  to
respond progressively to changing needs with a breadth and depth of  skills.
The  strategy involves a  concerted effort  to provide  career training that
meets changing staff needs.  There is also  the need, as a management  tool,
for  active implementation  of an  attrition programme.  An early separation
programme for staff at various levels in  both the Professional and  General
Service  categories will  contribute to  an  adaptable  staff with  a varied
skills mix, leading to greater effectiveness  and efficiency in the  context
of constantly  changing demands on the  Secretariat. Lastly,  a total remake
of   the  adjudication   process   has  begun,   replacing   litigation   of
staff/management issues with  an informal dispute-reconciliation process  or
timely and time-saving arbitral disposition.

90.      Vigorous efforts  are being made  by the Office  of Human Resources
Management to integrate  goals and targets for  improvement in the status of
women into the overall strategy.  The adoption of a pro-active, more people-
centred human resource strategy has been  conducive to achieving this  goal.
The  percentage of women  in posts  subject to  geographical distribution is
continually rising  and at the end  of July 1995 stood  at 33.6  per cent up
from 32.6 per  cent, at the end of June  1994. During the same period  51.42
per cent of all promotions were those of women.

91.      The second  objective is  better management  of the  Organization's
programme  from the  identification  of strategic  priorities,  through  the
budgetary  process  by  which  resources  are  allocated  to  achieve  those
priorities and through  a performance measurement system by which  programme
managers  are  held accountable  for  achieving  the  strategic  priorities.
Clearer  lines  of  responsibility  and  greater  managerial  accountability
characterize  the new format  for the  medium-term plan,  the Organization's
basic strategic  document. The new format  of the  medium-term plan provides
for  clearly defined  objectives and emphasizes full  congruence between the
identified   programmes   and  the   departments   responsible   for   their
implementation. The process  of managerial responsibility and accountability
has   been  considerably   tightened   through  improved   linkage   between
programmes, budgets and  performance measurement.  Financial congruence  has
been  achieved at  each step in  planning and execution.  Member States will
now be able to tell what is to  be done, who is responsible for doing it and
what is accomplished.

92.     Third  is better information  with which  to manage  and its  timely
availability. Work  continued in  1994 and 1995  on the  development of  the
Integrated Management Information  System (IMIS), which aims at  modernizing

and enhancing the internal  flow and use  of management information in  such
areas  as  human  resources,  finance, accounts  and  procurement.  The IMIS
project  represents an ambitious  effort to  make good,  through one massive
effort,  30  years  of  neglect  in  upgrading   existing  electronic  data-
processing  systems.  The  system  is  a  revolutionary  step  towards   the
electronic integration of all of the  offices of the Organization performing
administrative tasks regardless of location. The  first two releases of  the
system,  the  human   resource  components,  were  fully  and   successfully
implemented at  Headquarters. The  other releases     accounts, finance  and
procurement  - will be  gradually phased  in during the next  year, with the
whole system operational world wide by the end of 1997.

93.     Fourth is management of technology and extension of its availability
throughout the  Organization. Technology,  with its  potential for  improved
services and  greater cost-effectiveness,  will also facilitate the  role of
Conference   Services.   Technological   advances   in   communication   and
networking, text-processing,  desk-top publishing, translation and  document
tracking  have provided  savings. Further  expansion of  the United  Nations
telecommunication network  will produce  additional savings  for the  United
Nations system as  a whole. The optical disk  system, now being expanded  to
accommodate  increasing  user demand,  offers  easy,  high-speed  electronic
access to United Nations  documents. The development  of remote  translation
and  text-processing  techniques  has  brought  down  the  cost  of  holding
meetings away  from established headquarters  by reducing the staff required
on-site.  As a  result,  the  number of  staff  who travelled  to the  Cairo
Conference was significantly reduced from that  of previous conferences, and
no translators will be going to the Beijing Conference.

94.     The fifth objective is  better management of the Organization's cost
structure  and an  enhanced  programme for  cost-effectiveness.  The  budget
process  is being  used  to  drive the  Organization  to a  higher level  of
efficiency.  The proposed  1996-1997 programme  budget is  smaller than  the
budget for  the biennium 1994-1995. The  proposals include  the abolition of
201 posts,  offset  in part  by the  proposed creation  of 66  new posts  in
priority areas of peace-keeping, international and regional cooperation  for
development, drug  control, crime prevention,  population, human rights  and
humanitarian affairs and internal oversight. The aggregate reduced  spending
will be achieved  through more cost-effective ways of implementing mandates,
rationalizing  work programmes  and technological innovations.  The proposed
reductions were achieved without curtailment of mandated  activities. At the
same  time, efficiency gains  of $35  million have  been proposed throughout
the Secretariat without compromising the quality of programme outputs.

95.     Identifying efficiency  gains is now a  key component of  management
planning.  The  first  phase  of  this  programme  has  concentrated  on the
simplification   of  existing   procedures:   redefining   work  programmes,
improving productivity,  substituting lower cost alternatives,  streamlining
staff requirements and reducing overheads.

96.      The next  phase will concentrate on  the elimination of duplication
and overlap in programme delivery and  the elimination of programmes without
a mandate  and  programmes that  do  not  return  adequate value  to  Member

97.      An  efficiency board,  chaired by  the Under-Secretary-General  for
Administration and Management,  Mr. Joseph Connor,  will identify during the
next biennium further significant opportunities for cost containment  beyond
those  proposed  in  the  1996-1997  budget.  These  will  include  removing
overregulating procedures  in the personnel,  finance and purchasing  areas,
eliminating duplicate efforts between Headquarters and other duty  stations,
and studying "outsourcing" alternatives.

98.     Procedures are being revised for better transparency and fairness of
procurement efforts.  Some steps  already taken,  or in  the initial  phase,
include the  extension of basic  professional procurement training;  revised
delegation of procurement authority  for peace-keeping missions; institution

of  global  system/blanket contracts;  review  and  updating of  the  vendor
roster; and establishment of the office  of ombudsman, to which  all vendors
may address complaints.

99.     In its first year  of operations, the Office  of Internal  Oversight
Services, headed  by Under-Secretary-General  Mr. Karl-Theodor Paschke,  has
provided the  United Nations  with oversight  coverage, promoting  effective
and  efficient programme management.  The Office  also finds  and reports on
instances of waste, fraud and mismanagement. I look forward  to the findings
and conclusions of the  first annual report  of the Office, to be  submitted
to the General Assembly in September 1995.

100.     The Office  of Legal Affairs,  headed by Mr. Hans  Corell, has been
heavily involved  in  legal work  related  to  the continued  expansion  and
diversification of the activities of the  Security Council, ranging from the
establishment of a new international criminal  tribunal to establishing  new
peace-keeping missions and winding down others.

101.     During the period  under review, the Office was involved in current
operations such as those in  Angola, Georgia, Guatemala,  Haiti, Mozambique,
Rwanda,  Somalia, Tajikistan,  Western  Sahara and  the  former  Yugoslavia.
Legal officers from the Office have served as legal advisers in a number  of
those operations.

102.     The Office of Legal  Affairs is involved in  the implementation  of
various aspects  of  Security Council  decisions.  It  has assisted  in  the
drafting and  interpretation of status-of-forces  agreements and  status-of-
mission agreements and  given advice to  operational departments. The Office
has developed  modalities and instruments  for the  procurement of necessary
systems, facilities, equipment  and services required for peace-keeping  and
other  activities.  Particular   attention  was  given  to  the  rights   of
contractors  and   to  third-party   claims  arising  out  of   Chapter  VII

103.     Novel issues of international  humanitarian law have  arisen during
the  period under review.   The  Office has provided advice  and opinions in
relation  to the  detention of  United Nations personnel  in Bosnia  and the
treatment  of Bosnian  prisoners  by  United  Nations forces.  The  progress
towards a referendum in Western  Sahara has required legal assistance in the
preparation of a code of conduct for the referendum campaign.

104.      The Office of Legal Affairs advised  on the question of setting up
an international judicial commission to investigate  the Burundi coup d'_tat
of 1993 and  on the proposed  establishment of  a commission  of inquiry  or
truth  in Burundi.  The  Office  assisted in  the drafting  of the  terms of
reference  of the  International  Commission of  Inquiry to  investigate the
events at Kibeho, Rwanda.
105.    The Office  contributed to filling a gap in United Nations practice,
highlighted  following a  United Nations  inquiry  into  a 1993  massacre of
civilians  in Liberia, by preparing  a set of  guidelines for United Nations
investigations  into allegations  of  massacres.  The Secretary-General  has
approved the guidelines for publication and circulation.

106.        The  establishment by  the  Security  Council  of  international
tribunals dealing with serious violations of international humanitarian  law
in  the former  Yugoslavia and  Rwanda  raises  difficult and  complex legal
issues. The  Office of Legal Affairs  is providing  legal and administrative
support to  the International Criminal Tribunal  for the Former  Yugoslavia.
The  Office played a  central role  in launching  the International Criminal
Tribunal for Rwanda by  providing advice on the  drafting of the statute and
rules of procedure and evidence and by providing the initial budget for  the
administrative  and  financial support  from  Headquarters,  coordinating  a
technical mission  to the field  in order  to negotiate  a headquarters  and
lease agreement for  its premises and preparing reports  on the seat of  the

107.      At its past  session, the General  Assembly established  an ad hoc
committee  open  to  all  States to  review  substantive  and administrative
issues arising out of the draft statute for  an international criminal court
elaborated by the International Law Commission. The ad hoc committee held  a
first  series of meetings in  April 1995 focusing on the following subjects:
establishment   and  composition   of   the  Court,   applicable   law   and
jurisdiction,  exercise  of   jurisdiction,  methods  of  proceedings   (due
process), relationship between States parties and  the Court, and budget and
administration. While progress has been made  in the consideration of  these
issues, the  ad hoc  committee agreed  to hold  a second series  of meetings
from 14 to 25 August. Its report will  be before the General Assembly at its
forthcoming fiftieth session.

108.     The continuation of economic  sanctions and other measures  against
Iraq,  the Federal Republic  of Yugoslavia  (Serbia and  Montenegro) and the
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya requires monitoring and  assistance by the Office and
advice to the various sanctions committees. In the case of Iraq, the  Office
advises  on   the  scope  of  mandates   under  relevant  Security   Council
resolutions,  such  as  those  concerning  compensation  to  Iraqi   farmers
relocated from  Kuwait and the  return of  Kuwaiti property.  The Office  is
supporting the work of the Compensation  Commission, which has been carrying
out  an  impressive  amount of  work  in processing  claims,  and will  soon
examine the more complex and larger claims of corporations and Governments.

109.       The  Office of  Legal  Affairs  is  ensuring consistency  in  the
implementation  of General Assembly  decisions on  the participation  of the
Federal  Republic of  Yugoslavia  (Serbia  and Montenegro)  and  its  status
throughout the United Nations system. The  question lies at the intersection
between  international  law  and  United  Nations  political  decisions   on
sensitive issues.

110.     The  Office of  Legal Affairs was responsible  for the organization
and agenda  of the United Nations Congress on Public International Law, held
from 13  to  17 March  in New  York, under  the general  theme "Towards  the
Twenty-First  Century: International  Law as  a Language  for  International
Relations". Some 571 scholars and professionals from 126 countries  attended
the  event, which  marked the  mid-point  of the  United Nations  Decade  of
International Law. International  lawyers exchanged views  on such issues as
the  progressive development  of  international law  and  its  codification;
research, education and training  in international law;  and the  challenges
expected in the twenty-first century.

111.       The  Office of  Legal  Affairs  provides advice  relating  to the
technical  aspects  of treaties  and  treaty  law.  The  information in  the
Multilateral   Treaties    deposited   with    the   Secretary-General    is
electronically   updated  daily.  Outdated   and  disparate  laws  governing
international  trade pose an  obstacle to  the maintenance  and expansion of
trade links. The success of economic and social reforms currently under  way
in  many States  depends on  the adoption of  adequate laws  that facilitate
international  trade. The Office  of Legal  Affairs is  assisting the United
Nations  Commission  on International  Trade  Law  (UNCITRAL)  to  elaborate
modern and harmonized trade laws as well  as non-legislative texts aimed  at
facilitating international  trade. Issues recently  addressed are the  draft
convention on  independent bank guarantees and  stand-by letters of  credit,
and the use of electronic data interchange in international trade.

112.     The United Nations Convention  on the Law of  the Sea calls for the
establishment of three new institutions subsequent  to the entry into  force
of the  Convention: the  International Seabed  Authority, the  International
Tribunal for  the Law of  the Sea and  the Commission  on the Limits  of the
Continental  Shelf. The Office  of Legal  Affairs convened  and serviced the
first  and  second parts  of  the  first  session of  the  Assembly  of  the
International Seabed Authority,  held from 16 to  18 November 1994  and from
27  February to  17 March  1995, respectively,  at Kingston.  The  third and
final part of the Assembly was held also at Kingston from 7 to 18 August.

113.      Pursuant to the  mandate provided by  the General  Assembly in its
resolution 49/28  of 6 December 1994,  the Office of  Legal Affairs convened
the first part  and serviced  the first and second  parts of the Meeting  of
States Parties to the United Nations Convention on  the Law of the Sea, held
in November 1994 and May  1995 in New York, relating to the organization  of
the International  Tribunal for the  Law of the  Sea. The  Meeting agreed on
the  approach to  be  taken  in the  establishment of  the Tribunal  and its
initial functions. The  Office is involved in  the preparation of  the draft
budget, which will be  submitted to the next  Meeting of States  Parties, to
be held from 27 November to 1 December 1995 in New York.
114.       The  Office of  Legal Affairs  is carrying  out  preparatory work
regarding the Commission on the Limits  of the Continental Shelf.  Following
the  1993 findings of an ad  hoc group of experts that examined the relevant
provisions  of the Convention  on the  definition of  the continental shelf,
the  Office prepared  background  notes, initiated  cooperative arrangements
with  competent  international  organizations  and  is  in  the  process  of
convening  a  group  of  experts  to  deal with  the  composition  and  work
programme of the Commission,  scheduled to meet from  11 to 14  September in
New York.

115.     The United Nations  Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly
Migratory Fish  Stocks concluded its  substantive work on 4  August with the
consensus adoption  of an  Agreement for  the Implementation  of the  United
Nations  Convention on the  Law of  the Sea of 10  December 1982 relating to
the  Conservation  and  Management  of  Straddling  Fish  Stocks and  Highly
Migratory  Fish Stocks. The  Conference decided  to hold  a formal signature
ceremony  on 4 December.  The Office of Legal  Affairs convened and serviced
the  fifth and sixth sessions of  the Conference, from 27 March  to 12 April
and from 24 July to 4 August, respectively, in New York.

116.    Pursuant  to General Assembly resolution 49/28, the Office of  Legal
Affairs  is strengthening  the system  for the  collection, compilation  and
dissemination  of  information  on the  law  of the  sea  and developing  an
integrated   database  on  legislation   and  marine   policy,  as  well  as
establishing   a  system   for   notifying  Member   States   and   relevant
international   organizations  of   information  submitted   by  States  and
intergovernmental bodies.

117.      The Department of Public Information,  headed by Mr. Samir Sanbar,
is   seeking  to  surmount  resource  constraints  by   engaging  in  closer
professional cooperation  with other  bodies of the  United Nations  system,
especially UNDP, UNICEF and UNFPA.

118.      A coordinated  and unified  public information  strategy aimed  at
increasing  public understanding  and support  for  the United  Nations  has
become  of crucial importance for the Organization's peace-keeping and other
political missions.  The  Department  of Public  Information has  formed  an
interdepartmental working  group consisting of  those departments playing  a
leading  role in such  field operations with a  view to developing practical
proposals for informational projects.

119.     To convey an accurately balanced view of United Nations activities,
the  Department has made a  special effort to highlight  economic and social
development activities  and issues,  in particular the  recent major  United
Nations   conferences  held  in  Cairo,  Copenhagen  and  Beijing,  and  the
forthcoming  Habitat  II  Conference  in Istanbul.  Focal  points  have been
established  within  the  Department  for  each  conference  to  design,  in
cooperation with the  substantive departments concerned, public  information
strategies and  programmes that  are budgeted jointly.  Assessment of  post-
conference  feedback has shown  the value  of this  multifaceted approach to
the promotion of international conferences.

120.      A major  new activity of the  Department's publishing programme is
the  Secretary-General's Blue  Books Series.  The Series describes  the role
the United Nations  has played in some of  the pivotal peace operations  and
other  international  issues  of  our  time.   Each  volume  in  the  Series

encapsulates    in an overview  provided by the  Secretary-General   how the
United  Nations marshalled  international forces,  opinion or  consensus  to
achieve objectives  in such  areas as  the struggle  against apartheid,  the
drive to  stop the  proliferation of nuclear  weapons and  the promotion  of
human  rights. Blue Books  on peace operations in  Cambodia, El Salvador and
Mozambique have been published. The United  Nations and Women was  published
in August 1995 and  made available for the  Fourth World Conference on Women
in Beijing. Some 17 titles are currently planned for publication.

121.     The Department's dissemination  of information to direct users  and
redisseminators  has been  enhanced  by modern  technology  and  techniques,
including  the use  of several  electronic  networks.  On the  Internet, for
example, can be found the Department's database  containing important United
Nations  documentation  and   publications.  These  materials  reach   their
audiences  in electronic  form at  enormous  speed and  are accessed  by  an
average  of 16,000 users daily.  On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary
of the signing of  the Charter of the United  Nations at San Francisco on 26
June 1995, the  Department launched the  "UN Home  Page" on  the World  Wide
Web.  This pilot  project  provides instantaneous  information  to  Internet
users in  a  multimedia service  format  consisting  of text,  graphics  and
sound. Examples of its contents include  basic information about the  United
Nations  and  its  history,  press  releases,  documents,  publications  and
photos, as well as  pictorial highlights of the guided tour of Headquarters.
To  make documentation accessible  to a  wider audience,  the United Nations
Bibliographic Information System (UNBIS Plus) has been produced on CD-ROM.

122.      Radio is  one  of the  most cost-effective  and penetrating  media
available  to the Department,  which is  improving access  by United Nations
Radio to  airwaves worldwide. Currently, 29  programmes in  15 languages are
being sent  to  broadcasters in  over  180  countries. The  Department  also
operates  an electronic radio  news service  in English,  French and Spanish
that facilitates  access by  broadcasters to news  programmes updated  twice
daily and is accessible through regular telephone lines.

123.    The Department  continues with the help of new technologies to reach
its  goals  to   explore  the  huge  potential  represented  by   television
audiences.  For instance,  the Department  transmitted "Year in  Review" via
satellite to  broadcasters around the world  in the  six official languages.
The programme was received and retransmitted  by major broadcasters in  over
24 countries,  representing a total potential  audience of  over 360 million
television  households.  This   satellite  transmission  proved  to  be   an
extremely quick and cost-effective distribution channel and represented  the
largest audience ever reached by the programme.

124.        In  connection  with the  fiftieth  anniversary,  the Department
initiated a major campaign  of television spots. A series of 40 "UN Minutes"
were   produced,  charting   the   history  and   accomplishments   of   the
Organization.  In  addition,  a  series   of  "Question  and   Answer"  quiz
announcements were  made. These  television spots  have been  aired on  both
domestic and international Cable News Network  channels, and by Time  Warner
Cable Company  on many channels  in the New  York area.  The Department thus
obtained  several million dollars  worth of free  air time  donated by these
two companies alone.

125.     Responsibility  for the Department's global  outreach activities is
assumed  in large part  by the  network of information  centres and services
located  in 68  countries around  the  world.  They perform  both a  passive
information  role  in  dealing  with  a  mounting  volume  of  inquiries and
requests for information, and  an active role in engaging in a wide  variety
of contacts  in pursuance  of their  mandate. As  an example  of the  latter
role, the centres  have been the catalyst  for the creation of approximately
80 national committees for the observance of the fiftieth anniversary.

126.      The United  Nations Office at Geneva,  under its Director-General,
Mr. Vladimir Petrovsky,  continues to provide administrative and  logistical
support to  Geneva-based United Nations  programmes and  activities in human

rights,  humanitarian operations,  trade and  development, as well  as major
environment, disarmament and security-related matters.

127.      There is a growing  demand from Member States  to visit the United
Nations  Office  at  Geneva to  establish  or  explore  further  cooperation
between  their   countries   and  Geneva-based   specialized  agencies   and
programmes. Seven  official  visits  were  organized for  that  purpose  and
included the  Heads of State or  Government of  Guatemala, Italy, Kazakstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania,  Slovenia and  Tunisia. These exchanges  are a  major
factor in consolidating the Office's role in the region and beyond.

128.      Activities with  regional organizations  increased throughout  the
year. A number of tripartite meetings  took place with the  participation of
the Council  of Europe,  OSCE and  the United  Nations,  represented by  the
United  Nations High  Commissioner for  Refugees  and  the Centre  for Human
Rights.  During the course  of the year, the  International Committee of the
Red Cross (ICRC)  was also  associated with the  meetings, which dealt  with
humanitarian issues in Europe.

129.      Dialogue  with Member  States of  the  region  contributed to  the
organizing  of   national  committees  for   the  United  Nations   fiftieth
anniversary,  important activities at the national level  and joint projects
included  in the  Geneva programme  for  the  fiftieth anniversary.  In that
respect,  cooperation  with   the  host  country  and  Geneva   authorities,
including major building projects  to meet the needs  of the United  Nations
Office at Geneva, was particularly fruitful.

130.       The  United  Nations  Office  at  Geneva  continues  to  host  an
increasingly large  number of meetings. From  September 1994  to March 1995,
1,775 meetings  were serviced  with interpretation  (including 154  meetings
outside Geneva)  and 2,455  without interpretation  (including 105  meetings
outside  Geneva).  During  the  period  from  April  to  August  1995, 1,354
meetings are planned to be held  with interpretation (including 148 meetings
outside  Geneva) and  1,760 without  interpretation (including  68  meetings
outside Geneva).

131.       In  addition to  servicing the  Office's established  bodies, the
Palais des Nations hosted a number  of important political or peace-keeping-
related  meetings,  such  as  the  International  Conference  on  the Former
Yugoslavia,    the   Compensation   Commission,   the    meetings   of   the
Georgia/Abkhazia  parties and  the  Commission  of Experts  on  Rwanda.  The
United  Nations  Centre  on Transnational  Corporations and  the  Centre for
Science  and  Technology  for  Development  were  transferred  to Geneva  in
1993/94,  and   the  Commission  on   Transnational  Corporations  and   the
Commission on Science  and Technology for Development held regular  sessions
producing important documentation.  The increasing activities of the  Centre
for Human  Rights will give  rise to new  committees and/or  working groups,
which will meet at  the United Nations Office at Geneva. These  developments
will require careful management of the allocation of facilities.

132.       The Office  has  been involved  in  United Nations  work  on  the
International  Conference on  the  Former  Yugoslavia; the  Georgia/Abkhazia
conflict; the meetings between Portugal and  Indonesia concerning East Timor
under the  good offices of  the Secretary-General; the  talks on Yemen;  and
discussions  on biological, conventional and nuclear weapons. The Office has
also  been involved with  the Economic  Commission for  Europe (ECE), UNCTAD
and the United  Nations Compensation  Commission, and  has provided  support
for  the Office  of  the High  Commissioner  for  Human  Rights, the  United
Nations Assistance  Mission in  Rwanda (UNAMIR), round  tables organized  by
the  Department for Humanitarian Affairs for a number of countries in Africa
and  Asia,  and  working  groups  of  the  United  Nations  Protection Force

133.     During this period the round table  set up by the Director-General,
with the  participation of senior and  staff representatives  of all Geneva-
based organs  and programmes,  made recommendations  aimed at  strengthening

and simplifying security arrangements, as well  as achieving a larger degree
of control over documentation, with the  ultimate goal of sizeably  reducing
its volume.

134.      The Office  has conducted two  main studies  aimed at  identifying
areas  of duplication and  overlap in  the administrative  sector within the
Office,  as well as between  the Office and  various United Nations entities
and programmes located at Geneva. The first phase of a management study  led
to a greater delegation of authority between Headquarters and  Geneva in the
personnel  and budget/finance fields. Such delegation will not only sizeably
reduce  duplication  and  overlap,  but  will  also  allow  for  more timely
processing of  administrative  actions at  Geneva.  The  next phase  of  the
management study  will finalize  administrative arrangements  at Geneva  and
determine the relationship  between the various entities. The second  study,
a work-flow analysis conducted in the context of the future introduction  of
IMIS at  Geneva,  has  just been  completed. By  the end  of  the year,  the
reorganization will be  almost completed, permitting  the Office  to respond
more efficiently to the increasing  demands placed upon it  by Member States
of the region and the Organization as a whole.

135.     Also  located at Geneva, the United  Nations Institute for Training
and  Research (UNITAR) has completed its restructuring  process as requested
by the General Assembly in its resolution 47/227 of 8 April 1993. This  year
UNITAR completed a  training programme in international affairs  management,
including  peacemaking  and  preventive  diplomacy,  environmental  law  and
policy,  and a  fellowship in  international  law.  In addition,  the UNITAR
training programme  for the  management of economic  and social  development
has  been reorganized.  The  aim  of the  programme  now is  to upgrade  the
professional skills  of human resources  in specific  fields and to  put the
UNITAR  training initiative  at the  service  of multilateral  and bilateral
cooperation agencies,  in particular  the secretariats  of organizations  in
charge   of   facilitating  the   implementation   of  international   legal
instruments. The  coming years are  likely to see a  consolidation of UNITAR
training and  capacity-building  activities, while  research programmes  are
progressively discontinued. It is hoped that  Member States will ensure  the
long-term continuity of the Institute.

136.       The United  Nations Office  at  Vienna,  headed by  the Director-
General,  Mr. Giorgio  Giacomelli, provides  administrative support  to  the
United  Nations  Fund  for  Drug  Abuse  Control  and  other  United Nations
activities based  at Vienna,  serves functions related  to crime  prevention
and cooperation  in space activities, and is an important  meeting place and
support centre  for peace-keeping  operations. From 1  July 1994  to 1  July
1995, a total of 2,209 meetings were planned and serviced at Vienna.

137.      Beginning 1  April 1995, after extensive  negotiations, the United
Nations Industrial Development  Organization (UNIDO) and the United  Nations
Office at Vienna merged conference  planning, coordinating and  language and
servicing  capabilities  to  form a  Unified  Conference  Service  under the
Office's management.  A number of seminars,  training courses and  technical
cooperation  projects have  taken place;  others  are  being planned  or are
being implemented.

138.      The Crime Prevention  and Criminal  Justice Branch  of the  United
Nations  Office at  Vienna has  promoted international cooperation  in crime
prevention and criminal justice and provided  assistance to Member States on
problems of both national and transnational  crime. The Office organized the
International Conference on Preventing and Controlling Money Laundering  and
the Use of the Proceeds of Crime: A Global Approach (Courmayeur, Italy,  18-
20 June  1994), the World  Ministerial Conference on Organized Transnational
Crime (Naples,  Italy, 21-23  November 1994)  and the  Ninth United  Nations
Congress on the Prevention of  Crime and the Treatment  of Offenders (Cairo,
29 April-8 May 1995).

139.     The World Ministerial  Conference on Organized Transnational  Crime
adopted  the Naples  Political Declaration  and  Global Action  Plan against

Organized  Transnational  Crime, approved  by the  General  Assembly in  its
resolution 49/159 of 23 December 1994.  In the Declaration, Heads  of States
and  Government, ministers  responsible  for criminal  justice  systems  and
other high-level representatives  of Governments expressed their resolve  to
protect their societies  from organized crime through effective  legislative
measures  and operational  instruments. The  Global Action  Plan  emphasized
that  the  United  Nations  should  facilitate  the  provision of  technical
cooperation, including the systematic exchange of experience and  expertise,
by drafting  legislation, providing  special training  for criminal  justice
officials and gathering, analysing and exchanging information.

140.     The Ninth United Nations  Congress on the Prevention  of Crime  and
the Treatment of Offenders  found that new forms and dimensions of crime and
the  links  among   criminal  organizations  threatened  the  security   and
stability  of  States  and  made  global  action  imperative.  The  Congress
discussed  four substantive topics  and held  six demonstration and research
workshops that permitted a more technical  consideration of priority  issues
of direct concern to Member States.  The discussion on combating  corruption
involving  public officials attracted considerable attention and a number of
recommendations were proposed. The plenary meeting on technical  cooperation
assessed  the progress  achieved  and problems  encountered  in  operational
activities. Member States, in particular developing countries and  countries
in transition, discussed their needs for  assistance from the United Nations
and the international community.

141.     The work of the  Crime Prevention and Criminal  Justice Branch  was
oriented  towards   operational  activities  and  technical  assistance,  in
particular  for developing countries and countries in transition. The Branch
focused its efforts on the  promotion of effective and fair criminal justice
systems based on the  rule of law, taking  account of United  Nations norms,
standards and model treaties. It provided  assistance to Member States, upon
request, in  legislative and  criminal justice reform,  the elaboration  and
implementation of  criminal codes and  international treaties, the  planning
and  formulation of national  criminal justice  policies and strategies, and
the establishment of information networks and  databases. The programme also
contributed to peace-keeping and peacemaking missions of the United  Nations
by  assisting in  building legal  and criminal justice  infrastructures, and
providing   support  to   the   missions  and   countries   concerned.   Two
interregional  advisers  provided advisory  services  to various  countries,
carried out needs assessment missions and developed project proposals.

142.     The Commission  on Crime Prevention and Criminal  Justice, the body
responsible for policy guidance in this field, meets annually at Vienna.  At
its  fourth session,  held  from  30 May  to  9 June  1995,  the  Commission
addressed the  conclusions and recommendations of  the Ninth United  Nations
Congress on the Prevention  of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, as well
as of the World Ministerial Conference  on Organized Transnational Crime. It
recommended  follow-up measures to  the conclusions  of the  Congress and to
the  Naples Political  Declaration and  Global  Action  Plan adopted  by the
Conference.  All recommendations  of the  Commission  were approved  by  the
Economic and Social Council during its  substantive session, held at  Geneva
from 26 June to 28 July 1995.

143.    The Crime Prevention and  Criminal Justice Branch cooperated closely
with the United Nations International Drug  Control Programme and the Centre
for  Human Rights.  The Branch  also undertook  cooperation and coordination
activities with  the interregional,  regional and  associated institutes  in
the   field  of   crime   prevention   and   criminal   justice   and   with
intergovernmental  and non-governmental  organizations  in  areas of  mutual

144.     The  Office for Outer Space Affairs, which  relocated to the United
Nations  Office at  Vienna in  October 1993,  implemented its  multisectoral
programme  with  political,   legal,  scientific  and  technical  assistance
components.  Through  its  Programme  on  Space  Applications,  the   Office
organized and conducted workshops, training  courses and symposia on various

aspects of space science and technology  and their applications for economic
and social development. The Office continued  its service as the substantive
secretariat  for the General  Assembly's Committee  on the  Peaceful Uses of
Outer  Space, its  Scientific  and  Technical  Subcommittee  and  its  Legal
Subcommittee, as well as their subsidiary bodies.

145.    Further  progress was made on the  Office's initiative to  establish
regional  centres  for  space  science  and   technology  education  in  the
developing   countries.  Those   centres  will   provide  individuals   from
developing  countries   with  education   and   training  in   space-related
disciplines  and applications. In  1994, the  Office decided  to establish a
centre,  which  will  be  co-hosted  by  Brazil and  Mexico,  for  the Latin
American  and Caribbean  region, and  to  establish  the first  node of  the
centre  for the Asia and Pacific  region in India.  It is expected that 1995
will yield firm  agreements on the  location of  the centres  in the  Middle
East  and Africa. The Office  in 1994 expanded its Space Information Service
to include a limited  computer database capability as well as a gateway,  or
"home page",  on the  Internet. The  home page  provides basic  data on  the
space-related activities of the  United Nations and is the first step in the
development  of  the  broad  information  system  mandated  by  the  General
Assembly.  The  Office  has  initiated  plans  to  provide  support  for the
preparatory  work in  intergovernmental committees  concerning the convening
of a third United  Nations Conference on  the Exploration and Peaceful  Uses
of Outer Space.

146.       The  Administrative  Committee  on  Coordination, comprising  the
executive heads  of the  specialized agencies, including  the Bretton  Woods
institutions,   as  well   as  all  United  Nations   programmes  under  the
chairmanship  of the  Secretary-General,  provides the  main  instrument  to
establish an effective  system of inter-agency cooperation and  coordination
within the  United Nations system.  In line  with the  objectives that  have
guided the recent  restructuring of its machinery, the Committee's  capacity
to identify  the main policy issues  facing the  international community and
to  promote and  organize  joint  initiatives and  responses towards  common
objectives  has  been  progressively  strengthened.  The  improvements   the
Secretary-General seeks to introduce within the  United Nations, at both the
policy and  management levels,  must be  pursued as  an integral  part of  a
broader  effort  to  adapt  priorities  and  methods  of  work  to  changing
requirements at the  level of the system as  a whole. Thus,  at its past two
sessions, the  Committee pursued its  consideration of  policies that  could
lead to a more effective division of  labour and to greater  complementarity
of  action   within  the  United   Nations  system.  The  Committee  devoted
particular attention to  building and strengthening cooperative arrangements
between the Bretton Woods institutions and  United Nations funds, programmes
and other  specialized agencies. In the  same context, particular  attention
was given by the Committee  to ways and means of  enhancing the capacity  of
the resident coordinator  system to promote effective coordination among all
economic  and social  actors at  the country  level in  support of  national
development efforts. The achievement of greater complementarity between  the
country  strategy notes, launched  by the  General Assembly,  and the policy
framework  papers, under the  aegis of  the Bretton  Woods institutions, was
viewed as a key objective to those ends.

147.       At  the global  level,  the  Committee's  efforts  to  promote  a
coordinated  follow-up to  the results of major  conferences on interrelated
development  issues are  helping to  promote  a  more effective  division of
labour  within the system,  drawing on  the new  policy insights, priorities
and commitments generated  by those conferences. The continuing  discussions
in  the Committee  on the  follow-up  to the  United Nations  Conference  on
Environment  and  Development  and  its  consideration, at  its  session  in
February 1995, of issues relating to  international drug abuse control  have
helped equally to promote a more  effective distribution of responsibilities
and  mutually reinforcing  activities by  the  organizations of  the  United
Nations system in addressing emerging global priorities.

148.      African economic  recovery and  development was  a major  focus of

attention at the last  two sessions of  the Committee. While United  Nations
organizations individually  and collectively  have placed  high priority  on
the development of Africa,  the current level of  effort does not  match the
scale of economic and social problems  confronting the region. The Committee
concluded  that  a much  higher level  of  commitment and  resources at  all
levels was necessary  to overcome  the crisis facing  many countries of  the
continent. As Chairman of the Committee,  the Secretary-General called for a
renewed  joint effort to  develop further  practical initiatives  with clear
targets. The Committee  agreed to establish a high-level steering  committee
to  present a  set of  concrete  recommendations for  approval at  its  next
session. The  broad  programme  areas identified  for this  purpose  include
availability  and management  of  water; sustainable  food  security;  human
development and  capacity-building; and the  follow-up to  the World  Summit
for Social  Development, with special emphasis  on poverty alleviation.  The
steering  committee also focuses  on the  consideration of  means to enhance
political  and financial support  for African  development. Its initial work
was drawn upon in  preparing for the high-level segment of the Economic  and
Social Council devoted to African development.

149.     Regarding management  issues, members of  the Committee  reaffirmed
their strong commitment to  ensuring the advancement of the status of  women
throughout  the  United  Nations  system.  It  was   generally  agreed  that
management commitment at the highest levels  was crucial to the  achievement
of gender  equality. The Committee  identified specific measures to increase
the flexibility  with  which the  United  Nations  system deals  with  women
candidates; to remove obstacles to their  recruitment, retention in service,
promotion and mobility; and to create a supportive environment.

150.      The Committee  also addressed  issues affecting  the security  and
safety  of  United  Nations  staff,  as   well  as  questions  relating   to
improvements in  conditions of service.  A special  meeting in  June of  the
Consultative Committee  on Administrative  Questions, in  which most  senior
agency   officials    responsible   for    administration   and   management
participated, pursued  ways to  enhance management effectiveness  throughout
the system.

151.        In  February  1995,  all  Committee members,  and  a  number  of
distinguished  personalities who  have  led independent  reviews on  ways to
strengthen  the United  Nations system,  met at  Vienna  at  a Forum  on the
Future of the United Nations. The  Forum addressed the changing requirements
for global and regional governance arising  from the emerging new  political
and economic  framework  and their  implications for  the Organization;  new
approaches to the financing of the  United Nations system; the  implications
of the changing role of the system for the international civil service;  and
the public  image of  the  United Nations,  in particular  the challenge  of
mobilizing  and focusing the  attention of  the media  on the Organization's
economic and social work.

  B.  Ensuring an adequate financial base

152.     The United Nations financial crisis continues to  deepen because of
the delays with which Member States  have paid their assessed contributions,
both for  the regular  budget  and for  peace-keeping operations.  As at  10
August 1995,  unpaid assessed  contributions totalled  $3.9 billion:  $858.2
million for  the regular  budget (of  which $456.1  million  relates to  the
current  year (1995)  and $402.1  million  relates to  prior years)  and  $3
billion for  peace-keeping operations,  current and  prior shortfalls  taken
together (see fig. 6).

153.    The United Nations is able  to continue its peace-keeping operations
only because the  payment of bills  and reimbursements to troop-contributors
are being delayed. By  the end of the  year, unpaid reimbursements  to troop

contributors and payments owed for contingent-owned equipment are  estimated
to  reach  the $1  billion  mark.  This  situation  cannot continue.  Troop-
contributors have expressed their  difficulty with continuing  participation
in peace-keeping operations if they are not paid on time.

154.     Many Member States have made serious efforts to expedite payment of
their  assessments but  without substantial  additional major  contributions
before  the end of the year, the cash balance of  the United Nations will be
dangerously  low. This  difficult financial  situation, in  particular  when
compounded   by  the   continued   unpredictability  of   the   receipt   of
contributions,  has a direct  impact on  the efficiency  of the Organization
and makes it more and more difficult to manage it effectively.

155.    Along with  these cash difficulties, the Organization  has also been
facing another serious problem  as a result of  the growing practice  on the
part  of the General  Assembly of authorizing spending  on additional or new
activities without providing corresponding  resources through assessments on
Member States. This has further exacerbated the already difficult  financial
situation since the only  way to provide funding  for those activities is to
borrow from accounts with cash resources,  without any assurance that  those
accounts will  be replenished  in order  to implement  activities for  which
Member States had initially provided resources.

156.      Unless the  receipt of  unpaid assessments  dramatically improves,
there will be no  choice but to  reduce spending further, focusing on  those
activities for  which  no assessments  have  been  approved. Activities  for
which  assessments have been approved, but have chronically not been paid by
Member States, may have to be curtailed.

157.    Notwithstanding these financial  problems, efforts are continuing to
make the Organization more efficient and more effective in  carrying out the
many  tasks entrusted to  it. In  formulating the  proposed programme budget
for  the   biennium  1996-1997,  particular  emphasis  has  been  placed  on
management improvements,  which have resulted  in savings without  affecting
the  delivery of  mandated activities.  On  that  basis, a  budget has  been
proposed for the next biennium in the amount  of $2,510 million (at  current
rates  before re-costing) for  approval by  the General  Assembly this year.
This represents a reduction of $109 million, or 4.2  per cent, less what was
appropriated  for 1994-1995 (see  fig. 7).  The implementation  of the 1996-
1997  programme budget, once  approved by  the General  Assembly, should not
suffer from the same financial uncertainties  that the Organization has been

158.      The objective of  the High-level Open-ended  Working Group on  the
Financial  Situation of  the  Organization,  which  was established  by  the
General  Assembly  and began  meeting in  January  1995, is  to bring  about
constructive and  positive changes to provide  the Organization  with a long
sought-after solid financial base.

  C.  The fiftieth anniversary

159.     During the past year, much of the work of the Preparatory Committee
for  the  Fiftieth Anniversary  has  focused  on  the  preparations for  the
Special  Commemorative  Meeting of  the  Assembly  on  the  occasion of  the
fiftieth anniversary of the  entry into force  of the Charter of the  United
Nations, to  be held at United  Nations Headquarters from  22 to 24  October
1995.  The  Committee has  also continued  to  monitor  the progress  of the
commemorative  programme  being   undertaken  by  the  Fiftieth  Anniversary
Secretariat. The Committee is expected to conclude its work by adopting,  in
early  September,  as  part  of  its  report  to  the  General  Assembly,  a

declaration in support of the Organization on its fiftieth anniversary.

160.    The Fiftieth Anniversary Secretariat,  headed by Ms. Gillian  Martin
Sorensen,  has continued  to  develop  and  implement  an  ambitious  global
commemorative programme  of activities  and products.  The goals  identified
for the  fiftieth anniversary are  to promote a  more balanced  image of the
United Nations;  to enlarge  its constituency  of support,  especially among
youth and  non-traditional audiences; to  improve worldwide education  about
the work of the  Organization; and to mobilize  public support in  favour of
the United  Nations to  position it to  meet ever-growing  demands. In  line
with these  objectives, the Fiftieth  Anniversary Secretariat has  developed
and implemented projects in key programme  areas, among which education  and
communication have been given priority.

161.     Educational activities include the development of educational  kits
for  primary, intermediate and  secondary schools  and their distribution in
all six official languages. Substantial funds  have been made available  for
free distribution  in developing countries  and translation into  additional
languages as  part of a  "Global Teach-In"  (a day or a  week designated for
teaching about the  United Nations).  In cooperation with UNESCO,  workshops
on  the  kits  and the  Global  Teach-In  have  been  conducted  at  several
international  education  conferences.  Other   cooperative  projects   with
specialized agencies  and programmes have focused  on youth  and teachers. A
"Passport to the  Future" has been  designed to  sign on  millions of  young
persons, between the ages  of 7 and  14, as "global citizens". The  Passport
encourages  them  to  demonstrate  their  concern  for  a  better  future by
becoming involved in  some of the  world's most  pressing challenges     the
environment, human  rights  and  peace    by  participating  in their  local
162.      Communications activities  have included  an international  public
service  campaign  through video,  radio  and  print,  in  the six  official
languages.  The campaign  is  designed to  inform  the public  of  the  many
achievements of  the United Nations  system, such as  those in  the areas of
democratization and  decolonization,  women  and  development,  environment,
health, refugees, peace-keeping  and food security.  The videos,  which were
produced  by  directors   from  eight  geographic  regions,  are   appearing
worldwide on  television and airlines  and in schools.  The print and  radio
campaign  is  being  distributed  to broadcasters  and  publications  in all
Member States.  A multimedia exhibit has  been provided  to Headquarters and
regional offices and  to headquarters of specialized agencies.  Publications
include a pictorial history of the United Nations, Visions    Fifty Years of
the  United Nations,  and a  book on  the  United  Nations written  by young
people for young people, entitled A World in our Hands.

163.      Emphasis  in all  programme activity  has been  on achieving broad
participation.  As  the  Fiftieth  Anniversary  Secretariat  was  not  in  a
position to  implement and publicize  all of the  activities in  each Member
State, considerable efforts have been made  to encourage and provide support
to  the  fiftieth  anniversary committees  formed  by  Member  States, local
United   Nations  offices   and  non-governmental   organizations  in  their
implementation  of these and  other activities.  In all,  145 countries have
established national committees and are carrying  out an impressive array of
local  commemorative events. The  Fiftieth Anniversary Secretariat continues
to work  in close  cooperation with them,  providing information  materials,
guiding and  supporting the development of  activities at both the local and
country levels,  and recommending  specific activities  to complement  those
being implemented at the global level.  Over 40 Member States  are honouring
the  United Nations  with  commemorative coins  and  virtually  every postal
administration is issuing commemorative stamps honouring the Organization.

164.      The Secretariat has also  worked with many cities    including the
cities  that host our Headquarters  offices    in development of appropriate
commemorations,  including   conferences  and   colloquiums,  concerts,  art
exhibits  and other  cultural and  popular events.  One among  many  was the
myriad of activities organized at San  Francisco to commemorate the fiftieth
anniversary of the signing of the Charter.

165.       In  addition to  the  public service  announcement campaign,  the
Fiftieth Anniversary  Secretariat has continued to  develop a  wide range of
information  products,  which  are  being  distributed  widely  to  national
committees,   United  Nations  information  centres,  United  Nations  field
offices, permanent missions,  United Nations  associations, academic  groups
and international news  media, as well as the general public. These products
include  the UN50 newsletter,  an updated  press kit,  a 16-page information
brochure  on the  fiftieth anniversary,  information about  the  anniversary
available  through  the  computer  network  and  a  number  of   information
brochures  published jointly  with  the Department  of  Public  Information,
along with audio and video compilations.

166.       Overall  the  funds  required  for developing  the  commemorative
programme were secured from private sector  support from global sponsors  of
the fiftieth  anniversary as well as  from project  sponsors. Royalties from
the coin  programme are  providing substantial  revenue for  educational and
communications  activities.  Additional revenue  has  been  derived  from  a
commemorative watch.

167.    United Nations  associations and other nongovernmental organizations
have  supported   the  fiftieth   anniversary  effort   to  broaden   public
understanding of  the work  and continued  relevance of  the United  Nations
through,  among   other  things,  education   programmes,  conferences   and
activities aimed at young people, such  as art projects, essay  competitions
and  model   United  Nations   programmes.  In   addition,  many   of  these
organizations, especially United Nations associations, actively  participate
as  members  of  the  national  committees  established  for  the   fiftieth
anniversary to  arrange commemorative programmes  within the Member  States.
Furthermore, in  the context  of the  Special Commemorative  Meeting of  the
General Assembly for the Fiftieth Anniversary,  there are plans to  organize
a one-day non-governmental organization programme in mid-October to  examine
the  role  of non-governmental  organizations  in  the  work  of the  United

  D.  United Nations University (UNU)

168.     The Governing  Council of the  United Nations University (UNU) held
its forty-first session from late November to  early December 1994 at Accra.
The Council  considered proposals  to further  enhance the effectiveness  of
the University, led by  Rector Heitor Gurgulino de Souza, and to  strengthen
the University's role and impact in  United Nations research initiatives and
activities. Several proposals for new academic initiatives were approved  by
the  Council.  Among  them,  the  Council   decided  to  establish  the  UNU
International  Leadership  Academy,  which  will  operate  at  Amman,   with
financial support from the Government of Jordan.

169.     The Director-General of  UNESCO and the Secretary-General appointed
new members of  the Council to  replace 11  members whose  six-year term  of
office came to an end on 31 May 1995.

170.     The year 1995 marks the twentieth anniversary of  the initiation of
UNU  academic activities.  It is  also the sixth  and final year  of the UNU
research,  training  and dissemination  activities  carried  out  under  the
second medium-term  perspective (1990-1995).  The process  of preparing  the
University's  third medium-term  perspective (1996-2001)  for the  next  six
years  has accordingly  been set  in  motion. To  that end,  the  University
prepared a mission statement as a step towards  sharpening the focus of  its
institutional   goals  as  an  international   educational  institution  and
autonomous  entity  of the  United  Nations  in  a  rapidly evolving  global

171.     At its forty-first session,  the Council endorsed an  institutional
strategy paper  setting out the programmatic  development goals  to take the

University  into  the   twenty-first  century.  In  addition,  the   Council
considered  the appraisal  report of  an  internal  assessment group  of the
Council.  The   report  called  for  the   University  to   take  a  leading
coordinating role in United Nations research initiatives  and activities and
to  act  to enhance  the  overall  coherence  of  the University's  academic
programme. The  assessment underlined the need  for a  better integration of
UNU research,  training and  fellowship initiatives  and for  more effective
dissemination  of UNU  publications.  Another major  recommendation  of  the
report was the further strengthening of the UNU  Centre in its key  function
as  a coordinating mechanism  of University academic programmes and research
and  training  centres  and  programmes.  The  Council  requested  that  the
essential  components  of  the  assessment  report  and  the   institutional
strategy paper and mission  statement be integrated as a further step in the
process of developing the University's third medium-term perspective.

172.     During the period from 1 September  1994 to 10 August 1995, 72  UNU
academic meetings were  held worldwide. As at 10  August 1995, 58 UNU  post-
graduate  trainees  were enrolled  in  training  programmes  at  cooperating
institutions around  the  world. The  areas  of  training include  food  and
nutrition,  geothermal  energy,  remote  sensing, biotechnology  and  micro-
informatics. In 1994, 57 per cent of the  training was done at  institutions
in developing  countries and 43 per  cent at  institutions in industrialized
countries.  More  than 1,340  fellows  from  over  100  countries have  been
trained  by the  University since  1976;  an  additional 2,300  persons have
received  training in UNU  workshops and  seminars. To  date, more  than 300
books, 5 scientific journals and numerous  research papers and studies  have
been produced from UNU research.

173.      Research  continued to  be carried  out within the  five programme
areas identified by the UNU  second medium-term perspective: universal human
values and global responsibilities;  new directions for  the world  economy;
sustaining global life-support systems; advances in science and  technology;
and population dynamics and human welfare.

174.      The  University has  made  progress in  the implementation  of its
programme on environmentally sustainable development (UNU Agenda 21),  which
places particular  emphasis on  human development  and capacity-building  in
developing  countries. A  series of  post-graduate education  and  capacity-
building  activities  on environmental  management  has  been  initiated  in
Tokyo, together with collaborating institutions in India and Thailand.

175.     The University also launched  a major new long-term research effort
that  brings  together   private  companies,  industrial  policy-makers  and
researchers to  pursue the achievement  of technological breakthroughs  that
will facilitate manufacturing without any form  of waste, the so-called Zero
Emissions  Research  Initiative.   To  mobilize  support  and  to   exchange
information   on   the   design   and   implementation   of   this    global
multidisciplinary research  programme,  the University  organized the  first
World  Congress  on Zero  Emissions at  its headquarters  in Tokyo  in early
April 1995.  The World  Congress was  the first  multi-point Internet  video
conference  undertaken  from Japan,  linking  scholars  and  government  and
business leaders in  Asia, Europe and North  America and allowing  access to
an extended audience in some 100 countries.

176.     To further the development  of long-term initiatives related to the
work of the United  Nations, the Rector convened a special advisory team  to
assist  in  preparing  a  "UNU  Agenda   for  Peace,  Security  and   Global
Governance".  The advisory team suggested a five-year  programme focusing on
such topics as ethics, democracy and governance, human rights,  adjudicatory
tools of governance and mechanisms for  peace and collective security. These
mechanisms  include  preventive  diplomacy,   collective  security  schemes,
peace-keeping,  post-conflict  measures  and disarmament.  The  programme is
currently being implemented.

177.      The University continues  to strengthen its  interaction with  the
United Nations  system and  is making an  intensive and concerted  effort to

ensure  that  the  results  of  its  work feed  into  the  deliberations and
operational  activities  of the  United  Nations.  The  University  prepared
policy  papers   for  presentation  at   the  International  Conference   on
Population  and Development  and  the World  Summit  for  Social Development
preparatory process. Substantive  contributions are being planned or are  in
progress with respect  to the Fourth  World Conference on Women,  Habitat II
and the  ninth session of  UNCTAD. The  University has also  intensified its
research  efforts  in support  of  the  United  Nations Secretariat  through
studies on mine  clearance technology, peace-keeping in Africa and  regional
security questions in Latin America.

178.     The  University has produced  a number  of policy-oriented studies,
including  "The Fragile Tropics of Latin America:  Sustainable Management of
Changing  Environments"; "International  Waters  in the  Middle  East:  From
Euphrates-Tigris  to Nile"; "Managing  Water for  Peace in  the Middle East:
Alternative  Strategies";  "Hydropolitics Along  the  Jordan  River:  Scarce
Water and Its Impact on the  Arab-Israeli Conflict"; "Sustainable Management
of  Soil Resources  in the  Humid Tropics";  "Ocean Governance:  Sustainable
Development  of  the  Seas";  "Steering   Business  Toward  Sustainability";
"Culture, Development and  Democracy: The Role of the Intellectual"; "Global
Transformation: Challenges to  the State  System"; "State,  Society and  the
United  Nations  System:  Changing  Perspectives  on Multilateralism";  "The
United  Nations System:  The Policies  of Member  States"; "Arms  Reduction:
Economic Implications  in the Post-Cold-War  Era"; "Mega-City Growth and the
Future"; "Global Employment: An International Investigation into the  Future
of  Work"; and  "The Evolving  New  Global  Environment for  the Development

179.     From 1  September 1994 to  10 August 1995, UNU  received some $19.9
million in endowment  fund, operating and specific programme  contributions.
Nevertheless, the  University faces  continued resource  constraints brought
on  by  lower  investment  income  from  its  endowment  fund  and increased
competition   for    limited   resources.    Mobilization   of   operational
contributions and of untied  or unearmarked funding  has become increasingly
difficult in the last decade.
    The  foundations of  peace:  development, humanitarian  action and human

  A.  Implementing "An Agenda for Development"

180.    Three years ago, at its forty-seventh session, the General  Assembly
set in motion the  process of formulating  an Agenda for Development.  Since
then,  considerable effort  has been  devoted both at  the intergovernmental
level and by the Secretariat to its elaboration. 

181.     In November 1994, in a report to the General Assembly (A/49/665), I
presented four principal recommendations on "An Agenda for Development"  for
the  consideration  of Member  States  at  the  forty-ninth  session of  the
General Assembly.

182.      These  were:  (a) that  development should  be  recognized  as the
foremost and most  far-reaching task of our time;  (b) that while it must be
seen in  its  many dimensions     in  the  contexts of  peace, the  economy,
environmental protection, social justice and democracy    development at its
core must be about improvement of human well-being,  the removal of poverty,
hunger,  disease  and ignorance,  ensuring  productive  employment  and  the
satisfaction of  priority needs of all people in a way that can be sustained
over  future generations; (c)  that the  emerging consensus  on the priority
and dimensions of development should  find expression in a new framework for
international  cooperation; and  (d)  that  within this  new  framework  for
development cooperation,  the United Nations must play a major  role in both
policy leadership and operations.

183.       I  further  outlined the  need  for  a  new  framework for  world
development cooperation  that requires  supporting actions  at the  national
and international levels and a strong  and effective multilateral system, at
the centre of which  would be the United  Nations, with its unmatched global
network  at all  levels. The  United  Nations  can promote  awareness, build
consensus and  inform policy  in every  dimension affecting development  and
can help  rationalize and harmonize the  multiplicity of  public and private
efforts world wide.  An important  element in  the new  framework should  be
improved cooperation  between the United  Nations, its specialized  agencies
and the Bretton Woods institutions.

184.     The General Assembly has  primary responsibility to  bring together
all  these aspects  in  an  Agenda for  Development.  The aim  should be  to
provide  consistent  policy  guidance  that  would  contribute  to   greater
coherence and  integration of  the development  work of  the United  Nations
system. This implies strengthening the capacity  of the Assembly to  provide
such harmonized policy  guidance by a careful  review of the working methods
of its Second and Third Committees, so that  the debates in those Committees
could   be  sharply  focused   on  key   policy  issues   and  their  mutual
complementarities  enhanced.  Secondly,  a revitalized  Economic  and Social
Council  could greatly  assist the  Assembly  by  bringing to  its attention
recommendations  leading  to  the  adoption  of  harmonized  and  integrated
policies.  The relationship  between those  central bodies  and the  Bretton
Woods  institutions, on  the one  hand,  and  the funds  and programmes  and
specialized agencies, on the other, could  be built around shared objectives
and a common purpose leading to closer cooperation and joint actions at  the
country level.

185.       Recent  pronouncements  of  the summit  meeting  of  seven  major
industrialized countries, which was held at  Halifax, Canada, in June  1995,
as well  as of  the Ministerial  Meeting of  the Coordinating Bureau  of the
Non-Aligned Countries held at Bandung, Indonesia,  in April 1995, signify  a
resolute  willingness on  the part  of  the  international community  at the
political level to see  a strong United Nations system working in unison for
the realization of internationally agreed goals  and objectives. Efforts  to
make  United Nations  operational activities  more efficient  and  effective
begin with  the identification of  those areas where  it has special  assets
and strengths  that can  support the  process of  development. Given  shared
vision  and   a  common  purpose,   coordination  and   integration  in  the
Organization's operational activities can be ensured.

186.     This  issue was considered during  the coordination segment of  the
Economic and Social Council  in July 1995. At my request, the  Administrator
of UNDP, who assists the Secretary-General  in ensuring policy coherence and
the  coordination of  operational activities  for development,  initiated  a
process  of   consultation  among   senior  United   Nations  officials   on
coordination mechanisms that  can be  instituted on conference follow-up  at
the  inter-agency level,  thus mobilizing  the  United  Nations system  as a
whole through thematic inter-agency  task forces at  the national,  regional
and headquarters levels.

187.      During the  forty-ninth session  of the  General Assembly,  Member
States decided  to  establish  an  open-ended  working  group  to  elaborate
further  an  action-oriented comprehensive  agenda  for  development, taking
into  account the  reports and  recommendations presented by  the Secretary-
General pursuant  to Assembly  resolutions 47/181  of 22  December 1992  and
48/166 of  21 December 1993,  the outcome of  the high-level  segment of the
1994  substantive session  of the  Economic  and  Social Council,  the views
expressed  by representatives  in  the  high-level debate  held  during  the
forty-ninth session  of the Assembly,  as well as  the summary  of the World
Hearings on Development and proposals presented  by Member States and  other

188.      The Working Group was required to  submit a report on the progress
of its work  to the General Assembly before  the conclusion of its  fiftieth
session.  A  compendium containing  the  goals,  targets and  commitments of

major United Nations conferences held and  agreements signed since 1990,  as
well as an assessment of the  status of their implementation,  was submitted
by the Secretariat to  the Working Group following  its first session.  That
document  was a complement to the background  information already identified
in Assembly resolution 49/126 of 19 December 1994.

189.    At the Working Group's  second session, held from 15 to 26 May 1995,
Governments presented  their  views on  the  structure  and content  of  the
Agenda for Development during the formal  meetings, which were preceded  and
followed  by inter-sessional  consultations.  The Working  Group  reached  a
consensus  on  the  structure  of  the  Agenda  and  defined  modalities for
developing its text during  the third and final session,  yet to be  held. A
tentative  comprehensive   structure  was   adopted,  consisting  of   three
chapters, the  first devoted  to setting  goals and  objectives; the  second
representing the  bulk  of the  Agenda,  providing  a policy  framework  and
identifying  priority  actions  for  development,  together  with  means  of
implementation; and the third dealing with  institutional issues and follow-

  B.  Global development activities

  1.  Secretariat departments at Headquarters

190.     The Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development,
headed  by Mr. Nitin  Desai, provides  support for  the central coordinating
and policy-making  functions vested in the  Economic and  Social Council and
its  subsidiary bodies, as  well as  for the Second and  Third Committees of
the  General Assembly.  Ensuring the  integration  of economic,  social  and
environmental  concerns  in  policy  development  and  implementation  is  a
crucial objective underlying the structure and mandate of the Department. 

191.    The World Summit for Social Development  was convened by the General
Assembly  at Copenhagen from  6 to  12 March 1995 to  address the urgent and
universal need  to eradicate poverty,  expand productive employment,  reduce
unemployment and enhance social integration.  The Summit provided an impetus
for the  world's Governments  to  give  priority to  the social  aspects  of
global development and  the social impact of international relations,  while
reaffirming their commitment to individual, family and community  well-being
as the fundamental concern of their policies.

192.     The  Summit was the  largest gathering ever  of Heads  of State and
Government:  in all, 187  countries participated in the deliberations, which
produced the Copenhagen  Declaration on Social  Development and Programme of
Action, and 117 of  them were represented by  Heads of State  or Government.
In   addition,   2,315   delegates    representing   811    non-governmental
organizations joined the meeting, demonstrating eloquently the vitality  and
diversity of  people's  initiatives and  establishing the  foundation for  a
renewed and strengthened partnership  between Governments and  the actors of
civil society. The preparations for the Summit and the  actions initiated in
pursuance  of  its mandate  have  brought  into  play  virtually the  entire
spectrum  of  departments, agencies,  programmes and  offices of  the United
Nations  system  and  fostered  coordination between  them  and  with Member
States and non-governmental organizations.

193.     The  observance of the  International Year  for the  Eradication of
Poverty (1996)  will provide an excellent opportunity for the implementation
of the  commitments made at Copenhagen.  Countries are  invited to elaborate
specific targets during the Year  and to prepare national strategies for the
struggle against poverty.

194.    The International  Year of the Family (1994) has led to a remarkable
evolution of the political approach to  the family as an object and agent of

social policy throughout the world. A  greater recognition has been accorded
at  the  global,  national  and  individual  levels  to  the  importance  of
supporting families and bringing about positive changes in  the family as an
integral part  of the  efforts to  achieve peace,  human rights,  democracy,
sustainable development and social progress, as  well as lasting progress on
behalf of  women, children  and other traditionally less  advantaged members
of society. A large number of  local, national and international  activities
in support  of the  family were  arranged by  Governments in  more than  150
countries and by  various non-governmental, community and  intergovernmental
organizations  in  observance of  the Year.  Those efforts  were effectively
augmented by  supportive  action of  34 bodies  and agencies  of the  United
Nations, including the regional commissions. 

195.  The International Conference on Families, held  in October 1994 during
the forty-ninth session of the General  Assembly, marked the first  occasion
on  which the Assembly  devoted a discussion exclusively  to the family. The
Conference itself conveyed  the growing  conviction that it  is in the  best
interests of  individuals and societies to  promote democratic families  and
family-friendly  societies. I will  submit to  the Assembly  at its fiftieth
session a detailed  report on the  observance of the  International Year  of
the Family, along with specific proposals on its long-term follow-up.

196.    The High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development, which  was
set  up   following  the  United   Nations  Conference  on  Environment  and
Development,  held  in June  1992,  to  provide  independent  advice to  the
Secretary-General on  environment and  development matters,  held its  third
session from 17  to 21 October  1994. The  Board examined  four issues:  (a)
sustainable food security  for a growing world  population; (b) the need for
mutual reinforcement between  international trade and  environment policies;
(c) value-based  education for sustainability; and  (d) ways  of forging new
alliances for  sustainable development.  The Vice-Chairperson  of the  Board
apprised the  Commission on Sustainable Development,  at its third  session,
of the  conclusions reached in its deliberations and on its discussions with
me.  The   Inter-Agency  Committee   on  Sustainable   Development  of   the
Administrative Committee on Coordination met in  February and July 1995. The
Inter-Agency  Committee has  received  strong support  from  Member  States,
which  have expressed their  particular appreciation  for the  fact that the
follow-up to the  United Nations  Conference on Environment and  Development
and  the work of  the Commission  on Sustainable  Development bring together
the entire system in a coordinated and cooperative manner.

197.      Since  the adoption of  the Barbados Declaration  and Programme of
Action for the Sustainable Development of  Small Island Developing States in
May  1994,  efforts  have intensified  to follow  up  on the  work programme
regarding the specific economic, social and environmental concerns of  those
States. There is increasing interest among  the organizations of the system,
including the regional commissions,  as well as a  number of concerned  non-
governmental  organizations, in  joint and  coordinated activities  in  this
regard.  In  May  1995,  the  Department   organized  a  meeting  of   those
organizations and representatives of the Alliance  of Small Island States to
discuss  the  status  of  implementation  of the  Barbados  agreements.  The
achievement of  the goals  set out  in those  agreements, as with  Agenda 21
itself, continues  to be impeded  by financial  constraints, as  well as  by
difficulties  in  the  effective  transfer  of  technology  for  sustainable

198.       The  Office of  the  Special  Coordinator for  Africa  and  Least
Developed Countries, as requested by the Secretary-General's  Panel of High-
level  Personalities   on  African   Development,  organized   a  high-level
brainstorming  workshop   on  non-governmental   organizations  and  African
development  on 16 and  17 January  1995. The Office prepared  a pamphlet on
the conclusions  and  recommendations of  the  Panel,  as requested  by  the
General Assembly in its resolution 48/214 of  23 December 1993. In  addition
to  disseminating information  to countries  and organizations,  the  Office
coordinated activities  related to  the United  Nations New  Agenda for  the
Development of Africa in the 1990s, adopted by  the General Assembly in  its

resolution 46/151 of 18  December 1991, including  the sixth meeting of  the
Working Group  of the  United Nations  Inter-Agency Task  Force on  Africa's
Critical Economic Situation, Recovery and Development.

199.         My  report  on  the   development  of  Africa,  including   the
implementation  of the  United Nations  New  Agenda  for the  Development of
Africa  in the  1990s,  prepared  for  the 1995  high-level  segment of  the
Economic  and  Social Council,  identifies  key  policy  issues critical  to
African  development and  offers concrete  recommendations on  what  African
countries and  the international community  can do to  improve the lives  of
the people  of Africa. It  also analyses the progress  made and difficulties
encountered in the implementation of the New Agenda.

200.       The  Office  of  the  Special  Coordinator  provided  substantive
assistance  to  donor and  African  countries  in  the  negotiations on  the
establishment  of a  diversification  facility in  the  African  Development
Bank, which led  to General Assembly resolution  49/142 of 23 December 1994,
requesting those  States participating  in the African  Development Fund  to
consider  making an initial adequate contribution to finance the preparatory
phase  of  commodity diversification  projects  and  programmes  in  African
countries. The Office organized regular briefings  on areas of concern  and,
together  with UNDP and  the Governments  of Japan  and Indonesia, organized
the Asia-Africa Forum at  Bandung, Indonesia, in December 1994, as a follow-
up to the Tokyo International Conference  on African Development. The Office
also organized,  together with  the Department  for Development  Support and
Management Services and UNDP, an international  workshop on informal  sector
development  in   Africa  at   United  Nations   Headquarters.  The   Office
participated  in a number of intergovernmental and other meetings, including
those of OAU.

201.     The Interim Secretariat of the Convention to Combat Desertification
opened  the United  Nations Convention  to Combat  Desertification in  Those
Countries Experiencing  Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly
in Africa,  for signature  in Paris on  14 and 15  October 1994. As  at July
1995,  the number  of  signatories  had  reached  106  and 2  countries  had
ratified the Convention. Consistent with General Assembly resolution  49/234
of  23 December  1994, the  Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee  for the
Elaboration  of an  International Convention  to Combat  Desertification  in
those  Countries   Experiencing  Serious   Drought  and/or  Desertification,
Particularly in Africa,  held its sixth  session in  New York, from 9  to 19
January 1995, and  adopted a work programme  for the interim  period leading
to the first  session of the  Conference of the Parties, which  will be held
within  12  months  of   the  entry  into  force  of  the  Convention.   The
Intergovernmental Negotiating  Committee established two  working groups  to
lay  the  groundwork  for  the  first   session  of  implementation  of  the
resolution on urgent action for Africa,  through the exchange of information
and the  review  of progress  made thereon,  and  through  the promotion  of
action in other regions. It initiated this  phase of its work at its seventh
session, held at Nairobi from 7 to 18 August 1995.

202.     "Awareness  days" are being  held in 20  affected countries in  the
various subregions of Africa  to sensitize key actors at the local level and
to enable  them to  participate fully  in  the Convention's  implementation.
Seminars are also being  held at the subregional level in southern,  eastern
and  western  Africa  to  facilitate  the  preparation  of  relevant  action
programmes.  A  number of  activities  were  held  in  various countries  in
observance of  World Day  to Combat  Desertification and  Drought, 17  June,
pursuant  to  General  Assembly  resolution  49/115  of  19  December  1994,
including seminars, exhibitions and the launching of publications.

203.      The first meeting of  the Conference of the  Parties to the United
Nations Framework  Convention on Climate Change  was convened  from 28 March
to 7  April 1995  at  Berlin. The  meeting aimed  at setting  in motion  the
processes needed to promote the effective  implementation of the Convention 
only four years after multilateral negotiations  were first launched on  the
issue of global warming  and its impact on the  climate. It is to the credit

of  the international community  that the  Conference of  the Parties, fully
aware of  the contribution  that the  implementation of  the Convention  can
make  towards  sustainable development,  has  agreed  by consensus  to forge
ahead with concrete efforts aimed at  bringing emissions of greenhouse gases
in the atmosphere within safe limits.

204.       The  Department for  Economic and  Social Information  and Policy
Analysis, headed by Mr. Jean-Claude Milleron, is  the principal unit in  the
United Nations for the generation and elaboration of economic,  demographic,
social and  environmental data  and the  analysis of  national and  regional
development policies  and  trends.  It also  provides technical  support  to
projects in statistics and population undertaken by developing countries.

205.     A cornerstone  of the  Department is its wide-ranging  programme of
statistical publications,  which continued  during the year. In  addition to
the Statistical Yearbook, other annual reference volumes published  included
the  Demographic   Yearbook,  Industrial   Commodity  Statistics   Yearbook,
National  Accounts  Yearbook and  Energy  Statistics Yearbook.  Publications
with   a  more  frequent   periodicity  included  the  Monthly  Bulletin  of
Statistics,  Commodity  Trade  Statistics  and  the  Population  and   Vital
Statistics  Report.  As  part  of  its  contribution  to  the  Fourth  World
Conference on  Women,  the Department  completed  the  1995 edition  of  The
World's  Women: Trends  and Statistics.  This  second  edition, which  was a
collaborative effort among 12 United Nations  offices and agencies, not only
presents an array of new data, but also underlines  the work that still must
be done to develop gender statistics that are comprehensive and of  adequate

206.       The year  has  seen further  progress  by  the Department  in the
development   and   implementation   of   new   statistical   concepts   and
methodologies in  other areas. The 1993 System of National  Accounts was the
result of collaboration between the United Nations, EU, IMF, the World  Bank
and the  Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Since
the adoption  of  the  System,  the Department  has  been working  in  close
cooperation   with  the   regional  commissions   and  other   international
organizations  on  its  implementation  in  selected  developing  countries.
During the past year,  the Department conducted seminars on the 1993  System
of  National Accounts in concept and practice, and on  the use of the System
of National Accounts for transition economy countries.

207.    The Department, in  cooperation with international organizations and
countries, has completed a draft revision  of the international concepts and
definitions  for   international   trade   statistics.  In   addition,   the
Statistical Commission, at its twenty-eighth session,  held in New York from
27  February   to  3  March,  approved   an  international  compilation   of
environmental  indicators that  will be  assembled by the  Department. Close
collaboration  with  the  Commission  on  Sustainable  Development  and  its
secretariat will  ensure comparability with  its programme  on indicators of
sustainable  development.  In  the  area  of  integrated  environmental  and
economic accounting, the framework developed by  the Department is now being
tested through several country projects with  the support of United  Nations
Environment  Programme (UNEP)  and  UNDP. The  Statistical  Commission  also
designated  the period 1995-2004  as the  2000 World  Population and Housing
Census Decade.  In this  area, the Department  continued its  work on  civil
registration and vital statistics.

208.      The work  of the Department  in the  area of  population was given
fresh impetus towards the  end of 1994 with the success of the International
Conference  on Population  and  Development, held  at  Cairo from  5  to  13
September  1994.  The  Department,  in  cooperation  with  UNFPA   undertook
substantive preparations for  the Conference. Following the Conference,  the
General Assembly  decided, in  its resolution  49/128 of  19 December  1994,
that  the revitalized  Commission on  Population and  Development should  be
charged  with monitoring, reviewing  and assessing the implementation of the
Programme  of  Action   adopted  at  Cairo.   The  Department  provides  the
secretariat  for the  Commission.  At  its  twenty-eighth session,  from  21

February to  2 March,  the Commission  affirmed the  Department as the  body
with competence to cover the monitoring and appraisal of the broad range  of
areas covered by the  Programme of Action. The  Department was also  charged
by   the  Secretary-General   with  the   preparation  of   the   report  on
international migration and  development called for by the General  Assembly
in  its  resolution  49/127  of  19 December  1994.  The  report, which  was
submitted  to  the Economic  and  Social  Council  at  its 1995  substantive
session, not  only  addressed  the  substantive  issues  involved  but  also
included aspects related to the objectives  and modalities for the convening
of the United Nations Conference on Migration and Development.

209.      The Department  completed its  1994 revision  of World  Population
Prospects, the official United Nations population figures  for all countries
of the world. Reflecting the high international standing  of these data, the
World Bank  announced  that henceforth  it  would  rely exclusively  on  the
United  Nations  for  population   statistics.  Studies  in   the  field  of
population  by  the  Department  address  such  subjects  as  contraception,
women's   education   and   fertility  behaviour,   abortion,  urbanization,
population policy,  international migration policies,  the status of  female
migrants and  the spread  of HIV/AIDS. Much  of the work  undertaken in  the
course of  these  studies contributed  to  the  deliberations on  the  Cairo
Programme of Action.

210.  As a further dimension of its  responsibility for monitoring the world
economic and social situations,  the Department produced  the World Economic
and Social  Survey 1995. In addition  to an analysis  of the world  economic
situation  and its  short-term prospects  and  discussions of  major  global
policy  issues, the Survey  examined some longer-term dimensions of economic
and  social changes  in  the world.  As part  of  the continuing  effort  to
improve  the  Survey,  the  1995  edition  devoted  greater  attention  to a
discussion of  economic and social policies around the world.  In a parallel
effort to provide  both the academic community  and the general public  with
information on issues that would form the backdrop  to the World Summit  for
Social Development, the Department  published The World  Social Situation in
the l990s prior to the Summit.

211.     The Department carried out development projections and  perspective
studies under Project  LINK, an  international economic research network  of
more than 70  country teams. During  the past year, the  Department convened
two meetings of this  network   one  in Salamanca, Spain, and  the other  in
New York    to assist  in the preparation  of short-term economic  forecasts
for the  General Assembly and  the Economic and  Social Council.  As part of
its longer-term analysis, the Department prepared  an update of the "Overall
socio-economic perspective  of the world economy  beyond the  year 2000" for
the General Assembly at its fiftieth  session. The Department has  continued
its work  on the debt crisis,  sources of finance  for development, coercive
economic  measures  and   economic  assistance  to  countries  affected   by
sanctions imposed by the  Security Council. It has produced reports on  each
of these subjects for the Assembly at its fiftieth session.

212.       As mandated  by  the General  Assembly  in response  to  the  new
development thinking  that has evolved in  recent years,  the Department has
been expanding its research and analysis  on micro-economic issues, focusing
on ways in which increased reliance on market  forces can contribute to  the
attainment  of  development  objectives.  This  work  has  included  studies
relating to employment,  technology and  the use of market-based  mechanisms
both to  meet environmental objectives and  to provide  public services. The
Department has continued to provide operational and  technical assistance to
developing countries and economies in transition,  primarily in the areas of
population  and statistics and  mostly with  financing provided  by UNDP and
UNFPA. Such  arrangements applied  to  more than  100 technical  cooperation
projects over the past year,  with additional assistance on  such matters as
country strategy  notes being  provided through resident  coordinators on  a
pro bono basis.

213.    The Department  has sustained its efforts to provide information and

analysis  through means  other than official documents  and publications. In
order  to  promote   exchanges  with  others   with  shared  interests,  the
Department  convenes  seminars,  issues  a  series  of  working  papers  and
continues to increase its dissemination of information  by electronic means.
In  1995 the United Nations Statistical Yearbook was again issued on CD-ROM,
as well as in its traditional paper form.  Version III of Women's Indicators
and Statistics  Database (Wistat)  was  similarly made  available in  CD-ROM
format, while Statbase  Locator (an inventory of international  computerized
databases) was released on diskette. In addition, selected information  from
the  1994  revisions of  World Population  Prospects and  World Urbanization
Prospects released  during the  year is  available on-line to  users of  the
Internet,  through the  Department's Population  Information  Network, which
was  used extensively during the International Conference  on Population and
Development. All the official  documents of the Conference,  as well as  the
statements made in  the plenary, were made  available on the Network,  which
handled more than 28,000 requests while the Conference was taking place.

214.    As  part of its effort to improve  the availability of  economic and
social  information,  the  Department,  in  cooperation  with  the  regional
commissions,  continues to  work on  a new  system that  will  encompass the
collection, processing, storage, exchange and dissemination of economic  and
social  information.  Entitled  the  United  Nations  Economic  and   Social
Information System, phase II  of the project  commenced in 1995 and  focuses
on implementing the System's core components  in selected pilot areas,  such
as national accounts and the development of prototype techniques.

215.      The  Department for Development  Support and  Management Services,
headed by Mr. Chaozhu Ji, is  responsible for providing technical assistance
to developing countries and economies  in transition in the  broad fields of
integrated development and public management, thereby assisting  Governments
in establishing an enabling environment for development.

216.    In the planning and management of  mineral resources, the Department
organized international  round-table  conferences on  foreign investment  in
exploration  and mining  in  India  and  Pakistan  in  1994. These  were  to
familiarize foreign investors  with the new mining policies and  regulations
in those  countries, to encourage investment  in development  of the mineral
sector,  to  acquaint  better  the Governments  with  the  mining industry's
expectations  and  with  the  elements  of  a  successful  mining investment
promotion drive, and thus to arrive  at mutually satisfactory and  rewarding
policies  for mining  investments. The  conferences culminated  in  concrete
joint  venture  investments  in  both  countries. The  Department  has  also
prepared the Environmental Guidelines  for Mining Operations  in response to
the need  stressed in Agenda 21 for the adoption of environmental guidelines
for natural resource development.

217.     The water resource  activities at the individual country level have
been extended into subregional and regional  initiatives through the use  of
joint  programming with  the regional  economic commissions.  This  work has
brought  the added  benefit of  preparing  the  ground for  several recently
launched  Global Environment  Facility initiatives  in international  waters
and  the  Okavango  and   Lake  Chad  basins.  The  detailed  implementation
experience has  also provided  the empirical  basis for  the ongoing  global
freshwater  assessment  initiated  at  the  request  of  the  Commission  on
Sustainable Development.

218.    Information exchange dealing with  both mineral and water  resources
is facilitated  by the substantive services  the Department  provides to the
Committee on Natural Resources. Dissemination of  ideas is also fostered  by
the Natural  Resources Forum,  the quarterly  technical journal produced  by
the Department.

219.     The Department is collaborating  with the African  Energy Programme
of the  African Development Bank  in a  wide-ranging effort  to address  the
serious problems  within the African energy  sector. In  1994 the Department
undertook  a  study  of  energy  institutions  in  17  African  countries to

characterize better  the  strengths and  weaknesses  of  the sector  at  the
country, subregional and  regional levels. A key recommendation that emerged
from the  exercise was that  an African energy  unit should  be established,
based  within  the  African  Development  Bank  and  supported  by  OAU, the
Economic  Commission for  Africa (ECA)  and the  Department for  Development
Support  and  Management  Services.  A  programme  of  action  is  now being
elaborated in conjunction with the African  Energy Programme of the  African
Development Bank.

220.     The Department executed a $7  million project in Zimbabwe funded by
the Global Environment Facility, which provides  a model for other countries
with sufficient  solar energy.  The project  addresses the  issue of  global
warming by providing a sustainable model of  solar electricity dissemination
in  Zimbabwe's rural  areas where  an  expanded  commercial market  is being
developed for  affordable domestic solar  electric lighting systems  through
the provision of low-interest  financing from existing institutions to allow
householders to purchase home solar systems.

221.       The  United  Nations  International  Conference  on Coal  Methane
Development  and Utilization  will be  held in  Beijing in  October  1995. A
primary objective of the Conference is  to assist Governments in  developing
a legal  and  regulatory context  for  the  promotion of  domestic  coal-bed
methane resources.  The Conference will review  the status  and potential of
ongoing coal-bed  methane recovery  projects in  China. Coal  mines in  that
country characteristically  have high  seepage  rates of  methane gas,  with
consequent danger of  atmospheric pollution and a  grave risk to the  safety
of miners and the productivity of the mines.  To help address this  problem,
the United  Nations  is assisting  China  through  a $10  million  programme
designed for recovery of coal-bed  methane prior to, during and after mining
operations. Funded  by the Global Environment  Facility and  executed by the
Department for  Development Support and  Management Services, the  programme
addresses all types of  gas recovery and the feasibility of various  options
for gas  utilization. Another project is developing the geothermal resources
of the  Tibet region,  with $3  million in  trust funds  contributed by  the
Government  of Italy. This  project is  leading to  institution-building and
human resource training both in China, during the  execution of the project,
and overseas. The project is also  oriented towards important investments to
be realized in the near future.

222.    Under the  joint programming exercise, initiated in June 1994, pilot
projects  implemented   by  the  Department   together  with  the   regional
commissions include  a geothermal  project in conjunction with  the Economic
Commission for Latin America  and the Caribbean (ECLAC), a capacity-building
project in central Asian countries to  deal with transboundary management of
water  resources and  a small-scale  mining  proposal  from ECA  designed to
train artisanal miners.

223.     The  Department has  taken several  steps to strengthen  support to
Governments  in  the  area   of  social  development   policy  and   poverty
alleviation, consistent with  priorities enunciated at the World Summit  for
Social  Development. Africa is an  area of particular  concern. To limit the
potential for  negative effects of  national economic adjustment  programmes
on vulnerable  groups and on  delivery of  services in  social sectors  like
health and education, the Department has  developed a system for  monitoring
the social  effects of such programmes. This has been introduced in projects
in  Algeria, Cameroon, C_te  d'Ivoire, Gabon,  Senegal and  Tunisia. In June
1995,  the   Department  collaborated   with  the   Department  for   Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development and UNDP  to organize a workshop at
Headquarters on  the development of Africa's  informal sector. Experts  from
Governments,  the United  Nations system and  non-governmental organizations
and academic institutions discussed experiences and perspectives.

224.     In the fields of public  administration and finance, the Department
is  assisting  Governments   in  developing  administrative  and  managerial
systems  at  the  central  and  local  levels,  in  strengthening  financial
management  capabilities,  in  undertaking   public  enterprise  reform  and

encouragement of private  enterprise and in improving related  informational
technology. For example, in Viet Nam,  the Department is currently providing
technical services to the  Government's comprehensive public  administration
programme  and  in particular  to  the  component  on  improvement of  civil
service management.

225.      The Department  has completed the establishment  of a computerized
information system to assist key agencies  of government. This public sector
planning   and   management   information  system   facilitates  econometric
analysis,  national budget  preparation and  modelling, the  preparation  of
debt  programmes  and investment  programme  planning  and  monitoring.  The
system has already been  demonstrated in several countries  and is ready for
installation upon request.

226.     Laying  the groundwork for  a session  of the  General Assembly  on
making Governments work  better was the  focus of a meeting of  more than 50
experts world wide organized by the Department from  31 July to 11 August at
Headquarters.  The  themes for  the  experts'  discussions  included  policy
development, administrative restructuring,  civil service  reform, the  role
of  public   administration  in  promoting   social  development,  financial
management, post-conflict  rehabilitation and  reconstruction of  government
machinery,  public/private  sector  interaction  and  the  role  of   public
administration in the management of development programmes.  Recommendations
from the meeting will  be reviewed at a resumed  session of the Economic and
Social Council later this year.

227.      The  outbreak of  localized  conflicts  throughout the  world  has
highlighted   the  interdependence   and  interaction   between  peace   and
improvement of  the human condition, as  today Governments  must often begin
to reconstruct  their human and  administrative infrastructures even  before
conflict has  ceased. The Department's work  in assisting  Rwanda to restore
its  technical, human  and  institutional capacities  and  rehabilitate  its
judicial system, in  strengthening Yemen's water and sanitation  facilities,
in  preparing  a  reconstruction   and  development  plan   for  Bosnia  and
Herzegovina and in providing support to  the rejuvenation of Haiti's  public
administration    these  are all  examples of  this recognition  being acted
upon by the United Nations.

228.       To help  stimulate a  better exchange  of ideas  on post-conflict
reconstruction strategies, the Department organized a colloquium  in June in
Austria, with  support from  the Government  of Austria  and in  cooperation
with the  Austrian Centre for Peace  and Conflict  Resolution. This informal
gathering brought together representatives from several Governments, plus  a
number  of  United   Nations  departments  and  agencies,   non-governmental
organizations and academic institutions. The conclusions of the meeting  and
other  documentation,  including  an  inventory  of  possible  post-conflict
peace-building activities, have been published.

229.     In the area of  cartography, the Department continues to  implement
the  recommendations presented  by the  Thirteenth United  Nations  Regional
Cartographic  Conference  for  Asia and  the  Pacific,  which requested  the
United Nations to support surveying, mapping  and charting activities in the
Asia and Pacific  region and to  facilitate the participation  of the  least
developed countries and the small island developing States of the region  in
the work of the Conference.

  2.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

230.    The work of UNCTAD, under the Officer-in-Charge, Mr. Carlos  Fortin,
was dominated during the past year by the  forty-first session of the  Trade
and Development  Board and  its subsidiary  bodies, and  the United  Nations
International Symposium on Trade Efficiency, as  well as by the  preparatory
process for the ninth session of the United  Nations Conference on Trade and

Development. I  have  proposed for  approval  by  the General  Assembly  the
appointment of  Mr.  Rubens  Ricupero as  Secretary-General of  UNCTAD.  His
appointment would be effective as at 15 September 1995.

231.     During  this period, the  Trade and Development  Board undertook  a
preliminary analysis and  assessment of the  final act of the  Uruguay Round
of multilateral trade negotiations.  The States members of UNCTAD recognized
the important  role  it could  play  in  the  post-Uruguay Round  period  in
enhancing the ability of developing countries  to take maximum advantage  of
these  new  opportunities  and  in recommending  measures  to  mitigate  the
consequences on countries  that could be  adversely affected. The respective
roles  and functions of  UNCTAD and  the World Trade  Organization have been
more clearly delineated.

232.     UNCTAD  also started implementation  of the  decisions taken during
the  mid-term  review  of  the  Cartagena   Commitment  in  May  1994.   The
commemoration of the  thirtieth anniversary of  UNCTAD at the first  part of
the  Board's forty-first session  in September  was the  occasion for States
members to reaffirm their  full support to  the organization and to look  to
its future  orientation.  Finally,  the preparatory  process for  the  ninth
session  of the Conference, to be  held in the  spring of 1996, started in a
spirit  of cooperation and  with the  conviction that  the Conference should
address in an innovative and action-oriented  way the economic issues facing
the international community.

233.     The Trade  and Development Board,  at the first part  of its forty-
first session,  in September  1994, adopted  a declaration  in which  States
members reaffirmed  their commitment to  the primary development  objectives
of  UNCTAD  and undertook  to  reinforce  their  political  support for  the
organization  and  for  its  important  role  in  strengthening  the  global
Partnership  for Development  by  addressing the  economic  and  development
problems of all countries, in particular the developing countries.

234.      The Board's discussion on  interdependence was based on  the Trade
and Development  Report 1994. The Board  reviewed the east  Asian growth and
development experience  and  concluded that  there  was  a wide  variety  of
experience  in east Asia:  while in  some fast-growing  economies the policy
regime had been  more liberal,  several Governments had successfully  played
active and interventionist roles.

235.      The Board  concluded its  policy review  of technical  cooperation
activities of UNCTAD by noting that  the agency's technical cooperation  was
greatly valued by developing countries and  countries in transition and  had
also  attracted  increasing  support  in  the  last  few  years  from  donor
countries and  institutions. Accordingly, the Board  emphasized the need  to
strengthen UNCTAD technical cooperation.

236.    At  the second part of its forty-first  session, in March  1995, the
Board endorsed agreed  conclusions on trade policies, structural  adjustment
and economic  reform, and on the  UNCTAD contribution  to the implementation
of  the United  Nations New  Agenda for  the  Development  of Africa  in the
1990s.  The  Board  also  agreed  on  preparatory  action  for  a high-level
intergovernmental meeting  to be held in  September to  undertake a mid-term
review  of the  implementation of  the  Programme of  Action for  the  Least
Developed Countries for the  1990s. It also  carried out a policy review  of
the  work  of   UNCTAD  on  sustainable   development.  On  trade  policies,
structural adjustment and economic reform, a  broad convergence emerged on a
number of  conclusions. The Board concluded  that Governments  should take a
positive approach  to structural adjustment.  A policy framework  favourable
to structural  adjustment could facilitate  the comprehensive and  effective
implementation of the Uruguay  Round agreements, lower resistance to further
liberalization  and better  prepare  economies for  future  negotiations  on
improving market access.

237.    On  preparations for the ninth session of the Conference, the  Board
reached agreement  on the provisional agenda  for the  Conference. The theme

of the  ninth session will be  promoting growth  and sustainable development
in  a globalizing and  liberalizing world  economy. The  Government of South
Africa announced its decision  to make an offer,  in principle, to  host the
Conference. States members underlined the importance of  holding the session
in Africa  and expressed  their full support  for South Africa  as the  host

238.    The United Nations International Symposium on Trade Efficiency,  was
held  at Columbus,  Ohio,  from 17  to  21  October  1994. More  than  2,000
decision  makers from both  the public  and private  sectors participated in
the Symposium  and in the other  parallel events: the Global Executive Trade
Summit, the  Global Summit  for Mayors  and the  World Trade Efficiency  and
Technology  Exhibition. The  Symposium  was  chaired  by  the  Secretary  of
Commerce of the United States of  America. The unprecedented involvement  of
the private  sector and  of local governments  made the  Symposium a  unique
forum for bringing practical solutions to  some of the problems  encountered
in  international trade.  The  Symposium adopted  the  Columbus  Ministerial
Declaration and  launched the  Global Trade Point  Network. Together,  these
documents  constitute a  blueprint for efficient international  trade in the
next century.

239.     The Standing Committee  on Commodities held  its third session from
31 October  to 4  November 1994.  In its  agreed conclusions, the  Committee
requested  UNCTAD  to  continue  its  analysis   of  ways  to  improve   the
competitiveness of natural products,  giving priority to the theoretical and
practical  aspects  of  the  internalization  of  ecological  externalities.
UNCTAD held  a number of commodity-related  meetings under  its auspices. In
January  1994,  the fourth  session  of  the  United  Nations Conference  on
Tropical Timber adopted  the International Tropical  Timber Agreement and as
at 31 December  1994, 12 States  had signed  the new  Agreement and one  had
become  formally party to it,  although conditions for its  entry into force
are not  yet met. At  the end of  the second  session of the  United Nations
Conference on  Natural Rubber, in  October 1994, 53  out of  the 67 articles
for a  successor agreement  had been  cleared in  principle. The  Conference
resumed its work,  under UNCTAD auspices,  at a  third session, in  February
1995, where 31 countries, representing nearly 90 per  cent of world trade in
natural  rubber, adopted  the 1995  International Natural  Rubber  Agreement
aimed  at stabilizing prices. The  new Agreement was opened for signature at
United  Nations  Headquarters  on  1  April  1995.  Other  commodity-related
meetings held under UNCTAD auspices dealt with iron ore and tungsten.

240.     The  Standing Committee  on Economic  Cooperation among  Developing
Countries  held  its  second session  from  14  to  18  November  1994.  The
Committee endorsed  a set  of recommendations  aimed  at fostering  economic
cooperation among  developing countries.  Furthermore,  it concluded,  inter
alia,  that developing countries  should adopt strategies that combine trade
liberalization with other  measures in the  areas of production, investment,
transport  and   communications,  marketing   and  distribution  and   trade
information. Special attention should  be given to  measures for  increasing
the effectiveness  of trade liberalization  regimes in regional  integration
arrangements and for increasing South-South trade.

241.    At the end of  the thirteenth session of the Intergovernmental Group
of Experts  on Restrictive Business  Practices, held from  24 to 28  October
1994,  competition experts  launched the  preparatory process for  the Third
United  Nations   Conference  to   Review  All   Aspects  of   the  Set   of
Multilaterally  Agreed Equitable  Principles and  Rules  for the  Control of
Restrictive  Business  Practices,  which  is  scheduled  to  take  place  in
November 1995.  The main document prepared  by the  UNCTAD secretariat dealt
with  the role of  competition policy in economic  reforms in developing and
other countries.  The Intergovernmental  Group held  its fourteenth  session
from 6 to 10 March  1995. Anti-trust experts made a number of proposals  for
strengthening multilateral cooperation  in the area of competition laws  and

242.     The three new ad hoc working groups, established in accordance with

a decision of  the Board taken  at the  resumed second part of  its fortieth
session, in  May 1994,  commenced their work.  The Ad Hoc  Working Group  on
Trade, Environment and Development held its  first session from 28  November
to 2 December 1994. The Working  Group examined international cooperation on
eco-labelling  and eco-certification  programmes, and  market  opportunities
for  environmentally   friendly   products.  The   session  emphasized   the
importance of  improved  transparency  in  eco-labelling and  the  need  for
developing countries to be more closely  associated with the elaboration  of
environmental criteria having an impact on trade and development.

243.    The Ad  Hoc Working Group on the  Role of Enterprises in Development
held  its  first  session  from  3  to  7  April  1995,  focusing  upon  the
development  of  small  and  medium-sized  enterprises.  The  Working  Group
examined the role of  the State in creating an enabling environment for  the
promotion  of  entrepreneurship,  as  well  as  the  viable  development  of
enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises.

244.       The  Commission  on  International  Investment and  Transnational
Corporations held its  twenty-first session from 24  to 28 April,  its first
session in its new role  as a subsidiary body of  the Trade and  Development
Board. The  Commission examined recent  trends in  foreign direct investment
and exchanged experiences on ways of attracting such investment.

245.     In  1994, UNCTAD expenditure  on technical  cooperation amounted to
some $22 million. The  largest single source of  funds continues to be UNDP,
although the trend observed in recent  years towards increased contributions
by  other donors  has continued. As  part of the  programme, UNCTAD provided
support  to a number  of countries  in assessing the results  of the Uruguay
Round, and  in preparing themselves for  new issues  subject to negotiations
in  the General  Agreement on  Tariffs  and Trade/World  Trade Organization.
Continued  assistance was  provided in  several aspects  of  trade policies,
including   competition  policy,   the  linkage   between  trade   and   the
environment, and  the utilization of  the generalized system of preferences.
Several new packages under  the UNCTAD training programme TRAINFORTRADE were
developed and delivered.  In the area  of commodities,  particular attention
was devoted to the use of risk-management instruments.

246.       With the  transfer to  UNCTAD  of  the United  Nations activities
related to transnational  corporations and  to science  and technology,  the
corresponding technical cooperation programmes,  including advisory services
on foreign  investment, have  become an  integral part  of UNCTAD  technical
cooperation.  The UNCTAD software  for management  and analysis  of debt was
enhanced and installed in  a number of countries. UNCTAD has also  continued
to provide  support to countries  in the areas of  shipping, port management
(notably  in Somalia) and  cargo tracking,  with the  training aspects being
undertaken in most cases through the  TRAINMAR programme. The largest single
programme  undertaken  by  UNCTAD  is  that  on  customs  modernization  and
computerization, known as ASYCUDA.  In line with the process leading to  and
following up  after the  World Symposium  on Trade  Efficiency, support  and
advice were  given to a number  of countries in  the establishment of  trade

247.      At its  tenth  executive session,  held on  4 May,  the Trade  and
Development  Board  agreed  that  appropriate  exploratory  work  should  be
undertaken on  such  new and  emerging  issues  on the  international  trade
agenda  within the  preparatory process  for  the  ninth session  of UNCTAD.
Three  categories of issues  were identified.  The first  consists of issues
that  give rise to  demands for  domestic policy  harmonization. Among those
issues are  investment and  competition policies and  labour standards.  The
second  category includes  issues that  reflect  concern  about the  lack of
coherence  among global  policy  objectives.  The third  consists of  issues
affecting  the  ability   of  countries,  especially  the  least   developed
countries  and  others  with  weak  economies,  to  pursue  national   goals

248.     The Commission  on Science and  Technology for Development held its

second session from 15 to 24  May. (The Commission, a subsidiary body of the
Economic  and Social  Council,  now  meets at  Geneva  as a  result  of  the
designation  of UNCTAD as  the United  Nations focal  point for  science and
technology-related activities.) Topics considered by the Commission at  that
session included the use of science and technology to help meet basic  needs
of  low-income  populations,   improving  women's  access  to  science   and
technology, and the use of science  and technology towards sustainable land-
management  practices. The Commission  decided to  focus its  work programme
for the  next two years on  recent developments  in information technologies
and  their  implications for  economic  growth,  social  cohesion,  cultural
values and society as a whole.

249.      The Standing  Committee on  Developing Services  Sectors: Shipping
held its  third session  from 6  to  9 June  to examine  progress in  policy
reforms for enhancing competitive services in  the fields of shipping, ports
and  multimodal   transport  in  developing   countries  and  countries   in
transition.  In particular,  support was  pledged  by  major donors  for the
TRAINMAR programme, through which UNCTAD enhances the management  capacities
of  developing countries  in the  field  of  shipping, ports  and multimodal
transport.  The role  of UNCTAD  in the  development of  the  advanced cargo
information system  was also praised.  As this was  the last  session of the
Committee before  the ninth session of  UNCTAD, the  Committee reviewed work
carried out since 1992.  It established a set of complementary activities to
be taken up by  UNCTAD during the period leading up to the ninth session and
suggested issues for further deliberation at that session.
250.    The Ad Hoc Working Group on Trade, Environment  and Development held
its  second  session  from  6  to  9  June,   to  examine  the  effects   of
environmental  policies on  market access  and competitiveness.  The  UNCTAD
secretariat was  requested to outline positive  measures that  could be used
as alternatives to  trade-related measures for environmental protection  for
consideration  at the  next  meeting  of the  Working Group,  to be  held in

251.       The  Standing Committee  on  Poverty Alleviation  held its  third
session from 12 to 16 June  to identify national and  international measures
to alleviate  poverty through international  trade and official  development
assistance. As this was  the last session of  the Committee before the ninth
session of UNCTAD, the  meeting reviewed the work carried out since 1992  by
the Committee and suggested that the  ninth session should consider  whether
the  present form  of  intergovernmental machinery  for  addressing  poverty
alleviation in  UNCTAD was the appropriate  one or  whether some alternative
arrangement could be  envisaged. Poverty and increased marginalization  will
feature high on the agenda of the ninth session.

252.    In  cooperation with UNDP  and the United Nations regional  economic
commissions,  UNCTAD organized  the Symposium  for Land-locked  and  Transit
Developing countries  from  14 to  16  June,  pursuant to  General  Assembly
resolution 48/169 of 21 December 1993. The objectives of the Symposium  were
to analyse  weaknesses in  the operational,  administrative, regulatory  and
institutional  framework that is  currently in  place in  the transit sector
and  to propose  the future  course  of action  at the  national, bilateral,
subregional  and international  levels.  Participating  countries agreed  to
develop  a global framework  for cooperation  on transit  transport with the
support  of  the  international community.  UNCTAD  has  been  requested  to
convene transit  corridor-specific  consultative groups  that will  identify
priority  areas for action  at the  national and subregional  level and will
establish the  framework for  the implementation  of agreed  measures. At  a
meeting  of governmental  experts from  land-locked and  transit  developing
countries, held  from 19 to  22 June, the  recommendations of the  Symposium
were widely endorsed.

253.      The  Standing Committee  on Economic  Cooperation among Developing
Countries held  its third  session from  19 to  23 June  to discuss ways  to
enlarge   and  deepen   monetary,   financial,  investment   and  enterprise
cooperation. The  agreed conclusions contain  suggestions for  strengthening
financial and  monetary cooperation among  developing countries,  as well as

at the level of investment and business.

  3.  United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

254.          UNEP,  headed  by   Ms.  Elizabeth   Dowdeswell,  is  pursuing
implementation of the environmental dimension of  Agenda 21, adopted by  the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992.

255.     At its seventeenth  session, in May 1994, the  Governing Council of
UNEP recognized the need for a  fundamental change in the  Programme's focus
and priorities, and its relationship with  other collaborators, in order  to
address the  changed international  environmental agenda  emerging from  the

256.    In addition to implementing  a work programme for 1994-1995 based on
a  Corporate  Programme  Framework,  UNEP held,  between  October  1994  and
February  1995,  extensive  consultations  with Governments  and  high-level
advisors to develop a refocused programme,  based on an integrated approach,
for its biennium 1996-1997.

257.      The  new integrated  programme for  1996-1997 as  approved by  the
eighteenth  session  of  the   Governing  Council  of  UNEP  addresses  four
principal environmental  challenges: (a) sustainable  management and use  of
natural resources; (b) sustainable production and consumption; (c) a  better
environment for environmental  health and well-being; and (d)  globalization
trends and the environment.

258.     UNEP collaboration with UNDP has  been advanced with the signing of
two agreements, one on international information  exchange and another on  a
new  partnership  for  combating desertification.  In  March,  UNEP and  the
International Union for Conservation  of Nature and Natural Resources signed
a  partnership  agreement  to  strengthen  their  long-standing   world-wide
cooperation  in  resource  conservation  and  sustainable  development.  The
agreement  will facilitate  collaboration  at the  regional  level,  thereby
increasing  the capability of UNEP and the International Union to respond to
geographically diverse environmental concerns.

259.     A major recent  development during the period under review has been
the  operationalization of  the  restructured Global  Environment  Facility,
which is implemented jointly  by UNDP, UNEP  and the World Bank. Within  the
Global  Environment  Facility,   UNEP  will  catalyse  the  development   of
scientific and technical  analysis, and promote and implement  environmental

260.    The Scientific and  Technical Advisory Panel was constituted  by the
Executive  Director in April. UNEP has also worked in conjunction with other
major groups in  the areas of chemicals, refugees, agricultural  development
and environmental technology.

261.     UNEP, together  with the International  Labour Organization  (ILO),
the Food  and Agriculture  Organization of  the United  Nations (FAO),  WHO,
UNIDO  and OECD, established  the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound
Management of  Chemicals to increase  coordination and information  exchange
on  chemicals and  chemical  wastes.  Additionally,  UNEP, with  the  active
collaboration of the private chemical industry  sector, has issued the  Code
of  Ethics in  the  International Trade  in  Chemicals. UNEP  was  asked  to
increase  its  role  in  managing  toxic   chemicals  and  to  further   the
development  of  international environmental  law.  Moreover,  the Governing
Council  of  the   United  Nations  Environment  Programme  authorized   the
Executive Director  to begin negotiations, in  cooperation with  FAO, on the
development   of  a  prior  informed  consent  convention  relating  to  the
international trade of  certain hazardous chemicals. UNEP also  participated
in  a regional  seminar at  San Salvador  in  May  on the  implementation in

Central America and the  Caribbean of the Basel Convention on the Control of
Transboundary  Movements  of Hazardous  Wastes  and  Their  Disposal,  which
generated  valuable discussion  on  how to  incorporate  cleaner  production
activities  in the proposed subregional centres for  training and technology
transfer under the Basel Convention.

262.        In  collaboration  with  the  United Nations  Centre  for  Human
Settlements  (Habitat),  UNEP  assisted  Rwanda  to  address  the  issue  of
environmental  damage  caused by  civil  war  and  the  massive movement  of

263.      UNEP has  joined the World  Bank, FAO  and UNDP  in supporting the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research in  its efforts to
confront the  new challenges of  sustainable agricultural development.  UNEP
is taking part in the development of a  multilateral system on plant genetic
resources.  As  a  co-sponsor  of  the  Consultative  Group,  UNEP  has been
requested to provide information on the  negotiating process leading to  the
second conference of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

264.       The  UNEP Environment  Technology  Centre  became  operational in
September 1994. Located in Osaka and Shiga prefectures in Japan, the  Centre
is engaged in assisting developing countries  in the transfer of  technology
to solve urban environmental problems and  issues relating to management  of
freshwater  lakes and reservoir  basins. After  the earthquake  in Kobe, the
Centre responded by providing staff to assist emergency medical teams.

265.     The first  UNEP International  Seminar on  Gender and  Environment,
held in April  1995, called for shared  responsibility between women and men
in  achieving  sustainable   development  and  provided  material  for   the
development of a  policy statement to the  Fourth World Conference  on Women
in Beijing.

266.     UNEP  offered to provide  the secretariat  for the  proposed global
programme of  action  to  protect  the marine  environment  from  land-based
activities. The  programme was reviewed by  a meeting  of government experts
held in  March. The  meeting recognized  the need  to  reduce and  eliminate
pollution by persistent organic pollutants. The  final document of the draft
global  programme is to  be presented  for adoption  at an intergovernmental
meeting in October and November.

267.     The work of  UNEP with the commercial and investment banking sector
since the United Nations Conference on  Environment and Development in  1992
has resulted  in a  new alliance with  major insurance  companies. In  March
1995, UNEP announced the forging of a new partnership at its Advisory  Group
Meeting on Commercial Banks  and the Environment, with  a view to continuing
to  foster responsible sustainable development policies and practices in the
banking  sector. UNEP  signed  an agreement  with the  International Olympic
Committee  to  promote  environmental  protection  in  international  sports
competitions. Together with  the Foundation for International  Environmental
Law  and  Development,  UNEP  convened  a  first  meeting  on  liability and
compensation  in  London,   gathering  experts  from  the  United   Nations,
Governments and the academic community.

268.       UNEP  provides  scientific  and  administrative  support  to  the
secretariats  of   environmental  conventions.   The  Lusaka  Agreement   on
Cooperative Enforcement Operations  Directed at Illegal  Trade in Wild Fauna
and  Flora,   which  aims  to   reduce  and   ultimately  eliminate  illegal
international trafficking  in African wildlife,  was concluded in  September
1994  by six  eastern and  southern  African  countries. The  United Nations
International  Convention  to  Combat  Desertification  in  Those  Countries
Experiencing  Serious  Drought  and/or   Desertification,  Particularly   in
Africa, provides  for a substantive role  for UNEP  in awareness-raising and
the formulation and implementation of programmes to combat  desertification.
The first  meeting of  the Conference  of the  Parties to the  Convention on
Biological Diversity,  held in  November and  December 1994,  chose UNEP  to
host  the permanent  secretariat of  the  Convention.  UNEP has  initiated a

programme to promote the  safe use of biotechnology  throughout the world as
one of its  responses to Agenda 21. Under the auspices of  the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora  and Fauna, a Timber
Working Group was  established in March to  study how the Convention  should
be involved in the protection of timber species.

269.    The first  Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate  Change was  held in  March and  April. UNEP  believes
that a strong  climate research base  is needed to  ensure the  Convention's
success  and  to  this  end  has  been  playing  a  central  role  with  the
Intergovernmental  Panel on  Climate Change  in collaboration  with FAO, the
Intergovernmental   Oceanographic    Commission   of   UNESCO,   the   World
Meteorological  Organization   (WMO)  and   the  International  Council   of
Scientific Unions.  Over 300 experts from  countries that  have ratified the
Montreal Protocol on Substances  that Deplete the Ozone Layer to the  Vienna
Convention for the Protection of the  Ozone Layer made significant  progress
in  proposing  possible amendments  and  adjustments  to  the  international
treaty during a one-week  session at Nairobi from  8 to  12 May. It was  the
second time since its  inception in 1987 that the Montreal Protocol had been
reviewed,  demonstrating the  determination of  the world  community to find
solutions to  many  ozone-related issues  that  should  be resolved  by  the
December  1995  meeting  at Vienna  of the  parties  to the  Protocol. Final
recommendations will  be made at  a meeting at  Geneva from 28  August to  1
September  1995,  at  which  proposed  amendments  and  adjustments  to  the
Protocol will be considered,  including advanced phase-out of methyl bromide
and a revised phase-out schedule for  chlorofluorocarbons and halons by  the
developing   countries.   Meanwhile,   the   multilateral   fund   for   the
implementation  of  the Montreal  Protocol  has  disbursed $303  million  to
finance about 830 projects in 81 developing countries.

270.     An intergovernmental  agreement aimed at  conserving the  migratory
waterbirds  of Africa  and Eurasia  was adopted  in June  at The  Hague at a
meeting held  under the  auspices of the  Convention on the  Conservation of
Migratory Species of Wild  Animals. This new agreement  covers more than 150
species of  birds that are ecologically  dependent on wetlands  for at least
part  of their annual cycle. The coastal States  of the Mediterranean Action
Plan    the  oldest  and strongest  of the  UNEP regional  seas programmes  
adopted  a   cross-sectoral  approach   to   environmental  protection   and
development of the  Mediterranean basin at the Ninth Ordinary Meeting of the
Contracting Parties to the  Convention, held from 9 to 10 June at Barcelona.
The  scope and geographical  coverage of  the revised  Convention and Action
Plan  were  also expanded  to  ensure  the  integration  between the  marine
environment,  the  coastal areas  and  the  associated  coastal  watersheds,
including water resources, and soil, forest and plant coverage.

271.     The  Executive Director of  UNEP is  chairing the Working  Group on
Sustainable  Freshwater Resources for Africa  within the Secretary-General's
Special Initiative on  Africa. A draft report  was submitted to the  meeting
of the Group  held in July at Geneva  for the purpose of promoting  dialogue
and  collaborative  management of  water  resources  among  riparian  States
sharing  international   water  resources.   To  that  end  UNEP   has  been
implementing a  series of  new projects  in integrated  management of  water
resources. In June a meeting of  experts was held on a  diagnostic study for
the Nile basin  as the first  phase in  the development  of a  comprehensive
management plan for the basin.

272.      At the  first meeting  of the  Environmental Emergencies  Advisory
Group, held in January,  experts from 24 countries commended the work of the
Joint UNEP/Department  of Humanitarian Affairs  Environment Unit, which  was
established  in  1994  and has  since  carried  out a  number  of  emergency
assessments of the oil spills in Arctic Russia.

273.      UNEP  efforts to  link  environmental  and economic  concerns  are
gaining momentum.  At a  workshop convened  by UNEP  and the  World Bank  in
March, international  experts urged  the leading  financial institutions  to
incorporate  social  and  environmental   objectives  in  their   structural

adjustment programmes.  Another workshop  was held  in March  to review  the
environmental impact  of trade policies. UNEP  has agreed to  take a leading
role in the development of  methodologies for sustainability  indicators. In
a  workshop  hosted  by  the  Philippines   in  May  and  June,   government
representatives  from  33   countries,  agencies,   development  banks   and
industries developed a framework for the  sustainable management of reefs as
outlined in the International Coral Reef  Initiative: the UNEP regional seas
programme was  recognized as  an appropriate  vehicle for  that effort.  The
implementation of Agenda 21  was reviewed in  Paris in  June by UNEP and  50
major  international  and  national   industry  associations.  This   annual
consultative   meeting  of  UNEP   facilitated  information  exchange  among
industries on the  activities they  have undertaken  to promote  sustainable
production and consumption patterns world wide.

274.       From  May  to June  in  Mexico  City,  50  experts  in urban  and
environmental  management  from   Latin  America  analysed  major   problems
hindering the  efforts of the  region's mega-cities towards  sustainability.
The result was a document prepared in collaboration  with UNEP that will  be
presented  at  the Second  United Nations  Conference  on Human  Settlements
(Habitat II) to be held at Istanbul in June 1996.

275.       The Governing  Council  of  UNEP held  its eighteenth  session at
Nairobi, from 15 to 26  May, adopting  a record number of 64 decisions,  all
by consensus.  A programme activity budget  of $90-105  million was approved
for the next biennium.  UNEP celebrated World Environment Day on 5 June with
the theme,  "We the Peoples,  United for the  Global Environment", in  South
Africa,  with the participation and support of the President of the Republic
of South Africa, Mr. Nelson Mandela.

276.     The demands placed on UNEP  after the United Nations Conference  on
Environment and  Development in 1992 have not been met  with any significant
increase  in financial  resources to  the  Programme. The  further  expected
reduction  of the voluntary  contributions to  the Environment  Fund of UNEP
and the  unpredictability of payments  constitute principal constraints  for
the future  of the  Programme and  its  capability to  provide an  effective
service to the international community.

  4.  United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)

277.     At a time when approximately one  quarter of the world's population
is  either inadequately housed  or is  homeless, the  growing global shelter
crisis  resulting  from  uncontrolled  urbanization  and  rural  poverty  is
imparting new urgency to  the mandate of the United Nations Centre for Human
Settlements (Habitat), under the direction of Mr. Wally N'Dow.

278.     To address these  far-reaching challenges, the Centre has  embarked
on  a number  of major  initiatives. Central  to these are  preparations now
under way  for the  Second United  Nations Conference  on Human  Settlements
(Habitat II), also  known as the "City  Summit". Through its  declaration of
principles and  commitments and its  global plan  of action,  Habitat II  is
expected  to reaffirm the  importance of  human settlements  in national and
international development policies and strategies.
279.     The recently concluded second session of the Preparatory  Committee
of the  Conference mobilized those whose  collaboration is  essential to the
forging of  new partnerships for  managing the  urban environment:  national
Governments,  local   authorities  and  their  international   associations,
private   sector   enterprises,  civic   groups  and   non-governmental  and
community-based  organizations.  Through  a  series  of  regional  meetings,
supported and/or organized  by the regional economic commissions,  countries
are now taking stock and identifying common  concerns with respect to  their

280.     Preparations have  begun on several Habitat II-related conferences,

including  the International  Conference on Best Practices  in Improving the
Living Environment, to be convened in  Dubai in November. Organizations  and
agencies of the United Nations system,  as well as professional associations
and  research institutions, are collaborating with the  Centre in sponsoring
an extensive  series of  workshops, seminars, colloquiums  and round  tables
related to the  Conference's two main  themes: adequate shelter for  all and
sustainable human settlement development in an urbanizing world.

281.     The Centre continues to  monitor and coordinate  the implementation
of the  Global Strategy for  Shelter to the  Year 2000, which  will also  be
reviewed by  Habitat II in 1996.  Technical assistance  activities geared to
that end were undertaken  by the Centre in  91 countries over  the reporting
period, especially in the areas of urban  management, environmental planning
and management, disaster  mitigation and reconstruction, housing policy  and
urban poverty reduction.  Significant interregional programmes are currently
being implemented, in urban  management, sustainable cities  and the housing
and  urban indicators  programme. Among  the major  reconstruction  projects
under way in 1995 were those in Afghanistan and in Rwanda.

282.      Capacity-building  activities were  expanded in  the  countries in
transition  of  eastern  and  central  Europe   and  the  countries  of  the
Commonwealth  of  Independent   States  (CIS).  Progress  was  achieved   in
introducing gender issues  in human settlement-related training  programmes.
New  initiatives   have  been  launched  with   UNEP  and   WHO  to  promote
environmental health  in human  settlements and  work is  proceeding on  the
second  Global  Report on  Human  Settlements,  which  will  be launched  at
Habitat II.

283.    Africa  is an important focus of  the Centre's activities.  Over the
reporting period, new responsibilities have been  entrusted to the Centre by
the  Inter-Agency Task  Force  for the  United Nations  New  Agenda  for the
Development of Africa  in the 1990s. The Centre  will be the associate  lead
agency responsible  for urban management and human settlement programmes and
policies and for the continuum from relief to development.

284.      Securing adequate  levels of funding  to carry  out its  expanding
mandate and  role  within the  development  agenda  of the  United  Nations,
including  support for Habitat  II, is one of  the most important challenges
facing the Centre.  The urgent need  for United Nations and  bilateral donor
emergency assistance  to  redress the  effects  of  civil wars  and  natural
disasters has  resulted in  continuing reductions  in the  level of  funding
available for  the Centre's development  cooperation activities of a longer-
term nature.

  C.  Operational activities for development

  1.  United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

285.      As the  principal arm  of the United  Nations for  the funding and
coordination  of  technical assistance  and  development,  UNDP,  under  its
Administrator,  Mr. James Gustave  Speth, has contributed to the development
debate at both the  conceptual and operational levels    internationally and
in the countries it serves.

286.     To strengthen its own capacity  to give policy guidance and support
in  priority areas, UNDP  restructured its  Bureau for  Policy and Programme
Support to  include  four  thematic  divisions, on  social  development  and
poverty  elimination,  management development  and  governance,  sustainable
energy and environment, and science and technology.

287.       Path-breaking  legislation  on the  future  of  UNDP and  on  the
successor programming arrangements for the next  period was approved by  the

Executive Board of  UNDP and UNFPA  in June.  The decision on the  future of
UNDP continued  the process  of redefining  its role.  The Board  recognized
poverty elimination as the overriding priority  in UNDP programmes and urged
concentration on areas  where UNDP has demonstrable comparative  advantages,
in particular in capacity-building.

288.        The  Board's  decision  on  successor  programming  arrangements
constituted  a  major turning-point  for  UNDP,  replacing  the  programming
system that had been in effect since the  "consensus" decision of 1970.  The
new system is intended  to provide greater flexibility in the assignment  of
resources,  as well as  greater incentives  for the  formulation of focused,
high-impact  and  high-leverage  programmes  to  promote  sustainable  human

289.     At the conceptual level, the Human  Development Report, a report to
UNDP,   prepared  by  a   team  of   independent  development  experts,  has
contributed  to  the  international  development  debate.  The  1995  Report
focuses on gender issues  and on valuing women's  work as a  contribution to
the Fourth World Conference on Women.

290.    Several Governments have requested  assistance in the preparation of
their own  national human development  reports, based  on the  methodologies
used in the Human Development Report.  National reports have been  published
in 9 countries in  all regions  in 1994 and 1995  and are in preparation  in
close to 40 more,  including several in central  and eastern Europe and CIS.
In other countries, such as Botswana, Egypt and Bolivia, exercises based  on
the human development methodology for the collection of disaggre-gated  data
have  been  conducted. Overall,  the reports  and data  collection exercises
help to identify groups excluded from  the benefits of development,  whether
for reasons  of  poverty, gender  or  geographic  location, and  to  propose
environmentally sound strategies for their inclusion.

291.     The national long-term perspective studies programme, introduced in
1991,  has helped  African  countries  define national  priorities to  guide
their development over a 25-year "futures"  horizon. By 1994, the  programme
was active in 11 countries.

292.     UNDP has  assisted many programme  countries in  the preparation of
their positions at global forums.  Through the resident  coordinator system,
UNDP  has contributed at the  national level to  preparations for the Fourth
World Conference on  Women. Several  dozen reports  on the  status of  women
were prepared for the Conference, most of them  based on gender analysis and
the collection  of disaggregated  data.  UNDP facilitated  dialogue in  each
country among the organizations of Government,  the United Nations and civil
society.  UNDP is  now  integrating  the broader  concept of  gender  in the
programming process.  For example, in 1993,  the Government  of Turkey, with
support  from UNDP,  launched a  programme  for  the enhancement  of women's
participation in  the nation's development.  Training was  conducted on such
topics as  women and employment, women  and entrepreneurship,  and women and
violence. UNDP  is  also cooperating  with  UNCHS  in the  preparations  for
Habitat II.

293.     In 1994, in collaboration with the Inter-American Development  Bank
and  Governments  of  the  region,   UNDP  co-sponsored  development-related
preparations for  the Summit  of the  Americas, which mapped  out areas  for
enhanced  regional cooperation  and  development and  for  movement  towards
greater participation  in development planning  and management.  In the Asia
and  Pacific region,  UNDP  sponsored  a  regional  meeting  of  development
ministers  at  Kuala  Lumpur  to  facilitate  dialogue  on  strategies   for
collaboration  and  for development  in  the  region.  It  was also  heavily
involved in  the preparations  for  the International  Convention to  Combat
Desertification  and the  United  Nations Framework  Convention  on  Climate
Change,  assisting with both  the preparation  of country  positions and the
conventions themselves.

294.      UNDP experience  shows  that concepts  can only  be developed  and

tested against  operational activities. In January  1995, in  order to serve
development professionals,  UNDP pulled together  national experience in  13
monographs  in the  UNDP Series  on  Sustainable Human  Development: Country
Strategies  for  Social  Development. The  series  was  launched  during the
preparatory process for the World Summit for Social Development.

295.       Inter-agency  Cooperation  has  been furthered  by  widening  the
resident  coordinator   pool  to   encompass  candidates   from  the   joint
consultative group on  policy agencies as  well as  from the  Office of  the
United  Nations  High  Commissioner  for Refugees  (UNHCR)  and  the  United
Nations  Secretariat.  Since   January  1994,   a  total  of  six   resident
coordinators have so far  been selected from the United Nations, UNICEF, the
World  Food Programme (WFP),  UNIDO and  UNCTAD. It is hoped  that this will
lead to  greater understanding of the  priorities of  different agencies and
an enhanced  sense of ownership  of the resident  coordinator system on  the
part of the agencies.

296.    In  many countries, resident coordinators  have established sectoral
subcommittees  led by  the relevant United Nations  agency representative to
ensure coordination at the sectoral level.  Joint training of United Nations
agency representatives and  resident coordinators  at the  ILO Turin  Centre
has been stepped up. A  total of 13 workshops had  been held by  April 1995,
with 63  staff from UNDP and  305 staff from  other United Nations  agencies
being trained.  To give  further support to inter-agency  coordination, UNDP
has  established an  Inter-Agency Coordination  and External  Policy  Office
within a restructured Bureau for Resources and External Affairs.

297.    Considerable success has been achieved in increasing  the clarity of
respective  roles  within  the  United  Nations  system.    A  statement  of
principles was signed with UNEP outlining  respective roles and an intention
to collaborate between the two organizations.  A statement of principles was
also  signed with  FAO on  food security,  a central  aspect of  sustainable
human development in many countries. The  high-level task force between UNDP
and  the World  Bank  was  revitalized, resulting  in the  negotiation  of a
revised statement of principles for collaboration  between the two agencies,
in particular  in  the areas  of  forestry  and poverty  alleviation.  Joint
programming in  select countries is  expected to begin  in the coming  year.
Finally,  discussions  are  taking  place  between  UNDP  and  UNHCR  on the
collaborative efforts to reintegrate populations displaced by war.

298.      The  Administrator  of UNDP  established a  task  force  under the
chairmanship of  the Associate Administrator  for further strengthening  the
role of the regional  economic commissions. Mechanisms are being established
 with collaboration  between UNDP  and the  commissions    for  coordinating
United Nations activities at the regional and subregional levels.

299.     UNDP has improved  its support to the round-table  process in order
to achieve more regular meetings and a sharper  focus on policy and resource
mobilization.  The 1994 round table for the Gambia raised $400 million. Four
others were organized in Africa in  1994 (Central African Republic,  Guinea-
Bissau,  Mali and  Seychelles).  The  two  organized in  Asia,  for the  Lao
People's Democratic  Republic and  Maldives,  raised $500  million and  $100
million respectively. The 1995 round table for Rwanda raised $587 million.

300.     UNDP is playing  a more active role in consultative group meetings,
focusing on capacity  for sustainable human development. At the consultative
group for the  Philippines, the UNDP-sponsored Philippine Human  Development
Report 1994  served  as  a  principal  reference  for  the  agenda  item  on
sustainable development.

301.      In March,  the Copenhagen  Declaration on  Social Development  and
Programme  of Action  adopted by  the  World  Summit for  Social Development
called on UNDP to organize United  Nations system efforts towards  capacity-
building  at  the  local,  national  and  regional  levels.  In  April,  the
Administrator sent  a detailed proposal for  UNDP follow-up  strategy to all
133  country  offices.  In June,  the Executive  Board  of UNDP  adopted key

decisions  on following up  the Summit  and mandated  poverty elimination as
its  overriding priority  within the  framework  of  the goals  and priority
areas  agreed  to  the  previous  year   in  support  of  sustainable  human
development.  The Administrator  has  asked  the  UNDP  country  offices  to
consult with  national counterparts  on how  the United  Nations system  can
best assist each country in implementing  the recommendations of the Summit,
in particular in developing  national strategies and  programmes for poverty
elimination. Other areas include the macroeconomic  framework for a  greater
emphasis on  poverty reduction; social sector  policy and planning;  systems
to  assist  vulnerable  groups;  and  poverty  definitions,  indicators  and
assessments. UNDP  has set up a rapid response system to provide information
required for Summit follow-up and to support shifts in programme emphasis.

302.    Poverty elimination, as addressed by the Copenhagen Declaration  and
Programme of  Action, requires  participation and  empowerment of people  at
all  levels. This requires  effective outreach  mechanisms that  make use of
local  government,  institutions  of  civil  society  such  as  village  and
community groups  and institutions of  traditional government, national  and
international   non-governmental  organizations,  United  Nations  Volunteer
specialists and  United Nations specialized  agencies. Most importantly,  it
involves  empowerment  of  target  communities  in  the  identification  and
communication  of   their  own   needs  and   in  the   management  of   the
implementation of  projects and  programmes geared  to eliminating  critical
constraints to their development. During 1994  and 1995, the United  Nations
Capital Development  Fund provided  local development  funds in  addition to
larger-scale infrastructure and  credit facilities. These funds involve  the
community, whether through  community groups or local government bodies,  in
establishing  priorities  and  in  implementing  micro-scale  infrastructure

303.     To target  those who are marginalized  in economic or social  terms
but nevertheless have the potential for productive livelihood requires  pro-
poor macro-policies  geared to build  on the productivity of  the poor. Many
UNDP-supported  programmes and projects,  as in  Sri Lanka  and Uganda, have
demonstrated how to bring participation, employment  and empowerment to poor
people.  In  recognition of  the  importance  of  rural  agriculture in  the
alleviation  of  poverty,  employment  creation,  the  preservation  of  the
environment and bringing  women into the mainstream of economic development,
guidelines   for  UNDP,  government  and  other  development  practitioners,
entitled   "Sustainable  Human  Development  and   Agriculture",  have  been
produced and now serve as a basic reference for programming in UNDP.

304.        UNDP  took  several  initiatives  in  1994  to  promote  greater
participation by the potential actors and  beneficiaries of development. The
Conference  on Peace  and Development,  held  in  Honduras in  October 1994,
represented  the climax of  effort by  the countries of the  region to build
consensus  on the issues  of peace  and democratization  in Central America.
The Conference brought together representatives of Governments, the  private
sector, cooperatives,  trade unions,  indigenous communities,  universities,
regional organizations and the donor community, thus institutionalizing  the
dialogue with civil society.

305.    Employment generation  requires deepening collaboration between UNDP
and ILO to identify market demand  systematically and to create economically
viable  jobs that foster  sustainable livelihoods. For example, in Ethiopia,
the  Government  has  formulated  a  national  programme on  human  resource
development and utilization  that looks at  both the  supply and demand  for
human  resources. The  employment  and livelihoods  subprogramme  has  set a
target  of creating  24,000 additional  jobs per  year over  five years  and
focuses  on  areas such  as  the informal  sector,  promotion of  small  and
medium-scale enterprises,  agricultural wage  employment and  rural on-  and
off-farm employment.

306.    Protection and regeneration of the  environment has been advanced by
UNDP for national  capacity-building in the  follow-up and implementation of
Agenda 21  and the Montreal Protocol. China has developed, with UNDP support

and   with  the  involvement   of  over  50  government  agencies,  research
institutes and public organizations, an Agenda  21 strategy.  UNDP helped to
organize a donor conference during which  the Government presented 62  high-
priority projects  covering such areas  as sustainable agriculture;  cleaner
production;  clean  energy; conservation  and  sustainable  use  of  natural
resources; pollution  control; population growth;  and an improvement in the
status of people's health, education and general welfare.

307.    To  meet the growing demand for national capacity to manage  complex
environmental  concerns,   a  new  Division   for  Sustainable  Energy   and
Environment was established in August 1994  within the Bureau for  Programme
and  Policy  Support.  It  will   further  support  efforts  to  incorporate
environmental  concerns  at   the  earliest  possible  stages  of   economic
decision-making and promote the full implementation of Agenda 21.
308.      A new initiative  for sustainable  energy is  being formulated  to
support programme formulation and to provide  for greater access to improved
energy technology. UNDP, along with UNEP, UNIDO and the World Bank, are  the
four  implementing  agencies  assisting  some  31  developing  countries  to
eliminate  ozone-depleting  substances  in  a  programme  financed  by   the
multilateral  fund under  the Montreal  Protocol.  As  at 31  December 1994,
total  approved   budgets  amounted  to   $79.61  million.  Eleven   country
programmes have  been approved  with UNDP  as lead agency  and 19  capacity-
building (institution-strengthening) projects are under way. Out of a  total
of  97  projects  completed,  20  involve  technology  transfer   investment
projects, which have phased out 1,455 tons of ozone-depleting substances.

309.      The governance  issues concerning the  Global Environment Facility
have  been  resolved  and  the  Facility's  Instrument  has  been  approved,
delineating the roles  of UNEP, UNDP and the  World Bank. By December  1994,
the UNDP Global Environment Facility pilot  phase portfolio consisted of  55
technical assistance projects and 28 pre-investment feasibility studies.  In
1995,  UNDP  launched the  post-pilot  phase,  with 20  projects.    As  the
Programme's main  effort to implement Agenda  21, Capacity  21 completed its
first  full year of  operation in  1994, with a solid  portfolio of national
programmes in  all regions.  By August  1995,  the environmental  management
guidelines training  workshop,  a  major capacity-building  initiative,  had
been held in 122 countries, involving 3,600 participants.

310.    UNDP is supporting public  sector reform in many countries.  In Viet
Nam, UNDP  is helping  with  reform  of the  legal, financial  and  monetary
systems,  with particular  emphasis on  social adjustment  concerns. It  has
been assigned  the main responsibility for support to the  Government in the
coordination  and management  of external  cooperation resources.    Similar
activities are under way  in Lebanon, Peru and Zambia. In March, a  regional
meeting  of  Latin  American  and  eastern  European  experts  was  held  in
Argentina to discuss how prudent use  of regulation, competition and  social
safety nets  can be  combined to  ensure that  privatization contributes  to
sustainable human development.

311.      During 1994,  the United  Nations Capital  Development Fund  began
working  with  UNDP  units dealing  with governance  in  selected developing
countries.  The aim is  to promote  decentralization by attracting technical
cooperation  to  the  local  level  and  providing  the  capital  assistance
necessary  for newly  established local  authorities to  gain experience  in
administering development programmes.

312.    Collaborating closely with the  Electoral Assistance Division of the
Secretariat, UNDP has responded to an  increasing number of country requests
relating  to the  introduction  or  enhancement of  the  electoral  process,
including, in  Africa, Chad, Ethiopia, Liberia, Mozambique, Togo and Uganda,
and,  in  Latin  America,   Brazil  and  Mexico.  United  Nations  Volunteer
specialists served  as electoral  observers and  facilitators in  Mozambique
and  South Africa.  Other UNDP-supported  initiatives have  aimed to  ensure
access to  due process and acquired  rights. For  instance, an international
ombudsman  workshop was  held  in the  Russian  Federation as  part  of  the
democracy, governance and participation programme  for the States of eastern

Europe and the former Soviet Union.

313.     UNDP is  attempting to promote sustainable development  even in the
midst  of internal  conflict  situations. The  importance  of  ensuring that
humanitarian relief  is linked  to sustainable human  development is  widely
accepted as  a prerequisite  for countries  to resume  progress and  rebuild
capacity as soon as possible. A case in point is  Somalia, where despite the
difficult security  situation,  UNDP managed  to  continue  an active  rural
rehabilitation programme in some parts of the country.

314.      In 1994-1995, UNDP  substantively enhanced its  assistance in  two
situations  in  particular. Firstly,  resources  for  the UNDP  programme of
assistance  to the Palestinian  people doubled  to $25  million between 1993
and 1994.  Secondly,  the Government  of  South  Africa and  UNDP  concluded
negotiations and signed the Basic Standard  Agreement in October 1994 during
the  visit of President  Nelson Mandela  to Headquarters  during the general
debate of the General Assembly at its forty-ninth session.

315.      In other  institutional developments,  UNDP has  become the  first
United Nations organization  to be accepted as a  member of the Society  for
Worldwide    Inter-Bank    Financial   Telecommunications,    a    financial
communications system using leased lines owned  by banks. This has  improved
cash management  capabilities while achieving savings  of $250,000 per  year
in general operating expenditures and reductions in staff costs.

316.      The year 1994  was the mid-point  of the  current fifth indicative
planning figure cycle (1992-1996), and  16 mid-term reviews  were completed.
It  was   found  that  fifth-cycle   country  programmes  were   essentially
strategic,  aimed  at  a  limited  number  of  major  national  or  regional
development objectives.  As such, they are  distinctly more  focused than in
previous cycles. They aim  to reduce the number  of individual projects and,
as called for in General Assembly resolution 44/211 of 22 December 1989,  to
move towards  the programme approach under  national execution, with  strong
emphasis  on national  ownership and  commitment.  For  example, in  the Lao
People's Democratic Republic,  individual projects have been reduced from 50
to 15 and in  the regional programme for  Asia and  the Pacific from 350  to
80. National ownership is  being reinforced, with an increase in the rate of
national execution  from 34 per cent of  approvals in 1991 to 53 per cent in

317.     In 1994, voluntary contributions  by member countries to UNDP  core
resources amounted  to $917.57 million (see  fig. 8).  Contributions to non-
core  resources,  including  UNDP-administered  funds,  trust  funds,  cost-
sharing  arrangements and government cash  counterpart contributions, raised
the total funds  administered by UNDP  to over  $1.8 billion  (see fig.  9).
There  has been  a continued  rise  in  funds received  through cost-sharing
arrangements, with  cost-sharing contributions increasing  by 58.7 per  cent
in 1994  (see fig.  10). Total  field programme  expenditures for  technical
cooperation activities in 1994 amounted to approximately $1,036.50 million.

318.    It became clear in 1994 that the UNDP biennial budget would have  to
be reduced further to keep administrative  costs in line with declining core
programme resources. This is  in spite of the fact that between the biennial
budgets for 1992-1993  and 1994-1995 a total of  $53.6 million was cut  from
the administrative budget. Cuts have been  made primarily by reducing  staff
positions  both at headquarters  (26 per  cent) and at the  country level (8
per cent).

319.     The stagnation  of UNDP core resources  since 1992  and the current
uncertain outlook reflect  the global  situation with regard to  development
cooperation. It is a cause for  concern that notwithstanding the substantial

adjustments undertaken  in response to the  changed conditions  of the post-
cold-war era,  the resource  base for  UNDP has  been seriously  eroded. The
1995  contributions to the central resources of UNDP  are expected to amount
to approximately  $937  million. This  is  much  lower than  the  originally
projected level under Governing Council decision  90/34, which, on the basis
of resources of $1 billion,  called for an 8 per cent annual increase during
the  fifth programming  cycle (1992-1996).  Viewed  in  the context  of that
decision, the shortfall for the cycle would amount to approximately

$1.4  billion. For  this reason,  the  Executive  Board of  UNDP decided  to
reduce national  indicative  planning figures  by  30  per cent  from  their
original levels.

320.     Tragically, 17  UNDP staff members lost  their lives in 1994  while
serving the cause of development.

  2.  United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

321.     Ms. Carol  Bellamy was appointed  the fourth  Executive Director of
UNICEF, succeeding Mr. James  P. Grant, who had led the Organization for  15
years  until  his death  in January  1995.  The new  Executive Director  has
indicated that  improving the  financial management  and administrative  and
programme  systems  of  UNICEF  and ensuring  more  effective  and efficient
programme delivery will  allow UNICEF  to move  into the  next century  (see
fig. 11).

322.     1995  is the  mid-point of the  decade-long strategy  of the  World
Summit for Children to  meet global objectives for  the welfare of children.
The international  community's goals  and objectives  for  children and  the
broad outline of  a global strategy have been  set for the remainder of  the
decade  by the  World  Summit  for Children  and by  the imperatives  of the
Convention  on the  Rights of  the  Child.  The International  Conference on
Population and Development and the World Summit for Social Development have
reiterated the  commitment of the  international community  to these  goals.
The Fourth  World Conference on Women,  to be held  at Beijing in  September
1995, can be  expected to take  these commitments  a stage  further, with  a
heightened  emphasis on  the need  for gender  equity and  equality and  for
special attention to the girl-child.

323.      The progress  report presented  to the  UNICEF Executive  Board on
follow-up to  the World Summit for  Children noted  that impressive progress
was under way and  that the majority of  developing countries were  on track
to achieve a majority of the goals.

324.     In  1994, UNICEF  supported programmes  in 149  countries    46  in
Africa, 37  in  Latin America  and  the  Caribbean (including  10  Caribbean
island countries),  34 in Asia (including  13 Pacific  island countries), 14
in  the Middle East and North  Africa and 18 in central  and eastern Europe,
the Commonwealth  of Independent  States and  the Baltic  States. The  total
programme expenditure reached $801 million. The  third issue of The Progress
of Nations,  released in June 1995,  provided up-to-date  data on indicators
for monitoring progress towards  the goals, ranking  countries according  to
their results.

325.     UNICEF is  addressing the main  causes of child  mortality, with  a
focus  on  prevention,   including  immunization  and  the  prevention   and
treatment of  the major killers    acute  respiratory infections, diarrhoeal
diseases and malaria in areas of  high endemicity. Immunization coverage was
sustained globally  at the 80 per  cent level, but  the regional average  in
Africa  remained  significantly  lower,  as  it  did  in  1993.  The  Bamako

Initiative,  as  a strategy  for  strengthening  local primary  health  care
systems, expanded to 33 countries in  Africa, Asia and Latin America. Global
and country-level  activities continued to achieve  goals for  the year 2000
of  universal  iodization  of  salt  and   vitamin  A  distribution  to  all
vulnerable people.
326.      Most countries  in East Asia,  Latin America  and the Middle  East
achieved  the mid-decade  goal  of  universal access  to primary  education.
However, more  than  one  half  of  developing  countries,  including  high-
population countries  in South Asia  and Africa,  still have  to make  major
strides  before all  their children  can be provided  adequate opportunities
for basic education. Girls' primary education  was the dominant component of
UNICEF  support for  education in  South  Asia,  sub-Saharan Africa  and the
Middle East and North Africa.

327.     UNICEF assisted some 100 countries in achieving  their water supply
and  sanitation  goals  and  worked  to  refine  strategies  that  emphasize
sustainability and  maximize health  and  socio-economic benefits.  Progress
was  made in  gaining acceptance  of  the  women's equality  and empowerment
framework, as  well  as the  life-cycle  approach,  as tools  for  promoting
gender-balanced programmes for children and development.

328.        UNICEF  is  committed  to  mainstream  development  programming,
particularly  as related  to  activities  in basic  social  services.  While
pursuing these  long-term development  efforts, UNICEF was also  called upon
to play an active role in responding to many  emergencies in which women and
children  were  the  hardest-hit  victims.  Approximately  25  per  cent  of
UNICEF's programme expenditure in 1994 was devoted to providing  life-saving
essential services for children and women in emergencies.

329.      In the former  Yugoslavia, UNICEF  was charged with  a mandate  to
provide relief  assistance in  situations of  great insecurity  for its  own
staff.  In Armenia,  Azerbaijan, Georgia  and Tajikistan,  UNICEF helped  to
address the  special needs  of refugee populations and  internally displaced
people through  the re-establishment  of the  cold chain,  the provision  of
basic vaccines and health supplies, and support for educational systems.

330.    UNICEF continues to pay special attention to Africa and other  least
developed countries. Despite  the continuing and threatening emergencies  in
certain parts  of sub-Saharan Africa,  there are  many positive developments
that go almost unnoticed.  In the areas  of special action for children,  25
of  the  46  countries  in  sub-Saharan  Africa  have  either  increased  or
sustained the immunization levels of 75 per cent  or higher reached in 1990;
the usage  rate of  oral rehydration  therapy has  now reached 50  per cent;
salt iodization  measures are  being implemented in  28 of the  39 countries
affected by iodine deficiency  disorders; and guinea worm disease is well on
the way to being eliminated from most of Africa.

331.      Africa  remains the  continent  with  the greatest  needs.  UNICEF
devotes  some 38  per  cent  of its  financial and  human resources  to sub-
Saharan  Africa. It  helps  build  capacities and  empower  communities  and
families.  In  countries  emerging from  disasters, programmes  will  aim at
strengthening local capacity, solidarity and coping mechanisms, which  could
become  the  embryo of  new  societies. At  the  national  level,  UNICEF is
strengthening  its ability  to  support Governments  in  policy  development
affecting  children and in  mobilizing resources  for children.  At the same
time, UNICEF is  participating actively in  a United Nations-wide initiative
for Africa,  working to strengthen  country-level collaboration towards  all
the  elements  of  sustainable  human  development,  poverty  reduction  and
accelerated economic growth.

332.     Unaccompanied children and internally displaced people were a major
challenge  for UNICEF in  Rwanda, where  an unprecedented  relief effort was
mounted to protect refugees from the rapid spread  of disease and famine. In
Angola, Burundi and Somalia, UNICEF continued  to provide assistance in  the
areas of health, education and water  supply and sanitation. In  Mozambique,
under a national  plan of  reconstruction, UNICEF  reoriented its  emergency

activities  towards rebuilding  basic services for health,  water supply and
sanitation  and education. In  Liberia and  Sierra Leone,  despite facing an
increasingly  difficult situation,  UNICEF  continued  to provide  essential
emergency  services.  Trauma  counselling and  physical  rehabilitation  for
handicapped  children were  priorities,  as were  programmes  for  violently
abused women and girls and vocational training for child soldiers.

333.    The Convention on the Rights of the Child has been embraced by  more
States than any other  human rights treaty in  history. By August  1995, 177
parties had  ratified  the Convention,  with  only  17 countries  needed  to
attain the goal of universal ratification by the end of 1995.

334.     At its  forty-ninth session, the General Assembly discussed for the
first time  the issue of  children's rights and  adopted resolutions  on the
protection of  children  affected by  armed  conflicts;  the need  to  adopt
efficient international measures for  the prevention and  eradication of the
sale of children,  child prostitution and child pornography;  implementation
of the  Convention on  the Rights  of the Child;  and the  plight of  street
children  (resolutions 49/209 to  49/212, all  of 23  December 1994). UNICEF
was  asked  to  play  an  active  role  in  support  of  those  resolutions.
Furthermore, UNICEF, in collaboration with the  Centre for Human Rights, has
been  assisting  the  Committee on  the Rights  of  the Child  in monitoring
implementation of  the Convention.  UNICEF is  supporting the  comprehensive
study of  the impact of  armed conflict on  children in  response to General
Assembly resolution 48/157 of 20 December 1993.

335.     The World Summit for Social Development has provided new impetus to
the work of UNICEF  on behalf of children  within the United Nations system,
setting  that  work  within  a wider  international  effort  towards poverty
eradication  and   social  development.  After   two  years  of   systematic
mobilization  and persistent technical refinement in which  UNICEF played an
active role along  with UNDP and UNFPA,  the "20/20" initiative was  adopted
at  the  World  Summit for  Social Development  as  a legitimate  and useful
instrument  for   guiding,   assessing  and   monitoring  overall   official
development assistance  and national budgetary  allocations to basic  social

  3.  United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

336.        During  1994,  UNFPA, directed  by  Dr.  Nafis  Sadik, supported
population programmes in  137 countries and  territories. The  Fund operates
field offices, each headed by a country director,  in 60 of those countries.
The year 1994  will be remembered  as the  year the international  community
changed the  way it looks  at population issues.  That change  in perception
actually evolved  over two  decades and culminated  in the  adoption of  the
Programme  of  Action  of the  International  Conference  on  Population and
Development, held at Cairo in September of that year.

337.    The Programme of Action was the product of more than three years  of
intense deliberation  and negotiation between Governments,  non-governmental
organizations,   community   leaders,   technical  experts   and  interested
individuals.   The  Programme  of   Action  goes  beyond  mere  numbers  and
demographic targets  and places  human beings  and their  well-being at  the
centre of all  population and  sustainable development  activities. It  also
sets out quantitative and qualitative goals and objectives  to be reached by
all countries by the year 2015: to provide universal access to  reproductive
health and  family planning services; to  reduce infant,  child and maternal
mortality;  and to  provide access  to primary  education for all  girls and

338.     The Conference, and the Programme of  Action it produced, spawned a
series of  internal and  external assessments  of UNFPA.  For example,  each
UNFPA geographical division conducted internal reviews of existing  policies

and  programmes and convened  regional meetings to consider the implications
of the Conference for their respective regions.

339.     UNFPA held a series of joint workshops with partner agencies in the
United  Nations development  system to  examine  how  best to  translate the
recommendations of the  Programme of Action into  actions at the country and
local  levels. These  workshops  focused  on  the key  areas  of the  Fund's
programme       reproductive   health  and   family  planning   (with  WHO);
information,  education  and  communication  (with  UNESCO  and  WHO);   and
population data,  policy and  research (with ILO)     and involved  advisers
from  the UNFPA  technical  support services/country  support  team  system,
including technical support services specialists from the respective  United
Nations   agencies   and   organizations.  These   regional   and  technical
consultations helped UNFPA  assess the policy and programme implications  of
the Conference for the future work of UNFPA.

340.      The programme  priorities and  future directions  of UNFPA  in the
light of  the Conference were considered  by the  UNDP/UNFPA Executive Board
at  its annual session  in June  1995. The Executive Board,  in its decision
95/15, supported the broad outline of the future programme  of assistance of
UNFPA, which must  be implemented in full  accordance with the Programme  of
Action of  the Conference, and  endorsed the Fund's core  programme areas of
reproductive   health,  including   family  planning   and  sexual   health,
population  and  development  strategies,  and  advocacy.  The  Board   also
recommended,  in its decision  95/20, that  the Economic  and Social Council
and the  General Assembly endorse  the agreement between  UNDP and UNFPA  to
designate UNFPA resident country directors as UNFPA representatives.

341.       On 19  December 1994,  the  General Assembly  adopted  resolution
49/128, entitled "Report of the  International Conference on  Population and
Development",  in which  it  emphasized  the  importance  of  continued  and
enhanced cooperation and coordination by all relevant organs,  organizations
and programmes  of the United Nations  system and  the specialized agencies,
and requested  them to  take  appropriate measures  to ensure  the full  and
effective implementation of the Programme of  Action.  In resolution 49/128,
the Assembly  decided that the Population  Commission should  be renamed the
Commission  on Population  and Development  and that  it should  meet on  an
annual basis beginning in 1996.

342.      On  behalf of  the Secretary-General  and at  the  request  of the
Administrator of UNDP, the Executive Director  of UNFPA convened in December
1994 the first meeting of the Inter-Agency Task Force  on the Implementation
of  the Programme of  Action of  the International  Conference on Population
and Development. The meeting, attended by  12 United Nations  organizations,
worked to establish a  common framework for follow-up  to the Conference and
other  conferences in  the social  sector.  The  Task Force  decided to  use
working  groups  to  develop  operational  guidelines  for use  by  resident
coordinators to promote inter-agency collaboration  at the country  level in
the following areas: (a) a  common data system at the national level in  the
field  of  health,  notably  in  the areas  of  infant,  child and  maternal
mortality;  (b)   basic  education,   with  special   attention  to   gender
disparities; (c) policy-related issues,  including the drafting  of a common
advocacy  statement  on social  issues;  (d)  women's  empowerment; and  (e)
reproductive health.

343.    To achieve  the goals of the Conference, it is necessary to mobilize
resources  from  Governments  and  non-governmental  organizations.  At  the
request  of the Secretary-General, the Executive Director  of UNFPA convened
a  consultation   on  resource   mobilization  on  20   January  1995.   The
participants suggested  using existing mechanisms at the country level, such
as the resident coordinator system, the  World Bank consultative groups, and
UNDP  round   tables,  for  the   purpose  of  mobilizing   country-specific
resources. It was  agreed that global consultation  on this topic  should be
convened periodically, preferably at the time of the annual  sessions of the
Commission on Population and Development.

344.     In conjunction with the  International Conference on Population and
Development  and the  World Summit  for Social  Development, UNFPA organized
two  international   parliamentarian  meetings,  dealing  specifically  with
population  issues relevant  to  the themes  of  the  conferences. Moreover,
UNFPA established an NGO Advisory Committee to advise on how to make  better
use of  and interact  more effectively  with non-governmental  organizations
and the private sector.

345.    In 1994, UNFPA organized  programme review and strategy  development
exercises in nine countries, providing useful  inputs to the formulation  of
the country  strategy notes.  By the  end of  1994, UNFPA  had undertaken  a
total of 76 such exercises.

346.      The Executive  Board of  UNFPA, in its  decision 94/25, encouraged
UNFPA, given the situation  in Rwanda, to support, on an exceptional  basis,
in  appropriate  ways  and  in  collaboration  with  other relief  agencies,
emergency assistance to the people of  Rwanda from the population  programme
resources of  the third  UNFPA country programme  for Rwanda.  Subsequently,
UNFPA approved a  project in Rwanda for emergency/rehabilitation  assistance
to  the national maternal  and child  health and  family planning programme,
with UNICEF  and UNFPA as executing  agencies, and  two emergency assistance
projects to  meet  the reproductive  health  needs  of Rwandan  refugees  in
Burundi  and the United  Republic of  Tanzania. The projects  in Burundi and
the United  Republic  of Tanzania,  which were  formulated in  collaboration
with UNHCR,  UNICEF, the African Medical  and Research  Foundation and local
non-governmental  organizations,   are  progressing  reasonably  well.   The
Executive   Board,  in   its   decision  95/14,   approved   the   continued
implementation  of decision  94/25,  allowing for  flexibility  in  sectoral
expenditure of resources from the third  UNFPA country programme for  Rwanda
and for overall expenditures of up to $7.8 million.

347.       At  the  global level,  UNFPA  continued to  support  the Special
Programme  of   Research,  Development  and   Research  Training  in   Human
Reproduction  of WHO. UNFPA  also participated  in the  United Nations Joint
and Co-sponsored  Programme on  HIV/AIDS. The  Fund's  Global Initiative  on
Contraceptive Requirements  and  Logistics  Management Needs  in  Developing
Countries in the 1990s, co-funded by a number of multilateral and  bilateral
donors and  non-governmental organizations,  organized  in-depth studies  on
contraceptive  requirements  in  Brazil, Bangladesh  and  Egypt,  generating
interest  by   several  other   countries  with   regard  to   contraceptive
requirements.  The Global  Initiative also  produced technical  reports  and
organized consultative meetings and workshops.

348.      The income of the Fund in  1994 was $265.3 million,  compared to a
1993 income  of $219.6 million, an increase of 20.8 per  cent (see fig. 12).
Total  expenditures for  projects, from  regular resources,  increased  from
$134.3 million  in 1993  to $204.1  million in  1994, an  increase of  $67.1
million,  or 50 per  cent. Expenditures  for reproductive  health and family
planning programmes increased by 46 per cent, from $68.7 million in 1993  to
$100.1  million in 1994, and accounted for nearly half  of all of the Fund's
project  expenditures.   Expenditures   for   information,   education   and
communication  activities increased by  80 per  cent, from  $21.3 million in
1993  to $38.3  million in  1994, and  accounted for  19 per  cent  of total
project expenditures.  The remaining expenditures  were divided among  basic
data  collection  (6.6  per  cent);  population  dynamics  (5.7  per  cent);
formulation, implementation and  evaluation of population policies (8.1  per
cent);  multisectoral activities (5.5 per cent) and  special programmes (5.4
per cent).

349.    In 1994, the Asia  and the Pacific region received 31.5  per cent of
UNFPA programme  allocations, the  sub-Saharan Africa  region received  31.1
per cent, the Latin  America and Caribbean region 13.5 per cent and the Arab
States and  Europe  11.5 per  cent.  Support  for interregional  and  global
programmes amounted  to 12.4 per cent  of allocations.The  Fund continued to
concentrate over 71 per cent of  its resources in countries most  in need of

assistance  in the population  field and  notably in  the poorest developing
countries. In 1994, there were 58  priority countries for UNFPA  assistance:
32 in sub-Saharan  Africa, 17  in Asia and the  Pacific, 5 in Latin  America
and the Caribbean and 4 in the Arab States.

  4.  World Food Programme (WFP)

350.     Directed by  Ms. Catherine  Bertini, WFP, the  food aid arm of  the
United Nations  system, remains  on  the front  line of  the United  Nations
battle  against hunger  and poverty.  WFP  concentrates  its efforts  on the
neediest people in the neediest countries of the world.

351.     In 1994,  food assistance provided by  WFP reached 57 million  poor
and hungry people.  Eighty-two per cent of total  WFP resources went to  low
income food  deficit countries; the share  to least  developed countries was
52 per cent. Such resources support both relief and development.

352.    On  the development side, WFP food aid  has been an  effective means
of transferring  income to  the poor  and encouraging  collective action  in
poor  communities.  Currently,   some  225  development  projects  with   an
aggregate  commitment  of  $2.6  billion  are  being  supported  in  over 80
developing countries (see fig. 13).

353.    On the emergency side, WFP responds to  food shortages by relying on
its network of  country offices and on its expertise in transport, logistics
and procurement. During 1994, WFP  provided relief assistance at  a value of
over $1 billion to the victims of man-made  and natural disasters in over 40

354.         In 1994,  WFP  managed  $1.5 billion  of  resources     in food
commodities and  cash    in support  of the hungry  and poor throughout  the
developing world. Over 32 million victims  of man-made and natural disasters
benefited from WFP assistance in 1994.  Some 16 million people  participated
in  food-for-work projects in support of agricultural and rural development.
Over 8  million people received  supplementary feeding through  WFP-assisted
education, training, health and nutrition projects.

355.    About 80 per cent  of WFP relief assistance in 1994  was provided to
victims of disasters coming out of civil strife or cross-border  wars   some
8.5  million  refugees   and  16.5  million  internally  displaced   people,
representing 50  per cent  of the world's  population of  those two  groups.
More  than  7 million  people  were victims  of  drought and  other  natural
disasters. Some 64 per  cent of total WFP relief operations were in  support
of needy people in Africa. The single biggest  operation was in Burundi  and
Rwanda, costing $242 million, or 22 per  cent of total relief  expenditures.
This operation,  associated with tragic  loss of  life on  a massive  scale,
continues to be an urgent focus of attention  for the United Nations  today,
not only  in Burundi  and Rwanda  but also  in Kenya,  Tanzania, Uganda  and
Zaire.  The  Liberia  regional  programme,  costing  $96  million,  provided
assistance  to  refugees  and  displaced  persons  in  Liberia  and  in four
neighbouring countries involved in the crisis.

356.    Elsewhere in the world,  major emergencies faced by WFP included the
former Yugoslavia,  where people continued to  face food  shortages and real
poverty as a result of  unresolved conflicts. WFP operations  in that region
amounted to  $149 million.  Afghanistan represents another  country that  is
still in  a state of chronic  food insecurity in  the absence  of peace. The
WFP regional operations in support of  Afghan refugees and displaced  people
cost $95 million in 1994.

357.       The  number, scale  and  duration of  emergencies and  disasters,
particularly those caused  by armed  conflict, have escalated alarmingly  in
recent years. In  1994, two out of three  tons of WFP-provided food aid were
distributed as relief assistance,  and only one  ton was used in support  of
development  projects.  Five  years  ago  it  was  the  reverse.  With fewer
resources for  development, "silent"  emergencies, in  which people live  in
abject poverty  and chronic  food insecurity,  can quickly  turn into  acute
emergencies. Relief assistance  alone does not  change the  vulnerability of
poor people  to the next  emergency. WFP  is therefore  making a  deliberate
effort to  identify ways  to increase the  linkages between  its relief  and
development  assistance  by integrating  disaster  mitigation elements  into
development  projects,  developing  capacity-building  elements into  relief
operations, and  strengthening disaster  preparedness through  vulnerability
mapping, better early warning and institutional development.

358.       The Programme's  approach  to reducing  problems associated  with
humanitarian emergencies is  to collaborate in  efforts aimed  at prevention
rather  than  cure.  Wherever  possible,  food   aid  is  used  to   support
development goals.  Africa and Asia continue  to receive  the largest shares
of WFP  development assistance   40 per cent and  39 per cent, respectively.
However, WFP development resources continue to  decline in both absolute and
relative terms with respect  to emergency operations.  Of the target of $1.5
billion for  WFP regular  development resources for  the biennium  1993-1994
(approved  by the  Economic and  Social  Council  and the  FAO Council,  and
endorsed by  the General Assembly  and the FAO  Conference) only  two thirds
was  realized.  As  a  result,  the  implementation  of  projects  was often
delayed.  Moreover, WFP has been  unable to support all approved projects at
the   level  originally  planned,  as  donors  have  increasingly  tied  and
designated their development funds.

359.      Food purchases  have increased significantly during  the last five
years. In  1994, WFP  purchased a record  1.4 million tons  of food,  almost
half of all the commodities distributed by the  Programme. Sixty per cent of
the  food commodities were  bought in  developing countries, maintaining the
Programme's position as the largest contributor  to South-South trade in the
United Nations system.

360.        WFP cooperates  with  other  multilateral,  bilateral  and  non-
governmental  organizations  at  all  stages  of  its  activities.  In 1994,
significant progress was made  in ensuring greater  collaboration in  relief
operations.  Joint  assessments  of refugee  food  needs  (with  UNHCR)  and
emergency needs (with  FAO) continued to be an essential part of the work of
WFP.  WFP-assisted  development projects  in  17  countries  benefited  from
collaboration  with  the International  Fund  for  Agricultural  Development
(IFAD). WFP  signed a  first memorandum  of understanding  on joint  working
arrangements  for emergency  relief operations  with a  major  international
non-governmental organization and  will seek to conclude similar  agreements
with other non-governmental organizations in the future.

361.    The  approach of WFP has been  notably strengthened by  the adoption
of principles  and guidelines for  a country-based programme, which includes
resourcing  levels,   and  a   criteria  for   project  approval.   Resource
arrangements  are being addressed  to improve predictability, accountability
and  transparency,   as  well  as  actual   resource  levels.  The   General
Regulations of  the  Programme are  being amended  in the  light of  General
Assembly resolutions 47/199 of  22 December 1992  and 48/162 of 20  December

  5.  United Nations International Drug Control Programme

362.     During the reporting period,  the United Nations International Drug
Control Programme, headed by Mr. Giorgio  Giacomelli, continued to carry out
its activities  on the basis  of a three-tiered strategy  articulated at the

country, regional, and global levels.

363.     At the country level, the Programme elaborated guidelines to assist
Governments in the preparation of national  drug control master plans,  that
is,  national agendas that  address both  illicit demand  and illicit supply
reduction. Support by  the Programme led to  the development of master plans
in 14  countries and territories in  the Carib-bean.  Master plan assistance
was also provided to Algeria, Guatemala,  Namibia, Pakistan, the United Arab
Emirates and Viet Nam. The Programme assisted the Government  of Colombia in
developing drug  control components within  that country's 10-year  National
Alternative Development Plan, to become effective on 1 January 1996.

364.     In 1994, the  Programme funded a comprehensive ground survey of the
extent  of opium  poppy cultivation  in Afghanistan.  The results     to  be
confirmed in  a  1995  survey      reveal  a  dry  opium  production  volume
substantially in  excess of previous estimates  of 2,000  metric tons; based
on the revised estimates, Afghanistan would  be the world's largest  illicit
producer of opium.

365.       At  the regional  level, the  Programme held  in South  Africa in
November  1994  a   regional  workshop  aimed  at  strengthening   judiciary
cooperation against drug trafficking in southern Africa.  Governments in the
region  adopted  a  communiqu_  against  corruption  and  a  plan  of action
comprising  measures to  strengthen  drug trafficking  interdiction  in  the

366.     In  May 1995, at Beijing, the first  ministerial meeting took place
between  the Lao People's  Democratic Republic, Myanmar, China and Thailand,
all of which  are parties to the memorandum  of understanding on control  of
illicit drugs  in South-East  Asia. The  meeting approved  the accession  of
Cambodia and Viet  Nam to the  memorandum of understanding  and endorsed  an
Action Plan  on subregional cooperation in  drug control  matters. In China,
law  enforcement capabilities  in  Yunnan Province  were  strengthened  with
equipment  from  the  Programme  and  training  needs  were identified.  Law
enforcement officers in the border areas  of China and Myanmar  launched the
establishment of  an information  exchange system.  After the  signing of  a
regional memorandum  of understanding  in 1994,  Argentina, Bolivia,  Chile,
Peru and  the Programme  developed an  action agenda  for implementation  in
1995-1997 emphasizing law enforcement and harmonization of demand  reduction

367.     By 30  June 1995,  the Baltic States, 9  Central European countries
and 12 countries  of CIS had received  legal assistance from the  Programme.
The  central  Asian  republics  have emerged  as  a  high priority  for  the
Programme, and accordingly a  multisectoral subregional programme, requiring
support from the international community, has been developed.

368.       In  1994-1995,  the  Programme  continued  its  series of  demand
reduction expert forums, with  technical consultations held  in Brazil,  the
Bahamas, Cameroon, India  and Morocco. In the  context of the United Nations
Decade against  Drug Abuse, a  World Forum  on the Role  of Non-Governmental
Organizations in Drug Demand Reduction was held  at Bangkok in December 1994
with participants  from 115 countries. The  Forum resulted  in a declaration
that  reinforces  the  partnership  between  the  United  Nations  and  non-
governmental organizations in demand reduction.

369.    In  April 1995, the Programme helped  organize in Brazil  the Second
International Private  Sector Conference on Drugs  in the  Workplace and the
Community, with  one result being the  identification of essential  elements
of  corporate policy needed for drug abuse prevention. In February 1995, the
Programme  and the  International  Olympic Committee  signed  a  cooperation
agreement to promote sports in the prevention of drug abuse.

370.        At  the  global  level,  the Programme  conducted  research  and
synthesized the results  into technical information  and research papers. In
order to  address complex  issues in  drug control,  the Programme  prepared

studies on the present  status of knowledge on the illicit drug industry and
the economic and  social impact of  drug abuse and  control, as  well as  an
interim report  on  the economic  and  social  consequences of  drug  abuse,
presented to the Commission on Narcotic  Drugs at its thirty-eighth session,
in March 1995.

371.        The  Programme's  laboratory  continued  to expand  its  Quality
Assurance Programme,  aimed at assisting  laboratories to develop  effective
laboratory  practices  in  the  analysis  of  drug-related  matters.  Eighty
laboratories world wide  are participating in the International  Proficiency
Testing Scheme, which  assesses the performance of laboratories and enhances
output accuracy.

372.     One of  the major  issues addressed by  the Commission on  Narcotic
Drugs  in  1994  and  1995  was   the  implementation  of  General  Assembly
resolution 48/12 of 28 October 1993  on measures to strengthen international
cooperation  against  the illicit  production,  sale,  demand,  traffic  and
distribution  of narcotic  drugs  and psychotropic  substances  and  related
activities.  The Executive  Director of the Programme  convened two meetings
in 1994  of an intergovernmental advisory group and produced  a report which
was  examined by the  Commission at  its thirty-eighth  session. That report
included  specific  recommendations  on  ways  to  strengthen  international
action in  drug control.  The Commission,  in its  resolution 13  (XXXVIII),
invited  States  to  consider the  recommendations;  it  also requested  the
Executive  Director to further refine them in the  light of States' comments
for submission to the General Assembly at its fifty-first session.

373.     In response to General Assembly resolution 48/12, the International
Narcotics  Control  Board,   an  independent  treaty  organ,  outlined   its
assessment and major findings with respect to  the drug control treaties  in
its report  for 1994.  The Board  also issued  a special  supplement on  the
effectiveness of the treaties, highlighting areas in need of strengthening.

374.       In  September  1994 and  February  1995, at  the  request of  the
Commission on  Narcotic Drugs,  the Programme  convened a  working group  on
maritime  cooperation  to  further  international  cooperation in  combating
illicit drug traffic by sea. The  recommendations and principles adopted  by
the  working group and  endorsed by the Commission  represent a milestone in
efforts  to contain  the problem  of  illicit  drug shipments  that traverse
international waters.

375.    Also in February 1995,  the Administrative Committee on Coordination
held a high-level meeting  at Vienna that  addressed system-wide cooperation
in drug control. The meeting resulted in recognition of the need for  United
Nations  programmes,  funds   and  agencies  to  incorporate  drug   control
components into their programmes and broad  support for the leadership  role
of the Programme in drug control coordination.

376.     The total  budget of  the Programme for 1994-1995  amounted to $205
million, of  which  approximately 93  per  cent  was funded  from  voluntary
contributions.  The main share  of these  resources, $162  million, was used
for  over 300 operational  activities in  50 countries,  aimed at countering
illicit drug  production,  trafficking  and  consumption.  In  view  of  the
continuous rise in drug-related problems throughout  the world and the trend
of dwindling  resources available for drug  control, I urge Member States to
provide the political  and financial support  needed to pursue international
priorities in drug control.

  6.  Technical cooperation programmes of the United Nations secretariat

377.       The  focal point  at  United Nations  Headquarters for  technical
cooperation for  development efforts of  developing countries and  countries
in  transition  is the  Department  for  Development Support  and Management

Services.   Total  project   expenditures  for   the  Department   in   1994
approximated  $101 million  for close  to  1,044  projects in  over a  dozen
sectors.  Of that  amount, UNDP  funded  about  $51 million.  The Department
disbursed 44 per cent of its expenditures in  Africa. In order to carry  out
its  projects,  over  the  past  year   the  Department  fielded  over   900
international  experts  and  consultants  to  work  in  collaboration   with
national  personnel. The  Department calls  on a  world wide  roster of over
4,330  consultants,  2,350  consulting  companies  and  6,330  suppliers  of
equipment. The  Department also  helps Governments to  identify, select  and
purchase  the most appropriate  services and equipment for their development
projects and supports  capacity-building for  work in those areas.  Training
is a vital component  of such activities; in  1994, training placements were
made for some 2,500 persons from over 130 countries.

378.      With the approval  of the  General Assembly,  the Secretariat  has
proceeded with  the decentralization  to the  regional commissions  of staff
and  resources  in  the  fields  of  natural  resources  and  energy.  These
activities  are  managed by  the  Management  Board  of  the United  Nations
Technical  Cooperation Programme in Natural Resources and Energy, chaired by
the Under-Secretary-General  of the Department  for Development Support  and
Management Services,  with the  participation of  the regional  commissions.
This coordinating body has enhanced the responsiveness  and effectiveness of
assistance provided by the Organization in these areas.

379.        Considerable  progress has  been  made  in forging  closer links
between the Department and UNDP. This  strengthened cooperation has resulted
in  an increased role by  the Department in "upstream" advice in development
planning  and  management and  in technical  backstopping activities  at the
programme and project levels.

  7.  United Nations Office for Project Services

380.     The United Nations Office for Project  Services, formerly a part of
UNDP,  was established,  with the  approval of  the General  Assembly, on  1
January  1995. Consistent with my  overall plan for the restructuring of the
Secretariat,  I proposed to  separate the  Office for  Project Services from
UNDP with the objective of strengthening  the operational activities of  the
United Nations  system for  development. Within this  framework, the  Office
for  Project Services  is now  the principal  entity in  the  United Nations
system furnishing project management, implementation and support services.

381.       The  Office  for Project  Services  is  headed by  the  Executive
Director, Mr.  Reinhart Helmke,  who reports  to me  through the  Management
Coordination Committee,  as  well as  to the  Executive  Board  of UNDP  and

382.    The Management  Coordination Committee, comprising the Administrator
of  UNDP as  chairman, the  Under-Secretary-General for  Administration  and
Management,  the   Under-Secretary-General  for   Development  Support   and
Management Services and the Executive Director of the Office,  has met twice
during the reporting  period to deliberate on  a number of important  policy
and coordination issues relating to Office operations.

383.      The Committee reviewed  the business plan  of the  Office, its new
financial regulations,  its relationship with  UNDP and  the Department  for
Development   Support  and   Management  Services,   operational   follow-up
activities relating  to the  World Summit  for Social  Development, held  in
1994,  and  a  set  of strategic  policy  guidelines defining  the  scope of
activities of the Office, including client  partnerships and principal areas
of  concentration. Four  main areas  of  concentration were  identified  for
activities  of  the  Office:  executing  development projects,  coordinating
rehabilitation    and   reconstruction   efforts,   managing   environmental
programmes and administering  development loans. The proposed new  financial

regulations for  the Office  were  approved by  the Executive  Board at  the
beginning  of  1995,  affording  a  new  framework from  which  businesslike
management practices can be instituted.

384.    The portfolio of projects of the Office has  grown consistently over
the past 20 years, reaching  more than $1 billion in  1994. Delivery in 1994
stood at  $403.1 million, up 5.3 per cent from 1993.  The number of projects
in the portfolio  also increased to nearly  1,900, as compared  with roughly
1,700 during  the  previous year.  In  1994,  activities where  the  country
portfolio  was in  excess of  $10 million  were under  way in  more than  20

385.      In addition to  implementing projects on behalf  of United Nations
agencies  and programmes,  the Office  also administers  management  service
agreements (MSAs)  on behalf  of multilateral  development banks,  bilateral
donors  and  recipient  Governments.  Against  a  portfolio  budget of  $639
million, services provided under MSA arrangements  totalled $142 million  in
1994. Expenditures incurred by the  Office during that year under the Global
Environment Facility and the Montreal Protocol  to the Vienna Convention for
the Protection of the Ozone Layer amounted to more than $30 million.

386.    In view of the experience it  has acquired in managing post-conflict
rehabilitation since  the late  1980s, the  demand for  the services of  the
Office in designing  and implementing comprehensive and integrated  recovery
programmes is  increasing. The applicability of  the lessons  learned in the
Horn  of Africa,  in Central America and  in Asia are now  being tested, for
the  first   time,  in  eastern  Europe   (Ukraine)  and   in  central  Asia

387.     In keeping with  its field orientation and  in order to  render its
services   more  efficient,  the  Office  has  decentralized   a  number  of
functions.  In  addition  to the  Management  Support  Unit  established  in
Central America in 1993, the Office has set up a post in  Kuala Lumpur, from
which it manages programmes in South-East Asia.

  D.  Regional development activities

388.     The regional commissions were  established by the General  Assembly
to serve  as the main regional centres for economic  and social development.
They operate at a  level between global United Nations entities and  country
operations. As such,  the regional commissions promote regional  initiatives
and  strategies,  contribute  to in-depth  studies  of  various  issues  and
support  intergovernmental  initiatives to  elaborate  norms, standards  and
legal  instruments.  In  addition,  regional  commissions  are a  forum  for
dialogue for  subregional groupings and  help prepare  regional positions to
world  conferences and summit meetings  held by the United Nations (see fig.

  1.  Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)

389.    Assisting Member States in Africa to reinforce promising trends  and
overcome the obstacles to accelerated growth and socio-economic  development
has defined  the analytical,  advocacy and advisory  work of  ECA under  its
Executive  Secretary, Mr.  K. Y. Amoako.  This provided the  backdrop to the
thirtieth session of the Commission, held from  24 April to 3 May  1995, the
theme  of   which  was   "promoting  accelerated   growth  and   sustainable
development in Africa through the building  of critical capacities". At that
session   the  Commission  reviewed  progress  in  the  elaboration  of  the
Framework Agenda for  Building and  Utilizing Critical Capacities in  Africa
and  directed  that  the  Framework  Agenda  be  completed  before  the next

session, in 1996.

390.     The session also adopted a  declaration on external debt of African
countries which called for improvement in the Naples Terms, including an  80
per cent reduction in the total  non-concessional debt of African countries,
and  urged the cancellation  of concessional  debt rescheduled  in the Paris
Club. It adopted a  special memorandum on the  mid-term global review of the
implementation of the Programme of Action  for Least Developed Countries for
the 1990s scheduled for September 1995.  The session noted with satisfaction
the commitment  of  African countries  to  carry  out necessary  reforms  to
attract  private investment,  and  invited all  African countries  and their
development  partners  to  participate  in  the  regional  forum  on private
investment which will be held in early 1996 at Accra.

391.     At the  same session the Commission  strongly endorsed  the need to
promote food  security and self-sufficiency in  Africa. In  this regard, the
Commission  called on Member  States to  create a  macroeconomic environment
conducive  to  the development  of  the  food  and  agricultural sector  and
requested   relevant  United  Nations  agencies   to  strengthen  programmes
designed to promote food security and self-sufficiency in Africa.

392.       With  the coming  into force  in  May 1994  of  the Abuja  Treaty
establishing the African Economic Community, the Commission intensified  its
efforts in  support of the implementation  of the Treaty.  Together with the
Organization  of African  Unity  and the  African  Development  Bank     its
partners in a Joint Secretariat   the Commission participated in setting  up
a committee to formulate proposals for  resource mobilization in support  of
the  African Economic Community  and formulating  a framework  for a working
relationship  between the  subregional economic  communities and  the  Joint
Secretariat.   Furthermore,  the   Commission  undertook   studies  on   the
rationalization and harmonization of  regional economic groups  in West  and
Central  Africa in  the context  of the  establishment of  the West  African
Economic and  Monetary Union and the  Central African  Economic and Monetary

393.     The Second United Nations  Transport and Communications  Decade for
Africa  aims at facilitating  development of transport and communications in
Africa. A  mid-term evaluation report of  the Decade  programme was examined
by the  Tenth Meeting of African  Ministers of  Transport and Communications
held in  May 1995. The  main recommendations  from the evaluation  were that
the  programmes should  be streamlined,  resource mobilization  efforts  for
Decade projects  should be intensified and  the beneficiaries  of the Decade
programme   should  assume   ownership.  The   Commission  implemented  four
important  projects  in  the  transport  and  communication  sectors:  human
resource  and institution  development in  transport and  communications;  a
transport database;  the reactivation of  the Trans-African Highway  Bureau;
and the Yamoussoukro Declaration on a new air transport policy for Africa.

394.    With a  view to assisting Member States  in formulating policies and
strategies for sustainable development of natural resources, the  Commission
published a  document entitled "Policies  and strategies for the development
and utilization of natural resources and  energy in Africa". The  Commission
also   organized,   in   collaboration   with   the   World   Meteorological
Organization, an international conference entitled  "Water Resources: Policy
and  Assessment",  held  at  Addis  Ababa  from 20  to  25  March  1995. The
Conference  articulated  a  strategy  to rehabilitate,  build  or  adopt the
institutional financial manpower and technological capacity of countries  to
assess water resources needs for socio-economic development.

395.      In response  to the  decisions of  Member States  expressed at the
Regional Ministerial  Conference on Development  and Utilization of  Mineral
Resources in Africa, the Commission undertook  two studies on prospects  for
increased  production and  intra-African trade  in copper  and  copper-based
products  and prospects for  increased production and intra-African trade in
aluminium  commodities  and  metal  products.  The  studies have  been  well
received by Governments,  private companies  and entrepreneurs,  as well  as

regional and subregional organizations.

396.     The Commission continued its  efforts to promote the development of
scientific  and  technological capacities.  It  thus  conducted  studies  on
incentives for  development and the application  of science and  technology,
indicators  for   science  and  technology  in  Africa  and  foreign  direct
investment   as  a   vehicle  for   science  and   technology   development.
Furthermore, the Commission,  in collaboration with  OAU, organized  a round
table  on  the science  and  technology  protocol  of  the African  Economic
Community from 21 to 27 September 1994.

397.      In  the context  of the  implementation  of the  Second Industrial
Development Decade for Africa, the Commission  assisted Member States in the
formulation of appropriate industrial policies and effective  implementation
of industrial programmes. The twelfth meeting  of the Conference of  African
Ministers  of  Industry at  Gaborone  in  June  1995  examined, among  other
things, the  progress made  by African  countries in  the implementation  of
their national  and subregional programmes  for the  Decade and the  role of
the private sector in the implementation of the goals of the Decade.

398.       The  Commission  has launched  a  new series  entitled  the Human
Development in Africa Report.  The 1995 edition of the report was devoted to
the themes of  "Goals of the child", "Health  for all" and "Basic  education
for  all". The Commission  has intensified  its activities  in assistance to
Member  States in  integrating population  development factors  into  socio-
economic development programmes and policies; preparation of studies  and/or
workshops  on  family  planning  and  reproductive  health,  fertility   and
mortality;  and  the   implementation  of  the  Dakar/Ngor  Declaration   on
Population, Family and  Sustainable Development and  the Programme of Action
of the International Conference on Population and Development.

399.       The  sixteenth  meeting  of  the  African  Regional  Coordinating
Committee for the Integration  of Women in Development  was held from  20 to
22 April 1995 at  Addis Ababa. It  endorsed the African Platform for  Action
for Women adopted at the Fifth African Regional Conference on Women held  at
Dakar  in November 1994.  The African  Platform for  Action is  the region's
common position for the  Fourth World Conference on Women. At the same time,
the Commission  continued its  efforts related  to the  establishment of  an
African  women's bank by convening an Ad Hoc Group Meeting in August 1994 to
examine the  feasibility of  the creation  of the  bank. Entrepreneurs  from
some  African countries  have indicated  their  willingness to  promote  the
bank.  At its 1995  session, the  Conference of  Ministers requested further
studies to clarify certain issues concerning  the establishment of the bank.
The Commis-sion's operational role in the  advancement of women was  matched
by the  deepening of its  analytical work on  women's issues  in Africa. For
example,  the  Commission's  Economic  and  Social  Survey  of  Africa  1995
features a  special  study on  gender  disparities  in formal  education  in

400.      The Commission,  in collaboration  with the  General Agreement  on
Tariffs  and Trade (GATT), UNCTAD  and OAU, organized  in Tunisia in October
1994 the International Conference to Assess the  Impact of the Uruguay Round
on  African  Economies. The  aim  of this  Conference  was  to  evaluate the
technical requirements of African countries in adapting to the  post-Uruguay
Round international trade environment.

401.    During  the period from December 1994  to June 1995,  the Commission
fielded  over   65  short-term   technical  advisory   missions.  The   main
institutional  vehicle for  providing these  advisory  services is  the  ECA
Multidisciplinary Regional Advisory  Group. ECA rendered assistance to  some
Member States in the area of  environmental management. It fielded  advisory
missions  to  Eritrea  on  protection  of  the  marine  environment  and  to
Seychelles on water  and environment. The Commission collaborated with  UNEP
in the  preparation of  studies on  the contribution  of the  coastal/marine
sector to the gross  national product in the Gambia and the United  Republic
of Tanzania.

402.    The Commission has provided assistance to  Member States in areas of
public sector  management, including  development of  indicators for  public
enterprise performance;  strengthening of national statistical institutions;
establishing  information management  systems;  and  agricultural management
and  policy planning. In  Eritrea, for  example, ECA  has provided technical
assistance for  public  enterprise reform  and management,  and assisted  in
establishing a national  development information system and network  linking
various departments  of the  Government. In  Angola, ECA  is evaluating  the
development priority areas to form the basis of  a policy framework for  its
technical assistance to the country's socio-economic development.

403.       Reflecting  the  diversity  of  requests  for  its  support,  the
Multidisciplinary  Regional   Advisory   Group   also   provided   technical
assistance  to universities  or  institutes  in some  Member  States.  These
included  the  Institute  for Diplomacy  and  International  Studies at  the
University of  Nairobi, the  International Relations  Institute of  Cameroon
and  the  University  of  Ghana,  Legon.   Technical  assistance  to   these
institutions   included   short-term   training  and   assistance   in   the
establishment of  new centres within  these institutions. Advisory  services
were  also   rendered   to  intergovernmental,   regional  and   subregional
organizations  and institutions.  These  included the  subregional  economic
groupings, the ECA-sponsored institutions,  the Intergovernmental  Authority
on  Drought  and Development  and  the  Semi-Arid  Food  Grain Research  and
Development  Centre. During the  period under  review, the  Commission had a
total  of 115 projects,  of which  44 were terminated and  71 remained under
implementation.  A total  amount of  $5,606,603  was  made available  to the
Commission  under extrabudgetary  resources for  the implementation  of  the

  2.  Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)

404.       The  aim  of  ECE is  to  further harmonize  policies,  norms and
practices  among  the  countries  of  the  region  and  to  strengthen their
integration and cooperation.

405.     Under the  direction of Mr. Yves Berthelot, the Commission achieves
this aim through policy analysis and  dialogue on macroeconomic and sectoral
issues;  the elaboration of  conventions, norms  and standards;  and a newly
developed programme of assistance to the transition process.

406.      ECE has  continued to  accord priority  to the  protection of  the
environment and the  promotion of sustainable development, in particular  in
a  transboundary  context. Since  1979,  ECE  member countries  have  worked
energetically to  take up  the environmental  challenges of  the region.  In
particular,  the  Commission  has  elaborated  nine  international,  legally
binding  instruments  on air  pollution,  environmental  impact  assessment,
industrial accidents and transboundary waters.

407.      Preparations  are under  way for two  new protocols  on persistent
organic pollutants and on heavy metals to the 1979  Convention on Long-range
Transboundary Air  Pollution. These  legal instruments  constitute a  unique
legal framework for meeting environmental challenges.  In order to make  the
conventions and protocols  fully operational region wide, the Commission, in
its decision G(50), called upon all its member  States which had not already
done  so, to consider  the earliest  possible ratification  of, or accession
to, these instruments.

408.     The Committee on  Environmental Policy, with  the assistance of its
Working Group of  Senior Governmental Officials  on Environment  for Europe,
the  central coordinating  body  for  the Environment  for  Europe  process,
advanced  in  the  preparations  for the  Sofia  Ministerial  Conference  on
Environment for Europe,  to be held in October  1995. Among the main  issues
to  be   considered  by  the  Conference  are  the  follow-up  to  the  1993

Environmental Action Plan for Central and  Eastern Europe, the assessment of
the  state  of  the  environment  for  Europe  and  financing  environmental

409.     The Committee  on Environmental Policy,  in cooperation with  OECD,
has made  progress in  extending the OECD country  environmental performance
reviews to central and  eastern Europe. The first two joint pilot reviews of
Poland  and  Bulgaria  have  already  taken   place.  The  third  review  in
cooperation with OECD will take place in  Belarus next year. As part  of its
own  environmental   performance  review   programme   the  Commission   has
undertaken a review of  the situation in Estonia, to be concluded by the end
of 1995 and published in early 1996.

410.    During the  past year, the Committee on  Human Settlements continued
its preparatory work for the United  Nations Conference on Human Settlements
(Habitat II). The Regional Preparatory Meeting  for the Conference was  held
and a  task force was established  to assist the  Committee in carrying  out
the  preparatory work.  An  analytical  report was  prepared  containing  an
overview  of  human  settlements  development  in  the  ECE  region  and was
submitted to the Preparatory Committee for Habitat II.

411.       During the  past  year,  the ECE  Inland Transport  Committee has
continued to  serve as a forum  for cooperation in  the field of  transport.
The Committee  finalized  and adopted  two new  legal instruments,  bringing
their  total number to  50, and  adopted amendments to a  number of existing
ones. Significant  progress was  made in  the pre-paration  of the  European
Agreement on Main Inland Waterways of International Importance.

412.        Moreover,  the  Inland  Transport  Committee progressed  in  the
establishment of international norms and  standards for the  construction of
road vehicles, covering active and passive safety, environmental  protection
and  energy consumption. The  Committee has  also paid  special attention to
activities in  relation to  road safety  under the  recently revised  Vienna
Convention on  Road Signs and Signals  and other  related legal instruments.
The second Road Safety Week was organized  under the auspices of ECE from 27
March  to 2 April 1995 and aimed at  waging simultaneous campaigns addressed
to young road users  in each ECE member State. Substantive progress was also
made  in  the elaboration  of  international  norms  and  standards for  the
transport  of dangerous  goods  by road  and inland  waterways and  in their
harmonization  with those concerning  the transport  of such  goods by rail,
sea and  air.  The Committee  acted  on  the  basis of  the  recommendations
developed by  the Committee of Experts on the Transport  of Dangerous Goods,
a subsidiary committee of the Economic and Social Council.

413.    The Inland Transport Committee  finalized the customs container pool
convention  and prepared a draft convention on international customs transit
procedures for the  carriage of goods by rail.  It was decided to  undertake
the  revision of the  Customs Convention  on the  International Transport of
Goods  under Cover of  TIR Carnets  (TIR Convention) in view  of the current
problems  in its  implementation. A  report  on  the facilitation  of border
crossing  in  international  rail transport  was  prepared.  A programme  of
action in the area  of inland transport, aimed at assisting the countries of
central and  eastern Europe  in their  transitions to  market economies,  is
being implemented.

414.     Work has  progressed as  a follow-up to  the decision taken by  the
Commission at its forty-ninth session, in  April 1994, to convene a Regional
Conference  on Transport  and  the  Environment  in  1996.  The  Preparatory
Committee for the  Conference has thus far  held five meetings and  achieved
agreement on a text of draft guidelines for  a common strategy on  transport
and the environment.

415.      The integrated presentation  of international  statistical work in
the  ECE region has  been expanded  beyond the statistical work  of ECE, the
European Communities  and  OECD  to include  statistical activities  in  the
region undertaken  by the Statistical  Division and  the Population Division

of the United Nations Secretariat, the  specialized agencies, the Council of
Europe, CIS and other international organizations.

416.      ECE supports  a trade  facilitation programme through  its Working
Party  on  Facilitation  of  International  Trade  Procedures.  Considerable
progress was made  in the development of  the United Nations Electronic Data
Interchange for Administration,  Commerce and Transport (EDIFACT)  messages.
Members of the Working Party and the  secretariat participated in the United
Nations International Symposium on Trade Efficiency held at Columbus,  Ohio,
in  October  1994. A  Compendium of  Trade Facilitation  Recommendations was
developed.  A memorandum  of understanding  between ECE,  the  International
Electrotechnical  Commission (IEC)  and the  International  Organization for
Standardization (ISO) was developed and approved  in order to better  define
the division of responsibilities between these organizations.

417.      The Guide on the  Adaptation of Real Property  Law of Countries in
Transition  prepared   under  the   auspices  of   the   Working  Party   on
International Contract  Practices in  Industry, was also  well received.  In
the  field of trade  and investment  promotion the  secretariat continued to
publish quarterly the East-West Investment News  and to update its  database
on  foreign  direct  investment  projects  and  supporting  legislation   in
countries in transition.

418.       The  economic analysis  conducted  by ECE  and  published in  the
Economic Bulletin  for Europe, and  the Economic Survey  of Europe  in 1994-
1995 provides in-depth analysis of current  economic developments in Europe,
the  States of the former  Soviet Union, and North America. Special emphasis
is given  in both publications to  developments in  the transition economies
of eastern  Europe and  the former  Soviet Union  and to  their progress  in
creating  market  economies. This  year's  Economic  Bulletin  pays  special
attention to the foreign trade and payments of the  transition economies and
to  the level  of external  support  they have  been receiving.  The  latest
Survey, in  addition  to a  detailed review  of macroeconomic  developments,
contains an  assessment of the reform process over the last five years and a
review of international migration in eastern  Europe and the Commonwealth of
Independent States.

419.     Under the second  phase of the Energy Efficiency 2000  project, ECE
has continued  to assist countries in  transition to  develop their capacity
to enhance energy efficiency  and to implement  energy efficiency  standards
and labelling.

420.     In collaboration with national Governments, local institutions  and
UNDP, ECE  has also formulated projects  for enhancing  energy efficiency in
the context of programmes of conversion  of military bases and manufacturing
facilities to peaceful purposes in central and eastern Europe.

421.     The  Gas Centre  was established  in 1994,  supported by  financial
contributions from  major European and  North American  Governments and  gas
companies.  A major  regional initiative,  the  Gas Centre  brings  together
almost  all of the key natural gas market players  in the Commission. It has
already  been successful in  opening dialogue  among the  private and public
gas companies and the Governments in the region.

422.     The Working Party on Engineering Industries and Automation prepared
and  published  two  studies  entitled  "World  engineering  industries  and
automation    performance and  prospects, 1993-1995"  and "World  industrial
robots:  statistics  1983-1993  and  forecasts  to  1997".  The  engineering
industries  continued to  influence the  restructuring of  industry and,  in
particular, the  process of  investment and privatization. In  this respect,
special  emphasis  was given  to  the  creation  of  small and  medium-sized
enterprises in  economies  in  transition.  At  its  fiftieth  session,  the
Commission recognized the  publication Rehabilitation Engineering as an  ECE
contribution to the World Summit for Social Development.

423.     The Working  Party on  the Chemical Industry discussed  the policy-

oriented  issues  currently facing  the chemical  industry and  stressed the
importance  of  the   work  related  to   sustainable  development  and,  in
particular,  the Chemical  Industry     Sustainable Economic  and Ecological
Development  (CHEMISEED) programme.  Fifteen member countries  identified 40
sites   polluted  by   chemicals  for   the  pilot   project   demonstrating
environmental clean-up procedures.

424.     The  Working Party on Steel strengthened  its regional programme on
metallurgy and  ecology through: the organization of a Seminar  on the Steel
Industry and Recycling; the  addition to the work  programme of a Seminar on
Processing,  Utilization and  Disposal of  Waste  in  the Steel  Industry; a
bibliography  of  environmental  publications  in  the  steel  sector;   and
activities  aimed  at the  harmonization  of  regulations  on  environmental
protection. The Global Study  on the Steel Industry  in Europe was  prepared
in  cooperation   with  the  European  Commission,  the  European  Bank  for
Reconstruction and Development (EBRD),  the World Bank and the International
Iron  and Steel  Institute.  The study  also served  as  the basis  for  the
examination  of the restructuring  of steel  industries in  the economies in

425.    The Working Party on Standardization Policies reviewed  developments
in  the fields  of coordination,  harmonization, conformity  assessment  and
metrology  at the  international,  regional  and national  levels  and  paid
particular  attention to assistance  to the  countries in  transition with a
view to adapting existing structures to  market conditions and to  assisting
newly independent States to build adequate  institutions. At its forty-ninth
session, the  Commission adopted  the recommendation  on the  meteorological
assurance of  testing proposed  by the  Working Party  as separate  decision

426.    In the  light of the decision taken by the FAO Council in June  1994
concerning  the  restructuring  of FAO,  and  in  particular  the  increased
decentralization to  the regional and subregional offices, the joint ECE/FAO
Agriculture and Timber Division was dismantled  in 1995. In accordance  with
the decision  of the  Commission at  its  fiftieth session,  in April  1995,
interim arrangements  have  been made  to  ensure  the continuation  of  the
ECE/FAO  joint activities  on agriculture  and  the  environment and  on the
economic analysis  of the agri-food sector.  The Commission  will consider a
proposal  of  the  Executive  Secretary  to   merge  the  ECE  Committee  on
Agriculture with the FAO European Commission on Agriculture.

427.      The  ECE regional  advisory  services  programme has  elaborated a
national plan of assistance  to the Republic of  Georgia. The first phase is
scheduled to be implemented  before the end of July 1995. The experience  of
this plan will be evaluated and applied to other cases of high priority.

  3.  Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

428.       The  period  covered by  this  report  was marked  by  a  certain
turbulence in economic performance in Latin  America and the Caribbean. This
context, in turn, was  reflected in the activities  of ECLAC, headed  by Mr.
Gert Rosenthal,  which  tries to  respond  to  both long-term  and  emerging
development issues in the region.

429.     In the past year, the  ECLAC secretariat, which includes the  Latin
American and  Caribbean Institute for Economic  and Social Planning  (ILPES)
and  the Latin American Demographic  Centre (CELADE), focused on a number of
development  issues   concerned  with   medium-term  growth   (macroeconomic
management,  innovation,   enhancing   savings  and   channelling  them   to
productive investment) and intraregional economic cooperation. In  addition,
the secretariat  was involved  in numerous  regional preparatory  activities
for global events, particularly the World  Summit for Social Development and
the Fourth World Conference on Women.

430.     At the  time of writing the present report, ECLAC was undertaking a
major mid-decade evaluation  of the strategies of adjustment,  stabilization
and structural reforms pursued  by the region. The  exercise is expected  to
be particularly  timely in the  face of recent  events affecting some  Latin
American  economies. The  document is planned  to be reviewed  by the member
Governments during the  forthcoming session of the  Commission to be held at
San Jos_, Costa Rica, in April 1996.

431.    ECLAC continued to be a meeting place  for officials. In addition to
some 35 seminars  held during the past  13 months, the secretariat  prepared
and held the sixth session of the Regional Conference on the Integration  of
Women into  the Economic  and Social  Development of  Latin America and  the
Caribbean, held at Mar  del Plata, Argentina, from  25 to 29 September 1994.
The  secretariat  played a  similar  role  in  the  twenty-first meeting  of
Presiding Officers  of the Regional Conference  on the  Integration of Women
into  the  Economic  and  Social  Development   of  Latin  America  and  the
Caribbean,  held at  Santiago, Chile,  on 3  and 4  July 1995.  Support  was
provided  to  the  third  Regional  Meeting  of  Ministers  and   High-level
Authorities  of the Housing  and Urban  Development Sector  in Latin America
and the Caribbean, held at Quito, Ecuador, from 16 to 18 November 1994.

432.     ECLAC  has been  actively involved  in the follow-up  activities to
Agenda 21,  most notably in those  dealing with environmentally  sustainable
management  of natural resources  and various  sectors of  activity, and the
development of statistics and  environmental accounts. The extensive list of
publications  and  research  works  include  a   study  on  water  resources
management in  Latin  America and  the  Caribbean  from the  perspective  of
programme 21,  and a study entitled  "Hazardous products  and wastes: impact
of transboundary movements  towards the Latin  American and Caribbean region
and possibilities  for preventing and  controlling it".  The Commission made
relevant  contributions to  the preparatory  work  of  the World  Summit for
Social Development through  the formulation of poverty reduction  strategies
within the  context of its major  statement on  changing production patterns
with  social  equity.  Among  the  publications  most  recently issued  are:
Proposals for  a  modern social  policy  to  foster social  development  and
Educational  inequalities: problems  and  policies.  Work is  ongoing  on  a
project  that  explores the  relationships between  this  statement and  the
promotion of economic, social and cultural rights in the region.

433.      ECLAC  has  also  continued to  perform  its established  role  of
monitoring  the  economic and  social  performance  of  the  region. To  the
Commission's  list  of traditional  annual  publications  that  fulfil  this
function   the Preliminary Overview of the  Economy of Latin America and the
Caribbean, the  Economic Survey of  Latin America and the  Caribbean and the
Statistical  Yearbook for  Latin  America  and the  Caribbean     the Social
Panorama of Latin America  has now been added  in keeping with the increased
level  of  recognition  that the  matter  is  gaining  in  the  region. Work
continued  on the  setting up  of  the  Short-term Indicators  Database, the
incorporation  of  new international  statistical  classifications  and  the
development  of  a  data  bank  on  the  external  debt  of  Latin  American
countries. In  addition, assistance was provided to Latin American countries
in implementing the new System of National Accounts.

434.     The Executive  Secretary participated in  the Meeting  of Heads  of
State of the R_o  Group (September 1994), the Hemispheric Summit of Heads of
State (December 1994) and  the Ibero-American Summit  of Heads of State  and
Government (July 1995).

  4.  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

435.     Against the backdrop of the  sustained dynamism of the Asia-Pacific
region,  ESCAP,  headed  by  Mr.  Adrianus  Mooy,  has  continued  to  focus
attention  on enhancing  economic growth  and  social development  among the

countries of the region.

436.     In that connection, at its  fifty-first session, concluded on 1 May
1995 at Bangkok, the Commission decided to hold a ministerial conference  on
regional  economic cooperation  and  directed the  secretariat  to  initiate
necessary preparations.

437.      The Commission also  placed emphasis on  promotion of  subregional
economic cooperation  in various fields, including  trade and investment.  A
second   consultative  meeting   among   executive   heads  of   subregional
organizations and  ESCAP was hosted by the secretariat of the Association of
South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) at Jakarta in January 1995.

438.       The Commission  emphasized the  pivotal  role of  industrial  and
technological development  in sustaining the  growth momentum in the region.
The  Commission's  work in  this area  was  guided by  several mandates  and
directives as  enshrined  in  the Seoul  Plan of  Action  for Promoting  and
Strengthening Regional  Cooperation for  Technology-led Industrialization in
Asia   and  the   Pacific,  the  Action  Programme   for  Regional  Economic
Cooperation   in  Investment-related   Technology  Transfer,   the   Beijing
Declaration on  Regional Economic Cooperation  and the  Delhi Declaration on
Strengthening Regional Economic Cooperation in Asia and  the Pacific towards
the Twenty-first Century.

439.    Another important development has been  the fifteenth session of the
Standing  Committee of the  Bangkok Agreement,  held at  Bangkok in February
1995,  which  decided to  launch the  third  round of  negotiations, with  a
mandate to address  both tariff and  non-tariff barriers and to  explore the
possibility of including the services sector in due course.

440.    The  Commission endorsed the Jakarta Declaration and Plan of  Action
for the Advancement of Women  in Asia and the Pacific  adopted at the Second
Asian and  Pacific Ministerial Conference on  Women in  Development, held at
Jakarta in June 1994.  The Jakarta Declaration and  Plan of Action served as
the regional input  to the draft global platform  of action for adoption  by
the forthcoming Fourth World Conference on Women. Following the  Ministerial
Conference,  regional meetings  of coordinating  bodies of  non-governmental
organizations  and national  machineries for  the advancement  of women were
convened to accelerate implementation of the Plan of Action.

441.     An Asian and Pacific Ministerial Conference in  Preparation for the
World  Summit for  Social Development  was  organized  at Manila  in October
1994,  at which  the Manila  Declaration and  Agenda for  Action for  Social
Development in  the ESCAP  region were adopted.  As part of  the preparatory
activities, a  symposium of non-governmental  organizations was convened  by
ESCAP prior to the Ministerial Conference.

442.    The Commission's initiatives  with regard to its declaration  of the
Asian  and  Pacific  Decade of  Disabled  Persons,  1993-2002,  continued to
generate significant  activities at  national and regional  levels aimed  at
improving the  status and  participation of  disabled persons.  To date,  30
members  and associate  members have  signed  the  Proclamation on  the Full
Participation and  Equality of  People with  Disabilities in  the Asian  and
Pacific Region.

443.    The Commission continued to support national efforts and  activities
to  promote participatory  human  settlements development.  Preparatory work
has begun  for convening  an Asia-Pacific  Urban Forum  in  1995 which  will
serve as a key preparatory activity to the second United Nations  Conference
on  Human Settlements (Habitat  II) in 1996. The  Commission is also working
closely with  the Regional Network of  Local Authorities  for the Management
of Human  Settlements (CITYNET) and the  Asian Coalition  for Housing Rights
to assist member countries in addressing urban poverty issues,  particularly
as they relate to low-income housing and settlements improvement.

444.    In implementing the Bali  Declaration on Population and  Sustainable

Development and the Programme of Action  of the International Conference  on
Population  and Development,  various  inter-country research  projects  and
training  courses were  conducted; technical  assistance was  also  provided
relating to such areas as family  planning, population ageing, migration and
urbanization,  the  role  and status  of  women  and  demographic  analysis.
Activities  of  the  Asia-Pacific  Population  Information  Network  (POPIN)
focused on upgrading technical  skills in database development and improving
population information management and sharing.

445.      Under the  theme of  environment and sustainable  development, the
Commission focused attention  on the preparations for the  Ministerial-level
Conference  on Environment and  Development in  Asia and  the Pacific, which
will be organized by  ESCAP at Bangkok  in November 1995 and the  prevention
of  desertification including  preparation  of the  Regional  Implementation
Annex for  Asia to the United  Nations Convention  to Combat Desertification
in  those  Counties Experiencing  Serious  Drought  and/or  Desertification,
particularly in Africa.

446.      Under the  theme of  transport and communications,  the Commission
pursued  its activities  related to  the  implementation  of the  Asian Land
Transport  Infrastructure   Development  Programme,   comprising  the  Asian
Highway  and Trans-Asian  Railway projects.  Current activities  under  this
project  include   a  study  on  developing   land  transport  linkages   of
Kazakhstan,  Turkmenistan  and  Uzbekistan  with  seaports  of  the  Islamic
Republic of Iran  and Pakistan in the south  and China in  the east; a study
on the development  of a highway network  in Asian republics; a  Trans-Asian
Railway route  requirements study;  and implementation  of ESCAP  resolution
48/11  on  road  and  rail  transport  modes  in  relation  to  facilitation

447.     Following the theme topic of the fiftieth session of the Commission
"Infrastructure development as key to economic growth and regional  economic
cooperation",  and  Commission  resolution  50/2  on  the  "Action  plan  on
infrastructure development in Asia and the  Pacific", the Commission at  its
fifty-first session  adopted the  New Delhi  Action  Plan on  Infrastructure
Development in  Asia and the  Pacific. The Commission  decided to  convene a
ministerial  conference on infrastructure  in 1996  to launch  the New Delhi
action  plan  and  to review  phase  II  (1992-1996) of  the  Transport  and
Communications Decade for Asia and the Pacific.

448.        Special efforts  were  made  to  improve  policies  for  tourism
development, taking into consideration the socio-economic and  environmental
impact  of tourism.  Studies on  the  cultural  and environmental  impact of
tourism provided policy  recommendations for the cultural and  environmental
management of tourism development. ESCAP convened  the first meeting of  the
Working Group on the Greater Mekong Subregion Tourism Sector in April 1995.

449.    The statistics subprogramme of  the Commission focused on  promoting
the  improvement of  capabilities  of national  statistical  offices  in the
region for  timely and accurate collection  and dissemination of  statistics
needed  for development  planning  and decision-making.  Technical  meetings
were  organized to support  country work in  the implementation  of the 1993
System of National  Accounts (SNA), in  statistics on gender  issues and  in
environment   statistics   and   environmental   and  resource   accounting.
Assistance  was also provided  through advisory services, including those in
population statistics, data-processing and national accounts.

450.     The Commission's reaffirmation of its predominant role in promoting
regional cooperation in Asia and the Pacific was manifested in the  decision
by the  Russian Federation  to seek  a revision  in its status  in order  to
become a  regional member.  The application  of the  Russian Federation  was
unanimously endorsed by  the Commission, which  recommended a  resolution on
the  matter  for submission  to  the  substantive  session  of  1995 of  the
Economic and Social Council.

451.       To  meet the  need for  an integrated  and effective  approach to

development  at the regional level, an inter-agency meeting on strengthening
coordination at the regional  level was convened by ESCAP in May 1994.  This
meeting established the  Regional Inter-agency  Committee for  Asia and  the
Pacific under  the chairmanship  of the  Executive Secretary  of ESCAP.  The
first meeting of the Committee was concluded at Bangkok in June 1995.

  5.  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)

452.      The  impact of  international and  regional  issues does  not only
concern the political environment, but also  affects the whole economic  and
social fabric  in ESCWA  countries. Thus,  ESCWA, headed  by  Mr. Hazem  El-
Beblawi, undertook multidisciplinary  coverage of work programme components,
combining  them  in  a  few  compact  areas.  Thus,  the  Commission's  work
programme  was   formulated  around   five  themes   featuring  interrelated

453.       Under  the first  thematic  subprogramme,  Management  of natural
resources  and environment,  issues  concerning the  assessment  and  proper
management of  land, water and  energy resources were addressed,  as well as
environmental  degradation resulting  from  inadequate management  of  these

454.     In the field of environment, ESCWA participated in several meetings
and  workshops  such as  the Technical  Secretariat of  the Council  of Arab
Ministers  Responsible for  Environment. A report was  completed on progress
made  in the  ESCWA  plan to  implement Agenda  21 in  the region  which was
presented to the Commission at its eighteenth session,  in May 1995, as well
as to the Commission on Sustainable Development and the  Economic and Social
Council. Furthermore, ESCWA,  in its capacity as  a member of the  Executive
Committee of  the Joint Committee on Environment and Development in the Arab
Region, participated  in  its  fifth  meeting at  Cairo  in July  1995.  The
meeting discussed the implementation of the  decisions of the second meeting
of the  Joint Committee and  preparations for a  meeting on  biodiversity in
the Arab  region. The  meeting also  included discussions  on two  technical
reports  on the  establishment of  an integrated  environmental  information
network in the Arab region.

455.       A  report was  prepared  by ESCWA  on activities  related  to the
protection  of   the  ozone  layer,  while  issues  pertaining  to  resource
conservation were  addressed through  studies on  wildlife conservation  for
sustainable development  in the  Arab countries  and the  assessment of  the
fisheries  sector  in  the  United  Arab  Emirates. In  the  field  of water
resources, ESCWA organized a  meeting at Amman from  12 to 14 September 1994
of   the  Inter-agency   Task  Force   on  modalities   of  cooperation  and
coordination among  United Nations  specialized agencies  and Arab  regional
agencies  involved   in  various  water-related   activities.  The   meeting
recommended that  ESCWA serve as the  secretariat for  the Inter-agency Task
Force. A  long-term  project on  the  assessment  of water  resources  using
remote-sensing techniques is under way.

456.     The second  thematic subprogramme,  Improvement of  the quality  of
life, includes  activities to  provide support  for ESCWA  member States  in
preparing, at  the national and regional  levels, for  world conferences and
meetings.  Reports  were  submitted  to  the  Commission  at  its eighteenth
session  on all  preparatory  and  follow-up  activities  for  meetings  and
conferences  such  as   the  International  Conference  on  Population   and
Development, the  International Year  of the  Family, the  World Summit  for
Social  Development, the  United  Nations Conference  on  Human  Settlements
(Habitat II) and the Fourth World Conference on Women.

457.      The Commission  participated in the preparatory  committee for the
World  Summit for  Social Development  and  in the  Summit itself.  It  also
participated  in the  Ninth United  Nations  Congress  on the  Prevention of

Crime  and the Treatment of Offenders, held at Cairo from  29 April to 8 May
1995.  Other  major   activities  included  the   preparation  of  the  Arab
Declaration for  Social Development, which was  presented to  the Council of
Arab  Ministers for Social  Affairs, the  launching of  a social development
database,  the preparation of a project document on human development in the
Arab States  and a  workshop on  sustainable human development  experiences,
held  at Cairo from  14 to 19 May 1995. ESCWA  also undertook a study on the
impact of  the recent crisis on  the social situation  in the ESCWA  region,
which  analyzed the  socio-economic impact  of  crises  in the  region, with
particular  emphasis  on  population  migration, the  quality  of  life  and
vulnerable  and disadvantaged  groups. ESCWA  organized, in  this context, a
seminar entitled "The Role  of the Family in Integrating Disabled Women into
Society", at Amman from 16 to 18 October 1994.

458.     In  the area of  women and  development, ESCWA  organized the  Arab
Regional  Preparatory Meeting  for  the  Fourth World  Conference on  Women,
which was held at Amman from  6 to 10 November 1994  and was attended by 420
participants  representing all  Arab  countries. The  meeting  reviewed  the
implementation   of   the  Nairobi   Forward-looking   Strategies   for  the
Advancement of  Women and  the ESCWA  Strategy for  Arab Women  to the  Year
2005.  The meeting  also  finalized the  Regional  Plan of  Action  for  the
Advancement  of  Arab  Women. ESCWA  also organized  a  meeting on  the Arab
family in a changing society  at Abu Dhabi in December 1994, in the  context
of preparations for the Fourth World  Conference on Women. Other  activities
within  this framework included  national workshops  in nine ESCWA countries
to  review the national plans of  action in the light of national reports on
the situation of women. Information on  women's issues was addressed through
a  publication  on Arab  women  in  ESCWA  member  States. This  publication
includes  statistics, indicators  and  trends. A  database on  statistics on
women was also launched.

459.     In  the field  of rural development, two  long-term rural community
development projects  are being  implemented in  Egypt and  the Syrian  Arab
Republic.  ESCWA continued to  issue its  annual publication Agriculture and
Development in  Western Asia  (No. 16,  December  1994); and  it prepared  a
National  Farm   Data  Handbook   for  the  Syrian   Arab  Republic.   Other
publications issued by the secretariat include:  Land and Water Policies  in
the  Near  East  Region;  Marketing  of  Agricultural Products  in  Lebanon;
Evaluation  of Agricultural  Policies in  the  Syrian Arab  Republic: Policy
Analysis  Matrix  Approach;  Prospective  Development  of  the  Agricultural
Institutions in the Occupied Palestinian Territories; and Rehabilitation  of
Veterinary Services.

460.      Information on human  settlements issues was  disseminated through
the  publication of  a newsletter  jointly  published  by ESCWA,  the United
Nations Centre  for Human Settlements and  the League of  Arab States. ESCWA
participated in preparatory meetings for Habitat  II and convened at  Amman,
in March 1995, a regional preparatory meeting for the Conference.

461.        In  the  area  of  industrial  development,  ESCWA  completed  a
publication  entitled  Proceedings  of  the  Expert  Group  Meeting  on  the
Creation  of Indigenous  Entrepreneurship and  Opportunities for  Small  and
Medium-scale Industrial  Investments. In  preparation for  the Fourth  World
Conference  on   Women,  the  Commission   issued  a  publication   entitled
Participation  of   Women  in  Manufacturing:   Patterns,  Determinants  and
Analysis. Several training-of-trainers  workshops on how to start a business
in  war-torn  areas  were  held  in  Bethlehem,  Gaza,  Nablus  and  Beirut.
Moreover,  a pilot workshop on upgrading entrepreneurial  skills of managers
of  small and  medium enterprises  under  changing  conditions, was  held at
Amman  in  September 1994.  A study  was completed  entitled "Impact  of the
single European market  on the industrial  sector in the ESCWA  region"; and
two project  documents  were completed  for  the  establishment of  business
incubators in the occupied Palestinian territories.

462.        The  third   thematic  subprogramme,  Economic  development  and
cooperation,  involved  activities  dealing  with  such  central  issues  as

promoting economic  and technical  cooperation and  integration among  ESCWA
countries, promoting coordinated regional strategies, training officials  in
developing national  capabilities in  managerial skills,  and reviewing  and
analysing economic performance, policies and strategies.

463.     The Survey of Economic and Social Developments in the ESCWA Region,
1993 was issued in November 1994. The Survey for 1994  was completed in July
1995.  Within  the  same  context,  a  study  was  completed  on  "Review of
developments and  issues in  the external  trade and  payments situation  of
countries of Western Asia", which included a chapter on the implications  of
the Uruguay Round on  development in the region. A study was also  completed
entitled "Review of developments and trends  in the mone-tary and  financial
sectors in the economies of the ESCWA region".

464.      The  proceedings  of  four workshops/conferences  were  published,
namely:  the  Western  Asia  workshop  on  strategies  for accelerating  the
development of civil  registration and vital  statistics system;  the Second
Arab Conference  on Perspectives  of Modern Biotechnology;  the workshop  on
the   implication  of  the  new  advanced  materials  technologies  for  the
economies of the  ESCWA countries; and  the workshop on  the integration  of
science and  technology in the  development planning  and management process
in the ESCWA region.

465.     In the area of transport and communications, a report was submitted
to the Commission at  its eighteenth session on the "Follow-up action of the
implementation of  the Transport  and Communications  Decade, second  phase:
1992-1996".  Furthermore, studies  were completed  on "Development  of  free
zones  in Western  Asia"; "Development  of the telecommunications  sector in
the  ESCWA  region";  and  "Present status,  development  trends  and future
prospects  of  telecommunications  in  the  ESCWA  region";  and  the  ESCWA
Transport Bulletin  for 1994  (No. 5)  was issued.  Additionally, the  ESCWA
secretariat conducted  an  expert group  meeting  on  the Development  of  a
Multimodal Transport Chain  in Western Asia,  held at  Amman from  24 to  27
April 1995.

466.     In  the field of  statistics, ESCWA continued  the development  and
maintenance  of  databases  on  energy  and  industry.  A  workshop  on  the
implementation  of the  1993 System of  National Accounts was  held at Amman
from 12 to  19 December 1994  and another workshop on  industrial statistics
took  place at Damascus  from 26  November to 6 December  1994. Training was
also  provided on  the use  of statistical  computer packages,  geographical
information systems  and the  application of  the International  Comparisons

467.     The fourth thematic  subprogramme, Regional development and  global
changes, encompassed  activities dealing with  exogenous factors and  global
changes affecting the region. The major  activity under this subprogramme is
an ongoing  multidisciplinary study  on the  impact of  the single  European
market on different sectors in the ESCWA region.

468.     Issues concerning Palestine, the Middle  East peace process and the
least developed member States were the focal  points for the fifth  thematic
subprogramme,  Special   programmes  and   issues.  In   its  studies,   the
Agriculture Section  covered the rehabilitation of  the fisheries sector  in
the Gaza  Strip and of  veterinary services in the  occupied territories. In
addition, a proposed  action programme for  the restructuring of Palestinian
agricultural public  institutions was  also prepared.  The Industry  Section
undertook workshops on the development of  small enterprises in the occupied
Palestinian territories.

  E.  The humanitarian imperative

469.     This past year has seen a  frightening persistence and intensity of
conflicts  that affect  an unprecedented  number of  innocent civilians. The
reality of contemporary warfare is that more than  90 per cent of casualties
are  non-combatants who  are often  deliberately targeted  because  of their
ethnic  or religious  affiliation. As  a consequence,  victims continued  to
flee their homes  and communities in staggering  numbers in 1995, reaching a
global total of some  25 million refugees. A  still larger number of persons
havebeen displacedorare directlyaffected bywarfarewithin theirowncountries.

470.     Increasingly, humanitarian  organizations are  compelled to operate
in  war-torn   societies  where   conflicting  parties   are  often   openly
contemptuous of  fundamental humanitarian  norms. In  such circumstances,  a
major challenge is the need to  safeguard the well-being of  civilians while
providing assistance in a manner consistent with humanitarian principles.

471.     In addition, the international  community is faced with the paradox
of needing ever  larger resources to address the immediate survival needs of
victims,  while simultaneously  recognizing  that such  action  may  deflect
attention and support from initiatives essential  to undoing the root causes
of  vulnerability   and  strife.  Faced   with  these  conflicting   trends,
humanitarian organizations  have been reassessing  the processes that  shape
the nature and impact of their interventions.

472.     Recent experience  illustrates the  importance of a  well-organized
and adequately resourced mechanism  for coordination, both within the multi-
actor  humanitarian  arena and  with  other  elements  of the  international
system  involved  in  crisis management  and  pre-emptive  action.  This  is
particularly evident  in rapid and  simultaneous mass population  movements,
where it is  often difficult to move quickly  enough to mobilize and  deploy
resources  in  a  manner  that   will  prevent  avoidable  deaths.  However,
notwithstanding the importance of support from the international  community,
it  is  the people  of  the  country directly  affected  who  are  primarily
responsible for their own recovery and that of their communities.

473.       The  volatile  context  within which  humanitarian  assistance is
provided is  a  major determinant  in the  overall  capacity  of the  United
Nations system to pre-empt  and respond to crises in a manner that minimizes
avoidable suffering.

474.    The scale  and depth of suffering in conflict situations confronting
the international community today is too often  a consequence of a disregard
for fundamental  humanitarian principles. In  many instances, the  suffering
endured by civilians is not an incidental element of political and  military
strategies but constitutes its major objective.  The conflicts in Bosnia and
Herzegovina and Rwanda are alarming examples  of what occurs when  civilians
are subjected  to  the full  brutality  of  contemporary warfare  and  gross
violations of human rights. Determination must be shown  to enforce the rule
of  law and  to  hold accountable  those  who are  responsible  for  heinous

475.        The  limited  means  of  humanitarian organizations  to  provide
protection  is particularly glaring  in conflict  settings and in situations
characterized by extreme violations of human  rights. The Rwandan experience
illustrates the way in which the capacity of  the United Nations to  provide
protection  and  assistance  is  undermined  when  inputs  and  distribution
mechanisms  are  used   for  purposes  that  are  inimical  to  humanitarian
objectives.  Finding the means  to reach  those in  need without entrenching
the power  of  abusive elements  is one  of  the  most difficult  challenges
facing the humanitarian community in recent times.

476.       The indifference  of  warring  parties for  even  the most  basic
humanitarian principles has continued to make  conditions under which relief
workers  must  operate  extremely dangerous.  As  the  number  of  conflicts
increases so too does  the number of  practitioners who have been killed  or
wounded,  sometimes  deliberately, while  carrying  our  their  humanitarian
tasks. Frequent disruption and diversion  of emergency relief  supplies have

occurred. Access has on  many occasions had to  be negotiated. Dependence on
the agreement  of armed  groups often  makes the  provision of  humanitarian
assistance tenuous and  subject to  unacceptable conditions.  If this  trend
continues, it  could undermine  the capacity of  the agencies  to carry  out
humanitarian  work.  Safeguarding  both  the  concept  and  the  reality  of
"humanitarian space"  remains one of  the most significant challenges facing
the humanitarian community.

477.     Another  major obstacle  facing humanitarian  organizations is  the
absence of sufficient political  will and support for action to address  the
underlying causes of crises. The provision  of humanitarian assistance in  a
vacuum is tantamount to  managing only the symptoms  of a crisis. Experience
shows  that, in most instances, the effectiveness  of humanitarian endeavour
in conflict  settings is predicated to  a considerable  extent on successful
action by the international community to  resolve the problems that provoked
the crisis.

478.    In some situations, such  as in Angola and Mozambique,  a determined
effort has been made to  stop the fighting and to  consolidate the peace. In
other  settings, such  as  Haiti, assertive  action has  been  taken  to end
oppression  and the  potential for  violent  conflict.  This is  in dramatic
contrast  to  other  settings,  such  as   the  Sudan,  where  conflict  has
smouldered for 28 of the  last 39 years. In Burundi and Liberia, a  volatile
mix of circumstances points  to the need for  action to strengthen  the push
for peace.

479.     The humanitarian  agenda is often  shaped by political attitudes to
particular  crises, strategic interests  in specific areas and the attention
span  of the  media. Such  factors, which are  for the most  part beyond the
control of humanitarian organizations, contribute  strongly to the low level
of  attention  and  support provided  to  victims  of  "silent" emergencies.
Ideally, and in a more humane world, assistance would be provided  according
to need  and the core principle of impartiality would have greater relevance
when responding to emergencies.

480.     Other factors  that have an impact  on the  effectiveness of relief
and  protection organizations include  the relationship between the level of
resources and attention devoted to the  prevention of, preparedness for  and
recovery from disasters  and the  amount of resources  required to meet  the
daily  needs of people in camp  situations (see fig.  15). Rwanda is but one
example  of current  trends. Some  $1 billion  was spent  in the  first  six
months of  the crisis.  Most of  this was  used for  the immediate  survival
needs of  the millions  who were uprooted  and displaced  in 1994.  Although
resources were requested at an early  stage for confidence-building measures
to facilitate and encourage the  return of those who had fled and for action
focused on the problem  of genocide, only  a minuscule amount has been  made
available  for  activities  essential  to  ameliorating  and  resolving  the
underlying cause  of the cyclical strife  that now  characterizes Rwanda and
other parts of the Great Lakes region.

481.      However,  some vital  progress has  been  made both  in responding
rapidly  and effectively to  the needs  of victims and in  generating a more
cohesive  approach  within  the  United  Nations  system.  The  Inter-Agency
Standing  Committee has played  an incisive  role, having  on many occasions
enabled  consensus and  decisions on pressing country-specific  issues to be
arrived  at quickly and  with immediate  impact. Its  uniqueness and success
stem  in  part from  the  presence  of,  and close  working  relations with,
certain  major  umbrella   non-governmental  organizations.  In  1994,   the
Committee  agreed   on  a  number  of   measures  for  strengthening   field
coordination   of  humanitarian   assistance  in  complex   emergencies,  in
particular in  the  pre-emergency and  initial  response  phases. A  set  of
guidelines relating to the humanitarian mandate  as well as the  appointment
of and  terms of reference for  humanitarian coordinators  were approved and
the Emergency Relief Coordinator was also designated as the  focal point for
internally  displaced persons.  Most importantly,  procedures for  the  most
expeditious agreement on the division of  labour between agencies have  also

been approved by the Committee.

482.    Within the Secretariat, the  Department of Humanitarian Affairs, the
Department  of  Political  Affairs  and  the  Department  of   Peace-keeping
Operations have  established a  mechanism for  the joint  analysis of  early
warning  of   a  looming  crisis,  within   a  broader   framework  for  the
coordination  of operational  planning and  implementation among  the  three
departments.  Among the United  Nations agencies  also, agreement  as to the
responsibility and  criteria for  "sounding the alarm"  in impending  crises
has  enabled  appropriate  preventive  and  preparedness  actions  (such  as
contingency  planning measures,  primarily  at the  in-country level)  to be

483.    Timing is  also critical in the fielding  of humanitarian assistance
operations. The  Department of Humanitarian  Affairs has established a Rapid
Response  Unit  to field  experienced  personnel  to  work  with the  United
Nations resident  or humanitarian  coordinator and  to  build up  systematic
support for  field-level coordination activities. At  Kigali in April  1994,
the  United  Nations advance  humanitarian team,  staffed by  United Nations
agency representatives  and  Department of  Humanitarian Affairs  personnel,
re-established  a  United  Nations  humanitarian  presence  during  a   very
difficult  period and was  able to  lay the groundwork for  the expansion of
humanitarian activities  as the  situation permitted. In  Haiti, a  combined
Department of  Humanitarian Affairs/UNDP  team was  deployed to support  the
United  Nations Coordinator  for Humanitarian  Assistance in  the  immediate
aftermath of the United Nations action of September 1994. During the  crisis
in Chechnya,  Department of  Humanitarian Affairs staff  were dispatched  to
neighbouring  republics,  where they  worked closely  with UNHCR  and United
Nations  agency  representatives  in  addressing  the  needs  of  internally
displaced persons.

484.     The Central  Emergency Revolving Fund  has consistently proved  its
value in  facilitating both  a rapid  and joint response  by United  Nations
agencies to  fast-breaking emergencies.  Delays in  its reimbursement  have,
however, offset its usefulness on a number of occasions. The past year  also
saw  the  first  use of  the  interest  on  the  Fund  to support  immediate
coordination  arrangements  in the  field,  with  the establishment  of  the
United Nations Rwanda Emergency Office at Kigali.

485.      With  a  growing  number of  major  emergencies of  all  varieties
requiring international  assistance, the Department of Humanitarian Affairs,
led by  Under-Secretary-General Peter  Hansen, has  continued to  strengthen
its  coordination support  capacity  and  to act  as a  focal point  for the
development of new initiatives taken jointly  by the international emergency
response  community  towards  the  improved  effectiveness  of international
relief operations. Activities since my last  report include the expansion of
the  number of countries  participating with  members in  the United Nations
Disaster  Assessment  and  Coordination Team,  including  six disaster-prone
developing countries from the Latin American  region, and the development of
guidelines  and  standards  for  the  assessment  of  international   relief
requirements  in  multisectoral emergencies  and  for  the  mobilization  of
resources,  the rapid  initiation  and  support of  field coordination,  the
exchange of  know-how  and  techniques,  and  the  development  of  standard
operational procedures in the deployment of international response teams.

486.      In  this endeavour,  the Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs  has
worked closely with and supported  the activities of  international networks
of emergency  teams such  as the  International Search  and Rescue  Advisory
Group and the Standing  Coordinating Group on the Use of Military and  Civil
Defence  Assets  in  Disaster  Relief.  With  regard  to  the  provision  of
specialized  human,  technical  and  logistical  resources  to  support  the
coordination  of   international  relief  operations,   the  Department  has
initiated memoranda of  understanding with Governments and organizations  to
allow  it  expeditious access  to their  emergency  relief capacities.  This
forward-looking, systematic approach  used by the  Department has proved its
worth in a number of sudden-onset emergencies during the year.

487.     Natural disaster reduction remains  a core activity of humanitarian
assistance,  which tackles the  root causes  of disasters,  and an essential
ingredient  of  rehabilitation  and   reconstruction  planning.  The  Under-
Secretary-General   has,  therefore,  brought  together  the  Department  of
Humanitarian Affairs'  Disaster Mitigation  Branch and  the secretariat  for
the International  Decade for Natural  Disaster Reduction under the umbrella
of a Disaster Reduction  Division. Thus the Department  is able to serve all
aspects of natural disaster reduction at all  levels within the framework of
a coherent United Nations strategy (see table 1).

Table  1

Natural disasters: casualties, damage and contributions

  1992   1993  1994

Number of disasters  45  68  75
Number of dead  6 971  13 542  7 572
Number of missing  258  1 631  1 989
Amount of damagea  2.06  15.80  9.00
Contributions reported to DHAb  257.4  77.5  114.0
Contributions channelled through DHAb  3.73  4.23  7.50

  a  Billions of United States dollars.
  b  Millions of United States dollars.

488.      Between  May 1994  and July  1995, the  Department of Humanitarian
Affairs  launched  27  appeals for  international  assistance  on behalf  of
countries affected by natural, technological or environmental disasters.  It
coordinated international assistance following more than  85 disasters in 50
countries.  Some 243 situation  reports were  issued on  the consequences of
those   disasters,   to   which   the   international   community   reported
contributions  amounting to more  than $115  million, $6.3  million of which
were  channelled  through  the  Department.  During  the  same  period,  the
Department arranged 38 relief flights from  its emergency stockpile at Pisa,
Italy, in  response  to the  immediate  requirements  of those  affected  by

489.    However,  while much vital progress has been made in augmenting  the
capacity of humanitarian agencies to respond  quickly and coherently to  the
immediate  needs of  victims  of  all  kinds  of  emergencies, the  task  of
assisting  countries to  emerge  from crises  continues to  pose significant
challenges.  This  is   particularly  evident  in  situations  of   systemic
breakdown  when the  task of  rebuilding civil society  is dependent  on the
commitment of  the international community to  address the underlying  cause
of crises. The ability of aid agencies to support  a recovery process is, of
course,  largely determined  by  the  extent to  which affected  communities
engage in  activities geared  to making  the transition  from dependency  on
relief to sustainable development.

490.    As is now widely  acknowledged, the relationship between relief  and
development,  particularly  in  conflict  settings,  is  complex  and  needs
constantly  to  be  assessed  to  ensure  that  interventions  are  mutually
reinforcing. In many instances, gains made  by the humanitarian community in
stabilizing  a situation  are not  accompanied  by  the inputs  necessary to
nurture  a recovery  process.  Indeed, protracted  crises  often  experience
funding shortfalls, thereby  negating tenuous advances  in the  reduction of
vulnerabilities  of either  a  social,  economic or  political  nature.  The
tragic  experiences of people  in Liberia,  Rwanda and  the Sudan illustrate
the need for sustained and concerted action focused on breaking the  dynamic
of violence.

491.      On a more  positive note the  experiences of  Haiti and Mozambique
during this  past year demonstrate the  advantages of  assertive action that
actively  nurtures  the  quest  for  peace.  Likewise,  the  opportunity  to
consolidate  the long-awaited peace  in Angola  must be  fully exploited and
necessary support  provided  for  vital  rehabilitation  and  reconstruction
activities. As  in other  post-cease-fire situations,  it is important  that
the international  community maintain  the  momentum for  peace; too  often,
critical  activities,  including  de-mining  and  the  homeward  return   of
refugees, the  displaced and former combatants,  are jeopardized because  of
insufficient   support  for   programmes   that  are   essential   for   the
revitalization of community  life. Aware of  the challenges confronting war-
torn societies, humanitarian  and development  staff of  the United  Nations
system are currently reviewing  mechanisms to ensure  that their  respective
funding  and operational  activities are  complementary and  enhance  peace-
building initiatives.

  1.  Cooperation with regional arrangements or agencies

492.    In the field of natural disaster  reduction, the primary function of
the Department of Humanitarian Affairs is  to promote new initiatives.  This
includes project  activities  in 28  of the  more disaster-prone  developing
countries, including 11 new ones during the year under review.

493.      The main  objectives have  been to  establish and  apply the  most
effective   methods  for  hazard  and  risk  assessment,  to  promote  wider
interchange   of  knowledge   and  systematic   application  of  appropriate
technology, to carry out more active  pooling, analysis and dissemination of
early  warnings,  and to  stimulate  the  development  of  scenario-specific
disaster mitigation and  preparedness plans with emphasis on maximizing  the
use of local resources and community  involvement, while providing access to
external  expertise where  essential. A  special  focus  has been  placed on
Africa,  where  three subregional  seminars  have  stimulated  new  national
initiatives in disaster reduction. In Latin  America and the Caribbean,  new
projects  have  been   formulated  for  five  countries  and   comprehensive
programmes  continue in four  others. For  Asia, projects  are continuing or
are in the process of formulation for six  countries, including a new  four-
year programme encompassing the South Pacific  island States, which has been
widely  sponsored and  warmly welcomed  by the  participating countries  and
regional agencies.  Attention is also being  given to  the eastern European,
Middle  East and  CIS countries,  with projects  launched or  in process  of
formulation in  five States. The  above activities have been  carried out in
close  cooperation  with  UNDP  and  UNEP   to  promote  the  inclusion   of
development   and  environment  issues  wherever  applicable.  Eleven  other
international agencies and more than 30 non-governmental organizations  have
been associated.

494.       In the  framework of  the  Department for  Humanitarian  Affair's
project on the use of military and civil  defence assets in disaster relief,
arrangements  have  continued  for  strengthening  cooperation  between  the
Department of  Humanitarian Affairs  and NATO,  the  Western European  Union
(WEU)  and the Inter-American  Defense Board.  Within the  provisions of the
Oslo  Guidelines,  mechanisms for  such  cooperation  are being  tested  and
improved through joint  training, contingency planning and field  exercises.
Regional cooperation was tested in particular  during an exercise hosted  by
the  Russian Federation  focusing on  international assistance  following  a
simulated major nuclear power plant accident. Standing operating  procedures
for the use  of military and  civil defence  assets in  disaster relief  are
being refined  to enhance the humanitarian  aspects of  the NATO Partnership
for  Peace programme. The EU  Humanitarian Office, a  member of the Standing
Coordinating Group,  has funded  the activities  of the  project related  to
relief air operations and to regional cooperation in Africa and Asia.

495.    UNDP and  the Department of Humanitarian Affairs  have established a

Joint  Environment  Unit that  strengthens  the  international  capacity  to
respond  to  environmental  aspects  of  disasters,  while making  the  most
effective use of limited resources. The  Unit represents a practical synergy
between  the two  organizations that  ensures a  targeted  and comprehensive
approach to  the growing problem of  environmental emergencies  while at the
same  time avoiding duplication  of effort.  As such,  the Joint Environment
Unit is fully integrated into the  Department of Humanitarian Affairs.  UNEP
provides staff  and funding for the  project, while  the Department provides
access to  resources, expertise  in disaster management  and procedures  for
effective mobilization and coordination of relief.

496.      The  Department of  Humanitarian  Affairs  also continues  to work
closely with the Caribbean  Disaster Emergency Response  Agency, with  which
the  Department  has  an  agreement  for   early  warning  and  exchange  of
information when disaster strikes.

  2.  Proactive humanitarian action

497.     Part of the  Department of Humanitarian Affair's core  coordination
function  involves   participation  in   the  planning   and  execution   of
"proactive" humanitarian action, though this term carries different  meaning
when applied  to the onset of  complex crises, on  the one  hand, or natural
disasters, on  the other.  Examples of  humanitarian  activities that  might
prevent  or  reduce  the  scale  of   suffering  include  the  provision  of
assistance  that could  pre-empt mass  population movements or  support that
facilitates  the  reintegration   of  demobilized  soldiers.  Prevention  of
natural  disasters might  involve the  strengthening of  structures  against
earthquakes or  the resettlement  of populations  away from  flood zones  or
earthquake fault lines.

498.     A functioning early  warning system is critically important for the
timely planning and  implementation of pre-emptive action. The  Humanitarian
Early Warning  System has  been created  to provide  up-to-date warnings  of
country  crisis situations  through analysis  of its database,  drawing upon
the  various early warning  mechanisms of  other United  Nations agencies as
well as non-United Nations information sources. The system  is made up of  a
database  that  includes   both  statistical   and  other   country-specific
information, graphically presented trend evaluation and an analysis  process
that examines  statistical and  event information. The System  completed its
prototype in January 1995  and has expanded its  country coverage as well as
its depth  of information  on each country.  It became fully  operational in

499.      In the  field of  natural disasters, activities  generated by  the
International   Decade   for   Natural   Disaster  Reduction   are   focused
specifically  on preventive  measures.  The momentum  created  by  the World
Conference on Natural  Disaster Reduction, held at Yokohama in May 1994, has
been  successfully  sustained  by means  of a  participatory  and continuous
dialogue of traditional and  new partners within the International Framework
of  Action.  Consequently,  the  Yokohama  Strategy   for  a  Safer   World:
Guidelines for Natural Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation,  in
particular its  Plan of Action has been transformed into a comprehensive and
structured  sequence  of  sectoral  and  cross-sectoral  activities  at  all
levels.  During the  second half  of  the  International Decade  for Natural
Disaster  Reduction, and  commensurate  with  the  proposals  of  the  World
Conference, emphasis is being shifted to  concrete activities at the country
and  local  levels.  In  order  to maintain  this  broad-based  inter-agency
approach,  the Inter-Agency Steering  Committee has  been extended until the
end of the Decade.

500.      Also in line  with the  Yokohama Strategy,  the interdependency of
natural  disaster   reduction,  environmental  protection  and   sustainable
development  is being  reflected through  improved cooperation  between  the

International  Framework and  the major  development activities  inside  and
outside the  United  Nations  system. Thus  the Department  of  Humanitarian
Affairs is acting,  through the  International Decade  for Natural  Disaster
Relief   secretariat,  as  task  manager  for  natural   disasters  for  the
Commission on  Sustainable Development. The process  that has been  outlined
for the  remaining  years  of the  Decade will  provide  the opportunity  to
present its closing event with  sound proposals for the  full integration of
disaster reduction  into  national  planning and  international  development
cooperation. It reflects the challenging objectives  that have been laid out
by the "Agenda for Development" (A/48/935).

  3.  Relief operations

501.    The four  major operations during the past  year have taken place in
Chechnya, Ukraine (Chernobyl), Kenya and the Sudan.


502.     Following a request  from the Russian Federation for  international
assistance for persons displaced from Chechnya  to the neighbouring  federal
republics  of  Ingushetia,  North Ossetia  and  Daghestan,  last  January  I
authorized  a  United  Nations  inter-agency mission  to  the  region.  This
resulted in the issue of a "flash appeal" in February to mobilize  immediate
resources  for  the emergency  needs  of  220,000 people.  Subsequently, the
United Nations consolidated appeal for persons displaced as a  result of the
emergency situation  in Chechnya,  Russian Federation,  covering the  period
from 1 January to 30 June 1995, was launched at Geneva in  March. Because of
the continuing crisis, the  appeal was updated in  June and its coverage was
extended by six months to the end of 1995.

503.     The extended United  Nations humanitarian programme now covers  the
emergency needs of  the 118,000  internally displaced persons identified  as
being the most  vulnerable and seeks donor support for financial coverage of
the 30 per cent shortfall of  the total $25 million needed to allow relevant
agencies  to   complete   emergency  assistance   projects,  as   originally
envisaged. Activities  being implemented include assistance in areas such as
shelter,  water  and sanitation,  food,  health  and  care  for children  in
especially   difficult  circumstances.   A   high  level   of   inter-agency
cooperation has been achieved through a triangular structure among  agencies
operating  in the  field, the  Humanitarian  Coordinator  in Moscow  and the
headquarters of the United Nations agencies, the International  Organization
for Migration (IOM)  and the  Department of  Humanitarian Affairs.  However,
the situation  affecting refugees and  internally displaced  persons in  the
three republics  is still precarious. While  the majority  of those affected
have sought  shelter with host families,  this additional  burden has placed
severe pressure on already  meagre resources. Overcrowding has stretched the
social services  available to persons in the region. Food  and medicines are
in short supply and  the onset of winter  weather will result  in additional
hardships for  the victims of the  conflict unless  urgent preventive action
is taken. In particular, additional funding  support is urgently required in
order  for agencies to  stockpile contingency  food supplies  for the winter

504.       At  the  end  of June,  peace  negotiations  between the  Russian
authorities  and  the  Chechen  delegation  commenced  at  Grozny under  the
auspices of OSCE. A cease-fire came into effect on 2 July.


505.      While  the  tenth anniversary  of the  accident  at  the Chernobyl
nuclear  power  plant  is approaching,  the  extent  of  its  impact  on the
populations  of Belarus,  the Russian  Federation  and  Ukraine is  only now
being  fully realized. Over  300 children now suffer  from thyroid cancer, a
disease  practically  non-existent in  children  before  the  accident,  and
hundreds of  thousands live in  constant fear  of still unknown  effects the
accident may have on their long-term  health. The fertility rate, especially
in Belarus,  has declined  dramatically, while the  morbidity and  mortality
rates have increased. This  trend is unlikely  to reach its peak until  well
into the next decade.

506.     In September 1994, the  United Nations Coordinator on International
Cooperation on Chernobyl  convened an expanded meeting of the  quadripartite
committee for  coordination on  Chernobyl. The meeting assessed  the results
of ongoing  United Nations  activities relating  to Chernobyl  and discussed
the  need  for initiatives  to  commemorate  the  tenth  anniversary of  the
accident in  April 1986 and,  in that connection,  to draw  attention to the
continued need for  funding of  programmes to  overcome the  effects of  the
Chernobyl accident.

507.    Members of the  Inter-Agency Task Force on Chernobyl  continue their
efforts to bring Chernobyl  projects to fruition, but the lack of funds  has
brought  several   programmes  to  a  halt.  Particularly  affected  is  the
International  Programme on Health  Effects of  the Chernobyl Accident under
the auspices  of WHO. Although  generous financial support  by a handful  of
countries  allowed  the  full  and  rapid  implementation  of  the  priority
activities,  there  are now  no  resources  to  maintain  the programme  and
initiate much-needed follow-up activities that have  a direct impact on  the
health of the affected population.

508.     In  November 1994,  nine community centres (three  each in Belarus,
the Russian  Federation  and Ukraine)  were officially  opened, marking  the
completion of phase I  of the UNESCO programme to overcome the psychological
effects of  the accident.  However, the  implementation of  phase II  of the
project,  as well as other related projects, will  depend on the possibility
of  raising additional  funds. The  FAO/ International Atomic  Energy Agency
(IAEA)  joint division completed  successful projects  on the  use of radio-
caesium binders to  reduce contamination of  milk and on the  cultivation of
rape-seed  on contaminated soils. As  a result of  the projects, large areas
that  were hitherto  regarded as  unsafe can  now  be used  for agricultural
production.  In  1995, IAEA  also  began,  in  cooperation  with the  French
Institut de  Protection et de Suret_  nucl_aire, a  project on environmental
impact assessment.

509.      Plans  are now  under  way  for events  to commemorate  the  tenth
anniversary of  the Chernobyl  accident. WHO  will arrange  a conference  at
Geneva  in November  on  the health  aspects  of the  accident,  the  United
Nations will  participate in  a conference  to be  arranged at Minsk  by the
Government  of  Belarus  and  EU,  while  IAEA  will  arrange  a  summing-up
conference at  Vienna from 8  to 12  April 1996.  A further  meeting of  the
quadripartite  committee will be held in the autumn of 1995 and will have as
its  main  objective  to  identify  those  projects  which  remain  of vital
importance to the affected population and to agree  on ways to ensure  their


510.      The  United  Nations consolidated  inter-agency appeal  for  Kenya
launched  in February 1994  covered the period  from January  to December of
that  year,  targeting a  population of  1,620,000. Donor  response totalled
$54,860,331, an amount  equal to almost 57 per  cent of the total  requested
in the appeal. The food situation  remains mixed, as agricultural conditions

in  some  regions have  improved while  others  remain uncertain.  Aggregate
production  in 1994/95 is  provisionally estimated  at close  to 3.5 million
tons, almost 1 million  tons above the previous  year's reduced level.  Good
rains and high world  prices for coffee are  helping to maintain recovery in
agriculture.  Over 200,000  Somali refugees  remain  in Kenya,  adding  some
strain  to  the food  situation  and  increasing  tension  at border  areas.
Political tensions continue, as do  both ethnic tensions in  the Rift Valley
and violence in Mombasa between Islamic groups.

    The Sudan

511.     The  Secretary-General's report of  12 September  1994 on emergency
assistance  to the Sudan  (A/49/376) stated  that, despite  progress made in
the Sudan relief operation and Operation  Lifeline Sudan, considerable needs
still remained  to be addressed, and  the international  community was urged
to respond generously to the emer-gency needs  and recovery of the  country.
In January  1995, the  Department of  Humanitarian Affairs  issued the  1995
United  Nations consolidated  inter-agency appeal  for  the Sudan,  in which
United  Nations  agencies  requested  $101.1  million  to  meet  the  urgent
humanitarian needs of 4.25 million people.

512.       The  donor response  to  the yearly  United Nations  consolidated
appeals between 1992 and 1994 has generally been quite positive: in 1992  it
was 73  per cent  of the amount requested.  In 1993, however, it  was 64 per
cent, but although  there were considerable delays  in the donor response to
the  1994 appeal,  at the  close of the  year approximately 85  per cent had
been received.  Such fluctuations have  serious ramifications for  programme

513.        Regrettably,  the  early  part   of  1995  showed  only  limited
contributions to  the appeal, so that  by mid-July  a considerable shortfall
in  donor response  (less  than 27   per  cent  of total  requirements)  was
seriously compromising  the United Nations ability  to provide the  urgently
needed  humanitarian  assistance. This  is  all  the  more  alarming as  the
shortfall  occurred after  increased  cooperation during  the  previous  two
years with both the  Government of the Sudan  and the southern  factions, as
well as  the improved  cereal  harvest  in 1994,  had permitted  the  United
Nations to scale  down its funding requirements by 45 per cent  of the prior
year's revised figure.

514.     Since the  launching of the 1995  appeal, Operation Lifeline  Sudan
activities have  been hampered  by renewed  fighting, in  particular in  the
provinces  of Equatoria,  Upper Nile,  Junglei and northern  Bahr El-Ghazal,
where  tens of thousands  of persons  have been  dispossessed and dispersed.
Renewed  hostilities, combined with  a lack  of donor  funding, have greatly
reduced  the effect of improved food production and forced people to abandon
their homes and  fields. In total,  the United Nations estimates  that there
are  just under 1.2 million  internally displaced persons  in the Sudan. The
conflict has  also forced  the evacuation  of relief  workers from  numerous
localities, while in already three instances  this year, relief workers have
been  kidnapped and held for periods  ranging from a few days  to almost two
months.  In another case  an armed  attack on a United  Nations barge convoy
disrupted  a highly  successful and  cooperative logistics  operation.  With
respect to other components of the  Operation Lifeline Sudan logistics plan,
operations remain  dependent  on air  transport  as  the Operation  has  not
received agreement  on the use of  road corridors.  Moreover, both financial
constraints and  a recent increase in the denial of air access have cut into
the  Operation's effectiveness.  Further affecting  the United  Nations  and
non-governmental  organizations'   capacity  to  respond  were  the  various
incidents of misuse, misappropriation and looting  of food and other  relief
supplies,  which  continue despite  agreements  to  the  contrary,  although
improved monitoring  and coordination  mechanisms have  reduced the  overall
number of incidents since last year.

515.     Positive developments registered  before the mid-year mark  related
notably  to  the  two-month  cease-fire  between  the Government  and  rebel
factions mediated  by the  former United  States President  Jimmy Carter  in
consultation   with   the  Intergovernmental   Authority   on  Drought   and
Development, under whose aegis peace efforts  have been organized since late
1993. Despite sporadic fighting, United Nations  agencies were able to  take
advantage of opportunities  for accelerating primary health care  programmes
during  this  initial  period  as  well  as  during  a  subsequent two-month
extension. Further  efforts to renew  the cease-fire  in late  July did  not
meet with success.

516.      Since 1989, when  Operation Lifeline  Sudan began  as a short-term
programme  to  deliver  food  and  other  life-saving   provisions,  it  has
developed  considerably. While  still providing  food aid  and basic  health
care to  reduce mortality and morbidity  among the  affected population, the
Operation now implements a much broader  programme that extends to household
food  security,  water and  sanitation,  basic  shelter,  food  for work  in
support   of  agricultural  production  and  health  sector  rehabilitation,
primary  education,   support  to   psychologically  traumatized   children,
capacity-building and promotion of humanitarian principles.

517.     With increased access to a war-affected population of approximately
4.25 million throughout  the country, Operation Lifeline Sudan reaches  more
people than ever before. Originally serving  some 8 sites in southern Sudan,
its  operations have since  come to  include as many as  104 locations. This
has  been  due in  large  part  to  greater flexibility  shown  by  all  the
concerned parties.

518.         It  will   be  recalled  from  last  year's   report  that  the
Intergovernmental Authority on  Drought and  Development had  by March  1994
assumed  a separate,  though  complementary,  role  in  the  regional  peace
process  by facilitating  negotiations on  humanitarian access  and  related
issues  organized  by  the  United  Nations  with  the  Government  and  the
principal southern factions. Subsequent  to agreements reached  in March and
May  1994,  fixing  modalities  for  humanitarian  access  across  lines  of
conflict was  identified as  the priority  for further  negotiations. As  no
progress  has  been achieved  during  the  intervening  period,  preliminary
discussions  intended  to  permit  a  resumption  of tripartite  talks  were
undertaken with the parties at Khartoum and Nairobi  in late July and  early
August by the United Nations  Special Envoy for Humanitarian Affairs for the
Sudan, at  which the  question of operational  modalities for  international
non-governmental organizations  working out  of Khartoum  was discussed  and
all  parties encouraged  to work  closely  with  the United  Nations Special
Envoy and senior Operation Lifeline Sudan  personnel at Khartoum and Nairobi
to secure an improved basis for progress.

519.     With some  exceptions, notably the  suspension of an  international
non-governmental  organization from  the  Operation  owing  to a  breach  of
operational procedures, as well  as the need to agree on guidelines for non-
governmental  organizations  working  out  of  Khartoum,  cooperation  among
national, United Nations  and non-governmental organizations working in  the
Sudan  remains  excellent.  As  in  the  past,  the  Operation  provides the
framework for the humanitarian efforts of 30 international  non-governmental
organizations  working  in   the  region.  While  the  Nairobi  office   has
established letters  of understanding  with non-governmental  organizations,
which  reflect the  ground  rules for  Operation Lifeline  Sudan operations,
UNICEF  Khartoum has  sought to  support  government counterparts  and local
non-governmental  organizations in  relief  and  rehabilitation initiatives.
Special  efforts  have  been  made  to  promote  an  improved  framework for
international  non-governmental  organizations  to  operate  from  Khartoum,
including  in  the  displaced  person  camps  and  the  transitional  zones.
However,  the  continued strict  controls  on  access  and  movement of  the
international  non-governmental  organizations  in  Khartoum  have  hampered
attempts to bring to bear the comparative advantages they can offer.

520.        While the  number  of  approximately 1.2  million  beneficiaries

identified  as  requiring  emergency  food  aid  in  1995  is  a significant
reduction compared  with the needs of  1994, insecurity  continues to plague
the food delivery systems. In addition,  whereas carry-over food stocks from
1994 were  sufficient to  cover most  of the  emergency food  aid needs  for
1995, international assistance  to support  monitoring, operational  support
costs and special  transport costs had  received less  than 30  per cent  of
required  donor support by July,  causing the World  Food Programme (WFP) to
scale back monitoring activities by 50  per cent. Despite these constraints,
by the  end of July over  half of the estimated  109,398 tons of food  needs
for   1995  had  been   transported  by  WFP  and  partner  non-governmental
organizations to areas in need.

521.      For Operation  Lifeline Sudan non-food assistance  out of Khartoum
and all operations in the southern  sector out of Nairobi, UNICEF has a lead
responsibility. Overall 4.25 million people have  been targeted for 1995, of
whom 2.7 million are accessed from Khartoum and 1.7 million from Nairobi.

522.     In  May 1995, the  Department of Humanitarian  Affairs organized  a
consultation  of  key donors  and  aid  organizations  at  Geneva to  review
funding status and  programme implementation, the status of  recommendations
made by  donors in  1994 and  the timetable  for a  comprehensive review  of
Operation Lifeline Sudan.

523.     A detailed  critical review of the  Operation is planned for  later
this year. As its  main objectives, the review  will analyse the  Operation,
its appropriateness in achieving maximum access  to populations in need  and
in  ensuring respect  for fundamental  humanitarian principles;  assess  the
effectiveness   of   its  coordination   structures,   in   particular   the
relationship   among   the   United   Nations,   donors,    non-governmental
organizations and Sudanese counterparts; and assess efficiency,  identifying
constraints and achievements.

524.    In the first half  of 1994 alone, some 96,000 tons of emergency food
aid were delivered to  affected areas of the  Sudan by WFP and international
relief agencies, in  a major initiative  that benefited  substantial numbers
of the affected population and not least the  500,000 persons who were  then
on  the verge of  starvation. In  the latter part of  the year WFP continued
those efforts and expanded, in particular,  its surface delivery capacity in
southern Sudan.

  4.  Relief operations in the Near East (UNRWA)

525.     The activities of the  United Nations  Relief and Works Agency  for
Palestine Refugees in  the Near East (UNRWA), headed by Commissioner-General
Ilter T_rkmen, focused during the  reporting year on  providing constructive
support to the Middle East peace process.

526.      The Agency took  immediate steps  to develop  an effective working
relationship with  the Palestinian  Authority  and to  meet the  Authority's
requests for assistance to the fullest extent possible. On 24 June 1994,  an
exchange of  letters took  place between the  Commissioner-General of  UNRWA
and the  Chairman of  the Palestine  Liberation Organization  (PLO) for  the
purpose  of  facilitating  the  continued  provision  of UNRWA  services  to
Palestine refugees in areas under the  control of the Palestinian Authority.
On an ad hoc  basis UNRWA provided land and buildings, temporary shelter and
emergency  humanitarian aid  to assist  the  Authority in  establishing  its
operations in the Jericho area. UNRWA  actively pursued coordination of  its
services  with  those  provided  by  the  Authority,  developing   effective
relations with  it in the  education, health  and relief and  social service
sectors. The  Agency  also played  an  active  role in  multilateral  forums
established to support the peace process,  such as the multilateral  working
group on refugees, as part of the United Nations delegation.

527.      Within the  context of  developments in  the peace  process, UNRWA
began the process of relocating its headquarters from Vienna to Gaza by  the
end of 1995. The  relocation should serve to  demonstrate the commitment  of
the United  Nations to the  peace process, underline  its confidence in  the
Palestinian  Authority and  contribute to  the economic  development of  the
Gaza Strip.

528.      UNRWA  developed a detailed  budget and action plan  for the move,
including the  design of  a new  headquarters building  in Gaza.  As at  May
1995, the Agency was  taking the necessary steps to obtain the $13.5 million
in funding needed for the move and to meet the schedule for the move.

529.      At my request,  UNRWA undertook to  administer the payment  of the
salaries  of  9,000 members  of  the  Palestinian  Police  Force from  funds
contributed by  donors. The  technical mechanism  underlying the effort  was
established  in  a memorandum  of  understanding  signed  by  UNRWA and  the
Palestinian Police Force  in September 1994. From that date until March 1995
a total of  $29.8 million was  disbursed in  the operation,  in which  UNRWA
worked closely with the office of the  United Nations Special Coordinator in
the Occupied Territories.  In its resolution  49/210 of 13  April 1995,  the
General Assembly  requested UNRWA to continue  to facilitate  the payment of
Palestinian Police Force salaries until the end of 1995.
530.     In  September 1994, UNRWA  launched the second  phase of its  Peace
Implementation  Programme  with  the   objective  of  providing   continuing
infrastructure   development   and  job   creation  to   Palestine  refugees
throughout  the  Middle  East.  Funded  projects  included  construction  of
schools,  health  clinics,  women's  programme  centres  and  sewerage   and
drainage works, as well as renovation  of shelters. Besides improving living
conditions for refugees,  related projects  created an estimated 5,500  jobs
over an average four-month  period in Gaza alone.  The programme met  with a
positive response on the  part of donors, receiving  a total of $109 million
in  funding as  at May  1995. The  Agency's project  for a  232-bed  general
hospital in  Gaza, begun  in October  1993, continued  during the  reporting
year. The  hospital is due to be  completed in early 1996 and recruitment of
senior staff is under way.

531.      While  taking on  new roles  and responsibilities  in response  to
changing  conditions,  UNRWA  continued  to  fulfil  its  basic  mission  of
providing essential health, education and relief  and social services to 3.1
million  Palestine refugees  located  in Jordan,  Lebanon,  the  Syrian Arab
Republic  and  the  West  Bank  and   Gaza.  Some  410,000  elementary   and
preparatory school pupils were enrolled in  the Agency's 643 schools  during
the  academic year 1994/95.  The Agency  handled nearly  6.5 million patient
visits during  1994 through  its network  of 122 health  centres and  health
points. Over  168,000 of  the neediest Palestine  refugees received  special
assistance from the Agency during the  year, including food rations, shelter
rehabilitation  and  subsidized  medical  care.  Additional  facilities  and
services provided on an ongoing basis  through the Agency's core  programmes
included  vocational  training,  graduate   scholarships,  family   planning
services,  special infant  care,  community rehabilitation  centres, women's
programme centres and income-generation schemes.

532.     UNRWA's regular  and emergency  cash budget for the  biennium 1994-
1995  was  $570 million.  The  Agency  ended 1994  with  an  actual  funding
shortfall  of $7 million.  Because of  the deficit the Agency  was forced to
carry over the austerity measures imposed in 1993 in response to an  earlier
deficit,  which  included a  salary  freeze,  a reduction  in administrative
costs and cuts in the budgets  for additional teacher posts, hospitalization
and medical supplies. An  informal meeting of UNRWA's major donors and  host
Governments held at Amman in March 1995 resulted  in pledges that helped  to
reduce  the projected  deficit  for 1995.  At the  Amman meeting  the donors
reiterated  their commitment to  the continued  provision of  UNRWA services
and approved a five-year planning horizon proposed by the Agency.

  F.  Protection and resettlement of refugees

533.      The  core functions  of  the  Office of  the United  Nations  High
Commissioner for  Refugees (UNHCR), headed by  Mrs. Sadako  Ogata, are those
assigned  by  its  1950  statute:  providing  international  protection   to
refugees and seeking permanent solutions  to their problems. As  part of its
duty to ensure  that voluntary repatriation  schemes are  sustainable, UNHCR
has also  become involved  in assisting  and protecting  returnees in  their
home  countries. In recent  years, the  General Assembly  and the Secretary-
General have  called with increasing frequency on UNHCR to protect or assist
particular  groups of internally  displaced people  who have  not crossed an
international  border  but  are in  a  refugee-like  situation  inside their
countries of origin, as well as other populations affected by conflict.

534.     The genocide in Rwanda and the  flight last year of over 2  million
Rwandan nationals into neighbouring countries in  the Great Lakes region  of
Africa was one of the darkest episodes in recent history and one that  posed
an  unprecedented challenge for UNHCR and other humanitarian agencies. Other
regions, including  the  former  Yugoslavia, south-west  Asia, the  Horn  of
Africa  and parts  of western  Africa  have also  continued to  suffer  from
massive population  displacements, while a major  new crisis  erupted in the
northern Caucasus in December 1994.

535.      Although the  refugee population  worldwide had decreased  to 14.5
million by the beginning  of this year because of repatriation solutions  in
various parts of the world, the  total number of people of  concern to UNHCR
had  risen  to some  27.4  million.  This  included  5.4 million  internally
displaced   persons,   3.5   million   others   of   humanitarian   concern,
predominantly  populations  affected   by  conflict,  and  some  4   million
returnees requiring assistance to  re-establish sustainable reintegration in
their countries of origin. In 1994, UNHCR provided material assistance to  a
total of 17.6  million people, as  compared to  13.8 million  in 1993.  This
included  8.9 million in  Africa, 5  million in Asia, 3.5  million in Europe
and 115,000 in Latin America.

536.     The present period of volatility  and readjustment in world affairs
has been  characterized by increasing levels  of human  displacement. In the
face of this  reality, UNHCR  has continued to  hone its emergency  response
capacity  and to pursue preventive and solution-oriented  approaches. It has
aimed  to  assure  a  high  level  of  emergency  preparedness,  to  provide
assistance and  protection in such  a way as  to avert,  where possible, the
occurrence of new refugee flows and to promote concerted efforts to  achieve
durable solutions,  notably  voluntary repatriation.  In  so  doing, it  has
collaborated  increasingly   closely  with   political,  peace-keeping   and
development  initiatives  and  organs  of the  United  Nations,  with  other
intergovernmental  and  regional  bodies  and  with  a  wide  range  of non-
governmental organizations.

  1.  Emergency response

537.     As a result of its efforts since 1991, UNHCR's standby capacity has
achieved a  high  level  of  preparedness in  terms  of both  personnel  and
stockpiles of emergency  relief supplies that  it can  deploy rapidly in  an
emergency. During  1994 and  the first  half of  1995  alone, its  emergency
response teams were deployed to 17 operations around the world.

538.     While continuing to take the lead in the  international response to
refugee emergencies, UNHCR  has endeavoured to  ensure the  effectiveness of
its interventions  and the  durability of results  by building  partnerships
with  other United Nations  agencies and  by coordinating  its activities in
complex emergency  situations with the  Department of Humanitarian  Affairs.
In its  emergency  operations in  the  former  Yugoslavia, the  Great  Lakes

region  and other parts  of Africa,  and the central  Asian republics, UNHCR
has continued to  strengthen its collaboration  with United Nations agencies
and programmes,  in  particular WFP,  UNICEF,  WHO  and the  United  Nations
Population Fund  (UNFPA), in activities such  as food  aid, immunization and
health  care, water supply  and sanitation,  mother and  child medical care,
family planning and education.

539.      Faced  in the  Great Lakes  region  with  the most  severe refugee
emergency in recent history, the Office was again obliged  to innovate. With
its own staff  resources heavily committed in  the region and elsewhere,  it
appealed  to donor Governments  to assume  an operational  role by providing
self-contained services in a number  of critical assistance  sectors through
the deployment  of resources  drawn largely  from their  military and  civil
defence establishments.  The use  of these so-called  "service packages"  in
the Rwanda  emergency has demonstrated how, under certain conditions, unique
military skills  or assets  can support  UNHCR emergency  relief activities.
The positive  impact  of service  packages  in  responding to  the  critical
conditions that characterized the massive exodus  of Rwandans has led  UNHCR
into a  process  of consultation  with  Governments  and the  Department  of
Humanitarian Affairs on  how, when necessary and appropriate, this mechanism
can best be used.

  2.  The search for solutions

540.     Over 2  million refugees  returned to their countries  of origin in
1994, most notably  to Mozambique, Afghanistan and Myanmar. Return movements
have continued in 1995, with prospects also  opening up for the  large-scale
return  of some 300,000 refugees  to Angola. Solutions have  continued to be
consolidated in several other regions, especially in Central America,  where
the process  launched by  the International  Conference on Central  American
Refugees  was brought  formally  to  a close  in June  1994 and  a framework
agreed  for the  post-Conference period,  and  in  south-east Asia  with the
agreement  of the  Steering Committee  of  the International  Conference  on
Indo-Chinese Refugees  to aim  for the  completion of  activities under  the
comprehensive plan of action by the end of 1995.

541.        Solutions  to  complex,  refugee-producing  emergencies  require
concerted efforts whereby  humanitarian activities are complemented by  both
political initiatives  to resolve conflict and development efforts to ensure
a sustainable livelihood for the most severely affected areas and people.

542.     In many areas  of the world, UNHCR works increasingly  closely with
peace-keeping or peacemaking  initiatives undertaken by the United  Nations.
It has continued to work with the United  Nations peace-keeping operation in
the  former  Yugoslavia  where,  as  lead   agency  for  the  provision   of
humanitarian  assistance, it has brought urgently needed  assistance to over
2 million  victims of war. Elsewhere,  be it in  Angola, Liberia, the  Great
Lakes region, the Horn of  Africa, Guatemala, the Caucasus  or central Asia,
it  has worked  either  within  the framework  of or  in tandem  with United
Nations efforts at conflict resolution.

543.      In its search for solutions to  the problems of refugees and other
displaced  persons of  concern to  it,  UNHCR  has also  placed considerable
emphasis  on  developing  closer  collaboration  with  regional  bodies.   A
regional  conference was hosted  jointly by  UNHCR and  OAU at  Bujumbura in
February this  year to  ensure a  concerted approach  to the  crisis in  the
Great  Lakes  region.  Working relationships  have also  been  enhanced with
other regional bodies,  as, for  example, in Georgia,  where UNHCR and  OSCE
cooperate  closely on  efforts to  resolve  the  Abkhazia and  South Ossetia
conflicts. Similar collaboration  has been taking place in Nagorny  Karabakh
and Chechnya.

544.     UNHCR continues  to attach  great importance not only  to conflict-

resolution  initiatives, but  also to  achieving a better  interface between
relief,  rehabilitation and  development. In  the experience  of the Office,
the implementation of the concept of a continuum  from relief to development
should, on  the one hand, enable  humanitarian assistance  to promote viable
reintegration of  displaced people  into a  process of  social and  economic
recovery and, on the other, bring  development endeavours closer to  people-
centred concerns  and aspirations. Without  this, solutions to  humanitarian
crises may regress into new, divisive communal problems.

545.     UNHCR has thus continued  to reinforce its community-based approach
to  reintegration assistance  through  the implementation  of  quick  impact
projects and  has pursued discussions  with other  departments and agencies,
notably  the   Department  of  Humanitarian   Affairs  and   UNDP,  on   how
institutional gaps  can be  bridged to  ensure a  meaningful continuum  from
relief  to development. It  has also  sought to  strengthen its relationship
with the  financial institutions, notably the  World Bank.  UNHCR efforts to
support reconciliation  and rehabilitation  in post-conflict  societies have
been  evident  in  the  case  of  Mozambique,  where  its strategy  for  the
reintegration of  the  1.6 million  refugees  who  have returned  since  the
signing of the Peace Agreement aims, with the endorsement  of the Government
and  major  donors, at  establishing  linkages  to  longer-term  development

  3.  Preventing refugee crises

546.     Recognizing that, without  effective preventive action, problems of
human displacement will continue to spread,  the Office has strengthened its
institution-building and training activities in  various parts of the world.
In addition,  UNHCR  and IOM  have  continued  their collaboration  in  mass
information campaigns  targeted, in particular,  at potential migrants  from
the Russian Federation and other countries of CIS.

547.     The scale  of actual and  potential problems of displacement in the
former Soviet  Union has  led to  an important  initiative,  which seeks  to
address current  problems of displacement  and prevent their  proliferation.
Further  to General Assembly resolution 49/173 of 23 December 1994, UNHCR is
engaged in preparations  for a conference that will establish a programme of
action to address the problems of  refugees, returnees and displaced persons
in the CIS countries and relevant neighbouring  States. It is expected  that
the  programme  of  action  will  include measures  to  prevent  unnecessary
movements  and  address  the   consequences  of  past,  present  and  future

548.    Most frequently, however, the  efforts of the Office have  come into
play  in  situations  where  large-scale  human  displacement  has   already
occurred.  In   such  situations,  UNHCR   has  continued   to  promote  and
participate in strategies that may help  contain fragile situations. It  has
attempted to address or attenuate, wherever  possible, the causes of refugee
flows or, failing that, to  reduce the necessity for affected populations or
individuals to  seek asylum across international  borders. As  part of these
efforts, UNHCR has, at my request, continued or expanded  its involvement in
assisting and seeking solutions for groups  of the internally displaced.  In
addition to  its programme of humanitarian  assistance for  over 1.5 million
internally  displaced  persons  in  the former  Yugoslavia,  UNHCR  has, for
example, been  engaged in  activities on  behalf of  substantial numbers  of
internally displaced  in Angola, Ghana,  Sierra Leone, Rwanda,  Afghanistan,
the Caucasus  and the  Russian Federation. These  activities are  frequently
carried  out in cooperation  with other  concerned United  Nations bodies in
the  context  of  comprehensive  approaches  to  displacement  and  conflict

  4.  Protecting the victims

549.    The scale of recent humanitarian crises has  drawn renewed attention
to the protection needs  of victims of persecution  and conflict. Among  the
challenges that  have come to  the fore are  the provision of  international
protection  to  those  seeking asylum  from  internal  conflict,  the  often
compelling protection needs of the internally  displaced, the need to ensure
the security and rights of the inhabitants of refugee camps  and the need to
restore effective  national  protection  for  those  who  have  returned  to
fragile  situations in  their  home  countries. The  importance  of  UNHCR's
protection  role  has  thus  remained  primordial   in  all  phases  of  its
activities,  be  it  in  responding  to   emergencies  or  in  pursuing  and
consolidating solutions.

550.     In the  contemporary situation, large  numbers of people in need of
international protection  have been  forced to flee their  countries because
of situations  of conflict. In view  of political  initiatives undertaken by
the  international community  to  resolve such  situations,  certain  asylum
countries have  resorted with  increasing frequency  to providing  temporary
protection  rather than making formal determinations of refugee status under
the 1951  Convention relating  to the  Status of  Refugees. UNHCR,  together
with States, has been  exploring this concept, notably in relation to  those
who  have   fled  the  former  Yugoslavia,  in  an  effort  to  ensure  that
international protection continues to be granted to all who need it.

551.      One  premise  upon which  temporary  protection  is based  is  the
expectation of resolving, within a reasonable  period, the underlying  cause
of  the outflow.  UNHCR has insisted  that temporary protection  must not be
unduly protracted before  more permanent status is granted to the victims in
situations  where  the  grounds  for  flight  have  not  been  resolved.  In
addition,  UNHCR  has   emphasized  that  the  beneficiaries  of   temporary
protection  are, in  many cases,  refugees within  the meaning  of  the 1951

552.      As the Rwanda crisis  has recently demonstrated, mass  flight from
situations of  inter-communal conflict  can lead  to  the politicization  of
refugee  camps  and  to  attendant  abuses   of  human  rights.  UNHCR   has
endeavoured to  ensure  that the  security  and  human rights  of  refugees,
including  their right  freely to  decide to return  home, are  protected in
such situations. In response to security  problems in Rwandan refugee  camps
in  Zaire and  following  close consultations  with  the  Secretary-General,
measures  were  taken  by  UNHCR  to  improve  law  and  order  and  prevent
intimidation  and violence  against refugees  and candidates  for  voluntary
repatriation  through the  deployment  of  Zairian forces,  monitored by  an
international security liaison group.

553.     The protection  responsibilities of  UNHCR also include  protecting
the human rights of returnees and other displaced persons of concern to  the
Office. UNHCR has thus continued to play a  role in monitoring the situation
of  returnees and  ensuring  that national  protection  is  restored. Recent
experience  in Central  America has  been particularly  encouraging in  this
respect. The  international colloquium held in  Costa Rica  in December 1994
to  commemorate the tenth  anniversary of  the Cartagena Declaration adopted
the San Jos_ Declaration on Refugees  and Displaced Persons, which addresses
the key  issue of harmonizing legal  criteria and  procedures to consolidate
the durable solutions of voluntary repatriation and local integration.

554.    In pursuing  its preventive and solution-oriented  activities, UNHCR
has   welcomed  United  Nations  efforts  to  establish   a  more  effective
operational  capacity  in  the  field  of   human  rights,  be  it   through
intensified human  rights field  operations or through the  establishment of
international tribunals  to prosecute the  perpetrators of grave  violations
of  human  rights and  humanitarian  law.  UNHCR  has  sought to  strengthen
collaboration  with  human  rights treaty  bodies  and  other  human  rights
mechanisms,  and  has sought  to  establish  active collaboration  with  the
United Nations High Commissioner for Human  Rights, especially at the  level
of  field operations.  Ongoing contacts  with  human rights  working groups,

rapporteurs, experts and monitors  are also an integral part of the approach
of UNHCR to link human rights concerns with the protection of refugees.

  G.  Protection and promotion of human rights

555.     The  United Nations  High Commissioner  for Human Rights,  Mr. Jos_
Ayalo  Lasso, is  the United Nations official  with principal responsibility
for the  Organization's human  rights activities  and, with  the Centre  for
Human Rights, forms  a unity of  action. The  staff of  the Centre  provides
support  for  the  activities  of  the  High  Commissioner  and  the various
programmes, procedures and organs of the human rights programme.

  1.  New directions for the human rights programme

556.     Over  the last 12 months, the Organization's  human rights work has
taken action in  response to the  need, as  seen by  Governments and  United
Nations organs,  to reach out and  apply abstract human rights principles in
concrete situations. A  growing number of countries have requested  advisory
services and  technical  cooperation in  building up  national human  rights
infrastructures.  In the  last year  well  over  100 human  rights technical
cooperation projects  have been implemented in  some 50  countries. In order
to assist in carrying out human  rights technical cooperation programmes and
at the request of Governments concerned,  the United Nations has established
human  rights field  presences in  Burundi, Cambodia,  Guatemala, Malawi and
Rwanda.  This  represents  a  new   departure  in  delivering  human  rights
assistance.  The human rights officers involved seek,  through training, law
reform, education and information, to contribute to building the  structures
of a  society respectful  of human rights  and to prevent  violations. Their
very  presence has proved  to be  a confidence-building  measure for fragile

557.       The  committees established  by  human rights  treaties are  also
focusing their  recommendations on ways the  United Nations  can help States
live  up  to  their  human   rights  obligations.  Further,  the  committees
themselves  are  undertaking   field  missions  to  understand  better   the
conditions in  which  human rights  must  be  protected,  to try  to  defuse
situations of  tension and to help  develop concrete  solutions to problems.
They  are  also increasingly  active  in  the field  of  early  warning  and
preventive action.

558.      Monitoring  human rights  violations on  the  ground  in order  to
provide  accurate  information   to  the  international  community  and   to
contribute  to bringing  serious situations  to an  end is  another area  in
which our activities have  grown. In 1993,  the first monitors were sent  to
the  field and today more than 120 human rights monitors  are to be found in
the  territory  of  the  former  Yugoslavia  and  in  Rwanda.  Further,  and
following a  resolution of  the Commission  on Human  Rights, agreement  has
been  reached to send  two monitors  to Zaire.  The role of  monitors is not
only to report on violations, but also to be active agents of prevention.

  2.  Activities of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

559.      The  activities of  the  High Commissioner  for Human  Rights have
opened new  domains for United  Nations action  to promote human  rights and
have given  direction and  provided initiative throughout  the human  rights
programme. Strengthening  international  cooperation  for human  rights  has
been a main theme. In  visits to over 30 States on all continents, the  High
Commissioner  has  sought  to  reinforce  commitment  to  international  and

national  protection of  human  rights through  discussion  with  government
officials, members of  parliament and  the judiciary. The High  Commissioner
has sought  to strengthen  the role  of civil  society  in protecting  human
rights  through contacts  with non-governmental organizations,  the academic
community, the  press and  the public.  These missions  include appeals  for
ratification of  treaties,  for cooperation  with all  United Nations  human
rights mechanisms,  inclusion of  United Nations  standards in  national law
and the  establishment of  national institutions  to  protect human  rights.
Human  rights  problems  are dealt  with  frankly  and  appropriate  actions
suggested,  including  the  revision  of  laws,  release  of  detainees  and
adoption of other measures.

560.        The  High  Commissioner's  efforts  to  strengthen international
cooperation  extend also  to cooperation  with United  Nations agencies  and
programmes, international and  regional organizations and with international
and national non-governmental  organizations. The High Commissioner has  met
with regional human  rights organizations in Europe and the Americas, and he
has  drawn  the  attention  of  high-level  international  development   and
financial meetings to the need to support human rights activities.

561.      An important aspect  of the High  Commissioner's activities is  to
help ensure that the human rights  perspective is included in  international
conferences and that the  high level of existing United Nations human rights
standards is  maintained.  The High  Commissioner took  initiatives in  this
regard in  relation  to the  World Summit  for  Social  Development and  the
Fourth  World Conference  on Women.  With  regard to  the latter,  the  High
Commissioner has given particular attention to encouraging the inclusion  of
all aspects  of the  equal status and  human rights  of women  and the  girl
child in its deliberations.

562.     The High  Commissioner has also continued  his activities aimed  at
responding to serious situations of violations and at preventing  violations
from developing  or becoming widespread. The High Commissioner has continued
to strengthen  the activities  of  his offices  in Burundi  and Rwanda,  has
dispatched  a  high-level  personal  representative  to  visit  the  Russian
Federation, including Chechnya, and has appointed a personal  representative
to the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in  the
Former Yugoslavia to deal with human rights issues.

563.       Preventing  violations often  goes  hand in  hand with  providing
advisory  services  and  technical cooperation  in  human  rights.  In  this
connection the  High  Commissioner has  established a  special programme  to
promote  and support  national  human  rights institutions.  Other areas  of
activity  are  combating all  forms  of  discrimination,  including  racism,
racial  discrimination,  xenophobia  and   related  forms  of   intolerance;
promoting  the equal status  and rights  of women; the rights  of the child;
and the  rights of minorities and  indigenous people.  Of special importance
is  the  responsibility  given  to  the  High  Commissioner  by  the General
Assembly  to  coordinate the  implementation of  the plan  of action  of the
United  Nations Decade  for Human  Rights Education.  The High  Commissioner
places  importance  on  promoting the  right  to  development and  cultural,
economic and social rights. A strategy for  the implementation of the  right
to  development and protection  of cultural,  economic and  social rights is
being developed to identify, in cooperation with relevant agencies,  treaty-
based bodies  and experts,  ways of  improving the  implementation of  those

  3.  International human rights treaty system

564.         Some  progress  has  been  made  in  ratifications  within  the
international human  rights treaty system.  As at 15  July 1995, 176  States
had accepted to  ensure and respect  the wide  range of  basic human  rights

laid down in the Convention on the Rights of the  Child. This means that the
rights of  more than  90 per cent  of the  children in the  world today  are
protected by the Convention. This is in itself  a notable achievement; every
effort  should be made  to gain  universal ratification by the  end of 1995.
Ratification  of  other treaties  has not  progressed so  rapidly: as  at 15
July,  132 States  were party  to  the  International Covenant  on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights; 130  to the International Covenant  on Civil and
Political Rights; 145 to the International  Convention on the Elimination of
All  Forms  of Racial  Discrimination;  and 140  to  the  Convention  on the
Elimination  of All Forms  of Discrimination  against Women.  Only 90 States
had ratified  the Convention  against Torture  and Other  Cruel, Inhuman  or
Degrading Treatment or Punishment and only  4 had ratified the International
Convention  on the  Protection of  the  Rights  of All  Migrant Workers  and
Members of Their Families.

565.    In September 1994, I wrote to all Member States urging  ratification
of outstanding human rights treaties. In February 1995, I wrote to Heads  of
State or  Government appealing  for ratification  of the  Convention on  the
Rights of the Child.  I am pleased with  the numerous positive responses and
I  have asked  the High Commissioner  for Human  Rights to  follow up  on my
letters and  to offer assistance  where required.  Nevertheless, new efforts
must   be  made  to  achieve  universal  ratification   of  these  important

566.     At the heart of  the international  human rights treaty system  are
the six expert committees charged with  monitoring respect for human  rights
as  laid down  in the respective  treaties: the Human  Rights Committee; the
Committee on  Economic, Social  and Cultural  Rights; the  Committee on  the
Rights  of   the  Child;  the  Committee   on  the   Elimination  of  Racial
Discrimination; the Committee  on the Elimination of Discrimination  against
Women; and  the Committee against Torture.  Together, they  review the human
rights  situation in  some 60  countries a  year. The  committees and  their
members represent a precious source of information and expertise.

567.    The committees have  been improving their methods of work, providing
more  focused   recommendations  and  carrying   out  field  missions   with
increasing frequency.  Three objectives  are shaping  their work:  increased
interaction  and  participation   of  the  specialized  agencies  and   non-
governmental  organizations; the establishment of closer connections between
the  findings of  the treaty  body concerned  and the  programme of advisory
services and technical  cooperation; and the establishment by treaty  bodies
of procedures  aimed at  preventing human  rights violations and  preventing
existing problems from escalating into conflicts.

568.      In  connection with  situations  that  require special  or  urgent
action,  the committees have  requested special  reports on  an urgent basis
(former  Yugoslavia, Croatia,  Bosnia and  Herzegovina, Haiti,  Iraq,  Peru,
etc.), undertook good  offices missions  (Belgrade, Kosovo)  or carried  out
technical assistance missions (Croatia, Guatemala, Panama). Special  appeals
have also been  issued with regard  to Indonesia, concerning East  Timor and

569.    In June I met, for the first time, with  the chairpersons of all six
treaty-based bodies. The discussion  focused on the role of those bodies  in
early warning  and preventive action, on  the greatly  increased capacity of
those bodies  to monitor  accurately the  human rights  situation in a  wide
range  of  countries  and  the  assistance  those  bodies  needed  from  the
Secretariat to  carry out  those expanded  responsibilities successfully.  I
expressed  my full support  for their  important activities  and my personal
commitment to  securing universal  ratification of human rights  treaties. I
look forward to closer cooperation with the treaty bodies in the future.

  4.   Activities  of  the Commission  on Human  Rights  and  its subsidiary

570.      The Commission  on Human  Rights is a  unique world forum  for the
public  discussion of  important human  rights issues  between  Governments,
international  organizations  and  non-governmental organizations.  Over the
years  the  Commission  has  created  numerous  human  rights   fact-finding
mechanisms  charged with  reporting on  various human  rights situations  or
types of  serious  violations, dealing  with individual  appeals and  making
suggestions for  action  to improve  respect  for  human rights.  The  human
rights  situation in 12  countries is under  review by  these procedures. In
addition,  14   thematic  mandates  have   been  established  dealing   with
particularly  serious violations,  wherever  they may  occur,  running  from
arbitrary  executions,  torture, disappearances,  exploitation  and sale  of
children, to  violence against women  and racism,  racial discrimination and
xenophobia.  This  year saw  the  appointment  of  a  special rapporteur  on
Burundi  and one  on the  adverse effects  on human  rights of  the  illicit
movement and  dumping  of toxic  waste  and  dangerous products.  Each  year
thousands of  urgent individual  cases  are transmitted  to Governments  and
some 40 field  missions are carried out. In  May a special  meeting on these
procedures  took  place  to  improve  their   operation,  to  seek  ways  of
integrating women's human  rights into  their work  and to  decide on  their
contribution to the Fourth World Conference on Women.

571.      The Commission  on Human  Rights, through various  working groups,
also   pursued  the   adoption  of   a   declaration   on  the   rights  and
responsibilities of  individuals, groups  and organs  of society to  promote
and protect universally recognized  human rights and fundamental freedoms; a
draft optional protocol to the Convention  against Torture and Other  Cruel,
Inhuman or  Degrading Treatment or Punishment  concerning visits to  prisons
or places of detention;  and a draft optional  protocol to the Convention on
the Rights of the Child on involvement of children in armed conflicts.  Work
is also under  way on guidelines  for a  possible optional  protocol to  the
Convention  on the  Rights  of  the Child  on  the sale  of children,  child
prostitution  and child pornography,  as well  as the  basic measures needed
for the prevention and eradication of those practices.

572.     The Commission  has given  close attention to the  equal status and
human  rights of  women. The  Commission's  Special Rapporteur  on  violence
against  women,  its causes  and  consequences,  submitted  her  preliminary
report to the  Commission at its last session.  The document deals with  the
different forms of violence that occur in the  family and the community  and
are  perpetrated or condoned  by the  State, and sets out  the framework for
the future work of the Special Rapporteur.  The Special Rapporteur has  also
been  actively  involved in  the  integration  of  women's  rights into  the
mainstream of  United Nations activities  in the field  of human rights,  as
called for  in  the Vienna  Declaration and  Programme of  Action. The  High
Commissioner and the Centre for Human Rights have  been helping to focus the
attention of the various  human rights organs and bodies on the human rights
input to  the Fourth  World Conference on  Women and on  the preparation  of
parallel human rights activities.

573.    The United  Nations has continued to work  for the protection of the
rights of indigenous people. The Working  Group on Indigenous Populations is
the main  forum for  interaction between  human rights  experts, Governments
and  representatives  of indigenous  people;  some  400  representatives  of
indigenous people take part each year.  The General Assembly has  proclaimed
the period 1995-2004 as the International  Decade of the World's  Indigenous
People and the Commission  on Human Rights is studying the draft declaration
on   the  rights   of  indigenous   people.   Work  continues   towards  the
establishment  of a permanent forum for indigenous people,  as called for by
the Vienna Declaration.

574.     Minorities  are another especially  vulnerable group often  needing
international action to help protect  their rights. A new  body, the Working
Group on Minorities, has  been set up with a wide mandate aimed at promoting
respect  for the  1992 Declaration  on the  Rights of  Persons  Belonging to
National  or  Ethnic, Religious  and  Linguistic  Minorities  and  examining
possible solutions  to problems involving  minorities. Further, the  General

Assembly has  asked the High Commissioner  to promote  the implementation of
the principles contained in that Declaration.

575.      The programme of action for the  Third Decade to Combat Racism and
Racial Discrimination  is a key element  in promoting  equality. The General
Assembly has recommended  that various measures and  actions be taken on the
national, regional  and international levels. High  priority is  to be given
to providing  assistance and relief to  victims of racism  and all forms  of
racial discrimination.  The possibility of convening  a world conference  on
the  elimination of racism, racial and ethnic discrimination, xenophobia and
other related contemporary forms of intolerance is being studied.

  5.  Advisory services and technical cooperation

576.     The World Conference on Human Rights, held  at Vienna in June 1993,
gave heightened  emphasis to  the need  for the  international community  to
respond to  the requests of States  for technical  cooperation to strengthen
the institutions  of human rights and  human rights  practices. The concrete
response to this is  to be found  in the programme of technical  cooperation
in the  field of human rights  implemented by the  Centre for Human  Rights.
The  programme supports  a wide  range  of  projects aimed  at, among  other
things, developing  national plans  of  action for  human rights,  providing
assistance in drafting  constitutional provisions relating to human  rights,
reforming legislation,  human rights  aspects of  elections, prison  reform,
developing  and  strengthening  national   institutions,  strengthening  the
judiciary,  training judges,  prosecutors and  lawyers in  human rights, and
training police  and the armed  forces. Technical  cooperation projects also
support regional human rights  institutions such as  the African  Commission
on Human  and Peoples' Rights,  the African Centre  for Democracy and  Human
Rights  Studies  and  the Arab  Institute for  Human  Rights. Many  of these
activities are  financed  through  the  United Nations  voluntary  fund  for
technical cooperation in  the field of  human rights  under the guidance  of
its board of trustees, composed of eminent international experts.

577.        The preventive  capacities  of  this  programme  have  grown  in
importance.  Contributions have been  made during  the past  year to support
the  peace process  in Palestine  through  the  training of  the Palestinian
Police Force, to strengthening the human  rights structures in the  Caucasus
(Armenia,   Azerbaijan,  Georgia),   to  the   peace-keeping  operation   in
Mozambique through  human rights  training  for the  ONUMOZ civilian  police
component and  in  the  former  Yugoslavia  through  training  for  UNPROFOR
officials  and  the national  police  of  the  former  Yugoslav Republic  of
Macedonia. Assistance continues in Cambodia and in Rwanda and Burundi.

  6.  Early warning mechanism

578.      The Centre  for Human  Rights has  increasingly brought  its human
rights expertise  to bear on various  activities dealing  with early warning
or  with  information  relating  to emergency  situations.  The  Centre  has
participated in the  Administrative Committee on Coordination Working  Group
on Early Warning  of New Flows  of Refugees  and Displaced  Persons and  its
subgroup on indicators. The Centre has  also contributed to the  development
of the set  of indicators for the Humanitarian  Early Warning System led  by
the  Department   of  Humanitarian   Affairs  and   to  the  framework   for
coordination project for  planning and implementation of complex  operations
in the  field. The Centre is  also an active participant  in the relief  net
project coordinated  by  the Department  and  contributed  to the  May  1995
meeting on early warning activities related to the CIS region.

579.     During the last year the United Nations  faced a major challenge in

responding  to the increasingly  varied demands  for action made  upon it by
Governments and United  Nations bodies. Initial difficulties encountered  in
fielding  complex human rights missions have now been  overcome and the High
Commissioner  is seeking the  cooperation of  countries in  building a solid
basis for  future action in the  following areas:  (a) logistical assistance
capacity on  a standby basis to  provide material,  communications and other
support needed to contribute to emergency  or preventive field missions; (b)
the establishment and maintenance of an  international roster of specialized
staff  to be  available  at short  notice for  human  rights  field missions
(investigation teams,  human rights  field officers,  legal experts,  etc.);
and  (c)  increased  contributions  to  the  voluntary  fund  for  technical
cooperation in order to  cover the financial needs of advisory service field
missions and assistance.

580.    Other action must be envisaged to  enable the human rights programme
to  respond  to  the  new  demands  of  the  Vienna  Declaration,  the  High
Commissioner's  mandate and  other decisions  of policy-making  bodies.  The
structure of
the programme and of the supporting  secretariat is being carefully reviewed
in  order to rationalize the  work programme and to  provide the substantive
and technical support needed by the programme.

    Expanding preventive diplomacy and conflict resolution

  A.  Implementing "An Agenda for Peace"

581.      In  response to  my report  entitled "An  Agenda for  Peace",  the
General Assembly adopted resolutions  47/120 A and B on 18 December 1992 and
20 September 1993, respectively. In the  first resolution the Assembly  gave
me a  clear mandate  to pursue  preventive diplomacy and  to strengthen  the
Secretariat's  capacity   in  an  early-warning   mechanism,  in  particular
collection and analysis  of information, for  situations likely  to endanger
international  peace and  security. The  Security  Council  has also  held a
number of  meetings to  examine specific proposals  made in  "An Agenda  for
Peace", and the  President of the Council has  issued some 10 statements  or
letters as part of the review process.

582.     On  3 January 1995, I issued a  position paper entitled "Supplement
to   An  Agenda  for  Peace'"  (A/50/60-S/1995/1),  in  which  I  set  forth
additional recommendations,  highlighting  the  areas where  unforeseen,  or
only partly foreseen, difficulties had arisen and where there is a need  for
Member  States  to  take  the  "hard  decisions"  noted in  my  1992  report
(A/47/277-S/24111).  I  also drew  conclusions with  regard  to the  crucial
distinction between peace-keeping and enforcement action,  as well as to the
circumstances in  which military  force is a  useful tool  of diplomacy  and
those in which it is counterproductive.

583.     In response to the Supplement,  and after intensive  discussions on
18  and  19  January  1995,  the  Security  Council  issued  a  presidential
statement  (S/PRST/1995/9) in support  of that  position paper.  The Council
welcomed and shared the priority I had given  to action to prevent conflict.
Furthermore, it  encouraged all Member States  to make  the fullest possible
use of instruments of  preventive action, including the  good offices of the
Secretary-General, the dispatch of special  envoys and the  deployment, with
the consent as appropriate  of the host country or countries, of small field
missions for preventive  diplomacy and peacemaking. Among other things,  the
Security  Council  hoped  that  the  General  Assembly,  as  well  as  other
organizations  and entities, would  accord the  Supplement a  high degree of
priority. It is encouraging to  see that the lessons  of contemporary peace-
keeping have  begun to appear  not only in  United Nations  documents but in
the training manuals of a number of Member States as well.

584.     In the  General Assembly, the  Informal Open-ended Working Group on

An Agenda for Peace  continued its work  during 1995 on issues contained  in
"An Agenda for Peace" and the Supplement.

585.     Encouraged by  such interest and in the belief that it is evidently
better to prevent conflicts through early  warning, quiet diplomacy and,  in
some  cases,  preventive  deployment,  than  to  undertake  major  politico-
military efforts to resolve conflicts  after they have broken  out, I intend
to  redouble my  efforts  to perform  the task  entrusted  to me  under  the
Charter. If the United Nations is to  play a timely and constructive role in
averting or  mitigating the  destructive effects  of complex  crises, it  is
essential  that the  various elements  of  the  Organization have  an early,
common view of  the nature of  the problem  and the  options for  preventive
action. In the Supplement, I noted  that the multifunctional nature  of both
peace-keeping  and   peace-building  had  made   it  necessary  to   improve
coordination  within  the Secretariat,  so  that  the  relevant  departments
function as an integrated whole under my authority and control.

586.       It is  in  this  context  that, following  an  initiative of  the
Department of  Humanitarian Affairs,  the three  substantive departments  of
the Secretariat, the  Department of Humanitarian  Affairs, the Department of
Political  Affairs and  the  Department of  Peace-keeping  Operations,  have
developed a flow-chart of actions    information sharing, consultations  and
joint action    for the coordination of  their respective activities in  the
planning  and   implementing  of  complex  operations  in  the  field.  This
mechanism,  known   as  the   "Framework  for   coordination",  covers   the
departments'  activities   during  routine   monitoring  and   early-warning
analysis, assessment of options for preventive action where possible,  fact-
finding,  planning and  implementation of  field operations, and  conduct of
evaluations or lessons-learned exercises.

587.      An  important element  of the  Framework for  Coordination is  the
provision for  staff-level consultations by the  three departments, as  well
as  the  United  Nations  Development  Programme, the  Commission  on  Human
Rights,  the  Department  of  Public  Information  and  other  parts  of the
Organization, to undertake joint analyses of early-warning information  from
a variety  of sources, and to  formulate joint  recommendations for possible
preventive  measures.  The   individual  departments      particularly   the
Department  of Political  Affairs    will retain the  authority to implement
preventive action, under my direction.

588.    To ensure continuous  consultation between the Secretary-General and
the Security Council and  to assist the latter  in being informed  about the
latest developments, particularly  in the area of peace-keeping  operations,
I have appointed one  of my Special Advisers, Mr. Chinmaya Gharekhan, as  my
personal representative to the  Council. Troop-contributing Governments  are
also  understandably anxious to  be kept  fully informed.  Therefore, I have
endeavoured  to  meet  their  concerns  by  providing the  Governments  with
regular briefings and by engaging them in dialogue  about the conduct of the
operation in  question. Members of the  Security Council  have been included
in such meetings,  which the  Council recently decided  to formalize. It  is
important, however, that this reform should not lead  to any blurring of the
three  distinct  areas   of  authority,  which  include  overall   political
direction that  belongs to  the Security  Council;  executive direction  and
command for which the Secretary-General is  responsible; and command in  the
field, which I entrust to the chief of mission.

589.    All  the efforts of the Security  Council, the General  Assembly and
the Secretariat  to control and resolve  conflicts need  the cooperation and
support of  other players on  the international stage.  Chapter VIII of  the
Charter  defines  the role  that  regional  organizations  can  play in  the
maintenance of peace and security. Forms  of cooperation between the  United
Nations  and   regional  organizations  include  consultations,   diplomatic
support, operational support, co-deployment and joint operations. While  the
capacity of regional organizations for peacemaking and peace-keeping  varies
considerably, none has yet developed the  capacity and experience the United
Nations has in those fields. The  United Nations is ready to  help them when

requested to  do so  and  when resources  are sufficient.  To advance  these
efforts,  I  intend   to  hold  another  high-level  meeting  with  regional
arrangements  and organizations as a follow-up to the  meeting I convened on
1 August 1994.

  B.  Preventive diplomacy and peacemaking

590.      It has  become clear that  preventive diplomacy  is only  one of a
class  of actions that  can be  taken to prevent disputes  from turning into
armed conflict. Others in this class  are preventive deployment of  military
and/or police  personnel; preventive  humanitarian action,  for example,  to
manage  and resolve  a refugee situation  in a sensitive  frontier area; and
preventive  peace-building, which  itself  comprises an  extensive  menu  of
possible actions  in the political, economic  and social fields,  applicable
especially to possible internal conflicts.

591.     All these preventive  actions share the following  characteristics:
they all  depend on  early warning  that the  risk of conflict  exists; they
require information  about the  causes and  likely nature  of the  potential
conflict so  that the appropriate preventive  action can  be identified; and
they  require the consent of the party or  parties within whose jurisdiction
the preventive action is to take place.

592.    The element  of timing is crucial. The  potential conflict should be
ripe  for  the preventive  action  proposed.  Timing  is  also an  important
consideration in peacemaking and peace-keeping. The prevention, control  and
resolution  of  a conflict  is  like the  prevention,  control  and  cure of
disease. If treatment is prescribed at the wrong moment in the evolution  of
a disease,  the patient does  not improve, and  the credibility  of both the
treatment and the physician who prescribed it is compromised.

593.     The term  "peacemaking", as used by  the United  Nations, refers to
the  use of  diplomatic  means to  persuade  parties in  conflict  to  cease
hostilities and  negotiate a peaceful settlement  of their  dispute. All the
types  of  action  that  can  be  used  for  preventive  purposes,  such  as
diplomatic peace-keeping, humanitarian  aid and  peace-building, have  their
role in  creating conditions  for successful  peacemaking, and  implementing
and consolidating the negotiated settlement for peace.

594.      The primary responsibility  for preventive action  and peacemaking
rests with the  Department of Political Affairs, headed by  Under-Secretary-
General Marrack Goulding. The Department was  created in 1992 to consolidate
the  political work of  the Secretariat  in a  single department.  There is,
however, a distinction  to be made between  the Department's roles in  these
two fields.  In the  preventive field,  its role  is to identify  the action
required, with  execution being  entrusted to the  specialist department  or
other  agency  concerned.  In  the  peacemaking field,  its  role  generally
includes execution as well.

595.    The Department of Political  Affairs has five main  responsibilities
in support  of preventive action  and peacemaking.  First,  it must monitor,
analyse and assess  political developments  throughout the world. Next,  the
Department identifies potential  or actual  conflicts in  whose control  and
resolution the  United Nations  can play  a useful  role.  It then  prepares
recommendations to the  Secretary-General about appropriate actions in  such
cases. Fourth, the Department executes the approved policy  when it is of  a
diplomatic nature.  Finally, it  assists the  Secretary-General in  carrying
out  political activities  decided by  him  and/or  mandated by  the General
Assembly and  the Security  Council in  the areas  of preventive  diplomacy,
peacemaking,  peace-keeping and  peace-building, including  arms control and

596.      The  Centre  for  Disarmament Affairs,  an  integral part  of  the
Department of  Political Affairs, provides  advice, analysis and  assessment
on all  disarmament matters and  carries out  the responsibilities entrusted
to  the Secretariat  in  this  field.  The  Electoral  Assistance  Division,
another  integral part  of the  Department, provides  services requested  by
Member  States   in  the  electoral  field.  The  Department  also  provides
secretariat  services to  the  General  Assembly, the  Security Council  and
their various subsidiary organs.

  C.  Peace-keeping in a changing context

597.      United  Nations  peace-keeping remained  a dynamic  and  demanding
activity, responding  to continuing turbulence  in relations between  States
as  well as to  armed conflict  within State  borders. Certain peace-keeping
missions  were brought  to a  successful  conclusion  and new  missions were
established   by  the  Security   Council,  while  the  status  of  existing
operations ranged from  relative stability to  high danger. In  the face  of
these   challenges,   the  Organization   continued   to   encounter   grave
difficulties in obtaining resources from Member States,  in both specialized
and properly equipped military  units and adequate financing.  At the end of
July 1995,  approximately 65,000 military  personnel, 1,700 civilian  police
and  6,000 civilian  personnel were  deployed  in  16 United  Nations peace-
keeping operations, with  an aggregate annual  budget of  approximately $3.6
billion (see table 2).

598.     In Haiti, the suspended United Nations Mission was redeployed after
a multinational  force established stable  and secure conditions.  Likewise,
in Angola, an effectively suspended United Nations peace-keeping  operation,
the  United Nations  Angola Verification  Mission, has  been newly  deployed
after the  Angolan parties,  following prolonged  negotiations under  United
Nations auspices,  finalized an  agreement  to bring  the interrupted  peace
process back on  course. In Tajikistan,  a small  United Nations Mission  of
Observers was  deployed in  support of  a negotiating  process under  United
Nations   auspices,  with  the  goal  of  national  reconciliation  and  the
promotion  of  democracy.  Two  major  missions,  in  Mozambique  and  in El
Salvador,  were  steered  to  a  commendably  successful  conclusion,   both
culminating  in  elections  monitored   by  the  United   Nations  and   the
establishment of elected Governments, with the promise of the  consolidation
of stability  in both countries. In  contrast, the  United Nations Operation
in Somalia II, long plagued by  interminable hostility between clan  leaders
who often  turned upon the  mission itself, was terminated,  with a residual
good offices mission being  maintained to assist in the search for political
compromise.  Although the  ambitious goal of reconstructing  a stable Somali
State  was not achieved,  the mission's  principal objectives  of ending the
dire conditions  of famine and  of restoring some  stability to  most of the
country were secured.

Table 2

Peace-keeping  toops,  military observers  and  civilian  police  in  peace-
keeping operations on 31 July 1995

  Troops  Observers  Police  Total

UNTSO       220      220
UNMOGIP       40       40
UNFICYP  1 163       35  1 200
UNDOF  1 063            1 036
UNIFIL  4 963            4 963
UNIKOM  859  243       1 102
UNAVEM  3 014  333  207  3 554
MINURSO  48  236  113  397

UNCRO  13 683  347  435  14 465
UNPROFOR  27 738  288  18  28 044
UNPREDEP  1 107  25  26  1 158
UNOMIG       134       134
UNMIH  5 850       841  6 691
UNOMIL  7  62       69
UNAMIR  3 792  306  59  4 157
UNMOT       39       39

   Total  63 262  2 273  1 734  67 269

599.      In recent  years, the practice of  peace-keeping, developed during
the cold war  and based on  the consent  and cooperation of the  parties and
impartiality of  United Nations forces,  with resort to  arms only in  self-
defence, has proved most  effective in multidimensional operations where the
parties  not only entered  into negotiated  agreements but  demonstrated the
political will to achieve the goals  established. However, where the climate
was one  of hostility and obstruction  instead of  cooperation and political
will, peace-keeping  came under heavy strains  and pressures.  This has been
the experience  in Bosnia and Herzegovina,  where the  United Nations itself
came under  armed attack.  While efforts  to achieve  a political  agreement
between  the  parties  remained  futile,  the  determination  to  press  for
military advantage  undermined laboriously  negotiated cease-fires,  and the
force of events on  the ground drove  the United Nations into situations  in
which  mandates assigning  peace-keeping tasks  simultaneously  with limited
enforcement  actions  proved  contradictory  and  ineffective.  The  Bosnian
Serbs'  use of military  force to  obtain their  objectives demonstrated the
perilous  balance to  be maintained  by the  international community between
the limits of a  mandate defined in response  to a particular  situation and
the larger  objective of realizing  the purposes  of the  Charter. This  has
compelled  renewed   reflection  on   the  instruments   available  to   the
international community  in its efforts  to maintain international peace and

600.       The  limits  of  peace-keeping  in  ongoing  hostilities  starkly
highlighted  by the distressing  course of  events in  the former Yugoslavia
have  become clearer, as the Organization has come to  realize that a mix of
peace-keeping and  enforcement is not  the answer to  a lack  of consent and
cooperation by the parties  to the conflict. The  United Nations can be only
as  effective  as its  Member  States may  allow  it to  be.  The  option of
withdrawal raises  the question  of whether the international  community can
simply leave the afflicted populations to  their fate. The Organization  has
been  confronted with  this issue  with  increasing  frequency, not  only in
Bosnia  and Herzegovina, but  also in  Somalia, Rwanda,  Liberia, Angola and

601.      The  international community's  response to  these situations  was
varied.  In  some cases,  it became  necessary to  rethink and  readjust the
measures  taken. Such,  often difficult,  readjustment can  be minimized  if
mandates   given   the   Organization  establish   well-defined,  achievable
objectives and have the necessary political  and material backing of  Member
States. Especially in  instances where the  Security Council  authorizes the
use of force even  to a limited extent,  under Chapter VII  of the  Charter,
the composition,  equipment and logistic support  of such  an operation must
be commensurate with the task.

602.     Peace-keeping missions have multiplied  in number and complexity in
recent years.  United  Nations personnel  in  much  larger numbers  are  now
involved  in a wider  spectrum of operations ranging  from the monitoring of
traditional cease-fires  to the  task  of armed  protection of  humanitarian
convoys,  and  from  the  control  of  buffer  zones  to assistance  in  the
implementation of peace settlements. As expectations rise and more  missions
are  deployed, the United  Nations is  finding it  increasingly difficult to
keep up with fast-moving situations. Delays  resulting from factors such  as
procedures and  readiness have meant that  local situations  could get worse

while the Organization prepares forces for deployment.

603.     The Stand-by  Forces Planning Team,  established by the  Secretary-
General,  developed  the  stand-by  arrangements  system in  1993,  and  the
process to  institutionalize it in  the Secretariat  began in May  1994. The
mandate of the Secretariat vis-_-vis stand-by  arrangements is to maintain a
system of  stand-by resources, able to be  deployed as a  whole or in parts,
anywhere  in  the world,  at the  Secretary-General's  request, with  agreed
response  times, for  United Nations  duties,  as  mandated by  the Security
Council. The system calls  for Member States to provide the Secretariat with
detailed information  regarding probable  contributions (military,  civilian
police   and  civilian   specialists)  to   peace-keeping  operations.   The
information provided  by participating  Member States includes such  data as
response  times,  capabilities,  air  and  sealift  volumetrics  as well  as
indications regarding equipment requirements.

604.     The aim of  the initiative is to reduce  mounting times for new  or
expanding peace-keeping  and enhancing  efficiency and  coordination at  the
Secretariat and  mission levels.  The stand-by arrangements system  is based
on conditional  offers by Member States  of specified  resources which could
be  made available within  agreed response  times for  United Nations peace-
keeping  operations.  These   resources  can  be  military  individuals   or
formations, civilian police,  specialized personnel (civilian and  military)
and services, as well as material and equipment.

605.     The  resources remain on  "stand-by" in their  home country,  where
training prepares them to fulfil specific  tasks or functions in  accordance
with United Nations guidelines. Stand-by resources  would be used for peace-
keeping operations  mandated  by the  Security  Council  and should  not  be
confused  with peace-enforcement units,  which are  described in  "An Agenda
for  Peace" (A/47/277-S/24111)  as  forces  meant to  respond  to  "outright
aggression,  imminent  or actual".  In  these  arrangements,  Member  States
retain  full responsibility for stand-by resources as long as they remain in
their home country. During the period  of their assignment to  peace-keeping
operations, personnel  made available by  participating Member States  would
remain in their  national service but would be  under command of the  United

606.       To  ensure its  effectiveness,  the stand-by  arrangements system
relies on detailed volumetric information on  resources specified in each of
the  stand-by arrangements.  By maintaining a comprehensive  database of the
volumetrics,  the  Secretariat  will  be  in  a  better  position  to assess
detailed requirements. Secretariat planners will  know well in  advance what
movement provisions  are  required and  what  items  should be  procured  if
deficiencies exist. In addition, procurement activities can be  pre-planned,
thereby reducing costs.

607.      So far  46  Member States  have confirmed  their participation  in
stand-by arrangements and 13  are in the process of finalizing their  offer.
The commitments made to  date do not,  however, cover the whole spectrum  of
resources  required to  mount and  execute future  peace-keeping  operations
adequately.   Deficiencies  still   exist   in  critical   areas   such   as
communications, multi-role logistics, health  services, supply,  engineering
and transportation.

608.      The Stand-by  Arrangements Management Team is  currently manned by
one United  Nations-contracted military  officer and  three  others on  loan
from Governments.  In addition,  the team  is temporarily  assisted by  four
officers  from  other teams  within  the  Mission  Planning  Service of  the
Department of Peace-keeping Operations.

609.        Potentially,  the  stand-by arrangements  system  will  offer an
effective means  of rapidly  deploying needed  resources to  new or  current
peace-keeping  missions. If  these  arrangements  are  fully built  up,  the
Secretariat would be  in a better position  to meet current challenges.  The
system's success  is totally dependent on  the support  and participation of
Member States,  since  even under  the stand-by  arrangements Member  States
will retain the right to deploy the agreed units in a particular operation.

610.     The daunting  experiences in  United Nations  peace-keeping in  the
turbulence  following  the  end  of  the   cold  war  turbulence  also  have
confronted  the Organization with  problems on  a more  practical level. The
difficulties  in securing  resources  have  led  to unacceptable  delays  in
deployment  of peace-keeping  forces  in emergency  situations  that  cannot
afford delay.  In the  Supplement to  "An Agenda  for Peace",  I urged  that
serious  thought be given to the  idea of a rapid reaction  force to provide
the Security Council with a strategic  reserve for deployment in emergencies
requiring the  immediate presence  of peace-keeping  troops.  The system  of
stand-by  arrangements does not so  far ensure the  reliability and speed of
response  which is required  in such emergencies.  It is  essential that the
necessary capabilities are reliably available when  they are needed and  can
be deployed  with the speed  dictated by the  situation. It  is evident that
Member States possess such  capabilities; what is needed is the will to make
them available for the execution of Security Council mandates.

611.     The  work of peace  has never been  without risk,  but today United
Nations personnel are  routinely required to face  dangers to their life and
health in  the  course of  unpredictable  and  risky operations  in  hostile
environments  (see fig. 16).  This is  demonstrated by  the unfortunate fact
that there have been 456 fatalities  in peace-keeping missions between  1991
and  1995  as  compared  to  398  between  1948  and  1990  (see  fig.  17).
Particularly disturbing is the tendency by  some to ignore the international
status  of United  Nations personnel  and  to  attack peace-keepers  as they
carry out their duties  mandated by the Security Council (see fig. 18).  The
Convention on the Safety of United  Nations and Associated Personnel adopted
by  the  General  Assembly  at  its   forty-ninth  session  is  of   crucial
importance,  and I urge  Governments to take the  necessary action to ensure
that the Convention enters into force as soon as possible.

612.     There is an increasing  awareness among Member  States that  public
information, both  internationally and in the  mission area,  is critical to
the  success of peace-keeping  operations. In  the planning  of recent major
operations, therefore,  the requirements  for an  information capacity  were
examined at an early stage and the resources  required were included in  the
proposed budget.

  D.   Current activities  in preventive diplomacy,  peacemaking and  peace-

  1.  Afghanistan

613.     During the period under  review the Special Mission established  in
accordance with General Assembly resolution 48/208 continued  its work under
the leadership of Mr.  Mahmoud Mestiri. Also in January 1995, the Office  of
the Secretary-General  in Afghanistan (OSGA)  was established in  Jalalabad,
until conditions could permit it to return to Kabul.

614.     I visited Pakistan from  6 to 8  September 1994 and was  briefed by
Mr.   Mestiri  on  his  intensive  consultations  in  previous  weeks  about
transitional  arrangements  which   would  lead  to  a  cease-fire  and  the
convening of  a Loya Jirga (Grand  National Assembly). I also met separately

with  various  representatives of  the party  leaders  and with  independent
Afghans. Mindful  of the  strong desire of  the Afghan people  for peace,  I
instructed Mr. Mestiri to continue his endeavours.

615.     On Mr.  Mestiri's initiative, an advisory  group of recognized  and
respected  independent Afghan  personalities  from within  and  outside  the
country met at Quetta for  19 days starting on 29  September 1994 to  advise
the   United   Nations  in   its   efforts   to   achieve  progress.   Their
recommendations  for an early  transfer of  power to  a fully representative
Authoritative  Council, a  country-wide  cease-fire, a  security  force  for
Kabul and the subsequent establishment of  a transitional government or  the
convening of a Loya Jirga were endorsed by  the Security Council in November
and subsequently by the General Assembly  in December. In October, President
Burhanuddin  Rabbani had  made a  conditional  offer  to transfer  power and
Afghanistan gave  its support  to the United  Nations peace  proposals in  a
statement issued by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (S/1994/1227, annex).

616.     Mr. Mestiri  returned to the region on 29 December 1994 and focused
his efforts on  the early transfer  of power to  the Authoritative  Council.
During January 1995, negotiations  on its membership were held with all  the
major leaders, including President Rabbani, who reiterated  his readiness to
step down on 20 February when the Council was to be set up.

617.     The military  successes of the  Taliban, a  newly established armed
force,  delayed the setting up of the Council in Kabul. Efforts were made to
include this group  in the Council  but it  declined to  participate in  the
process  directly. The convening  of the Authoritative Council was postponed
to 21 March while a committee of four personalities worked to reconcile  the
areas  of  divergence. Its  proposal that  the  Council  be composed  of two
representatives  from each  of Afghanistan's  32  provinces,  plus 15  or 20
representatives nominated  by the  United Nations to  achieve the  necessary
ethnic and political  balance, was accepted  by some,  but not  all, of  the

618.     As the date for the transfer  of power drew closer, changes in  the
political and military situation began to  accelerate. On 6 March, intensive
fighting  erupted in Kabul and  adjacent areas between the forces of General
Massoud and those  of Mr. Mazari (Hezb-i-Wahdat),  and then between those of
General Massoud and the Taliban.  The renewed fighting resulted in a virtual
stalemate in the peace process. No  nomination for the Authoritative Council
had been received by mid-April, when Mr. Mestiri departed from the area.

619.    In June, I called Mr. Mestiri to New York and, after discussing  the
new situation with him, decided that  the United Nations should  immediately
resume  its efforts towards  peace in  Afghanistan. On  my instructions, Mr.
Mestiri  visited the  region  between  18 July  and  1 August  in  order  to
reassess  the prevailing  situation. During  his  visit, he  exchanged views
with key Afghan leaders and senior  officials of the neighbouring  countries
on ways  in which  the United Nations  could assist the  peace process.  His
interlocutors included  President Rabbani, General  Dostum, Mr. Ismael  Khan
and leaders of the Taliban.

620.       I  received Mr.  Mestiri's  report on  the  latest  round  of his
activities  in  early  August and  agreed  with him  that  he should  assume
residence inside Afghanistan and pursue his  efforts to obtain the agreement
of all concerned to the modalities for the  transition to a broad-based  and
widely accepted  Government. I also decided  to enhance  the Special Mission
and  OSGA  by  stationing  additional  political  affairs  officers  in  the

621.      The United  Nations Office  for the  Coordination of  Humanitarian
Assistance to Afghanistan (UNOCHA) continued to coordinate the  humanitarian
programme  throughout  the country.  A  consolidated  appeal,  seeking  $106
million to  cover humanitarian needs  for a 12-month  period, was issued  in
October 1994. The main  targets of the appeal  were the emergency  in Kabul,

the   needs  of   the  internally   displaced  and  support   for  voluntary
repatriation  of refugees  from neighbouring  countries. The  total cash and
in-kind contributions  received during 1994  by United  Nations agencies and
non-governmental organizations for  activities outlined in the approach  are
estimated at $85 million. As a result of a mid-term review that was  carried
out early in  1995, a general  consensus has emerged among  all humanitarian
partners concerned over the need  for a new consolidated appeal covering the
period  from  October  1995  to  September  1996.  The  appeal  will include
projects covering the provision of emergency  relief to vulnerable groups in
urban  and   rural  areas,  including   internally  displaced  persons   and
returnees.  Emergency  rehabilitation projects  targeting  communities  made
vulnerable  by loss of  livelihood, basic  services or shelter  will also be

622.    When I met the  leaders of all the main Afghan factions in Islamabad
in September 1994,  I urged  them to lift the  blockade of Kabul, which  had
prevented the delivery of  humanitarian aid to the city since late June.  As
a  result, convoys  carrying over  1,500  tons  of urgently  needed supplies
reached Kabul in December. After fighting ended  in the city, regular United
Nations convoys carrying relief supplies reached  the city as of  mid-March.
Refugees and  displaced people also  began to return.  However, much of  the
southern  part of the  city is  completely devastated.  Mines and unexploded
ordnance  present a constant  danger, and  little clean  water is available.
United  Nations  agencies  and  non-governmental  organizations  are working
together  to address these  most urgent  humanitarian needs, providing food,
shelter, sanitation and health care.

623.     Throughout 1994, internally  displaced persons from Kabul continued
to arrive in Jalalabad. By  January 1995, almost 300,000 persons were living
in camps assisted by the United Nations,  the International Committee of the
Red  Cross  (ICRC)  and  non-governmental  organizations.  As  a  result  of
coordinated efforts,  the health  and nutritional status  of camp  residents
improved dramatically.

624.      Joint  United  Nations  interventions in  the humani-tarian  field
include  a  mass  immunization  campaign,  organized  by  the  World  Health
Organization  and the United  Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with
the Ministry of  Public Health and non-governmental organizations. The first
round  took  place  in  November 1994.  Following  an appeal  by  the United
Nations, a complete cease-fire prevailed  for the week of  the campaign. The
second and third rounds took place in April and May 1995.

  2.  Baltic States

625.     In  accordance with the  agreements between  the parties concerned,
the  Russian Federation withdrew  its troops  from the  territory of Estonia
and Latvia by 31 August 1994.  In a letter addressed to me on 26 August 1994
(A/49/344-S/1994/1008),  the   Permanent  Representative   of  the   Russian
Federation confirmed the guarantees that the  Russian Federation gave to the
Latvian side  that the Agreement concerning the legal status  of the Skrunda
radar station during the period of  its temporary operation and  dismantling
would  not be used  to carry  out acts directed against  the sovereignty and
security interests of Latvia.

626.       At  the  forty-ninth session  of  the  General Assembly,  it  was
generally  recognized that  completion of  the withdrawal  of foreign  armed
forces  from  the  territory  of  the  Baltic  States  would  contribute  to
enhancing  stability in Europe  and developing  better relations between the
Baltic  States  and  the  Russian  Federation.  The  General  Assembly  thus
concluded its consideration of this item.

  3.  Bougainville

627.       I  welcomed  the establishment  of  a  Bougainville  Transitional
Government in April of this  year. I am pleased to note that, following  the
signing  of the agreement  reached at  the Bougainville  Peace Conference at
Arawa last  October, and  following the  talks held  by my Special  Envoy in
August  1994 and  January 1995  with the  leaders of  Papua New  Guinea  and
Solomon Islands,  and with representatives of  all Bougainvillian groups  in
pursuance of Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/81 of 9 March  1994,
there  has  been  a marked  improvement in  the  political and  human rights
situation on the Island.

628.     Convinced that reconstruction and  rehabilitation are essential for
the strengthening  of  the peace  process,  I  dispatched a  United  Nations
inter-agency  mission to Papua New Guinea in April-May 1995. The Mission has
prepared a development  programme for the reconstruction and  rehabilitation
of Bougainville.

629.      In accordance with  the mandate entrusted  to me by  Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1995/65, I will continue to  lend my good offices to
the peace process now under way in Bougainville.

  4.  Burundi

630.     The threatening situation in Burundi has been a major preoccupation
throughout the period under review. I visited the  country on 16 and 17 July
1995. Since his appointment in November  1993, my Special Representative for
Burundi,   Mr.  Ahmedou   Ould-Abdallah,  has  actively   promoted  national
reconciliation  in  the  country  through  his  contacts  with  all  parties

631.    On 10 September 1994, all the parties  reached agreement on a system
of power-sharing and later signed a Convention of Government, with the  sole
exception  of the Parti  pour le  redressement national  (PARENA), headed by
former President  Jean-Baptiste Bagaza. On  30 September  1994, the National
Assembly elected Mr. Sylvestre Ntibantunganya, a  Hutu, as the new President
of  the  Republic  of  Burundi.  Mr.   Anatole  Kanyenkiko,  a  Tutsi,   was
reconfirmed as Prime  Minister on 3 October 1994,  and five days later a new
coalition Government, representing 7 of the  13 political parties, was sworn

632.        In  my  report  to  the  Security  Council  of  11 October  1994
(S/1994/1152), I noted  that although the  situation had stabilized somewhat
with the  election of  a new President,  it still  remained precarious.  The
international community should therefore continue to encourage the  moderate
forces in Burundi.

633.     Throughout the period under review, the Security Council repeatedly
deplored  the attempts of  extremist elements  to destabilize  the situation
further  and called  upon all  parties to  respect and  implement fully  the
provisions of the Convention of Government.  The Council dispatched a  fact-
finding  mission, the  second  in six  months, to  Bujumbura  on 10  and  11
February 1995. The mission recommended, inter  alia, the establishment of an
international commission of inquiry into the  October 1993 coup attempt  and
the  massacres  that followed,  a  substantial  increase  in  the number  of
Organization of  African Unity military  observers, the strengthening of the
office  of my Special  Representative and  the deployment  of United Nations
human rights monitors throughout the country (S/1995/163).

634.     In a presidential statement of  29 March 1995 (S/PRST/1995/13), the
Security  Council requested  me  to  report on  the  steps to  be  taken  to
establish  the commission of  inquiry recommended  by its  mission which had

visited  Burundi the  previous month.  After considering various  options, I
concluded that it was necessary to  explore the possibility of  establishing
a commission on the  truth for Burundi similar to the one that had worked in
El  Salvador. I  appointed  a Special  Envoy,  Mr. Pedro  Nikken,  to  visit
Burundi for two  weeks starting 26 June 1995.  His mission was to  determine
whether the  appropriate national entities in  Burundi were  prepared to set
up a commission on the truth. The Council also reaffirmed  its support for a
regional conference on peace, stability and  security and called with  great
urgency upon the countries  of the region to  convene such a  conference. My
Special Envoy visited Bujumbura from 28 June to 9 July 1995. In his  report,
he concluded  that neither  a commission on  the truth nor  an international
commission of judicial inquiry would be an adequate  response to the need to
put an end to impunity in  Burundi. However, an international  commission of
inquiry could be  viable and useful.  I reported  to the Council on  28 July
(S/1995/631)  with   recommendations  for  the   establishment  of  such   a

635.     The Conference on Assistance  to Refugees, Returnees  and Displaced
Persons in the Great Lakes Region, organized  by the Organization of African
Unity  and UNHCR,  took  place  as scheduled  at  Bujumbura from  12  to  17
February 1995,  in  pursuance of  General  Assembly  resolution 49/7  of  25
October  1994. The Conference  adopted a  plan of action and  decided to ask
UNDP to  organize a  round table  to assist  the countries  affected by  the
Rwandan and  Burundian refugees. Preparatory  meetings for holding the round
table are scheduled to take place from September to December 1995.

636.      On 15 February, the  Union pour le progr_s  national (UPRONA), the
main  opposition party, forced the resignation of Prime Minister Kanyenkiko.
Five days  later, Mr. Antoine  Nduwayo was  appointed Prime Minister.  On 10
March,  a new  25-member coalition  Government  was appointed.  The security
situation nevertheless remained  fragile. Violence did not subside,  despite
a reconciliation  and pacification  campaign launched by  the Government  in
April 1995, and it continued to affect parts  of the country. Two  problems,
in  particular,  were  potentially  explosive:  the  sudden  influx of  Hutu
refugees  who left  the Kibeho  camp  for  displaced persons  in Rwanda  and
crossed the northern  border of Burundi (27,000 as  of 12 May 1995) and  the
question of a shipment  of small arms and ammunition ordered by Burundi from
China  in 1992,  but blocked  in Dar  es Salaam  by  the authorities  of the
United Republic of Tanzania.

637.     A fresh outbreak of  violence in Bujumbura in  June 1995 led to the
announcement by  President Ntibantunganya of  new security measures but they
were  rejected by  the  Parliament with  the  Front pour  la  d_mocratie  au
Burundi (FRODEBU)  majority  voting against  them.  The  same month,  arrest
warrants were issued against  two Hutu extremist  leaders   former  Minister
of  the  Interior  Leonard  Nyagoma  and  his  top  adviser,  Mr.  Christian
Sendegeya,  who  had sought  refuge  in  Zaire.  The  situation was  further
aggravated by the unexpected resignation of  the Tutsi Minister for  Foreign
Affairs.  On  6  July 1995,  Mr.  Paul  Munyambari, a  Hutu  (FRODEBU),  was
appointed  Foreign Minister  in his  place.  Preparations for  the  national
debate, which  is tentatively scheduled for  November or  December 1995, are
under way.

638.     During his visit  to Burundi from 29 to  31 March 1995, the  United
Nations  High  Commissioner  for  Human Rights  received  support  from  the
President  of  Burundi  for   the  expansion  of  the  office  of  the  High
Commissioner  in Bujumbura,  opened  since  15  June  1994.  On 4  May,  the
Economic and Social Council  appointed Mr. Paulo  Pinheiro (Brazil)  Special
Rapporteur on the  situation of human rights  in Burundi. Mr. Pinheiro  paid
his first visit to the country from 21 June to 2 July.

639.       On  the humanitarian  front,  the violence  in  Burundi  severely
affected the northern provinces. Populations have  continued to flee to  the
United Republic of Tanzania and Zaire. The reduction in  the availability of
food resources to  meet regional needs has  forced the World Food  Programme
to cease distributions among the  displaced populations while  continuing to

serve refugees. This has  led to the exacerbation  of ethnic tensions within
the northern regions.

640.      The fact  that the  humanitarian  needs which  surfaced after  the
events in  October 1993  in Burundi  were largely  met by  September/October
1994 seems to  account for the general consensus within the relief community
in Burundi  that  the humanitarian  crisis  is  past. However,  although  an
emergency does not exist at present, there  remain reasons for concern about
the future.  Health and educational  services are continuously perturbed  by
ethnic  turmoil,  forcing the  international community  to  set up  parallel
administrative structures.  Dwindling international emergency resources  and
the absence of  follow-up development  assistance pose  questions about  the
Government's capacity to take over the provision of basic services.

641.     The  United Nations Development  Programme is  actively involved in
assisting the Government in its transition  from a relief-assisted State  to
one  which may  lead a  recovery effort.  A 15-month continuum  programme of
close to $3.4 million was initiated  to help elaborate sectorial strategies.
In addition, a number of conferences attract donor support.

642.       The World  Health  Organization is  implementing  a  four-pronged
assistance effort, totalling nearly  $3.9 million. The  efforts are  focused
on  strengthening   the  National   Epidemiological  Surveillance   Network,
assisting  in  the  prevention  and  control of  communicable  diseases  and
epidemics, supporting the provision of health  services to the most affected
provinces, and aiding in the prevention  and control of sexually transmitted

643.     The efforts  of UNICEF are geared towards  reinforcing the existing
health  network  as well  as  the  integration  of  preventive and  curative
services  of  health  and  nutrition,  the  provision  of  water  supply and
environmental  sanitation, supporting  basic education and  peace education,
and giving assistance to 8,000 unaccompanied  children. Over $10 million has
been contributed for these efforts.

644.     The  Food and Agriculture  Organization of the  United Nations  has
concentrated  its efforts  on  providing displaced  persons,  returnees  and
refugees  with  agricultural   tool  kits   and  seeds.  In  addition,   the
organization is involved in reforestation and  stockbreeding. A total of $12
million has been allocated for these tasks.

645.       In  addition to  providing  assistance  to  approximately 200,000
refugees, UNHCR has been  assisting 220,000 returnees  and displaced persons
and 5,000  urban  poor. UNHCR  also  provides  secondary school  and  higher
education, and  implements repatriation operations  of former refugees  from
and  to  Rwanda.  Approximately  $30  million   has  been  raised  for   the
accomplishment of these tasks.

646.       WFP  continues to  assist  the internally  displaced persons  and
returnees as  well  as 200,000  Rwandan  refugees  in Burundi,  and  150,000
Rwandan and  Burundian refugees  in Zaire.  The reduction  in regional  food
availability  has  led   WFP  to  implement  an  accelerated   reintegration
programme for the internally displaced.

  5.  Cambodia

647.      In  April 1995,  the  Royal  Government of  Cambodia agreed  to my
decision  that  the  term  of  my Representative  in  Cambodia,  whom I  had
appointed  following the termination  of the  mandate of  the United Nations
Military  Liaison Team in  May 1994,  be extended by six  months and that he
should  be  assisted  during  this  period   by  one  military  adviser.  In
accordance with his  mandate, my Representative has maintained close liaison
with the  host Government,  as well  as with United  Nations programmes  and

agencies operating in the country.

648.     The  broad cooperation between  the Government,  the United Nations
and the international community has brought  further progress to the country
during the past year. The generous pledges made at the third meeting of  the
International Committee  on the Reconstruction of Cambodia (ICORC) are clear
evidence  of the  sustained  commitment  of the  international community  to
assist the Government in its endeavours  to establish a peaceful, democratic
and prosperous State.

649.     Discussions in May 1995 between my Special Envoy,  Under-Secretary-
General Marrack Goulding, and the Cambodian  Government led to an  agreement
to introduce measures to  improve communication between  the United  Nations
Centre  for Human  Rights in  Phnom Penh  and the  Government, and  for  the
office to  continue to function  with its existing  mandate. At  that time I
issued  a personal  appeal to Member  States for contributions  to the Trust
Fund  for a  Human  Rights Education  Programme in  Cambodia. I  repeat this
appeal now.

  6.  Cyprus

650.     During the past year,  my mission of  good offices proceeded within
the overall  framework set  out by the  Security Council  in resolution  939
(1994):   to continue  to work  for progress  on both  the substance  of the
Cyprus  problem and the implementation of the package of confidence-building
measures that had been the focus of efforts during the previous period.

651.    After  my Special Representative, Mr. Joe Clark, visited the  region
in September 1994 for meetings with the Cypriot parties and the  Governments
of Greece  and Turkey,  he reported  to me  that matters  were  close to  an
impasse. The  Greek Cypriot  leader continued  to insist  on progress on  an
overall solution,  while the Turkish Cypriot  leader placed  priority on the
early implementation  of the  confidence-building measures.  In response,  I
wrote to each of  the community leaders  on 10 October 1994, informing  them
that  I had  requested my  Deputy Special Representative  to invite  them to
join him  for a number of  informal consultations.  These consultations were
to explore, in a  concrete manner, ways  in which the implementation of  the
confidence-building measures  and the  long-contemplated overall  settlement
of the Cyprus problem might be advanced.

652.     Both leaders accepted this  invitation, meeting five times  between
18  and  31  October  1994.  They  discussed  the essential  elements  of  a
federation in  Cyprus  as well  as  the  implementation of  the  confidence-
building measures, exploring a broad range  of ideas pertaining to political
equality,  sovereignty, membership  in the  European  Union, aspects  of the
federal   constitutional   arrangements,  security   and   demilitarization,
displaced persons, property  claims and territorial adjustments, as well  as
modalities for  the early establishment of the federation and implementation
of  the  confidence-building  measures.  The  ideas  broached  under   these
headings  offered  ways of  satisfying  in  an  equitable  manner what  have
consistently been  the  most deeply  held  concerns  and interests  of  each

653.     In November and  December 1994, I met  separately with each  of the
Cypriot leaders to hear  their views on  the informal meetings. I told  them
that  given the  necessary political  will,  the elements  discussed  during
their meetings  offered the possibility of  a significant  step forward both
on  the substance  of the  Cyprus  question  and on  the confidence-building
measures. I also strongly encouraged the  Turkish Cypriot leader to  respond
in a commensurate manner to the ideas that  had been broached. I  instructed
my Representatives to  pursue their contacts  with the parties  in order  to
establish the basis for  a further discussion of these issues. To this  end,
Mr. Clark travelled to the region in March and May 1995.

654.    The  continuing support of the members  of the Security  Council for
the  efforts   of  my  mission  of   good  offices   has  been  particularly
encouraging. But I regret that, in spite of  the presence on the negotiating
table of  almost all elements  required for a  just and lasting  settlement,
the negotiating process again appears to be blocked.

655.      The United  Nations Peace-keeping  Force in  Cyprus (UNFICYP)  has
continued to carry out effectively its mandate  despite the reduction of its
strength by  nearly half over the past  couple of years.  The two sides have
generally  exercised  restraint in  the past  year. However,  the continuing
quiet should not  obscure the fact that there  is merely a  cease-fire   not
peace   on the island. I continue to be concerned  by the excessive level of
foreign  troops and of  armament in Cyprus, and the  rate at which these are
being strengthened. The two  sides have not yet  agreed, in accordance  with
the  proposed package  of confidence-building  measures, to  extend  without
delay  the 1989 unmanning  agreement to  all parts of the  buffer zone where
their  forces  remain  in  close  proximity  to  each  other.  The  Security
Council's  repeated  call for  a  significant  reduction  in  the number  of
foreign troops and in  defence spending should be heeded by all concerned. I
again urge  both sides to  take reciprocal  measures to  lower the  tension,
including  mutual  commitments, through  UNFICYP,  not  to deploy  along the
cease-fire lines  live ammunition or weapons other than those that are hand-
held  and to  prohibit firing  of weapons  within sight  or hearing  of  the
buffer zone.

  7.  East Timor

656.     I  have continued to  provide my  good offices in the  search for a
just, comprehensive and internationally acceptable solution to the  question
of East Timor.  During the period under  review, I held  two more  rounds of
talks at  Geneva, on 9  January and 8 July 1995,  with the Foreign Ministers
of Indonesia  and Portugal. These talks  identified a  number of substantive
issues  for further  discussions and  explored  possible avenues  towards  a

657.       During  my  visit  to  Indonesia  in  April, I  had  very  useful
discussions with  President Suharto. I  have had  equally valuable  meetings
with President Mario Soares when I visited Portugal at the end  of August. I
also dispatched a mission to Portugal, Indonesia and East  Timor in December
1994 to consult with the two Governments and  a broad range of East Timorese
personalities on a series of ideas to help move the process forward.

658.      With the  support of the two  Ministers, I took  the initiative to
facilitate  and offer necessary  arrangements for  the convening  of an all-
inclusive intra-East  Timorese dialogue. The  dialogue does  not address the
political status  of East  Timor or  represent a  second negotiating  track.
Instead, it  is intended  to be a  forum for free  and informal  discussions
among the East Timorese on  practical ideas aimed at  creating an atmosphere
conducive  to  the achievement  of a  solution  to  the question.  The first
meeting of the dialogue was convened at Burg Schlaining, Austria, from 2  to
5  June  1995,  and was  attended  by  30 East  Timorese  of  all  shades of
political opinion.    In a  positive  atmosphere,  the delegates  reached  a
declaration  by consensus  and  produced  a number  of useful  ideas  that I
examined in July with the Foreign  Ministers of Indonesia and  Portugal. The
participants voiced their desire  to have further meetings  of this kind  in
the future. I share  this view and intend to pursue this matter with the two

659.      While deep differences  remain between the  two sides on  the core
issue of the status of the  Territory, I am convinced that a solution can be
found  through patient  dialogue.  I am  encouraged in  this  belief  by the
willingness  of the two sides to continue the dialogue and to seek a lasting
solution. I am also heartened by the desire  expressed by the East Timorese,

recently manifested at the  first session of the  dialogue, to contribute to
the peace  process. The next ministerial  meeting will take  place in London
in January 1996.

  8.  El Salvador

660.     With the  assistance of the United  Nations, El Salvador  continued
its  progress  from  a  violent and  closed  society  towards one  in  which
democratic order,  the rule of  law and respect  for human  rights are being
established.  However, as  in previous  years, significant  progress  in the
implementation of outstanding elements of the  peace accords was not without
problems or delay. These included the full deployment of the National  Civil
Police  and the completion of the demobilization of the National Police; the
reform of  the  judicial  and electoral  systems; the  transfer  of land  to
former combatants; and the conclusion of reintegration programmes for  them.
On 31 October  1994, I  reported to  the Security Council  that I deemed  it
necessary  to recommend  that the  mandate  of  the United  Nations Observer
Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) be extended until 30 April 1995.

661.     The  Government of President  Armando Calder_n Sol  and the  Frente
Farabundo  Mart_  para  la  Liberaci_n  Nacional (FMLN)  have  continued  to
express their  determination,  e.g., in  a  joint  declaration signed  on  4
October 1994, to see the peace accords promptly implemented for the  benefit
of  all  Salvadorans.    Specifically  in  the  latter  part  of  the  year,
implementation of  the outstanding  points assumed  a more  rapid pace.  For
example,  the  long-delayed  demobilization  of  the  National  Police   was
formally  effected  on 31  December  1994.  In  the  early  months of  1995,
however, the land programme slowed and some worrisome indicators emerged.

662.    In the light of these developments, I  informed the President of the
Security  Council  on  6 February  1995  of my  intention  to set  up  in El
Salvador, following  the expiration of the  mandate of ONUSAL,  a small team
of   United  Nations   officials  to   provide  good   offices  and   verify
implementation  of  the outstanding  provisions of  the  peace accords.  The
team, which would be established for an initial period of six months,  would
also provide me with a continuing flow of  information, thus allowing me  to
keep  the Council  informed of  further  developments.  On 17  February, the
Council  welcomed  my  proposal,  and  preparations  began  for  the  team's

663.     At the beginning of April 1995, I made a visit to  El Salvador, the
third occasion  on which  I  had done  so as  Secretary-General. Although  I
stressed   that  the  primary   responsibility  for  the  process  lay  with
Salvadorans, I  assured the Government  and people of  El Salvador  that the
commitment  of  the  United  Nations  remained,  despite  the  withdrawal of

664.     On 27  April 1995, the parties  to the Chapultepec Peace  Agreement
signed a programme of  work for the completion  of all outstanding points in
the  peace  accords. On  the  following  day  the  Security Council  adopted
resolution 991 (1995),  formally marking the end  of the mandate of  ONUSAL.
The new United Nations  Mission in El Salvador (MINUSAL), led by Mr. Enrique
ter Horst,  my Special Representative, began  its work as  planned on 1  May
1995.   With its  staff partly  funded by  voluntary contributions,  MINUSAL
represents  a much reduced  United Nations  presence, but  one that confirms
the Organization's ongoing support for peace-building in El Salvador.

665.     The Programme of Work  had divided the remaining  accords into  six
areas  (public  security,  land  transfer,  human  settlements,  reinsertion
programmes,  Fund  for  the  Protection  of  the  Wounded  and  Disabled and
legislative  reforms) and established  dates by which specific provisions in
each area  must be  completed.   Monthly updates  on its  progress, which  I
circulated  informally  to members  of  the  Security Council,  revealed the

continuing determination of the  parties to the peace  accords to bring them
to  completion.  Progress was  made  in  all  areas,  with the  Government's
deposit of ratification of international  human rights instruments  with the
United  Nations  Secretariat  and the  secretariat  of  the  Organization of
American States  and  its recognition  of  the  jurisdiction of  the  Inter-
American Court of Human Rights particularly to be welcomed.

666.   However, by early August  1995 it was  clear that significant  delays
had occurred in the land transfer programme (which  reached the 60 per  cent
target  set for 30 April 1995 only in the first week of July), in the design
of a  "special regime" for rural  human settlements, in the strengthening of
the National Civil Police  and in the implementation of the judicial reforms
recommended  by the  Commission on  the  Truth.  With a  little under  three
months before the expiration of its term, MINUSAL  continued to exercise its
good  offices  and  verification responsibilities  in  favour  of one  final
effort  to  bring  these  outstanding  elements  of  the  peace  accords  to

  9.  Georgia/Abkhazia

667.    My Special Envoy for Georgia, Mr. Edouard Brunner, supported by  the
Russian Federation  as  facilitator and  the Organization  for Security  and
Cooperation in Europe as participant, has  continued his efforts to  achieve
a comprehensive settlement  of the conflict,  particularly in  identifying a
political  status for Abkhazia  acceptable to  both the  Georgian and Abkhaz
sides. He has  visited the region and chaired several rounds of negotiations
and expert talks.  I visited  the Republic of Georgia  from 31 October to  2
November 1994  in order  to  explore with  the  Head  of State,  Mr.  Eduard
Shevardnadze,  and other  Georgian Government  officials how  the  political
process could be advanced.  I have also offered to assist by meeting  either
separately  or  jointly  with the  leaders  of the  two  sides. The  Russian
Federation,  acting in its  capacity as  facilitator, made intensive efforts
in 1995 to reach agreement on a  draft protocol that might provide the basis
for  a Georgian-Abkhaz  settlement. Unfortunately,  all these  efforts  have
resulted in little political progress to date.

668.       A significant  gap remains  between the  two sides  regarding the
political status of Abkhazia  within the territorial  integrity of  Georgia.
Abkhazia's  Constitution, which  was promulgated  by the  Supreme Soviet  of
Abkhazia  on  26  November  1994,  declares  Abkhazia  to  be  a  "sovereign
democratic State ...". Such constitutional arrangements are unacceptable  to
the Georgian side,  which insists on  preserving its  territorial integrity.
The  Government of Georgia  proposes to  establish a  federation for Georgia
within which Abkhazia would be granted a wide degree of autonomy.

669.     Assuming that it is possible to find  agreement on a draft protocol
now under discussion, a prolonged period  of detailed negotiations will have
to  follow in  order  to  agree on  ways  to implement  a  settlement.  Such
negotiations will  require continuous  attention in  situ. I have  therefore
decided  to appoint  a deputy to my  Special Envoy, who will  be resident in
the  area and  thus  able  to provide  a  continuous presence  at  a  senior
political level. Following the precedent of  other operations, such as those
in Cyprus and  Tajikistan, the  Deputy will also be  the head of the  United
Nations Observer Mission in  Georgia (UNOMIG). In carrying  out the tasks of
political contact and negotiation, the Deputy  will divide his time  between
Tbilisi and  Sukhumi  and will  travel as  necessary  to  Moscow for  direct
consultations with the Russian authorities.

670.      UNOMIG  has been  fulfilling  the tasks  mandated by  the Security
Council  in  resolution  937  (1994)  of  21  July  1994. It  maintains  its
headquarters  at Sukhumi,  but because  of  the unavailability  of  suitable
accommodation in that city, part of the Mission's headquarters  staff is now
stationed in Pitsunda. The Mission also has a liaison office in Tbilisi  and
three sector  headquarters     at Sukhimi,  Gali and  Zugdidi. In  addition,

UNOMIG  has six  team site  bases:  three  in the  Gali region,  two in  the
Zugdidi region and one in the Kodori Valley.

671.     The Government of Georgia  and the Abkhaz  authorities have largely
complied with the  agreement of 14 May 1994  on a cease-fire and  separation
of  forces. All  armed forces  have been  withdrawn from the  security zone,
although a few pieces of non-operational  heavy military equipment remain in
the restricted weapons zone.

672.       The  situation in  the  security  and restricted  weapons  zones,
especially in  the Gali  region, has been  tense. One of  the most  pressing
problems in  the security  zone  has been  the  presence  on both  sides  of
unauthorized weapons  among the  population, and  among some  of the  Abkhaz
militia, as well as the Georgian police. In  addition, armed elements beyond
the control of  either the Government of  Georgia or the Abkhaz  authorities
have been  responsible  for criminal  activities  in  the Gali  region.  The
situation in  the Kodori  Valley, which had  been tense towards  the end  of
1994, has now calmed  down. The relations on  the ground between  the Abkhaz
and the  Svan have  been satisfactory,  with a  slow but steady  build-up of
mutual confidence.

673.      UNOMIG has  reported that  the Commonwealth of  Independent States
(CIS)  peace-keeping force  has been  conducting its  operations within  the
framework of  the agreement of  May 1994, and  any variation  from the tasks
set  out in the  agreement has  been made in consultation  with the parties.
Cooperation  between UNOMIG and  the CIS  peace-keeping force  has been very
productive. Cooperation  between UNOMIG  and the Government  of Georgia  and
the  Abkhaz  authorities has  also been  satisfactory.  Through its  liaison
office in Tbilisi, UNOMIG has been cooperating with OSCE.

674.     In  pursuance of paragraph  10 of Security  Council resolution  937
(1994), I have established a voluntary fund for contributions in support  of
the implementation  of the agreement of 14 May 1994 for humanitarian aspects
including demining,  as specified by the  donors, which  will facilitate the
implementation of UNOMIG's mandate. One pledge has been made so far.

675.      At independence,  the people  of Georgia  had one  of the  highest
standards  of living among the  republics of the former Soviet Union. Today,
the country is  racked by political instability,  civil strife on two fronts
and  the displacement of some  270,000 people. Lack  of foreign exchange for
essential  inputs, such  as fuel,  and hyper-inflation  have devastated  the
economy. Agricultural production contracted in 1994  for the fourth year  in
succession. In the break-away  region of Abkhazia,  some 75 per cent of  the
original inhabitants have  reportedly fled civil  conflict into  other parts
of Georgia and the area remains the scene  of extensive destruction. In some
areas, large numbers of mines have been laid and roads are impassable.

676.       Of  all  the  difficulties  currently  facing  Georgia, the  most
immediate  are the  scarcity of basic  foods and the  critical energy supply
situation.  After several  years of  huge  budget deficits,  the  Government
lacks the  resources  to ensure  the  continued  provision of  basic  social
services.  Many  primary  health-care  units  and  hospitals  are unable  to
function  because of shortages  of medicines  and equipment.  Health care is
now almost entirely dependent on international humanitarian assistance.

677.      In  addition, large  numbers of  orphans, abandoned  children  and
people in need of special education  are currently living in  extremely poor
circumstances because  of reduced  government spending.  Most lack  adequate
food, bedding, warm clothes and learning  materials. As in the  neighbouring
Caucasus republics, textbooks and school materials  are in short supply  and
many school buildings urgently need rehabilitation.

678.    There  has also been little progress in  the return of  refugees and
displaced persons  to Abkhazia.  Though voluntary  repatriation under  UNHCR
auspices commenced in  mid-October 1994, movement as  at December 1994 of  a
mere 311  persons out of  an estimated total 250,000  refugees and displaced

persons has been very  disappointing. Since the end of November 1994, formal
repatriation has virtually  halted, and the Quadripartite Commission has not
met   since  16   February  1995.   About   20,000  persons   have  returned
spontaneously to the Gali district.

679.     The  Abkhaz side continues to object to  the large-scale and speedy
return of  refugees and  displaced persons.  Its offer  of 17 April  1995 to
repatriate 200  persons a week and to  be more flexible with regard to those
refugees and displaced  persons returning spontaneously does not meet  UNHCR
requirements  for a meaningful  timetable. The continued delay in resettling
internally displaced  persons to Abkhazia  has placed a heavy  burden on the
economy  of  Georgia, weakening  its  capacity  to recover  and exacerbating
social and  political tensions. The Abkhaz  side continues  to link progress
on  the  question  of  refugees  to   progress  on  political  issues.   The
authorities  are  withholding  thousands  of  other  applications  and  have
refused  to  process further  requests  owing to  a  stalling of  the  peace
negotiations on both sides.

680.    As part of its efforts to move from a  centrally planned to a market
economy, the Georgian  Government is  taking steps towards economic  reform.
The  task  of transferring  the  State-run  economy  into  private hands  is
daunting and has, in itself, inflicted  severe social and economic hardship.
In  1994,  subsidies  for  important  staples  were  progressively  removed,
resulting in  price  increases. Further  liberalization of  prices for  most
commodities  will be  progressively  instituted during  1995.  Although  the
minimum  wage and pensions  have also  been increased,  these reforms cannot
keep pace with rising inflation.

681.      In  the light  of these  problems, the Department  of Humanitarian
Affairs  led an inter-agency  mission to Georgia  in February  1995, for the
second  consecutive year, to assess  the needs of the  country and formulate
an inter-agency  consolidated appeal  for the  Caucasus, including  Georgia,
and covering the period from 1 April 1995 to 31 March 1996.  That appeal was
launched  at Geneva  on  23  March 1995.  Activities covered  in  the appeal
include   relief   projects    to   be   undertaken   by   United    Nations
agencies/programmes  and non-governmental  organizations  in the  food, non-
food,   shelter  and  health   sectors,  as   well  as   projects  aimed  at
strengthening the country's self-reliance in a post-emergency phase.

682.     On 19 May 1995, the Quadripartite Commission convened  in Moscow to
explore   once  again   the  possibilities   for  resuming   the   voluntary
repatriation programme  under  the auspices  of  the  Office of  the  United
Nations High Commissioner  for Refugees. Representatives of UNHCR  presented
a concrete timetable for such returns,  under which the displaced population
from the Gali district would have returned before  the end of 1995.  Despite
strenuous efforts  to  obtain a  more  flexible  response, the  Abkhaz  side
maintained its previous position of April 1995 of  allowing only 200 persons
per week to return. This continues to be unacceptable to the other parties.

683.     Minor improvements to security conditions in the Gali district have
resulted  in increased  daily movements  back  and  forth across  the Inguri
River by displaced  persons, primarily to the  lower security zone,  to work
in the fields,  trade or repair houses. Some  of these persons have  decided
to  stay  in  the  Gali  district  as  long   as  security  does  not  again
deteriorate.  The  size of  the  semi-resident  population is  estimated  at
25,000  to  35,000 persons.  However,  large  numbers  continue  to live  in
difficult circumstances,  placing great strain  on the  Georgian economy, on
human relations and on local services. In these  circumstances, the level of
frustration  and  distress  is  very  high,   leading  to  calls  for   mass
spontaneous repatriation.

684.       As  of July  1995, $9.4  million, representing  25.7 per  cent of
funding  requirements for Georgia,  had been  contributed to  the appeal, as
reported to  the Department of Humanitarian  Affairs by  agencies making the
appeal. A  mid-term review  of the appeal  will be launched  in late  August
1995, to  review both  the implementation of  the projects presented  in the

appeal and the funding  situation, and to present plans for the continuation
of activities until the end of the appeal period.

  10.  Guatemala

685.    During the reporting period,  negotiations between the Government of
Guatemala and  the Unidad Revolucionaria  Nacional Guatemalteca (URNG)  have
continued under  the auspices of  the United Nations. While  advances in the
process have  been uneven, the establishment  of the  United Nations Mission
for the Verification of Human Rights  and of Compliance with the Commitments
of the  Comprehensive Agreement on Human  Rights in  Guatemala (MINUGUA) and
the signing of  the Agreement on Identity  and Rights of Indigenous  Peoples
are encouraging development.

686.     Taking into account progress made during the  first half of 1994 as
well as Commission on Human Rights resolution  1994/58, I recommended to the
General Assembly  in my report  of 18  August 1994  (A/48/985) the  earliest
establishment  of a human  rights verification  mission in  Guatemala. On 19
September  1994, by resolution 48/267, the Assembly  established MINUGUA for
an initial period of six months, and I appointed Mr. Leonardo Franco as  the
Mission's Director.  MINUGUA was  officially inaugurated  in November  1994.
With eight  regional offices,  five  subregional offices  and an  authorized
strength of 245  international staff, the  Mission represents  a significant
effort by the United Nations in  human rights verification and  institution-
building.  It is also the most  tangible result so far of  the talks between
the Government of Guatemala and URNG.

687.     After the signing of five agreements between January and June 1994,
the pace of the negotiations  slowed down during the last  six months of the
year. On 28 December  1994, I expressed my  concern to the  General Assembly
and the Security Council and stated  that the time-frame originally foreseen
for  the conclusion  of  a peace  agreement would  have  to be  revised.  In
addition, I wrote  to the parties to ask  them to renew their commitment  to
the process  and to  indicate the  steps they would  be prepared to  take to
allow it to regain momentum.

688.     As a result  of initiatives by the Secretariat,  the parties agreed
in  February   1995  to   several  proposals  aimed   at  facilitating   the
continuation of  the talks, including  a new  time-frame. On  that basis,  I
informed  the General  Assembly  and  the Security  Council that  conditions
existed for  further  United  Nations  involvement  in  the  peace  process.
Negotiations  were resumed  soon thereafter  and the  landmark Agreement  on
Identity and Rights of  Indigenous Peoples was  signed at Mexico City on  31
March  1995.  Immediately   afterwards,  preparatory  work  began  for   the
negotiation of the next item of the  agenda   socio-economic aspects and the
agrarian situation.

689.     On 1 March  1995, I transmitted to  the General Assembly  the first
report of the Director  of MINUGUA (A/49/856 and Corr.1, annex), in which he
acknowledged the  cooperation received from  the parties, the  international
community and  the agencies  of the United  Nations system.  With regard  to
MINUGUA's  verification mandate,  the Director confirmed the  existence of a
pattern  of  serious   human  rights  abuses   and  widespread  impunity  in
Guatemala.  He also  summarized MINUGUA's  institution- building activities,
aimed  at strengthening  those  national institutions  responsible  for  the
protection  of  human  rights.  On  31  March  1995,  the  Assembly  renewed
MINUGUA's mandate for a further six months.

690.     In April,  I visited  Guatemala to review  the work of MINUGUA  and
progress  in  the  peace  process.  I  congratulated  the  parties  on their
achievements so  far, in particular the Agreement on Identity  and Rights of
Indigenous  Peoples,  but  I  stressed  that  their  continued   commitment,
perseverance  and  political will  were  essential  if  the  process was  to

succeed. I emphasized that the efforts  of the Guatemalans towards  national
reconciliation would  be  backed  by the  international community  with  the
United Nations as its  instrument. As a follow-up  to my visit,  I appointed
Mr.  Gilberto  Schlittler  as  my  Special  Envoy  for  the  Guatemala Peace

691.     On 29 June, I transmitted to the General Assembly the second report
of  the  Director  of  MINUGUA  on  human  rights  (A/49/929).  The Director
concluded  that progress  achieved since  the installation  of the  Mission,
while  insufficient, demonstrated that  with political will from the parties
and  commitment on  the  part  of society  as a  whole, it  was  possible to
improve the situation of human rights in Guatemala.

692.     Currently, the parties are negotiating on several items,  including
the socio-economic  aspects and the agrarian situation. Several items remain
to  be considered, namely,  the strengthening of civilian  power and role of
the army in  a democratic society, the  reintegration of URNG into political
life,  a definitive  cease-fire, constitutional  reforms and  the  electoral
regime  and,  lastly,   a  schedule  for  implementation,  enforcement   and

693.      Guatemala is  now in  the first  stages of  an electoral  campaign
leading  to  presidential   elections  scheduled  for  November  1995.   The
timetable  I  proposed in  February  1995  partly  intended  to ensure  that
electoral considerations would not  affect the negotiations. It now appears,
however,  that the negotiations  and the  electoral process  will overlap in
time. This complex situation notwithstanding, I  hope that the parties  will
be able to proceed  steadily towards the signing of a final peace agreement,
as early as possible in 1996.

  11.  India and Pakistan

694.    Since 1949, the United Nations Military  Observer Group in India and
Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has been deployed to monitor the cease-fire in Jammu  and
Kashmir. India  and Pakistan have affirmed  their commitment  to respect the
cease-fire line and  to resolve the issue  peacefully in accordance with the
Simla Agreement of 1972. The  increasing reports of incidents of violence in
Jammu  and  Kashmir  have  further  aggravated  relations  between  the  two
countries. These  developments highlight the  urgency of seeking a political
solution  through  a  meaningful   dialogue.  In  this  connection,  I  have
maintained contacts with both Governments and  visited the two countries  in
September 1994. I reiterated to them my readiness,  should they so wish,  to
render whatever  assistance may be needed  to facilitate their  search for a
lasting solution.

  12.  Iraq-Kuwait

695.       During the  past  year,  I have  continued  to  stress  to  Iraqi
representatives  the importance of Iraq's cooperation in implementing all of
its obligations as expressed in the resolutions of the Security Council.

696.    Further  significant progress was made by the United Nations Special
Commission (UNSCOM), headed by Mr. Rolf  Ekeus, and the International Atomic
Energy  Agency  (IAEA) Action  Team in  the implementation  of section  C of
Security  Council  resolution 687  (1991),  concerning  the  elimination  of
Iraq's  weapons of  mass destruction  and long-range  missile  capabilities.
They completed the process of establishing a  system to monitor Iraq's dual-
purpose  industries  (i.e., those  that have  non-proscribed uses  but which
could be  used to acquire banned  weapons capabilities)  aimed at monitoring
Iraq's  compliance  with  its  obligations  not  to  reacquire  such  banned

capabilities. This system became operational in April 1995.
697.     Further  refining of the  system will continue  as UNSCOM and  IAEA
gain experience in  operating it, but all the elements of the system are now
in place. Some 120 remote-controlled monitoring cameras  have been installed
at over  28 sites  and linked  in real time  to the  Baghdad Monitoring  and
Verification Centre. Twenty or so automated  chemical air samplers have been
installed at  sites, and  a highly  sensitive chemical  laboratory has  been
installed in  the Centre  to analyse these  samples. The Centre  also has  a
biological preparation  room to prepare and  package biological samples  for
shipment  to  laboratories in  other  countries.  Communications  have  been
upgraded  to perform the  new tasks  associated with  ongoing monitoring and

698.    Resident teams  of inspectors in each of the weapons disciplines are
now  operating   full-time  out   of  the   Centre.  Their  activities   are
supplemented by  aerial  inspection  and  surveys conducted  using  a  high-
altitude surveillance aircraft provided by the  United States.  These aerial
assets  remain key  to  the ability  of  UNSCOM  and  IAEA to  fulfil  their
mandates  as they provide  the initial  survey capability  to identify sites
which might need  to be inspected and ensure  the ability to conduct  short-
notice inspections of sites as necessary.

699.    Efforts continue to elucidate and hence account for all elements  of
Iraq's past  banned weapons  capabilities. Much  progress has  been made  in
this regard but major issues remain in the biological area.

700.     UNSCOM and IAEA  also, in accordance with paragraph 7 of resolution
715  (1991),  submitted  in  May  1994   a  proposal  for  an  export/import
monitoring  mechanism which would  require that  all exports  be notified by
both Iraq  and  the Governments  of the  exporters  to  a joint  unit to  be
established in New York by UNSCOM and the IAEA Action Team.

701.       I wish  to  express my  appreciation  to  those Governments  that
contributed  to UNSCOM operations,  and in  particular to  the Government of
Germany, which generously provided the Special  Commission with air  support
in the form of both C-160 transport aircraft and CH-53G helicopters.

702.      In November  1994, the Government  of Iraq took  an important step
forward  by  affirming  its  recognition  of  the  sovereignty,  territorial
integrity and  political independence of  Kuwait. The  United Nations  Iraq-
Kuwait  Observation Mission  (UNIKOM) has  continued to  operate within  the
demilitarized zone established on both sides of the border  between Iraq and
Kuwait. In December 1994,  Iraq formally recognized the international border
demarcated by  the United Nations in  1993. The situation  has been calm  in
the Mission's area of responsibility.

703.    The United Nations Coordinator for the return of  property from Iraq
to  Kuwait  has  continued  to  facilitate  the  hand-over  of  property. In
September  1994, Iraq  informed me  that once a  damaged C-130  aircraft had
been dismantled  and  returned, it  would  have  "nothing else  whatever  to
return". Kuwait  responded by transmitting  to me  what it described  as "an
indicative but far  from exhaustive list" of  Kuwaiti property that  had yet
to be  returned. It  has also  stressed the  importance it  attaches to  the
return of irreplaceable archives.

704.     In  January 1995, Kuwait  transmitted a  list of military equipment
belonging  to the  Ministry of  Defence that  it  claimed  was still  in the
possession of  Iraq. Arrangements were made  for the  hand-over, which began
on 22  April 1995 and  continued into July  1995. On  many of  the hand-over
documents  signed  by  the  parties,  Kuwait  complained  of  the  state  of
disrepair  of the items  returned while  Iraq, for its part,  noted that the
vehicles had  been "brought as is  from Kuwait". Kuwait  also noted that  of
120 armoured personnel  carriers handed over, only  33 were found  to belong
to Kuwait.

705.     Among a number of urgent humanitarian issues to which the situation

between  Iraq and Kuwait has given rise is the fate  of over 600 Kuwaiti and
third-country nationals who are still missing in Iraq. I have urged Iraq  to
cooperate with the International Committee of the Red  Cross so that a  full
accounting may be achieved.

706.        The  suffering  of  the Iraqi  civilian  population  is  also of
considerable concern  to me.  On a  number of  occasions I have  urged Iraqi
officials to accept the Security Council's  "oil for food" formula described
in resolutions 706  (1991) and 712  (1991). I believe  the Council's  latest
offer  in resolution  986 (1995)  addresses  the  humanitarian needs  of the
Iraqi  people  while  taking into  account  a number  of  concerns Iraq  had
previously expressed  over resolutions  706 (1991)  and 712  (1991).  I  can
only  regret that  Iraq has  not  yet  accepted this  temporary humanitarian
measure, which  would indeed  be an  important step  towards overcoming  the
crisis which exists between Iraq and the international community.

707.     I have made every effort to comply with Security Council resolution
778  (1992), of  2  October 1992,  in  which  the  Council requested  me  to
ascertain the whereabouts and amounts of  assets related to Iraqi  petroleum
and  petroleum products which could  be deposited to the  escrow account, as
well as  the existence of  any Iraqi petroleum  and petroleum products  that
could be  sold. I regret to note  that no further  funds have been deposited
into  the account  as a  result of  my effort  to seek  information on  such
assets directly from  Governments with jurisdiction over relevant  petroleum
companies  and their  subsidiaries. As  at  1  August 1995,  $365.5 million,
representing voluntary  contributions and Iraqi  petroleum assets, had  been
deposited  into the  escrow account  since  the  adoption of  resolution 778

708.    The United Nations recognizes  Iraq's obligation to pay compensation
to the victims of its aggression.  The Commission established to  administer
the United  Nations  Compensation Fund,  provided  for  in paragraph  18  of
Security  Council  resolution  687 (1991),  has held  four  regular sessions
since August  1994. During that period,  its Governing  Council has approved
the  reports  and recommendations  of  Panels  of  Commissioners and  issued
decisions  for three  instalments of  category "A"  (departure) claims;  two
instalments of category "B" (serious personal  injury and death) claims; and
one instalment  of category "C" (individual  losses up  to $100,000) claims.
In issuing  its decisions, the Governing  Council awarded  over $1.3 billion
in compensation to 354,920 successful claimants.

709.     Unfortunately,  with the  exception of  approximately $2.7  million
paid to the first 670 successful claimants in  category "B" in May 1994, and
approximately $8.1  million to  be paid to  2,562 category "B"  claimants in
1995, depending on the  availability of funds,  the remaining awards of  the
Compensation  Commission have gone  unpaid owing  to the  lack of sufficient
resources in the Compensation Fund.

710.      During 1994,  the lack of  adequate funding  affected all  sectors
covered by the United Nations Inter-Agency Humanitarian Programme. In  terms
of food assistance, the bulk  of donations was earmarked for the "Autonomous
Region"  (Governorates  of Erbil,  Dohuk  and  Suleimaniyah).  According  to
reports  of the  World Food  Programme, approximately  70 per  cent  of food
requirements  had been met in the north  and only 40 per cent  in the centre
and south. As  a result  of lack of resources,  a substantial amount of  the
food destined for the  centre and south was  covered by counterpart matching
funds from the United Nations escrow account.

711.      Health  conditions have  continued to  deteriorate throughout  the
country because  of shortages of essential  drugs and  medical supplies. The
situation is  further aggravated by the  inadequate supply  of potable water
and poor sanitation facilities, as essential  equipment and spare parts  are
lacking to rehabilitate the water, sewage and electricity supply systems.

712.       With  respect  to  security, since  early  December  1994,  armed
conflicts  between members  of the  two  major  political parties  have been

reported  in the northern  governorates of Erbil and Suleimaniyah. Moreover,
the recent  Turkish military operations on  the Turkish/Iraq  border, and in
particular near Zakho (Dohuk Governorate),  resulted in restrictions  on the
movements of humanitarian aid workers and relief commodities.

713.    By the end of April 1995, the strength of the United Nations  Guards
Contingent  in Iraq had  been reduced from a high of  over 500 in 1991 to 50
guards, the majority deployed in the  "Autonomous Region" for the protection
of  humanitarian  personnel.  As a  result  of  recent  donor  contributions
received  in support of  the Guards  Contingent, arrangements  are under way
for the assignment  of an additional 100 guards  during the summer of  1995.
In  a tense and  volatile environment  such as Northern  Iraq, the continued
presence of the Guards Contingent is  required to protect United Nations and
non-governmental organization  personnel as  well as  assets and  operations
linked with the United Nations Inter-Agency Humanitarian Programme.

714.    Under the  previous appeal (covering the period from 1 April 1994 to
31  March 1995),  the  United Nations  Inter-Agency  Humanitarian  Programme
continued  to  provide  humanitarian  assistance  to  vulnerable  population
groups  throughout  the country.  Projects  implemented  by  United  Nations
agencies  and  programmes  and  humanitarian non-governmental  organizations
covered  all the priority  sectors included  in the  appeal, with particular
emphasis on  food, health,  water and sanitation,  agriculture, shelter  and
rural  integration,  and  education. Response  to  the  previous appeal  was
inadequate,  with  approximately  51  per  cent  ($146  million) of  overall
Programme requirements ($288.5 million) covered by allocations of  voluntary
contributions, "matching" funds from the United Nations escrow account,  and
by carry-over from  the previous phase. From this amount, funding for United
Nations-directed  humanitarian activities  amounted to  $92.5 million, while
contributions made  available to humanitarian non-governmental organizations
and other direct/bilateral programmes amounted to $53.5 million.

715.    On 21 March 1995 at Geneva, during  a donor consultation meeting for
Iraq, the United  Nations launched a consolidated inter-agency  humanitarian
appeal for  Iraq covering  the period  from April  1995 to  March 1996.  The
Programme,  which calls  for  a total  of  $183.3  million,  is designed  to
address only the most essential needs  to sustain relief and  rehabilitation
activities  as well as to  prevent a further deterioration of the conditions
affecting  the most  vulnerable population  groups throughout  the  country.
Since   April  1995,  approximately  $27   million  (representing  voluntary
contributions and "matching"  funds from the United Nations escrow  account)
has been pledged/received  in support of United Nations-directed  activities
in  Iraq. In addition,  a number  of direct contributions have  been made in
support  of   humanitarian  non-governmental  organizations  and   bilateral
programmes in northern Iraq.

716.     Under the current appeal,  humanitarian needs continue to  increase
in practically all  sectors covered by the  Programme, in particular in  the
nutrition and  health sectors. By  all accounts,  children are  increasingly
dying of ailments  linked to malnutrition and lack of adequate medical care.
The  World Health Organization reports  a rise in  tuberculosis and an acute
shortage of essential drugs and medical equipment  in hospitals. At least  4
million  people are  in need  of food  assistance and  hunger  threatens the
lives of over  1 million among  them. As of  June 1995,  because of  rapidly
depleted food  stocks in the "Autonomous  Region", the  World Food Programme
decided to  reduce food distributions from  350,000 to  only 300,000 people.
In the Centre and south, from a targeted 550,000 case-load, WFP was able  to
continue feeding only some 60,000 vulnerable people  in social institutions.
The  support of the  international community  is urgently  required to cover
outstanding needs  for the  procurement and  warehousing of food,  medicines
and shelter materials before the onset of winter.

  13.  Korean peninsula

717.      I  have continued  to follow  closely developments  in  the Korean
peninsula. I am pleased to note that, in  implementation of the October 1994
Framework Agreement between the  Democratic People's Republic  of Korea  and
the  United States of  America, the two countries  reached agreement in June
on the  provision of  two light-water  reactors to  the Democratic  People's
Republic of Korea and  that discussions are  in progress on the question  of
safe storage of  the spent  fuel removed  from that  country's reactors.  In
addition, trade and  communications barriers between the two countries  have
been lowered,  and liaison offices in  the respective  capitals are expected
to open in the near future.

718.       Hopefully,  progress in  these  areas will  contribute to  steady
improvement of  the situation  on the Korean  peninsula, especially  through
the re-establishment of the North-South dialogue.  I remain ready to provide
any good offices  which the parties  might find useful. I plan  to visit the
Republic of  Korea in  September 1995  and intend  to go  to the  Democratic
People's  Republic of  Korea in  the first  half  of 1996  on a  mission  of

  14.  Liberia

719.       The  United Nations  Observer  Mission in  Liberia  (UNOMIL)  was
established under Security Council resolution 856  (1993) of 10 August  1993
to  work with  the Monitoring  Group (ECOMOG)  of the Economic  Community of
West African  States (ECOWAS)  in the  implementation of  the Cotonou  Peace
Agreement signed  between the  Liberian parties  on 25  July 1993.  However,
delays and obstacles created by different  Liberian factions with respect to
the  Agreement necessitated  a range  of subsequent  agreements between  the
factions, and  the work of  UNOMIL had to  continue far  beyond the original
time-frame of the Security Council resolution.

720.     Initial  progress was made  under the Cotonou  Peace Agreement  and
this encouraged  the Security Council,  by its resolution  911 (1994) of  21
April 1994, to extend the mandate of UNOMIL until  22 October 1994, with the
expectation  that  the  Mission  would   be  terminated  in  December  1994.
Subsequently, the  situation in  Liberia took  a negative  turn as  fighting
intensified  between  factions  and  the  whole  peace  process  came  to  a

721.     My Special Envoy, Mr. Lakhdar  Brahimi, visited Liberia from 16  to
26 August 1994 in order  to assist me in determining  options for the United
Nations  in facilitating the peace process. Shortly thereafter, the Chairman
of  ECOWAS, President Jerry  Rawlings of  Ghana, convened  a meeting  of the
factions  at  Akosombo, Ghana,  on  7  September to  review  the  delays  in
implementing the  peace process.  This meeting  resulted in  the signing  at
Akosombo,  on 12  September, of  a  supplementary  agreement to  the Cotonou
Peace Agreement.

722.    The conclusion  of the Akosombo Agreement coincided  with an upsurge
of  fighting in  Liberia and,  on  9 September,  43 unarmed  United  Nations
military  observers  and  six non-governmental  organization  personnel were
detained.  By 18 September,  they had  all been released  or otherwise found
their way  to safety. In  September 1994, with  the breakdown  in the cease-
fire, and  the fact that  the security of  unarmed military  observers could
not  be assured,  I restricted  UNOMIL  military  operations to  the greater
Monrovia  area  and  reduced  the  Mission's  military  component  from  its
authorized strength of 368 to approximately 90 observers.

723.    In mid-November,  I sent a high-level mission,  led by the Assistant
Secretary-General for Political Affairs, to the  region to consult with  the
Chairman of ECOWAS and the heads of ECOWAS States on how best to revive  the
peace process. Soon thereafter, the Chairman  of ECOWAS carried out  further

consultations with  the Liberian parties and  interest groups,  which led to
the signing of a further agreement at Accra on 21 December 1994. 

724.     The Accra Agreement, unlike  the Akosombo Agreement,  was signed by
all the Liberian factions and attempted  to clarify the Akosombo  Agreement.
Other than a new cease-fire  which came into effect on 28 December 1994, the
factions  failed to  implement all  the  other major  elements of  the Accra
Agreement,  including  the decision  to form  a  new  Council of  State. The
cease-fire, while re-established on 28 December,  again broke down in  early
February 1995.

725.     On  28 December,  my new  Special Representative  for Liberia,  Mr.
Anthony  Nyakyi  (United  Republic  of  Tanzania),  took  up  his  office in
Monrovia. Since then Mr. Nyakyi has  been consulting the Liberian  factions,
the  Chairman of ECOWAS,  as well as  the Heads of  State of  ECOWAS, with a
view  to facilitating the  search for a peaceful  solution to the continuing

726.      In its  resolution 972  (1995) of  13 January  1995, the  Security
Council  expressed  deep  concern  over  the  Liberian  situation.  It  also
expressed the  hope that a summit of  the ECOWAS States would be convened to
harmonize their  policies on Liberia, in  particular the  application of the
arms embargo imposed by  the Security Council  in resolution 788 (1992).  On
11 March  1995, President  Rawlings of  Ghana and I  agreed at a  meeting in
Copenhagen  that, subject to the concurrence of the  Nigerian Head of State,
a summit of the ECOWAS Committee of Nine would be held at Abuja.

727.     In my  ninth progress report to the Security Council of 24 February
1995  (S/1995/158), I  conveyed specific  options to  the Council, including
the provision  of necessary  resources to  ECOMOG if  the Liberian  factions
would demonstrate readiness to implement the  Accra Agreement. I express  my
appreciation to the countries contributing troops  to ECOMOG; they have made
enormous sacrifices since the operation was launched in 1990.

728.      On  13 April  1995,  the Security  Council adopted  resolution 985
(1995)  extending  the mandate  of  UNOMIL  until  30  June 1995.  Following
extensive consultations between the Chairman of  ECOWAS and the West African
Heads  of State  and several contacts  between the Chairman  and myself, the
third meeting of Heads  of State and Government  of the ECOWAS  Committee of
Nine  on Liberia  was held at  Abuja from  17 to 20  May 1995. The  Heads of
State of  C_te d'Ivoire, the Gambia,  Ghana, Liberia,  Mali, Nigeria, Sierra
Leone  and  Togo  attended  the  meeting.   Burkina  Faso  and  Guinea  were
represented  by  their  Foreign   Ministers.  The  Senior  Minister  at  the
Presidency for  Governmental Affairs and National  Defence of  Benin and the
Minister  of African  Economic  Integration  of Senegal  also  attended.  My
Special  Envoy, Mr.  Vladimir Petrovsky,  and my Special  Representative for
Liberia,  Mr. Anthony Nyakyi, were also present, as  were the Eminent Person
for Liberia  of the Organization of  African Unity,  Reverend Canaan Banana,
and the Special Envoy for Liberia of the United States of America, Mr.  Dane

729.     Delegations were  sent by the following Liberian parties: the Armed
Forces of Liberia (AFL), the Lofa Defense Force (LDF),  the Liberia National
Conference (LNC), the  Liberian Peace Council (LPC), the National  Patriotic
Front of Liberia (NPFL), the Central  Revolutionary Council of the  National
Patriotic Front  of Liberia (CRC-NPFL), Alhaji  Kromah's wing  of the United
Liberation  Movement  of   Liberia  for  Democracy  (ULIMO-K)  and   General
Roosevelt  Johnson's  wing  of ULIMO  (ULIMO-J).  Mr.  David  Kpomakpor, the
current  Chairman of  the Council  of  State,  participated in  the meeting.
Delegations  of all the  Liberian factions except NPFL  were headed by their
respective leaders.  At the  invitation of  the Government  of Nigeria,  Mr.
Charles Taylor, the leader of NPFL and the only Liberian faction leader  who
did  not  attend  the ECOWAS  summit,  travelled  to  Abuja  on  2 June  for
consultations  with Nigerian  officials. On  10  June  1995, I  submitted my
eleventh progress report on UNOMIL to  the Security Council (S/1995/473). By
unanimously  adopting resolution 1001  (1995) on  30 June  1995, the Council

extended  the mandate of  UNOMIL until  15 September 1995  and declared that
unless  serious  and  substantial  progress  was  made  towards  a  peaceful
settlement, the Mission would  not be renewed after  that date. The  Council
urged the Liberian parties  to use the Mission's extension to implement  the
peace process  envisaged  in the  Akosombo  and  Accra agreements  of  1994,
particularly their provisions on the installation  of the Council of  State;
the  re-establishment  of a  comprehensive  and  effective  cease-fire;  the
disengagement of  all  forces; and  the  creation  of  a timetable  for  the
implementation of disarmament agreements.

730.      My Special Representative  conveyed to the  Liberian factions  the
contents of  Security  Council resolution  1001  (1995)  and urged  them  to
abandon their selfish, narrow interests and  agree on positive urgent  steps
to bring  peace  to  their  country.  The  Liberian  factions  also  held  a
consultative  meeting, with  the exception  of NPFL,  on 19  July which  was
attended  by my Special  Representative and  the representatives  of OAU and

731.    The eighteenth summit meeting  of ECOWAS was held at Accra on 28 and
29  July 1995,  and  was attended  by  the Heads  of  State  of Benin,  C_te
d'Ivoire,  Ghana, Guinea,  Liberia  and the  Niger.  In his  report  to  the
Committee of  Nine, the Chairman of  ECOWAS (the President of Ghana) pointed
out  that  positive developments,  which  he  characterized  as  confidence-
building measures,  had taken  place since  the last  Abuja summit.  He also
referred to the recent Monrovia consultative  meetings and deplored the fact
that, despite  all efforts  made, some  of the  outstanding issues  remained
unresolved.  He referred  to Security  Council  resolution 1001  (1995)  and
explained  the final deadline  set by  the Council. He called  on the United
Nations to continue assisting the peace process.

732.      The Liberian  factional leaders  agreed on 19  August 1995  to end
hostilities and to hold  elections within a year. The cease-fire in  Liberia
came into force on 26 August 1995.

733.      In  the context  of  Security Council  resolution 1001  (1995), if
serious and substantial progress is achieved by 15  September, it was agreed
that the Council would consider restoring UNOMIL to its full strength,  with
appropriate  adjustment of  its  mandate and  its relationship  with ECOMOG,
including matters  relating to post-conflict  peace-building in Liberia.  In
this regard,  the  swearing in  of  a  Council of  State  for Liberia  on  1
September  1995 gives  rise  to hopes  for a  new  momentum for  peace.  The
assistance of the international community will be crucial in this regard.

734.      On 15  January 1995, I  launched the  United Nations  consolidated
inter-agency appeal for Liberia. The appeal  sought $65 million required  by
United Nations agencies and programmes to  meet the life-saving needs of the
1.8   million  Liberians  affected  by  the  war.  As   at  10  August,  the
international  donors' community had  contributed 71  per cent  of the funds

735.    United  Nations humanitarian agencies and programmes, in cooperation
with non-governmental  organizations, have  developed  agreed protocols  for
carrying  out  relief work  in  Liberia.  Guided  by  these principles,  the
humanitarian  assistance community  will continue  to work  with my  Special
Representative   to  gain  access  to  as  many  war-affected  civilians  as

  15.  The Middle East

736.     In the  course of the  past year, significant results were achieved
in  the  Middle  East  peace  process,  signalling  the  parties'  continued
commitment to proceed on  the road to peace. An outstanding achievement  was
the conclusion, on 26 October 1994, of the  historic Treaty of Peace between

the State of Israel  and the Hashemite  Kingdom of Jordan. I warmly  welcome
this momentous agreement, which ended a decades-long state of war.

737.     Israel  and the Palestine  Liberation Organization (PLO)  continued
the  implementation of  their Declaration  of  Principles on  Interim  Self-
Government Arrangements, signed on 13 September  1993. By December 1994, the
Palestinian  Authority, which  had been  established in  May in  most of the
Gaza Strip  and  the Jericho  area,  was  given responsibility  for  health,
education, social  welfare, tourism and direct  taxation in  the other areas
of the  West  Bank.  Israel  and the  PLO  are  at present  negotiating  the
redeployment of Israeli military forces in the West Bank and the holding  of
elections  for  the  Palestinian  Council;  interim  understandings  on   an
agreement have been reached by leaders on both sides.

738.    Meanwhile, multilateral negotiations on Middle East regional  issues
have  proceeded, creating a  network of  common projects  among countries in
the  region. The United  Nations participates  actively in  the multilateral
negotiations as a full extraregional participant.

739.     Hope has been  generated by these  encouraging signs  that progress
can be accelerated  in the Israeli-Lebanese and Israeli-Syrian  negotiations
leading to  a  comprehensive, just  and lasting  peace in  the Middle  East,
based  on  Security Council  resolutions  242  (1967),  338  (1973) and  425
740.     The Israeli-Palestinian peace  talks have been complicated and  set
back, on more than one occasion, by terrorist attacks from enemies of  peace
in which dozens of civilians have been killed  and wounded. I have condemned
these  incidents and  I am  encouraged by  the determination of  Israeli and
Palestinian leaders to continue the peace process.

741.       In  addition, concern  in  the international  community has  been
generated by  the Government of Israel's  decisions to  expropriate land and
expand settlements  in the occupied territories. The subject was taken up in
deliberations in the Security  Council at its formal meetings on 28 February
1995 and 12 May 1995.

742.    The  peace process needs broad public support and without a  visible
improvement in the living conditions of  the Palestinians this support  will
remain  fragile.  In  this  connection,  I have  to  draw  attention to  the
damaging effects which closures of the  occupied territories by Israel  have
had on the nascent Palestinian economy.

743.      In its  efforts to  support  the Arab-Israeli  peace process,  the
United Nations  has  placed special  emphasis  on  sustainable economic  and
social development in  the occupied territories. The United Nations  Special
Coordinator, Mr.  Terje Rod Larsen, has  been active  in strengthening local
coordination between agencies  and programmes of  the United Nations system,
the Bretton Woods  institutions and the donor  community. He works in  close
cooperation  with the  Palestinian Authority  and the  Palestinian  Economic
Council  for  Development  and Reconstruction.  The  first  results  of  the
international  assistance  efforts   are  already  visible,  especially   in
institution-building and the infrastructure.

744.      In southern Lebanon  hostilities have  continued at  a high  level
between  Israeli  forces  and  armed elements  that  have  proclaimed  their
resistance to Israeli  occupation. On several  occasions civilian targets on
both sides came  under attack. I  have called  for restraint  and urged  the
parties to refrain from attacking civilians.

745.    The United Nations Interim  Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) has  sought to
limit the conflict and to protect  inhabitants from violence. In  resolution
1006 (1995) of 28 July 1995, the Security Council reaffirmed the mandate  of
UNIFIL as defined in its resolution  425 (1978) and subsequent  resolutions,
to  confirm the  withdrawal of  Israeli forces, restore  international peace
and security, and  assist the Government of  Lebanon in ensuring the  return
of its effective authority  in the area. Although  UNIFIL has not  been able

to  make visible progress  towards these  objectives, it  has contributed to
stability  in  the  area  and  afforded  a  measure  of  protection  to  the
population of southern  Lebanon. On the  basis of  the request  for my  good
offices regarding the  detainees held in Khiam  jail in the area  controlled
by  the Israel  Defence Forces  in southern Lebanon,  I have  authorized the
appropriate contacts in that regard.

746.     In July  1994, I  initiated a study  to determine how UNIFIL  could
perform its  essential functions with reduced strength in view  of the long-
term  problem  of  the  shortfall  in  its  assessed  contributions.  By its
resolution 1006  (1995), the  Security Council  approved my  proposal for  a
streamlining, which will result  in a 10 per  cent reduction of  the Force's
strength and  direct savings  of $10  million a  year. This will  not affect
UNIFIL's operational capacity.

747.      The United Nations Disengagement  Observer Force (UNDOF) continued
to supervise the  area of separation  between the Israeli and  Syrian forces
and the areas  of limitation of  armaments and  forces provided  for in  the
disengagement agreement of 1974. With the  cooperation of both sides,  UNDOF
has discharged  its tasks effectively  and its  area of  operation has  been

748.    The United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), which  is
the oldest  existing peace-keeping operation,  has continued to assist UNDOF
and UNIFIL in carrying  out their tasks  and has maintained its presence  in
Egypt.  A streamlining undertaken by UNTSO is under way and will result in a
20  per  cent  reduction  of  its  strength  and  corresponding  savings  in

  16.  Mozambique

749.      Over a  three-day period  from 27  to 29 October  1994, Mozambique
conducted, with the assistance and support of the  United Nations, the first
free and fair multi-party elections in  the country's history. The elections
brought  together  in  an  open  democratic  contest  the  ruling  Frente de
Liberta_ o de Mo_ambique (FRELIMO)  and the Resist_ncia Nacional Mo_ambicana
(RENAMO),  the country's  two  major  political  parties  and  former  foes.
Immediately  after the results  of the  election were  announced, my Special
Representative declared the elections free and  fair, based on reports  from
United Nations observers. This was fully  supported by the Security Council.
This was a welcome change from a long-running conflict that had claimed  the
lives of tens of thousands of people, driven  millions from their homes  and
destroyed  much of  Mozambique's  economic and  social  infrastructure.  The
elections were the culmination  of a major success  story in United  Nations
peacemaking, peace-keeping, and humanitarian and electoral assistance.

750.     The mandate entrusted to the United Nations Operation in Mozambique
(ONUMOZ) by  the Security Council  in resolution  797 (1992) of  16 December
1992  was to  verify and  monitor the  implementation  of the  General Peace
Agreement, signed by  the Government of Mozambique and  RENAMO at Rome on  4
October  1992. The peace  accords required  the United  Nations to supervise
the cease-fire between the two parties,  provide security for key  transport
corridors,   monitor   a  comprehensive   disarmament   and   demobilization
programme,  coordinate   and  monitor   humanitarian  assistance  operations
throughout  the  country,  and  provide  assistance  and  verification   for
national elections.  ONUMOZ subsequently  undertook a  number of  additional
tasks at the request of the parties.

751.    One of  the most important aspects of the operation was the emphasis
it  placed on  peace-building.  ONUMOZ's unprecedented  endeavours  in  this
regard were concentrated not only in its oversight of  the electoral process
but  also in  the  channelling of  special  trust funds  to  strengthen  the
organizational  capacity  of  parties  contesting  the  election.  This  was

particularly  important  in  regard  to  RENAMO.  The  transformation  of  a
guerrilla force  into a  political entity  with  a stake  in the  democratic
process is  one  of the  most significant  legacies  of  the United  Nations

752.      The final  meeting of  the Supervisory  and Monitoring  Commission
established under the Rome  Agreement was held  on 6 December 1994. At  that
meeting, final  reports were  submitted by  the Chairmen  of the  Cease-fire
Commission,  the Commission  for the  Formation  of the  Mozambican  Defence
Force,  the  Commission  for  Reintegration,  the  National  Police  Affairs
Commission   and   the   National   Information   Commission.   My   Special
Representative, Mr.  Aldo Ajello, handed these  reports over  to Mr. Joaquim
Alberto Chissano,  the President-elect.  Subsequently, the  new Assembly  of
the Republic  was installed on 8  December, and  the newly-elected President
of Mozambique was inaugurated  the next day; he appointed his Government  on
16 December. In accordance with paragraph  4 of Security Council  resolution
797  (1992), these  events  marked the  expiry of  the political  mandate of
ONUMOZ, and my Special Representative left Mozambique on 13 December 1994.

753.    The  withdrawal of the military, police  and civilian components  of
the Mission proceeded  according to plan, beginning  on 15 November 1994.  A
limited force of four infantry companies  and medical personnel, a  skeleton
headquarters  staff, demining  personnel  and  a small  number  of  military
observers  were   retained  to   assist  in  residual  operations   and  the
liquidation phase  of the Mission.  With the official  closure of  ONUMOZ at
the  end  of  January 1995,  a  small  number  of  United  Nations  civilian
logisticians  remained in  Mozambique to  deal with  outstanding  financial,
legal and logistic issues.

754.      When  the last  ONUMOZ  contingents  departed from  Mozambique  in
January 1995, they had overseen a  remarkable transformation in the country,
from  the  ravages  of  civil  war   to  the  implementation  of  democratic
government and  the creation  of a  peaceful environment  in which  economic
activity  could once  again flourish.  The  strong  commitment of  the major
participants  to  peace, along  with  firm  support  from the  international
community, were important  prerequisites that enabled the United Nations  to
help  bring  about this  transition.  In  this regard,  neighbouring  States
played  a  vital role;  first, in  bringing  the major  participants to  the
negotiating table, and  then in helping  to sustain the peace  process under

755.     Although  both the General Peace  Agreement and the ONUMOZ  mandate
were  successfully  implemented, a  number  of  concerns  requiring  further
action remained  at the time of the Mission's withdrawal. These included, on
the  security  front,  the  continuing  need  to  train and  equip  the  new
integrated  armed  forces and  to  upgrade  the  police  in accordance  with
Security Council resolution 898 (1994) of  23 February 1994, while attending
to the collection and disposal of  outstanding caches of weapons. Mozambique
also  needed to  strengthen  its  democratic  institutions  and  to  promote
economic and social reconstruction so that peace, democracy and  development
could be sustained. While the last  United Nations peace-keeping forces left
Mozambique  in January 1995,  their colleagues  from the  development arm of
the  Organization remained behind  to assist  Mozambique in  consolidating a
peaceful and stable future.

756.      I should  like to  express  my appreciation  to the  international
community and to  those programmes  and organizations,  whose financial  and
technical assistance to the Mozambican authorities  made it possible to hold
the  elections  in  an  exemplary  manner.  There  is  agreement  among  the
international  community  that  ONUMOZ  was  a  success.  Key  factors  that
contributed  to this result  include: the  political will  of the Mozambican
people and their leaders, demonstrated by  their strong commitment to  peace
and  national reconciliation;  the clarity  of  the  ONUMOZ mandate  and the
consistent  support provided by  the Security Council; and the international
community's strong political,  financial and technical  support of the peace

757.     The United Nations Office  for Humanitarian Assistance Coordination
(UNOHAC)  was made  the humanitarian  component  of  ONUMOZ by  the Security
Council  in   resolution  797  (1992).  In   the  transition   from  war  to
reconciliation to  peace, UNOHAC  and its  humanitarian assistance  partners
addressed  the  emergency  needs  of  between  4  and  5  million internally
displaced  persons,   1.5  million  returning   refugees  and  some   90,000
demobilized soldiers.  Effective  and  coordinated  humanitarian  assistance
activities helped to  create conditions that  allowed civilians  affected by
the war to  begin rebuilding their  lives. The success  of the  Consolidated
Humanitarian  Programme, developed  by  UNOHAC and  its  partners,  received
tremendous support from the international community, which contributed  more
than 82 per cent  of the approximately  $775 million required for  execution
of the Programme.

758.     As the  mandate of ONUMOZ neared  termination in  late 1994, UNOHAC
focused  its activities on  ensuring completion  of projects where possible,
and on  finalizing arrangements  with humanitarian  assistance partners  in-
country  for  the  transfer  of  a  number  of  responsibilities  that would
continue beyond the life of the peace-keeping operation.

759.       One such  hand-over  involved  the  Trust Fund  for  Humanitarian
Activities  in Mozambique,  established by  the Department  of  Humanitarian
Affairs to provide financial support for  the implementation of 26  projects
which were to be fully implemented only after  the expiration of the  ONUMOZ
mandate on 15 November  1994. The Trust Fund  financed a variety of critical
activities within the Programme, including  demobilization and reintegration
of  demobilized  soldiers,  emergency  supply  of  non-food  relief   items,
provision  of  seeds   for  the  family  sector,  multisectoral   area-based
activities, and  demining.  In  order to  ensure effective  continuation  of
these projects,  the Department has  passed responsibilities  for trust fund
project-monitoring  and coordination  to the  office of  the  United Nations
Development Programme in Maputo.

760.      The area  of demining  also required carefully  planned transition
arrangements.  The  accelerated  demining  programme  was  designed  by  the
Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs and  UNOHAC to  ensure that  Mozambique
would be provided with an indigenous  demining capacity. The Department  and
UNDP agreed that at the expiration of the ONUMOZ mandate, UNDP would  assume
responsibility for  the financial management of  resources that  are or will
be made  available for  the implementation  of the  programme, while  policy
guidance and  technical  support for  the  programme  would continue  to  be
provided by the Department of Humanitarian Affairs.

761.      The accelerated  demining programme has  established a  Mozambican
demining organization  of 10 platoons (450  deminers), 15 supervisors,  four
survey teams,  an Explosive  Ordnance Disposal  team, demining  instructors,
and the  headquarters and support  staff to manage  the instructors  and the
organization.  In  total, 500  Mozambicans  are  employed by  the programme.
Since  the commencement  of  demining operations  in  September  1994, 5,000
anti-  personnel mines  and  some 400,000  square metres  of land  have been
cleared. The emphasis  of the programme  is on  training in  order fully  to
develop  local  mine-clearance  capability,   resulting  in  a   sustainable
Mozambican  entity  able to  address  Mozambique's long-term  mine-clearance

  17.  Myanmar

762.      In  keeping with  the  good  offices mandate  I received  from the
General  Assembly  and  from  the  Commission   on  Human  Rights,  I   have
established  a dialogue with the  Government of Myanmar  in order to address
various  issues of  concern to  the international  community, in  particular
with  respect to the  process of democratization and national reconciliation
in  that country. During  the period  under review,  my Representatives have
held several rounds of  talks in New York and Yangon with Secretary 1 of the

State Law  and Order Restoration Council,  the Minister  for Foreign Affairs
and other  authorities of the Government.  In the talks,  a series of  ideas
were discussed,  which, if implemented, would  assist in  moving the process

763.      I  welcome the  Government's  decision  to lift  the  restrictions
imposed on Daw Aung San Suu  Kyi and to release a  number of other political
prisoners, including  several leading  members of  the  National League  for
Democracy. I look forward to further steps  to speed up the return of multi-
party  democracy in Myanmar.  I will  report to the General  Assembly at its
fiftieth  session on  the progress  of  those  discussions, which  are being
continued on  my behalf  at  Yangon in  August by  the Assistant  Secretary-
General for Political Affairs.

  18.  Nagorny Karabakh

764.     The conflict over  the region of  Nagorny Karabakh,  which involves
Armenia and Azerbaijan, remains unresolved, but  the situation on the ground
in and around Nagorny  Karabakh has not deteriorated  in the past 12 months.
The  cease-fire agreed  to  on 12  May 1994  through  the mediation  of  the
Russian Federation has  been observed to  a large  extent and no  additional
territory has been occupied.
765.     The members of  the Security Council have continued  to support the
peacemaking  efforts  of  OSCE,  which  decided  at  its  summit  meeting at
Budapest  on 6  December 1994  to establish  a co-chairmanship for  its OSCE
Minsk  Conference and, inter  alia, to  conduct speedy  negotiations for the
conclusion of a political agreement on the  cessation of the armed  conflict
that would  permit  the  convening of  the  Minsk  Conference  and  make  it
possible to deploy a multinational OSCE peace-keeping force in the region.

766.      In its  presidential statement of 26  April 1995 (S/PRST/1995/21),
the Security  Council reiterated  its support  for  the efforts  of the  Co-
Chairmen of the OSCE  Minsk Conference and, inter  alia, strongly urged  the
parties  to conduct  negotiations  constructively without  preconditions  or
procedural obstacles  and to refrain from  any actions  that might undermine
the  peace process. Furthermore,  the Council  stressed that  the parties to
the  conflict  themselves  bore  the  main  responsibility  for  reaching  a
peaceful settlement.

767.      I remain  prepared to provide my  full support for  the efforts of
OSCE.  To that  end, the  United Nations  Secretariat has  had a  number  of
consultations with  the OSCE High-level Planning  Group to extend  technical
advice  and expertise  in  the  field  of  peace-keeping.  I am  also  fully
prepared, if  so  requested,  to  lend  my  good  offices  to  the  OSCE-led
political  process  towards  reaching  a  comprehensive  settlement  of  the

768.    During  my visit to Baku and Yerevan in October/November last  year,
the  first  such visit  of  a  Secretary-General  to  the newly  independent
transcaucasian nations, I was able to obtain a first-hand  assessment of the
very  serious effects of  this conflict,  in particular  in its humanitarian
dimension, on both Armenia and Azerbaijan.

769.      Active humanitarian  programmes coordinated  by the  Department of
Humanitarian Affairs are being implemented in both  countries. Activities of
the 1995-1996  humanitarian programmes, as presented  in the United  Nations
consolidated inter-agency  appeal for  the Caucasus  (1 April 1995-31  March
1996) include relief projects in the  food, non-food, shelter, education and
health  sectors, as well  as capacity-building  and projects  addressing the
transition  from emergency assistance  to development.  As at  31 July 1995,
37.4 per cent ($10.5  million) of funding had  been received for the Armenia
component  of  the  appeal   and  only  37  per  cent  ($12.8  million)   of
requirements  pledged  for humanitarian  activities  in  Azerbaijan.  It  is

anticipated  that the majority  of refugees and internally displaced persons
in both  Azerbaijan and Armenia, who  are among the  most vulnerable members
of the population, will continue to  require humanitarian assistance in  the
foreseeable  future.  I  requested Under-Secretary-General  Aldo  Ajello  to
undertake a mission of goodwill to Armenia and Azerbaijan.

  19.  Republic of Moldova

770.     I  visited the Republic  of Moldova on  4 November  1994 to discuss
rehabilitation  efforts in the aftermath of the  severe droughts, hurricanes
and floods that hit  the country in mid-1994.  At its forty-eighth  session,
the General Assembly, upon appeal by President Mircea Ion Snegur, adopted  a
resolution  on   14  September  calling   upon  the  Secretary-General,   in
cooperation with  the  relevant  organs  and  organizations  of  the  United
Nations system, to assist in the rehabilitation efforts of the Government.

771.       On  21 October  1994,  the Republic  of Moldova  and  the Russian
Federation  signed   the  agreement  on   the  withdrawal   of  the  Russian
Federation's 14th  army from the  Trans-Dnestr region.  Both countries  have
agreed  that  the  withdrawal  should  be  synchronized  with  a   political
settlement  of the Dnestr  conflict. The  withdrawal is  anticipated to take
place within three years.

772.     Following  an earlier parliamentary  decision, a  large majority of
ethnically-mixed  districts taking part  in the  referendum held  on 5 March
1995 decided  to join the  Gagauz autonomous  region within the  Republic of

773.    The  Organization for Security and Cooperation  in Europe (OSCE) has
been taking  the leading role  on issues concerning the  Republic of Moldova
since the OSCE mission was established in that country on 27 April 1993.

  20.  Sierra Leone

774.     In December  1994, in   response to  a formal request from  Captain
Valentine  Strasser,  Head of  State  of the  Republic  of  Sierra  Leone, I
dispatched   an  exploratory   mission  to   that  country   to   facilitate
negotiations   between  the  Government   and  the   forces  known   as  the
Revolutionary  United Front.  That mission  reported  to  me on  the serious
consequences  of  the three-year  conflict in  Sierra  Leone. A  significant
percentage of the population had taken  refuge in neighbouring countries  or
been internally displaced and most of  the country's infrastructure had been
destroyed.  If  the  conflict continued,  it  would  further  complicate the
problem  of  bringing  peace  to  Liberia  and could  have  a  more  general
destabilizing effect in the region.  On the basis of the mission's findings,
I decided to appoint  a Special Envoy  for Sierra Leone, Mr. Berhanu  Dinka,
to help the parties to work towards a negotiated settlement.

775.     In  April and May 1995, Captain Strasser  announced that to restore
democracy he  would set up a  national reconciliation  conference to prepare
for  a return  to  civilian  rule in  1996  and  that a  three-year  ban  on
political  parties  was  being rescinded.  He  called  on  the Revolutionary
United  Front to  renounce its  armed  struggle and  to join  the  electoral
process,  declaring that the Government was ready to enter into a cease-fire
in order  to  negotiate  peace  without preconditions.  However,  the  Front
spurned the  offer to end  the armed  struggle, stressing that  dialogue was
conditional on  the withdrawal of foreign  troops fighting alongside  Sierra
Leonean armed forces.  Notwithstanding these difficulties, my Special  Envoy
is continuing his efforts to help bring about a settlement of the conflict.

776.    On 26 May, I congratulated the Head of State of Sierra Leone on  the
democratic initiatives announced on 27 April,  in particular the lifting  of
the ban on political  parties. On 22 June,  the National Provisional  Ruling
Council issued a decree  barring for the next 10 years 57 persons, including
presidents,  vice-presidents,  ministers,  ministers  of  State  and  deputy
ministers,  from  holding  any  public  office  or  holding  office  in  any
corporation  in  which the  State  held  a  financial  interest, from  being
elected  president of the  Republic or member  of parliament,  or from being
elected  to  or  holding  office  in  any  local  body.   According  to  the
Government,  the  ban was  based  on  the findings  of  two  commissions  of

777.     On 20 July, seven  prospective political parties jointly petitioned
the Head of State  to repeal restrictive elements of the decree lifting  the
ban  on political  parties. Further  complicating  matters,  on 25  July the
Sierra Leone  Bar Association  refused to  attend the  National Consultative
Conference on Elections (15-17 August), linking  its refusal to  participate
to  the  decree  banning  57  persons  from  holding  political  office  and
restrictions placed on political parties by the Government.

778.    It is widely recognized that the conflict  in Sierra Leone cannot be
resolved  through  military  means.  It  is  important   therefore  for  the
Revolutionary United Front  to respond positively to the Government's  offer
to  negotiate  a  settlement  of  the conflict.  The  sixty-second  ordinary
session  of the Council of Ministers of OAU  adopted a resolution expressing
concern  over  the  worsening  conflict.  I   call  upon  the  international
community  to support  the United Nations  efforts to ensure  that peace and
democracy prevail in Sierra Leone.

779.      Following  a series  of rebel  attacks that  began late  in  1994,
thousands of Sierra Leoneans were forced to leave their  homes and thousands
more sought asylum in neighbouring States. As a result, the total number  of
internally displaced  persons in Sierra Leone  is estimated  at over 500,000
persons. They  are concentrated  in and  around Freetown,  as well  as in  a
number of towns in eastern and  central Sierra Leone, including  Bo, Kenema,
Makeni, Segbwema and Daru. In Freetown, it is  estimated that the influx has
swollen  the  population threefold,  to  1.5  million persons.  The  overall
result  of  these  developments  is characterized  by,  among  other things,
overcrowding in a  small number of areas,  acute shortages of basic survival
requirements and the breakdown of overburdened infrastructure.

780.       In  response to  these  developments,  the  Inter-Agency Standing
Committee  (IASC) took  up  the  question of  Sierra Leone  at a  meeting in
February. The  Standing Committee is composed  of the executive heads of the
United   Nations  humanitarian   organizations   as  well   as   ICRC,   the
International Federation  of the Red Cross  and the  Red Crescent Societies,
IOM and  the non-governmental consortia  International Council of  Voluntary
Agencies, Interaction and the Steering Committee for Humanitarian  Response.
As a result of  the discussions held, the  working group of the Inter-Agency
Standing Committee  was charged with developing  the terms  of reference for
an   inter-agency  appeal   for  resources   required  by   United   Nations
organizations  to meet emergency  needs. The  result was  the United Nations
inter-agency appeal  for new refugee flows  and populations  affected by the
humanitarian  situation in Sierra  Leone. From  March to  December 1995, the
appeal sought  $14.6 million  to respond  to the unmet  needs of  internally
displaced persons within Sierra  Leone, as well as those of the new  outflow
of Sierra  Leonean refugees who had  recently fled to  the Forecariah region
of Guinea. There has not yet been any response to the appeal.

781.     As well  as being  limited by  resource mobilization  difficulties,
humanitarian  assistance  efforts  have  been  hindered  by  the  prevailing
security   situation,  which  led   to  a   withdrawal  of   United  Nations
international staff to Freetown in late January 1995. However,  humanitarian
activities  continue on a  smaller scale,  with the  involvement of national
staff and the utilization of innovative implementation methods.

782.    The office  of the United Nations Resident Coordinator has developed
an  emergency information  management system  to ensure  that United Nations
organizations respond  to  the humanitarian  crisis  in  Sierra Leone  in  a
coordinated and  complementary manner. The  system will  gather and  analyse
data  required by the relief  community to develop and target programmes for
affected populations.

783.      At  its meeting  on 2  June, the  Inter-Agency Standing  Committee
further  decided to  pursue these  efforts  by dispatching  an  inter-agency
mission  to assess the coordination of humanitarian assistance activities in
Sierra Leone.  The mission,  led by  a representative of  the Department  of
Humanitarian Affairs, recommended  a strengthening  of the  capacity of  the
United  Nations to  support  the  Government's  efforts  to  coordinate  the
emergency relief  response  in Sierra  Leone.  Actions  have been  taken  to
implement   this  recommendation   through  the   placement  of  experienced
personnel within the office of the Resident Coordinator.

  21.  Somalia

784.     During the  12 months since  my last report, it  has become evident
that the  humanitarian tragedy in Somalia  has been overcome,  thanks to the
international  humanitarian  assistance  supported  by  the  United  Nations
Operation in Somalia  (UNOSOM II). This  achievement contrasts  sharply with
the  lack of  tangible progress  in national  political reconciliation,  for
which the responsibility  must be  borne by the  Somali leaders and  people.
Because of the  deteriorating security  situation in the country,  including
attacks and  harassment directed against  UNOSOM II  and other international
personnel,  and because of the  lack of cooperation from  the Somali leaders
concerned,  the  continued   presence  of  UNOSOM  II  became   increasingly

785.        On  14  October   1994,  I  reported  to  the  Security  Council
(S/1994/1166) that the Somali leaders still  had not carried out commitments
entered into  under the Addis Ababa  Agreement and  the Nairobi Declaration.
The  UNOSOM goal of  assisting the  process of  political reconciliation was
becoming ever more elusive, while the burden and  cost of maintaining a high
level  of troops were  proving increasingly  difficult for  Member States to
justify. The  presence of UNOSOM II  troops was having  a limited impact  on
the  peace process  and on  security in  the face  of  continuing inter-clan
fighting and banditry.

786.    I  therefore recommended that if the Security Council maintained its
previous decision  to end  the mission  in March  1995 and  to withdraw  all
UNOSOM II forces and  assets, it should extend  the mission's mandate  until
31 March  1995 to allow  the time  required to  ensure a secure  and orderly
withdrawal. At the same  time, I stressed  that the withdrawal of UNOSOM  II
would  not mean  United Nations  abandonment of  Somalia. However,  although
humanitarian  organizations  were committed  to  continuing  their  work  in
Somalia,  they could  continue doing  so only  in  a secure  environment for
which Somali  leaders would  bear the  ultimate  responsibility. The  United
Nations would also remain ready to assist the  Somali parties in the process
of national reconciliation.

787.      On  26 and  27  October 1994,  before  taking  a decision  on  the
withdrawal  of UNOSOM II,  the Council  sent a mission to  Somalia to convey
its views  directly to  the Somali leaders.  The mission  concluded that  31
March 1995  was the  appropriate date for the  end of the mandate  of UNOSOM
II. None of the  Somali factions, humanitarian  agencies or non-governmental
organizations had requested a longer extension.

788.     On 1 November, the  United Somali Congress/Somali National Alliance
(USC/SNA), led by General Mohamed Farah  Aidid, and other factions  convened
a unilateral  national reconciliation  conference in  south Mogadishu.  This

was against the advice  and warning of  the Security Council mission and  my
Special  Representative,  who  had  warned  that  the  convening  of  such a
conference before the question of participation in it  was resolved would be
a recipe for continued strife.

789.     On  4 November, by its resolution 954  (1994), the Council extended
the  mandate of UNOSOM  II for  a final  period until  31 March 1995.  On 10
November,  I transmitted  to the  Council  a  statement by  the Inter-Agency
Standing Committee reaffirming  the commitment of the humanitarian  agencies
to  continue their emergency  and rehabilitation  work in  Somalia after the
expiration of  the UNOSOM mandate. The President of the Security Council, on
behalf of  the Council's members,  wrote to me  on 7  December welcoming the
commitment  of  the agencies.  The  Council  also  encouraged me  to  play a
facilitating or moderating role  in Somalia after March  1995 if the  Somali
parties were willing to cooperate.

790.     Prior to  the withdrawal  of UNOSOM II,  General Aidid and Mr.  Ali
Mahdi  signed  a  peace agreement  on  behalf  of  the  SNA  and the  Somali
Salvation  Alliance (SSA), respectively.  In February they also signed three
other  agreements to  manage the  operations  of  the Mogadishu  airport and
seaport  by  a  joint  committee.  The  Mogadishu  seaport  was  reopened to
civilian  traffic on  9  March.  I was  encouraged by  the signing  of these
agreements, which helped to avert fighting over the facilities.

791.      The withdrawal  of the  15,000 United  Nations troops,  as well as
civilian personnel, facilities and property from  Somalia, began in November
1994.  In  response to  my request,  seven  Member States  joined forces  in
providing  support  and  security  for  the  withdrawal.  To  that  end they
established  a combined  task  force, "United  Shield", composed  of France,
India, Italy,  Malaysia, Pakistan, the United  Kingdom of  Great Britain and
Northern  Ireland and  the United  States of  America, under  US  command. I
announced on 2 March that  the withdrawal had  been completed in a safe  and
orderly manner,  ahead of schedule and  virtually without a problem. I again
emphasized that  the  United Nations  effort  could  continue and  that  the
United Nations would not abandon Somalia.

792.       On 28  March,  I submitted  to  the Security  Council  a  general
assessment of  the United Nations  achievements in political,  humanitarian,
military and  security  matters and  the  police  and justice  programme.  I
recalled that,  in late  1992, some  3,000 Somalis  had been dying  daily of
starvation; that tragedy had been ended  by the international relief effort.
However,  the  endeavour   to  achieve  political  reconciliation  had   not
succeeded because of  the lack of political  will among the Somali  leaders.
The international community could only facilitate,  encourage and assist the
process;  it could neither  impose peace  nor coerce  unwilling parties into
accepting it.

793.      In  a presidential  statement  of  6 April  (S/PRST/1995/15),  the
Council  supported  my view  that Somalia  should  not be  abandoned by  the
United  Nations and  welcomed my  intention  to  maintain a  small political
mission,  should the  Somali parties  so wish,  to assist  them in achieving
national reconciliation.  However, the  SNA, then  headed by  General Aidid,
expressed  objection to  a United  Nations  political  presence and  role in
Somalia,  although a  wide range  of  Somali  leaders representing  the main
factions, including a wing  of the USC/SNA, had  called for such a presence.
In view of these divisions among the Somali parties, I have concluded  that,
for the  time being, a  political office, headed  by Mr.  Abdul Hamid Kabia,
should monitor the situation  from Nairobi. It is  my intention to  relocate
the  political office  to Mogadishu  when  the necessary  conditions  exist,
including adequate  security. The President of the Security Council conveyed
to me in  his letter of 2 June (S/1995/452) the agreement of  the members of
the Council with my decision.

794.     On  15 June, General  Aidid was  named "interim  president" by  his
supporters.    Following his  announcement  of  a  unilateral  "government",
General Aidid made  an attempt to  claim Somalia's  seat at  the OAU  summit

meeting, but OAU refused  to recognize his "government"  and decided to keep
Somalia's seat  open until a generally  accepted government  was formed. OAU
urged  the  Somali  leaders  urgently  to  promote  dialogue  to  ensure the
formation of a broad-based national authority.

795.      I remain  convinced that  a durable  political settlement  through
national  reconciliation  is  an  indispensable  prerequisite  for  the  re-
establishment   of  government,   restoration   of  law   and   order,   and
rehabilitation and  reconstruction in  Somalia, and that  the attainment  of
national reconciliation for the  sake of the common  good is well within the
power of the Somali leaders. It is my  hope that they will find the strength
and the courage  to pursue a  more productive  peace process  in the  coming

796.        Coordination  of  the  United  Nations  humanitarian  assistance
programme was, until December 1994, the  sole responsibility of the Division
for Coordination of  Humanitarian Affairs of  UNOSOM, which was headed  by a
Humanitarian   Coordinator.   The   Division's   tasks   included   fielding
humanitarian affairs officers  throughout the  country, coordinating  inter-
agency  assessment  missions,  providing funding  for  small-scale projects,
assisting with  emergencies, building essential  structures such as  schools
and  clinics, digging  wells, facilitating  the protection  of  humanitarian
relief  convoys,  providing logistical  support  to  humanitarian  partners,
holding  security briefings  and  information-sharing  meetings with  United
Nations  agencies and non-governmental  organizations, and providing support
to local bodies such as district and regional councils.

797.     In October  1994, when  it became apparent that  the UNOSOM mandate
would not  be extended and  the Division  would be dismantled,  the agencies
established  a United  Nations Coordination  Team,  chaired by  the Resident
Representative of UNDP (who was later appointed  United Nations Humanitarian
Coordinator) and composed of representatives of United Nations agencies  and
IOM, to manage  the transition to  a post-UNOSOM  period and  to ensure  the
continued  coordination   of  the  United  Nations  humanitarian  assistance
programme.  The  Coordination Team  works  in  close  cooperation with  both
international and Somalia  non-governmental organization consortia.  It also
works to  support the coordination efforts  of the  Somalia Aid Coordination
Body,  a  consortium  of  donor  Governments,  United Nations  agencies  and
organizations, and international non-governmental organizations.

798.       In 1994,  no consolidated  inter-agency  appeal for  Somalia  was
issued. Instead,  United Nations agencies  presented their requirements  and
plans for that year through a document prepared for the Fourth  Humanitarian
Coordination Meeting,  held at  Addis Ababa from  29 November to  1 December
1993.  Consequently,   in  1994   there  was  no   systematic  tracking   of
contributions  received  by various  agencies for  Somalia as  is ordinarily
done by the Department of Humanitarian  Affairs under the procedures adopted
for consolidated  inter-agency appeals.  The agencies nevertheless  reported
that their programmes  were relatively well funded, although  implementation
was hindered by security conditions in the country.

799.     Despite the absence  of political progress in Somalia,  significant
gains have been made on the humanitarian front over the past year.  Agencies
and organizations  have focused their  efforts on community-based  community
initiatives,  providing  support  to   capacity-building  programmes   while
assisting local  non-governmental and community-based  organizations in  the
areas of relief and initial rehabilitation.  Direct support was provided  in
the  form  of supplies,  training  and  management  services.  Food-for-work
schemes  replaced  free   food  distributions  as  the  preferred  mode   of
delivering food  assistance, while agricultural  assistance took the form of
targeted initiatives rather than  the large-scale distributions of seeds and
tools undertaken in previous years.

800.        It  was  possible in  1994  to  undertake  modest rehabilitation
activities  in  areas  where  relative  security  existed. In  other  areas,
however,  incidences of  kidnapping of  humanitarian aid  workers  occurred,

while operations continued to be vulnerable  to frequent labour disputes and
subjected to unrealistic demands for the  payment of security services.  The
humanitarian  agencies  expect that  for  the  foreseeable future  they will
continue to operate against a background  of uncertainty. The United Nations
agencies  nevertheless believe that they can, with the direct support of the
Somali people  and their  leaders, collectively  assist Somalia to  progress
into a new era of rehabilitation, recovery and development.

801.    In  view of this, the Department of Humanitarian Affairs launched  a
consolidated  inter-agency  appeal for  Somalia, covering  a  period of  six
months  beginning in  January 1995.  The organizations  participating in the
appeal requested a total  of $70.3 million  for their activities during  the
first half of 1995.

802.      To  date the  consolidated  inter-agency  appeal for  Somalia  has
received under 20 per  cent of the resources requested. It is essential that
funding  for  the  humanitarian  relief  and  rehabilitation  programmes  be
provided to  ensure  that progress  made  by  the United  Nations  agencies,
international organizations and national  and international non-governmental
organizations over the past three years is not reversed.

  22.  Tajikistan

803.      The  situation in  Tajikistan,  particularly  on its  border  with
Afghanistan, has remained unstable during the  past year. My Special  Envoy,
Mr.  Ramiro  P_riz-Ball_n,  continues  his efforts  to  mediate  a political
dialogue between the Government of Tajikistan  and the opposition to achieve
progress towards national reconciliation.

804.     High-level  inter-Tajik consultations, held at  Tehran in September
1994, resulted in the  signing of an Agreement on a Temporary Cease-fire and
the Cessation  of Other Hostile Acts  on the Tajik-Afghan  Border and within
the Country.  The two parties also  agreed on important  confidence-building
measures, including  the exchange  of prisoners  and prisoners  of war.  The
parties  also  agreed   to  establish  a   joint  commission  consisting  of
representatives of the  Government and  the opposition.  They requested  the
Security Council  to assist the  work of  the Joint Commission  by providing
political good offices and dispatching United Nations military observers.

805.      In  my report  to the  Security  Council  dated 27  September 1994
(S/1994/1102), I  recommended, as a  provisional measure, the  strengthening
of the  group of  United  Nations officials  in  Tajikistan  with up  to  15
military observers drawn  from existing peace-keeping operations, pending  a
decision  by the Council to establish a new  United Nations observer mission
in Tajikistan. The cease-fire  came into effect on 20 October following  the
deployment  of  15  military  observers.  A  technical  survey  mission  was
immediately sent to  the country to assess the modalities for establishing a
future observer mission.

806.     The third round of  inter-Tajik talks took  place at Islamabad from
20 October to 1  November. The parties succeeded in extending the  Agreement
for  another  three  months, until  6  February 1995,  and  also signed  the
protocol  on the Joint  Commission to  monitor the implementation  of the 17
September cease-fire agreement. On 30 November,  I submitted a report to the
Security  Council  recommending  a  possible  United  Nations  peace-keeping
operation  in that country  (S/1994/1363). On  16 December,  the Council, by
its  resolution  968  (1994),  welcomed  the  extension  of  the  cease-fire
agreement by the  Tajik parties and decided  to establish the United Nations
Mission  of Observers  in Tajikistan  (UNMOT)  in  accordance with  the plan
outlined in my report.

807.    Despite the agreement reached in Islamabad to hold the fourth  round
of  inter-Tajik talks in  Moscow in  December 1994,  the negotiating process

was at a stalemate.  In order to  revitalize it, my Special Envoy  undertook
consultations with the  Government of Tajikistan,  leaders of the opposition
and certain  Governments  in the  region in  December.  In  January 1995,  a
United Nations team held consultations at  Tehran with the Tajik  opposition
leaders and high-ranking officials of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

808.    The fourth  round of inter-Tajik talks remained  blocked as a result
of  conditions put  forward  by  the opposition  and  by the  plans  of  the
Government to hold parliamentary elections in  February. However, at the end
of January, President Emomali Rakhmonov and  Mr. Akhbar Turajonzodah, of the
Tajik  opposition delegation, informed  me of  their decision  to extend the
cease-fire  agreement until  6  March  1995. In  a report  dated  4 February
(S/1995/105),  I informed the  Security Council  that the  Tajik parties had
complied  only in part  with the  provisions of  Security Council resolution
968 (1994).

809.    At the end of  February, I asked Under-Secretary-General Aldo Ajello
to hold  consultations with the  Tajik parties  and some Governments  in the
region in  order to reach  agreement on  the agenda, time and  venue for the
fourth round of inter-Tajik talks. He obtained the agreement  of the parties
to  extend the  cease-fire  agreement until  26  April 1995  and  made  some
progress in addressing the conditions stipulated  by the opposition for  the
resumption of inter-Tajik talks.

810.    My Special Envoy held  new consultations with the Tajik  parties and
the Governments  in the  region, which  resulted  in high-level  inter-Tajik
consultations in Moscow  from 19 to  26 April.  The two sides agreed  on the
agenda and dates for  the fourth round  of inter-Tajik talks at Almaty,  the
extension  of the cease-fire  for another  month and  important additions to
the cease-fire agreement and the protocol on the Joint Commission.

811.     The  fourth round of talks  took place at  Almaty from  22 May to 1
June. They followed the high-level consultations at Kabul  from 17 to 19 May
between the President of  the Republic of  Tajikistan and Mr. Abdullo  Nuri,
leader of  the  opposition Islamic  Revival  Movement  of Tajikistan,  under
Afghan  auspices, where it  was decided  to extend  the cease-fire agreement
for a further three months, until 26 August.

812.    As  I reported to the Security Council  on 10 June  (S/1995/472), at
the Almaty talks the  parties for the first time held an in-depth discussion
of  the  fundamental  institutional issues  and  the  consolidation  of  the
statehood of Tajikistan,  as set forth in the first round of talks in Moscow
in  April 1994; however,  they were  unable to reach any  decisions on those
issues. The  parties welcomed  the decision of  the Kabul summit  meeting to
extend the  Tehran  cease-fire agreement  until  26  August and  decided  to
implement  a  number of  confidence-building  measures  by  20  July and  to
request the continuation of the good offices of my Special Envoy.

813.     In its resolution 999  (1995), the Security Council welcomed  these
decisions,  called  for  the achievement  of  substantive  progress  on  the
fundamental political  and institutional issues, and sought the convening of
a further round of talks. It encouraged  the dialogue between the  President
of Tajikistan and the leader of the Islamic Revival  Movement of Tajikistan,
and  urged  the  substantial extension  of  the  cease-fire  agreement.  The
Council  also called  for discussions  with  the  Afghan authorities  on the
possible  deployment  of   a  number  of  United  Nations  personnel  inside

814.    In accordance  with this, I  dispatched my Special Envoy on 31  July
to hold  consultations in the  region with the  Tajik parties  and with some
Governments in order  to create the  conditions for a second  summit meeting
between President  Rakhmonov and Mr. Nuri.  At that meeting,  to be held  as
soon as  possible, it  is  hoped to  obtain agreement  on a  set of  general
principles  for a  comprehensive political solution to  be negotiated during
the next stage.

815.      The small  United Nations  Mission of Observers  in Tajikistan has
played  an  important role  in  containing  the  conflict.  It has  provided
essential support to  the Joint Commission set up by the parties as the main
instrument for  maintaining the cease-fire and  it has  been instrumental in
containing local conflicts.

816.     The establishment  of UNMOT  and the extension of  its mandate last
June for  another six  months were subject  to the proviso  that the  Tehran
cease-fire  agreement of 17 September  1994 remain in force  and the parties
continue   to   be  committed   to   an   effective   cease-fire,   national
reconciliation  and the  promotion of  democracy. The  Security Council thus
underlined  the  primary  responsibility  of  the  parties  themselves   for
composing  their differences. It is to  be hoped that they will use well the
goodwill  and  support  of  interested  Governments  and  the  international
community as a whole in order to make decisive progress towards that goal.

817.     While  improvements in the  overall stability of  conflict-affected
areas of Tajikistan in 1994  led to the return of more  than 90 per  cent of
former  refugees  and  internally  displaced  persons  and  to   substantial
progress  in their  reintegration,  the country  continues to  face critical
difficulties in  conditions of tremendous  economic hardship, especially  in
the  most affected  communities of  the  Khatlon  region in  the south-west,
Gorno-Badakshan  in the east  and parts  of the Garm  Valley. Emergency food
aid  is a major  source of  nutrition for many of  the most vulnerable. Many
health  centres have been  destroyed; functioning  ones lack basic equipment
and drugs  are  often unavailable.  Schools  and  hospitals lack  water  and
sanitation facilities  and many schools are  not operating, which  threatens
to erode  the high  levels of  literacy of  past decades. Shortages  of fuel
have  severely  affected   the  country's  production  capacity.  Inadequate
employment  opportunities  compound the  existing  deep  clan  and  regional

818.    During 1994, the humanitarian  community endeavoured to address  the
most  pressing  needs.  Over  60  per  cent  of  funding  requested  in  the
Department of  Humanitarian Affairs' 1994  consolidated inter-agency  appeal
for  Tajikistan ($42.5  million) was  pledged or  contributed.  Humanitarian
assistance  also  included  capacity-  and  confidence-building  activities,
targeting  areas  of  return  of former  refugees  and  internally displaced

819.        The last  mission  to  the  country  led by  the  Department  of
Humanitarian Affairs took place in October  1994. The mission held extensive
consultations with  the  United  Nations and  non-governmental  organization
community to  prepare proposals  for humanitarian  activities  in 1995.  The
subsequent consolidated  inter-agency appeal  for  Tajikistan (1  January-31
December 1995) was launched on 6  December 1994 and officially  presented to
donors on 23 March 1995 at Geneva. The appeal seeks to meet  the most urgent
humanitarian  needs in-country  (estimated at  some  $37.3 million)  of some
600,000  people,  who  have  been  most  affected  by  conflict,  population
movements  and  the  deterioration  of  the  economic,  health  and   social
infrastructures. By  31 March, $9.9 million,  representing 53.4  per cent of
funding  requirements, had been  contributed, as  reported to the Department
of Humanitarian Affairs by agencies making the appeal.

820.      The current appeal aims to provide  emergency food aid, as well as
assistance in the  health and  education sectors. This assistance,  provided
in  consultation with  the  humanitarian community,  national  and  district
authorities,  targets the  most vulnerable,  including pensioners,  invalids
and  widows with children,  and returned  and displaced  people. Emphasis in
the  1995  humanitarian  programme is  also  on  information management  and
capacity-building,  with programmes  aiming  to  assist in  the training  of
health workers,  community development,  capacity- and  confidence-building,
and self-reliance  activities.  The appeal  also  covers  a number  of  non-
governmental  organization  initiatives   in  addition  to   United  Nations
agencies  and  programmes,  and  is  the   result  of  efforts  to   enhance
coordination  and cooperation  among  humanitarian partners  in  the  field.

While  substantial humanitarian  needs remain,  support to  Tajikistan  will
focus  increasingly  on  rehabilitation  and  economic  development.  United
Nations agencies and programmes are thus  phasing down relief activities and
promoting development-oriented projects.

  23.  Western Sahara

821.     The referendum for the self-determination  of the people of Western
Sahara, to  be conducted  by the  United  Nations in  cooperation with  OAU,
should  have taken place in January 1992. However,  major differences in the
interpretation  of the main  provisions of  the settlement  plan resulted in
delays.  None the less,  agreement was reached on  the interpretation of the
criteria for eligibility to vote, which  enabled the United Nations  Mission
for   the  Referendum   in  Western   Sahara  (MINURSO)   to  commence   the
identification and registration of potential voters  on 28 August 1994. Also
according to the plan,  the cease-fire has been in effect since 6  September

822.      During my  visit to  the mission area  in late  November 1994, the
parties   Morocco  and the Frente  Popular para la Liberaci_n de  Saguia el-
Hamra y de  R_o de Oro (Frente POLISARIO)    assured  me of their commitment
to  the  settlement  plan.  The  two  neighbouring  countries,  Algeria  and
Mauritania, also continued to support it firmly.

823.     In my report to the Security  Council of 14 December (S/1994/1420),
I noted that, given the large number of  applications received, the only way
to complete the identification and registration process  within a reasonable
time-frame  would be through  a major  reinforcement of  personnel and other
resources. In  its resolution 973 (1995) of 13 January, the Council approved
my recommendation to expand  MINURSO and requested me  to report by 31 March
to  confirm  1 June  1995 as  the  date  for the  start of  the transitional
period. The Council also decided to extend the  mandate of MINURSO until  31
May 1995.

824.       On 30  March, I  informed the  Council  that,  while the  rate of
identification  and  registration  was  increasing  steadily,  the  progress
achieved as at that date did  not permit me to recommend  1 June 1995 as the
start  of the transitional  period. I  explained that  problems relating, in
particular,  to  the  timely  availability  of  tribal  leaders  had  caused
interruptions  in  the identification  operation.  At  the  same time,  some
progress  had been achieved  in the  implementation of other  aspects of the
Settlement Plan. I concluded  that, if the parties made it possible to raise
the rate of  identification to 25,000 per month,  and if they cooperated  in
resolving  expeditiously the  remaining issues  in  the Settlement  Plan, it
might be possible for  the transitional period  to begin in August 1995  and
to hold the referendum in January 1996.

825.       In  a presidential  statement of  12 April  (S/PRST/1995/17), the
Security Council  called  upon both  parties  to  cooperate fully  with  the
United Nations to  ensure prompt and full  implementation of all aspects  of
the Settlement  Plan. The Council hoped to see continuous and rapid progress
by the time of my next report, in May 1995.

826.      In  that report  (S/1995/404), I  recommended that  the mandate of
MINURSO be extended  for a period of four  months. Following my report,  the
Security Council decided by  its resolution 995 (1995)  of 26 May  to extend
the mandate  of MINURSO for  only one  month and to  send a  mission to  the
region  in order to  accelerate the  implementation of  the Settlement Plan.
The Mission  held consultations with senior  government officials at  Rabat,
Algiers  and Nouakchott and  with the  POLISARIO leadership  at Tindouf, and
visited MINURSO headquarters at Laayoune.

827.     In its report presented to the Council on 20 June (S/1995/498), the
Mission indicated that, given the complexity  of the tasks to  be performed,
the continuing delays caused by the two parties  and the constraints imposed
by the limited resources  and local conditions,  there was a real risk  that
the  identification process  might be  extended beyond  the time  previously
envisaged and that the referendum might not be held in January 1996.

828.     On 23 June, the Frente POLISARIO  announced its decision to suspend
its  participation   in  the  identification   operation,  because  of   the
sentencing to  15-20 years in  prison, by a  Moroccan military tribunal,  of
eight Saharan civilians who had participated  in a demonstration at Laayoune
and because of the Moroccan authorities'  declared intention to have 100,000
applicants  residing in  Morocco  take  part  in  the  voter  identification
operation. Following POLISARIO's  decision, the Prime Minister and  Minister
for Foreign  Affairs of  Morocco addressed  a letter  dated 26  June to  the
President  of  the Security  Council. In  the  letter, he  claimed that  the
Frente POLISARIO  was displaying  bad faith,  said that  its decision  could
have most  serious consequences and requested  the Security  Council to take
all the necessary steps to  ensure the resumption of the process with a view
to holding the referendum on schedule.

829.     On  12 July, the  Frente POLISARIO  informed the  President of  the
Security Council  that it  had  decided to  continue to  participate in  the
identification process. In announcing its decision, POLISARIO cited  efforts
made by certain States  Members of the Security Council to induce Morocco to
reconsider the sentences imposed on the  Saharan civilians, the adoption  of
Security Council resolution 1002 (1995) and  the positive discussion at  the
thirty-first session of  the Assembly  of Heads of  State and Government  of
OAU. On  27 July, the identification  process resumed  in the identification
centres in Western Sahara and the Tindouf area.  As at mid-August 1995, some
50,000 persons had been identified by MINURSO.

830.    On 30 June, the Security Council adopted resolution  1002 (1995), by
which  it extended  the  mandate  of MINURSO  until 30  September  1995. The
Council also expected, based  on the report I would present by 10  September
on the  progress achieved,  to  confirm 15  November  as  the start  of  the
transitional period, to allow the referendum to take place in early 1996.

  24.  Yemen

831.    Over the  past year, Yemen has continued its efforts to recover from
the  devastation  of  the  civil  war.  In its  resolution  931  (1994), the
Security Council  requested me and my  Special Envoy  to examine appropriate
ways to  facilitate  the aim  of  political  dialogue directed  towards  the
restoration of  peace and stability  in the country.  I continue to  believe
that  political reconciliation  is  an  indispensable  step  to  ensure  the
stability of Yemen. I thus applaud the amnesty granted by the Government  to
most of those who fled the country at the conclusion of the war.

832.      The continued  implementation of  the commitments  pledged by  the
Government    to  ensure democratic  order, political  pluralism, freedom of
opinion  and the press  and respect  for human rights, and  to develop close
cooperative relations with its  neighbours    will indeed contribute to  the
restoration  of   stability.  Earlier  this   year,  the  Foreign   Minister
reiterated to me that  Yemen was willing to reach a negotiated settlement of
its territorial  dispute with  Saudi Arabia on  the basis of  the norms  and
principles  of international law  and in accordance with  the Charter of the
United Nations.  Progress in this area  will testify to the strength of that
commitment and will add to security and stability in the area.

833.     In August 1994, the Department  of Humanitarian Affairs  launched a
consolidated inter-agency  appeal focusing on  the most urgent  humanitarian
requirements  through  February 1995,  totalling  some  $21.7  million.  The

priority sectors  covered in the appeal  were health,  water and sanitation,
emergency food aid,  agriculture and  fisheries, education and limited  mine
clearance.   Response  from   the  donor   community  has   been   extremely
disappointing,  with  only  $3.3  million  (15   per  cent  of  the  overall
requirements) received to date, mainly for health and food supply projects.

834.    Land-mines pose  a continuing threat to the lives and the livelihood
of  civilians   in  the   south  and   have  hampered   efforts  of   health
rehabilitation  and  restoration  of  agricultural  production  in  affected
areas. The  Department of  Humanitarian Affairs,  however, received  limited
funding  ($150,000) from a  mine-clearance trust  fund to  undertake a land-
mine  assistance project  in  the  Aden region.  The project  began  in late
February  1995  and aims  to  provide  technical  advice  to the  government
authorities. Two international  land-mine specialists were recruited by  the
Department of Humanitarian Affairs for the purpose.

  E.  Major comprehensive efforts

  1.  Angola

835.     During the past year, significant progress has been achieved in the
search for  peace  in  Angola.  After protracted  negotiations,  the  Lusaka
Protocol was  signed  and the  United  Nations  Angola Verification  Mission
(UNAVEM  III)  was  established to  facilitate  the  implementation  of  its
provisions.  A cease-fire has  been generally holding throughout the country
and has  opened access  to  all  regions for  the delivery  of  humanitarian
relief assistance.

836.      At the  Lusaka peace  talks, the  most contentious  issue was  the
question of  national reconciliation, which included the allocation of posts
at the  national, provincial  and local levels to  the members of the  Uni o
Nacional para  a Independ_ncia  Total de  Angola (UNITA).  In May  1994, the
Government accepted a  set of proposals  on this  issue put  forward by  the
United Nations and the  three observer States to  the Angolan peace process 
Portugal,  the Russian Federation  and the  United States  of America. After
lengthy  discussions and the  intervention of  a number  of African leaders,
including  President Nelson Mandela of South Africa,  UNITA finally accepted
the proposals in September.

837.     The way was thus  paved for the  signing of the Lusaka  Protocol in
the Zambian  capital on 20 November  1994 and for  the cease-fire that  came
into  force two days  later. President  Jos_ Eduardo dos  Santos and several
other  Heads  of  State,  foreign ministers  and  dignitaries  attended  the

838.      In my report to the Security  Council of 1 February (S/1995/97), I
recommended  the  establishment  of  a  new  United  Nations   peace-keeping
operation in Angola to assist  the Government and UNITA  in implementing the
Lusaka Protocol.  In particular, I recommended  that UNAVEM  III be composed
of  political, military, police  and, in  future, electoral  components. The
Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit, which has been operational  since
March  1993,  would  continue  to  serve as  a  coordinating  body  for  all
humanitarian operations  under the authority  of my Special  Representative.
The main features of the new United Nations  mandate would include to assist
in  the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol by  providing good offices and
mediation to  the parties; to supervise,  verify and,  if necessary, control
the disengagement of forces and to monitor the  cease-fire; to assist in the
establishment of quartering areas and to  verify and monitor the withdrawal,
quartering  and demobilization of  UNITA forces;  to verify  the movement of
the Angolan Armed Forces to barracks; to  verify and monitor the  completion
of the  formation of a new  armed force and  the free  circulation of people
and  goods. Other  aspects  of the  proposed  mandate were  to  monitor  the
activities of  the Angolan National  Police and the quartering  of the Rapid

Reaction  Police, and  to  coordinate and  support  humanitarian  activities
linked directly to the peace process.

839.        Having  considered  my  report,  the  Security  Council  adopted
resolution  976 (1995)  on  8  February, authorizing  the  establishment  of
UNAVEM  III  with  an initial  mandate  until  8  August  1995  and with  an
authorized  strength  of  7,000  military  personnel,  in  addition  to  350
military  observers and  260 police  observers,  as  well as  an appropriate
number of  international  and local  staff.  The  Council decided  that  the
deployment of the infantry  units would take place gradually and only if the
parties complied with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol.

840.      The Joint  Commission, chaired  by my  Special Representative  for
Angola,  Mr. Alioune  Blondin Beye,  and comprising  the representatives  of
both parties and the  three observer States, was established at Luanda  soon
after  the signing of  the Lusaka  Protocol. It is the  body responsible for
the implementation of  the Protocol and has met in regular and extraordinary
sessions on numerous occasions at Luanda and outside the Angolan capital.

841.     Owing to some initial difficulties and  delays in implementation of
the  Protocol,  I dispatched  my  Special  Adviser,  Mr.  Ismat Kittani,  to
register  my  concern  with the  parties and  to  assess conditions  for the
deployment  of  peace-keepers.  The  peace  process  subsequently   regained
momentum  in  mid-April.  Although  a  number  of  incidents,   unauthorized
movements  of troops  and  other  cease-fire violations  have occurred,  the
general trend  has been towards a  progressive decrease  of such violations.
Two  meetings between  the Chiefs of  General Staff from  the Government and
UNITA,  held in  January  and in  February, also  helped to  consolidate the
cease-fire  and  strengthen  the  peace process.  Under  the  supervision of
UNAVEM III, progress  has been achieved in  the disengagement of  forces. In
an  especially positive  development,  the  President  of  the  Republic  of
Angola, Mr.  Jos_ Eduardo dos  Santos, and Mr.  Jonas Savimbi, President  of
UNITA, met at Lusaka on 6 May in the presence  of my Special Representative.
This meeting  gave a new and important  impetus to the peace process and the
parties took further  concrete steps to  consolidate the  progress achieved.
In June and July, the parties reached agreement  on several important issues
and approved an accelerated timetable for  the implementation of the  Lusaka

842.    Following this  encouraging development, I visited Angola from 14 to
16 July  to give additional impetus  to the peace  process. I had  extensive
meetings with  President  dos  Santos, and  met  with  Mr.  Savimbi  in  his
headquarters in the  central part of Angola.  Both the Government and  UNITA
emphasized the crucial role  of the United Nations in the settlement of  the
Angolan conflict and stressed their commitment  to the implementation of the
Lusaka Protocol.  I also reviewed the  performance of  United Nations troops
in several  regions of  Angola. Several  issues were  resolved following  my
visit. The National  Assembly created  two vice-presidential  posts, one  of
which is  to be filled  by Mr. Savimbi.  The parties have  decided that  the
future strength of  the Angolan  Armed Forces would  be 90,000 soldiers  and
they have  made progress on  the modalities  for the incorporation  of UNITA
troops,  74,000 of whom  would be ground  troops. The  national armed forces
would also  comprise air and  naval forces  of 11,000  and 5,000  personnel,
respectively. President  dos Santos and Mr.  Savimbi held  a second meeting,
on 10 August in Gabon, to address outstanding questions.

843.    United  Nations military and police observers have been deployed  to
nearly 60 locations throughout the country  and their presence has increased
United Nations verification capabilities, as well  as its ability to provide
good offices on the ground.

844.     The deployment of  UNAVEM infantry and support units has reached an
advanced  stage, with some  3,500 troops  present in  the country, including
three  infantry battalions.  Full deployment of the  contingents is expected
in September/October.  The  United  Nations has  made strenuous  efforts  to
ensure that mine verification and clearance  of major deployment routes  and

quartering  sites is carried  out in  order to begin  early preparations for
the quartering of UNITA  troops and for the withdrawal of the Angolan  Rapid
Reaction Police and regular troops to barracks.

845.        The civilian  police  component  of  UNAVEM  has  proved  to  be
indispensable  in enabling  the United  Nations  to  monitor and  verify the
neutrality  of the  national police.  In  addition,  a United  Nations human
rights  unit  has  contributed  to  the  civil  education  campaign  and  to
confidence-building among the  Angolan population. The Government of  Angola
and the  United  Nations have  agreed  to  establish an  independent  United
Nations radio station in  Angola, as recommended in my report of 1  February
and  endorsed by the  Security Council  in its resolution  976 (1995), which
would broadcast information programmes on the  role of the United Nations in
Angola  and on the  peace process.  Equipment for  the United  Nations radio
station is expected to arrive in Angola in  September and UNAVEM is  holding
discussions  with  the  Angolan  authorities  regarding  the  allocation  of
broadcasting frequencies. In the meantime, UNAVEM  has been given access  to
the government radio and is broadcasting its programmes on it.

846.      On 8 August, the  Security Council extended the  mandate of UNAVEM
for  an  additional  six months,  but  expressed  concern  at  the  pace  of
implementation of  the Lusaka  Protocol and  strongly urged  the parties  to
accelerate  the  peace  process.  In  the  meantime,  the  General  Assembly
approved some $150 million for the UNAVEM budget for 1995.

847.     Improvements in the security situation and the consolidation of the
cease-fire have enabled the United Nations  and international and local non-
governmental organizations  to extend their  humanitarian relief  activities
to all  regions of the country.  Since the signing  of the Lusaka  Protocol,
humanitarian agencies have reoriented their  programmes to support the peace
process   in   three  realms   of   activity:   relief   and   resettlement;
demobilization and  reintegration of former  combatants; and action  related
to land-mines.  It is estimated  that over 3 million  Angolans are receiving
food aid or other  types of relief assistance. These activities are directed
inside Angola by  the Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit,  affiliated
with the Department of Humanitarian Affairs.

848.      The long-term  prospects for  peace depend  in large  part on  the
successful  demobilization and  reintegration into  civilian life  of  those
combatants who  are not retained in  the Angolan  armed forces. Preparations
are  under way for  the quartering and  disarmament of  UNITA soldiers under
United Nations supervision  and control. Humanitarian agencies will  provide
basic  services  to  the  soldiers  in  the  quartering  sites  and organize
programmes to facilitate  their return to  civilian society.  The Department
of  Humanitarian Affairs  has appealed  to the  international community  for
$102 million to support the demobilization  and reintegration process over a
period of approximately two years.

849.       The  intensive mine  pollution  in Angola  seriously hinders  the
movement  of  goods  and  people  as  well as  the  resumption  of  economic
activity. The problem is being addressed  through a coordinated programme of
mine survey  and clearance,  mine-awareness training  for civilians  and the
training of Angolan technicians and managers.

850.     Despite some  progress on the humanitarian front,  the economic and
social  situation in  Angola continues  to  be  extremely precarious.  As in
other peace-keeping  operations, I  have attached  particular importance  to
these aspects  of the situation  in Angola. As  the peace  process advances,
the focus of United Nations assistance  is gradually shifting from emergency
relief activities  to rehabilitation of  the country's war-wracked  economic
and social  infrastructure, and to development.  With support  from UNDP and
the  Secretariat, the Government of  Angola has organized  a round table for
rehabilitation and community development to be held in September.

851.        By  providing   humanitarian  and  development  assistance,  the
international  community   can  ease   Angola's  transition   from  war   to

sustainable  peace. The  Angolan  people and  their  institutions,  however,
remain  the  primary  agents  of  the  necessary social,  psychological  and
economic transformations.

  2.  Haiti

    Restoration of democracy

852.     The goal of restoring democracy in Haiti was significantly advanced
by the return, in  October 1994, of the  legally and democratically  elected
President of  the Republic  of Haiti,  Reverend Jean-Bertrand Aristide,  who
had been forced into exile by a military coup in September 1991.

853.    Pursuant to Security Council  resolution 940 (1994) of 31 July 1994,
the Multinational  Force,  led by  the  United  States of  America,  started
operation  in Haiti  on  19 September  1994. After  the  departure  from the
country of the military leadership,  President Aristide returned to Port-au-
Prince  on  15  October.  On the  same  day,  the Security  Council  adopted
resolution 948  (1994), effectively  lifting all  sanctions imposed  against

854.    On 23  September, I appointed Mr. Lakhdar  Brahimi as my new Special
Representative for  Haiti to replace Mr.  Dante Caputo,  whose resignation I
had received  with regret  four days  earlier. I  also sent a  small advance
team to Haiti to  assess requirements and prepare for the deployment of  the
United  Nations  Mission  in  Haiti  (UNMIH),  as  well  as  to  monitor the
operations of the Multinational Force.

855.    On  25 October, President Aristide designated  Mr. Smarck Michel  as
Prime  Minister. The new  Government took  office on 8  November. Seven days
later, I  paid a  visit to  Haiti and  assured President  Aristide that  the
United Nations,  in collaboration  with OAS,  would continue  to assist  the
Government of Haiti in achieving a lasting transition to democracy.

856.     Upon my return  to Headquarters on 21  November, I reported  to the
Security Council.  Responding to my  recommendation, by  its resolution  964
(1994) the Council authorized an expansion of the advance team to  up to 500
members for the transition period.

857.     In my report  to the Security Council on  17 January 1995, I  noted
that, following  the arrival of the  Multinational Force  and the subsequent
disintegration of  the Haitian  Armed Forces  (FADH), politically  motivated
violence and  human rights abuses had  decreased and  Haitians were enjoying
fundamental rights. At the same time, however, the  collapse of the FADH had
created a security void  that contributed to an  increased level of crime in
the country.

858.      The  Security Council  considered my report,  the statement  of 15
January  by the commander  of the  Multinational Force  and the accompanying
recommendations  of the  States participating  in  the Force  regarding  the
establishment  of a  secure and  stable  environment  in Haiti.  The Council
determined that, as required  by resolution 940 (1994),  a secure and stable
environment appropriate to the deployment of  UNMIH existed in Haiti  and it
authorized me to recruit  and deploy military  contingents, civilian  police
and other personnel  sufficient to allow UNMIH to  assume the full range  of
its functions.  The full  transfer of responsibility from  the Multinational
Force  to UNMIH was to be completed by 31 March and the mandate of UNMIH was
extended for  a period of six  months until 31 July  1995. The Council  also
authorized the deployment  of up  to 6,000  troops and  900 civilian  police

859.     On  13 April, I  submitted a progress  report on  the deployment of

UNMIH,  informing the  Council that  the  official  ceremony of  transfer of
responsibilities  from the  Multinational Force  to UNMIH  had  successfully
taken place, as  scheduled, on 31  March. My second visit to  Haiti, on that
occasion, provided  a  good opportunity  to  observe  the beginning  of  the
operation of UNMIH and to exchange views with the President of Haiti on  the
political  and security  situation in  the  country.  The issue  of security
remained central  to the entire United  Nations operation,  in particular at
the time of elections. Legislative and local elections were held on 25  June
under generally  secure conditions.  However, the elections  were marked  by
organizational flaws and a  partial rerun was held  on 13 August. The second
phase of the election is scheduled to be held in September.

860.      On 31 July, the Security Council  extended the mandate of UNMIH to
the end  of  February 1996.  The Mission  continues  to  assist the  Haitian
authorities  in   maintaining  a  stable   and  secure  environment  and  in
protecting   humanitarian  convoys.   UNMIH   also  provides   the   Haitian
Provisional Electoral Council  with logistical and financial assistance  and
its  civilian  police  component  guides  the  work  of  the  Interim Public
Security Force and trains the Haitian National Police on the job.

    Human rights

861.       A  core group  of  the International  Civilian  Mission in  Haiti
(MICIVIH)  had returned to  Haiti on 22  October 1994.  In my  report to the
General Assembly on the situation of democracy and human rights in Haiti  of
23 November 1994 (A/49/689), I proposed  that MICIVIH should also contribute
to the strengthening of democratic institutions.

862.    The General Assembly, in its resolution 49/27  of 5 December 1994 on
the situation  of democracy and human rights in Haiti,  requested the speedy
return of all  members of MICIVIH to Haiti.  At present, the United  Nations
component  has   approximately  110  members.   The  Mission  made  a  major
contribution to the improvement  of respect for human  rights in Haiti, both
during  the military rule  and since  the restoration  of the constitutional
order last October. On  12 July, following my  report of 29  June (A/49/926)
and consultations with the Government of  Haiti and the Secretary-General of
OAS,  the  General Assembly  extended  the  mandate  of  the United  Nations
component of MICIVIH until 7 February 1996.

863.     MICIVIH continued to give priority to the  monitoring and promotion
of respect  for human rights in Haiti. During the  preparation of elections,
the Mission facilitated and monitored respect  for the freedom of expression
and  association as well  as investigating  allegations of  intimidation and
violence. Both  UNMIH  and MICIVIH  worked  closely  with an  OAS  electoral
observation mission  set up  in May  1995. UNMIH  helped to ensure  that the
legislative and local elections on 25  June, while marred by  organizational
problems,  took place in  a secure  environment, and  MICIVIH staff assisted
the  electoral observation mission  in the performance of  its tasks. In its
report on the  25 June elections,  released by the Secretary-General  of OAS
on  13  July, the  observation  mission  concluded  that  the elections  had
established a  foundation  that,  although  shaky, provided  the  basis  for
further  positive   progress  towards   the  continuing   evolution  of   an
increasingly peaceful democracy in Haiti.


864.    After the events of September 1991, United Nations  agencies and the
international  community   provided  humanitarian  assistance  to  Haiti  to
address  the  most pressing  basic  needs.  The  main  sectors targeted  for
intervention under  the humanitarian assistance  programme to alleviate  the
situation  of  the poorest  sectors  of  the  population  were health  care,
nutrition, water  supply and sanitation, and  agriculture. To  allow for the

continuation  of   the  humanitarian  programmes   during  the  embargo,   a
humanitarian  fuel supply  programme  was undertaken.  A total  of 3,632,277
gallons of  fuel was  distributed among  the non-governmental  organizations
and other institutions involved in humanitarian aid.

865.     With  the return  of constitutional government in  October 1994 and
the restoration  of  democracy  after  years of  political  instability  and
deteriorated socio-economic conditions,  reorienting Haiti towards  the path
of economic development will be a daunting task.  After a thorough review of
the ongoing humanitarian activities,  it was deemed necessary to find a  new
approach  in  order  gradually  to  phase   out  the  emphasis  on  strictly
humanitarian  relief,  while  facilitating  the  initiation  of  longer-term
reconstruction initiatives.

866.      An appeal for  a six-month transitional  period was  launched on 6
December 1994 simultaneously in  Port-au-Prince and Washington, D.C., by the
Government of  Haiti, the United Nations  and OAS.  The activities presented
in the appeal reflected urgent  needs that could be  implemented rapidly and
be of immediate positive impact. They were  also intended to be  sustainable
in  order  to  facilitate  a  smooth  transition  to  medium-  and long-term
reconstruction and development efforts. The  appeal requested $78 million to
meet  the needs  for continued  humanitarian and  reconstruction  assistance
during Haiti's critical transition  periods. As at 10  August, 54.1 per cent
of the  appeal target, or  some $50.8 million,  had been  either received or

867.     In 1995,  cooperation between  the Government  and its  development
partners  has  moved  from  emergency  and   ad  hoc  initiatives  to   more
strategically  planned   public  works  and  employment-creation   projects,
leading,  in particular,  to major  agreements  with  EU, the  United States
Agency for  International Development  (USAID) and  the World  Bank in  July
1995.  UNDP activities  centre on  governance, economic  growth and  poverty
eradication, and  the Programme  has also  provided seed  money for  certain
initiatives  by  donor   countries.  In  order  to  coordinate   development
activities with  the peace-keeping mission of  UNMIH in  a manner consistent
with its  mandate, my  Deputy Special Representative  has been  concurrently
appointed Resident Representative of UNDP.

    Natural disasters

868.     On 13 November 1994, Tropical  Storm Gordon caused heavy rains  and
floods that  devastated sections of Port-au-Prince  as well  as the southern
part of the  country. The death toll  was estimated at  1,122, and  some 1.5
million people  were affected.  Altogether, 8,600  families became  homeless
and 61,500 were in need of  emergency relief. Destruction of infrastructure,
agricultural  land and  property was  extensive and  included  11,402 houses
partially damaged and 3,905 completely destroyed.

869.     Following the appeal for international assistance by the Government
of Haiti, the United Nations Humanitarian  Coordinator called on the  United
Nations  Management Disaster Team  to join  the relief  effort undertaken in
support  of the affected populations. The Department of Humanitarian Affairs
sent  a  three-person  team  from  United  Nations Disaster  Assessment  and
Coordination  to  strengthen   the  Humanitarian  Coordinator's  efforts  to
bolster  the capacity of  the special  task force  established by  the Prime

870.        In  response  to  the  emergency  situation,  the  international
community's  cash contributions amounted  to $8.6  million, of  which United
Nations contributions amounted to some $500,000. Relief items were  received
from  the Department of  Humanitarian Affairs  warehouse at  Pisa, Italy, as
well as from the Governments of France, Japan and Mexico.

  3.  Rwanda

871.     Since my  last annual report  on the work of  the Organization, the
situation in Rwanda has shown signs  of gradual normalization, continuing  a
process that  started with the  end of the  genocide and  civil war  and the
establishment  of  the  present  Government  on   19  July  1994.  With  the
completion  of the  withdrawal of  the French-led  Operation Turquoise  from
south-west Rwanda on 21 August 1994,  the United Nations Assistance  Mission
for Rwanda (UNAMIR)  assumed full responsibility for the former humanitarian
protection  zone prior to  a gradual  take-over by the  new Rwandan civilian

872.     In my reports to the Security Council  on UNAMIR, I have emphasized
that while the situation  in Rwanda has to  some extent stabilized, a number
of  serious  obstacles  remain  to  be   overcome.  Continued  problems   in
repatriation,  reconciliation  and  reconstruction  efforts  have  triggered
frustration in Rwanda, which, in turn,  has contributed to the deterioration
of  security  and   affected  relations  between   UNAMIR  and  the  Rwandan
authorities.  The  Government of  Rwanda  expressed  the  wish  that, at  an
appropriate time, UNAMIR's mandate  and its possible  phase-out from  Rwanda
should be discussed. However,  I urged the Government  to continue to extend
the necessary cooperation without which the  Mission could not carry out its
tasks,  while requesting my  Special Representative,  Mr. Shaharyar Khan, to
consider,  in consultation  with  the Government,  adjustments  to  UNAMIR's

873.     Following those  consultations, I recommended  that the mandate  of
UNAMIR,  which was due  to expire  on 9  June 1995,  be renewed  for another
period  of six  months  and  its focus  shifted  from a  peace-keeping to  a
confidence-building  role.  In  its  resolution  997  (1995),  the  Security
Council extended  the mandate and authorized  a reduction of its force level
to 2,330 troops within  three months and to 1,800 troops within four months.
The mandate  is to end in  December 1995, with  all troops withdrawn.  Since
the  adoption of  UNAMIR's new  mandate,  relations  between UNAMIR  and the
Rwandan  authorities  have  improved.  UNAMIR is  helping  them  to  promote
national  reconciliation, the  return of  refugees and the  setting up  of a
national  police  force.  It  is  also  responsible  for  the  protection of
humanitarian  organizations,  human rights  observers  and  members  of  the
International  Tribunal for  Rwanda. In  my report  of  4 June,  I described
Rwanda  as  relatively  stable  and  largely  at  peace,  with  some utility
services   back  in  operation,   schools  reopened   and  the  economy  and
agriculture showing signs of revival.

874.      Three major  factors have  nevertheless complicated  international
efforts  to help  the Government  to  restore  normal conditions  in Rwanda.
Firstly,  there  has been  the  delay  in  bringing  to justice  individuals
implicated   in  the  1994  genocide.  In  October   1994,  the  Independent
Commission  of Experts  concluded that  acts of  mass extermination  against
Tutsi  groups had  been  perpetrated  in  a planned  and  systematic way  by
certain Hutu  elements and that this  constituted genocide  under the United
Nations Convention on Genocide.

875.     On 8 November,  the Security Council, in its resolution 955 (1994),
decided  to  establish  a  tribunal  to  prosecute persons  responsible  for
genocide and  other  such violations  committed  between  1 January  and  31
December  1994. Mr. Richard  J. Goldstone  was appointed  Prosecutor and the
Prosecutor's  Office,   headed  by   the  Deputy   Prosecutor,  Mr.   Honor_
Rakotomana, was  to be  established at  Kigali. Under  his supervision,  the
investigation  of some 400  identified suspects,  among them  leaders of the
former regime and principal planners  of the genocide, who  sought refuge in
neighbouring countries, is being conducted in and outside Rwanda. 

876.     In its  resolution 977 (1995), the Security Council determined that
the seat  of the Tribunal  should be established at  Arusha, United Republic

of Tanzania.  Since  the Tribunal shares  a common appeals chamber with  the
International Tribunal for  the Former Yugoslavia,  the General Assembly has
appointed only six judges for the  Tribunal: Mr. Lennart Aspegren  (Sweden),
Mr.  La_ty  Kama (Senegal),  Mr.  T.  H. Khan  (Bangladesh),  Mr.  Yakov  A.
Ostrovsky (Russian  Federation), Ms.  Navanethem Pillay  (South Africa)  and
Mr. Willam H.  Sekule (United  Republic of Tanzania).   Their first  plenary
session was held at The Hague  from 26 to 30 June  1995. During the session,
the judges adopted the  rules of procedure and evidence of the Tribunal  and
elected  a President (Mr.  Kama) and  a Vice-President  (Mr. Ostrovsky). The
judges   will  assume  their   functions  with  the  commencement  of  trial
proceedings. The  Tribunal is expected to  process the  first indictments in
the second half of this year; however, the justice system as a  whole is not
yet  operational and is  in urgent need of support.  It will be difficult to
achieve  national reconciliation  and  a meaningful  political  dialogue  if
justice  in the wake  of the horrific  events of the  summer of  1994 is not
seen to be done.

877.    In July 1994, an  estimated 1.2 million Rwandan refugees  arrived in
the Kivu provinces  of Zaire following the  April-July civil war  in Rwanda.
The presence  of such a large number of refugees in Zaire, and its impact on
the security  and economy  of the country, was  one of the main  subjects of
the discussion I held  with Prime Minister  Kengo Wa Dondo during his  visit
to Headquarters on 15  December. At that time,  the Prime Minister requested
me to appoint a "special representative for Rwanda  in Zaire". It was agreed
that  a civilian UNAMIR liaison office should be  established at Kinshasa to
facilitate communication  between my Special  Representative for Rwanda  and
the  Government of Zaire. The Prime Minister offered to provide 1,500 troops
for a  proposed  United  Nations force  to ensure  security  in the  refugee
camps.  The Government of Zaire  cited the presence  of the Rwandan refugees
as one of the factors that had contributed  to the postponement of the first
multi-party parliamentary  and presidential elections  and to the  extension
for two more years of the transitional period in Zaire until 10 July 1997.

878.     On 27  January 1995, the Government of Zaire and the United Nations
High Commissioner  for Refugees  signed an  aide-m_moire outlining  specific
measures  to  improve  security  in  the  camps.  Under  the  agreement, the
Government of  Zaire agreed  to deploy a  contingent of  1,500 military  and
police  personnel     the Zairian  Camp Security  Contingent     to  provide
security  in the camps.  The measures  included the  prevention of violence,
escort of repatriation convoys and maintenance  of law and order, especially
at food distribution centres.

879.     Some 1,513 Zairian Camp Security troops and more than 38 members of
the UNHCR  civilian  Security Liaison  Group  are  now deployed  in  refugee
camps. Their deployment  has greatly improved security conditions.  However,
rumours about military training of elements  of the former Government's army
have  persisted in  some camps.  Thus,  in  furtherance of  Security Council
resolution 997  (1995), I  sent a  Special Envoy,  Mr. Aldo  Ajello, to  the
region to discuss the  issue with all countries concerned and to explore the
possibility of deploying  military observers, in particular in the  airfield
of eastern Zaire, to monitor  the alleged flow of arms. From 20 to 28  June,
my Envoy visited Rwanda, Burundi, Zaire, Uganda  and the United Republic  of
Tanzania. On 9 July, I reported to the Security Council that some  countries
of the  region were  opposed to the  deployment of  United Nations  military
observers  on  their territory.  However,  Zaire  reiterated that  it  would
welcome  an  international  commission  of  inquiry,  under  United  Nations
auspices,  to investigate  allegations  of  arms  deliveries to  the  former
Rwandese  Government Forces.  For its  part,  the  Government of  Rwanda has
reiterated its determination to promote the  earliest return of the refugees
and  has stated  its readiness  for dialogue  with  those  of them  who were
implicated in the genocide.

880.    The second complicating factor  is that national reconciliation  can
hardly become  a  reality  without the  safe  return  of  the  refugees  and
internally displaced  persons not implicated in  acts of  genocide. For that
purpose,  the assistance of  the international  community will  be needed to

build up  structures for  the resettlement  of the  refugees and  internally
displaced persons and  their reintegration into society. However, efforts in
this direction have been jeopardized  by the continuing  military activities
of members  of the  former Rwandese Government  Forces in  refugee camps  in
neighbouring  countries,  including the  launching  of  organized incursions
into Rwanda. The  Government is  concerned that the  elements abroad of  the
former  Rwandese Government  Forces receive  training and  arms  deliveries,
whereas Rwanda is still subject to an arms embargo.

881.      Given the  serious lack of  security in the  refugee camps outside
Rwanda, I authorized United Nations participation  in a joint working  group
with Zairian authorities  to improve the situation. Following  consultations
with  the Secretariat and  UNHCR, I  emphasized in a report  to the Security
Council  (S/1994/1308) that  any operation  to achieve  the repatriation  of
refugees and  the improvement of  security in the  camps was futile  without
parallel efforts to  promote national reconciliation and reconstruction.  On
1 February 1995,  I informed the Security Council  that on 27 January  UNHCR
had concluded an agreement with  the Government of Zaire  for the deployment
of 1,500 security personnel,  as well as  a UNHCR liaison support group,  to
camps  in eastern Zaire to  maintain law and order,  to prevent intimidation
of  refugees  by elements  opposed  to  their  repatriation  and to  protect
returnees and  relief workers. However,  while the  situation has  improved,
the problem is far from solved.

882.    The Government made it  clear that it wished to close down the camps
of internally  displaced  persons for  reasons  of  security, in  particular
those  in Kibeho,  Ndago, Kamana  and Munini. At  the insistence  of UNAMIR,
which opposed the closing  of the camps  by force, the Government agreed  to
postpone such action. However, on  18 April the Government  decided to close
Kibeho camp, an  action that  led to  panic, a  stampede and  indiscriminate
firing at displaced persons,  resulting in the killing  of a large number. I
immediately  expressed my  horror at  this  deplorable  incident and  sent a
Special  Envoy to  Kigali. In  the  aftermath,  most displaced  persons were
repatriated to  their communes  with the  help of  UNAMIR and UNHCR.  In its
report  (S/1995/411), the  independent International  Commission of  Inquiry
created to  investigate the circumstances and  causes of  the Kibeho tragedy
concluded that it  was neither premeditated nor  an accident that could  not
have been  prevented. The  speedy establishment  of the  Commission and  the
steps  it  has  taken  to  penalize  the  military  personnel  involved have
mitigated some of the tragedy's adverse effects.

883.    Thirdly, there has been frustration at the  slow pace of delivery of
international  economic and  reconstruction assistance  to Rwanda, including
aid  pledged at  the  UNDP round  table of  January  1995. Of  $714  million
pledged, only  $69 million has  been disbursed and  of this  $26 million has
been absorbed by debt-servicing costs. With  regard to the Rwanda portion of
the United Nations  consolidated inter-agency appeal  for the Rwanda crisis,
launched in  February  this year,  out  of  the $219,490,162  requested  for
Rwanda, only 50  per cent has been funded.  For the subregion, under 60  per
cent of the total $586,778,007 required  for programmes in the  neighbouring
countries has so far been received. 
884.     Although the international donor community made generous pledges to
the Government of Rwanda's rehabilitation and reconstruction programme,  the
slow  process  in  turning  them  into  actual  support  has  frustrated the
Government.  I  have repeatedly  invited Member  States and  other potential
donors to contribute  to the trust fund for  Rwanda, which could  serve as a
useful  channel  for  contributions  to  meet  the  immediate  needs  of the
Government and people of Rwanda. To  date, $6,536,911 has been  contributed.
I also continue to believe that the early implementation of  some of the key
recommendations  of  the OAU/UNHCR  Regional  Conference  on  Assistance  to
Refugees, Returnees  and Displaced Persons in  the Great  Lakes Region, held
at Bujumbura from 15 to  17 February, would ease the tremendous humanitarian
crisis in the region.  I appealed to all Member  States to act in accordance
with the Conference's recommendations.

885.     In this sense, the experience of Rwanda  casts a revealing light on

some of the problems  that a peace-keeping  operation is bound to meet  when
operating  in  such difficult  circumstances.  A  new  integrated  approach,
enlisting  and combining all the resources of the  United Nations family, is
urgently needed.

886.       Only  a small  proportion of  the Rwandan  people who  fled their
country at different times  have returned to  Rwanda this year and of  those
who have  the vast majority come from those living in Uganda since the early
1960s. Among the refugees who fled in 1994, enthusiasm  for repatriation has
waned since  March, especially  in the Goma  area and  in northern  Burundi.
This is a result both of intimidation in  the refugee camps and of  the high
number of security incidents inside  Rwanda, including the assassinations of
the  Prefect of Butare and the head of medical services in the Gisenyi area.
The  rate  of arrests  of  suspected  participants  in  genocide and  strong
speeches by  some Rwandan  authorities have also  had a  negative impact  on
repatriation.  Despite  these set-backs,  UNHCR  continues  to  prepare  for
larger-scale  repatriation in the  months ahead.  In addition  to monitoring
returnees, UNHCR is trying to organize,  in cooperation with the  Government
of  Rwanda,  confidence-building visits  by  refugee  groups from  camps  in
Burundi to their home communes.

887.      The Government  also has  to address  the social  impact of  large
numbers of people returning  to their homes. In this respect, it should  not
be forgotten that  much of the  Rwandan population  is still traumatized  by
the events of 1994.  It is thus hardly surprising that serious problems have
occurred  between the  survivors  of the  genocide  and those  who  are  now
returning from  camps for  displaced persons or  refugees. Disputes  concern
the genocide, illegal  occupancy of  land and property  and the settling  of
old  scores and  grudges.  Since February,  commune  committees,  comprising
representatives of  local authorities and  human rights  field officers, are
being formed to address issues such as security and arrest procedures.

888.      The  combination of  ethnic  polarization  in Burundi  and Rwanda,
massive circulation  of arms,  porous borders  and transborder  movements of
refugees threaten, at best, to keep  the subregion perpetually unstable and,
at worst,  to  ignite a  large-scale  regional  conflict. I  will  therefore
intensify my efforts towards a broader  international initiative for a long-
term solution to the  problems in the Great Lakes region, especially by  the
early  convening  of  a  regional  conference  on  security,  stability  and

889.     Food shortages  within the  region have also  occurred and WFP  and
UNHCR have  alerted the  international community to  the need  to cover  the
shortages,  which  threaten  more  than  3  million  Rwandan  and  Burundian
refugees and  internally displaced  persons. Rations in  some refugee  camps
have had  to be  reduced by  as much  as half.   Inside  Rwanda itself,  the
United   Nations  and   non-governmental  organizations   have   contributed
significantly to  the present  harvest by  providing seeds,  tools and  seed
protection  programmes. A  seed multiplication  programme, financed  by  the
World  Bank,  has  been  initiated  and FAO  has  been  instrumental in  the
establishment of a consortium of donors for the agricultural sector.

890.     UNICEF has  reopened a number  of nutritional centres,  distributed
equipment  to  non-governmental  organizations  and delivered  supplementary
food and material to unaccompanied children  centres. With the assistance of
UNICEF, ICRC,  UNHCR and  the Save  the Children  Fund-UK, 41,800  separated
Rwandan  children have been  registered in  Rwanda, Goma,  Bukavu and Ngara,
out of  an estimated  total of  95,000. Thanks  to these  efforts, at  least
3,000  children have been  reunited with  their families.  There is evidence
that up  to one fifth of all unaccompanied minors can be reunited with their

891.     UNICEF and  the Ministry  of Justice have  reached an agreement  to
move  an  estimated 400  children  accused of  genocide  from  prisons  to a
separate location. In  addition, a special  division for imprisoned children
and women  has been created within the Ministry of Justice. Five experienced

lawyers  have been recruited  to act  as defence counsels  for the children.
Regarding the demobilization of child soldiers,  UNICEF and the Ministry  of
Defence have identified a location where  the education and skills  training
of up to 4,000 child soldiers will soon begin.

892.    Much progress has been made in the  health conditions of the Rwandan
population.  WHO  has  assisted   the  Ministry  of   Health  with  training
programmes to  enable  the national  programme  of  diarrhoeal diseases  and
acute respiratory  infections control  to be re-launched  and is  supporting
the  Ministry in  the production  of  the  national health  policy document.
Training  programmes  have  also  been  undertaken  on the  national  health
information system, with  an emphasis on epidemiological surveillance.  With
the  help of UNICEF and others, more than 100 of the 280 pre-war vaccination
centres have  reopened in Rwanda; supplies  and equipment  have been ordered
for the  remainder.  A  vaccination campaign against  measles has also  been
launched in Kigali.   Some progress has also been made in the rehabilitation
of the country's water infrastructure and electric grid line.

893.    Joint UNESCO and UNICEF efforts have continued to  improve access to
education. Some 1,800 teacher emergency packages, supplying basic  classroom
resources  and  an  emergency  curriculum  to  over  140,000  primary school
children,  were  distributed  inside Rwanda  in  February.  This  brings the
number of  such packages  distributed  so far  to over  7,000, servicing  at
least 560,000 children.

894.     As well as  continuing its project for emergency  assistance to the
national  maternal and  child  health/family planning  programme,  UNFPA  is
helping  the  Government  to  elaborate an  integrated  maternal  and  child
health/family planning training  programme, which incorporates  maternal and
child health/family planning,  HIV/AIDS prevention and safe motherhood.  WHO
has also supported the national AIDS  programme through the strengthening of
managerial capabilities at central and regional levels.

895.     In July,  I visited Rwanda  in order to observe  at first hand  the
progress made and  the challenges that remain. In  my most recent report  on
UNAMIR, dated 8 August, I stressed that the  achievement of genuine national
reconciliation  was an  essential element  in establishing lasting  peace in
Rwanda.  The Government of Rwanda  must take determined measures to that end
and representatives of  all sectors of Rwandan society should begin talks to
reach an agreement on a constitutional  and political structure necessary to
achieve  lasting  stability.   The  international  community  also  has   an
important  role  to play  in  the  process  of  Rwanda's reconstruction  and
reconciliation.  While the  economic situation has  marginally improved, the
Government  will  not  be able  to  cope with  the  mounting pressures  from
returning  refugees, the  rehabilitation of  all sectors  and tensions  from
neighbouring  countries. The  seriousness of  the present situation  and the
growing  probability that  it will  deteriorate further  requires urgent and
concerted  action on  the part  of  the  international community.  During my
visit to the subregion, there was  clear consensus among government  leaders
that instability in any  State in the  area could have a dramatic  effect on
all its neighbours. On 16 August,  the Security Council unanimously  adopted
resolution 1011  (1995).   In  that  resolution,  the Council,  inter  alia,
lifted for the period of one year, until 1 September 1996, the  restrictions
on the sale  or supply of  arms and related  mat_riel to  the Government  of
Rwanda.  Such restrictions remain  in force,  however, with  respect to non-
government  forces in  Rwanda and  in  neighbouring  States. On  1 September
1996,  the  restrictions imposed  by  the  Council  in paragraph  13  of its
resolution 918  (1994) shall terminate,  unless it  decides otherwise  after
its consideration of the report of the Secretary-General on the matter.

  4.  The former Yugoslavia

896.      The  Organization's continuing  efforts in  the former  Yugoslavia

remain  focused  on a  multiplicity of  mandated responsibilities  that span
humanitarian, military and  political tasks in an environment  characterized
by  vicious cycles  of cease-fire  violations, human  rights  infringements,
physical destruction and death.

897.         Unceasing   conflicts,  entrenched  hostilities,  violation  of
agreements and a genuine  lack of commitment and  good faith have become the
hallmarks of this crisis. Taken together,  these factors give the impression
either that not enough is being done  to find a peaceful resolution  or that
fundamental   questions   and   issues   that   divide   the   parties   are
insurmountable. For  too long, from the  start of  military confrontation in
1991 until the time of writing, all efforts  aimed at reaching a  negotiated
and peaceful solution to the conflicts  and outstanding issues have  been in
vain.  The Organization  and agencies  within  its  common system  that have
programmes in  the  area are,  however,  continuing  to devote  the  highest
priority  to bringing  peace to  the  region  and alleviating  the suffering
brought about by the conflict.

    Preventive diplomacy and preventive deployment

898.      The presence  of the  United Nations  Preventive Deployment  Force
(UNPREDEP) continues to make an important  contribution to stability in  the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. However, as stated in my report  last
year, internal differences  that could lead to political instability  remain
a cause for  concern. Regarding  the dispute between  Greece and the  former
Yugoslav  Republic of  Macedonia, my  Special  Envoy,  Mr. Cyrus  Vance, has
continued his efforts pursuant to Security Council resolution 845 (1993).

899.      On  7  November  1994, Mr.  Vance and  I met  with  President Kiro
Gligorov at Geneva following  the elections in his  country. I urged  him to
give  favourable consideration to  a number  of proposals  for resolving the
dispute. On 6 February  1995, Mr. Vance began a series of parallel  meetings
with the parties with  a view to convening  direct negotiations. During  the
meetings both  parties took a serious  and constructive  approach that could
in  time  lead to  direct  talks. In  a  subsequent meeting  with  President
Gligorov at  Copenhagen on 10  March, I urged  him to  facilitate a face-to-
face meeting  with  the  other  side.  Between  March and  June,  Mr.  Vance
continued his meetings with the two sides. When I visited Greece  in July, I
urged the Greek leaders to respond favourably to his proposals.

    Peacemaking and peace-keeping

900.     The International Conference on  the Former Yugoslavia continues to
provide a permanent forum for the  negotiation of a comprehensive  political
solution to  the problems in the  former Yugoslavia.  Its Steering Committee
is co-chaired by Mr.  Thorvald Stoltenberg, representing the United Nations,
and the former Swedish premier Mr. Carl Bildt,  who was appointed by EU on 9
June  following the  resignation  of Lord  David  Owen in  May.  My  Special
Representative, Mr.  Yasushi Akashi,  as well as  the States members  of the
Contact Group,  have continued their efforts  to advance  the peace process.
At  an  EU summit  meeting  at  Cannes,  France, in  June,  European leaders
determined that  diplomacy should  be the  main tool  for achieving  several
primary  objectives,  including  the  lifting  of  the  siege  of  Sarajevo;
resumption of  a dialogue between  the parties on  the basis  of the Contact
Group Plan; establishment  of a new four-month cease-fire;  re-establishment
of a dialogue between  the Government of Croatia and the Krajina Serbs;  and
mutual recognition by the former Yugoslav republics. 
901.        Under  the  auspices of  the  Co-Chairmen  of  the International
Conference  on the  Former Yugoslavia  and  the  Ambassadors of  the Russian
Federation and  the United States  of America to Croatia,  the Government of

Croatia and the local  Serb authorities in Croatia  concluded, on 2 December
1994, an Economic Agreement. That Agreement  was seen as a major confidence-
building measure  towards the restoration  of normal  economic activities in
Croatia. With  continued adherence to the  cease-fire agreement  of 29 March
1994, it  seemed that  both sides had  embarked on a  course of  normalizing
their relationship by pursuing a number  of tangible and mutually beneficial
economic  improvements, such as  the opening  of the Zagreb-Belgrade highway
through Sector West, opening the Adriatic  oil pipeline, rehabilitating  and
reconnecting the  electricity grid  and exploring the  reopening of  railway

902.     On 12 January 1995, I received  a letter from the President of  the
Republic of  Croatia, Dr. Franjo Tudjman,  informing me  of his Government's
decision  not to agree to a  further extension of  the mandate of the United
Nations Protection  Force (UNPROFOR)  beyond 31 March. While  the Government
of Croatia's frustration was understandable, its  decision to insist on  the
withdrawal of  UNPROFOR  from  Croatia  renewed  mistrust  and  created  new
tensions, as  a result  of  which  cooperation on  further elements  of  the
Economic Agreement petered out.

903.     Diplomatic efforts by the international community, Mr.  Stoltenberg
and my Special Representative eventually won acceptance  of the continuation
of  the  United  Nations peace-keeping  presence  in  Croatia,  albeit  with
revised tasks and a  reduced troop strength  of 8,750. At the end  of March,
the  Security Council in  its resolution  981 (1995)  established the United
Nations Confidence  Restoration Operation, to be  known as  UNCRO, which was
to  implement  a number  of core  tasks that  were defined  in consultations
between Mr. Stoltenberg and the parties.  The elements of UNPROFOR stationed
in Croatia were to be converted  into UNCRO by the end  of June 1995. At the
same  time  separate  forces  were   created  for  Bosnia   and  Herzegovina
(retaining the name UNPROFOR) and the  former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
(UNPREDEP).   Overall command  and control  of all  these forces  was to  be
exercised by my Special Representative and  the Force Commander from  United
Nations Peace Forces Headquarters (UNPF-HQ) at Zagreb.

904.      On 1  May, the  Croatian army  and police  undertook an  offensive
against  Sector  West from  both directions  on the  Zagreb-Belgrade highway
with  some 2,500 troops,  heavy equipment  and air  support. UNPROFOR, whose
mandate  was to monitor  the cease-fire  arrangements agreed  in March 1994,
was powerless to prevent an  offensive on that scale.  However, UNPROFOR and
other international agencies  were able to keep the international  community
at least  partially informed  and to  discourage violence  against the  Serb
population,  though abuses undoubtedly  occurred during  the early stages of
the conflict. More than 10,000 Serb  civilians crossed into  Serb-controlled
areas of  Bosnia and  Herzegovina. Subsequently, UNPROFOR  and UNHCR  helped
those remaining  Serb civilians  who so  wished to  leave Sector  West in  a
protected and orderly  manner. Although  the Government of Croatia  declared
its  intention to  respect fully  the  human rights  of the  remaining  Serb
population,  it was not  able to  create confidence among the  Serbs that it
was in  their interests to remain  in Croatia. The  mistrust created by  the
Croatian operation  against Sector West further undermined efforts to resume
negotiations towards a peaceful settlement in Croatia.

905.      Following  the  take-over of  Sector West  by  the  Croatian army,
tensions  in the  UNCRO area  of  operations  remained high,  preventing the
deployment  of the  Operation  as originally  envisaged in  Security Council
resolutions 981 (1995), 982 (1995) and 990 (1995).  On 19 July, the  Krajina
Serb army  and the  forces loyal  to Mr.  Fikaret Abdi   launched offensives
against  the Bosnian  Army  V Corps  in the  Biha   pocket.  Croatia  almost
immediately  warned that the  displacement of the population  of Biha  would
be  considered  a  serious  threat  to   its  security  and  stability.  The
Presidents  of  Croatia  and  Bosnia  and   Herzegovina  signed  the   Split
Declaration on 22 July, which committed the  Government of Croatia to assist
Bosnian forces militarily in the Biha  pocket. Within  Croatia, the Croatian
army continued a major build-up of troops around Sectors North and South  in
apparent  preparation   for  a  major   military  offensive   aimed  at  re-

establishing Croatian control in those areas.

906.      Intensive  efforts to  defuse  the  crisis and  restart  political
negotiations  were  undertaken by  the  United  Nations  as  well by  Member
States. My Special Representative met with  President Tudjman to forestall a
looming  military confrontation.  He also  met  with  local Serb  leaders at
Knin. On  3 August,  at Geneva,  Mr. Stoltenberg  chaired a  meeting of  the
representatives of  the Government  of Croatia  and the  Croatian Serbs  and
presented  the two sides with  a paper covering seven  points of contention.
The Croatian Serb  side was inclined to accept  the paper as a useful  basis
for progress,  subject to  clearance by  its political  leadership, but  the
Government indicated that the paper did  not address its fundamental concern
that  the  Krajina  Serbs   should  be  reintegrated   under  the   Croatian
Constitution and laws. On  the evening of 3  August, I telephoned  President
Tudjman and urged the utmost restraint.

907.     On 4  August, the Croatian army  launched a major offensive,  which
was largely  completed a few  days later.  I immediately issued  a statement
expressing my regret  at the outbreak of  hostilities in Croatia,  and urged
the parties to respect international humanitarian  law and the human  rights
of  the affected  population. At  the  start of  the action,  a  significant
number of  United Nations  observation posts  were overrun  by the  Croatian
army and some were  deliberately fired upon. Some United Nations troops were
used  as  human shields  by  Croatian  army  units as  they  conducted their
attacks. Vigorous  protests have  been launched  against these  incidents by
the United Nations and the troop-contributing  Governments concerned. In the
period  following the  Croatian military  actions,  the United  Nations  has
concentrated on  dealing with the humanitarian  crisis brought  about by the
massive  displacement  of  people  and on  maintaining  contacts  that would
permit political negotiations to be  resumed. Thus my Special Representative
on 6 August concluded a nine-point  agreement with the Croatian  authorities
allowing the United Nations, and other international organizations, to  cope
with  the major humanitarian  difficulties and  to monitor  the human rights
situation  on the ground.  Mr. Stoltenberg  was also in  active contact with
the  authorities  at   Zagreb  and  Belgrade.   These  events   had  obvious
implications for the future role of UNCRO in that, with the collapse of  the
armed  forces of  the Krajina  Serbs,  there was  no longer  a  requirement,
except  in Sector East,  to monitor or control  the confrontation line, zone
of separation,  weapons storage sites  and areas  of limitations established
by the cease-fire agreement of 29  March 1994.  On 23  August, I recommended
to the Security Council an immediate start to the repatriation of all  UNCRO
troops, except the two battalions in Sector East,  with the aim of  reducing
troop strength to below 2,500 by mid-November 1995.

908.     For the  most part, developments in  Bosnia and Herzegovina in  the
past year  have been equally discouraging.  In the autumn  of 1994, military
activity  assumed unacceptably high levels, in particular in  the Biha  area
and  around Sarajevo.  The overall  situation  reached  a crisis  point when
Bosnian Serb infantry entered  the designated safe area  of Biha  to repulse
an offensive launched from  the Biha  pocket in October by the Bosnian army.
Following air attacks  by Krajina Serbs into the Biha   pocket on 18 and  19
November  1994 and NATO  air strikes against  the Udbina  airfield in Sector
South  in Croatia and on Bosnian  Serb missile sites  on 21 and 23 November,
respectively, the  situation sharply worsened.  Some 250 UNPROFOR  personnel
were confined  to the weapon collection points around Sarajevo and 26 United
Nations military observers  were detained  in their quarters. The  situation
improved  when, following  former  United States  President  Jimmy  Carter's
visit in  late December,  my Special  Representative was  able  to secure  a
cessation-of-hostilities  agreement, which  came into  effect on  1  January

909.      Although the  cessation of hostilities  had been  agreed for  four
months, fighting in the  Biha  area never ceased,  and those elements of the
agreement which could  have secured a  more stable cease-fire,  such as  the
creation of buffer zones and the  interpositioning of UNPROFOR troops  along
the confrontation  line, could not be implemented for lack of cooperation by

the  parties.  In March  1995,  the  Government,  in  the first  large-scale
violation  of the  cease-fire agreement  outside  the  Biha   area, launched
offensive operations at Mount Vla i , near  Travnik, and the Majevica  Hills
near  Tuzla.  When efforts to extend  the cessation-of-hostilities agreement
beyond  1  May  failed,  the situation  in  and  around  Sarajevo  began  to
deteriorate  rapidly. The  humanitarian airlift  into Sarajevo  airport  has
been  blocked by  the Bosnian Serbs  from 8  April to  the time  of writing;
sniping  and  exchanges of  artillery  fire  have  increased  to levels  not
experienced since the establishment of the  heavy weapons exclusion zone  in
February 1994.

910.     On  25 May,  as a  result of  the failure of  the Bosnian Serbs  to
respect the  deadline for  the return  of heavy  weapons, an air  strike was
launched against  an ammunition  dump near  Pale, with  another against  the
same target the following day as a result of continuing non-compliance.  The
Bosnian Serbs  shelled all  safe areas  except   epa, and 70  civilians were
killed and over 130  injured as  a result of a  rocket attack on Tuzla.  The
Bosnian Serbs surrounded UNPROFOR personnel in weapon collection points  and
detained 199, many of them under humiliating circumstances.

911.    As the crisis heightened,  NATO, on 29 June, approved a plan to send
up  to 60,000 troops  to Bosnia  and Herzegovina to cover  the withdrawal of
United  Nations  peace-keepers,  should  the  need  arise.  United  Nations-
designated safe areas came under sustained  attack from Bosnian Serb  forces
and Srebrenica  was overrun  on 11  July. The  Security Council  on 12  July
demanded the withdrawal of the Bosnian Serb forces from Srebrenica but  this
demand  was ignored. The Bosnian Serb army detained UNPROFOR troops from the
Netherlands and by  14 July  had evicted thousands  of Muslim refugees  from
Srebrenica,  while detaining Muslim men,  whose fate is  still unknown.  The
violations  of international  humanitarian  law  that  appear to  have  been
committed  in the wake  of the fall of  Srebrenica and  epa  are a matter of
utmost concern,  and it is imperative  that access be  given to permit  full
international investigation  of these allegations.   The degrading and cruel
treatment of  the civilian  population has  been strongly,  and justifiably,
condemned.   epa  then  came under  attack and  also  fell to  Bosnian  Serb
forces.  In the  epa enclave, both sides threatened to kill UNPROFOR  troops
from Ukraine     the Bosnian  Serbs if  NATO air  strikes were used  against
them, and the Government  of Bosnia and Herzegovina if NATO air assets  were
not used. On  20 July, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement
condemning  humanitarian abuses  in   epa by  the Bosnian  Serb army. During
this period the  United Nations  devoted all  energies to  dealing with  the
monumental  humanitarian  consequences  of the  fall  of  the two  enclaves.
Efforts to  account for  the missing  and gain  access to the  detainees are

912.     These dramatic developments and  threats against the remaining safe
areas were  discussed at a conference in London on 21 July, which I attended
along with  leaders  of the  Contact  Group  and representatives  of  troop-
contributing   countries.  The   London   conference   considered  measures,
including air  power, to  deter further  attacks on  the safe  areas. On  26
July,  NATO approved  plans for  employing  air  power should  Bosnian Serbs
threaten or  attack Gora  de. Following  intensive discussions  between NATO
and  the  United  Nations,  appropriate  procedures  were  agreed  for  this
purpose, and  I have delegated  authority for launching  air strikes in  the
region to the UNPF Force Commander.

913.      The  crisis situation  that began  to  develop  in May  once again
highlighted  the vulnerability  of  UNPROFOR  as  a  lightly  armed,  widely
dispersed peace-keeping  force. I  therefore appreciated the  offer made  by
France,  the  Netherlands  and  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain and
Northern Ireland  to  make  available  to UNPROFOR  some  12,500  additional
troops as  a rapid  reaction  capability  in order  to improve  the  Force's
security and thus its  ability to implement  the mandate given to it  by the
Security  Council.  Difficulties raised  by the  Governments of  Croatia and
Bosnia and Herzegovina  have delayed the entry  into operation of the  rapid
reaction capability.

914.     The five-member Contact Group continued its  efforts to arrive at a
political  solution to the  conflict in  Bosnia and  Herzegovina, but little
progress  was made  in  convincing the  Bosnian  Serb  party  to accept  the
territorial map  for  an overall  settlement,  despite  the support  of  the
Federal  Republic of  Yugoslavia (Serbia  and  Montenegro). The  latter  has
continued to minimize  its relations with the  Bosnian Serb leaders, and the
monitor  mission of the  International Conference  on the Former Yugoslavia,
established in September 1994, has maintained  its monitoring of the closure
of the 300-mile border with Bosnian Serb-controlled territory.

915.     The dramatic developments that  are taking place  as this report is
being  finalized at the end of August provide, at  long last, reason to hope
that there may be worthwhile progress  towards a political settlement. It is
regrettable that in order to achieve  peace the international community  has
had to resort  to using force, but the warning that was  given following the
London Conference  of 21  July was  clear and  unmistakable.  After  so many
disappointments  in past years  of tragedy  in Bosnia  and Herzegovina, this
new opportunity for political negotiation must not be wasted.

916.     I am  well aware  that the patience,  resources and will of  Member
States  to resolve  the crises  in the  former Yugoslavia  have been  sorely
tested.    Nevertheless,  I   remain  convinced  that   only  a   negotiated
comprehensive settlement  will  lead to  an  enduring  peace. Part  of  that
settlement must  include arrangements for  arms limitations and  confidence-
building  measures that will  prevent further  outbreaks of  conflict in the
Balkans.  There  must also  be  an  extensive  plan  for reconstruction  and
rehabilitation  in  the  region  as a  whole.  There  will  therefore  be  a
continuing  need  for the  international community  to remain  committed and

    Human rights

917.      In  August 1992,  the United  Nations Commission  on Human  Rights
convened, for the first  time ever in  its history, in a special  session to
consider  the  human   rights  situation  in   the  former  Yugoslavia.  The
Commission  requested  its  chairman  to  appoint  a  special  rapporteur to
investigate  the  human  rights  situation  in  the  former  Yugoslavia,  in
particular within Bosnia and Herzegovina.

918.    The Special Rapporteur, Mr.  Tadeusz Mazowiecki (who resigned on  27
July  1995),  submitted  regular  reports  during  this  past  year  to  the
Commission  on Human  Rights and  to  the  General Assembly.  The Commission
requested  the  Secretary-General to  make those  reports  available to  the
Security  Council  and   to  the  International  Conference  on  the  Former
Yugoslavia. In 17 reports, the Special  Rapporteur assessed the human rights
situation  in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the  former Yugoslav Republic
of  Macedonia   and  the   Federal  Republic  of   Yugoslavia  (Serbia   and
Montenegro).  In   each  of   the  reports,   he  presented   a  number   of
recommendations  for  action by  the  international  community  and  various
parties in the region.

919.    With regard to the  areas under the control of the  de facto Bosnian
Serb authorities,  the  Special  Rapporteur drew  attention to  the  ongoing
practice  of ethnic  cleansing and  the  widespread  violation of  the human
rights of peoples living  in those areas, including  Bosnian Serbs who  were
perceived as  disloyal by the de  facto authorities. There  has also been  a
continuation of  military  attacks on  civilians and  interference with  the
delivery of  humanitarian aid  by Bosnian  Serb forces  in areas  throughout
Bosnia  and Herzegovina.  The Special  Rapporteur vigorously  condemned  all
such  violations  of human  rights and  called  for  the prosecution  of the
perpetrators by the International Tribunal.

920.      In addition,  the Commission  on Human  Rights adopted  resolution

1994/75 in  which  it  requested  me to  report  to  the Commission  on  the
situation  of  human rights  in  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina. In  my  report, I
addressed  the issue of  the actions  taken by  the Special  Rapporteur, the
situation concerning the voluntary return of displaced  persons, the problem
of  disappearances   and  actions  taken  by   the  Commission  of   Experts
established  pursuant  to  Security  Council  resolution  780  (1992),   the
International  Tribunal,   the  International  Conference   on  the   Former
Yugoslavia, UNPROFOR  and the  United Nations  High  Commissioner for  Human

921.       In  November 1994,  the  International Tribunal  for  the  Former
Yugoslavia  confirmed the  first  indictment  against  a Bosnian  Serb,  Mr.
Dragan Nikoli  , on charges of  gross violations of  the Geneva Conventions,
the laws and customs of war and crimes against humanity. Soon thereafter,  a
formal request was issued to the Government of  Germany for the deferral  of
the  Tadi  case,  involving charges of genocide,  ethnic cleansing, rape and
murder of civilians  and prisoners of  war. Proceedings for the  transfer of
the case from  the German courts were completed  a few months later and  the
first hearing of the Tadi  case was held on 26 April 1995.

922.      The  Tribunal confirmed  two  more  indictments in  February 1995,
bringing the  total  number accused  to 22.  Requests for  their arrest  and
surrender to the  Tribunal have been sent to  the authorities of Bosnia  and
Herzegovina and  the Serb  administration at  Pale.  Except for  Mr. Tadi  ,
however, who was transferred  to the Tribunal by  Germany, the remaining  21
accused are still at large.

923.      In May, the Tribunal issued a  formal request to the Government of
Bosnia and  Herzegovina for the deferral  of its  investigation and criminal
proceedings in respect of crimes  committed against the  civilian population
in  the  La va  river  valley, where  Bosnian  Croat  forces  have allegedly
committed mass  killings of Bosnian civilians.  The Tribunal issued  another
request for  deferral of  investigation proceedings  to the Government  with
respect  to the Bosnian  Serb leadership  at Pale.  The latter investigation
focuses on the question of possible  responsibility of the Serb  leaders for
genocide,  murder, rape,  torture and  forced  transfer of  population  from
large parts  of Bosnia  and Herzegovina.  From 21  to 25  July the  Tribunal
handed down five indictments covering 24 people.

924.     The March  1994 Washington Agreement  that led to the establishment
of  the  Federation in  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina,  the  introduction of  the
Contact  Group  Plan  in  May  1994  and  the  Agreement   on  Cessation  of
Hostilities signed at the end of the year  brought a period of stability  to
Sarajevo  and improved freedom  of movement.  These developments,  while not
fundamentally changing the  situation, made it possible gradually to  reduce
the  number of  beneficiaries needing  international assistance to  some 2.1
million persons, of whom 1.4 million were in  Bosnia and Herzegovina. United
Nations  humanitarian agencies  could  then concentrate  more  on  displaced
persons and the most vulnerable groups.

925.       With the  exception of  Biha  ,  overall access  for humanitarian
assistance was successful,  at least  during the  period from  June 1994  to
March 1995, with UNHCR  being able to exceed its monthly target in  Sarajevo
and elsewhere  in central  Bosnia. It  was possible  to bring  winterization
items and  fuel to Sarajevo and the eastern enclaves. Arrangements were also
made with  FAO for  the distribution  of much-needed  seeds and  fertilizers
throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina.

926.       Overall  security  rapidly deteriorated  in  March  1995,  making
movements of humanitarian assistance increasingly difficult. The airlift  to
Sarajevo came to  a halt on 8 April and with the escalation  of the conflict
from  late May, land  convoys became  unpredictable and  vulnerable. For the
first time, signs of malnutrition and exhaustion were  visible in Biha   and
in the eastern enclaves.

927.     The dramatic  escalation of the conflict  in June, July and  August

led to the displacement  of hundreds of  thousands of people throughout  the
former Yugoslavia. With  the Croat authorities  regaining control of western
Slavonia in  June, thousands of Serbs  were displaced  to north-west Bosnia.
Following the  fall  of Srebrenica  in  mid-July,  some 30,000  people  were
compelled  to  flee. At  the  beginning of  August,  thousands of  men  from
Srebrenica still  remained unaccounted for. Some 4,350 people were evacuated
from  epa in late July.  A Bosnian Croat offensive on Glamoc and Grahovo led
to the displacement of some 13,000 Serbs in the Banja Luka area.

928.      The retaking  of the  Krajina by  the Croat  authorities in  early
August led to an  exodus of some 150,000 people  to north-west Bosnia and to
the  Federal  Republic  of  Yugoslavia.  UNHCR,  in  cooperation  with other
humanitarian partners, mounted a major assistance  effort to meet the  needs
generated  by   this  emergency.  The   departing  Krajina  Serbs   suffered
widespread maltreatment, injuries and some deaths  at the hands of  Croatian
troops and civilians, and UNCRO personnel  reported much looting and burning
of  houses. UNHCR  made efforts  to monitor  the situation of  those Krajina
Serbs remaining and to ensure  the right to return of those who fled.  UNHCR
and  other  humanitarian agencies  have  continued  to given  assistance  in
Croatia and  in western Bosnia, despite  pressures for  their departure, all
too often through acts of violence. The practice  of forced labour, often on
front lines,  is of great  concern, and this situation  has been exacerbated
by renewed  tensions and  the recent  influx of  Serb refugees from  western
Slavonia and  the Krajina, which  has resulted in  the Banja  Luka region in
worsening treatment and evictions of Muslims and Croats in retaliation.

929.      In  general, forced population  movements, either  associated with
ethnic cleansing or leading  to the same result,  have been of great concern
to  UNHCR during the  period. UNHCR  has actively  intervened against forced
mobilization of  refugees. The  United Nations  revised consolidated  inter-
agency  appeal for the former Yugoslavia covering  January-December 1995 was
issued  on 2  June by  nine  United Nations  agencies, for  a total  of $470
million for humanitarian operations. The UNHCR  component is $172 million to
cover the  cost of  humanitarian  aid for  an estimated  total of  2,109,500
beneficiaries  in  Bosnia and  Herzegovina,  Croatia,  the  former  Yugoslav
Republic  of Macedonia,  Slovenia and  the  Federal Republic  of  Yugoslavia
(Serbia and  Montenegro).  Contributions as  at  1  August 1995  were  $1.36

  F.  Cooperation with regional organizations

930.     Cooperation  between the United Nations  and regional organizations
must  constantly adapt  to an  ever-changing  world situation.  The  Charter
itself  anticipated  this need  for  flexibility  by  not  giving a  precise
definition  of  regional  arrangements  and   organizations,  thus  enabling
diverse  organizations  and structures  to  contribute,  together  with  the
United Nations, to the maintenance of peace and security.

931.     The growing  interaction between  the United  Nations and  regional
organizations has its  origins in  Chapter VIII  of the  Charter. With  this
objective in  mind, the Secretary-General met in August 1994  with the heads
of  several  regional  organizations  with  which  the  United  Nations  had
recently  cooperated  in  peacemaking  and  peace-keeping  efforts.  In  the
January 1995  Supplement  to  "An Agenda  for Peace"  (A/50/60-S/1995/1),  a
typology of current modal-ities for  cooperation between the  United Nations
and regional organizations was set forth.

932.      Currently, such  cooperation takes five  different forms. Firstly,
there is consultation, which  is practised on  a regular basis and, in  some
cases, is  governed  by formal  agreements.  Secondly,  there is  diplomatic
support, by which a regional organization  can participate in United Nations
peacemaking  activities through diplomatic efforts of its own. For instance,
OSCE  provides  technical   input  on  constitutional  issues  relating   to
Abkhazia.   Conversely,  the   United  Nations   can  support   a   regional

organization in  its efforts,  as it  does for  OSCE over Nagorny  Karabakh.
Thirdly,  the  United  Nations  and  regional  organizations can  engage  in
operational support.  A  recent example  is the  provision  by  NATO of  air
support  to  UNPROFOR in  the  former  Yugoslavia.  Fourthly,  there is  co-
deployment: United Nations field missions have been deployed in  conjunction
with the Economic  Community of West  African States (ECWAS) in  Liberia and
with  CIS in Georgia.  Finally, there  can be joint operations,  such as the
current human rights mission of the United Nations and the OAS in Haiti.

933.      However, given  the diversification  of the  forms of  cooperation
being established  between regional  organizations and  the United  Nations,
the basic principles  of the Charter  should be  borne in  mind. Article  24
confers  on the Security Council primary responsibility  for the maintenance
of   peace  and  Article   52  stipulates   that  the   action  of  regional
organizations must in all cases remain consistent with that principle.

934.     The modalities of  this cooperation must be refined and  adapted to
the  diversity of  local situations.  The  range of  procedures that  can be
employed is  wide and  varied, but  they all  have the same  advantage: they
facilitate the Security  Council's work  and delegate responsibility to  the
concerned  States  and  organizations  of  the  region  concerned,   thereby
promoting the democratization of international relations.

935.    In  this regard the recent adoption by  the General Assembly  in its
resolution 49/57 of 9  December 1994 of the  Declaration on the  Enhancement
of Cooperation  between  the United  Nations  and  Regional Arrangements  or
Agencies in the  Maintenance of International Peace and Security  encourages
regional  arrangements and agencies  to consider  ways and  means to promote
closer cooperation and  coordination with the  United Nations, in particular
in the fields of preventive  diplomacy, peacemaking and post-conflict peace-
building, and, where appropriate, peace-keeping.

  1.  Cooperation with the Organization of American States

936.    Relations between the United Nations  and OAS have been strengthened
since the adoption  of resolution  49/5 on 21  October 1994. OAS  Secretary-
General C_sar Gaviria visited the United  Nations soon after assuming office
in October 1994,  and as recommended in  resolution 49/5, a  general meeting
between representatives of the two Organizations was held  in New York on 17
and 18 April  1995. OAS Secretary-General Gaviria  and I opened the  meeting
and  signed an agreement  of cooperation  between our  two secretariats. The
agreement provides for  regular consultation, participation in each  other's
meetings when matters of  common interest are on  the agenda and exchange of
in-formation. The  agreement also  foresees appropriate  measures to  ensure
effective cooperation and liaison between the two Organizations.

937.         The  general   meeting  adopted  a   set  of  conclusions   and
recommendations,  mainly  on economic  and  social  issues.  Reflecting  new
dimensions in relations between  the two Organizations,  the meeting adopted
recommendations  in  the   areas  of  preventive  diplomacy,  promotion   of
democracy and human rights, and humanitarian issues. It was agreed that  the
frequency of  general meetings should  be reviewed and that  a more flexible
format  for  consultations on  cooperation  between  the  two  organizations
should be considered. The United Nations  Secretariat was represented at the
twenty-fifth  regular session of the General Assembly of  OAS, held in Haiti
from 5  to 9 June 1995, at which two resolutions  on cooperation between the
United Nations and OAS were adopted.

938.     The United Nations and  OAS have continued their close  cooperation
in  Haiti within  the framework  of MICIVIH.  On  12  July 1995,  the United
Nations  General  Assembly adopted  resolution 49/27  B, which  extended the
mandate  of  MICIVIH  to 7  February  1996.  The  United  Nations  has  also
supported the OAS electoral observer mission in Haiti.

  2.  Cooperation with the Organization of African Unity

939.       The  United Nations  and  OAU  have continued  their  efforts  to
strengthen  and  broaden  their  cooperation.  In the  economic  and  social
fields,  they   coordinated  their   activities  and   initiatives  on   the
preparation and  outcome of  international conferences,  including those  on
population,  social development  and  women.  They also  cooperated  on  the
United  Nations New Agenda  for the  Development of Africa in  the 1990s and
Agenda  21 to harmonize  positions and  to facilitate  the implementation of
programmes on which agreement has been reached.

940.        Cooperation between  the  two  Organizations  in  the  areas  of
preventive diplomacy  and peacemaking  has made progress. I  have maintained
close  contact with  the Secretary-General of  OAU to exchange  views on how
best to contribute  to the prevention and resolution of conflicts in Africa.
In  Burundi,  Liberia,  Rwanda  and  Sierra  Leone,  the  two  Organizations
continue  to   consult  and   cooperate  in   the  search   for  peace   and
reconciliation. In  Western  Sahara,  OAU is  cooperating closely  with  the
United Nations  in the process  leading to the  referendum. I  have also met
and exchanged views with representatives of  the countries that are  members
of  the  central  organ  of  the  OAU  mechanism  for  conflict  prevention,
management and  resolution. On  17 and  18 July 1995,  I met at  Addis Ababa
with the current Chairman  of OAU, President Meles  Zenawi of Ethiopia,  and
the Secretary-General  of OAU,  Mr. Salim  Ahmed Salim,  and discussed  with
them  ways and means  of strengthening  further the  cooperation between the
two Organizations.

941.    The secretariats of the United Nations system and OAU are  scheduled
to  meet at Addis  Ababa from 6 to 10 November  1995 to work out the details
of the programme of  cooperation between the two Organizations for 1996  and
beyond. High on the agenda of the meeting  is cooperation in the  prevention
and management of conflicts and in democratic transition in Africa. 

  3.  Cooperation with the Caribbean Community

942.     Since 1985, the United Nations has been represented  at meetings of
Heads  of Government  of CARICOM.  In July  1994,  the Heads  of Government,
meeting at  the CARICOM Summit,  requested their Secretary-General to pursue
efforts  to strengthen  cooperation  with  the United  Nations. In  November
1994, I  met in Jamaica  with a number  of CARICOM Heads  of Government  and
with its  Secretary-General on  the  situation in  Haiti and  on matters  of
regional cooperation. I expressed my appreciation  for the special role  the
Community continues  to play in  the restoration of  democracy in  Haiti and
their contribution  of military and police  personnel to  the United Nations
Mission  in  Haiti (UNMIH),  as well  as  their contributions  to the  joint
United Nations/OAS International Civilian Mission in Haiti (MICIVIH).

943.     On 20 December 1994, the General Assembly adopted resolution 49/141
on cooperation between the United Nations and CARICOM. In  January 1995, the
Community and  ECLAC signed a Memorandum  of Understanding for  Cooperation.
This  will  offer  opportunities  to advance  cooperation  between  the  two
organizations in  a number of areas  of critical  importance. The Secretary-
General of CARICOM participated in  the Intergovernmental Meeting of Experts
on South-South Cooperation at United Nations Headquarters from  31 July to 4
August 1995.

  4.  Cooperation in the European area

944.       During  the  past  year,  the United  Nations  has  continued  to

strengthen  its  cooperation   with  European  regional   organizations.  In
December  1994, I  attended the  summit  meeting  of OSCE  at Budapest.  The
United  Nations and OSCE had previously agreed upon  a practical division of
labour  concerning  activities  in the  European  continent  and  under this
framework  each Organization  has provided  support  to  the efforts  of the
other.  OSCE has  assisted the  Special  Envoy  of the  Secretary-General in
negotiations  he  has  arranged  relating  to  the  situation  in  Abkhazia,
Georgia, while  the United Nations has  given technical  advice and guidance
to OSCE regarding an OSCE peace-keeping  force being organized for  possible
deployment in  Nagorny Karabakh. Cooperation  between the two  Organizations
has  also been  extended to  a variety  of other  fields, such  as  election
monitoring. Other Europe-based  organizations with which the United  Nations
has had substantive  cooperation in the  past year  include EU, the  Council
for Europe,  NATO,  in the  context of  military  operations  in the  former
Yugoslavia,  and CIS,  with which  the  United  Nations Observer  Mission in
Georgia (UNOMIG) works closely in Abkhazia.

  5.  Cooperation with the Organization of the Islamic Conference

945.      In  the context  of ongoing  efforts to  enhance cooperation  with
regional organizations, the General Assembly in  its resolution 49/15 of  15
November 1994  welcomed  the decision  of  the  secretariats of  the  United
Nations and  OIC  to develop  mechanisms  of  cooperation in  the  political
field.  Consultations  to that  end  have  been  initiated  between the  two
secretariats  over  the past  year.  The  two  Organizations  have also  had
increased  consultations during  the past  year with  regard to  a number of
important  regional  political  issues  such  as  Afghanistan,   Tajikistan,
Somalia  and  Bosnia  and Herzegovina.  The  recent  accordance  of observer
status to  OIC in  the United Nations-sponsored  inter-Tajik talks  reflects
the increasing  interaction between  the two Organizations in  the political
field. The Coordination Meeting  of the Focal  Points of the United  Nations
system and OIC and its Specialized  Institutions, which took place at Geneva
in June,  also adopted a  number of important  decisions to  consolidate and
rationalize  cooperation between  the  two Organizations  in  nine  mutually
agreed priority areas of cooperation.

  6.  Cooperation with the League of Arab States

946.      Areas  of  cooperation between  the United  Nations and  LAS  also
continued  to be consolidated, pursuant to General Assembly resolution 49/14
of  15  November  1994.  The  general  meeting  on  cooperation  between the
representatives of the secretariats  of the two bodies, held at Vienna  from
19 to  21 July, on the  occasion of the fiftieth  anniversary of the  United
Nations and LAS, provided an opportunity  for the follow-up of  multilateral
proposals aimed  at strengthening cooperation to promote social and economic
development  and the exchange  of views in  the fields  of preventive action
and  mine clearance. The United  Nations continued to cooperate  with LAS on
the  question of Somalia. LAS, jointly  with OAU and OIC, held  a meeting on
Somalia  at Cairo  on 22  and 23 February  1995 at which  the United Nations
participated  as an  observer. The  partic-ipating organizations  agreed  to
continue to undertake  joint efforts  to assist  national reconciliation  in

  G.  Disarmament

947.     Since my  previous report  on the work  of the Organization it  has
become  increasingly evident  that  the  proliferation  of weapons  of  mass

destruction  and  the availability  of their  basic components  constitute a
growing  threat to  international  peace and  security. The  hypothesis that
terrorists,  with  no  territory  to  defend  and  unafraid  of  sacrificing
themselves,  could  develop  and  use  weapons  of  mass  destruction  is  a
frightening prospect,  which is already  affecting the security  perceptions
of many  people throughout the world.  Therefore, a  coordinated response of
the international  community  to  those  threats and  to  the  destabilizing
effects caused by the unrestrained flow  of conventional weapons, remains  a
high  priority.  Within  the context  of  preventing  the  proliferation  of
nuclear weapons, the  strengthening of the nuclear non-proliferation  regime
achieved in 1995  by the Review and Extension  Conference of the Parties  to
the  Treaty on the  Non-Proliferation of  Nuclear Weapons  is an appropriate
answer and  should be  accompanied as  soon as  possible by  the entry  into
force of the Convention on the  Prohibition of the Development,  Production,
Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons, as well  as by the establishment of
a  regime  for the  verification of  compliance with  the Convention  on the
Prohibition   of   the   Development,    Production   and   Stockpiling   of
Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction.

948.     While the Review and Extension Conference of the  Non-Proliferation
Treaty was a major  focus of disarmament efforts in 1995, the  international
community  has undertaken  other disarmament  initiatives to  deal  with the
destabilizing effects  and unconscionable waste of  resources caused by  the
unrestrained flow of conventional weapons. The  progress achieved, as far as
the  review process of the Convention on Prohibition  or Restrictions on the
Use of Certain  Conventional Weapons Which May  Be Deemed to Be  Excessively
Injurious or  to Have Indiscriminate Effects  is concerned,  in assuring the
full  protection  of civilians  from  the  indiscriminate effects  of  anti-
personnel  land-mines  and   working  towards  their   eventual  elimination
constitutes  a  step  in  the  right  direction.  Furthermore,  transparency
measures, such as the Register of  Conventional Arms, must be streng-thened,
and confidence-building  and disarmament initiatives  at the regional  level
should  be  developed  further,  in  particular with  reference  to  illicit
traffic in light conventional weapons.

949.     The  Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty  now has  178 States parties,
commanding virtually  universal adherence. The  indefinite extension of  the
Treaty,  decided upon at  the 1995 Review and  Extension Conference, as well
as  the  other  commitments  made by  the  States parties  reflected  in the
documents   of  the   Conference,  have   strengthened  the   nuclear   non-
proliferation  regime  and  will make  a  substantial  contribution  to  the
maintenance of international  peace and security. I expressed  gratification
at the  success of the  Conference and recommended  that the States  parties
continue to work  in a spirit of cooperation  and pursue the elimination  of
nuclear weapons as the ultimate goal of the non-proliferation process.

950.    There have been advances in other areas of  nuclear disarmament. The
negotiations on  a comprehensive test-ban treaty  have made  progress at the
Conference  on  Disarmament at  Geneva  and  strengthened  determination  to
resolve  technical issues  could  bring  the negotiations  to  a  successful
conclusion  no later than 1996.  The negotiating mandate  was agreed upon at
the Conference on Disarmament on a treaty  banning the production of fissile
material  and this should  enable the  Conference to  begin the negotiations
expeditiously and  bring them to an  early and  successful conclusion. Other
encouraging  steps  are  Security  Council resolution  984  (1995)  and  the
declarations  by the  nuclear-weapon  States concerning  both  negative  and
positive  security  assurances.   Proposals  aimed  at   transforming  these
unilateral  declarations into  a  legally binding  treaty  obligation  would
contribute considerably to further progress in this area.

951.     The general  strengthening of the nuclear  non-proliferation regime
is matched and reinforced  by the remarkable results achieved so far by  the
United States  of America,  the Russian  Federation and  the other  European
countries  in  post-cold-war   security  arrangements.  The  elimination  of
intermediate-range  nuclear forces  in Europe  under the  Treaty between the
United States of America and the Union of  Soviet Socialist Republics on the

Elimination of  Their  Intermediate-Range  and Shorter-Range  Missiles,  the
reduction of nuclear strategic warheads in operational deployment  resulting
from  the START  process, the  continuing  successful implementation  of the
Treaty  on Conventional  Armed Forces  in  Europe  and the  ongoing security
dialogue  within the OSCE framework form the basis of a cooperative security
system  that  in  some  measure could  transcend  the narrow  limits  of the
European region. In Europe,  the newly emerging  cooperative security system
is  the  product  of  negotiations  based   on  consensus  and  cooperation.
Significant initiatives  for security dialogues are  also being promoted  in
Asia,  in  Africa  and  in  Latin  America.  Further  enhancement  of  those
initiatives  would  be  an  important  step  towards  the  strengthening  of
international peace and security at the regional level.

952.        While progress  in  the  dismantlement  of  nuclear  weapons  is
encouraged, concerns about the safety and  security of fissile material have
increased. The smuggling  of nuclear material is no longer only a fear but a
frightening  reality. Stronger global  and national  measures are  needed to
deal  with illicit  trafficking and  to  guarantee  the secure  disposal and
storage of  such material. Particularly  important is universal  recognition
that International Atomic  Energy Agency  (IAEA) safeguards are an  integral
part  of  the international  non-proliferation  regime  and that  the Agency
plays an  indispensable role in ensuring the implementation of the Treaty on
the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

953.    The Treaty for the  Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in  Latin America
and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco) and the South Pacific Nuclear  Free
Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga) are  essential building blocks to progress
towards nuclear-free  regions elsewhere in the  world, in  particular in the
Middle East  and Asia,  which would include  in their scope  all weapons  of
mass destruction. There has also been progress  on the treaty establishing a
nuclear-weapon-free zone in Africa.

954.     There has been a steady increase in  the number of ratifications of
the  Convention   on  the  Prohibition   of  the  Development,   Production,
Stockpiling and Use  of Chemical Weapons,  which has  now reached 27  States
parties. In discharging  my responsibility as depositary to the  Convention,
I  have written  to all  Member States  urging ratification  and entry  into
force  of the Convention  at the earliest possible  date. In connection with
the Convention  on Biological Weapons, efforts  of States  parties are under
way  to  strengthen  the   Convention  by  developing   a  legally   binding
verification  protocol.   The  frightful   consequences  for  humankind   of
biological warfare, or terrorism, must be avoided at all costs.

955.    Measures to prevent proliferation of weapons should be fashioned  to
avoid any  obstruction to the development  process of countries.  Developing
countries  need unimpeded access  to technology  and agreement  is needed on
appropriate    controls    concerning   technology    transfers,   including
transparency measures,  that would  be universal  and non-discriminatory  in

956.     The urgent  problem of  the proliferation  of conventional  weapons
also  demands  the continuing  attention  of  the  international  community.
Unrestrained and  illegal  arms transfers  have  resulted  in suffering  and
misery for  hundreds of thousands of  people particularly  in the developing
world.  At  the  global level  continued support  by  Member States  for the
Register  of  Conventional  Arms  is  essential.  Reports  to  the  Register
indicate  a degree of  openness and  transparency with  regard to legitimate
arms  transfers   for  defensive  purposes.   Such  openness  will   promote
confidence  and encourage  responsible  conduct  in the  transfer  of  major
conventional  weapon  systems.    Initiatives  and ideas  from  regions  and
subregions, in  particular Africa, Asia and  Latin America,  can enhance the
global  Register   with  complementary  confidence-  and   security-building

957.       At  the regional  and  subregional level,  in  particular in  the
developing  world, direct  action is  needed  to  deal with  the flourishing

illicit traffic in light  weapons, which is destabilizing  the security of a
number of countries. With the support of seven Member States in the  Sahara-
Sahel  region, I dispatched  an advisory  mission with  a view  to assisting
those States in their efforts to combat and  stem the illicit flow of  light
weapons  within and across their borders. More resources must be invested if
there is to be any prospect of success.

  H.  Post-conflict peace-building


958.        An  International  Colloquium  on  Post-Conflict  Reconstruction
Strategies was convened on 23 and 24 June  at the Austrian Centre for  Peace
and Conflict Resolution at Stadt  Schlaining, Austria. It was attended by 58
participants  from United  Nations political,  humanitarian  and development
entities,  specialized  agencies,  the  Bretton  Woods  institutions,  donor
countries, non-governmental  organizations as well  as representatives  from
war-torn  societies.  The  meeting  was  organized  by  the  Department  for
Development  Support  and  Management  Services,  in  cooperation  with  the
Austrian  Centre,  and  supported  by  the   Government  of  Austria  as   a
contribution to  the definition  of the  role of  the United Nations  in the
next half  century  as part  of  the  fiftieth anniversary  activities.  The
Department for  Development Support  and Management  Services contributed  a
paper setting out a strategic programme for reconstruction and development.

959.      The  idea  for the  meeting stemmed  from  the Supplement  to  the
Secretary-General's  "An   Agenda  for   Peace"  (A/50/60-S/1995/1),   which
stresses   the  need   for   integrated  action   between   United   Nations
organizations, the  parties to the  conflict and other institutions prepared
to assist in the  reconstruction of a  country; its purpose was to  identify
the practical and institutional issues that  must be addressed to bring this
concept to reality.

960.     The main topic of post-conflict reconstruction was addressed  under
four  headings: strategic  issues,  needs and  capabilities,  an  integrated
post-conflict  reconstruction  framework  and   mobilization  of  resources.
Because  of the  interrelationship between  these  four topics,  the  themes
recurred  throughout the  deliberations and  there was  considerable  cross-
fertilization of ideas.  The meeting was an  example of the coming  together
of various organizations, within and outside  the United Nations system, all
with  a common  interest in  a topic  that is  of increasing  concern to the
international  community.  It is  hoped that  the ideas  and recommendations
presented in the report will serve as a basis for a clear  definition of the
role  of  the  United  Nations  in  post-conflict  reconstruction,  and  for
establishing  arrangements   that  will  ensure   a  swift,  effective   and
integrated response to such situations by the United Nations system.

961.     Issues falling within  the four categories of post-conflict  peace-
building discussed at the Colloquium have  been addressed elsewhere in  this
report;  here I will  focus on  two specific  concerns: electoral assistance
and mine clearance.

    Electoral assistance

962.    In the  period from July 1994 to 10 August 1995, the United  Nations
received  19   new  requests   for  electoral   assistance,  from   Armenia,
Azerbaijan,  Bangladesh, Benin, Chad, the Congo, C_te d'Ivoire, Fiji, Gabon,
the Gambia,  Guinea, Haiti,  Kyrgyzstan, Namibia,  the Niger,  Sao Tome  and
Principe, the former Yugoslav Republic of  Macedonia, Uganda and the  United

Republic of  Tanzania. In  the case  of the  Congo, assistance could  not be
provided owing  to lack  of lead time.  In addition to  these new  requests,
assistance  was  also  provided  in  13   cases,  to  Brazil,  El  Salvador,
Equatorial  Guinea, Honduras, Lesotho,  Liberia, Malawi, Mexico, Mozambique,
the Netherlands Antilles, Sierra Leone and  MINURSO, in response to requests
received prior to July 1994 (see fig. 19).

963.       Since  July  1994, 30  States  and United  Nations  missions have
received or will  soon receive some  form of electoral  assistance from  the
United Nations system. The type of  electoral assistance provided has varied
according to the  requests received  and the resources available.  Following
the  guidelines provided to  Member States  (see A/49/675  and Corr.1, annex
III), verification of electoral  processes was conducted  in Mozambique  and
plans for  a verification  mission in  Liberia are  currently  on hold.  The
coordination  and support  approach was  used in  the cases  of Armenia  and
Benin, and  follow and  report/observation was  used in  Guinea, Kyrgyzstan,
the  former  Yugoslav Republic  of  Macedonia  and  Sao  Tome and  Principe.
Technical  assistance,  the  most  frequently  provided  form  of  electoral
assistance,  was  given to  Brazil, El  Salvador, Equatorial  Guinea, Haiti,
Honduras, Liberia,  Malawi, Mexico, Mozambique,  Namibia, the Niger,  Sierra
Leone  and  Uganda. A  total  of  11 needs  assessment  missions  were  also
conducted during this period.

964.      Since the  creation of the Electoral  Assistance Division in 1992,
the United  Nations  has been  involved in  the  electoral  processes of  61
Member States and some States have  requested electoral assistance more than
once. United Nations electoral assistance this  past year in Mozambique  and
Armenia illustrates the process in action.

965.    In Mozambique, the United  Nations provided technical assistance and
a verification mission for the first  multi-party elections, held in October
1994. In accordance with the terms of the General Peace Agreement signed  at
Rome on 4 October 1992, ONUMOZ,  through its electoral component,  monitored
the  conduct of  the entire  electoral  process.  The Electoral  Division of
ONUMOZ fielded  148 electoral  officers throughout  the  country to  monitor
voter  registration, civic  education, political  campaigns, political party
access to as well  as impartiality of the  media, polling, vote counting and
tabulation  of the vote at provincial counting centres. On the election days
ONUMOZ deployed 2,300 international observers.

966.    The United Nations also provided technical assistance to  Mozambique
through  a  UNDP  project  implemented  by the  Department  for  Development
Support  and  Management  Services.  The  project coordinated  international
financial and material support and provided technical assistance  throughout
the entire process in the areas  of organization, training, civic education,
jurisprudence,   social  communication   and   financial   management.  This
assistance  entailed management,  coordination  and monitoring  of  a  $64.5
million budget made up of contributions  from 17 countries and international
institutions. Technical assistance included the training of 2,600  electoral
officers  at the  national, provincial  and  district levels,  8,000  census
agents,  1,600  civic  education  agents  and 52,000  polling  officers.  In
addition  to  a  12-person  UNDP  advisory  team  to  the  National Election
Commission, 3 to  5 United Nations Volunteers were  assigned to each of  the
11  electoral constituencies  and worked  closely  with the  provincial  and
district electoral authorities.

967.    In  addition to the ONUMOZ electoral verification mandate, a  United
Nations  trust  fund  for assistance  to  registered  political  parties was
established to assist all political parties  not signatories to the  General
Peace  Agreement to prepare  for the  elections. The  electoral component of
ONUMOZ also  designed  a  programme  to enhance  national  observation.  The
programme provided training, transportation and subsidies for nearly  35,000
party agents to  monitor the elections. A  parallel programme funded  by the
United  Nations trust fund  provided computer training to 78 representatives
from all political parties  to enable them to monitor the processing of  the
vote at the provincial and national levels.

968.     Armenia requested electoral  assistance from the United Nations  in
January 1995  in connection with the  elections to the  National Assembly to
be held in July 1995. In February, an  officer from the Electoral Assistance
Division  conducted a  needs assessment  mission  and  returned in  April to
establish   a   joint  operation   coordinating   unit   together   with   a
representative  of  OSCE.  The  purpose  of   the  joint  operation  was  to
coordinate  and  support the  activities  of  the  international  observers.
Members of the joint operation were stationed  in three regional offices for
a  period of  six  weeks  in  order  to  follow  the  pre-election  process,
including  the registration of  candidates, the electoral campaign, and poll
preparations. On  election day, 5 July, the joint operation deployed over 90
observers throughout  the country to observe  the conduct  of the elections.
Observers  visited more  than 300  precinct electoral  committees,  starting
from the  opening of  the polls  to the  counting of  votes at  the precinct
level.  The  group  of  observers  represented 18  Governments  and  several
governmental and non-governmental organizations.

    Mine clearance

969.     The ever-growing problem of uncleared land-mines continues to  pose
a humanitarian  crisis of enormous  proportions, devastating vast amounts of
territory, possibly  for  decades.  Despite  the increased  efforts  of  the
international community, more than  20 times more mines are being laid  than
removed. Within  the United Nations system,  the Department of  Humanitarian
Affairs has intensified its activities as  focal point for the  coordination
of land-mine assistance  programmes. Since its  establishment in early 1992,
the Department  has been involved in  the formulation  and implementation of
mine-assistance programmes.  Pursuant to  General Assembly  resolutions 48/7
of 19 October 1993 and  49/215 of 23 December 1994,  the Department has been
convening  interdepartmental/inter-agency consultations  on land-mine policy
to  examine  all  aspects  of  United  Nations  involvement in  mine-related
activities and  to develop  standard United  Nations  policy concerning  the
institutional aspects  that need  to be  addressed in  an integrated  United
Nations land-mine operation. The United Nations  approach has been to  focus
on the creation  of a national indigenous mine-clearance capacity, including
appropriate  arrangements  to enable  continuity of  national mine-clearance
efforts, as normalization of conditions in a country progresses.

970.        During  the  past  year,  the  United  Nations  engaged  in  the
implementation and/or development of demining activities in nine  countries.
Programmes  differ  in structure,  size  and  arrangements  for funding  and

971.      Afghanistan is the most  mature of the United  Nations programmes,
having been  in operation for  six years. There  are currently almost  3,000
deminers working in the  field. Over the past  five years, the Programme has
cleared a total  of 54 square kilometres of high-priority area and destroyed
over  110,000  mines  and  215,000  unexploded  devices.  Approximately  2.5
million people received mine-awareness briefings.

972.    Angola is probably the most mine-affected country in  the world and,
together  with the  implementation of  the peace-keeping operation,  a mine-
action  programme  has  been  launched  in  cooperation between  the  United
Nations,  the   parties  to   the  Lusaka   Protocol  and   non-governmental
organizations. The Central Mine Action Office  has been established as  part
of the Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit  in Angola and is  mandated
to create  an indigenous mine-clearance  capacity. The Office is responsible
for  the implementation of  the mine-action  plan and  coordinates all mine-
related  activities. UNAVEM III, in  conjunction with the  Office, is in the
process of  establishing a mine-clearance training  school, which will  form
the core of the Angolan mine-action programme.
973.      In  Cambodia, the  Cambodian Mine  Action Centre  (a  governmental
entity with  technical advice  provided through  a UNDP  project), has  been

coordinating  all clearance activities.   Over  the past  year, the Centre's
1,556 staff have continued to survey,  mark and clear minefields,  and teach
mine  awareness. Since  the commencement  of operations,  16,436,971  square
metres of  land  have been  cleared,  with  423,708 unexploded  devices  and
61,787 mines destroyed.

974.     In June 1995, a United Nations  demining expert undertook a mission
to Chad on behalf of the Department of  Humanitarian Affairs to evaluate the
land-mine problem in the Tibesti region.

975.      Mine-clearance activities  in Mozambique  involve both the  United
Nations  own  programme,   the  accelerated  demining  programme  and   non-
governmental organizations and companies funded by  the United Nations or by
donors.  The  accelerated demining  programme  consists  of  500  Mozambican
deminers who were trained, equipped and deployed by the United Nations.

976.       The use  of  mines  in  the  conflict in  Abkhazia,  Georgia,  is
extensive.  The Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs has sent  an assessment
mission to  the area and has  suggested activities to  reduce the number  of
land-mine  accidents.  Approval from  the  Abkhaz  authorities  is  required
before a programme can be started.

977.      The problem  of land-mines and  unexploded ordnance in  Rwanda has
resulted in  large  numbers of  accidents.  Both  the Department  of  Peace-
keeping Operations and the Department of  Humanitarian Affairs have assessed
the situation and a plan has been developed.  Action is of course  dependent
upon the approval of the Government.

978.      In  Somalia, a  limited  demining  programme implemented  by local
Somali  entities worked well until the security  situation prevented follow-
up to clearance activities in the field.

979.        In  Yemen,  the United  Nations  is  providing  expert technical
assistance to the Government on mine-clearance and mapping methods.

980.     The continuing conflict in the  former Yugoslavia has prevented the
development of  a humanitarian demining  programme. However, United  Nations
peace-keeping  forces  and other  United  Nations  agencies have  engaged in
mine-clearance  activities as  part of  their  attempts  to carry  out their

981.     At Headquarters, the  Department of Humanitarian Affairs,  pursuant
to General Assembly  resolution 49/215, established  the Mine  Clearance and
Policy Unit to further strengthen support functions to demining  operations.
To facilitate  the planning,  implementation and  support of  mine-clearance
programmes  and  policies,  the  Unit is  developing  a  database containing
information  about  the  world-wide  land-mine  situation.  Country-specific
data,  as well  as general programme  and financial data,  are maintained in
the database,  which  serves as  a  central  repository of  information  for
Member  States,   United  Nations  departments   and  agencies,  and   other
interested parties.

982.      On 30  November 1994,  I established  a voluntary  trust fund  for
assistance  in mine  clearance. The  fund's  purpose  is to  provide special
resources for  mine-clearance programmes, including mine-awareness  training
and surveys, and to contract  mine-clearance activities in  situations where
other funding is not  immediately available. Some examples  of the types  of
activities that  could be funded from  the trust fund  include, but are  not
limited to  assessment  missions, provision  of seed  money, emergency  mine
clearance,  projects  where  other   sources  of  funding  are  not  readily
available,  consciousness-raising  and enhancing  Headquarters  support  for
mine-clearance programmes  in the field,  including through the  improvement
of the central land-mine database.

983.    In accordance with the  recommendations contained in the  Secretary-

General's report on assistance in mine  clearance (A/49/357 and Add.1),  the
Mine  Clearance and  Policy Unit  began  the  process of  creating a  United
Nations  demining stand-by capacity  in order  to expedite  the provision of
expert personnel,  specialized equipment  and facilities  to United  Nations
mine-action  programmes.  These in-kind  contributions  have  been  a  vital
component of  United Nations mine-action  programmes. The establishment of a
standby capacity is intended to institutionalize this support.

984.    From 5 to 7  July 1995, I convened an international  meeting on mine
clearance at the Palais  des Nations at Geneva. The objective of the meeting
was to  enhance international awareness of  the land-mine problem in all its
dimensions,  to  seek further  political  and  financial support  for United
Nations mine-action activities and to increase international cooperation  in
this field. It consisted of three elements: a  high-level segment devoted to
statements  by  Governments  and  organizations,  which  also  provided  the
opportunity to announce pledges to the  voluntary trust fund for  assistance
in mine  clearance and the United  Nations demining  stand-by capacity; nine
panels of experts that discussed various  aspects of the land-mine  problem;
and  an  exhibition  focusing  on  the  impact  of  land-mines  on  affected
populations and international efforts to address the problem.
985.     The international  meeting was  attended by  representatives of  97
Governments  and   more  than  60   organizations,  bringing  together   800
participants.  Contributions in  the amount  of $22  million were  announced
towards the  voluntary trust  fund and 23 countries  indicated contributions
to the United Nations stand-by capacity totalling $7 million.

986.     All delegations  referred to the  magnitude of the global land-mine
crisis, which continues to deteriorate, and  emphasized the need for  urgent
and  effective  measures   to  reverse  the   trend.  Many  delegations  and
organizations  called  for  a  total  ban  on  land-mines;  most delegations
stressed  the  need  to  strengthen  the  provisions  of  the  Convention on
Prohibition  or Restrictions  on the  Use  of Certain  Conventional  Weapons
Which May  Be Deemed to  Be Excessively Injurious or  to Have Indiscriminate

987.     There are still  only 49 States parties  to the Convention  and its
protocols, which include the protocol placing prohibitions and  restrictions
on the use  of land-mines. The Convention needs  to be strengthened to  make
its provisions applicable to both  internal and international  conflicts. It
is in  internal conflicts that  the indiscriminate  use of mines  has caused
the  most suffering  and misery  to  civilian  populations. The  1995 Review
Conference provides  an  opportunity to  strengthen the  Convention and  its
land-mine protocol. Looking at the magnitude  of the problem, States parties
should seriously consider a total ban on anti-personnel land-mines.

988.     A revitalized Advisory  Board on Disarmament Matters is  developing
ideas for  the better integration  of disarmament-related security  measures
with development in countries emerging  from inter- or intra-State conflict.
The Board is preparing for the  Secretary-General's review a study  entitled
"Some thoughts on  the development of the disarmament  agenda at the end  of
the century",  which  should be  relevant  to  the proposed  fourth  special
session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament.


989.      From  the deep-rooted  and far-reaching  United Nations  work  for
economic,  social  and  humanitarian progress  to  the  immediate and  often
urgent efforts to prevent, contain and  resolve conflicts, what emerges from
the pages  of this report is  an image of  a multifaceted and  ever-evolving
organization    an organization responding flexibly to  global change and to
the changing needs of the international community.

990.     There are signs that  the massive  educational effort under way  at
all   levels  of  national  and  international  society   in  this  fiftieth
anniversary year is  helping to create a welcome  realism about the role  of
the United Nations  in world  affairs today, as well  as a renewed sense  of
commitment to fulfil the  original promise set down  in the Charter 50 years

991.     Major aspects of this  landmark year  are still to come,  including
the Special  Commemorative Meeting of  the General Assembly,  to be  held at
Headquarters from 22 to 24 October 1995, and  the commemoration in London in
January 1996 of the  first session of  the General Assembly. None the  less,
it is  already evident  that this  anniversary has  created a  spirit and  a
momentum that go well beyond the  commemoration and celebration expected  at
such a point in  time. Virtually every  dimension of the United Nations  has
been energized.  New realities are being used as the  basis for reassessment
and redesign. Successes  are being built upon.  A new spirit of  cooperation
at every  level and on virtually every  issue is within the grasp of a wider
contingent of committed people than ever before.

992.    It is vital, therefore, that the spirit of the fiftieth  anniversary
be carried  forward in  all these respects.  Most fundamentally  it will  be
important  to  continue  the  major  efforts  launched  this  year  with the
objective of enabling  the United Nations  as an institution to  become more
intellectually  creative,   more  financially   stable,  more   managerially
effective and more responsive to all sectors of society.

993.     The fiftieth year has also generated criticism of the Organization,
and this  is  serving to  make the  United Nations  healthier and  stronger.

Shortcomings of the  Organization itself, inadequate  mandates, insufficient
financial  and material resources,  the failure  of Member  States to fulfil
their obligations  or take on  new responsibilities    all  have on occasion
been  catalysts  for  criticism. However,  the  ultimate  source  of today's
criticism  can be found  in the impact of  globalization on the Organization
and its  Member States: as the United Nations is being asked to take on more
duties and expand  its activities, it is  to be expected  that the  level of
criticism should  intensify.  At  the  same  time,  globalization  can  work
against the  will to  increase involvement, feeding  fear and  isolationism;
criticisms born of these sentiments can create dangerous misperceptions.

994.     Healthy criticism is an indispensable  form of participation in and
support   for  the  United   Nations  in   its  effort   to  revitalize  the
international  system. This  report is  itself  an effort  at  transparency,
revealing  both the  strengths and  weaknesses  of  the Organization  to the
widest possible audience. The continuing calls  for reform, and the  reforms
already enacted  and  under  way, testify  to the  recognition  by far  more
people than  ever before that  the United  Nations is a  truly indispensable
element in  world affairs and  that if  it did not  now exist,  it would  be
impossible  to create it under  present conditions. Thus the  legacy of 1945
must  be cherished and  carried forward.  In parallel,  techniques that have
succeeded must be transformed to meet the challenges of a new era.

995.       Reflection  and reform  are  not  new to  this  Organization.  As
envisioned by  the founders, the  United Nations has  evolved over  time and
adapted  to new  conditions, all the while  in pursuit of a  better life for
all individuals  and a better  world for humanity  as a  whole. The fiftieth
anniversary year, however,  by arriving at  such a critical juncture  in the
history of international relations, offers an unprecedented opportunity  for
change. As Secretary-General, I have from  the outset been deeply  committed
to and concerned  with reform. Looking back over  the past three and a  half
years of  effort  for change  and  the  substantial managerial  steps  taken
during the period covered by this report, I  believe that a continuing  need
exists for further, substantial reforms in the period ahead.

996.    The communiqu_ issued by the Heads of  State and Government of seven
major  industrialized nations  and the President of  the European Commission
following  their twenty-first  annual  economic summit  meeting  at  Halifax
provided suggestions  for enhancing the  effectiveness and  coherence of the
United Nations system in the economic,  social and environmental fields  and
in  the  humanitarian   area.  The  Halifax  participants  expressed   their
intention to utilize the gathering of Heads of  State and Government in  New
York  from  22  to  24  October  1995 for  the  observance  of  the fiftieth
anniversary of the United  Nations as an occasion to advance a consensus  on
ways tohelp theUnited Nationssystem toface thechallenges ofthe nextcentury.

997.      Throughout this  fiftieth anniversary  year, serious consideration
has  been given  to  the future  role  and responsibilities  of  the  United
Nations by conferences, workshops and study  programmes held at every  level
and  in every  part of  the world.  Two independent commissions  have issued
reports:  "The United Nations  in its  Second Half-Century",  produced by an
independent  working group  under  the  co-chairmanship of  Mr. Richard  von
Weizs_cker  and Mr.  Moeen  Qureshi, sponsored  at my  request  by  the Ford
Foundation   and  facilitated   by   Yale  University;   and   "Our   Global
Neighbourhood",  produced by  the Commission on Global  Governance under the
co-chairmanship of Mr. Ingvar Carlsson and  Mr. Shridath Ramphal. The  South
Center also has been active in reviewing various aspects of reform. 

998.      These projects and  commitments deserve  appreciation and  serious
consideration by the  international community. Discussions have taken  place
regarding the  establishment of  an open-ended  high-level working  group of
the General Assembly that would  undertake a thorough review of all relevant
United  Nations  materials,  Member  States'  submissions  and   independent
studies  and  reports relating  to  the  revitalization,  strengthening  and
reform of the United Nations system.

999.     The days,  weeks and months covered in this report have been filled
with  discouraging developments.  But  from a  larger, longer-term  point of
view, there  are many signs  that progress is  being made,  giving cause for
confidence that, over time, success is  entirely possible. Never before have
so many courageous and committed people  been involved in world  betterment.
Never before have nations recognized so clearly that  their fate is bound up
with each other. And  never before has  it been so undeniable that  mutually
beneficial international  institutions  of cooperation      with the  United
Nations foremost among them   are a vital global necessity.

1000.   It  is therefore  imperative to  remain focused  on the  reality  of
movement  towards  long-term  achievement  and  not  to  permit  dismay over
immediate  difficulties to  weaken  the  positive  momentum  that  has  been

1001.   There  are three immediate  problems, however, that  must concern us
deeply,  for if  they are  not  effectively  addressed they  can irreparably
damage the United Nations as a mechanism for progress.

1002.  First,  the safety and integrity of  United Nations personnel in  the
field  must be respected.  When lightly  armed peace-keepers  or unarmed aid
workers on a humanitarian mission are  threatened, taken hostage, harmed  or
even killed, the world  must act to prevent  such intolerable behaviour. The
credibility of all United Nations peace  operations is at stake; to preserve
it,  personnel  must  be  protected  as  they  carry   out  the  duties  the
international community has sent them to accomplish.

1003.  Secondly,  the financial situation of the Organization must be placed
on  an  adequate  and  sustainable footing.  Calls  for  ever-greater United
Nations effectiveness  under conditions of  financial penury  make no sense.
It is as  though the town fire department  were being dispatched to put  out
fires raging in  several places at once while  a collection was being  taken
to  raise money for  the fire-fighting  equipment. The  deterioration of the
Organization's financial position must be reversed.

1004.    And,  lastly, funds  for  development  are  drying  up.  This is  a
consequence of the end  of the cold-war contest, of the competing demands of
peace-keeping  and development  for scarce  resources, and  of donor fatigue
over  the  time  and  difficulty of  creating  progress on  the  ground. The
willingness to  spend money to  try to  contain conflicts around  the world,
while necessary and admirable, is not  enough. Unless development is  funded
as well, the  world can expect only the continuation of cycles marked by the
alternation of terrible strife, uneasy stand-off  and strife once again.  To
break  this   downward  spiral,  sustainable   human  development  must   be
instituted  everywhere.  A  new  vision  of  development,  and  a  universal
commitment to it, is indispensable for the world progress all peoples seek.

1005.   During the past year we  have seen far  too many innocent civilians,
especially women  and children,  losing their  lives or  being condemned  to
carry on  under  appalling conditions.  We  continue  to witness  scenes  of
refugees deprived of their most basic  rights and struggling desperately  to
survive.  And hundreds of  millions of people live in  poverty so dire as to
render them  incapable  of taking  effective  action  to improve  their  own
condition. Thus the existence  of a true international community has yet  to
be demonstrated. Nothing could  do more to bring such an instrument of human
solidarity into being than  a commitment undertaken  now to ensure that  all
the poor countries  of the world are set  firmly on the path of  development
as we enter  the next  century. Such  an achievement would  bring an end  to
degradation and  despair for a  huge proportion of  our fellow human  beings
and would represent one of history's most dramatic chapters of progress.

1006.  We have before us an opportunity to combine the ongoing,  incremental
process of reform with a comprehensive vision of  the future. The legacy  of
the founders at this  half-century mark should be our inspiration as we step
forward with pride to  meet this challenge. Together we can bring the  world
of the Charter to the world of today.


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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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