United Nations

A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.16


General Assembly

Distr. LIMITED  

4 May 1994

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Agenda item 9 (b)

 CONSIDERATION OF PLANS AND PROGRAMMES TO SUPPORT THE SUSTAINABLE
 DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES AND THE UTILIZATION
 OF THEIR MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES, WHICH INCLUDES MEETING
 ESSENTIAL HUMAN NEEDS, MAINTAINING BIODIVERSITY, AND IMPROVING
 THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR ISLAND PEOPLE, AS WELL AS MEASURES THAT
 WILL ENABLE SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES TO COPE EFFECTIVELY,
 CREATIVELY AND IN A SUSTAINABLE MANNER WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES
 AND TO MITIGATE THE IMPACTS ON AND REDUCE THE THREATS POSED TO
 MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES: CONSIDERATION OF THE DRAFT
 PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL
ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES

Report of the Main Committee

Rapporteur: Mr. Takao SHIBATA (Japan)

Addendum

Chapter XV

Implementation, monitoring and review

1.The Main Committee held a number of informal meetings on chapter 
XV of the draft programme of action (A/CONF.167/L.1) and considered 
it at its ... meeting, on ... May.

2.At the same meeting, the Committee decided that chapter XV should 
read as follows:

"XV. IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND REVIEW

"Effective implementation, monitoring and review of the programme 
of action is essential for the sustainable development of 
small island developing States. The programme of action is an 
opportunity for the international community to demonstrate its commitment to the means 
of implementation adopted in Agenda 21. Since small island 
developing States are among the most environmentally 
vulnerable, the United Nations system and the international 
community, in line with Principle 6 of the Rio Declaration and 
on the basis of chapter 17G of Agenda 21, shall give special 
priority to the situations and the needs of small island 
developing States in the implementation of the programme of 
action. That will require, in particular, adequate resources 
for implementation and actions at the national, regional and 
international levels.

"The implementation of the programme of action shall be consistent 
with a number of parallel international processes important to 
the sustainable development of small island developing States, 
which contain relevant provisions. Those processes include the 
Commission on Sustainable Development; the Intergovernmental 
Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate 
Change; the Convention on Biological Diversity; the United 
Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly 
Migratory Fish Stocks; the United Nations Convention on the 
Law of the Sea; the International Conference on Population and 
Development; the Intergovernmental Negotiations on Land-Based 
Sources of Marine Pollution of the United Nations Environment 
Programme; the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the 
Elaboration of a Convention to Combat Desertification in those 
Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, 
particularly in Africa (INCD); the World Coast Conference; the 
Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the 
Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes within 
Africa; the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary 
Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; the 
Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and 
Environment of the South Pacific Region, and other relevant 
international instruments for the control of transboundary 
movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal; the 
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of 
Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); the Convention on Wetlands of 
International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat; the 
Fourth World Conference on Women; the World Summit for Social 
Development; and the World Conference on Natural Disaster 
Reduction. Support for the participation of small island 
developing States in those processes will be important and 
those processes will need to reflect the outcome of the Global 
Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island 
Developing States. As small island developing States develop 
their approaches for sustainable development, the 
international community should pursue actions that will 
improve the capacity of small islands to address a number of 
specific issues, making the most efficient use possible of 
opportunities in other international forums to ensure an 
integrated and comprehensive approach.

"As recognized in Agenda 21, Governments will be primarily 
responsible for the implementation of the programme of action. 
The sustainable development of small island developing States 
will require the development of national and regional 
strategies, plans, policies and processes. International 
cooperation will be essential to support and complement such 
efforts. The United Nations system has a key role to play in 
close cooperation and coordination with other international, 
regional and subregional organizations, which are called upon 
to contribute in large measure to that effort. For small 
island developing States, regional and subregional efforts 
have proved successful and will remain the principal 
instruments for collective action. Consistent with Agenda 21, 
it will also require the engagement and active participation 
of major groups, including women, children and youth, 
indigenous people and their communities, non-governmental 
organizations, local authorities, workers and their trade 
unions, business and industry, the scientific and 
technological community, and farmers.

"A. National implementation

"Small island developing States have begun to implement Agenda 21. 
In many cases, national strategies have been or are being 
developed as a basis for action. Further progress is required 
to ensure that environmental considerations are given 
appropriate significance, in particular at central levels of 
decision-making, and that there is full integration of 
environmental and developmental considerations at both micro- 
and macro-levels respecting domestic, environmental and 
cultural values. Considerable emphasis has been placed on 
building endogenous capacity throughout the programme of 
action, which will require considerable effort to implement.

"Progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and the decisions of 
the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small 
Island Developing States will depend ultimately on the 
resources small island developing States can mobilize from 
internal and external sources to meet the great challenges of 
sustainable development in general and capacity-building in 
particular.

"Critical to the effective implementation of the objectives, 
policies and mechanisms agreed to by Governments in all 
programme areas of Agenda 21 will be the commitment and 
genuine involvement of all social groups. New participatory 
approaches to policy-making and implementation of sustainable 
development programmes will be necessary at all levels. In 
that regard, there is a special role for groups that include 
women, youth, senior, indigenous and local communities as well 
as the private sector, labour and non-governmental 
organizations. As stated in Agenda 21, one of the fundamental 
prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development 
is broad public participation in decision-making.

"Some of the important actions necessary at the national level are 
described below.

"1. Finance

"The implementation of the programme of action will require 
adequate resources to reflect the increased significance 
attached to sustainable development considerations in national 
development planning. Environment and development strategies 
will also need to be integrated at the outset of 
decision-making processes, so as to ensure that macroeconomic 
policies are supportive of national sustainable development 
goals and priorities. In that regard, while in general the 
financing for the implementation of the programme of action at 
the national level will come from the public and private 
sectors of small island developing States, various financing 
channels, including those referred to in chapter 33 of Agenda 
21, need to be explored in line with the specific 
circumstances of small island developing States.

"In addition, resources at the national level should be further 
increased to meet the sustainable development goals and 
priorities articulated in light of this programme of action, 
by optimizing the impact of available resources and by 
exploring increased use of economic instruments, the promotion 
of private sector investment, and the use of innovative 
financial mechanisms with a view to achieving an appropriate 
mix between traditional regulation and market-based 
mechanisms. A move towards increased use of economic 
instruments could be regarded as an important indirect 
complementary mechanism for the financing of sustainable 
development at the national level.

"Among possible innovative financial mechanisms, small-scale grants 
and micro-enterprise loans for sustainable development 
activities at the community level should be explored.

"For small island developing States, in particular the least 
developed amongst them, ODA is a major source of external 
funding. To maximize the benefits and impact of that financial 
and technical assistance, operational mechanisms should be 
reviewed and/or developed to ensure the fullest possible 
coordination among donors, small island developing States and 
relevant international and non-governmental organizations, 
taking into account local and community concerns.

"2. Trade

"In order to achieve greater and more stable export earnings, small 
island developing States should seek to develop a more 
diversified production structure for goods and services that 
exploits existing or potential comparative advantages and is 
consistent with environment and development policies which are 
mutually supportive.

"3. Technology

"Encourage measures enhancing the capacity for the development of 
indigenous technology, including the capacity to manage, 
assess, acquire, disseminate and develop technologies and the 
utilization of appropriate and environmentally sound 
technologies, while adequately and effectively protecting 
intellectual property rights. Ensure, subject to national 
legislation and policies, that technology, knowledge and 
customary and traditional practices of local and indigenous 
people, including resource owners and custodians, are 
adequately and effectively protected and that they thereby 
benefit directly, on an equitable basis and on mutually agreed 
terms, from any utilization of such technologies, knowledge 
and practices or from any technological development directly 
derived therefrom.

"4. Legislation

"Develop new legislation and revise existing legislation, where 
appropriate, to support sustainable development, incorporating 
customary and traditional legal principles where appropriate, 
backed up with training and adequate resources for 
enforcement.

"5. Institutional development

"Appropriate national measures for institutional development should 
be taken to integrate environmental, population and 
development strategies in national and sectoral development 
planning in order to achieve sustainable development.

"6. Information and participation

"Increase awareness and involvement of non-governmental 
organizations, women, local communities, and other major 
groups in national planning, the development of 
environmentally sound and sustainable technologies and the 
implementation of sustainable development programmes. That 
should include the establishment or strengthening of networks 
for the dissemination of information to assist effective 
participation in the planning and implementation of 
sustainable development activities.

"7. Human resource development

"Increase national capacity-building at all levels through public 
awareness and human resource development, including education, 
training and skill development, in particular, of technicians, 
scientists and decision makers, to better plan and implement 
sustainable development programmes.

"B. Regional implementation

"In addition to ongoing programmes for the sustainable development 
of small island developing States, and recognizing the need to 
implement all activities within this action programme, a 
number of important programmes and measures are necessary at 
the regional level to support national priorities, as 
described below.

"1. Finance

"Coordinated approaches should be developed to the extent possible, 
using the mechanisms for consultations referred to in 
paragraph __ of section D, as appropriate, to mobilize 
financial resources for national and regional efforts to 
implement sustainable development, including improving access 
to financial resources, continuing the encouragement of 
private investment and identifying opportunities for 
introducing innovative financial mechanisms.

"Regional development banks and other regional and subregional 
organizations should also be encouraged to increase their 
technical and, as appropriate, financial assistance in support 
of sustainable development in small island developing States 
at the community, national and subregional levels, including, 
inter alia, through mechanisms that can provide small-scale 
grants and micro-enterprise loans.

"2. Technology

"Encourage the cooperative development and sharing of appropriate 
technology through the regional organizations, 
centres/networks for the sustainable development of small 
island developing States.

"3. Legislation

"Support national efforts to develop comprehensive legislation in 
support of sustainable development, and to ratify and 
implement international conventions. Support legal training 
and training manuals in areas of environmental impact 
assessment, cultural heritage, pollution, civil enforcement, 
mediation and prosecution, and encourage, where appropriate, 
the harmonization of environmental legislation and policies 
within and between small island developing States in order to 
ensure high levels of environmental protection.

"4. Institutional development

"Support national efforts to implement effective institutional 
models, at all levels, for integrating environmental and 
population considerations within development and sectoral 
planning, including the development and implementation of 
appropriate approaches to integrated coastal zone management.

"5. Human resource development

"Promote and support national efforts at capacity-building through 
human resource development, particularly through increased 
training at all levels, in particular, of technicians, 
scientists and decision makers, to cope with all aspects of 
planning and implementing programmes for sustainable 
development.

"C. International implementation

"The programme of action is part of the process of the 
implementation of Agenda 21, in particular, chapter 17G.

"1. Finance

"The implementation of the programme of action will require the 
provision of effective means, including adequate, predictable, 
new and additional financial resources in accordance with 
chapter 33 of Agenda 21 to reflect the increased significance 
attached to sustainable development considerations in small 
island developing States. The international community should 
supplement national efforts on the part of small island 
developing States for the implementation of Agenda 21 and the 
programme of action through mechanisms to maximize access to 
concessional financial and technical assistance, and should 
grant assistance at the levels necessary to support their 
sustainable development efforts.

"To that end, it is essential to honour all financial commitments 
contained in Agenda 21, taking into account, inter alia, 
Principle 6 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and 
Development. In particular, there is a need to activate the 
commitment made at UNCED to maximize the availability of 
adequate, predictable, new and additional resources using all 
available funding sources and mechanisms, as laid down in 
chapter 33 of Agenda 21. In that respect, there is a need to 
ensure better and more efficient use of ODA and other existing 
external sources of finance. In addition, the use of 
innovative financing mechanisms, taking into account the 
objectives and provisions of chapter 33 of Agenda 21, should 
be explored. Furthermore, there is a need to coordinate the 
efforts of donors and recipients.

"The international community should provide to small island 
developing States concessional financial and technical 
assistance, and should grant assistance at the levels 
necessary to support their sustainable development. 
International financial and technical assistance should take 
account of the specific development needs and priorities, at 
the national and regional levels, of small island developing 
States, as outlined in the programme of action; of their 
sustainable development potential; and of the prospects for 
increasing the contributions of small island developing States 
to global sustainability. The concessional assistance provided 
to small island developing States, both multilaterally and 
bilaterally, should be targeted where it is most needed and 
should be consistent with their sustainable development 
objectives and priorities.

"Since global environmental problems, particularly with respect to 
climate change, biological diversity and international waters, 
are of great significance and concern to small island 
developing States, the restructured GEF should be seen as an 
important channel of assistance in those areas, through the 
provision of new and additional resources. In the 
determination of eligibility criteria related to funding, and 
in the development of project proposals for funding, GEF 
should pay due attention to the special needs and requirements 
of small island developing States.

"The international community should seek to ensure that 
international institutions, including financial institutions, 
pay appropriate attention to the needs and priorities of small 
island developing States identified in the programme of 
action. In that regard, UNDP's Capacity 21 programme is 
particularly applicable. The international community should 
also support, as appropriate, increased access to credit, 
including the facilitation of micro-enterprise loans and the 
establishment of environmental trust funds, and should promote 
foreign direct investment, joint ventures and other private 
sector initiatives in accordance with national laws. In that 
context, a supportive international and domestic economic 
climate conducive to sustained economic growth and development 
is important in order to achieve sustainability.

"2. Trade

"In order to achieve sustained economic growth and sustainable 
development, small island developing States need to develop 
overseas markets for value-added exports in areas in which 
they are internationally competitive. In addition, many small 
island developing States are dependent on the international 
commodity markets for a major proportion of their export 
receipts. Poor market access and reliance on a single 
commodity are among problems faced by many small island 
developing States. The need for a supportive international 
economic climate and an open and non-discriminatory trading 
system is essential, as demonstrated by the conclusion of the 
Uruguay Round, to the sustained economic growth and 
sustainable development of the small island developing States. 
Trade liberalization, with a view to enhancing the access to 
markets for the exports of small island developing States is 
particularly important.

"Given their limited possibilities of generating local value-added, 
deriving from their small market size, narrow resources base 
and limited production of inputs, special efforts are needed 
to assist small island developing States to increase their 
production and exports. Towards that objective, special 
consideration should be given, where appropriate, to the local 
value-added criteria applicable to the exports of small island 
developing States.

"The international community should seek to develop better 
functioning and transparent international commodity markets. 
The international community should also assist small island 
developing States in their efforts to achieve greater 
diversification of commodity sectors within a macroeconomic 
framework that takes into account a country's economic 
structure, resource endowments and market opportunities and 
also environmental considerations. In that connection, the 
fulfillment of measures designed under paragraph 2.16 of 
Agenda 21 is relevant to the sustainable development of small 
island developing States.

"Taking into account the relevant work of international economic 
and trade organizations, a study should be undertaken on the 
effects of trade liberalization and globalization on the 
sustainable development of small island developing States, 
including relevant recommendations.

 "3. Transfer of environmentally sound technologies,
  cooperation and capacity-building

"The transfer of environmentally sound technologies, cooperation 
and capacity-building, technical cooperation among developing 
countries, including among small island developing States, and 
the development and use of indigenous technology constitute a 
crucial process for achieving sustainable development in small 
island developing States. In particular, the promotion of and 
access to environmentally sound technologies is a key 
requirement for enhancing the endogenous capacity of small 
island developing States.

"In the context of small island developing States, there is a 
particular need to focus on disseminating information 
regarding available technology; improving the endogenous 
capacity of small island developing States to absorb, manage 
and utilize environmentally sound technologies through, 
inter alia, education and training; promoting, facilitating 
and financing access to and the transfer of environmentally 
sound technologies and corresponding know-how, in particular 
to developing countries, on favourable terms, including on 
concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, 
ensuring the need to adequately and effectively protect 
intellectual property rights as well as taking into account 
the special needs of developing countries; and ensuring, as 
appropriate, the need to adequately and effectively protect 
the technology, knowledge and customary and traditional 
practices of local and indigenous people, including resource 
owners and custodians.

"The fulfillment by Governments and the international organizations 
of measures described in paragraph 34.18 of Agenda 21 is also 
of critical importance to small island developing States.

"(a) Information

"The use of the existing, as well as the establishment of, 
collaborative networks of subregional and regional research 
and information systems, in particular mechanisms to 
facilitate access by small island developing States to 
information, should be supported.

"Information on environmental emergencies that may result from poor 
or inappropriate application of technologies and early warning 
information aimed at preventing natural and environmental 
disasters should be disseminated.

"UNDP should be invited to coordinate a feasibility study in 
collaboration with the small island developing States and 
relevant subregional organizations for the implementation of a 
small island developing States information network (SIDS/NET). 
Such a study should be completed before the commencement of 
the forty-ninth session of the United Nations General 
Assembly.

"To develop a small island developing States technical assistance 
programme (SIDS/TAP) to promote inter- and intraregional 
cooperation on sustainable development, UNDP should be invited 
to coordinate a feasibility study in collaboration with small 
island developing States and relevant subregional 
organizations. An integral component of SIDS/TAP should be the 
compilation of a directory of institutions and scholars with 
recognized expertise in the sustainable development of small 
island developing States. The study and the initial 
compilation of the directory should be completed before the 
commencement of the forty-ninth session of the United Nations 
General Assembly.

"To support small island developing States identify and develop 
facilities for eco-tourism, nature and cultural tourism, as 
identified in chapter VIII A (iii) and C (i) and consistent 
with current approaches to conserve biological diversity in 
small island developing States, relevant international 
organizations, in particular the International Union for the 
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 
should, in close collaboration with small island developing 
States and through their relevant regional organizations, 
facilitate the listing of areas within small island developing 
States for listing under natural and cultural provisions of 
the World Heritage Convention. Those areas, and other 
conserved using community-based, participatory approaches, 
would form the basis of small island developing 
States/Heritage - a comprehensive network/trail of sites of 
natural and cultural significance throughout small island 
developing States.

"(b) Capacity-building

"The national capacities of small island developing States to 
assess, manage, absorb and utilize new technologies should be 
strengthened. In that context, the existing administrative 
infrastructure would have to be strengthened so as to train 
personnel at all levels and educate the end-users of those 
technologies. The process should include training and skills 
development, especially for women, youth and indigenous 
peoples.

"Small island developing States should cooperate among themselves 
and with other developing countries that are in a position to 
do so with a view to developing and improving environmentally 
sound technologies. The international community should extend 
its full support to initiatives aimed at promoting technology 
cooperation and capacity-building among small island 
developing States and other developing countries.

"The Commission on Sustainable Development plays an important role 
in monitoring and focusing on proposals for mechanisms to 
promote the transfer, use and dissemination of environmentally 
sound technologies that should be explored in the 
implementation of the programme of action.

"(c) Finance

"Bilateral and multilateral donors should strive to increase their 
financial support at the national, regional and international 
levels for activities that are designed to promote and 
facilitate the transfer of environmentally sound technologies 
and capacity-building to small island developing States.

"4. Legislation and training

"International environmental law is an increasingly complex subject 
that requires careful analysis with respect to its 
applicability to, and integration with, national law. Regional 
and international programmes to enhance the capacity of small 
island developing States to develop and implement appropriate 
national environmental legislation are very important. That 
should include support for small island developing States:

"(a)For training, including in all aspects of environmental law 
and, where applicable, customary law;

"(b)To strengthen their capacity to participate effectively in the 
negotiation of new or revised agreements or instruments;

"(c)In national efforts to implement international agreements or 
instruments.

"5. Vulnerability index

"Small island developing States, in cooperation with national, 
regional and international organizations and research centres, 
should continue work on the development of vulnerability 
indices and other indicators that reflect the status of small 
island developing States and integrate ecological fragility 
and economic vulnerability. Consideration should be given to 
how such an index, and relevant studies undertaken on small 
island developing States by other international institutions, 
might be used in addition to other statistical measures as 
quantitative indicators of fragility.

"Appropriate expertise should continue to be utilized in the 
development, compilation and updating of the vulnerability 
index. Such expertise could include scholars and 
representatives of international organizations that have at 
their disposal the data required to compile the vulnerability 
index. Relevant international organizations are invited to 
contribute to the development of the index. In addition, it is 
recommended that the work currently under way in the United 
Nations system on the elaboration of sustainable development 
indicators should take into account proposals on the 
vulnerability index.

"D. Institutional arrangements, monitoring and review

"Existing international funding sources and mechanisms should 
ensure that available financial resources, including new and 
additional financial resources, are effectively applied to 
address the specific needs and concerns of small island 
developing States identified in the programme of action.

"Donors should utilize appropriate international coordination 
mechanisms to focus attention on the special needs of small 
island developing States.

"1. Intergovernmental follow-up

"The Commission on Sustainable Development, in carrying out its 
functions in accordance with General Assembly resolution 
47/191 and its Multi-Year Thematic Programme of Work, should 
include in its consideration matters related to the 
implementation of the outcome of the Global Conference on the 
Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. To 
that effect, the Commission on Sustainable Development should, 
inter alia:

"(a)Make arrangements for monitoring and reviewing, in a distinct 
and identifiable manner, in the context of its Multi-Year 
Thematic Programme of Work and the annual consideration of 
cross-sectoral issues, the implementation of the provisions 
agreed upon in the programme of action for the sustainable 
development of small island developing States;

"(b)Carry out an initial review of the progress achieved and steps 
taken to implement the programme of action, to be undertaken 
by the Commission on Sustainable Development in 1996 in 
accordance with its Multi-Year Thematic Programme of Work. 
Furthermore, in 1997, when the Commission will carry out the 
overall review of Agenda 21 with a view to preparing for the 
1997 special session of the General Assembly, the Commission 
should recommend specific modalities for the full review of 
the programme of action in 1999. That full review would 
include the question of the convening of a second global 
conference in accordance with chapter 17G of Agenda 21;

"(c)Recommend that the sub-item on the agenda of the General 
Assembly entitled 'Global Conference on the Sustainable 
Development of Small Island Developing States', under the item 
'Environment and sustainable development', be retained and 
amended to read 'Implementation of the outcome of the Global 
Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island 
Developing States'.

"2. Reporting

"In preparation for the reviews in 1996 and 1999, the 
Secretary-General should prepare analytical reports on the 
implementation of the programme of action, identifying, where 
possible, any obstacle to its implementation. The Secretary-
General's reports should include a consideration of system-
wide coordination and inputs from the relevant regions.

"The reports should also analyse activities in respect of regional 
implementation and should include:

"(a)Activities of United Nations agencies at the regional level;

"(b)Activities of other appropriate non-United Nations regional and 
subregional organizations;

"(c)Multilateral, regional and bilateral activities;

"(d)National level activities;

"(e)Activities of non-governmental organizations, women and other 
major groups;

"(f)Means by which the coordination of United Nations regional 
activities has taken place at the inter-agency level, together 
with suggestions for improvement.

"The Secretary-General should also prepare reports for the reviews 
in 1996 and 1999 that contain updated information on current 
donor activities in support of the sustainable development of 
small island developing States, as well as on the adequacy of 
international resources devoted to the programme of action.

"In that context, all States and relevant organs, organizations and 
bodies of the United Nations, as well as other organizations 
and groups, are invited to provide information on action taken 
to implement the programme of action.

"3. Inter-agency coordination

"The programme of action for the sustainable development of small 
island developing States should provide in the context of 
Agenda 21 the principal basis for the coordination of 
activities within the United Nations system for the 
sustainable development of small island developing States. To 
ensure the effective implementation of the programme of action 
by the United Nations system and taking into account the 
relevant provisions contained in chapter 38 of Agenda 21 and 
resolution 47/191, the Inter-Agency Commission on Sustainable 
Development should make the necessary provisions to consider, 
on a regular basis, system-wide coordination in the 
implementation of Conference outcomes.

"4. Secretariat support structure

"It is essential for the follow-up to the Conference and the 
implementation of the programme of action for the sustainable 
development of small island developing States that a clearly 
identifiable, qualified and competent entity within the 
Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development 
of the United Nations Secretariat should be put in place to 
provide secretariat support for both intergovernmental and 
inter-agency coordination mechanisms. To that end, the 
necessary resources should be provided, relying on the most 
efficient and cost-effective use of resources, to fulfil the 
following functions:

"(a)Provide substantive secretariat support to intergovernmental 
and inter-agency processes related to the monitoring, review 
and coordination of the implementation of the programme of 
action for the sustainable development of small island 
developing States;

"(b)Act as a liaison and focal point for Governments, organs, 
programmes and agencies of the United Nations system, as well 
as other relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental 
organizations, on matters related to the follow-up to the 
Conference and the implementation of the programme of action;

"(c)Prepare reports to be submitted to the Commission on 
Sustainable Development, and other relevant bodies, on the 
implementation of the programme of action, drawing on the 
inputs from all appropriate sources;

"(d)Provide support, as appropriate, to other activities emanating 
from the programme of action.

  "5. Organs, programmes and organizations of the
  United Nations system

"In the implementation of the programme of action, all relevant 
organs, programmes and organizations of the United Nations 
system have an important role within their respective areas of 
expertise and mandates in supporting and supplementing 
national efforts. The relevant programmes being carried out by 
the United Nations system and the relevant regional and 
multinational organizations in the regions and individual 
countries should be recognized, consolidated and expanded or 
rationalized, as appropriate. Initiatives to promote economies 
of scale through integration should also be encouraged. Where 
applicable, the common objectives of members of regional 
integration arrangements should be taken into account.

"As set forth in Agenda 21, UNEP, taking into account development 
perspective, should continue to provide policy guidance and 
coordination in the field of the environment, including, 
inter alia, in the implementation of the programme of action 
for the sustainable development of small island developing 
States.

"As set forth in Agenda 21, UNDP should continue to carry out its 
mandate as the lead agency in organizing United Nations system 
efforts towards capacity-building at the local, national and 
regional levels, and in fostering the United Nations 
collective thrust in support of the implementation of the 
programme of action through its network of field offices.

"UNCTAD should have a strengthened capacity to carry out, in 
accordance with its mandate, the research and analysis 
necessary to complement the work of the Department for Policy 
Coordination and Sustainable Development with respect to the 
implementation of the programme of action.

"The Secretary-General is requested to report to the forty-ninth 
session of the General Assembly on action taken by the organs, 
organizations and bodies of the United Nations system to 
implement the programme of action and in that regard, invite 
them to consider the establishment of focal points for the 
implementation of the programme of action.

  "6. Regional and subregional cooperation and
  implementation

"In accordance with Agenda 21, regional and subregional cooperation 
will play an important role in the implementation of the 
programme of action for the sustainable development of small 
island developing States. The United Nations regional 
commissions, regional development banks and regional and 
subregional economic, environmental and technical cooperation 
organizations can contribute to that process by:

"(a)Promoting regional and subregional capacity-building;

"(b)Promoting the integration of environmental concerns in regional 
and subregional development policies;

"(c)Promoting regional and subregional cooperation, where 
appropriate, regarding transboundary issues related to 
sustainable development.

"Regional intergovernmental technical, economic and environmental 
organizations have an important role to play in helping 
Governments to take coordinated action in solving environment 
issues of regional significance.

"As has been highlighted within the programme of action, pooling 
the limited human resources of small island developing States 
through regional cooperation and institutions is a necessary 
part of their progress towards sustainable development. 
Regional actions, based on priorities identified in the 
national strategies and plans of many small island developing 
States, require better coordination of effort, stronger 
regional organizations and improved access to regional and 
external financial and technical resources, both public and 
private. To assist in that effort, renewed emphasis should be 
given to more effective implementation of relevant 
international programmes, including coordination and 
interchange between regions and among islands within regions.

"To facilitate the coordination and implementation of the programme 
of action, a mechanism for consultation should be identified 
or devised, where appropriate, within each region. That would 
include:

"(a)Donors and recipients;

"(b)Relevant United Nations organizations, regional commissions and 
non-United Nations regional and subregional organizations and 
banks;

"(c)Appropriate arrangements for the participation of 
non-governmental organizations.

"Relevant non-United Nations regional and subregional 
organizations, including regional economic integration 
organizations, should be encouraged to take the programme of 
action into account in the fulfillment of their respective 
functions.

"Each of the relevant regional commissions of the United Nations 
should be enabled to support regional activities to coordinate 
the implementation of Conference outcomes at the regional 
level, including through the provision of necessary autonomy 
and of adequate resources to their subregional offices and 
operational centres, taking into account the ongoing process 
of decentralization. That would involve:

"(a)Assisting regional and subregional organizations and mechanisms 
involved in the promotion of sustainable development, as 
appropriate;

"(b)Acting as a point of liaison between United Nations agencies 
and the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable 
Development of the United Nations Secretariat in New York, and 
among United Nations agencies at the regional and subregional 
levels.

"The Secretary-General, in his report to be submitted to the 
General Assembly at its forty-ninth session, as requested in 
paragraph __, is also requested to report on progress made in 
the implementation of the above recommendations, including a 
section on the action taken by regional commissions to 
implement the programme of action, particularly at the 
subregional level."

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Date last posted: 16 February 2000 14:26:35
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD