REPORT OF THE WORLD CONFERENCE TO REVIEW AND APPRAISE THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN: EQUALITY, DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985 United Nations New York, 1986 ... Agenda ... 1. Opening of the Conference. 2. Election of the President. 3. Adoption of the rules of procedure. 4. Adoption of the agenda. 5. Election of officers other than the President 6. Other organizational matters: (a) Allocation of items to the Main Committees and organization of work; (b) Credentials of representatives to the Conference: (i) Appointment of the members of the Credentials Committee; (ii) Report of the Credentials Committee. 7. Critical review and appraisal of progress achieved and obstacles encountered in attaining the goals and objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, and the sub-theme: Employment, Health and Education, bearing in mind the guidelines laid down at the World Conference of the International Women's Year, held at Mexico City, and the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, held at Copenhagen: (a) Progress achieved and obstacles encountered at national, regional and international levels to attain the goal and objective of equality; (b) Progress achieved and obstacles encountered at national, regional and international levels to attain the goal and objective of development; (c) Progress achieved and obstacles encountered at national, regional and international levels to attain the goal and objective of peace. 8. Forward-looking Strategies of implementation for the advancement of women for the period up to the year 2000, and concrete measures to overcome obstacles to the achievement of the goals and objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, and the sub-theme: Employment, Health and Education, bearing in mind the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade and the establishment of a new international economic order: (a) Strategies and measures at the national, regional and international levels to achieve the goal of equality; (b) Strategies and measures at the national, regional and international levels to achieve the goal of development; (c) Strategies and measures at the national, regional and international levels to achieve the goal of peace. 9. Adoption of the report of the Conference. ... The Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women Adopted by the World Conference to review and appraise the achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, held in Nairobi, Kenya, 15-26 July 1985. INTRODUCTION A. Historical Background Paragraph 1 The founding of the United Nations after the victory in the Second World War and the emergence of independent States following decolonization were some of the important events in the political, economic and social liberation of women. The International Women's Year, the World Conferences held at Mexico City in 1975 and Copenhagen in 1980, and the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace contributed greatly to the process of eliminating obstacles to the improvement of the status of women at the national, regional and international levels. In the early 1970s, efforts to end discrimination against women and to ensure their equal participation in society provided the impetus for most initiatives taken at all of those levels. Those efforts were also inspired by the awareness that women's reproductive and productive roles were closely linked to the political, economic, social, cultural, legal, educational and religious conditions that constrained the advancement of women and that factors intensifying the economic exploitation, marginalization and oppression of women stemmed from chronic inequalities, injustices and exploitative conditions at the family, community, national, subregional, regional and international levels. Paragraph 2 In 1972, the General Assembly, in its resolution 3010 (XXVII), proclaimed 1975 International Women's Year, to be devoted to intensified action to promote equality between men and women, to ensure the full integration of women in the total development effort and to increase women's contribution to the strengthening of world peace. The World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year, 1/ adopted by the World Conference of the International Women's Year at Mexico City in 1975, was endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 3520 (XXX). The General Assembly, in that resolution, proclaimed 1976-1985 the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. In its resolution 33/185, the General Assembly decided upon the sub-theme "Employment, Health and Education" for the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, to be held at Copenhagen to review and evaluate the progress made in the first half of the Decade. Paragraph 3 In 1980, at the mid-point of the Decade, the Copenhagen World Conference adopted the Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, 2/ which further elaborated on the existing obstacles and on the existing international consensus on measures to be taken for the advancement of women. The Programme of Action was endorsed by the General Assembly that year in its resolution 35/136. Paragraph 4 Also in 1980, the General Assembly, in its resolution 35/56, adopted the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade and reaffirmed the recommendations of the Copenhagen World Conference (General Assembly resolution 35/56, annex, para. 51). In the Strategy, the importance of the participation of women in the development process, as both agents and beneficiaries, was stressed. Also, the Strategy called for appropriate measures to be taken in order to bring about profound social and economic changes and to eliminate the structural imbalances that compounded and perpetuated women's disadvantages in society. Paragraph 5 The strategies contained in the World Plan of Action and in the Programme of Action were important contributions towards enlarging the perspective for the future of women. In most areas, however, further action is required. In this connection the General Assembly confirmed the goals and objectives of the Decade - equality, development and peace - stressed their validity for the future and indicated the need for concrete measures to overcome the obstacles to their achievement during the period 1986-2000. Paragraph 6 The Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women during the Period from 1986 to the Year 2000 set forth in the present document present concrete measures to overcome the obstacles to the Decade's goals and objectives for the advancement of women. Building on principles of equality also espoused in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 3/ the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 4/ the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 5/ the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 6/ and the Declaration on the Participation of Women in Promoting International Peace and Co-operation, 7/ the Forward-looking Strategies reaffirm the international concern regarding the status of women and provide a framework for renewed commitment by the international community to the advancement of women and the elimination of gender-based discrimination. The efforts for the integration of women in the development process should be strengthened and should take into account the objectives of a new international economic order and the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade. Paragraph 7 The Nairobi World Conference is taking place at a critical moment for the developing countries. Ten years ago, when the Decade was launched, there was hope that accelerated economic growth, sustained by growing international trade, financial flow and technological developments, would allow the increased participation of women in the economic and social development of those countries. These hopes have been belied owing to the persistence and, in some cases, the aggravation of an economic crisis in the developing countries, which has been an important obstacle that endangers not only the pursuance of new programmes in support of women but also the maintenance of those that were already under way. Paragraph 8 The critical international economic situation since the end of the 1970s has particularly adversely affected developing countries and, most acutely, the women of those countries. The overall picture for the developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, the drought-stricken and famine-stricken areas of Africa, the debt-ridden countries and the low-income countries, has reached a critical point as a result of structural imbalances and the continuing critical international economic situation. The situation calls for an increased commitment to improving and promoting national policies and multilateral co-operation for development in support of national programmes, bearing in mind that each country is responsible for its own development policy. The gap between the developed and developing countries, particularly the least developed among them, instead of narrowing, is widening further. In order to stem such negative trends and mitigate the current difficulties of the developing countries, which affect women the most, one of the primary tasks of the international community is to pursue with all vigour the efforts directed towards the establishment of a New International Economic Order founded on equity, sovereign equality, interdependence and common interest. B. Substantive background of the Forward-looking Strategies Paragraph 9 The three objectives of the Decade - equality, development and peace - are broad, interrelated and mutually reinforcing, so that the achievement of one contributes to the achievement of another. Paragraph 10 The Copenhagen World Conference interpreted equality as meaning not only legal equality, the elimination of de jure discrimination, but also equality of rights, responsibilities and opportunities for the participation of women in development, both as beneficiaries and as active agents. Paragraph 11 Equality is both a goal and a means whereby individuals are accorded equal treatment under the law and equal opportunities to enjoy their rights and to develop their potential talents and skills so that they can participate in national political, economic, social and cultural development and can benefit from its results. For women in particular, equality means the realization of rights that have been denied as a result of cultural, institutional, behaviourial and attitudinal discrimination. Equality is important for development and peace because national and global inequities perpetuate themselves and increase tensions of all types. Paragraph 12 The role of women in development is directly related to the goal of comprehensive social and economic development and is fundamental to the development of all societies. Development means total development, including development in the political, economic, social, cultural and other dimensions of human life, as well as the development of the economic and other material resources and the physical, moral, intellectual and cultural growth of human beings. It should be conducive to providing women, particularly those who are poor or destitute, with the necessary means for increasingly claiming, achieving, enjoying and utilizing equality of opportunity. More directly, the increasingly successful participation of each woman in societal activities as a legally independent agent will contribute to further recognition in practice of her right to equality. Development also requires a moral dimension to ensure that it is just and responsive to the needs and rights of the individual and that science and technology are applied within a social and economic framework that ensures environmental safety for all life forms on our planet. Paragraph 13 The full and effective promotion of women's rights can best occur in conditions of international peace and security where relations among States are based on the respect for the legitimate rights of all nations, great and small, and peoples to self-determination, independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and the right to live in peace within their national borders. Peace depends on the prevention of the use or threat of the use of force, aggression, military occupation, interference in the internal affairs of others, the elimination of domination, discrimination, oppression and exploitation, as well as of gross and mass violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Peace includes not only the absence of war, violence and hostilities at the national and international levels but also the enjoyment of economic and social justice, equality and the entire range of human rights and fundamental freedoms within society. It depends upon respect for the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as international covenants and the other relevant international instruments on human rights, upon mutual co-operation and understanding among all States irrespective of their social political and economic systems and upon the effective implementation by States of the fundamental human rights standards to which their citizens are entitled. It also embraces the whole range of actions reflected in concerns for security and implicit assumptions of trust between nations, social groups and individuals. It represents goodwill toward others and promotes respect for life while protecting freedom, human rights and the dignity of peoples and of individuals. Peace cannot be realized under conditions of economic and sexual inequality, denial of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms, deliberate exploitation of large sectors of the population, unequal development of countries, and exploitative economic relations. Without peace and stability there can be no development. Peace and development are interrelated and mutually reinforcing. In this respect special attention is drawn to the final document of the tenth special session of the General Assembly, the first special session devoted to disarmament encompassing all measures thought to be advisable in order to ensure that the goal of general and complete disarmament under effective international control is realized. This document describes a comprehensive programme of disarmament, including nuclear disarmament, which is important not only for peace but also for the promotion of the economic and social development of all, particularly in the developing countries, through the constructive use of the enormous amount of material and human resources otherwise expended on the arms race. Peace is promoted by equality of the sexes, economic equality and the universal enjoyment of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms. Its enjoyment by all requires that women be enabled to exercise their right to participate on an equal footing with men in all spheres of the political, economic and social life of their respective countries, particularly in the decision-making process, while exercising their right to freedom of opinion, expression, information and association in the promotion of international peace and co-operation. Paragraph 14 The effective participation of women in development and in the strengthening of peace, as well as the promotion of the equality of women and men, require concerted multi-dimensional strategies and measures that should be people-oriented. Such strategies and measures will require continual upgrading and the productive utilization of human resources with a view to promoting equality and producing sustained, endogenous development of societies and groups of individuals. Paragraph 15 The three goals of the Decade - equality, development and peace - are inextricably linked to the three sub-themes - employment, health and education. They constitute the concrete basis on which equality, development and peace rest. The enhancement of women's equal participation in development and peace requires the development of human resources, recognition by society of the need to improve women's status, and the participation of all in the restructuring of society. It involves, in particular, building a participatory human infrastructure to permit the mobilization of women at all levels, within different spheres and sectors. To achieve optimum development of human and material resources, women's strengths and capabilities, including their great contribution to the welfare of families and to the development of society, must be fully acknowledged and valued. The attainment of the goals and objectives of the Decade requires a sharing of this responsibility by men and women and by society as a whole and requires that women play a central role as intellectuals, policy-makers, decision-makers, planners, and contributors and beneficiaries of development. Paragraph 16 The need for women's perspective on human development is critical since it is in the interest of human enrichment and progress to introduce and weave into the social fabric women's concept of equality, their choices between alternative development strategies and their approach to peace, in accordance with their aspirations, interests and talents. These things are not only desirable in themselves but are also essential for the attainment of the goals and objectives of the Decade. Paragraph 17 The review and appraisal of progress achieved and obstacles encountered at the national level in the realization of the goals and objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace (see A/CONF.116/5 and Add.1-14) identifies various levels of experience. Despite the considerable progress achieved and the increasing participation of women in society, the Decade has only partially attained its goals and objectives. Although the earlier years of the Decade were characterized by relatively favourable economic conditions in both the developed and developing countries, deteriorating economic conditions have slowed efforts directed towards promoting the equal participation of women in society and have given rise to new problems. With regard to development, there are indications that in some cases, although the participation of women is increasing, their benefits are not increasing proportionately. Paragraph 18 Many of the obstacles discussed in the Forward-looking Strategies were identified in the review and appraisal (see A/CONF.116/5 and Add.1-14). The overwhelming obstacles to the advancement of women are in practice caused by varying combinations of political and economic as well as social and cultural factors. Furthermore, the social and cultural obstacles are sometimes aggravated by political and economic factors such as the critical international economic situation and the consequent adjustment programmes, which in general entail a high social cost. In this context, the economic constraints due in part to the prevailing macro-economic factors have contributed to the aggravation of economic conditions at the national level. Moreover, the devaluation of women's productive and reproductive roles, as a result of which the status of women continued to be regarded as secondary to that of men, and the low priority assigned to promoting the participation of women in development are historical factors that limit women's access to employment, health and education, as well as to other sectoral resources, and to the effective integration of women in the decision-making process. Regardless of gains, the structural constraints imposed by a socio-economic framework in which women are second-class persons still limit progress. Despite changes in some countries to promote equity in all spheres of life, the "double burden" for women of having the major responsibility for domestic tasks and of participating in the labour force remains. For example, several countries in both the developed and developing world identify as a major obstacle the lack of adequate supportive services for working women. Paragraph 19 According to responses from the developing countries, particularly the least developed, to the United Nations questionnaire to Governments (see A/C0NF.116/5 and Add.1-14), poverty is on the increase in some countries and constitutes another major obstacle to the advancement of women. The exigencies created by problems of mass poverty, compounded by scarce national resources, have compelled Governments to concentrate on alleviating the poverty of both women and men rather than on equality issues for women. At the same time, because women's secondary position increases their vulnerability to marginalization, those belonging to the lowest socio-economic strata are likely to be the poorest of the poor and should be given priority. Women are an essential productive force in all economies; therefore it is particularly important in times of economic recession that programmes and measures designed to raise the status of women should not be relaxed but rather intensified. Paragraph 20 To economic problems, with their attendant social and cultural implications, must be added the threat to international peace and security resulting from violations of the principles of the United Nations Charter. This situation, affecting inter alia the lives of women, constitutes a most serious obstacle to development and thus hinders the fulfilment of the Forward-looking Strategies. Paragraph 21 What is now needed is the political will to promote development in such a way that the strategy for the advancement of women seeks first and foremost to alter the current unequal conditions and structures that continue to define women as secondary persons and give women's issues a low priority. Development should now move to another plane in which women's pivotal role in society is recognized and given its true value. That will allow women to assume their legitimate and core positions in the strategies for effecting the changes necessary to promote and sustain development. C. Current trends and perspectives to the year 2000 Paragraph 22 In the absence of major structural changes or technological breakthroughs, it can be predicted that up to the year 2000 recent trends will, for the most part, be extended and adjusted. The situation of women, as it evolves during the period 1986-2000, will also cause other changes, establishing a process of cause and effect of great complexity. Changes in women's material conditions, consciousness and aspirations, as well as societal attitudes towards women, are themselves social and cultural processes having major implications and a profound influence on institutions such as the family. Women's advancement has achieved a certain momentum that will be affected by the social and economic changes of the next 15 years, but it will also continue to exist as a force to be reckoned with. Internal processes will exercise a major influence in the economic sphere, but the state of the global economic system and of the political, social, cultural, demographic and communication processes directly affected by it will invariably have a more profound impact on the advancement of women. Paragraph 23 At the beginning of the Decade there was an optimistic outlook for development, but during the early 1980s the world economy experienced a widespread recession due, inter alia, to sharp inflationary pressures that affected regions and some groups of countries, irrespective of their level of development or economic structure. During the same period, however, the countries with centrally planned economies as a group experienced stable economic growth. The developed market economy countries also experienced growth after the recession. Despite the recovery in the developed market economy countries which is being felt in the world economy, the immediate outlook for recovery in developing countries, especially in the low-income and the least developed countries, remains bleak, particularly in view of their enormous public and private external debts and the cost of servicing that debt, which are an evident manifestation of this critical situation. This heavy burden has serious political, economic and social consequences for them. No lasting recovery can be achieved without rectifying the structural imbalances in the context of the critical international economic situation and without continued efforts towards the establishment of a new international economic order. The present situation clearly has serious repercussions for the status of women, particularly underprivileged women, and for human resource development. Women, subject to compound discrimination on the basis of race, colour, ethnicity and national origin, in addition to sex, could be even more adversely affected by deteriorating economic conditions. Paragraph 24 If current trends continue, the prospects for the developing world, particularly the low-income and least developed countries, will be sombre. The overall growth in the developing countries as currently projected will be lower in the period 1980-2000 than that experienced in the period 1960-1980. In order to redress this outlook and thereby promote the advancement of women, policies should be reoriented and reinforced to promote world trade, in particular so as to promote market access for the exports of developing countries. Similarly, policies should be pursued in other areas which would also promote growth and development in developing countries, for example, in respect of further lowering interest rates and pursuit of non-inflationary growth policies. Paragraph 25 It is feared that, if there is slow growth in the world economy, there will inevitably be negative implications for women since, as a result of diminished resources, action to combat women's low position, in particular, their high rates of illiteracy, low levels of education, discrimination in employment, their unrecognized contribution to the economy and their special health needs, may be postponed. A pattern of development promoting just and equitable growth on the basis of justice and equality in international economic relations could make possible the attainment of the goals and objectives of the International Development Strategy, which could make a significant improvement in the status of women while enhancing women's effective contribution to development and peace. Such a pattern of development has its own internal dynamics that would facilitate an equitable distribution of resources and is conducive to promoting sustained, endogenous development, which will reduce dependence. Paragraph 26 It is very important that the efforts to promote the economic and social status of women should rely in particular on the development strategies that stem from the goals and objectives of the International Development Strategy and the principles of a new international economic order. These principles include, inter alia, self-reliance, collective self-reliance, the activation of indigenous human and material resources. The restructuring of the world economy, viewed on a long-term basis, is to the benefit of all people - women and men of all countries. Paragraph 27 According to estimates and projections of the International Labour Office, women constitute 35 per cent of the world's labour force, and this figure is likely to increase steadily to the year 2000. Unless profound and extensive changes are made, the type of work available to the majority of women, as well as the rewards, will continue to be low. Women's employment is likely to be concentrated in areas requiring lower skills and lower wages and minimum job security. While women's total input of labour in the formal and informal sector will surpass that of men by the year 2000, they will receive an unequal share of the world's assets and income. According to recent estimates, it seems that women have sole responsibility for the economic support of a large number of the world's children, approximately one third and higher in sone countries, and the numbers seem to be rising. Forward-looking strategies must be progressive, equitable and designed to support effectively women's roles and responsibilities as they evolve up to the year 2000. It will continue to be necessary to take specific measures to prevent discrimination and exploitation of their economic contribution at national and international levels. Paragraph 28 During the period from 1986 to the year 2000, changes in the natural environment will be critical for women. One area of change is that of the role of women as intermediaries between the natural environment and society with respect to agro-ecosystems, as well as the provision of safe water and fuel supplies and the closely associated question of sanitation. The problem will continue to be greatest where water resources are limited - in arid and semi-arid areas - and in areas experiencing increasing demographic pressure. In a general manner, an improvement in the situation of women could bring about a reduction in mortality and morbidity as well as better regulation of fertility and hence of population growth, which would be beneficial for the environment and, ultimately, for women, children and men. Paragraph 29 7a/ The issues of fertility rates and population growth should be treated in a context that permits women to exercise effectively their rights in matters pertaining to population concerns, including the basic right to control their own fertility which forms an important basis for the enjoyment of other rights, as stated in the report of the International Population Conference held at Mexico City in 1984. 8/ Paragraph 30 It is expected that the ever-expanding communications network will be better attuned than before to the concerns of women and that planners in this field will provide increasing information on the objectives of the Decade - equality, development and peace - on the Forward-looking Strategies, and on the issues included in the subtheme - employment, health and education. All channels, including computers, formal and non-formal education and the media, as well as traditional mechanisms of communication involving the cultural media of ritual, drama, dialogue, oral literature and music, should be used. Paragraph 31 Political and governmental factors that are likely to affect prospects for the achievement of progress by women during the period 1986-2000 will depend in large measure upon the existence or absence of peace. If widespread international tensions continue, with threats not only of nuclear catastrophe but also of localized conventional warfare, then the attention of policy-makers will be diverted from tasks directly and indirectly relevant to the advancement of women and men, and vast resources will be further applied to military and related activities. This should be avoided and these resources should be directed to the improvement of humanity. Paragraph 32 To promote their interests effectively, women must be able to enjoy their right to take part in national and international decision-making processes, including the right to dissent publicly and peacefully from their Government's policies, and to mobilize to increase their participation in the promotion of peace within and between nations. Paragraph 33 There is no doubt that, unless major measures are taken, numerous obstacles will continue to exist which retard the participation of women in political life, in the formulation of policies that affect them and in the formulation of national women's policies. Success will depend in large measure upon whether or not women can unite to help each other to change their poor material circumstances and secondary status and to obtain the time, energy and experience required to participate in political life. At the same time, improvements in health and educational status, legal and constitutional provisions and networking will increase the effectiveness of the political action taken by women so that they can obtain a much greater share in political decision-making than before. Paragraph 34 In some countries and in some areas, women have made significant advances, but overall progress has been modest during the Decade, as is evident from the review and appraisal. During this period, women's consciousness and expectations have been raised, and it is important that this momentum should not be lost, regardless of the poor performance of the world economy. The changes occurring in the family, in women's roles and in relationships between women and men may present new challenges requiring new perspectives, strategies and measures. At the same time, it will be necessary to build alliances and solidarity groups across sexual lines in an attempt to overcome structural obstacles to the advancement of women. Paragraph 35 8a/ The World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the objectives of the International Women's Year, 1/ the Declaration of Mexico on the Equality of Women and their Contribution to Development and Peace, 1975, 9/ regional plans of action, the Programme of Action for the Second half of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, 2/ and the sub-theme - employment, health and education - the Declaration on the Participation of Women in Promoting International Peace and Co-operation 7/ and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 6/ remain valid and therefore constitute the basis for the strategies and concrete measures to be pursued up to the year 2000. The continuing relevance of the goals of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace - and of its sub-theme - health, education and employment - should be stressed, as should the implementation of the relevant recommendations of the 1975 Plan of Action and the 1980 Programme of Action, so as to ensure the complete integration of women in the development process and the effective realization of the objectives of the Decade. The challenge now is for the international community to ensure that the achievements of the Decade become strong building blocks for development and to promote equality and peace, especially for the sake of future generations of women. The obstacles of the next 15 years must be met through concerted global, regional and national efforts. By the year 2000 illiteracy should have been eliminated, life expectancy for all women increased to at least 65 years of good quality life and opportunities for self-supporting employment made available. Above all, laws guaranteeing equality for women in all spheres of life must by then be fully and comprehensively implemented to ensure a truly equitable socio-economic framework within which real development can take place. Forward-looking Strategies for the advancement of women at the regional level should be based on a clear assessment of demographic trends and development forecasts that provide a realistic context for their implementation. Paragraph 36 The Forward-looking Strategies and multidimensional measures must be pursued within the framework of a just international society in which equitable economic relations will allow the closing of the gap that separates the industrialized countries from the developing countries. In this regard, all countries are called upon to show their commitment as was decided in General Assembly resolution 34/138 and, therefore, to continue informal consultations on the launching of global negotiations, as decided by the General Assembly in decision 39/454. D. Basic approach to the formulation of the Forward-looking Strategies Paragraph 37 It is necessary to reiterate the unity, inseparability and interdependence of the objectives of the Decade - equality, development and peace - as regards the advancement of women and their full integration in economic, political, social and cultural development, for which purpose the objectives should remain in effect in the operational strategies for the advancement of women to the year 2000. Paragraph 38 The Forward-looking Strategies are intended to provide a practical and effective guide for global action on a long-term basis and within the context of the broader goals and objectives of a new international economic order. Measures are designed for immediate action, with monitoring and evaluation occurring every five years, depending on the decision of the General Assembly. Since countries are at various stages of development, they should have the option to set their own priorities based on their own development policies and resource capabilities. What may be possible for immediate action in one country may require more long-range planning in another, and even more so in respect of countries which are still under colonialism, domination and foreign occupation. The exact methods and procedures of implementing measures will depend upon the nature of the political process and the administrative capabilities of each country. Paragraph 39 Some measures are intended to affect women and others directly and are designed to make the societal context less obstructive and more supportive of their progress. These measures would include the elimination of sex-based stereotyping, which is at the root of continuing discrimination. Measures to improve the situation of women are bound to have a ripple effect in society, since the advancement of women is without doubt a pre-condition for the establishment of a humane and Progressive society. Paragraph 40 The feasibility of policies, programs and projects concerning women will be affected not only by their numbers and socio-economic heterogeneity but also by the different life-styles of women and by the constant changes in their life cycle. Paragraph 41 The Forward-looking Strategies not only suggest measures for overcoming obstacles that are fundamental and operational, but also identify those that are emerging. Thus, the strategies and measures presented are intended to serve as guidelines for a process of continuous adaptation to diverse and changing national situations at speeds and nodes determined by overall national priorities, within which the integration of women in development should rank high. The Forward-looking Strategies, acknowledging existing and potential obstacles, include separate basic strategies for the achievement of equality, development and peace. In line with the recommendations of the commission on the Status of Women, acting as the Preparatory Body for the Conference at its second session, particular attention is given to "especially vulnerable and underprivileged groups of women, such as rural and urban poor women; women in areas affected by armed conflicts, foreign intervention and international threats to peace; elderly women; young women; abused women; destitute women; women victims of trafficking and women in involuntary prostitution; women deprived of their traditional means of livelihood; women who are sole supporters of families; physically and mentally disabled women; women in detention; refugee and displaced women; migrant women; minority women; and indigenous women". 10/ Paragraph 42 Although addressed primarily to Governments, international and regional organizations, and non-governmental organizations, an appeal is made to all women and men in a spirit of solidarity. In particular, it is addressed to those women and men who now enjoy certain improvements in their material circumstances and who have achieved positions where they may influence policy-making, development priorities and public opinion to change the current inferior and exploited condition of the majority of women ln order to serve the goals of equality for all women, their full participation in development, and the achievement and strengthening of peace. I. EQUALITY A. Obstacles Paragraph 43 One of the objectives of the Decade entails the full observance of the equal rights of women and the elimination of de jure and de facto discrimination. This is a critical first step towards human resource development. In developing countries inequality is, to a great extent, the result of underdevelopment and its various manifestations, which in turn are aggravated by the unjust distribution of the benefits of the international economy. The United Nations systems, particularly the Commission on the Status of Women, has worked for four decades to establish international standards and to identify and propose measures to prevent discrimination on the basis of sex. Although much progress has been made in legislation, measures are necessary for effective implementation and enforcement. Legislative enactment is only one element in the struggle for equality, but an essential one as it provides the legitimate basis for action and acts as a catalyst for societal change. Paragraph 44 10a/ The inequality of women in most countries stems to a very large extent from mass poverty and the general backwardness of the majority of the world's population caused by underdevelopment, which is a product of imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid, racism, racial discrimination and of unjust international economic relations. The unfavourable status of women is aggravated in many countries, developed and underdeveloped, by de facto discrimination on the grounds of sex. Paragraph 45 One of the fundamental obstacles to women's equality is that de facto discrimination and inequality in the status of women and men derive from larger social, economic, political and cultural factors that have been justified on the basis of physiological differences. Although there is no physiological basis for regarding the household and family as essentially the domain of women, for the devaluation of domestic work and for regarding the capacities of women as inferior to those of men, the belief that such a basis exists perpetuates inequality and inhibits the structural and attitudinal changes necessary to eliminate such inequality. Paragraph 46 Women, by virtue of their gender, experience discrimination in terms of denial of equal access to the power structure that controls society and determines development issues and peace initiatives. Additional differences, such as race, colour and ethnicity, may have even more serious implications in some countries, since such factors can be used as justification for compound discrimination. Paragraph 47 Fundamental resistance creates obstacles, which have wide-ranging implications for the objectives of the Decade. Discrimination promotes an uneconomic use of women's talents and wastes the valuable human resources necessary for development and for the strengthening of peace. Ultimately, society is the loser if the talents of women are under-utilized as a result of discrimination. Paragraph 48 The sharp contrasts between legislative changes and effective implementation of these changes are a major obstacle to the full participation of women in society. De facto and indirect discrimination, particularly by reference to marital or family status, often persists despite legislative action. The law as a recourse does not automatically benefit all women equally, owing to the socio-economic inequalities determining women's knowledge of and access to the law, as well as their ability to exercise their full legal rights without fear of recrimination or intimidation. The lack or inadequacy of the dissemination of information on women's rights and the available recourse to justice has hampered, in many instances, the achievement of expected results. Paragraph 49 Some legislative changes are made without a thorough understanding of the relationship between existing legal systems. In practice, however, certain aspects of the law - for instance, customary provisions - may be in operation in societies with multiple and conflicting legal systems. Emerging and potential obstacles resulting from possible contradictions should be anticipated so that preventive measures can be taken. When passing new legislation, whatever its subject-matter, all possible care should be taken to ensure that it implies no direct or indirect discrimination so that women's right to equality is fully respected in law. Paragraph 50 In some countries, discriminatory legislative provisions in the social, economic and political spheres still exist, including civil, penal and commercial codes and certain administrative rules and regulations. Civil codes in some instances have not yet been adequately studied to determine action for repealing those laws that still discriminate against women and for determining, on the basis of equality, the legal capacity and status of women, married women in particular, in terms of nationality, inheritance, ownership and control of property, freedom of movement and the custody and nationality of children. Above all, there is still a deeply rooted resistance on the part of conservative elements in society to the change in attitude necessary for a total ban on discriminatory practices against women at the family, local, national and international levels. B. Basic strategies Paragraph 51 The political commitment to establish, modify, expand or enforce a comprehensive legal base for the equality of women and men and on the basis of human dignity must be strengthened. Legislative changes are most effective when made within a supportive framework promoting simultaneous changes in the economic, social, political and cultural spheres, which can help bring about a social transformation. For true equality to become a reality for women, the sharing of power on equal terms with men must be a major strategy. Paragraph 52 Governments should take the relevant steps to ensure that both men and women enjoy equal rights, opportunities and responsibilities so as to guarantee the development of their individual aptitudes and capacities and enable women to participate as beneficiaries and active agents in development. Paragraph 53 Changes in social and economic structures should be promoted which would make possible the full equality of women and their free access to all types of development as active agents and beneficiaries, without discrimination of any kind, and to all types of education, training and employment. Special attention should be paid to implementing this right to the maximum extent possible for young women. Paragraph 54 In order to promote equality of women and men, Governments should ensure, for both women and men, equality before the law, the provision of facilities for equality of educational opportunities and training, health services, equality in conditions and opportunities of employment, including remuneration, and adequate social security. Governments should recognize and undertake measures to implement the right of men and women to employment on equal conditions, regardless of marital status, and their equal access to the whole range of economic activities. Paragraph 55 Effective institutions and procedures must be established or strengthened to monitor the situation of women comprehensively and identify the causes, both traditional and new, of discrimination and to help formulate new policies and effectively carry out strategies and measures to end discrimination. These arrangements and procedures must be integrated within a coherent policy for development but cannot wait indefinitely for such a policy to be formulated and implemented. Paragraph 56 The obstacles to the equality of women created by stereotypes, perceptions of and attitudes towards women should be totally removed. Elimination of these obstacles will require, in addition to legislation, education of the population at large through formal and informal channels, including the media, non-governmental organizations, political party platforms and executive action. Paragraph 57 Appropriate governmental machinery for monitoring and improving the status of women should be established where it is lacking. To be effective, this machinery should be established at a high level of government and should be ensured adequate resources, commitment and authority to advise on the impact on women of all government policies. Such machinery can play a vital role in enhancing the status of women, inter alia, through the dissemination of information to women on their rights and entitlements, through collaborative action with various ministries and other government agencies and with non-governmental organizations and indigenous women's societies and groups. Paragraph 58 Timely and reliable statistics on the situation of women have an important role to play in the elimination of stereotypes and the movement towards full equality. Governments should help collect statistics and make periodic assessment in identifying stereotypes and inequalities, in providing concrete evidence concerning many of the harmful consequences of unequal laws and practices and in measuring progress in the elimination of inequities. Paragraph 59 The sharing of domestic responsibilities by all members of the family and equal recognition of women's informal and invisible economic contributions in the mainstream of society should be developed as complementary strategies for the elimination of women's secondary status, which has fostered discrimination. C. Measures for the implementation of the basic strategies at the national level 1. Constitutional and legal Paragraph 60 Governments that have not yet done so are urged to sign the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 6/ and to take all the necessary steps to ensure its ratification, or their accession to it. They should consider the possibility of establishing appropriate bodies charged with reviewing the national legislation concerned and with drawing up recommendations thereon to ensure that the provisions of the Convention and of the other international instruments to which they are parties that are relevant to the role, status and material circumstances of women are complied with. Paragraph 61 Governments that have not yet done so should establish appropriate institutional procedures whereby the application of a revised set of laws and administrative measures may be effectively enforced from the village level up and may be adequately monitored so that individual women may, without obstruction or cost to themselves, seek to have discriminatory treatment redressed. Legislation that concerns women as a group should also be effectively enforced and monitored so that areas of systemic or de facto discrimination against women can be redressed. To this end, positive action policy should be developed. Paragraph 62 Agrarian reform measures have not always ensured women's rights even in countries where women predominate in the agricultural labour force. Such reforms should guarantee women's constitutional and legal rights in terms of access to land and other means of production and should ensure that women will control the products of their labour and their income, as well as benefits from agricultural inputs, research, training, credits and other infrastructural facilities. Paragraph 63 National research institutions, both governmental and private, are urged to undertake investigations of the problems associated with the relationship between the law and the role, status and material circumstances of women. These should be integrated into the curricula of relevant educational institutions in an attempt to promote general knowledge and awareness of the law. Paragraph 64 In the past decade there have been significant advances in the development of statistical concepts and methods for measuring inequality between women and men. The capabilities of national institutions concerned with statistics and women's issues should be improved to implement these concepts and methods in the regular statistical programmes of countries and to make effective use of these statistics in the policy-planning process. Training for producers and users of statistics on women should play a key role in this process. Paragraph 65 In-depth research should be undertaken to determine instances when customary law may be discriminatory or protective of women's rights and the extent to which the interfaces between customary and statutory law may retard progress in the implementation of new legislative measures. Particular attention should be paid to double standards in every aspect of life, with a view to abolishing them. Paragraph 66 Law-reform committees with equal representation of women and men from Governments and from non-governmental organizations should be set up to review all laws, not only as a monitoring device but also with a view to determining research-related activities, amendments and new legislative measures. Paragraph 67 Employment legislation should ensure equity and provide benefits for women not only in the conventional and formal labour force but also in the informal sector, particularly with regard to migrant and service workers, by providing minimum wage standards, insurance benefits, safe working conditions and the right to organize. Opportunities for similar guarantees and benefits should also be extended to women making vital economic contributions in activities involving food production and processing, fisheries and food distribution through trade. These benefits should also pertain to women working in family enterprises and, if possible, to other self-employed women in an effort to give due recognition to the vital contribution of all these informal and invisible economic activities to the development of human resources. Paragraph 68 Civil codes, particularly those pertaining to family law, should be revised to eliminate discriminatory practices where these exist and wherever women are considered minors. The legal capacity of married women should be reviewed in order to grant them equal rights and duties. Paragraph 69 10b/ Such social and economic development should be encouraged as would secure the participation of women as equal partners with men in all fields of work, equal access to all positions of employment, equal pay for work of equal value and equal opportunities for education and vocational training, and would co-ordinate the legislation on the protection of women at work with the need for women to work and be highly productive producers and managers of all political, economic and social affairs and would develop branches of the social services to make domestic duties easier for women and men. Paragraph 70 Measures for the implementation of legislation relating to working conditions for women must be taken. Paragraph 71 Legislative and/or other measures should be adopted and implemented to secure for men and women the same right to work and to unemployment benefits, as well as to prohibit, through, inter alia, the imposition of sanctions, dismissal on the grounds of pregnancy or of maternity leave and discrimination in dismissals on the grounds of marital status. Legislative and other measures should be adopted and implemented to facilitate the return to the labour market of women who have left it for family reasons and to guarantee the right of women to return to work after maternity leave. Paragraph 72 Governments should continue to take special action to institute programmes that would inform women workers of their rights under legislation and other remedial measures. The importance of freedom of association and the protection of the right to organize should be emphasized, this being particularly relevant to the position of women in employment. Special measures should be taken to ratify and implement in national legislation the relevant conventions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation concerning the rights of women as regards access to equal employment opportunities, equal pay for work of equal value, equal working conditions, job security and maternity protection. Paragraph 73 Marriage agreements should be based on mutual understanding, respect and freedom of choice. Careful attention should be paid to the equal participation and valuation of both partners so that the value of housework is considered equivalent of financial contributions. Paragraph 74 The right of all women, in particular married women, to own, administer, sell or buy property independently should be guaranteed as an aspect of their equality and freedom under the law. The right to divorce should be granted equally to both partners under the same conditions, and custody of children decided in a non-discriminatory manner with full awareness of the importance of the input from both parents in the maintenance, rearing and socialization of children. Women should not forfeit their right to custody of their children or to any other benefits and freedoms simply because they have initiated a divorce. Without prejudice to the religious and cultural traditions of countries, and taking into account the de facto situations, legal or other appropriate provisions should be made to eliminate discrimination against single mothers and their children. Paragraph 75 Appropriate action is necessary to ensure that the judiciary and all paralegal personnel are fully aware of the importance of the achievement by women of rights set out in internationally agreed instruments, constitutions and the law. Appropriate forms of in-service training and retraining should be designed and carried out for this purpose, with special attention given to the recruitment and training of women. Paragraph 76 Special attention should be given in criminology training to the particular situation of women as victims of violent crimes, including crimes that violate women's bodies and result in serious physical and psychological damage. Legislation should be passed and laws enforced in every country to end the degradation of women through sex-related crimes. Guidance should be given to law enforcement and other authorities on the need to deal sensibly and sensitively with the victims of such crimes. 2. Equality in social participation Paragraph 77 A comprehensive and sustained public campaign should be launched by all Governments, in close collaboration with non-governmental organizations, women's pressure groups, where they exist, and research institutions, as well as the media, educational institutions and traditional institutions of communication, to challenge and abolish all discriminatory perceptions, attitudes and practices by the year 2000. Target groups should include policy-makers and decision makers, legal technical advisers, bureaucrats, labour and business leaders, business persons, professionals and the general public. Paragraph 78 By the year 2000, all Governments should have adequate comprehensive and coherent national women's policies to abolish all obstacles to the full and equal participation of women in all spheres of society. Paragraph 79 Governments should take all appropriate measures to ensure to women, on equal terms with men and without discrimination, the opportunity to represent their Government at all levels on delegations to subregional, regional and international meetings. More women should be appointed as diplomats and to decision-making posts within the United Nations system, including posts in fields relating to peace and development activities. Support services, such as educational facilities and day care, for families of diplomats and other civil servants stationed abroad, of United Nations officials, as well as employment of spouses at the duty station, wherever possible, should be strongly encouraged. Paragraph 80 As future parents, young people and children should be educated and mobilized to act as stipulators for and monitors of changes in attitudes towards women at all levels of society, particularly with regard to the need for greater flexibility in the assignment of roles between women and men. Paragraph 81 Research activities should be promoted to identify discriminatory practices in education and training and to ensure quality at those two levels. One priority area for research should be the impact of sexual discrimination on the development of human resources. Paragraph 82 Governments and private institutions are urged to include in the curricula of all schools, colleges and universities courses and seminars on women's history and roles in society and to incorporate women's issues in the general curriculum and to strengthen research institutions in the area of women's studies by promoting indigenous research activities and collaboration. Paragraph 83 New teaching methods should be encouraged, especially audio-visual techniques, to demonstrate clearly the equality of the sexes. Programmes, curricula and standards of education and training should be the same for females and males. Textbooks and other teaching materials should be continuously evaluated, updated and, where necessary, redesigned, rewritten to ensure that they reflect positive, dynamic and participatory images of women and to present men actively involved in all aspects of family responsibilities. Paragraph 84 Governments are urged to encourage the full participation of women in the whole range of occupations, especially in fields previously regarded as male preserves, in order to break down occupational barriers and taboos. Employment equity programmes should be developed to integrate women into all economic activities on an equal basis with men. Special measures designed to redress the imbalance imposed by centuries of discrimination against women should be promoted to accelerate de facto equality between men and women. Those measures should not be considered discriminatory or entail the maintenance of unequal or separate standards. They are to be discontinued when the objectives of equality of opportunity and treatment have been achieved. Governments should ensure that their public service is an exemplary equal opportunity employer. Paragraph 85 High priority should be given to substantial and continuing improvement in the portrayal of women in the mass media. Every effort should be made to develop attitudes and to produce materials that portray positive aspects of women's roles and status in intellectual and other activities as well as egalitarian relations of sexes. Steps also should be taken to control pornography, other obscene portrayals of women and the portrayal of women as sex objects. In this regard all measures should be taken to ensure that women participate effectively in relevant councils and review bodies regarding mass media, including advertisement, and in the implementation of decisions of these bodies. 3. Equality in political participation and decision-making Paragraph 86 Governments and political parties should intensify efforts to stimulate and ensure equality of participation by women in all national and local legislative bodies and to achieve equity in the appointment, election and promotion of women to high posts in executive, legislative and judiciary branches in these bodies. At the local level, strategies to ensure equality of women in political participation should be pragmatic, should bear a close relationship to issues of concern to women in the locality and should take into account the suitability of the proposed measures to local needs and values. Paragraph 87 Governments and other employers should devote special attention to the broader and more equitable access and inclusion of women in management in various forms of popular participation, which is a significant factor in the development and realization of all human rights. Paragraph 88 Governments should effectively secure participation of women in the decision-making processes at a national, state and local level through legislative and administrative measures. It is desirable that governmental departments establish a special office in each of them, headed preferably by a woman, to monitor periodically and accelerate the process of equitable representation of women. Special activities should be undertaken to increase the recruitment, nomination and promotion of women, especially to decision-making and policy-making positions, by publicizing posts more widely, increasing upward mobility and so on, until equitable representation of women is achieved. Reports should be compiled periodically on the numbers of women in public service and on their levels of responsibility in their areas of work. Paragraph 89 With respect to the increase in the number of couples in which both partners are employed in the public service, especially the foreign service, Governments are urged to consider their special needs, in particular the couple's desire to be assigned to the same duty station, with a view to reconciling family and professional duties. Paragraph 90 Awareness of women's political rights should be promoted through many channels, including formal and informal education, political education, non-governmental organizations, trade unions, the media and business organizations. Women should be encouraged and motivated and should help each other to exercise their right to vote and to be elected and to participate in the political process at all levels on equal terms with men. Paragraph 91 Political parties and other organizations such as trade unions should make a deliberate effort to increase and improve women's participation within their ranks. They should institute measures to activate women's constitutional and legal guarantees of the right to be elected and appointed by selecting candidates. Equal access to the political machinery of the organizations and to resources and tools for developing skills in the art and tactics of practical politics, as well as effective leadership capabilities, should be given to women. Women in leadership positions also have a special responsibility to assist in this field. Paragraph 92 Governments that have not already done so should establish institutional arrangements and procedures whereby individual women, as well as representatives of all types of women's interest groups, including those from the most vulnerable, least privileged and most oppressed groups, may participate actively in all aspects of the formulation, monitoring, review and appraisal of national and local policies, issues and activities. II. DEVELOPMENT A. Obstacles Paragraph 93 The United Nations Decade for Women has facilitated the identification and overcoming of obstacles encountered by Member States in integrating women into society effectively and in formulating and implementing solutions to current problems. The continuation of women's stereotyped reproductive and productive roles, justified primarily on physiological, social and cultural grounds, has subordinated them in the general as well as sectoral spheres of development, even where some progress has been achieved. Paragraph 94 10c/ There are coercive measures of an economic, political and other nature that are promoted and adopted by certain developed States and are directed towards exerting pressure on developing countries, with the aim of preventing them from exercising their sovereign rights and of obtaining from them advantages of all kinds, and furthermore affect possibilities for dialogue and negotiation. Such measures, which include trade restrictions, blockades, embargoes and other economic sanctions incompatible with the principles of the United Nations Charter and in violation of multilateral or bilateral commitments, have adverse effects on the economic, political and social development of developing countries and therefore directly affect the integration of women in development, since that is directly related to the objective of general social, economic and political development. Paragraph 95 10d/ One of the main obstacles to the effective integration of women in the process of development is the aggravation of the international situation, resulting in a continuing arms race, which now may spread also to outer space. As a result, immense material and human resources need for development are wasted. Other major obstacles to the implementation of goals and objectives set by the United Nations in the field of the advancement of women include imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, expansionism, apartheid and all other forms of racism and racial discrimination, exploitation, policies of force and all forms of manifestations of foreign occupation, domination and hegemony, and the growing gap between the levels of economic development of developed and developing countries. Paragraph 96 The efforts of many countries to implement the objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women were undermined by a series of grave economic crises that have had severe repercussions, especially for many developing countries because of their generally greater vulnerability to external economic factors as well as because the main burden of adjustment to the economic crises has been borne by the developing countries, pushing the majority of them towards economic collapse. Paragraph 97 The worsening of the social situation in many parts of the world, and particularly in Africa, as a result of the disruptive consequences of the economic crisis had a great negative impact on the process of effective and equal integration of women in development. This adverse social situation reflects the lack of implementation of relevant United Nations conventions, declarations and resolutions in the social and economic fields, and of the objectives and overall development goals adopted and reaffirmed in the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade. Paragraph 98 10e/ The lack of political will of certain developed countries to eliminate obstacles to the practical realization of such fundamental documents adopted by the United Nations as the Declaration on Social Progress and Development (General Assembly resolution 2542 (XXIV)), the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States (General Assembly resolution 3281 (XXIX)), the Declaration and the Programme of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order (General Assembly resolutions 3201 (S-VI) and 3202 (S-VI), respectively), the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade (General Assembly resolution 35/56, annex), aimed at the restructuring of international economic relations on a just and democratic basis, should be counted among the main reasons for the conservation of the unfavourable and unequal position of women from the point of view of development, especially in the developing countries. Paragraph 99 The last years of the Decade have witnessed a deterioration of the general economic situation in the developing countries. The financial, economic and social crisis of the developing world has worsened the situation of large sectors of the population, especially women. In particular, the decline in economic activity is having a negative impact on an already unbalanced distribution of income, as well as on the high levels of unemployment, which affect women more than men. Paragraph 100 10f/ Protectionism against developing-countries' exports in all its forms, the deterioration in the terms of trade, monetary instability,including high interest rates and the inadequate flow of official development assistance have aggravated the development problems of the developing countries, and consequently have complicated the difficulties hampering the integration of women in the development process. One of the principal obstacles now confronting the developing countries is their gigantic public and private external debt, which constitutes a palpable expression of the economic crisis and has serious political, economic and social consequences for these countries. The amount of the external debt obliges the developing countries to devote enormous sums of their already scarce export income to the servicing of the debt, which affects their peoples' lives and possibilities of development, with particular effects on women. In many developing countries there is a growing conviction that the conditions for the payment and servicing of the external debt cause those countries enormous difficulties and that the adjustment policies traditionally imposed are inadequate and lead to a disproportionate social cost. The negative effects of the present international economic situation on the least developed countries have been particularly grave and have caused serious difficulties in the process of integrating women in development. The growth prospects of the low-income countries have seriously deteriorated owing to the reduction in international economic co-operation, particularly the inadequate flow of official development assistance and the growing trade protectionism in the developed countries, which restricts the capacity of the low-income countries to attain the objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women. This situation is even more grave in the developing countries that are afflicted by drought, famine and desertification. Paragraph 101 Despite significant efforts in many countries to transfer tasks traditionally performed by women to men or to public services, traditional attitudes still continue to persist and in fact have contributed to the increased burden of work placed on women. The complexity and multidimensional aspects of changing sex roles and norms and the difficulty of determining the specific structural and organizational requirements of such a change have hindered the formulation of measures to alter sex roles and to develop appropriate perspectives on the image of women in society. Thus, despite gains made by a few women, for the majority subordination in the labour force and in society has continued, through the exploitative conditions under which women often work have become more visible. Paragraph 102 The effective participation of women in development has also been impeded by the difficult international economic situation, the debt crisis, poverty, continued population growth, rising divorce rates, increasing migration, and the growing incidence of female-headed households. Yet, neither the actual expansion of employment for women nor the recognition that women constitute a significant proportion of producers has been accompanied by social adjustments to ease women's burden of child and household care. The economic recession led to a reduction in investments, particularly in those services that allow greater societal sharing of the social and economic costs of child care and housework. Paragraph 103 Insufficient awareness and understanding of the complex and multifaceted relationships between development and the advancement of women have continued to make policy, programme and project formulation difficult. While during the earlier, part of the Decade the belief that economic growth would automatically benefit women was more widely shared, an evaluation of the experience of the Decade has shed considerable doubt on this over-simplified premise. Consequently, the need to understand better the relationship between development and the advancement of women and to gather, analyze and disseminate information for the more effective formulation of policies, programmes and projects has become greater. Paragraph 104 Although throughout history and in many societies women have been sharing similar experiences, in the developing countries the problems of women, particularly those pertaining to their integration in the development process, are different from the problems women face in the industrialized countries and are often a matter of survival. Failure to recognize these differences leads, inter alia, to neglect the adverse effect of the insufficient progress made towards improvement in national policies or programmes and the present international economic situation as well as the interrelationships that exist between the goals and objectives of the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade and the objectives of equality, development and peace. Paragraph 105 The lack of political will and commitment continued to retard action to promote effective participation by women in development. Exclusion of women from policy-making and decision-making made it difficult for women and women's organizations to include in their preferences and interests the largely male-dominated choices of progress and development. Furthermore, because the issue of women in development has often been perceived as a welfare problem, it has received low priority, viewed simply as a cost to society rather than as a contribution. Thus, the specific formulation of targets, programmes and projects concerning women and development has often received little attention, awaiting the attainment of development rather than being instrumental to it. This, in turn, caused a parallel weakness in the institutional, technical and material resources devoted to the promotion of activities for effective participation by women in development. Paragraph 106 Appropriate national machinery for the effective integration of women in the development process has been either insufficient or lacking. Where the machinery exists, it often lacks the resources, focus, responsibility and authority to be effective. B. Basic strategies Paragraph 107 The commitment to remove obstacles to the effective participation of all women in development as intellectuals, policy-makers and decision-makers, planners, contributors and beneficiaries should be strengthened according to the specific problems of women in different regions and countries and the needs of different categories of women in them. That commitment should guide the formulation and implementation of policies, plans, programmes and projects, with the awareness that development prospects will be improved and society advanced through the full and effective participation of women. Paragraph 108 Different socio-economic and cultural conditions are to be taken into account when identifying the foremost obstacles to the advancement of women. The current economic situation and the imbalances within the world monetary and financial system need adjustment programmes to overcome the difficulties. These programmes should not adversely affect the most vulnerable segments of society among whom women are disproportionately represented. Paragraph 109 Development, being conceived as a comprehensive process, must be characterized by the search for economic and social objectives and goals that guarantee the effective participation of the entire population, especially women, in the process of development. It is also necessary to work in favour of the structural changes needed for the fulfilment of these aspirations. In line with these concerns, one should endeavour to speed up social and economic development in developing countries; accelerate the development of the scientific and technological capabilities of those countries; promote an equitable distribution of national incomes; and eradicate absolute poverty, experienced disproportionately by women and children, with the shortest possible delay by applying an overall strategy that, on the one hand, eliminates hunger and malnutrition and, on the other, works towards the construction of more just societies, in which women may reach their full development. Paragraph 110 As the primary objective of development is to bring about sustained improvement in the well-being of the individual and of society and to bestow benefits on all, development should be seen not only as a desirable goal in itself but also as an important means of furthering equality of the sexes and the maintenance of peace. Paragraph 111 Women should be an integral part of the process of defining the objectives and modes of development, as well as of developing strategies and measures for their implementation. The need for women to participate fully in political processes and to have an equal share of power in guiding development efforts and in benefiting from them should be recognized. Organizational and other means of enabling women to bring their interests and preferences into the evaluation and choice of alternative development objectives and strategies should be identified and supported. This would include special measures designed to enhance women's autonomy, bringing women into the mainstream of the development process on an equal basis with men, or other measures designed to integrate women fully in the total development effort. Paragraph 112 The actual and potential impact on women of macro-economic processes operating at the international and national levels, as well as of financial spatial and physical development policies, should be assessed and appropriate modifications made to ensure that women are not adversely affected. Initial emphasis should be placed on employment, health and education. Priority should be given to the development of human resources, bearing in mind the need to avoid further increases in the work-load of women, particularly when alternative policies are formulated to deal with the economic and debt crisis. Paragraph 113 With due recognition of the difficulties involved, Governments, international and regional organizations, and non-governmental organizations should intensify their efforts to enhance the self-reliance of women in a viable and sustained fashion. Because economic independence is a necessary pre-condition for self-reliance, such efforts should above all be focused on increasing women's access to gainful activities. Grass-roots participatory processes and planning approaches using local talent, expertise and resources are vital and should be supported and encouraged. Paragraph 114 The incorporation of women's issues in all areas and sectors and at the local, national, regional and international levels should be institutionalized. To this end, appropriate machinery should be established or strengthened, and further legislative action taken. Sectoral policies and plans should be developed, and the effective participation of women in development should be integrated both in those plans and in the formulation and implementation of mainstream programmes and projects and should not be confined solely to statements of intent within plans or to small-scale, transitory projects relating to women. Paragraph 115 The gender bias evident in most development programmes should be eliminated and the prejudices hindering the solution of women's problems removed. Particular attention should be given to the restructuring of employment, health and education systems and to ensuring equal access to land, capital and other productive resources. Emphasis should be placed on strategies to assist women in generating and keeping income, including measures designed to improve women's access to credit. Such strategies must focus on the removal of legal, customary and other barriers and on strengthening women's capacity to use existing credit systems. Paragraph 116 Governments should seek means to increase substantially the number of women who are decision-makers, policy-makers, managers, professionals and technicians in both traditional and non-traditional areas and sectors. Women should be provided with equal opportunities for access to resources, especially education and training, in order to facilitate their equal representation at higher managerial and professional levels. Paragraph 117 The role of women as a factor of development is in many ways linked to their involvement in various forms and levels of decision-making and management in economic and social structures, such as worker participation in management, industrial democracy, worker self-management, trade unions and co-operatives. The development of these forms of participation, which have an impact on the development and promotion of working and living conditions, and the inclusion of women in these forms of participation on an equal footing with men is of crucial importance. Paragraph 118 The relationships between development and the advancement of women under specific socio-cultural conditions should be studied locally to permit the effective formulation of policies, programmes and projects designed for stable and equitable growth. The findings should be used to develop social awareness of the need for effective participation of women in development and to create realistic images of women in society. Paragraph 119 It is vital that the link between the advancement of women and socio-economic and political development be emphasized for the effective mobilization of resources for women. Paragraph 120 The remunerated and, in particular, the unremunerated contributions of women to all aspects and sectors of development should be recognized, and appropriate efforts should be made to measure and reflect these contributions in national accounts and economic statistics and in the gross national product. Concrete steps should be taken to quantify the unremunerated contribution of women to agriculture, food production, reproduction and household activities. Paragraph 121 Concerted action should be directed towards the establishment of a system of sharing parental responsibilities by women and men in the family and by society. To this end, priority should be given to the provision of a social infrastructure that will enable society to share these responsibilities with families and, simultaneously, to bring about changes in social attitudes so that new or modified gender roles will be accepted, promoted and become exercisable. Household tasks and parental responsibilities, including decision-making regarding family size and child spacing, should be re-examined with a view to a better sharing of responsibilities between men and women and therefore, be conducive to the attainment of women's and men's self-reliance and to the development of future human resources. Paragraph 122 Monitoring and evaluation efforts should be strengthened and directed specifically towards women's issues and should be based on a thorough review and extensive development of improved statistics and indicators on the situation of women as compared with men, over time and in all fields. Paragraph 123 Appropriate national machinery should be established and should be utilized to integrate women effectively in the development process. To be effective, this machinery should be provided with adequate resources, commitment and authority to encourage and enhance development efforts. Paragraph 124 Regional and international co-operation, within the framework of technical co-operation among developing countries, should be strengthened and extended to promote the effective participation of women in development. C. Measures for the implementation of the basic strategies at the national level 1. Overall Paragraph 125 Appropriate machinery with sufficient resources and authority should be established at the highest level of government as a focal point to ensure that the full range of development policies and programmes in all sectors recognizes women's contribution to development and incorporates strategies to include women and to ensure that they receive an equitable share of the benefits of development. Paragraph 126 To achieve the goal of development, which is inseparably linked to the goals of equality and peace, Governments should institutionalize women's issues by establishing or strengthening appropriate machinery in all areas and sectors of development. ln addition, they should direct specific attention to effecting a positive change in the attitudes of male decision-makers. Governments should ensure the establishment and implementation of legislation and administrative policies and mobilize communications and information systems to create social awareness of the legal rights of women to participate in all aspects of development at all levels and at all stages - that is, planning, implementation and evaluation. Governments should stimulate the formation and growth of women's organizations and women's groups and give financial and organizational support to their activities when appropriate. Paragraph 127 National resources should be directed so as to promote the participation of women at all levels and in all areas and sectors. Governments should establish national and sectoral plans and specific targets for women in development; equip the machinery in charge of women's issues with political, financial and technical resources; strengthen intersectoral co-ordination in promoting women's participation; and establish institutional mechanisms to address the needs of especially vulnerable groups of women. Paragraph 128 Governments should recognize the importance of and the need for the full utilization of women's potential for self-reliance and for the attainment of national development goals and should enact legislation to ensure this. Programmes should be formulated and implemented to provide women's organizations, co-operatives, trade unions and professional associations with access to credit and other financial assistance and to training and extension services. Consultative mechanisms through which the views of women may be incorporated in governmental activities should be set up, and supportive ties with women's grass-roots organizations, such as self-help community development and mutual aid societies and non-governmental organizations committed to the cause of women should be created and maintained to facilitate the integration of women in mainstream development. Paragraph 129 There should be close co-ordination between Governments, agencies and other bodies at the national and local level. The effectiveness of national machinery, including the relationship between Governments and non-governmental organizations, should be evaluated and strengthened with a view to improving co-operation. Positive experiences and good models should be widely publicized. Paragraph 130 Governments should compile gender-specific statistics and information and should develop or reorganize an information system to take decisions and action on the advancement of women. They should also support local research activities and local experts to help identify mechanisms for the advancement of women, focusing on the self-reliant, self-sustaining and self-generating social, economic and political development of women. Paragraph 131 Governmental mechanisms should be established for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of institutional and administrative arrangements and of delivery systems, plans, programmes and projects to promote an equitable participation of women in development. 2. Areas for specific action Employment Paragraph 132 Special measures aimed at the advancement of women in all types of employment should be consistent with the economic and social policies promoting full productive and freely chosen employment. Paragraph 133 Policies should provide the means to mobilize public awareness, political support, and institutional and financial resources to enable women to obtain jobs involving more skills and responsibility, including those at the managerial level, in all sectors of the economy. These measures should include the promotion of women's occupational mobility, especially in the middle and lower levels of the work-force, where the majority of women work. Paragraph 134 Governments that have not yet done so should ratify and implement the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international instruments relating to the improvement of the condition of women workers. Paragraph 135 Measures based on legislation and trade union action should be taken to ensure equity in all jobs and avoid exploitative trends in part-time work, as well as the tendency towards the feminization of part-time, temporary and seasonal work. Paragraph 136 Flexible working hours for all are strongly recommended as a measure tor encouraging the sharing of parental and domestic responsibilities by women and men, provided that such measures are not used against the interests of employees. Re-entry programmes, complete with training and stipends, should be provided for women who have been out of the labour force for some time. Tax structures should be revised so that the tax liability on the combined earnings of married couples does not constitute a disincentive to women's employment. Paragraph 137 Eliminating all forms of employment discrimination, inter alia through legislative measures, especially wage differentials between women and men carrying out work of equal value, is strongly recommended to all parties concerned. Additional programmes should help to overcome still existing disparities in wages between women and men. Differences in the legal conditions of work of women and men should also be eliminated, where there are disadvantages to women, and privileges should be accorded to male and female parents. Occupational desegregation of women and men should be promoted. Paragraph 138 The public and private sectors should make concerted efforts to diversify and create new employment opportunities for women in the traditional, non-traditional and high productivity areas and sectors in both rural and urban areas through the design and implementation of incentive schemes for both employers and women employees and through widespread dissemination of information. Gender stereotyping in all areas should be avoided and the occupational prospects of women should be enhanced. Paragraph 139 The working conditions of women should be improved in all formal and informal areas by the public and private sectors. Occupational health and safety and job security should be enhanced and protective measures against work-related health hazards effectively implemented for women and men. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent sexual harassment on the job or sexual exploitation in specific jobs, such as domestic service. Appropriate measures for redress should be provided by Governments and legislative measures guaranteeing these rights should be enforced. In addition, Governments and the private sector should put in place mechanisms to identify and correct harmful working conditions. Paragraph 140 National planning should give urgent consideration to the development and strengthening of social security and health schemes and maternity protection schemes in keeping with the principles laid down in the ILO maternity protection convention and maternity protection recommendation and other relevant ILO conventions and recommendations as a prerequisite to the hastening of women's effective participation in production, and all business and trade unions should seek to promote the rights and compensations of working women and to ensure that appropriate infrastructures are provided. Parental leave following the birth of a child should be available to both women and men and preferably shared between them. Provision should be made for accessible child-care facilities for working parents. Paragraph 141 Governments and non-governmental organizations should recognize the contribution of older women and the importance of their input in those areas that directly affect their well-being. Urgent attention should be paid to the education and training of young women in all fields. Special retraining programmes including technical training should also be developed for young women in both urban and rural sectors, who lack qualifications and are ill-equipped to enter productive employment. Steps should be taken to eliminate exploitative treatment of young women at work, in line with ILO Convention No. 111 concerning discrimination in respect of employment and occupation, 1958 and ILO Convention No. 122 concerning employment policy, 1964. Paragraph 142 National planning, programmes and projects should launch a twofold attack on poverty and unemployment. To enable women to gain access to equal economic opportunities, Governments should seek to involve and integrate women in all phases of the planning, delivery and evaluation of multisectoral programmes that eliminate discrimination against women, provide required supportive services and emphasize income generation. An increased number of women should be hired in national planning mechanisms. Particular attention should be devoted to the informal sector since it will be the major employment outlet of a considerable number of underprivileged urban and rural women. The co-operative movement could play an indispensable role in this area. Paragraph 143 Recognition and application should be given to the fact that women and men have equal rights to work and, on the same footing, to acquire a personal income on equal terms and conditions, regardless of the economic situation. They should be given opportunities in accordance with the protective legislation of each country and especially in the labour market, in the context of measures to stimulate economic development and to promote employment growth. Paragraph 144 In view of the persistence of high unemployment levels in many countries, Governments should endeavour to strengthen the efforts to cope with this issue and provide more job opportunities for women. Given that in many cases women account for a disproportionate share of total unemployment, that their unemployment rates are higher than those of men and that, owing to lower qualifications, geographical mobility and other barriers, women's prospects for alternative jobs are mostly limited, more attention should be given to unemployment as it affects women. Measures should be taken to alleviate the consequences of unemployment for women in declining sectors and occupations. In particular, training measures must be instituted to facilitate the transition. Paragraph 145 Although general policies designed to reduce unemployment or to create jobs may benefit both men and women, by their nature they are often of greater assistance to men than to women. For this reason, specific measures should be taken to permit women to benefit equally with men from national policies to create jobs. Paragraph 146 As high unemployment among youth, wherever it exists, is a matter of serious concern, policies designed to deal with this problem should take into account that unemployment rates for young women are often much higher than those for young men. Moreover, measures aimed at mitigating unemployment among youth should not negatively affect the employment of women in other age groups - for example, by lowering minimum wages. Women should not face any impediment to employment opportunities and benefits in cases where their husbands are employed. Paragraph 147 Governments should also give special attention to women in the peripheral or marginal labour market, such as those in unstable temporary work or unregulated part-time work, as well as to the increasing number of women working in the informal economy. Health Paragraph 148 The vital role of women as providers of health care both inside and outside the home should be recognized, taking into account the followings the creation and strengthening of basic services for the delivery of health care, with due regard to levels of fertility and infant and maternal mortality and the needs of the most vulnerable groups and the need to control locally prevalent endemic and epidemic diseases. Governments that have not already done so should undertake, in co-operation with the World Health Organization, the United Nations Children's Fund and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, plans of action relating to women in health and development in order to identify and reduce risks to women's health and to promote the positive health of women at all stages of life, bearing in mind the productive role of women in society and their responsibilities for bearing and rearing children. Women's participation in the achievement of Health for All by the Year 2000 should be recognized, since their health knowledge is crucial in their multiple roles as health providers and health brokers for the family and community, and as informed consumers of adequate and appropriate health care. Paragraph 149 The participation of women in higher professional and managerial positions in health institutions should be increased through appropriate legislations training and supportive action should be taken to increase women's enrolment at higher levels of medical training and training in health-related fields. For effective community involvement to ensure the attainment of the World Health Organization's goal of Health for All by the Year 2000 and responsiveness to women's health needs, women should be represented in national and local health councils and committees. The employment and working conditions of women health personnel and health workers should be expanded and improved at all levels. Female traditional healers and birth attendants should be more fully and constructively integrated in national health planning. Paragraph 150 Health education should be geared towards changing those attitudes and values and actions that are discriminatory and detrimental to women's and girls' health. Steps should be taken to change the attitudes and health knowledge and composition of health personnel so that there can be an appropriate understanding of women's health needs. A greater sharing by men and women of family and health-care responsibilities should be encouraged. Women must be involved in the formulation and planning of their health education needs. Health education should be available to the entire family not only through the health care system, but also through all appropriate channels and in particular the educational system. To this end, Governments should ensure that information meant to be received by women is relevant to women's health priorities and is suitably presented. Paragraph 151 Promotive, preventive and curative health measures should be strengthened through combined measures and a supportive health infrastructure which, in accordance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes, should be free of commercial pressure. To provide immediate access to water and sanitary facilities for women, Governments should ensure that women are consulted and involved in the planning and implementation of water and sanitation projects, trained in the maintenance of water-supply systems, and consulted with regard to technologies used in water and sanitation projects. In this regard, recommendations arising from the activities generated by the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade and other public health programmes should be taken into account. Paragraph 152 Governments should take measures to vaccinate children and pregnant women against certain endemic local diseases as well as other diseases as recommended by the vaccination schedule of the World Health Organization and to eliminate any differences in coverage between boys and girls (cf. WHO report EB 75/22). In regions where rubella is prevalent, vaccinations should preferably be given to girls before puberty. Governments should ensure that adequate arrangements are made to preserve the quality of vaccines. Governments should ensure the quality of vaccines. Governments should also ensure the full and informed participation of women in programmes to control chronic and communicable diseases. Paragraph 153 The international community should intensify efforts to eradicate the trafficking, marketing and distribution of unsafe and ineffective drugs and to disseminate information on their ill effects. Those efforts should include educational programmes to promote the proper prescription and informed use of drugs. Efforts should also be strengthened to eliminate all practices detrimental to the health of women and children. Efforts should be made to ensure that all women have access to essential drugs appropriate to their specific needs and as recommended in the WHO List of Essential Drugs as applied in 1978. It is imperative that information on the appropriate use of such drugs is made widely available to all women. When drugs are imported or exported Governments should use the WHO Certification Scheme on the Quality of Pharmaceutical Products Moving in International Commerce. Paragraph 154 Women should have access to and control over income to provide adequate nutrition for themselves and their children. Also, Governments should foster activities that will increase awareness of the special nutritional needs of women; provide support to ensure sufficient rest in the last trimester of pregnancy and while breast-feeding; and promote interventions to reduce the prevalence of nutritional diseases such as anaemia in women of all ages, particularly young women, and promote the development and use of locally produced weaning food. Paragraph 155 Appropriate health facilities should be planned, designed, constructed and equipped to be readily accessible and acceptable. Services should be in harmony with the timing and patterns of women's work, as well as with women's needs and perspectives. Maternal and child-care facilities, including family planning services, should be within easy reach of all women. Governments should also ensure that women have the same access as men to affordable curative, preventive and rehabilitative treatment. Wherever possible, measures should be taken to conduct general screening and treatment of women's common diseases and cancer. In view of the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality in many developing countries, the reduction of maternal mortality from now to the year 2000 to a minimum level should be a key target for Governments and non-governmental organizations, including professional organizations. Paragraph 156 10g/ The ability of women to control their own fertility forms an important basis for the enjoyment of other rights. As recognized in the World Population Plan of Action 11/ and reaffirmed at the International Conference on Population, 1984, all couples and individuals have the basic human right to decide freely and informedly the number and spacing of their children; maternal and child health and family-planning components of primary health care should be strengthened; and family-planning information should be produced and services created. Access to such services should be encouraged by Governments irrespective of their population policies and should be carried out with the participation of women's organizations to ensure their success. Paragraph 157 10g/ Governments should make available, as a matter of urgency, information, education and the means to assist women and men to take decisions about their desired number of children. To ensure a voluntary and free choice, family-planning information, education and means should include all medically approved and appropriate methods of family planning. Education for responsible parenthood and family-life education should be widely available and should be directed towards both men and women. Non-governmental organizations, particularly women's organizations, should be involved in such programmes because they can be the most effective media for motivating people at that level. Paragraph 158 11a/ Recognizing that pregnancy occurring in adolescent girls, whether married or unmarried, has adverse effects on the morbidity and mortality of both mother and child, Governments are urged to develop policies to encourage delay in the commencement of childbearing. Governments should make efforts to raise the age of entry into marriage in countries in which this age is still quite low. Attention should also be given to ensuring that adolescents, both girls and boys, receive adequate information and education. Paragraph 159 11a/ All Governments should ensure that fertility-control methods and drugs conform to adequate standards of quality, efficiency and safety. This should also apply to organizations responsible for distributing and administering these methods. Information on contraceptives should be made available to women. Programmes of incentives and disincentives should be neither coercive nor discriminatory and should be consistent with internationally recognized human rights, as well as with changing individual and cultural values. Paragraph 160 Governments should encourage local women's organizations to participate in primary health-care activities including traditional medicine, and should devise ways to support women, especially underprivileged women, in taking responsibility for self-care and in promoting community care, particularly in rural areas. More emphasis should be placed on preventive rather than curative measures. Paragraph 161 The appropriate gender-specific indicators for monitoring women's health that have been or are being developed by the World Health Organization should be widely applied and utilized by Governments and other interested organizations in order to develop and sustain measures for treating low-grade ill health and for reducing high morbidity rates among women, particularly when illnesses are psychosomatic or social and cultural in nature. Governments that have not yet done so should establish focal points to carry out such monitoring. ParagraPh 162 Occupational health and safety should be enhanced by the public and private sectors. Concern with the occupational health risks should cover female as well as male workers and focus among other things on risks endangering their reproductive capabilities and unborn children. Efforts should equally be directed at the health of pregnant and lactating women, the health impact of new technologies and the harmonization of work and family responsibilities. Education Paragraph 163 Education is the basis for the full promotion and improvement of the status of women. It is the basic tool that should be given to women in order to fulfil their role as full members of society. Governments should strengthen the participation of women at all levels of national educational policy and in formulating and implementing plans, programmes and projects. Special measures should be adopted to revise and adapt women's education to the realities of the developing world. Existing and new services should be directed to women as intellectuals, policy-makers, decision-makers, planners, contributors and beneficiaries, with particular attention to the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960). Special measures should also be adopted to increase equal access to scientific, technical and vocational education, particularly for young women, and evaluate progress made by the poorest women in urban and rural areas. Paragraph 164 Special measures should be taken by Governments and the international organizations, especially UNESCO, to eliminate the high rate of illiteracy by the year 2000, with the support of the international community. Governments should establish targets and adopt appropriate measures for this purpose. While the elimination of illiteracy is important to all, priority programmes are still required to overcome the special obstacles that have generally led to higher illiteracy rates among women than among men. Efforts should be made to promote functional literacy, with special emphasis on health, nutrition and viable economic skills and opportunities, in order to eradicate illiteracy among women and to produce additional material for the eradication of illiteracy. Programmes for legal literacy in low-income urban and rural areas should be initiated and intensified. Raising the level of education among women is important for the general welfare of society and because of its close link to child survival and child spacing. Paragraph 165 The causes of high absenteeism and drop-out rates of girls in the educational system must be addressed. Measures must be developed, strengthened and implemented that will, inter alia, create the appropriate incentives to ensure that women have an equal opportunity to acquire education at all levels, as well as to apply their education in a work or career context. Such measures should include the strengthening of communication and information systems, the implementation of appropriate legislation and the reorientation of educational personnel. Moreover, Governments should encourage and finance adult education programmes for those women who have never completed their studies or were forced to interrupt their studies, owing to family responsibilities, lack of financial resources or early pregnancies. Paragraph 166 Efforts should be made to ensure that available scholarships and other forms of support from governmental, non-governmental and private sources are expanded and equitably distributed to girls and boys and that boarding and lodging facilities are equally accessible to them. Paragraph 167 The curricula of public and private schools should be examined, textbooks and other educational materials reviewed and educational personnel retrained in order to eliminate all discriminatory gender stereotyping in education. Educational institutions should be encouraged to expand their curricula to include studies on women's contribution to all aspects of development. Paragraph 168 The Decade has witnessed the rise of centres and programmes of women' studies in response to social forces and to the need for developing a new scholarship and a body of knowledge on women's studies from the perspective of women. Women's studies should be developed to reformulate the current models influencing the constitution of knowledge and sustaining a value system that reinforces inequality. The promotion and application of women's studies inside and outside and conventional institutions of learning will help to create a just and equitable society in which men and women enjoy equal partnership. Paragraph 169 Encouragement and incentives, as well as counselling services, should be provided for girls to study scientific, technical and managerial subjects at all levels, in order to develop and enhance the aptitudes of women for decision-making, management and leadership in these fields. Paragraph 170 All educational and occupational training should be flexible and accessible to both women and men. It should aim to improve employment possibilities and promotion prospects for women including those areas where technologies are improving rapidly, and vocational training programmes, as well as workers' educational schemes dealing with co-operatives, trade unions and work associations, should stress the importance of equal opportunity for women at all levels of work and work-related activities. Paragraph 171 Extensive measurers should be taken to diversify women's vocational education and training in order to extend their opportunities for employment in occupations that are non-traditional or are new to women and that are important to development. The present educational system, which in many countries is sharply divided by sex, with girls receiving instruction in home economics and boys in technical subjects, should be altered. Existing vocational training centres should be opened to girls and women instead of continuing a segregated training system. Paragraph 172 A fully integrated system of training, having direct linkages with employment needs, pertinent to future employment and development trends should be created and implemented in order to avoid wastage of human resources. Paragraph 173 Educational programmes to enable men to assume as much responsibility as women in the upbringing of children and the maintenance of the household should be introduced at all levels of the educational system. Food, water and agriculture Paragraph 174 Women, as key food producers in many regions of the world, play a central role in the development and production of food and agriculture, participating actively in all phases of the production cycle, including the conservation, storage, processing and marketing of food and agricultural products. Women therefore make a vital contribution to economic development, particularly in agriculturally based economies, which must be better recognized and rewarded. Development strategies and programmes, as well as incentive programmes and projects in the field of food and agriculture, need to be designed in a manner that fully integrates women at all levels of planning, implementation, monitoring evaluation in all stages of the development process of a project cycle, so as to facilitate and enhance this key role of women and to ensure that women receive proper benefits and remuneration commensurate with their important contribution in this field. Moreover, women should be fully integrated and involved in the technological research and energy aspects of food and agricultural development. Paragraph 175 During the Decade, the significant contribution of women to agricultural development has been more widely recognized, particularly their contribution in working hours to agricultural, fishery and forestry production and conservation, and to various parts of the food system. There are indications, however, that poverty and landlessness among rural women will increase significantly by the year 2000. In order to stem this trend, governments should implement, as a matter of priority, equitable and stable investment and growth policies for rural development to ensure that there is a reallocation of the country's resources which, in many cases, are largely derived from the rural areas but allocated to urban development. Paragraph 176 Governments should establish multisectoral programmes to promote the productive capacity of rural poor women in food and animal production, create off-farm employment opportunities, reduce their work-load, inter alia, by supporting the establishment of adequate child-care facilities and that of their children, reverse their pauperization, improve their access to all sources of energy, and provide them with adequate water, health, education, effective extension services and transportation within their region. In this connection it should be noted that the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, held at Rome in 1979, 12/ recognized women's vital role in the socio-economic life in both agricultural and non-agricultural activities as a prerequisite for successful rural development policies, planning and programmes, and proposed specific measures for improving their condition, which are still valid. The Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women also included specific measures to improve the situation of women in food and agriculture, which remain a valid guide for action. Paragraph 177 The General Assembly, in resolution 39/165 on the critical situation of food production and agriculture in Africa, confirmed the growing concern of the international community at the dramatic deterioration in African food and agricultural production and the resulting alarming increase in the number of people, especially women and children, exposed to hunger, malnutrition and even starvation. Concrete measures and adequate resources for the benefit of African women should be a priority. The international community, particularly donor countries, should be urged to assist African women by continuing and, where possible, by increasing financial assistance to enhance the role of women as food producers, with an emphasis on providing training in food technologies, thereby alleviating the problems of the continent resulting from extended drought and a severe shortage of food. Donor countries should also contribute to the special funds that have been launched by various organizations - for example, the United Nations Development Fund for Women. Emergency assistance should be increased and accelerated to alleviate the suffering of starving and dying women and children under famine conditions in Africa. Furthermore, given the critical food situation in Africa, aggravated inter alia by demographic pressures, the international community is urged to give priority to and provide support for the efforts of the African countries to overcome this serious situation. These efforts include the Lagos Plan of Action and the Nairobi Programme of Action, as well as the consultation by African Governments on the role of women in food production and food security. Paragraph 178 Governments should give priority to supporting effective participation by women in food production and in food security programmes and should develop specific plans of action for this purpose. This would ensure that resources are directed towards women's programmes, that women are integrated in all mainstream rural development projects and that projects are located within technical ministries as well as ministries of social affairs. Governments should promote integrated solutions, such as national food policies, which are diversified according to specific natural regions for the improvement of self-reliance in food production, instead of resorting to palliative or fragmented remedies. Paragraph 179 Mechanisms should also include monitoring and evaluation and, where necessary, should modify the allocation of resources between women and men in mixed projects; should restructure rural development schemes to respond to women's needs; should assess women's projects in terms of technical and economic viability, as well as on social grounds; and should develop gender-specific statistics and information that reflect accurately women's contribution to food staples. Women's participation in programmes and projects to promote food security should be enhanced by providing them with opportunities to hold official positions, to receive training in leadership, administration and financial management and to organize on a co-operative basis. Research and experimentation should be conducted on food production and storage techniques to improve traditional knowledge and introduce modern technology. Paragraph 180 Animal husbandry, fishery and forestry programmes should give greater attention to the effective participation of women as contributors and beneficiaries. Similarly, all other off-farm rural production programmes, as well as rural settlement, health, educational and social service programmes, should secure the participation of women as planners, contributors and beneficiaries. Paragraph 181 Also important are the dissemination of information to rural women through national information campaigns, using all available media and establish women's groups; the exposure of local populations to innovation and creativity through open-air films, talks, visits to areas where needs are similar, and demonstrations of scientific and technological innovations; the participation of women farmers in research and information campaigns; and the involvement of women in technical co-operation among developing countries and the exchange of information. Paragraph 182 Rural women's access to land, capital, technology, know-how and other productive resources should be secured. Women should be given full and effective rights to land ownership, registration of land titles and allocation of tenancies on irrigation or settlement schemes and should also benefit from land reform. Women's customary land and inheritance rights under conditions of land shortage, land improvement or shifts into cash-cropping should be protected. Implementation of inheritance laws should be modified so that women can inherit a fair share of livestock, agricultural machinery and other property. Women's access to investment finance to increase their productivity and income should be supported by removing legal and institutional restrictions and by promoting women's savings groups and co-operatives and intermediary institutions, as well as training in and assistance with financial management, savings and investments and reallocation of land resources, with priority placed on production, especially of staple foods. Paragraph 183 Women should be integrated into modern technology programmes that introduce new crops and improved varieties, rotation of crops, mixed farming, mixed and intercropping systems, low-cost soil fertility techniques, soil and water conservation methods and other modern improvements. In this connection, women's involvement in the construction, management and maintenance of irrigation schemes should be promoted. Paragraph 184 Appropriate food-processing technologies can free women from time- and energy-consuming tasks and thus effect improvements in their health. Appropriate technologies can also increase the productivity and income of women, either directly or by freeing them to engage in other activities. Such technologies should be designed and introduced, however, in a manner that ensures women's access to the new technology and to its benefits and does not displace women from means of livelihood when alternative opportunities are not available. Appropriate labour-saving technologies should utilize local human and material resources and inexpensive sources of energy. The design, testing and dissemination of the technology should be appropriate also to the women who will be the users. Non-governmental organizations can play a valuable role in this process. Appropriate and affordable food-processing technologies should be made widely available to rural women, along with appropriate and affordable storage, marketing and transportation facilities to reduce post-harvest and income losses. Information on improved methods which have been ecologically confirmed of reducing post-harvest food loss and of preserving and conserving food products should be widely disseminated. Paragraph 185 Financial, technical, advisory and institutional support should be provided to women's organisations and groups to enhance the self-reliance of rural women. Women's co-operatives should be promoted to operate on a larger scale by improving farm input provisions, primary processing and the wholesale marketing of women's production. Comprehensive support should be given to women's organizations to facilitate the acquisition of farm inputs and information and to facilitate the marketing of produce. Paragraph 186 Governments should set targets for increased extension contracts with rural women, reorient the training of male extension workers and train adequate numbers of female extension workers. Women should be given access to training programmes at different levels that develop various types of skills to widen the range of methods and technologies used for agricultural production. Paragraph 187 Governments should involve women in the mobilization and distribution of food aid in countries affected by the drought, as well as in the fight against desertification, through large-scale afforestation campaigns (planting of woodlot, collective farms and seedlings). Paragraph 188 Governments should pay greater attention to the preservation and the maintenance free from pollution of any kind of sources of water supply for irrigation and domestic consumption, applying special remedial measures to relieve the burden placed on women by the task of fetching water. To this end, they should construct wells, bore-holes, dams and locally made water-catchment devices sufficient for all irrigation and domestic needs, including those of livestock. Women should be included by Governments and agencies in all policy planning, implementation and administration of water supply projects and trained to take responsibility for the management of hydraulic infrastructures and equipment and for its maintenance. Industry Paragraph 189 The problems related to the industrial development of the developing countries reflect the dependent nature of their economies and the need to promote transformation industries based on domestic agricultural production as a fundamental issue of development. Women are an important part of the agricultural work-forces therefore, there should be special interest in the promotion of the technical training of women in this particular field. In this respect, Governments should take into account the following recommendations: (a) There should be a link between agriculture and industry; (b) Steps should be taken to eliminate the particular obstacles to industrialization and to the participation of women in industry, such as energy, the limited markets of some developing countries, the rural exodus, poor infrastructure, a lack of technical know-how, the dependence of the industries of some countries and a lack of financial resources; (c) Steps should also be taken to promote women's equitable and increased participation in industry by enabling them to have equal access to and to participate in adult education and in-service progresses that teach not only literacy but also saleable income-generating skills, and by encouraging women to participate in collective organizations, including trade unions; (d) Industrial co-operation among developing countries should be promoted by creating subregional industries; (e) International organizations and developed countries should assist developing countries in their industrialization effort and the integration of women in that process. Paragraph 190 Governments should ensure that, at all levels of the planning process, women participate both directly in decision-making and indirectly through effective consultation with the potential beneficiaries of programmes and projects. To this end, resources should be allocated to prepare women, through training, vocational guidance and career counselling and through increased incentives and other support measures, for increased participation in policy-making and decision-making roles and to integrate them by means of special measures at all levels. Paragraph 191 Women should be viewed as users and agents of change in science and technology, and their technological and managerial skills should be enhanced in order to increase national self-reliance in industrial production and to promote innovations in productive design, product adaptation and production techniques. At the same time, industrial technologies should be applied appropriately to the needs and situations of women so as to free them from time- and energy-consuming tasks. Paragraph 192 The introduction of advanced technologies in industry in particular, must allow women to enter into sectors from which they have been so far excluded. Paragraph 193 Governments should direct their efforts to expanding women's employment opportunities in the modern, traditional and self-employed sectors of both the rural and urban economy and to avoiding the exploitation of female labour. Efforts to improve the absolute and relative levels of women's earnings and working conditions should be directed simultaneously to all three sectors. Paragraph 194 In accordance with accepted international labour standards, particularly, though not exclusively, in the field of female employment, appropriate legislation should be adopted and fully implemented at the national level. Specific consideration should be given to the removal of discriminatory practices concerning employment conditions, health and safety, and to guaranteeing provisions for pregnant women and maternity benefits and child care. Social security benefits, including unemployment benefits, should be guaranteed to women on an equal footing with men. Recruitment of female workers in existing or new capital-intensive, high-productivity sectors should be encouraged. Paragraph 195 Governments should recognize the importance of improving the conditions and structure of the informal sector for national industrial development and the role of women within it. Traditional craft and cottage industries, as well as the small industrial efforts of women, should be supported with credits, training facilities, marketing opportunities and technological guidance. To this end, producers' co-operatives should be supported and women should be encouraged to establish, manage and own small enterprises. Paragraph 196 Governments should design and promote as well as encourage the design and promotion of programmes and should allocate resources to prepare women to take up traditional and non-traditional industrial activities in organized and small enterprises, as well as in the informal sector, through innovative approaches to training, and should prepare and disseminate training materials and provide training to the trainers. They should support self-employment initiatives and offer guidance and career counselling. Trade and commercial services Paragraph 197 Governments should recognize the potential impact of short-term economic adjustment policies on women in the areas of trade and commerce. Government policies should promote the full participation and integration of women in these areas. Alternative sources of finance and new markets should be sought to maintain and increase women's participation in these activities. Not only should appropriate measures be taken to ensure that legal and administrative impediments that prevent women from enjoying effective and equal access to finance and credit are removed but in addition positive measures such as loan guarantees, technical advice and marketing development services should be introduced. Paragraph 198 Governments should also recognize the positive contribution of women traders to local and national economies and should adopt policies to assist and organize these women. The infrastructure and management of markets, transportation and social services should be improved to increase the efficiency, security and income of women traders and to reduce their work-load and the hazards to their health, as well as to avoid wastage of marketable produce. Training opportunities in bookkeeping, finance, packaging, standardization and processing technology should be provided to women traders. Such training should also aim at opening up employment opportunities to these women in other marketing and credit institutions. Governments should design innovative mechanisms to provide women traders with access to credit and to encourage the establishment and reinforcement of women's trade associations. Paragraph 199 Efforts should be made to encourage enterprises to train women in economic sectors that traditionally have been closed to them, to promote diversification of women's employment and to eliminate gender bias from labour markets. Science and technology Paragraph 200 The full and effective participation of women in the decision-making and implementation process related to science and technology, including planning and setting priorities for research and development, and the choice, acquisition, adaptation, innovation and application of science and technology for development should be enhanced. Governments should reassess their technological capabilities and monitor current processes of change so as to anticipate and ameliorate any adverse impact on women, particularly adverse effects upon the quality of job. Paragraph 201 The involvement of women in all of the peaceful uses of outer space should be enhanced, and effective measures should be undertaken to integrate women into all levels of decision-making and the implementation of such activities. In all countries special efforts should be made by Governments and non-governmental organizations to provide women and women's organizations with information on the peaceful uses of outer space. Special incentives should be provided to enable women to obtain advanced education and training in areas related to outer space in order to expand their participation in the application of outer space technology for peaceful uses, especially in the high-priority development areas of water, health, energy, food production and nutrition. To achieve these goals, increased opportunities and encouragement should be given to women to study science, mathematics and engineering at the university level and to girls to study mathematics and science at the pre-university level. Paragraph 202 Women with appropriate skills should be employed at managerial and professional levels and not restricted to service-level jobs. Special measures should be taken to improve working conditions for women in the science and technology fields, to eliminate discriminatory classification of jobs and to protect the right of women to promotion. Efforts should be made to ensure that women obtain their fair share of jobs at all levels in new technology industries. Paragraph 203 Major efforts should be undertaken and effective incentives created to increase the access of women to both scientific and technological education and training. To achieve these goals, efforts should be made by Governments and women themselves to enhance, where necessary, the change of attitudes towards women's performance in scientific fields. Paragraph 204 The potential and actual impact of science and technology on the developments that affect women's integration into the various sectors of the economy, as well as on their health, income and status, should be assessed. Relevant findings should be integrated in policy formulation to ensure that women benefit fully from available technologies and that any adverse effects are minimized. Paragraph 205 Efforts in the design and delivery of appropriate technology to women should be intensified, and attention should be given to the achievement of the best possible standard in such technologies. In particular, the implications of advances in medical technology for women should be carefully examined. Communications Paragraph 206 In view of the critical role of this sector in eliminating stereotyped images of women and providing women with easier access to information, the participation of women at all levels of communications policy and decision-making and in programme design, implementation and monitoring should be given high priority. The media's portrayal of stereotyped images of women and also that of the advertising industry can have a profoundly adverse effect on attitudes towards and among women. Women should be made an integral part of the decision-making concerning the choice and development of alternative forms of communication and should have an equal say in the determination of the content of all public information efforts. The cultural media, involving ritual, drama, dialogue, oral literature and music, should be integrated in all development efforts to enhance communication. Women's own cultural projects aimed at changing the traditional images of women and men should be promoted and woman should have equal access to financial support. In the field of communication, there is ample scope for international co-operation regarding information related to the sharing of experience by women and to projecting activities concerning the role of women in development and peace in order to enhance the awareness of both accomplishments and the tasks that remain to be fulfilled. Paragraph 207 The enrolment of women in publicly operated mass communication networks and in education and training should be increased. The employment of women within the sector should be promoted and directed towards professional, advisory and decision-making positions. Paragraph 208 Organizations aimed at promoting the role of women in development as contributors and beneficiaries should be assisted in their efforts to establish effective communications and information networks. Housing, settlement, community development and transport Paragraph 209 Governments should integrate women in the formulation of policies, programmes and projects for the provision of basic shelter and infrastructure. To this end, enrolment of women in architectural, engineering and related fields should be encouraged, and qualified women graduates in these fields should be assigned to professional and policy-making and decision-making positions. The shelter and infrastructural needs of women should be assessed and specifically incorporated in housing, community development, and slum and squatter projects. Paragraph 210 Women and women's groups should be participants in and equal beneficiaries of housing and infrastructure construction projects. They should be consulted in the choice of design and technology of construction and should be involved in the management and maintenance of the facilities. To this end, women should be provided with construction, maintenance and management skills and should be participants in related training and educational programmes. Special attention must be given to the provision of adequate water to all communities, in consultation with women. Paragraph 211 Housing credit schemes should be reviewed and women's direct access to housing construction and improvement credits secured. In this connection, programmes aimed at increasing the possibilities of sources of income for women should be promoted and existing legislation or administrative practices endangering women's ownership and tenancy rights should be revoked. Paragraph 212 Government efforts for the International Year of Shelter for the homeless should incorporate assessments of the shelter needs of women and encourage the design and implementation of innovative projects that will increase women's access to services and finance. In these efforts special attention should be paid to women who are the sole supporters of their families. Low-cost housing and facilities should be designed for such women. Paragraph 213 All measures to increase the efficiency of land, water and air transportation should be formulated with due regard to women as producers and consumers. All national and local decisions concerning transportation policies, including subsidies, pricing, choice of technology for construction and maintenance, and means of transport, should consider women's needs and should be based on consideration of the possible impact on the employment, income and health of women. Paragraph 214 Women's roles as operators and owners of means of transport should be promoted through greater access to credit for women and other appropriate means and equal consideration with regard to the allocation of contracts. This is particularly important for women's groups and collectives, especially in rural areas, that are usually well organized but are cut off from serviceable means of transport and communication. Paragraph 215 Rural transportation planning in developing countries should aim at reducing the heavy burden on women who carry agricultural produce, water and fuelwood as head-loads. In exploring modes of transportation, efforts should be made to avoid loss of income and employment for women by introducing costs that may be too high for them. Paragraph 216 In the choice of modes of transportation and the design of transport routes, the increasing ratio of women whose income is essential for family survival should be taken into account. Paragraph 217 In the design and choice of both commercial and appropriate vehicular technology, the needs of women, especially those with young children, should be taken into consideration. Institutional support to give women access to appropriate vehicles should be provided. Energy Paragraph 218 Measures developed to rationalize energy consumption and to improve energy systems, especially of hydrocarbons, and to increase technical training should be formulated with a view to women as producers, users and managers of energy sources. Paragraph 219 In conventional and non-conventional national energy programmes, women should be integrated as contributors and beneficiaries with a view to their needs, as determined by specific socio-cultural factors at local and national levels and in both rural and urban contexts. Assessment of new energy sources, energy technologies and energy-delivery systems should specifically consider the reduction of the drudgery that constitutes a large part of the work of poor urban and rural women. Paragraph 220 The grass-roots participation of women in energy-needs assessment, technology and energy conservation, management and maintenance efforts should be supported. Paragraph 221 Priority should be given to substituting energy for muscle in the performance of the industrial and domestic work of women without loss of their jobs and tasks to men. In view of the high percentage of domestic use in total energy consumption in low-income countries, the implications of increasing energy costs, and the current threats posed by inflation, immediate attention should be directed towards action concerning adapted technologies, fuel conservation and improved or new sources of energy, such as biomass, solar and wind energy, geothermal and nuclear energy, as well as mini-hydroelectric power plants. Improved stoves should be designed and disseminated to reduce the drudgery involved in the collection of fuel by women. Paragraph 222 In order to prevent depletion of the forest areas on which most rural women rely for much of their energy needs and income, innovative programmes, such as farm woodlot development, should be initiated with the involvement of both women and men. In the commercialization of fuelwood energy, measures should be taken to avoid the loss of women's income to middlemen and urban industries. Development of fuelwood plantations, diffusion of fast-growing varieties of trees and technologies for more efficient production of charcoal should be accelerated with a view to poor rural and urban women being the major beneficiaries. The use of solar energy and biogas should be promoted with due regard to affordability, as well as to use and management by women who are the principal consumers. Paragraph 223 The involvement of women at all levels of decision-making and implementation of energy-related decisions including peaceful use of nuclear energy should be enhanced. Special efforts should be made by Governments and non-governmental organizations to provide women and women's organizations with information on all sources and uses of energy, including nuclear energy. Special incentives should be provided to enable women to obtain advanced levels of education and training in all energy-related areas in order to expand their participation in decision-making relating to the application of nuclear technology for peaceful uses especially in high priority development areas of water, health, energy, food production and nutrition. To achieve these goals, increased opportunities and encouragement should be given to women to study science, mathematics and engineering at the university level and for girls to study mathematics and science at the pre-university level. Environment Paragraph 224 Deprivation of traditional means of livelihood is most often a result of environmental degradation resulting from such natural and man-made disasters as droughts, floods, hurricanes, erosion, desertification, deforestation and inappropriate land use. Such conditions have already pushed great numbers of poor women into marginal environments where critically low levels of water supplies, shortages of fuel, over-utilization of grazing and arable lands and population density have deprived them of their livelihood. Most seriously affected are women in drought-afflicted arid and semi-arid areas and in urban slums and squatter settlements. These women need options for alternative means of livelihood. Women must have the same opportunity as men to participate in the wage-earning labour force in such programmes as irrigation and tree planting and in other programmes needed to upgrade urban and rural environments. Urgent steps need to be taken to strengthen the machinery for international economic co-operation in the exploration of water resources and the control of desertification and other environmental disasters. Paragraph 225 Efforts to improve sanitary conditions, including drinking water supplies, in all communities should be strengthened, especially in urban slums and squatter settlements and in rural areas, with due regard to relevant environmental factors. These efforts should be extended to include improvements of the home and the work environment and should be effected with the participation of women at all levels in the planning and implementation process. Paragraph 226 Awareness by individual women and all types of women's organizations of environmental issues and the capacity of women and men to manage their environment and sustain productive resources should be enhanced. All sources of information dissemination should be mobilized to increase the self-help potential of women in conserving and improving their environment. National and international emphasis on ecosystem management and the control of environmental degradation should be strengthened and women should be recognized as active and equal participants in this process. Paragraph 227 The environmental impact of policies, programmes and projects on women's health and activities, including their source of employment and income, should be assessed and the negative effects eliminated. Social services Paragraph 228 Governments are urged to give priority to the development of social infrastructure, such as adequate care and education for the children of working parents, whether such work is carried out at home, in the fields or in factories, to reduce the "double burden" of working women in both urban and rural areas. Likewise they are urged to offer incentives to employers to provide adequate child-care services which meet the requirements of parents regarding opening hours. Employers should allow either parent to work flexible hours in order to share the responsibilities of child care. Simultaneously, Governments and non-governmental organizations should mobilize the mass media and other means of communication to ensure public consensus on the need for men and society as a whole to share with women the responsibilities of producing and rearing children, who represent the human resource capabilities of the future. Paragraph 229 Governments should further establish ways and means of assisting women consumers through the provision of information and the creation of legislation that will increase consumer consciousness and protect consumers from unsafe goods, dangerous drugs, unhealthy foods and unethical and exploitative marketing practices. 12a/ Non-governmental organizations should work towards establishing strong and active organizations for consumer protection. Paragraph 230 Public expenditure directed towards health, education and training and towards providing health-care and child-care services for women should be increased. Paragraph 231 Governments should undertake effective measures, including mobilizing community resources to identify, prevent and eliminate all violence, including family violence, against women and children and to provide shelter, support and reorientation services for abused women and children. These measures should notably be aimed at making women conscious that maltreatment is not an incurable phenomenon, but a blow to their physical and moral integrity, against which they have the right (and the duty) to fight, whether they are themselves the victims or the witnesses. Beyond these urgent protective measures for maltreated women and children, as well as repressive measures for the authors of this maltreatment, it would be proper to set in motion long-term supportive machineries of aid and guidance for maltreated women and children, as well as the people, often men, who maltreat them. lII. PEACE A. Obstacles Paragraph 232 The threat to peace resulting from continuing international tension and violations of the United Nations Charter, resulting in the unabated arms race, in particular in the nuclear field, as well as wars, armed conflicts, external domination, foreign occupation, acquisition of land by force, aggression, imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, apartheid, gross violation of human rights, terrorism, repression, the disappearance of persons and discrimination on the basis of sex are major obstacles to human progress, specifically to the advancement of women. Paragraph 233 Such obstacles, some of which occur with increasing frequency, continually reinforce and are reinforced by historically established hostile attitudes, ignorance and bigotry between countries, ethnic groups, races, sexes, socio-economic groups and by lack of tolerance and respect for different cultures and traditions. Their negative effects are increased by poverty, tensions in international economic and political relations which are often aggravated, as well as by the arms race, both nuclear and conventional. The arms race in particular diverts resources which could be used for developmental and humanitarian purposes, hinders national and international development efforts and further handicaps the well-being of the poorest nations and the most disadvantaged segments of the population. Paragraph 234 Despite the achievements of the Decade, women's involvement in governmental and non-governmental activities, decision-making processes related to peace, mobilization efforts for peace, education for peace and peace research remains limited. Their participation in the struggle to eradicate colonialism, neo-colonialism, imperialism, totalitarianism including fascism and similar ideologies, alien occupation, foreign domination, aggression, racism, racial discrimination, apartheid and other violations of human rights has often gone unnoticed. Paragraph 235 Universal and durable peace cannot be attained without the full and equal participation of women in international relations, particularly in decision-making concerning peace, including the processes envisaged for the peaceful settlement of disputes under the Charter of the United Nations nor without overcoming the obstacles mentioned in paragraph 232. Paragraph 236 Full equality between women and men is severely hampered by the threats to international peace and security, lack of satisfying progress in the field of disarmament, including the spread of the arms race to outer space, violation of the principle of the right of peoples under alien and colonial domination and foreign occupation to self-determination and independence and respect for the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of States as well as justice, equality and mutual benefit in international relations. Paragraph 237 It is evident that women all over the world have manifested their love for peace and their wish to play a greater role in international co-operation, amity and peace among different nations. All obstacles at national and international levels in the way of women's participation in promoting international peace and co-operation should be removed as soon as possible. Paragraph 238 It is equally important to increase women's understanding and awareness of constructive negotiations aimed at reaching positive results for international peace and security. Governments should take measures to encourage the full and effective participation of women in negotiations on international peace and security. The rejection of the use of force or of the threat of the use of force and foreign interference and intervention should become widespread. B. Basic strategies Paragraph 239 The main principles and directions for women's activities aimed at strengthening peace and formulated in the Declaration on the Participation of Women in Promoting International Peace and Co-operation 7/ should be put into practice. The Declaration calls for Governments, the United Nations system, non-governmental organizations, relevant institutions and individuals to strengthen women's participation in this sphere and it provides the overall framework for such activities. Paragraph 240 Women and men have an equal right and the same vital interest in contributing to international peace and co-operation. Women should participate fully in all efforts to strengthen and maintain international peace and security and to promote international co-operation, diplomacy, the process of d‚tente, disarmament in the nuclear field in particular, and respect for the principle of the Charter of the United Nations, including respect for the sovereign rights of States, guarantees of fundamental freedoms and human rights, such as recognition of the dignity of the individual and self-determination, and freedom of thought, conscience, expression, association, assembly, communication and movement without distinction as to race, sex, political and religious beliefs, language or ethnic origin. The commitment to remove the obstacles to women's participation in the promotion of peace should be strengthened. Paragraph 241 In view of the fact that women are still very inadequately represented in national and international political processes dealing with peace and conflict settlement, it is essential that women support and encourage each other in their initiatives and action relating either to universal issues, such as disarmament and the development of confidence-building measures between nations and people, or to specific conflict situations between or within States. Paragraph 242 There exist situations in several regions of the world where the violation of principles of non-use of force, non-intervention, non-interference, non-aggression and the right to self-determination endangers international peace and security and creates massive humanitarian problems which constitute an impediment to the advancement of women and hence to the full implementation of the Forward-looking Strategies. In regard to these situations strict adherence to and respect for the cardinal principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and implementation of relevant resolutions consistent with the principles of the Charter are an imperative requirement with a view to seeking solutions to such problems, thereby ensuring a secure and better future for the people affected, most of whom are invariably women and children. Paragraph 243 Since women are one of the most vulnerable groups in the regions affected by armed conflicts, special attention has to be drawn to the need to eliminate obstacles to the fulfilment of the objectives of equality, development and peace and the principles of the Charter of the United Nations. Paragraph 244 One of the important obstacles to achieving international peace is the persistent violation of the principles and objectives of the Charter of the United Nations and the lack of political will of Governments of such countries to promote constructive negotiations aimed at decreasing international tension on the issues that seriously threaten the maintenance of international peace and security. For this reason, the strategies in this field should include the mobilization of women in favour of all acts and actions that tend to promote peace, in particular, the elimination of wars and danger of nuclear war. Paragraph 245 Immediate and special priority should be given to the promotion and the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to sex, the full application of the rights of peoples to self-determination and the elimination of colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid, of all forms of racism and racial discrimination, oppression and aggression, foreign occupation, as well as domestic violence and violence against women. Paragraph 246 In South-West Asia women and children have endured serious suffering owing to the violation of the Charter of the United Nations, leading, among other things, to the vast problem of refugees in neighbouring countries. Paragraph 247 The situation of violence and destabilization that exists in Central America constitutes the most serious obstacle to the achievement of peace in the region and thus hinders the fulfilment of the Forward-looking Strategies vital to the advancement of women. In this regard and to promote conditions favourable to the objectives of the Strategies, it is important to reiterate the principles of non-intervention and self-determination, as well as the non-use of force or rejection of the threat of use of force in the solution of conflicts in the region. Therefore, the validity of the United Nations resolutions that establish the right of all sovereign states in the area to live in peace, free from all interference in their internal affairs, should be reaffirmed. It is necessary to support the negotiated political solutions and the peace proposals that the Central American States adopt under the auspices of the Contadora Group, as the most viable alternative for the solution of the crisis in Central America for the benefit of their people. In this sense it is important that the five Central American Governments speed up their consultations with the Contadora Group with the aim of bringing to a conclusion the negotiation process with the early signing of the Contadora Act on Peace and Co-operation in Central America (see A/39/562-S/16775, annex). Paragraph 248 Women have played and continue to play an important role in the self-determination of peoples, including through national liberation, in accordance with the United Nations Charter. Their efforts should be recognized and commended and used as one basis for their full participation in the construction of their countries, and in the creation of humane and just social and political systems. Women's contribution in this area should be ensured by their equal access to political power and their full participation in the decision-making process. Paragraph 249 Strategies at the national, regional and the global levels should be based on a clear recognition that peace and security, self-determination and national independence are fundamental for the attainment of the three objectives of the Decade: equality, development and peace. Paragraph 250 Safeguarding world peace and averting a nuclear catastrophe is one of the most important tasks today in which women have an essential role to play, especially by supporting actively the halting of the arms race followed by arms reduction and the attainment of a general and complete disarmament under effective international control, and thus contributing to the improvement of their economic position. Irrespective of their socio-economic system, the States should strive to avoid confrontation and to build friendly relations instead, which should be also supported by women. Paragraph 251 Peace requires the participation of all members of society, women and men alike, in rejecting any type of intervention in the domestic affairs of States, whether it is openly or covertly carried out by other States or by transnational corporations. Peace also requires that women and men alike should promote respect for the sovereign right of a State to establish its own economic, social and political system without undergoing political and economic pressures or coercion of any type. Paragraph 252 There exists a relationship between the world economic situation, development and the strengthening of international peace and security, disarmament and the relaxation of international tension. All efforts should be made to reduce global expenditures on armaments and to reach an agreement on the internationally agreed disarmament goals in order to prevent the waste of immense material and human resources, some part of which might otherwise be used for development, especially of the developing countries, as well as for the improvement of standards of living and well-being of people in each country. In this context, particular attention should be given to the advancement of women, including to the participation of women in the promotion of international peace and co-operation and the protection of mothers and children who represent a disproportionate share of the most vulnerable group, the poorest of the poor. Paragraph 253 Women's equal role in decision-making with respect to peace and related issues should be seen as one of their basic human rights and as such should be enhanced and encouraged at the national, regional and international levels. In accordance with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, all existing impediments to the achievement by women of equality with men should be removed. To this end, efforts should be intensified at all levels to overcome prejudices, stereotyped thinking, denial to women of career prospects and appropriate educational possibilities, and resistance by decision-makers to the changes that are necessary to enable equal participation of women with men in the international and diplomatic service. Paragraph 254 Mankind is confronted with a choice: to halt the arms race and proceed to disarmament or face annihilation. The growing opposition of women to the danger of war, especially a nuclear war, which will lead to a nuclear holocaust, and their support for disarmament must be respected. States should be encouraged to ensure unhindered flow and access to information, including to women, with regard to various aspects of disarmament to avoid dissemination of false and tendentious information concerning armaments and to concentrate on the danger of the escalation of the arms race and on the need for general and complete disarmament under effective international control. The resources released as a result of disarmament measures should be used to help promote the well-being of all peoples and improve the economic and social conditions of the developing countries. Under such conditions, States should pay increased attention to the urgent need to improve the situation of women. Paragraph 255 Peace education should be established for all members of society, particularly children and young people. Values, such as tolerance, racial and sexual equality, respect for and understanding of others, and good-neighbourliness should be developed, promoted and strengthened. Paragraph 256 Women of the world, together with men, should, as informal educators and socialization agents, play a special role in the process of bringing up younger generations in an atmosphere of compassion, tolerance, mutual concern and trust, with an awareness that all people belong to the same world community. Such education should be part of all formal and informal educational processes as well as of communications, information and mass-media systems. Paragraph 257 Further action should be taken at family and neighbourhood levels, as well as at national and international levels, to achieve a peaceful social environment compatible with human dignity. The questions of women and peace and the meaning of peace for women cannot be separated from the broader question of relationships between women and men in all spheres of life and in the family. Discriminatory practices and negative attitudes towards women should be eliminated and traditional gender norms changed to enhance women's participation in peace. Paragraph 258 Violence against women exists in various forms in everyday life in all societies. Women are beaten, mutilated, burned, sexually abused and raped. Such violence is a major obstacle to the achievement of peace and the other objectives of the Decade and should be given special attention. Women victims of violence should be given particular attention and comprehensive assistance. To this end, legal measures should be formulated to prevent violence and to assist women victims. National machinery should be established in order to deal with the question of violence against women within the family and society. Preventive policies should be elaborated, and institutionalized forms of assistance to women victims provided. C. Women and children under apartheid Paragraph 259 12b/ Women and children under apartheid and other racist minority r‚gimes suffer from direct inhumane practices such as massacres and detention, mass population removal, separation from families and immobilization in reservations. They are subjected to the detrimental implications of the labour migrant system pass laws and of relegation to the homelands where they suffer disproportionately from poverty, poor health and illiteracy. The Programme of Action of the World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1978) 14/ provides an overall framework for action. Its objective is to eradicate apartheid and to enable black African people in South Africa to enjoy their full sovereign rights in their country. Governments that have not already done so are urged to sign and ratify the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid of 30 November 1973. 15/ Full international assistance should be given to the most oppressed group under apartheid - women and children. The United Nations system, Governments and non-governmental organizations should identify the basic needs of women and children under apartheid and other racist minority r‚gimes, including women in refugee camps in southern Africa, and provide them with adequate legal, humanitarian, medical and material assistance as well as education, training and employment. Assistance should be given to women's sections in national liberation movements in order to strengthen their work for women's equal opportunities, education and training so as to prepare them to play an important political role in the present struggle and in nation-building after liberation. The Forward-looking Strategies should take into account the destabilizing effects of apartheid on the economic infrastructure of neighbouring independent African States, which impede the development of the subregion. Institutionalized apartheid in South Africa and Namibia as realized in the day-to-day political, legal, social and cultural life remains an enormous obstacle and hindrance to advancement, equality and peace in the African region. The Forward-looking Strategies should aim at the speedy and effective implementation of Security Council resolution 435 (1978) concerning the independence of Namibia. The total and unconditional liberation of Namibia should be a major objective of the Forward-looking Strategies, which should also aim at the improvement of the condition of women and children. The United Nations and the international community must strengthen their resolve to see the abhorrent apartheid system eradicated and Namibia freed from the forces of occupation. Owing to South Africa's position in the international political and economic structure, the international community has the greatest responsibility to ensure that peace and human dignity are restored to southern Africa. In addition to measures already taken, further effective measures, including sanctions, should be taken to terminate all collaboration with the racist r‚gime of South Africa in the political, military, diplomatic and economic fields with a view to eliminating untold misery and loss of life of the oppressed people, the majority of whom are black women and children. The international community must insist upon the effective implementation of Security Council resolution 435 (1978) concerning the independence of Namibia and all the United Nations resolutions calling for sanctions against South Africa, its isolation and abandonment of its racist policies. All efforts should be made for the immediate and unconditional withdrawal of South African forces from Angola. The international community must condemn the direct aggression committed by the armed forces of the racist r‚gime of South Africa against the front-line countries as well as the recruitment, training and financing of mercenaries and of armed bandits who massacre women and children and who are used to overthrow the legitimate Governments of these countries by reason of their support for the people of South Africa and Namibia. The international community should provide greater moral and material assistance to all the bodies struggling to remove apartheid, especially the national liberation movements - the African National Congress of South Africa, the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania and the South West Africa People's Organization the African front-line States, the Organization of African Unity, the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries and non-governmental organizations. Women, together with their Governments, should strengthen their commitment to the eradication of apartheid and support to their struggling sisters in all possible ways. To this end, women and women's organizations should keep themselves constantly informed about the situation of women and children under apartheid, disseminate information widely and build up awareness in their countries about the situation by organizing national solidarity and support committees where these do not yet exist as a means to educate the public about the evils of apartheid and its brutal oppression of women and children in South Africa and Namibia. D. Palestinian women and children Paragraph 260 15a/ For more than three decades, Palestinian women have faced difficult living conditions in camps and outside, struggling for the survival of their families and the survival of the Palestinian people who were deprived of their ancestral lands and denied the inalienable rights to return to their homes and their property, their right to self-determination, national independence and sovereignty (see A/CONF.116/6). Palestinian women are vulnerable to imprisonment, torture, reprisals and other oppressive practices by Israel in the occupied Arab territories. The confiscation of land and the creation of further settlements has affected the lives of Palestinian women and children. Such Israeli measures and practices are a violation of the Geneva Convention. 16/ The Palestinian woman as part of her nation suffers from discrimination in employment, health care and education. The situation of violence and destabilization which exists in southern Lebanon and the Golan Heights put Arab women and children who are living under Israeli occupation in severe situations. Lebanese women are also suffering from discrimination and detention. Therefore, all relevant United Nations resolutions, in particular Security Council resolutions 497 (1981), 508 (1982) and 509 (1982), should be implemented. The implementation of the Programme of Action for the Achievement of Palestinian Rights 17/ should be kept under review and co-ordinated between the United Nations units and agencies concerned, with emphasis on the role of Palestinian women in preserving their national identity, traditions and heritage and in the struggle for sovereignty. Palestinian people must recover their rights to self-determination and the right to establish an independent State in accordance with all relevant United Nations resolutions. The special and immediate needs of Palestinian women and children should be identified and appropriate provision made. United Nations projects should be initiated to help Palestinian women in the fields of health, education, and vocational training. Their living conditions inside and outside the occupied territories should be studied by the appropriate United Nations units and agencies assisted, as appropriate, by specialized research institutes from various regions. The results of these studies should be given broad publicity to promote actions at all levels. The international community should exert all efforts to stop the establishment of new Israeli settlements in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Palestinian women should be allowed to enjoy security in a liberated homeland also in accordance with United Nations resolutions. E. Women in areas affected by armed conflicts, foreign intervention and threats to peace Paragraph 261 Armed conflicts and emergency situations impose a serious threat to the lives of women and children, causing constant fear, danger of displacement, destruction, devastation, physical abuse, social and family disruption, and abandonment. Sometimes these result in complete denial of access to adequate health and educational services, loss of job opportunities and overall worsening of material conditions. Paragraph 262 International instruments, ongoing negotiations and international discussions aimed at the limitation of armed conflicts, such as the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 and the First Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, adopted in 1977, provide a general framework for the protection of civilians in times of hostilities and the basis of provisions of humanitarian assistance and protection to women and children. Measures proposed in the 1974 Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict (General Assembly resolution 3318 (XXIX) should be taken into account by Governments. F. Measures for the implementation of the basic strategies at the national level 1. Women's participation in efforts for peace Paragraph 263 Governments should follow the overall framework of action for disarmament as provided by the Final Document of the tenth special session of the General Assembly, which was devoted to disarmament (resolution S-10/2). Women's participation in the World Disarmament Campaign and their contribution to education for disarmament should be supported. Paragraph 264 Publicity should be given by Governments and non-governmental organizations to the main treaties concluded in the field of arms control and disarmament, and to other relevant documents. More should be done to mobilize women to overcome social apathy and helplessness in relation to disarmament and to generate wide support for the implementation of these agreements. Publicity should also be given to the declaration by the General Assembly of 1986 as the International Year of Peace, 18/ and the participation of women in the programme for the Year should be encouraged. Paragraph 265 Non-governmental organizations should be encouraged to play an active role in promoting the restoration of peace in areas of conflict, in accordance with United Nations resolutions. Paragraph 266 Women should be able to participate actively in the decision-making process related to the promotion of international peace and co-operation. Governments should take the necessary measures to facilitate this participation by institutional, educational and organizational means. Emphasis should be given to the grass-roots participation and co-operation of women's organizations with other non-governmental organizations in this process. Paragraph 267 Governments which have not done so should undertake all appropriate measures to eliminate existing discriminatory practices towards women and to provide them with equal opportunities to join, at all levels, the civil service, to enter the diplomatic service and to represent their countries as members of delegations to national, regional and international meetings, including conferences on peace, conflict resolution, disarmament, and meetings of the Security Council and other United Nations bodies. Paragraph 268 Women should be encouraged and given financial support to take university courses in government, international relations and diplomacy in order to obtain the necessary professional qualifications for careers in fields relating to peace and international security. Paragraph 269 Governments should encourage women's participation in the promotion of peace at decision-making levels by providing information on opportunities for such participation in public service and by promoting equitable representation of women in governmental and non-governmental bodies and activities. Paragraph 270 Non-governmental organizations should provide opportunities for women to learn how to develop self-reliance and leadership capabilities in order to promote peace, disarmament, human rights and international co-operation more effectively. They should emphasize the participation of women from trade unions and organizations in rural areas that have not as yet received sufficient attention and should make periodic assessments of strategies for women's participation in the promotion of peace at all levels, including the highest decision-making levels. Paragraph 271 National machinery should be established to deal with the question of domestic violence. Preventive policies should be elaborated and institutionalized economic and other forms of assistance and protection for women and child victims should be provided. Legislative measures should be strengthened and legal aid provided. 2. Education for peace Paragraph 272 Governments, non-governmental organizations, women's groups and the mass media should encourage women to engage in efforts to promote education for peace in the family, neighbourhood and community. Special attention should be given to the contribution of women's grass-roots organizations. The multiple skills and talents of women artists, journalists, writers, educators and civic leaders can contribute to promoting ideas of peace if encouraged, facilitated and supported. Paragraph 273 Special attention should be given to the education of children for life in peace within an atmosphere of understanding, dialogue and respect for others. In this respect, suitable concrete action should be taken to discourage the provision of children and young persons with games and publications and other media promoting the notion of favouring war, aggression, cruelty, excessive desire for power and other forms of violence, within the broad processes of the reparation of society for life in peace. Paragraph 274 Governments, educational institutions, professional associations and non-governmental organizations should co-operate to develop a high-quality content for and to achieve widespread dissemination of books and programmes on education for peace. Women should take an active part in the preparation of those materials, which should include case studies of peaceful settlements of disputes, non-violent movements and passive resistance and the recognition of peace-seeking individuals. Paragraph 275 Governments should create the conditions that would enable women to increase their knowledge of the main problems in contemporary international relations. Information should be widely and freely disseminated among women, thereby contributing to their full understanding of those problems. All existing obstacles and discriminatory practices regarding women's civil and political education should be removed. Opportunities should be provided for women to organize and choose studies, training programmes and seminars related to peace, disarmament, education for peace and the peaceful settlement of disputes. Paragraph 276 The participation of women in peace research, including research on women and peace, should be encouraged. Existing barriers to women researchers should be removed and appropriate resources provided for peace researchers. Co-operation amongst peace researchers, government officials, non-governmental organizations and activists should be encouraged and fostered. IV. AREAS OF SPECIAL CONCERN Paragraph 277 There is an increasing number of categories of women who, because of their special characteristics, are experiencing not only the common problems indicated under the separate themes but also specific difficulties due to their socio-economic and health condition, age, minority status or a combination of these factors. Moreover, in many countries increasing demographic pressure, deteriorating rural conditions, curtailment of subsistence agriculture and difficult political conditions have been exacerbated by the current economic recession, leading to the dislocation of large sections of populations. In this process women experience particular difficulties and are often the more vulnerable because of their traditional lack of access to development opportunities. Paragraph 278 The special groups of women identified below are extremely diverse, and their problems vary tremendously from one country to another. No single strategy or set of measures can apply adequately to all cases, and the present document is therefore limited to highlighting their special circumstances and the need for each country, as well as the international community, to give these issues the necessary attention. The basic strategy must remain one of fundamentally changing the economic conditions that produce such deprivation and of upgrading women's low status in society, which accounts for their extreme vulnerability to such conditions, especially to poverty. This is aggravated by the increase in drug-dependence, which adversely affects all sectors of society, including women. Building an organizational base for such change is a crucial strategy that can provide a rallying point for solidarity among women. Measures needed to provide immediate emergency assistance should be supplemented by longer-term efforts to enable women to break out of these situations. In many cases, permanent solutions to these issues can only be found through the broader efforts directed towards the reallocation of resources and decision-making power and towards the elimination of inequality and injustice. Paragraph 279 There is a need to recognize the survival mechanisms already developed by these women as basic strategies in their own right and to build on them. A first priority would be to strengthen their organization capabilities by providing physical, financial and human resources, as well as education and training. Also of extreme importance is the need to revitalize these women's aspirations in order to eliminate the chronic despair that characterizes their daily lives. Paragraph 280 The economic, social, cultural and political conditions of those groups of women should be improved basically by the implementation of the measures proposed for the attainment of equality, development and peace for women in general. Additional efforts should be directed towards ensuring the gainful and productive inclusion of these women in mainstream development and in political activities. Priority emphasis should be placed upon income-generating opportunities and for the independent and sustained improvement of their condition and by the full integration and active participation of women as agents and beneficiaries of development. Paragraph 281 Policies, programmes and projects aimed at or incorporating especially vulnerable and underprivileged groups of women should recognize the particular difficulties of removing the multiple obstacles facing such groups and should place equal emphasis on addressing the social, economic and human dimensions of their vulnerability and their underprivileged positions. Measures needed to provide them with immediate assistance should be supplemented by comprehensive long-term plans to achieve lasting solutions to their problems. These will usually necessitate global efforts in resolving the special problems of vulnerable groups, of which women are a significant part. Paragraph 282 Basic to all efforts to improve the condition of these women should be the identification of their needs and hence the gathering of gender-specific data and economic indicators sensitive to conditions of extreme poverty and oppression. Such data should contain spatial, socio-economic and longitudinal characteristics and should be designed specifically for use in policy, programme and project formulation and implementation. Monitoring efforts at national, subregional, regional and international levels should be intensified. A. Women in areas affected by drought Paragraph 283 During the Decade, the phenomenon of drought and desertification grew and developed incessantly, no longer affecting merely some localities in a single country but several entire countries. The scale and persistence of drought constitutes a grave threat, particularly for the countries of the Sahel, in which famine and a far-reaching deterioration of the environment set in as a result of the desertification process. Hence, despite the considerable efforts of the international community, the living conditions of the peoples, particularly those of women and children, which were already precarious, have become particularly miserable. In view oś that situation steps should be taken to promote concerted programmes between the countries concerned for combating drought and desertification. Efforts should be intensified for the formulation and implementation of programmes aimed at food security and self-sufficiency, in particular by the optimum control and exploitation of hydro-geological resources. A distinction should be made between emergency aid and productive activities. Emergency aid should be intensified when necessary and as far as ever possible directed towards development aid. Measures should be adopted to take into account women's contribution to production, involve them more closely in the design, implementation and evaluation of the programmes envisaged and ensure ample access for them to the means of production and processing and preservation techniques. B. Urban poor women Paragraph 284 Urbanization has been one of the major socio-economic trends over the past few decades and is expected to continue at an accelerating rate. Although the situation varies considerably from one region to another, it can generally be expected that by the year 2000 close to half the number of women in the world will be living in urban areas. In developing countries, the number of urban women could nearly double by the year 2000, and it is envisaged that there could be a considerable increase in the number of poor women among them. Paragraph 285 To deal effectively with the issue, Governments should organize multi-sectoral programmes with emphasis on economic activities, elimination of discrimination and the provision of supportive services and, inter alia, adequate child-care facilities and, where necessary, workplace canteens to enable women to gain access to economic, social and educational opportunities on an equal basis with men. Particular attention should be devoted to the informal sector, which constitutes a major outlet for employment of a considerable number of urban poor women. C. Elderly women Paragraph 286 The International Plan of Action on Aging adopted by the World Assembly on Aging in 1982 19/ emphasized both the humanitarian and developmental aspects of aging. The recommendations of the Plan of Action are applicable to women and men with a view to providing them with protection and care, and ensuring their involvement and participation in social life and development. However, the Plan of Action recognizes a number of specific areas of concern for elderly women since their longer life expectancy frequently means an old age aggravated by economic need and isolation for both unmarried women and widows, possibly with little or no prospect of paid employment. This applies particularly to those women whose lifetimes were spent in unpaid and unrecognized work in the home with little or no access to a pension. If women have an income, it is generally lower than men's, partly because their former employment status has in the majority of cases been broken by maternity and family responsibilities. For this reason, the Plan of Action also noted the need for long-term policies directed towards providing social insurance for women in their own right. Governments and non-governmental organizations should, in addition to the measures recommended, explore the possibilities of employing elderly women in productive and creative ways and encouraging their participation in social and recreational activities. It is also recommended that the care of elderly persons, including women, should go beyond disease orientation and should include their total well-being. Further efforts, in particular primary health care, health services and suitable accommodation and housing as strategies should be directed at enabling elderly women to lead a meaningful life as long as possible, in their own home and family and in the community. Women should be prepared early in life, both psychologically and socially, to face the consequences of longer life expectancy. Although, while getting older, professional and family roles of women are undergoing fundamental changes, aging, at a stage of development, is a challenge for women. In this period of life, women should be enabled to cope in a creative way with new opportunities. The social consequences arising from the stereotyping of elderly women should be recognized and eliminated. The media should assist by presenting positive images of women, particularly emphasizing the need for respect because of their past and continuing contributions to society. Attention should be given to studying and treating the health problems of aging, particularly in women. Research should also be directed towards the investigation and slowing down of the process of premature aging due to a lifetime of stress, excessive work-load, malnutrition and repeated pregnancy. D. Young women Paragraph 287 Initiatives begun for the 1985 International Youth Year should be extended and expanded so that young women are protected from abuse and exploitation and assisted to develop their full potential. Girls and boys must be provided with equal access to health, education and employment to equip them for adult life. Both girls and boys should be educated to accept equal responsibilities for parenthood. Urgent attention should be paid to the educational and vocational training of young women in all fields of occupation, giving particular emphasis to those who are socially and economically disadvantaged. Self-employed young women and girls should be assisted to organize co-operatives and ongoing training programmes to improve their skills in production, marketing and management techniques. Special retraining programmes should also be developed for teenage mothers and girls who have dropped out of school and are ill equipped to enter productive employment. Steps should be taken to eliminate exploitative treatment of young women at work in line with IL0 Convention No. 111 concerning discrimination in respect of employment and occupation, 1958 and IL0 Convention No. 122 concerning employment policy, 1964. Legislative measures guaranteeing young women their rights should be enforced. Governments should recognize and enforce the rights of young women to be free from sexual violence, sexual harassment and sexual exploitation. In particular, Governments should recognize that many young women are victims of incest and sexual abuse in the family, and should take steps to assist the victims and to prevent such abuse by education, by improving the status of women and by appropriate action against offenders. Young women should be educated to assert their rights. Particular attention should also be given to sexual harassment and exploitation in employment, especially those areas of employment such as domestic service, where sexual harassment and exploitation are most prevalent. Governments must also recognize their obligation to provide housing for young women who because of unemployment and low incomes suffer special problems in obtaining housing. Homeless young women are particularly vulnerable to sexual exploitation. In the year 2000 women aged 15-24 will constitute over 8 per cent of both rural and urban populations in developing countries. The great majority of these women will be out of school and in search of jobs. For those employed, frequent exploitation, long working hours and stress have serious implications for their health. Low nutritional levels and unplanned and repeated pregnancies are also aggravating factors. E. Abused women Paragraph 288 Gender-specific violence is increasing and Governments must affirm the dignity of women, as a priority action. Governments should therefore intensify efforts to establish or strengthen forms of assistance to victims of such violence through the provision of shelter, support, legal and other services. In addition to immediate assistance to victims of violence against women in the family and in society, Governments should undertake to increase public awareness of violence against women as a societal problem, establish policies and legislative measures to ascertain its causes and prevent and eliminate such violence in particular by suppressing degrading images and representations of women in society, and finally encourage the development of educational and re-educational measures for offenders. F. Destitute women Paragraph 289 Destitution is an extreme form of poverty. It is estimated that its effects on large segments of the population in developing and developed countries are on the increase. Forward-looking Strategies to promote the objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace at the national and international levels are the basis for dealing with this problem. In addition strategies already specified for the implementation of the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade and the new international economic order are suggested in these recommendations. Governments should therefore ensure that the special needs and concerns of destitute women are given priority in the above-mentioned strategies. Moreover, efforts being undertaken for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless (1987) should focus attention on the particular situation of women commensurate with their relative needs. G. Women victims of trafficking and involuntary prostitution Paragraph 290 Forced prostitution is a form of slavery imposed on women by procurers. It is, inter alia, a result of economic degradation that alienates women's labour through processes of rapid urbanization and migration resulting in underemployment and unemployment. It also stems from women's dependence on men. Social and political pressures produce refugees and missing persons. Often these include vulnerable groups of women who are victimized by procurers. Sex tourism, forced prostitution and pornography reduce women to mere sex objects and marketable commodities. Paragraph 291 States Parties to the United Nations Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others should implement the provisions dealing with the exploitation of women as prostitutes. Urgent consideration should also be given to the improvement of international measures to combat trafficking in women for the purposes of prostitution. Resources for the prevention of prostitution and assistance in the professional, personal and social reintegration of prostitutes should be directed towards providing economic opportunities, including training, employment, self-employment and health facilities for women and children. Governments should also endeavour to co-operate with non-governmental organizations to create wider employment possibilities for women. Strict enforcement provisions must also be taken at all levels to stem the rising tide of violence, drug abuse and crime related to prostitution. The complex and serious problems of the exploitation of and violence against women associated with prostitution call for increased and co-ordinated efforts by police agencies internationally. H. Women deprived of their traditional means of livelihood Paragraph 292 The excessive and inappropriate exploitation of land by any party for any purpose, inter alia, by transnational corporations, as well as natural and man-made disasters are among the predominant causes of deprivation of traditional means of livelihood. Droughts, floods, hurricanes and other forms of environmental hazards, such as erosion, desertification and deforestation, have already pushed poor women into marginal environments. At present the pressures are greatest in drought-afflicted arid and semi-arid areas. Urban slums and squatter settlements are also seriously affected. Critically low levels of water supplies, shortage of fuel, over-utilization of grazing and arable lands, and population density are all factors that deprive women of their livelihood. Paragraph 293 National and international emphasis on ecosystem management should be strengthened, environmental degradation should be controlled and options provided for alternative means of livelihood. Measures should be established to draw up national conservation strategies aimed at incorporating women's development programmes, among which are irrigation and tree planting and also orientation in the area of agriculture, with women constituting a substantial part of the wage-earning labour force for those programmes. I. Women who are the sole supporters of families Paragraph 294 Recent studies have shown that the number of families in which women are the sole supporters is on the increase. Owing to the particular difficulties (social, economic and legal) which they face, many such women are among the poorest people concentrated in urban informal labour markets and they constitute large numbers of the rural unemployed and marginally employed. Those with very little economic, social and moral support face serious difficulties in supporting themselves as well as in bringing up their children alone. This has serious repercussions for society in terms of the quality, character, productivity and human resource capabilities of its present and future citizenry. Paragraph 295 The assumptions that underlie a large part of the relevant legislation, regulations and household surveys that confine the role of supporter and head of household to men hinder women's access to credit, loans and material and non-material resources. Changes are needed in these areas to secure for women equal access to resources. There is a need to eliminate terms such as "head of household" and introduce others that are comprehensive enough to reflect women's role appropriately in legal documents and household surveys to guarantee the rights of these women. In the provision of social services, special attention has to be given to the needs of these women. Governments are urged to ensure that women with sole responsibility for their families receive a level of income and social support sufficient to enable them to attain or maintain economic independence and to participate effectively in society. To this end, the assumptions that underlie policies, including research used in policy development, and legislation that confines the role of supporter or head of household to men should be identified and eliminated. Special attention, such as accessible, quality child care, should be given to assisting those women in discharging their domestic responsibilities and to enabling them to participate in and benefit from education, training programmes and employment. The putative father should be made to assist in the maintenance and education of those children born out of wedlock. J. Women with physical and mental disabilities Paragraph 296 It is generally accepted that women constitute a significant number of the estimated 500 million people who are disabled as a consequence of mental, physical or sensory impairment. Many factors contribute to the rising numbers of disabled persons, including war and other forms of violence, poverty, hunger, nutritional deficiencies, epidemics and work-related accidents. The recognition of their human dignity and human rights and the full participation by disabled persons in society is still limited, and this presents additional problems for women who may have domestic and other responsibilities. It is recommended that Governments should adopt the Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons (1975) and the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons (1982) which provide an overall framework for action and also refer to problems specific to women that have not been fully appreciated by society because they are still not well known or understood. Community-based occupational and social rehabilitation measures, support services to help them with their domestic responsibilities, as well as opportunities for the participation of such women in all aspects of life should be provided. The rights of intellectually disabled women to obtain health information and advice and to consent to or refuse medical treatment should be respected similarly, the rights of intellectually disabled minors should be respected. K. Women in detention and subject to penal law Paragraph 297 One of the major areas of current concern in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice is the need for equal treatment of women by the criminal justice system. In the context of changing socio-economic and cultural conditions some improvements have taken place but more need to be made. The number of women in detention has increased over the Decade and this trend is expected to continue. Women deprived of freedom are exposed to various forms of physical violence, sexual and moral harassment. The conditions of their detention are often below acceptable hygienic standards and their children are deprived of maternal care. The recommendations of the Sixth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, held at Caracas, in 1980, 20/ and the principles of the Caracas Declaration with special reference to the "fair and equal treatment of women", should be taken into account in designing and implementing concrete measures at the national and international levels. The proportions of indigenous women imprisoned in some countries is a matter of concern. L. Refugee and displaced women and children Paragraph 298 The international community recognizes a humanitarian responsibility to protect and assist refugees and displaced persons. In many cases refugee and displaced women are exposed to a variety of difficult situations affecting their physical and legal protection as well as their psychological and material well-being. Problems of physical debility, physical safety, emotional stress and socio-psychological effects of separation or death in the family, as well as changes in women's roles, together with limitations often found in the new environment including lack of adequate food, shelter, health care and social services call for specialized and enlarged assistance. Special attention has to be offered to women with special needs. Furthermore, the potential and capacities of refugee and displaced women should be recognized and enhanced. Paragraph 299 It is recognized that a lasting solution to the problems of refugees and displaced women and children should be sought in the elimination of the root causes of the flow of refugees and durable solutions should be found leading to their voluntary return to their homes in conditions of safety and honour and their full integration in the economic, social and cultural life of their country of origin in the immediate future. Until such solutions are achieved, the international community, in an expression of international solidarity and burden-sharing, should continue providing relief assistance and also launching special relief programmes taking into account the specific needs of refugee women and children in countries of first asylum. Similarly, relief assistance and special relief programmes should also continue to be provided to returnees and displaced women and children. Legal, educational, social, humanitarian and moral assistance should be offered as well as opportunities for their voluntary repatriation, return or resettlement. Steps should also be taken to promote accession by Governments to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and to implement, on a basis of equity for all refugees, provisions contained in this Convention and its 1967 Protocol. M. Migrant women Paragraph 300 The Decade has witnessed the increasing involvement of women in all forms of migration, including rural-rural, rural-urban and international movements of a temporary, seasonal or permanent nature. In addition to their lack of adequate education, skills and resources, migrant women may also face severe adjustment problems due to differences in religion, language, nationality, and socialization as well as separation from their original families. Such problems are often accentuated for international migrants as a result of the openly-expressed prejudices and hostilities, including violation of human rights in host countries. Thus recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action and the Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women pertaining to migrant women should be implemented and expanded in view of the anticipated increase in the scope of the problem. It is also urgent to conclude the elaboration of the draft International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and their Families, as agreed by the General Assembly in the relevant resolutions. Paragraph 301 The situation of migrant women, who are subject to double discrimination as women and as migrants, should be given special attention by the Governments of host countries, particularly with respect to protection and maintenance of family unity, employment opportunities and equal pay, equal conditions of work, health care, benefits to be provided in accordance with the existing social security rights in the host country, and racial and other forms of discrimination. Particular attention should also be given to the second generation of migrant women, especially with regard to education and professional training, to allow them to integrate themselves in their countries of adoption and to work according to their education and skills. In this process, loss of cultural values of their countries of origin should be avoided. N. Minority and "indigenous" women Paragraph 302 Some women are oppressed as a result of belonging to minority groups or populations which have historically been subjected to domination and suffered dispossession and dispersal. These women suffer the full burden of discrimination based on race, colour, descent, ethnic and national origin and the majority experienced serious economic deprivation. As women, they are therefore doubly disadvantaged. Measures should be taken by Governments in countries in which there are minority and indigenous populations to respect, preserve and promote all of their human rights, their dignity, ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic identity and their full participation in societal change. Paragraph 303 Governments should ensure that the fundamental human rights and freedoms as enshrined in relevant international instruments are fully guaranteed also to women belonging to minority groups and indigenous populations. Governments in countries in which there are indigenous and minority populations should ensure respect for the economic, social and cultural rights of these women and assist them in the fulfilment of their family and parental responsibilities. Specific measures should address dietary deficiencies, high levels of infant and maternal mortality and other health problems, lack of education, housing and child care. Vocational, technical, professional and other training should be provided to enable these women to secure employment or to participate in income-generating activities and projects, and to secure adequate wages, occupational health and safety and their other rights as workers. As far as possible, Governments should ensure that these women have access to all services in their own languages. Paragraph 304 Women belonging to minority groups or indigenous populations should be fully consulted and should participate in the development and implementation of programmes affecting them. The Governments of countries where minorities and indigenous populations exist should take proper account of the work of bodies such as the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, in particular its Working Group which is developing a set of international standards to protect the rights of indigenous populations. The General Assembly should consider the advisability of designating an international year of indigenous and traditional cultures in order to promote international understanding and to emphasize the distinctive role of women in sustaining the identity of their people. V. INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL CO-OPERATION A. Obstacles Paragraph 305 Insufficient attention has been devoted during the Decade at the international level and in some regions to the need to advance the status of women in relation to the goals and objectives of the Decade - equality, development and peace. International tensions, arms race, threat of nuclear war, failure to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms and failure to observe the principles of the United Nations Charter as well as global economic recession and other critical situations combined with dissatisfaction due to inadequate progress in multilateral and international co-operation since the Copenhagen World Conference has substantially affected the scope and ability for international and regional co-operation including the role of the United Nations. The progress in the developing world has slackened or in some cases turned negative under conditions of serious indebtedness, economic and monetary instability, resource constraints and unemployment. This has also affected prospects for economic and technical co-operation among developing countries, particularly with regard to women. Nevertheless some progress has been made in terms of achieving equality between women and men, and a greater appreciation of the role of women in development and peace which should also contribute toward effective international co-operation. Paragraph 306 International and regional organizations have been called upon during the Decade to advance the position of their women staff and to extend hiring practices to include qualified women. The results have been highly uneven and in some cases the situation has actually worsened during the Decade in the face of resource constraints and other limiting criteria, such as geographical distribution and attitudinal barriers. In particular, women are absent from the senior management levels, which seriously limits their influence on decision-making. Paragraph 307 In order to institutionalize interorganizational exchanges of information and co-operation in relation to women's advancement, several United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations and regional bodies have designated, in response to pressures applied during the Decade, focal points for women's activities. However, in many cases, insufficient tenure and resources accompanied those actions, thus limiting their long-term effectiveness. Moreover, activities that promote the integration of women in development have often been confined to these focal points and have not been integrated into all organizational planning and programme activities. Progress has also been limited in this area by the inadequate training of many of the staff members of international agencies and organizations with respect to the centrality of women's role in development. Paragraph 308 International and regional co-operation strategies must be formulated on the premise that effective development requires the full integration of women in the development process as both agents and beneficiaries. Development agencies should take full cognizance of women as a development resource. This requires that all international and regional development institutions adopt explicit policies in this regard and put in place the management systems necessary to ensure the effective implementation and evaluation of these policies in the full range of their programmes and activities. Such policies should incorporate the principles endorsed in the Forward-looking Strategies of Implementation for the Advancement of Women. Strong and visible commitment to and interest in integrating women in the development process should be demonstrated by the senior-level management of development agencies. B. Basic strategies Paragraph 309 Effective consultative and reporting arrangements are required to collect information on action taken to implement the Forward-looking Strategies and on successful ways and means used to overcome obstacles. Monitoring and evaluation should, therefore, be carried out at international, regional and subregional levels based on national-level monitoring, including input from non-governmental organizations. Paragraph 310 Technical co-operation, training and advisory services should promote endogenous development and self-reliance with greater emphasis on economic and technical co-operation among developing countries. The special needs of women should be periodically assessed and methods developed to integrate women's concerns into the planning and evaluation of development activities. The participation of women in the formulation of technical co-operation policies and programmes should be ensured. Paragraph 311 International, regional and subregional institutional co-ordination should be strengthened, particularly in relation to the exchange of information on the advancement of women and the establishment of collaborative arrangements to undertake activities with interrelated components. Paragraph 312 Research and policy analysis should focus greater attention on the economic role of women in society, including access to economic resources such as land and capital. Research and policy analysis related to women should be action-oriented without losing sight of key analytical considerations. Further investment in evolving adequate gender-specific data is also required. Paragraph 313 Steps should be taken to increase the participation of women in international, regional and subregional level activities and decision making, including those directly or indirectly concerned with the maintenance of peace and security, the role of women in development and the achievement of equality between women and men. Paragraph 314 Information on progress in achieving the goals of the Decade and on implementing the Forward-looking Strategies should be widely disseminated in the period from 1985 to the year 2000 at international, regional, subregional and national levels, based on experience gained during the Decade. Greater reliance is needed on audio-visual communications and expansion of networks for disseminating information on programmes and activities for women. Discriminatory, stereotyped and degrading images of women must be eliminated in the media. Paragraph 315 On the basis of the results of the review and appraisal in the United Nations system that indicated the need for continued efforts to ensure the recruitment, promotion and retention of women, all United Nations bodies, the regional commissions and the specialized agencies should take all measures necessary to achieve an equitable balance between women and men staff members at managerial and professional levels in all substantive areas, as well as in field posts, with particular attention to promoting equitable regional representation of women. Women should be appointed to decision-making and management posts within the United Nations system in order to increase their participation in activities at the international and regional levels, including such areas as equality, development and peace. Paragraph 316 In view of the difficulties of spouses of United Nations officials in securing employment at the various duty stations, the United Nations is urged to make every possible effort to provide the establishment of educational facilities and day care centres for families of officials in order to facilitate the employment of spouses at these duty stations. C. Measures for the implementation of the basic strategies 1. Monitoring Paragraph 317 The implementation of the goals and objectives of the Decade - equality, development and peace - and of the Forward-looking Strategies should be monitored during the period 1986 to the year 2000. Monitoring at the international level should be based on reviews, at the regional, subregional and national levels, of action taken, resources allocated and progress achieved. The national reviews should take the form of a response to a regular statistical reporting request from the United Nations Secretariat, which should include indicators of the situation of women. The statistical reporting basis should be developed by the Statistical Commission, in consultation with the Commission on the Status of Women. The United Nations Secretariat should compile the results of such monitoring in consultation with the appropriate bodies of Governments, including national machinery established to monitor and improve the status of women. The action taken and progress achieved at the national level should reflect consultation with non-governmental organizations and integration of their concerns at all levels of government planning, implementation and evaluation, as appropriate. Paragraph 318 The specialized agencies and other United Nations organizations, including the regional commissions, should establish monitoring capabilities and procedures to analyze the situation of women in their sectoral or geographical areas, and submit their reports regularly to their respective governing bodies and to the Commission on the Status of Women, which is the main intergovernmental body within the United Nations system concerned with women. Paragraph 319 The Commission on the Status of Women should consider on a regular basis reports on the progress made and concrete measures implemented at national, regional and international levels to advance the status of women in relation to the goals of the Decade - equality, development and peace - and the sub-theme employment health and education - and the strategies and measures to the year 2000. The United Nations system should continue to carry out a comprehensive and critical review of progress achieved in implementing the provisions of the World Plan of Action and of the Programme for the Second Half of the Decade. The central role in carrying out this review and appraisal should be played by the Commission on the Status of Women. The Commission should also monitor progress in the implementation of international standards, codes of conduct, strategies, conventions and covenants as they pertain to women. In view of this important function, high-level expertise and representation on the Commission should be given priority, including officials with substantive policy responsibilities for the advancement of women. Paragraph 320 The preparation of new instruments and strategies such as the overall strategies for international development, should pay specific, appropriate attention to the advancement of women. Intergovernmental bodies of the United Nations system particularly those concerned with the monitoring, review and appraisal of the existing instruments, strategies, plans and programmes that may be of direct or indirect relevance to women, are urged as a matter of priority to develop explicit policies and reviewable plans of action for the integration of women in their regular work programmes. Paragraph 321 The methods and procedures employed for collecting information from Governments, regional commissions, non-governmental organizations and other international organizations and bodies should be streamlined and based on guidelines to be discussed by the Commission on the Status of Women. 2. Technical co-operation, training and advisory strategies Paragraph 322 Measures of technical co-operation, training and advisory services directed towards improving women's status at the international, interregional and regional levels, including co-operation among developing countries, need some impetus. This would require the re-ordering of principles for the allocation of resources as well as targeted financial, material and human resource assistance. Notwithstanding resource constraints, the United Nations should continue the important role of reinforcing these increased benefits for women. Paragraph 323 Technical co-operation should be approached with a new concept that will break the cycle of dependency, emphasize local needs, and use local materials and resources as well as local creativity and expertise and be based on the full integration of women as agents and beneficiaries in all technical co-operation activities. Local associations and mechanisms should be oriented to play a more active role in planning and policy-making. Emphasis should be given to broader access by women to capital for self-help projects, income-generating activities, enterprise development and projects designed to reduce the drudgery in work performed by women. Innovative demonstration projects, particularly with respect to the integration of women in non-traditional sector activities, should be an essential element in technical co-operation activities. Paragraph 324 Agencies which do not have specific guidelines or project procedures relating to women in development interlinked with the other aims of the period up to the year 2000 should ensure that they are developed. Such guidelines and procedures should apply to all aspects of the project cycle. Existing guidelines and procedures have to be applied more vigorously and consistently in particular, each project document should contain a strategy to ensure that the project has a positive impact on the situation of women. Paragraph 325 Substantive staff training is needed to enhance the ability of staff to recognize and deal with the centrality of women's role in development, and adequate resources must be made available for this purpose. Implementation of policies concerning women is the responsibility of the particular organization as a whole. Responsibility is not merely a matter of personal persuasion. Systems should be developed which allocate responsibility and accountability. Paragraph 326 Governments should strengthen and improve their institutional arrangements for technical co-operation so that policy is effectively linked to local-level implementing mechanisms, and should promote sustained, endogenous development. In these efforts Governments may wish to make use of the accumulated experience, activities and resources of the whole United Nations system. Paragraph 327 While technical co-operation should be focused equally on women and men, the incorporation of women's needs and aspirations in the formulation and review of technical co-operation policies and programmes should be ensured and the potential negative effects on women of technical assistance should be minimized. Technical co-operation and women must be linked to overall national development objectives and priorities and technical assistance plans and programmes should be managed so as to ensure the full integration of activities specific to women. As a standard component of technical co-operation policies, women should be full and equal participants in technical co-operation projects and activities. The needs of especially vulnerable and underprivileged groups of women should be addressed in the technical co-operation programmes. Paragraph 328 Participation of non-governmental organizations as a means to enhance the relevance and impact of technical co-operation activities of benefit to women should be encouraged. Paragraph 329 In allocating multilateral and bilateral assistance, agencies, in consultation with recipient Governments, should establish measurable and reviewable plans of action, with goals and time frames. They should also give adequate impetus to sustained and real increases in the flow of resources for technical co-operation activities of benefit to women, including greater mobilization of resources from non-governmental sources and the private sector. Bilateral and multilateral aid agencies should give special consideration to assisting the least developed countries in their efforts to integrate women in development. In this regard, particular attention should be given to projects in the fields of health, education and training, and the creation of employment opportunities for women, especially in rural areas. Paragraph 330 Bilateral and multilateral aid agencies should take a corporate-wide response to the integration of women in development. Bilateral aid agencies' policies for Women in development should involve all parts of donors' organizations and programmes, including participation of multilateral and bilateral programmes, training technical assistance and financial aid. Policies for women in development should be incorporated into all applicable aid and agency procedures relating to sectoral and project levels. Paragraph 331 In order to enable women to define and defend their own interests and needs, the United Nations system and aid agencies should provide assistance for programmes and projects which strengthen women's autonomy, in particular in the integration process. Paragraph 332 International non-governmental organizations, including such organisations as trade unions, should be encouraged to involve women in their day-to-day work and to increase their attention to women's issues. The capacity of non-governmental organizations at all levels to reach women and women's groups should receive greater recognition and support. The potential role of those non-governmental organizations could be fully utilized by international and governmental agencies involved in development co-operation. Paragraph 333 Technical and advisory assistance should be provided by the United Nations system at the national level to improve systematically statistical and other forms of gender-specific indicators and information that can help redirect policy and programmes for the more effective integration of women in development as contributors and beneficiaries. Paragraph 334 Technical co-operation among developing countries should be strengthened in the service of women at all levels and in all sectors of activity, focusing particularly on promoting the exchange of experience, expertise, technology and know-how, as well as on diffusing innovative organizational models suitable for strengthening the self-reliance of women. The urgent need for information flows to facilitate the process of integrating women in development, and the need for relevant, transferable and appropriate information should be a priority of regional co-operation within the framework of technical co-operation among developing countries. Regional co-operation to assist disadvantaged groups of women should also be promoted in this context. ParagraPh 335 Technical assistance should be given by the United Nations system and other international and non-governmental organizations to women involved in the promotion of international peace and co-operation. Paragraph 336 The United Nations system should continue to strengthen training programmes for women, in particular in the least developed countries, through fellowships and other means of assistance, particularly in the fields of economic planning, public affairs and public administration, business management and accounting, and farming and labour relations, and in scientific, engineering and technical fields. It is necessary to support and expand technical and economic activities for women by means of collaboration with international development assistance agencies. In this respect, the United Nations Development Fund for Women is particularly recognized for its innovative contribution in the area of development and technical assistance for disadvantaged women, and its continuation and expansion beyond the Decade is considered of vital importance to the development needs of women. Paragraph 337 The participation of women in technical assistance monitoring, planning, programming evaluation and follow-up missions should be promoted, and guidelines should be developed and applied to assess the relevance and impact of development assistance projects on women. The United Nations funding agencies, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Food Programme, as well as the World Bank, should ensure that women benefit from and participate in all projects and programmes funded by them. 3. Institutional co-ordination Paragraph 338 System-wide co-ordination of work on issues relating to women needs to be strengthened. The economic and Social Council should be encouraged to play a more forceful and dynamic role in reviewing and co-ordinating all relevant United Nations activities in the field of women's issues. Regular consultations between United Nations agencies and organizations should be institutionalized in conjunction with meetings of the Commission on the Status of Women in order to exchange information on programme activities and co-ordinate future planning and programming with a view to ensuring adequate resource-allocation that would facilitate action and limit the unnecessary duplication of activities. Paragraph 339 Future medium-term plans of the United Nations and the specialized agencies should contain intersectoral presentations of the various programmes dealing with issues of concern to women. In order to achieve greater coherence and efficiency of the policies and programmes of the United Nations system related to women and development, the Secretary-General, in his capacity as Chairman of the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination and in conformity with Economic and Social Council resolution 1985/46 of 31 May 1985, should take the initiative in formulating a system-wide medium-term plan for women and development. Paragraph 340 The Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, in particular the Branch for the Advancement of Women, should continue to serve as the focal point for co-ordination of, consultation on, promotion of and advice on matters relevant to women in the United Nations system and to co-ordinate information on system-wide activities related to the future implementation of the goals and objectives of the Decade and the Forward-looking Strategies. In this context, the United Nations system should explore ways and means of developing further collaboration between its organizations including the regional commissions, the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women and the United Nations Development Fund for women, in particular in connection with the holding of United Nations world conferences on women on a regular basis, if necessary, for example every five years. It is recommended that at least one world conference be held during the period between 1985 and the year 2000, taking into account that the General Assembly will take the decision on the holding of the conference in each case within existing financial resources. Paragraph 341 Existing sectoral inter-agency task forces in the United Nations system should always include issues related to the advancement of women in their agenda. Paragraph 342 Inter-agency co-ordination should be complemented where possible by networking, particularly in the fields of information, research, training and programme development, in order to facilitate the availability of data and information in these fields and the exchange of experience with national machinery. Paragraph 343 Resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly, of governing bodies of the specialized agencies and of other organizations which promote the improvement of the status of women should be implemented. All institutions within the United Nations system that have not yet established special internal arrangements and procedures with respect to women's policies are urged to take the necessary measures to do so. Paragraph 344 International machineries that promote and support education for peace should co-ordinate their efforts and include the role of women in promoting peace in their curricula. Particular attention should be paid to the Declaration on the Participation of Women in Promoting International Peace and Co-operation adopted by the General Assembly in 1982. The University for Peace should play a leading role in this regard. 4. Research and policy analysis Paragraph 345 Institutes of women's affairs at the regional level should be strengthened or, where they do not exist, their establishment should be considered for the promotion of regional collaboration in undertaking research and analyses on emerging women's issues in order to facilitate and promote regional and international co-operation and understanding in this field. Paragraph 346 Measures should be taken by the United Nations system to strengthen the capabilities of the United Nations Secretariat to provide assistance to Governments and other international organizations and bodies concerned with integrating women in policy formulation and in assessing the impact of development policies on women. The Branch for the Advancement of Women should act as the focal point for co-ordinating the exchange of information, providing advice on matters related to the advancement of women and monitoring and evaluating the progress of other bodies in that connection. The United Nations should develop guidelines for this purpose based on comparative analyses of experience world wide. Paragraph 347 Guidelines should also be developed by the United Nations for action to remove gender-specific discriminatory perceptions, attitudes and behaviour based on models of successful initiatives. Paragraph 348 The United Nations system should undertake research and prepare guidelines, case studies and practical approaches on integrating women on an equal basis with men into political life. Training programmes for and consultations between women already engaged in political life should be organized. Paragraph 349 Research should be carried out and a report prepared by the United Nations, in consultation with other organizations and specialized agencies and in co-operation with Governments, on establishing effective institutional arrangements at the national level for the formulation of policies on women, including guidelines and summaries of national case studies. Paragraph 350 United Nations agencies and, in particular, the Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, as part of its regular programme of work, should undertake in-depth research on the positive and negative effects of legislative change, the persistence of de facto discrimination and conflicts between customary and statutory laws. In carrying out this research, full use should be made of the work of the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Paragraph 351 In the context of the Third United Nations Development Decade and any subsequent decade, the implications for women of international decisions especially pertaining to international trade and finance, agriculture and technology transfer should be assessed by the United Nations system in consultation with the appropriate international organizations, bodies and research institutes, including the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women and any others established by the United Nations University. The lack of reliable data prevents the assessment of relative improvements in women's status in the various sectors. It is therefore essential that the Statistical Commission, the Commission on the Status of Women and the International Research and Training Institute for the advancement of Women should co-operate at the institutional level in the collection, analysis, utilization and dissemination of statistical data on the question of women. The data base on women's role in national, regional and international economic activities should be further developed by the United Nations in co-operation with Governments, specialized agencies and the regional commissions of the United Nations system. Paragraph 352 The United Nations regional commissions, with a view to integrating women's concerns at all levels in each commission's overall programme of work, should undertake further research on the status of women in their regions to the year 2000 by developing the necessary data base and indicators and by drawing upon inputs from the national and local levels, including perspectives on and by women at the grass-roots level. To this end, the regional commissions should include in their annual reports an analysis of chances in the situation of women in their regions. Paragraph 353 It is also necessary to strengthen the activities of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women which performs an important role in the field of research, training, information and communication, and to request States and appropriate organizations, in particular, the organizations of the United Nations system, to continue to collaborate with the Institute in its work for the improvement of the status of women. The Institute should continue its work in appraising and evaluating what has been done by Governments and the United Nations system in promoting the status of women and it should be given increased voluntary financial support. Paragraph 354 The United Nations should incorporate within its activities related to the World Disarmament Campaign the preparation of a study on the specific consequences of the army race and modern warfare for women in general, especially aged or pregnant women and young children. Such a study should be given wide publicity in order to mobilize researchers, politicians and non-governmental organizations, as well as women themselves, for the promotion of disarmament. Paragraph 355 The United Nations system and other intergovernmental, governmental and non-governmental organizations should encourage women, women's organizations and all the appropriate governmental bodies from different countries to discuss and study various aspects of promoting peace and other related issues in order to increase knowledge, facilitate understanding and develop friendly relations between countries and peoples. Exchange visits among women from different countries, and meetings and seminars in which women participate fully should be organized at regional and international levels. 5. Participation of women in activities at the international and regional levels and in decision-making Paragraph 356 The United Nations system should take all necessary measures to achieve an equitable balance between women and men staff members at managerial and professional levels in all substantive areas, as well as in field posts. Regular reporting to the General Assembly, the governing bodies of the specialized agencies, the regional commissions and the Commission on the Status of Women on the establishment and implementation of targets for the equal representation of women in professional posts should be continued. Paragraph 357 Women and women's organizations from different countries should be encouraged to discuss and study various aspects of Promoting Peace and development issues in order to increase knowledge, facilitate understanding and develop friendly relations between countries and peoples. Exchange visits of women from different countries and meetings with full participation by women should be encouraged. Paragraph 358 In order to ensure that programmes and activities of concern to women are given the necessary attention and priority, it is essential that women should participate actively in the planning and formulation of policies and programmes and in decision-making and appraisal Processes in the United Nations. To this end, international, regional and national organizations have been called upon during the Decade to advance the status of their female staff and to increase the number of women recruited. In the absence of overall targets and effective mechanisms for their achievement, however, greater efforts are needed to ensure the recruitment, promotion and career development of women. All bodies and organizations of the United Nations system should therefore take all possible measures to achieve the participation of women on equal terms with men at all levels by the year 2000. To achieve this goal, the secretariats of the United Nations and all the organizations and bodies within the system should take special measures, such as the preparation of a comprehensive affirmative action plan including provisions for setting intermediate targets and for establishing and supporting special mechanisms - for example, co-ordinators - to improve the status of women staff. Progress made to implement those measures should be reported to the General Assembly, the economic and Social Council and the Commission on the Status of Women on a regular basis. Paragraph 359 Women should be assured of the opportunity to participate in international, regional and subregional meetings and seminars, including those organized by the United Nations system, particularly those related to equality, development and peace, including peace education, and those directed to promoting the role of women in development through research activities, seminars and conferences to exchange experience and expertise. Similarly, women Parliamentarians should always be included in delegations to inter-parliamentary meetings organized by the Inter-Parliamentary Union and regional inter-parliamentary organizations. Paragraph 360 The participation of women in promoting peace and in the struggle against the obstacles to peace at the international level should be encouraged. Networking of women at high decision-making levels related to peace and disarmament, including women leaders, peace researchers and educators, should also be encouraged in connection with United Nations system activities such as the International Year of Peace (1986). "Women and peace" should be a separate item in the programme for that Year. Paragraph 361 In order to provide a firm basis for the integration of issues of concern to women in the overall development process, a greater effort is needed to define such issues and to develop useful models for action in socio-cultural, economic and political contexts. Work in this area can be undertaken in the national and regional research institutions, as well as in the United Nations and other international agencies. In this context, attention should also be given to increasing the planning capabilities of women. Paragraph 362 Special efforts should be made at both the national and regional levels to ensure that women have equal access to all aspects of modern science and technology, particularly in educational systems. The use of science and technology can be a powerful instrument for the advancement of women. Special research to evolve appropriate technology for rural women should be carried out, and existing and new technology should be disseminated as widely as possible. The co-ordination of such activities in the regions should be the responsibility of the regional commissions, in co-operation with other intergovernmental bodies and agencies that deal with the status of women and technology. Paragraph 363 Governments and non-governmental organizations should organize regular training programmes that are aimed at improving the status of women workers and widening women's access to and improving their performance in managerial position in the sectors of employment or self-employment. In this connection, the United Nations is urged to support programmes on network and exchange of expertise in vocational training being carried out by regional and subregional organizations. Paragraph 364 Regional and subregional groups have an important role to play in strengthening the roles of women in development. Existing regional and subregional information systems on women should be reinforced. A stronger data and research base on women should be developed in the developing countries and in the regional commissions, in collaboration with the appropriate specialized agencies, and the sharing of information and research data should be encouraged. Information systems at the national level should be strengthened or, where they do not exist, should be established. Paragraph 365 International, regional, subregional and national organizations should be strengthened through the injection of additional human and financial resources and through the placement of more women at policy- and decision-making levels. 6 Information dissemination Paragraph 366 International programmes should be designed and resources allocated to support national campaigns to improve public consciousness of the need for equality between women and men and for eliminating discriminatory practices. Special attention should be given to information about the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Paragraph 367 Studies must be carried out by the United Nations system on sex stereotyping in advertising and in the mass media, especially degrading images of women in articles and programmes disseminated world wide. Steps should be taken to promote the elimination or reduction of sex stereotyping in the media. Paragraph 368 In order to promote peace, social justice and the advancement of women, wide publicity should be given by the United Nations to legal instruments and the United Nations resolutions and reports relating to women and the objectives of the Decade, that is, equality, development and peace. The mass media, including United Nations radio and television, should disseminate information on the role of women in achieving these objectives, particularly in promoting co-operation and understanding among peoples and the maintenance of international peace and security. Cultural mechanisms of communication should also be used to disseminate the importance of the concepts of peace and international understanding for the advancement of women. Paragraph 369 It is essential that women be trained in the use of audio-visual forms of information dissemination, including visual display units and computers, and participate more actively in developing programmes on the advancement of women and for women at the international, regional, subregional and national levels. Paragraph 370 The present United Nations weekly radio programme and co-production of films on women should be continued with adequate provision for distributing them in different languages. Paragraph 371 The Joint United Nations Information Committee should continue to include women's issues in its programmes of social and economic information. Adequate resources should be made available for these activities. Paragraph 372 Governments and the organizations of the United Nations system, including the regional commissions and the specialized agencies, are urged to give the Forward-looking Strategies the widest publicity possible and to ensure that their content is translated and disseminated in order to make authorities and the public in general, especially women's grass-root organizations, aware of the objectives of this document and of the recommendations contained therein. Notes 1/ Report of the World Conference of the International Women's Year, Mexico City, 19 June-2 July 1975 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.76.IV.1), chap. I, sect. A. 2/ Report of the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, 24-30 July 1980 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.80.IV.3), chap. I, sect. A. 3/ General Assembly resolution 227 A (III). 4/ General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex. 5/ Ibid. 6/ General Assembly resolution 34/180, annex. 7/ General Assembly resolution 37/63, annex. 7a/ The Holy See delegation reserved its position with respect to paragraph 29 because it had not joined in the consensus at the International Conference on Population (Mexico City, 1984) and did not agree with the substance of paragraph 29. 8/ Report of the International Conference on Population, 1984, Mexico City, 6-14 August 1984 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.84.XIII.8), chap. I, sect. A, para. 1. 8a/ Reservations to paragraph 35 were formulated by Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Federal Republic of, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and United States of America. The United States reserved its position on the reference in paragraph 35 to the Declaration of Mexico on the Equality of Women and their Contribution to Development and Peace, 1975. 9/ Report of the World Conference of the International Women's Year ..., chap. I. 10/ Report of the Commission on the Status of Women acting as the Preparatory Body for the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace on its second session (A/CONF.116/PC/l9), chap. I, draft decision I, para. 2 (h). 10a/ The United States reserved its position on paragraph 44 because it did not agree that the obstacles listed should be considered the main reasons for the inequality of women in most countries. 10b/ The United States reserved its position on paragraphs 69, 72 and 137 specifically because it did not agree with the concept of "equal pay for work of equal value~ and maintained the principle of "equal pay for equal work". 10c/ The United States abstained in the vote on paragraph 94 because of unacceptable language relating to economic measures by developed countries against developing States. 10d/ The United States reserved its position on paragraph 95 because it did not agree with the listing of those obstacles categorized as being major impediments to the advancement of women. 10e/ The United States requested a vote on paragraph 98 and voted against the paragraph. 10f/ The United States reserved its position on paragraph 100 because it did not accept the underlying philosophy of the paragraph as it concerned the economic situation in debtor and developing countries. 10g/ The Holy See delegation reserved its position with respect to paragraphs 156 to 159 because it did not agree with the substance of those paragraphs. 11/ Report of the United Nations World Population Conference, 1974, Bucharest, 19-30 August 1974 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.75.XIII.3), chap. I. 11a/ The Holy See delegation reserved its position with respect to paragraphs 156 to 159 because it did not agree with the substance of those paragraphs. 12/ Report of the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, Rome, 12-20 July 1979 (WCARRD/REP) (Rose, FAO, 1979), Program of Action, sect. IV. 12a/ The General Assembly adopted guidelines for consumer protection in resolution 39/248 of 9 April 1985. 12b/ The United States voted against paragraph 259 because of its opposition to the references in the eighth and ninth subparagraphs to the imposition of sanctions and aid to liberation movements. 13/ General Assembly resolution 36/71. 14/ Report of the World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, Geneva, 14-25 August 1978 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.79.XIV.2), chap. II. 15/ General Assembly resolution 3086 (XXVIII). 15a/ The United States voted against this paragraph because of its strong objection to the introduction of tendentious and unnecessary elements into the Forward-looking Strategies document which have only a nominal connection with the unique concerns of women. 16/ Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949 (United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, No. 973, p. 287). 17/ Report of the International Conference on the Question of Palestine, Geneva, 29 August-7 September 1983 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.83.I.21), chap. I, sect. B. 18/ General Assembly resolution 37/16. 19/ Report of the World Assembly on Aging, Vienna, 26 July-6 August 1982 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.82.I.16), chap. VI, sect. A. 20/ See United Nations publication, Sales No. E.81.IV.4. -----
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