United Nations

A/CONF.167/9


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

October 1994

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


UNITED
NATIONS

Global Conference on the
Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States

          REPORT OF THE GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON THE SUSTAINABLE
            DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES

               Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 May 1994



                                   CONTENTS

                                                                         Page

  I.  RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE CONFERENCE .............................  1

      Resolution 1.  Adoption of texts on the sustainable development of
                     small island developing States .....................  1

                                    Annexes

       I.  Declaration of Barbados ......................................  2

      II.  Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of
           Small Island Developing States ...............................  6

      Resolution 2.  Expression of gratitude to the people and Government
                    of Barbados ........................................  56

      Resolution 3.  Credentials of representatives to the Global 
                     Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small
                     Island Developing States ........................... 57

      Resolution 4.  Elections in South Africa .......................... 57

 II.  PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ..................................... 58

      A.  Attendance and organization of work ........................... 58

      B.  General debate ................................................ 63

      C.  Report of the Main Committee and action taken by the Conference 67

      D.  Report of the Credentials Committee ........................... 70

      E.  High-level segment of the Conference .......................... 72

      F.  Adoption of the report of the Conference ...................... 73

      G.  Closure of the Conference ..................................... 74

                                    Annexes

  I.  List of documents before the Conference ........................... 75

 II.  Opening statement by H.E. Mr. L. Erskine Sandiford, Prime Minister
      of Barbados and President of the Conference ....................... 78

III.  Presidential summary of the high-level segment of the Conference .. 82

 IV.  List of participating non-governmental organizations .............. 88



                                   Chapter I

                     RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE CONFERENCE


                                 Resolution 1

           Adoption of texts on the sustainable development of small
                           island developing States

      The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States,

      Having met in Bridgetown, Barbados, from 25 April to 6 May 1994,

      1. Adopts the Declaration of Barbados and the Programme of Action for
the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, which are
annexed to the present resolution;

      2. Recommends to the General Assembly of the United Nations at its
forty-ninth session that it endorse the texts referred to in paragraph 1
above.


                                    Annex I

                            DECLARATION OF BARBADOS


      We the States participating in the Global Conference on the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States,

      Having met in Bridgetown, Barbados from 25 April to 6 May 1994,

      Reaffirming the principles and commitments to sustainable development
embodied in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1/
Agenda 21 2/ and the Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles
for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable
Development of All Types of Forests, 3/ which were adopted by the nations of
the world at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development on
14 June 1992, as well as in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change 4/ and the Convention on Biological Diversity, 5/

      Recognizing that the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States translates Agenda 21 into specific policies,
actions and measures to be taken at the national, regional and international
levels to enable small island developing States to achieve sustainable
development,


                                   Part One

      Affirm that:

                                       I

      1. The survival of small island developing States is firmly rooted in
their human resources and cultural heritage, which are their most significant
assets; those assets are under severe stress and all efforts must be taken to
ensure the central position of people in the process of sustainable
development.

      2. Sustainable development programmes must seek to enhance the quality
of life of peoples, including their health, well-being and safety.

      3. Full attention should be given to gender equity and to the important
role and contribution of women, as well as to the needs of women and other
major groups, including children, youth and indigenous people.

                                      II

      Small island developing States have sovereign rights over their own
natural resources.  Their biodiversity is among the most threatened in the
world and their ecosystems provide ecological corridors linking major areas of
biodiversity around the world.  They bear responsibility for a significant
portion of the world's oceans and seas and their resources.  The efforts of
small island developing States to conserve, protect and restore their
ecosystems deserve international cooperation and partnership.

                                      III

      1. Small island developing States are particularly vulnerable to
natural as well as environmental disasters and have a limited capacity to
respond to and recover from such disasters.

      2. While small island developing States are among those that contribute
least to global climate change and sealevel rise, they are among those that
would suffer most from the adverse effects of such phenomena and could in some
cases become uninhabitable.  Therefore, they are among those particularly
vulnerable States that need assistance under the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change, including adaptation measures and mitigation
efforts.

      3. Small island developing States share with all nations a critical
interest in the protection of coastal zones and oceans against the effects of
land-based sources of pollution.

      4. Limited freshwater resources, increasing amounts of waste and
hazardous substances, and limited facilities for waste disposal combine to
make pollution prevention, waste management and the transboundary movement of
hazardous materials critical issues for small island developing States.

                                      IV

      Small island developing States are limited in size, have vulnerable
economies and are dependent both upon narrow resource bases and on
international trade, without the means of influencing the terms of that trade.

                                       V

      To enhance their national capacities and self-reliance, small island
developing States, with the assistance and support of the international
community, should actively promote human resources development programmes 
including education, training and skills development.  Their institutional and
administrative capacity to implement the programme of action must be
strengthened at all levels by supportive partnerships and cooperation,
including technical assistance, the further development of legislation and
mechanisms for information sharing.

                                      VI

      There is an urgent need in small island developing States to address the
constraints to sustainable development, including scarce land resources, which
lead to difficult land and agriculture use decisions; limited fresh water;
education and training needs; health and human settlement requirements;
inordinate pressures on coastal and marine environment and resources; and
limited means available to exploit natural resources on a sustainable basis.

                                      VII

      1. The special role of non-governmental organizations and the
importance of a partnership between Governments, intergovernmental
organizations and agencies, non-governmental organizations and other major
groups in implementing Agenda 21 and the programme of action at the national,
subregional, regional and international levels should be recognized.

      2. That partnership should include efforts to increase public awareness
of the outcomes and follow-up of the Global Conference on the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States through all available means of
communication.

                                   Part Two

      Declare that:  

                                       I

      Based on the principle of the right to development, small island
developing States should, in accordance with their own priorities, endeavour
to achieve the goals of sustainable development by, inter alia, formulating
and implementing policies, strategies and programmes that take into account
development, health and environmental goals, strengthening national
institutions, and mobilizing all available resources, all of which are aimed
at improving the quality of life.

                                      II

      Through regional and subregional cooperation, small island developing
States and the international community should encourage strong functional
cooperation in the promotion of sustainable development by sharing information
and technology, strengthening institutions and building capacity.

                                      III

      1. The international community should cooperate with small island
developing States in the implementation of the Programme of Action for the
Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States by providing
effective means, including adequate, predictable new and additional financial
resources in accordance with chapter 33 of Agenda 21; facilitating the
transfer of environmentally sound technology, including on concessional and
preferential terms as mutually agreed, taking into account the need to protect
intellectual property rights as well as the special needs of developing
countries; and promoting fair, equitable and non-discriminatory trading
arrangements and a supportive international economic system.

      2. The international community has a responsibility to facilitate the
efforts of small island developing States to minimize the stress on their
fragile ecosystems, including through cooperative action and partnership.

      3. To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for
all people, including people of small island developing States, all States
should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and
consumption, and should promote appropriate demographic policies.

      4. The international community should build new and equitable
partnerships for the sustainable development of small island developing States
through the implementation of the Programme of Action and should send a
powerful message to the world's peoples on the possibilities of joint action
undertaken with a sense of common purpose and partnership.



                                     Notes

      1/ Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by
the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and
corrigendum), resolution 1, annex I.

      2/ Ibid., annex II.

      3/ Ibid., annex III.

      4/ A/AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add.1, annex I.

      5/ See United Nations Environment Programme, Convention on Biological
Diversity (Environmental Law and Institutions Programme Activity Centre),
June 1992.


                                   Annex II

            PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF
                        SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES 


                                   CONTENTS

Chapter                                                                   
Page

       PREAMBLE .........................................................    7

   I.  CLIMATE CHANGE AND SEALEVEL RISE .................................   10

  II.  NATURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS ..............................   13

 III.  MANAGEMENT OF WASTES .............................................   15

  IV.  COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES .....................................   18

   V.  FRESHWATER RESOURCES .............................................   21

  VI.  LAND RESOURCES ...................................................   23

 VII.  ENERGY RESOURCES .................................................   25

VIII.  TOURISM RESOURCES ................................................   27

  IX.  BIODIVERSITY RESOURCES ...........................................   28

   X.  NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY ................   31

  XI.  REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION ..................   33

 XII.  TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION ......................................   35

XIII.  SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ...........................................   37

 XIV.  HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT .......................................   39

  XV.  IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND REVIEW ............................   42



                                   PREAMBLE


1.   In 1992, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,
the world community adopted Agenda 21. 1/  Agenda 21 reflects a global
consensus and political commitment at the highest level on development and
environment cooperation.  The cooperation of all States is a prerequisite for
the fulfilment of the objectives of Agenda 21.  Such cooperation must also
respond to the special circumstances and particular vulnerabilities of
countries through adequate and specific approaches.

2.   The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States is the first global conference on sustainable development
and the implementation of Agenda 21.  Agenda 21 represents a comprehensive
document, carefully negotiated and wherever referred to in the present
Programme of Action should be looked to as a whole.

3.   The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 2/ identifies human
beings as being at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. 
Development initiatives in small island developing States should be seen in
relation to both the needs and aspirations of human beings and their
responsibility towards present and future generations.  Small island
developing States have valuable resources, including oceans, coastal
environments, biodiversity and, most importantly, human resources.  Their
potential is recognized, but the challenge for small island developing States
is to ensure that they are used in a sustainable way for the well-being of
present and future generations.  Although they are afflicted by economic
difficulties and confronted by development imperatives similar to those of
developing countries generally, small island developing States also have their
own peculiar vulnerabilities and characteristics, so that the difficulties
they face in the pursuit of sustainable development are particularly severe
and complex.

4.   There are many disadvantages that derive from small size, which are
magnified by the fact that many island States are not only small but are
themselves made up of a number of small islands.  Those disadvantages include
a narrow range of resources, which forces undue specialization; excessive
dependence on international trade and hence vulnerability to global
developments; high population density, which increases the pressure on already
limited resources; overuse of resources and premature depletion; relatively
small watersheds and threatened supplies of fresh water; costly public
administration and infrastructure, including transportation and communication;
and limited institutional capacities and domestic markets, which are too small
to provide significant scale economies, while their limited export volumes,
sometimes from remote locations, lead to high freight costs and reduced
competitiveness.  Small islands tend to have high degrees of endemism and
levels of biodiversity, but the relatively small numbers of the various
species impose high risks of extinction and create a need for protection.

5.   The small size of small island developing States means that development
and environment are closely interrelated and interdependent.  Recent human
history contains examples of entire islands rendered uninhabitable through
environmental destruction owing to external causes; small island developing
States are fully aware that the environmental consequences of ill-conceived
development can have catastrophic effects.  Unsustainable development
threatens not only the livelihood of people but also the islands themselves
and the cultures they nurture.  Climate change, climate variability and
sealevel rise are issues of grave concern.  Similarly, the biological
resources on which small island developing States depend are threatened by the
large-scale exploitation of marine and terrestrial living resources.

6.   Many small island developing States are entirely or predominantly coastal
entities.  Due to the small size, isolation and fragility of island
ecosystems, their renowned biological diversity is among the most threatened
in the world.  This requires that in pursuing development special attention be
paid to protecting the environment and people's livelihoods.  It also requires
the integrated management of resources.

7.   In some small island developing States, the rate of population growth
exceeds the rate of economic growth, placing serious and increasing pressure
on the capacity of those countries to provide basic services to their people
and placing a heavy burden on women in particular as heads of households. 
Although their population density may be high, many small island developing
States have small populations in absolute terms, insufficient to generate
economies of scale in several areas, and they therefore have limited scope for
the full utilization of certain types of highly specialized expertise.  They
experience high levels of migration, particularly of skilled human resources,
which not only places an  undue burden on training facilities but also forces
them to import high-cost foreign expertise.

8.   The lack of opportunities for achieving economies of scale, together with
their narrow resource base, tends to limit the total production of small
island developing States to a narrow range of crops, minerals and industries,
both manufacturing and services.  Any adverse development concerning those
productive sectors, whether arising from market factors, natural or
environmental constraints, is likely to lead to significant reductions in
output, a fall in foreign-exchange earnings and increased unemployment.

9.   Partly because of their small size and partly because of their
vulnerability to natural and environmental disasters, most small island
developing States are classified as high-risk entities, which has led to
insurance and reinsurance being either unavailable or exorbitantly expensive,
with adverse consequences for investment, production costs, government
finances and infrastructure.

10.  Because the per capita income of many small island developing States
tends to be higher than that of developing countries as a group, they tend to
have limited access to concessionary resources.  However, analysis of the
economic performance of small island developing States suggests that current
incomes are often facilitated by migrant remittances, preferential market
access for some major exports and assistance from the international community,
sources which are neither endogenous nor secure.  Furthermore, those incomes
have generally been unstable over time:  natural and man-made disasters,
difficulties in the international market for particular commodities and
recession in some developed economies often reduce incomes in small island
developing States dramatically, sometimes by as much as 20 to 30 per cent of
gross domestic product (GDP) in a single year.

11.  Because small island development options are limited, they present
special challenges to planning for and implementing sustainable development. 
To meet that challenge, the most valuable asset of small island developing
States is their human resources, which need to be given every opportunity to
fulfil their potential and contribute meaningfully to national, regional and
international development consistent with the Rio Declaration on Environment
and Development and Agenda 21.  Small island developing States will be
constrained in meeting those challenges without the cooperation and assistance
of the international community.  The sustainable development of small island
developing States requires actions that address the above constraints to
development.  Those actions should integrate environmental considerations and
natural resource conservation objectives and gender considerations consistent
with the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21, into
the development of social and economic development policies in international,
regional, subregional and/or bilateral cooperative programmes related to
islands.

12.  Within small island developing States the critical contribution of women
to sustainable development and the involvement of youth to the long-term
success of Agenda 21 should be fully recognized.  Accordingly, youth should be
encouraged to contribute to the decision-making process and all obstacles to
the equal participation of women in this process should be eliminated to allow
both youth and women to participate in and benefit from the sustainable
development of their particular societies.

13.  Sharing a common aspiration for economic development and improved living
standards, small island developing States are determined that the pursuit of
material benefits should not undermine social, religious and cultural values
or cause any permanent harm to either their people or their land and marine
resources, which have sustained island life for many centuries.  In Agenda 21,
the international community committed itself to:

     (a) Adopt and implement plans and programmes to support the sustainable
development and utilization of the marine and coastal resources of small
island developing States, including meeting essential human needs, maintaining
biodiversity and improving the quality of life for island people;

     (b) Adopt measures that will enable small island developing States to
cope effectively, creatively and sustainably with environmental change, as
well as to mitigate impacts on and reduce threats posed to marine and coastal
resources.

Those commitments were later incorporated into General Assembly resolution
47/189 of 22 December 1992, which called for a global conference on the
sustainable development of small island developing States.

14.  In establishing the basis for a new global partnership for sustainable
development, States have acknowledged their common but differentiated
responsibilities in respect of global environmental degradation as stated in
Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.  Principle
6 states that the special situation and needs of developing countries,
particularly the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable,
shall be given special priority.  Under chapter 17, section G of Agenda 21,
small island developing States and islands supporting small communities are
recognized as a special case for both environment and development, because
they are ecologically fragile and vulnerable and their small size, limited
resources, geographic dispersion and isolation from markets all place them at
a disadvantage economically and prevent economies of scale.

15.  It is in that context that the present Programme of Action addresses the
special challenges and constraints facing small island developing States. 
Because sustainable development is a process and not a phenomenon, the
Programme of Action focuses on the next steps that can be taken along the
comprehensive path to sustainable development which will follow the principles
endorsed by Governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development.  The Programme of Action contains a synopsis of actions and
policies that should be implemented over the short, medium and long terms. 
The reports of the regional technical meetings, held in preparation for the
Global Conference, remain an important point of reference since they contain a
broad collection of recommended actions for the pursuit of sustainable
development in small island developing States.

16.  The Programme of Action presents a basis for action in 14 agreed priority
areas and defines a number of actions and policies related to environmental
and development planning that should be undertaken by small island developing
States with the cooperation and assistance of the international community.  In
general, financing for the implementation of the Programme of Action will come
from countries' own public and private sectors.  National elements, for
inclusion in the medium- and long-term sustainable development plans of small
island developing States, are recommended, along with the measures necessary
for enhancing their endogenous capacity.  Regional approaches to sustainable
development/environment problems and technical cooperation for endogenous
capacity-building are proposed.  And the role of the international community
is outlined, including its role in providing access to adequate, predictable,
new and additional financial resources; optimizing the use of existing
resources and mechanisms in accordance with chapter 33 of Agenda 21; and
adopting measures for supporting endogenous capacity-building, in particular
for developing human resources and promoting the access of small island
developing States to environmentally sound and energy-efficient technology for
their sustainable development.  In that context, non-governmental
organizations and other major groups should be fully involved.

17.  The Programme of Action identifies priority areas and indicates the
specific actions that are necessary to address the special challenges faced by
small island developing States.  In fulfilling those actions, several cross-
sectoral areas are identified, for example, capacity-building, including human
resource development; institutional development at the national, regional and
international levels; cooperation in the transfer of environmentally sound
technologies; trade and economic diversification; and finance.


                     I.  CLIMATE CHANGE AND SEALEVEL RISE

                               Basis for action

18.  Small island developing States are particularly vulnerable to global
climate change, climate variability and sealevel rise.  As their population,
agricultural land and infrastructure tend to be concentrated in the coastal
zone, any rise in sealevel will have significant and profound effects on their
economies and living conditions; the very survival of certain low-lying
countries will be threatened.  Inundation of outlying islands and loss of land
above the high-tide mark may result in loss of exclusive economic rights over
extensive areas and in the destruction of existing economic infrastructure as
well as of existing human settlements.  Global climate change may damage coral
reefs, alter the distribution of zones of upwelling and affect both
subsistence and commercial fisheries production.  Furthermore, it may affect
vegetation and saline intrusion may adversely affect freshwater resources. 
The increased frequency and intensity of the storm events that may result from
climate change will also have profound effects on both the economies and the
environments of small island developing States.  Small island developing
States require all available information concerning those aspects of climate
change, as it may affect their ability to enable appropriate response
strategies to be developed and implemented.

19.  The process established by the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change 3/ and the ongoing negotiations of its Intergovernmental
Negotiating Committee are important international actions aimed at addressing
the threat of climate change, mitigating its adverse impacts on small island
developing States and assisting them in adapting to its adverse consequences. 
It is becoming clear that the commitments contained in Article 4.2 (a) and (b)
of the Framework Convention, in particular those related to emissions of
greenhouse gases, should be considered inadequate for the long term and
further action may be required to make satisfactory progress towards achieving
the objective of the Framework Convention.  In that regard, the consideration
at the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties of the adequacy of those
and all other relevant commitments under the Convention, in particular those
aimed at achieving effective adaptive response measures, is of the utmost
importance to small island developing States and the international community. 
The development and use of renewable sources of energy and the dissemination
of sound and efficient energy technologies are seen as having a central role
in mitigating the adverse impact of climate change.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Ensure early ratification of or accession to the United Nations
         Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Montreal Protocol on
         Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 4/ and other related legal
         instruments.

    (ii) Monitor, survey and collect data on climate change and sealevel
         rise.

   (iii) Formulate comprehensive adjustment and mitigation policies for
         sealevel rise in the context of integrated coastal area management.

    (iv) Assess the effects and the socio-economic implications of the impact
         of climate change, climate variability and sealevel rise on small
         island developing States.

     (v) Map areas vulnerable to sealevel rise and develop computer-based
         information systems covering the results of surveys, assessments and
         observations as part of the development of adequate response
         strategies, adaptation policies and measures to minimize the impact
         of climate change, climate variability and sealevel rise.

    (vi) Improve public and political understanding of the potential impacts
         of climate change.

   (vii) Formulate comprehensive strategies and measures (including the
         preparation, facilitation and collection of information) on
         adaptation to climate change that would contribute to a better
         understanding of the range of issues associated with the development
         of methodologies to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate
         change.

  (viii) Promote a more efficient use of energy resources in development
         planning and use appropriate methods to minimize the adverse effects
         of climate change on the sustainable development of those resources.

    (ix) Increase participation in the bilateral, regional and global
         research, assessment, monitoring and mapping of climate impacts,
         including the adoption of oceanographic and atmospheric measures and
         policies and the development of response strategies.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Create and/or strengthen programmes and projects to monitor and
         improve predictive capacity for climate change, climate variability
         and sealevel rise, and to assess the impacts of climate change on
         marine resources, freshwater and agricultural production, including
         pests.

    (ii) Develop and/or strengthen mechanisms to facilitate the exchange of
         information and experiences among small island developing States,
         and to promote technology transfer and training in those States in
         response to climate change, including preparedness response.

   (iii) Provide technical assistance for ratification or accession to the
         United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and assist
         those Parties that have ratified the Framework Convention in
         assuming their major responsibilities under it.

    (iv) Support national efforts aimed at developing strategies and measures
         on adaptation to climate change as well as the development of
         technical guidelines and methodologies to facilitate adequate
         adaptation to climate change.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Implement immediately the prompt-start resolution agreed to by the
         Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention
         on Climate Change.

    (ii) Support small island developing States in responding to the call by
         the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for vulnerable coastal
         nations to develop integrated coastal zone management plans,
         including measures for responding adaptively to the impacts of
         climate change and sealevel rise.

   (iii) Provide improved access to financial and technical resources for
         monitoring variability and change of climate and sealevel rise, for
         assessing the impacts of climate change, and for developing and
         implementing response adaptation strategies in a timely manner,
         recognizing the specific vulnerabilities and disproportionate cost
         borne by small island developing States.

    (iv) Provide improved access to information from the activities carried
         out to reduce uncertainties of climate change and assist the
         inter-island exchange of this information.

     (v) Provide access to environmentally sound and energy-efficient
         technology to assist small island developing States in conserving
         energy.

    (vi) Support the activities of intergovernmental, regional and
         subregional organizations aimed at assisting small island developing
         States in coping effectively and creatively with climate change,
         climate variability and sealevel rise, including providing systems
         for systematic and continuous research, monitoring, surveying and
         data collection, as well as assessment, in the areas of climate
         change, climate variability and sealevel rise, coral reefs, the role
         of oceans in the world climate, tidal variations and the salt water
         intrusion of freshwater.

   (vii) Provide improved access to financial and technical resources to
         assist small island developing States, which are particularly
         vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, in meeting the
         costs associated with the development of national and regional
         strategies, measures and methodologies to facilitate adequate
         adaptation to climate change.


                   II.  NATURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS

                               Basis for action

20.  Small island developing States are prone to extremely damaging natural
disasters, primarily in the form of cyclones, volcanic eruptions and
earthquakes.  In some islands, the range of these disasters includes storm
surges, landslides, extended droughts and extensive floods.  A recent study by
the former Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator (currently
the Department of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat) has
shown that at least 13 of the 25 most disaster-prone countries are small
island developing States.  Due to climate change, such events, including
drought, are perceived to be occurring with increasing frequency and
intensity.  Natural disasters are of special concern to small island
developing States because of their small size; their dependence on agriculture
and tourism which are particularly vulnerable to natural and environmental
disasters; their narrow resource base; and the pervasive impact of such events
on their people, environment and economies, including the loss of insurance
coverage.  For countries affected by such natural disasters, those particular
characteristics mean that the economic, social and environmental consequences
are long-lasting and that the costs of rehabilitation are high as a percentage
of gross national product (GNP).  For similar reasons the impact of oil-spills
and other environmental disasters can also be severe.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Establish and/or strengthen disaster preparedness and management
         institutions and policies, including building codes and regulatory
         and enforcement systems, in order to mitigate, prepare for and
         respond to the increasing range and frequency of natural and
         environmental disasters and promote early warning systems and
         facilities for the rapid dissemination of information and warnings.

    (ii) Strengthen the capacity of local broadcasting to assist remote rural
         and outer island communities within countries and among neighbouring
         countries during disaster events.

   (iii) Establish a national disaster emergency fund with joint private and
         public sector support for areas where insurance is not available in
         the commercial market, taking into account the relevant experience
         to be gained from the operation of similar funds.

    (iv) Integrate natural and environmental disaster policies into national
         development planning processes and encourage the development and
         implementation of public and private sector pre- and post-disaster
         recovery plans, drawing on the capacity of the United Nations
         Department of Humanitarian Affairs and bearing in mind the
         International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.

     (v) Strengthen cultural and traditional systems that improve the
         resilience of local communities to disaster events.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Establish and/or strengthen, where appropriate, regional
         institutions to complement and support national efforts in disaster
         mitigation, preparedness and management.

    (ii) Establish and/or strengthen, where appropriate, mechanisms for
         sharing experience, information and resources, including expertise,
         among small island developing States.

   (iii) Increase access to telecommunication links and satellite facilities
         for disaster monitoring, assessment and information exchange.

    (iv) Establish and/or strengthen existing regional mechanisms and
         communication systems for rapid response to disasters.

     (v) Facilitate, as appropriate, the setting up of necessary regional
         committees for the International Decade, which could serve as a
         platform for the exchange of ideas, information and strategies for
         natural disaster reduction in each region.

    (vi) Support the operation of a national disaster emergency fund, taking
         into account the relevant experience to be gained from the operation
         of similar funds, as well as the enactment of standardized building
         codes and relevant legislation.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Assist small island developing States in establishing and/or 
         strengthening national and regional institutional mechanisms and
         policies designed to reduce the impacts of natural disasters,
         improve disaster preparedness and integrate natural disaster
         considerations in development planning, including through providing
         access to resources for disaster mitigation, preparedness, response
         and recovery.

    (ii) Improve access to technology and relevant training to assist with
         hazard and risk assessment and early warning systems, and to assist
         with the protection of islands from environmental disasters
         consistent with national and regional strategies for disaster
         management.

   (iii) Provide and facilitate technical support and training for disaster
         preparedness (including early warning) and relief programmes through
         the offices of the Department of Humanitarian Affairs of the United
         Nations Secretariat, the World Meteorological Organization, the
         United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations
         Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Maritime
         Organization, the International Telecommunication Union and other
         relevant international organizations.

    (iv) Encourage the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
         and the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, which will
         be held in May 1994, to give special recognition to small island
         developing States so that their unique characteristics will be taken
         into account in developing natural disaster reduction management
         programmes.

     (v) Through the offices of the Department of Humanitarian Affairs,
         support and facilitate the collection, storage, exchange and
         dissemination of information useful for pre-disaster planning, as
         well as disaster preparedness (including early warning), response
         and recovery, and facilitate the exchange of cooperation between
         regions.


                          III.  MANAGEMENT OF WASTES

                               Basis for action

21.  The shortage of land areas and resources available for safe disposal,
population growth and the increase in imports of polluting and hazardous
substances combine to make pollution prevention and the management of wastes a
critical issue for small island developing States.  Wastes in those States
tend to be highly visible, but due to their limited capacity to monitor the
waste stream the true extent of the problem remains poorly understood.  For
small island developing States, the disposal of wastes is a serious constraint
to sustainable development:  both land and sea-based sources of pollution
require urgent attention.

22.  All small island developing States share the problem of how to safely
dispose of solid and liquid wastes, particularly the wastes generated by
urbanization, which otherwise result in the contamination of groundwater and
lagoon areas.  Point source pollution from industrial wastes and sewage,
inappropriately sited and poorly managed garbage dumps and the disposal of
toxic chemicals are significant contributors to marine pollution and coastal
degradation.  Limited land area makes the option of landfill disposal
unsustainable in the long term.  Incineration, while reducing the volume of
wastes, is prohibitive in terms of cost and still requires the disposal of ash
containing potentially hazardous substances in high concentrations.  Pressure
on forests to provide fuelwood and to expand agricultural development together
with heavy use of agricultural chemicals also aggravate downstream pollution
and sedimentation problems.

23.  There is also growing concern about the transboundary movement of toxic
and hazardous waste, including the use of small island developing States for
the disposal of waste generated by other countries.  The isolation and oceanic
location of small island developing States and their dependence on a marine
and limited terrestrial resource base make them highly vulnerable to
contamination by toxic and hazardous wastes and chemicals, and radioactive
materials.  The passage of ships carrying toxic and hazardous wastes,
chemicals and radioactive materials is of international concern and of
priority concern to small island developing States.  There is a need to
develop and enhance the emergency response capacities necessary to protect
marine and coastal environments from accidents and incidents relating to
marine transport.  Emergency response capabilities and any damage compensation
arrangements must not impose an unreasonable burden on small island developing
States.

24.  Given that long-term disposal options are limited and will constrain
sustainable development, small island developing States will need to look for
ways of minimizing and/or converting wastes, such as sewage, into a resource
(e.g., fertilizer for agriculture).  This will include action ranging from
limiting imports of non-biodegradable and hazardous substances to changing
community attitudes to the disposal and use of sewage.  In the short term,
existing wastes require effective disposal, but at the same time incentives to
continue waste generation should be avoided.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Develop fiscal and policy incentives and other measures to encourage
         environmentally sustainable imports and local products with low
         waste or degradable waste content.

    (ii) Develop and implement appropriate regulatory measures, including
         emission discharge and pollution standards, for the reduction,
         prevention, control and monitoring of pollution from all sources;
         for the safe and efficient management of toxic, hazardous and solid
         wastes, including sewage, herbicides, pesticides and industrial and
         hospital effluent; and for the proper management of disposal sites.

   (iii) Ratify and implement relevant conventions, including the Basel
         Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
         Wastes and Their Disposal 5/ and the Convention on the Prevention of
         Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London
         Convention of 1972), 6/ as well as relevant regional conventions.

    (iv) Formulate and implement public awareness and education campaigns
         designed to gain local recognition of the need to control wastes at
         the source; of the value of reuse, recycling and appropriate
         packaging; and of the possibilities for converting wastes to
         resources in culturally appropriate ways.

     (v) Introduce clean technologies and treatment of waste at the source
         and appropriate technology for solid waste treatment.

    (vi) Develop information systems and baseline data for waste management
         and pollution control, monitoring the types and quantities of
         wastes, for both sea- and land-based sources of pollution.

   (vii) Establish port reception facilities for the collection of waste in
         accordance with annex V of the International Convention for the
         Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78). 7/

  (viii) In conformity with the Basel Convention and relevant decisions taken
         by the parties to that Convention, formulate and enforce national
         laws and/or regulations that ban the importation from States that
         are members of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
         Development (OECD) of hazardous wastes and other wastes subject to
         the Basel Convention, including hazardous wastes and other wastes
         destined for recycling and recovery operations.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Develop regional pollution prevention programmes, including regional
         centres for pollution prevention that would conduct demonstration
         projects, workshops and multimedia presentations tailored to
         specific groups; the development of economic incentives to further
         pollution prevention and waste management; relevant legislation; a
         coordinated and focused monitoring programme; and, where
         appropriate, the development of waste management and prevention
         trust funds.

    (ii) Remove and dispose of existing hazardous wastes, such as
         polychlorinated biphenyls, with the technical assistance of
         developed countries.

   (iii) Establish clearing-houses and increase the collection and synthesis
         of data and information on the sources, levels, amounts, kinds,
         trends and effects of pollution and waste on marine and coastal
         systems, as well as on processes and technologies for addressing
         pollution control from land and sea-based sources.

    (iv) Establish regional mechanisms, including conventions where
         appropriate, to protect the oceans, seas and coastal areas from
         ship-generated wastes, oil spills and the transboundary movement of
         toxic and hazardous waste, consistent with international law.
 
     (v) Examine ways to resolve disputes concerning waste disposal practices
         affecting small islands and encourage a collaborative examination of
         the issues of liability and redress in the context of the Basel
         Convention.

    (vi) Facilitate the formulation and implementation of public awareness
         and education campaigns designed to gain local recognition of the
         need to control wastes at the source; the value of reuse, recycling
         and appropriate packaging; and of the possibilities for converting
         wastes to resources in culturally appropriate ways.

   (vii) Establish, where appropriate, regional centres for the training and
         transfer to cleaner production technologies and the management of
         hazardous wastes generated at the national level.  


                           C.  International action

     (i) Support the strengthening of national and regional capabilities to
         carry out pollution monitoring and research and to formulate and
         apply pollution control and abatement measures.

    (ii) Support the strengthening of institutions to provide assistance to
         Governments and industry in the adoption of clean production
         technologies as well as in the prevention of pollution and the
         handling, treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes.

   (iii) Accept the right of small island developing States to regulate,
         restrict and/or ban the importation of products containing
         non-biodegradable and/or hazardous substances and to prohibit the
         transboundary movement of hazardous and radioactive wastes and
         materials within their jurisdiction, consistent with international
         law.

    (iv) Ensure that the international conventions and arrangements and
         related negotiations on marine pollution, in particular any
         amendments to the London Convention of 1972 but also in relation to
         land-based sources of marine pollution, take into account the
         interests and capacities of small island developing States.

     (v) Support measures to assist small island developing States in
         improving their capacity for the negotiation, follow-up and
         implementation of international conventions or arrangements, as well
         as for related negotiations on marine pollution, in particular any
         amendments to the London Convention of 1972 but also in relation to
         land-based sources of marine pollution.

    (vi) Assist in the implementation of monitoring and pollution prevention
         programmes and the establishment of port reception facilities for
         the collection of wastes in accordance with annex 5 of MARPOL 73/78.

   (vii) Enhance international cooperation in the establishment of waste
         management facilities, the control of toxic chemicals and pollution
         prevention as components of international investment projects,
         whether funded by multilateral or private sources.

  (viii) Assist small island developing States in assessing the impact of
         land-based sources of marine pollution and to develop mechanisms to
         eliminate or minimize the pollution source.

    (ix) Improve the access to resources of national and regional efforts to
         formulate and implement public awareness and education campaigns
         that are designed to gain local recognition of the need to control
         wastes at the source; the value of reuse, recycling and appropriate
         packaging; and of the possibilities for converting wastes to
         resources in culturally appropriate ways.

     (x) Ensure that the Basel Convention group of experts developing
         guidelines for monitoring the effects of the management of hazardous
         wastes on human health and the environment takes into account the
         concerns of small island developing States.

    (xi) Provide improved access to financial and technical resources to
         assist small island developing States in establishing regional
         centres for the training and transfer of cleaner production
         technologies and the management of hazardous wastes, and in
         developing inventories to register the training and technical
         activities of international organizations related to waste
         management and cleaner production.


                       IV.  COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES

                               Basis for action

25.  Sustainable development in small island developing States depends
largely on coastal and marine resources, because their small land area means
that those States are effectively coastal entities.  Population and economic
development - both subsistence and cash - are concentrated in the coastal
zone.  The establishment of the 200-mile exclusive economic zone has vastly
extended the fisheries and other marine resources available to small island
developing States.  Their heavy dependence on coastal and marine resources
emphasizes the need for appropriate and effective management.

26.  The development and management of programmes designed to achieve the
ecologically and economically sustainable utilization of coastal and marine
resources are major challenges for small island developing States.  The lack
of an integrated approach to coastal and marine area management has limited
the effectiveness of past and present management measures which is
increasingly resulting in coastal habitats being degraded through pollution,
natural resources being overexploited and growing conflicts between competing
resource uses.  Development patterns have also had an adverse impact on
traditional management systems, an impact in many cases exacerbated by the
effects of natural hazards and extreme events, such as
hurricanes/cyclones/typhoons, storm surges and abnormally high tides.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Establish and/or strengthen, where appropriate, institutional,
         administrative and legislative arrangements for developing and
         implementing integrated coastal zone management plans and strategies
         for coastal watersheds and exclusive economic zones, including
         integrating them within national development plans.

    (ii) Design comprehensive monitoring programmes for coastal and marine
         resources, including wetlands, in order to determine shoreline and
         ecosystem stability, and also document and apply, as a basis for
         integrated coastal zone planning and decision-making, traditional
         knowledge and management practices that are ecologically sound and
         include the participation of local communities.

   (iii) Develop and/or strengthen national capabilities for the sustainable
         harvesting and processing of fishery resources and provide training
         and awareness programmes for the managers (Government and local
         communities) of coastal and marine resources.

    (iv) Ratify and/or adhere to regional and international conventions
         concerning the protection of coastal and marine resources and combat
         unsustainable fishing and related practices.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Develop and/or strengthen the capacity of regional organizations to
         undertake activities in coastal and marine areas, including research
         into commercial and non-commercial fisheries with a view to
         sustainable harvesting and utilization, as well as surveys on reef,
         estuary, wetland and lagoon resources.  Also monitor and promote
         innovative ways to sustainably develop territorial waters and
         exclusive economic zones, including providing support for
         aquaculture, mariculture, coral reef and mangrove programmes.

    (ii) Develop a methodology for integrated coastal zone management
         appropriate to small island developing States, particularly very
         small, low elevation and coral islands.

   (iii) Develop and/or strengthen regional clearing-houses for coastal and
         marine environmental information to facilitate the collection,
         synthesis and sharing of relevant information, knowledge and
         experience among small island developing States in a structured and
         systematic way.

    (iv) Develop programmes to enhance negotiating and related skills for the
         management and exploitation of coastal and marine resources,
         including the negotiation of fisheries agreements.

     (v) Develop and/or strengthen regional capabilities for the effective
         surveillance and monitoring of activities in the exclusive economic
         zones of small island developing States.

    (vi) Harmonize policies and strategies for the coordination of the
         sustainable management and utilization of coastal and marine
         resources.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Develop mechanisms for the gathering and sharing of information and
         expertise, particularly interregionally among small island
         developing States, including geographic information systems (GIS)
         techniques and facilities for the assessment of coastal and marine
         resources, including the regional nodes of the UNEP Global Resource
         Information Database.

    (ii) Cooperate in facilitating mutually advantageous fishing agreements
         between small island developing States and foreign fishing groups;
         take account of the concerns and characteristics of those States
         within the United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and
         Highly Migratory Fish Stocks; and encourage and facilitate the full
         participation of small island developing States in the Conference
         and in the implementation of the Conference outcomes.

   (iii) Assist with the establishment and/or strengthening, where necessary,
         of new institutional and administrative arrangements for the
         development of integrated coastal zone management plans and their
         implementation.

    (iv) Support small island developing States in establishing national and
         regional capabilities for the effective surveillance and monitoring
         of activities within their exclusive economic zones, setting up
         regional and other joint-venture fishing enterprises, developing
         inventories of marine resources and regional approaches to the
         sustainable management of their exclusive economic zones, and
         strengthening regional marine research centres.

     (v) Use the relevant results of the World Coast Conference 1993, held at
         Noordwijk, the Netherlands, from 1 to 5 November 1993 as well as the
         ongoing work within the UNEP Regional Seas Programme to assist small
         island developing States with the development and implementation of
         integrated coastal zone management plans, to improve international
         coordination in that field and to develop strategies to prevent
         further marine and coastal degradation.

    (vi) Monitor the results of the Meeting of Government-designated Experts
         Focusing on the 1985 Montreal Guidelines for the Protection of the
         Marine Environment Against Pollution from Land-Based Sources, to be
         held in Montreal from 6 to 10 June 1994, which are expected to be
         useful for assisting small island developing States in that area.

   (vii) Include, in means of building capacity for integrated coastal zone
         management planning and implementation, strengthening regional and
         international networks, including South-South relationships;
         increasing public awareness and participation; enhancing relevant
         education and increasing training activities; ensuring the
         involvement and participation of non-governmental organizations and
         other major groups; supporting the development of concepts,
         methodologies and tools; and supporting and strengthening
         international research and improvements in monitoring, the results
         of which should be integrated into policy development, planning and
         decision-making.


                           V.  FRESHWATER RESOURCES

                               Basis for action

27.  Freshwater resources are vital for meeting basic needs and the
inadequate protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources can
set important limits to sustainable development.  Many health hazards in
developing countries are related to poor water quality and limited water
quantity.  Because of their small size and particular geological,
topographical and climatic conditions, many small island developing States
face severe constraints in terms of both the quality and quantity of
freshwater.  This is particularly the case for low-lying coral-based islands,
where groundwater supplies are limited and are protected only by a thin
permeable soil.  Even where rainfall is abundant, access to clean water has
been restricted by the lack of adequate storage facilities and effective
delivery systems.

28.  Inadequate action to safeguard watershed areas and groundwater resources
poses a further long-term threat, while in urban areas rapid population
growth, changes in economic strategies and a growing per capita use of
freshwater are significant challenges.  In that context, sound long-term
management strategies for water catchment and storage areas, including the
treatment and distribution of limited water supplies, are of particular
economic and environmental importance.  Such strategies may involve
substantial capital investment and ongoing maintenance programmes, which may
affect the real cost of water.  A common threat to the freshwater resources of
small island developing States is the contamination of supply by human and
livestock waste, industry-related pollution and, in some cases, pesticides and
other agricultural chemicals.  All strategies need to take account of the
possible constraints to water supply from low groundwater recharge in times of
drought, salt-water intrusion, and inundation as a result of climate change
and sealevel rise.  Such intrusions are made even more likely as a result of
over-abstraction, particularly during times of extended drought.  In that
regard, due consideration must be paid to the primacy of the need to supply
water for sanitation purposes.

29.  The Political Statement and Action Programme, adopted at the
International Ministerial Conference on Drinking Water and Environmental
Sanitation, held in the Netherlands in 1994 (E/CN.17/1994/12, annex), could
serve as one of the important bases for small island developing States in
implementing relevant portions of chapter 18, programme area D, of Agenda 21.

                  A.  National action, policies and measures
 
     (i) Develop, maintain and protect watershed areas, irrigation systems,
         distribution networks and appropriate catchment systems and promote
         effective programmes for water conservation and prevention of water
         contamination through, inter alia, the development of integrated
         national water plans, the use of appropriate incentives and
         regulatory measures, community involvement in management and
         conservation, forest management and reforestation and investment
         strategies.

    (ii) Adopt appropriate standards for the management of freshwater
         resources, and develop and strengthen low-cost monitoring and
         assessment capabilities, linked to water resource databases, for
         relevant decision-making tools, including forecasting models for
         water management, planning and utilization.

   (iii) Strengthen procedures to monitor and respond to the impacts on water
         resources of natural and environmental hazards, in particular the
         impacts of climate change and climate variability, including drought
         and sealevel rise.

    (iv) Encourage the development and acquisition of appropriate technology
         and training for cost-effective sewage disposal, desalination and
         rainwater collection to provide sufficiently high quality potable
         freshwater, including opportunities for technology interchange among
         small island developing States.

     (v) Strengthen national capacities to make decisions among competing
         demands for the allocation of limited water resources.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Develop and strengthen initiatives for regional cooperation in
         training and research to assist Governments in the development and
         implementation of integrated water resource plans, including the
         conservation and rehabilitation of watersheds, the protection of
         groundwater, setting standards for the management of those
         resources,  fostering public awareness and water quality monitoring.

    (ii) Provide technical assistance for the assessment and/or development
         and transfer of appropriate technology for water collection,
         distribution and protection, in particular sewage disposal
         technology.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Improve access to environmentally sound and energy efficient
         technologies for the catchment, production, conservation and
         delivery of freshwater, including rainwater catchment, water
         treatment systems and desalination, and also foster the exchange of
         information on water treatment methods.

    (ii) Enhance the capacity of small island developing States to develop
         and implement integrated water resource plans, including water
         resource allocation and management, the conservation and
         rehabilitation of watersheds, the protection of groundwater,
         fostering public awareness and water quality monitoring.

   (iii) Assist training and public awareness campaigns in building up an
         endogenous capacity relating to water management and conservation,
         and appropriate rainwater catchment systems.

    (iv) Support the establishment of methodologies aimed at assessing the
         adverse impact of climate change on freshwater resources and develop
         appropriate response and mitigation measures.


                              VI.  LAND RESOURCES

                               Basis for action

30.  The small size of most small island developing States, coupled with land
tenure systems, soil types, relief and climatic variation, limit the area
available for urban settlement, agriculture, mining, commercial forestry,
tourism and other infrastructure, and create intense competition between land
use options.  Most aspects of environmental management in small island
developing States are directly dependent on, or influenced by, the planning
and utilization of land resources, which in turn are intimately linked to
coastal zone management and protection in those States.

31.  For human requirements to be met in a sustainable manner, competing
demands for the use of land resources must be resolved and more effective and
efficient ways of using those natural resources must be developed and adopted.

As populations  grow in small island developing States, there is a need for
resolution of competing demands, particularly where land is limited and where
commercial development of comparatively large tracts of land can result in
shifts in small scale and subsistence agriculture to marginal lands.

32.  The major long-term land management issue in small island developing
States is the degradation of the limited land area due to a variety of
factors, including overuse because of high population pressure on a limited
resource base; deforestation due to unsustainable commercial logging or
permanent conversion to agricultural or grazing pursuits; and other episodic
events, such as fire.  Natural events, such as catastrophic cyclones, are also
major contributors.  Land degradation of that kind results in accelerated
erosion and a resultant decline in fertility and productivity, a deterioration
in water quality and the siltation of rivers, lagoons and reefs. 
Deforestation is also linked to a decline in the continuity and quality of
village water supply, the depletion of genetic, wood and non-wood plant
resources, and the fading away of traditional forest, lagoon and reef-based
subsistence life systems.

33.  The search for an improved quality of life, with its increased demands
for cash income, has led to greater production of export cash crops,
increasing areas of cultivation and resulting in more mechanized production
systems.  In the past, unsustainable agricultural practices in those areas
have contributed to deforestation, the loss of multiple purpose trees from the
rural landscape and the agrochemical pollution of soils, freshwater and
coastal resources.  There is, however, much that can be learned from
traditional systems of food production and the use of plants to promote
sustainable agriculture and land management.


34.  The conclusions and recommendations of the Interregional Conference of
Small Island Countries on Sustainable Development and Environment in
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, held in Barbados from 7 to
10 April 1992, 8/ contain the consensus position of small islands in the
agricultural sector.  The Bridgetown Declaration 9/ emanating from that
ministerial Conference affirmed the determination and commitment of those
countries to pursue sustainable development policies that ensure the long-term
viability of their agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors.  


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Develop and improve national databases and the dissemination of
         information to relevant groups, especially local communities, youth
         and women, for land-use planning and management, including estimates
         of the carrying capacity, economic and environmental value of land
         resources, along with appropriate decision-making tools, such as
         land/geographic information systems.

    (ii) Prepare and/or review land-use plans in conjunction with
         agricultural, forestry, mining, tourism, traditional land-use
         practices and other land-use policies, with a view to formulating
         comprehensive land-use plans and zoning so as to protect land
         resources, ensure sustainable and productive land-use and guard
         against land degradation, pollution and exceeding island carrying
         capacity.

   (iii) Encourage appropriate forms of land tenure, improved land
         administration and a greater appreciation of the integrated nature
         of land development in order to facilitate sustainable land-use.

    (iv) Formulate and enforce laws, regulations, and economic pricing and
         incentives in order to encourage the sustainable and integrated use,
         management and conservation of the land and its natural resources.

     (v) Support appropriate afforestation and reforestation programmes, with
         appropriate emphasis on natural regeneration and the participation
         of land owners, in order to ensure watershed and coastal protection
         and reduce land degradation.

    (vi) Improve the availability, affordability and environmental quality of
         shelter in human settlements, in accordance with chapter 7 of
         Agenda 21.

   (vii) Increase attention to national physical planning in both urban and
         rural environments, focusing on training to strengthen physical
         planning offices, including the use of environmental impact
         assessments and other decision-making tools.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Provide appropriate training and other capacity-building
         opportunities for small island developing States, including systems
         for providing a continuous surveillance of the rate and extent of
         land-use changes and monitoring adverse environmental effects, in
         order to facilitate the implementation of national actions.

    (ii) Collect, synthesize and share among small island developing States,
         in a structured and systematic way, relevant information, knowledge
         and experience on sustainable land-use practices and policies,
         including issues pertaining to environmental, agricultural,
         forestry, mining and other land-based sectors, market intelligence
         information, and the  assessment of potential interested overseas
         investors.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Support the improved availability of shelter and the improved
         economic and environmental quality of human settlements for small
         island developing States in accordance with chapter 7 of Agenda 21.

    (ii) Facilitate the development and improvement of national databases and
         the dissemination of information to relevant groups, especially
         local communities, youth and women, for land-use planning and
         management, including estimates of the carrying capacity, economic
         and environmental value of land resources, along with appropriate
         decision-making tools such as land/geographic information systems.

   (iii) Facilitate more effective international and interregional
         cooperation, coordination, collaboration and technical exchanges in
         the fields of agriculture, forestry and other land-use, through
         international and interregional networks and training programmes.


                            VII.  ENERGY RESOURCES

                               Basis for action

35.  Small island developing States are currently heavily dependent on
imported petroleum products, largely for transport and electricity generation,
energy often accounting for more than 12 per cent of imports.  They are also
heavily dependent on indigenous biomass fuels for cooking and crop drying.

36.  Small island developing States will continue to be heavily dependent on
petroleum fuels and biomass both in the short and medium term.  However, the
current uses of those fuels tend to be highly inefficient.  Increased
efficiency through appropriate technology and national energy policies and
management measures will reap both financial and environmental benefits for
small island developing States.

37.  The renewable energy resources endowments of small island developing
States vary greatly.  All have substantial solar resources, which have still
not been developed to their full potential.  Wind potential is highly variable
with location, both within and between countries.  Hydroelectric power is a
possibility only for some islands.  Biomass endowment is common but unequal. 
Studies of the potential for geothermal, ocean thermal energy conversion and
wave energy are continuing.

38.  Several constraints to the large-scale commercial use of renewable
energy resources remain, including technology development, investment costs,
available indigenous skills and management capabilities.  Small-scale
application for rural electrification has been sporadic.  The use of renewable
energy resources as substantial commercial fuels by small island developing
States is dependent on the development and commercial production of
appropriate technologies.

                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Implement appropriate public education and awareness programmes,
         including consumer incentives to promote energy conservation.

    (ii) Promote the efficient use of energy and the development of
         environmentally sound sources of energy and energy-efficient
         technologies, paying special attention to the possibilities of
         using, where appropriate, economic instruments and incentive
         structures and the increasing economic possibilities of renewable
         sources of energy.

   (iii) Establish and/or strengthen, where appropriate, research
         capabilities in the development and promotion of new and renewable
         sources of energy, including wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric,
         wave and biomass energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion.

    (iv) Strengthen research capabilities and develop technologies to
         encourage the efficient utilization of non-renewable sources of
         energy.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Establish or strengthen research and policy capabilities in the
         development of new and renewable sources of energy, including wind,
         solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave and biomass energy.

    (ii) Assist, where appropriate, in the formulation of energy policies,
         standards and guidelines for the energy sector that are applicable
         to small island developing States, and enhance national capacity to
         effectively plan, manage and monitor their energy sectors.

   (iii) Gather and disseminate information, and promote regional cooperation
         and technical exchanges among small island developing States on
         energy-sector issues, including new and renewable sources of energy.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Support the research, development and utilization of renewable
         sources of energy and related technologies and improve the
         efficiency of existing technologies and end-use equipment based on
         conventional energy sources.

    (ii) Formulate and ratify international agreements on energy-sector
         issues in relation to sustainable development in such areas as
         carbon emissions and the transportation of petroleum (for example,
         the use of double-hulled tankers).

   (iii) Develop effective mechanisms for the transfer of energy technology
         and establish databases to disseminate information on experience in
         the use of new and renewable sources of energy as well as on the
         efficient use of non-renewable energy sources.

    (iv) Encourage international institutions and agencies, including public
         international financial institutions, to incorporate environmental
         efficiency and conservation principles into energy-sector-related
         projects, training and technical assistance, and, where appropriate,
         to provide concessionary financing facilities for energy-sector
         reforms.

     (v) Develop effective and efficient ways of utilizing, disposing of,
         recycling and reducing the by-products and waste of energy
         production.


                           VIII.  TOURISM RESOURCES

                               Basis for action

39.  Tourism has contributed much to the development of small island
developing States and, as one of only a few development options for those
small States, will continue to be very important for their future growth.  It
could also stimulate the development of other sectors.  However, if not
properly planned and managed, tourism could significantly degrade the
environment on which it is so dependent.  The fragility and interdependence of
coastal zones and the unspoilt areas on which eco-tourism depends calls for
careful management.  One of the special tourist attractions of small island
developing States is the distinctiveness of their cultures.  The diversity and
fragility of their environments are reflected in the diversity and fragility
of their cultures.  The protection of the former is an important condition for
the protection of the latter.

40.  Capital investment in tourism, particularly for the necessary
infrastructure, is costly.  There is usually great competition for land
resources among tourism, agriculture and other land uses.  Large increases in
tourism and the overdevelopment of tourism in particular areas or in whole
islands could be environmentally and culturally disruptive and detrimental to
other valuable sectors, such as agriculture.  It is imperative, therefore,
that the development of tourism be carefully planned, particularly in relation
to compatible land uses, water management, coastal zone management and the
development of parks and protected areas.  Tourism, like all forms of
development in the coastal zone, needs to be carefully integrated within the
existing cultural and environmental constraints and opportunities present
within small island developing States.  Eco-tourism, linking areas of high
ecological value to low-impact tourism, may present important and
environmentally sustainable opportunities for tourism development in small
island developing States.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Ensure that tourism development and environmental management are
         mutually supportive.

    (ii) Adopt integrated planning and policies to ensure sustainable tourism
         development, with particular attention to land-use planning and
         coastal zone management, requiring environmental impact assessments
         for all tourism projects; the continuous monitoring of the
         environmental impact of all tourism activities; and the development
         of guidelines and standards for design and construction taking into
         account energy and water consumption, the generation and disposal of
         wastes and land degradation, the proper management and protection of
         eco-tourism attractions, and the carrying capacity of areas for
         tourism.

   (iii) Identify and develop facilities to meet specific niche markets,
         particularly in eco-tourism, nature and cultural tourism, and
         involve local populations in the identification and management of
         natural protected areas set aside for eco-tourism.

    (iv) Adopt measures to protect the cultural integrity of small island
         developing States.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Ensure that tourism and the environment are mutually supportive in
         cooperation schemes at the regional level including, where
         appropriate, through harmonizing standards and regulations.

    (ii) Encourage the assessment and development of potential
         complementarities among small island developing States, including
         the development of packaged options covering several islands and
         joint marketing and training programmes.

   (iii) Establish or strengthen regional mechanisms for the exchange of
         information on the development of a safe and sustainable tourism
         sector, using, as appropriate, the capacities of regional tourism
         organizations.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Promote the recognition by the international community of both the
         value of tourism in small island developing States and the fragility
         of the resources on which it depends, and of the resulting need for
         international support to encourage its sustainable development.

    (ii) Facilitate efforts, at the national and regional levels, to assess
         the overall impact of the economic, social and ecological aspects of
         tourism, plan sustainable tourism and to develop eco- and cultural
         tourism.


                          IX.  BIODIVERSITY RESOURCES

                               Basis for action

41.  Small island developing States are renowned for their species diversity
and endemism.  However, due to the small size, isolation and fragility of
island ecosystems, their biological diversity is among the most threatened in
the world.  Deforestation, coral reef deterioration, habitat degradation and
loss, and the introduction of certain non-indigenous species are the most
significant causes of the loss of biodiversity in small island developing
States.

42.  In the past, there has been a strong emphasis on the collection of more
information.  In small island developing States where limited and biologically
precious resources are being threatened, while the lack of sufficient
information is often cited as a rationale for inaction, there is often enough
information to identify areas requiring in situ conservation.  Although more
information will be required in order to develop appropriate management plans,
information collection should no longer be a prior condition for in situ
conservation projects.

43.  The nature of traditional, often communal land and marine resource
ownership in many island countries requires community support for the
conservation effort.  Without that local support and commitment and the
opportunity to integrate sustainable income generation into the conservation
effort, even the most highly studied and well planned conservation area will
not be sustainable.

44.  Some of the most precious biological resources for islanders,
environmentally, economically and culturally, are marine and coastal rather
than terrestrial.  This requires a conservation focus that takes into account
customary land and reef tenure systems and practices, which may differ from
that usually found in the larger developed countries.  Other considerations
include the adequacy of basic institutional support for conservation efforts
(staff, vehicles etc.) and access to financial resources to help start
innovative projects.

45.  A number of international and regional conventions exist concerning the
conservation and sustainable utilization of biological resources, which are
expected to provide a sound legal framework of potential benefit to the
sustainable development of small island developing States.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Formulate and implement integrated strategies for the conservation
         and sustainable use of terrestrial and marine biodiversity, in
         particular endemic species, including protection from the
         introduction of certain non-indigenous species and the
         identification of sites of high biological significance for the
         conservation of biological diversity and/or for eco-tourism and
         other sustainable development opportunities, such as sustainable
         agriculture, training and research.

    (ii) Ratify and implement the Convention on Biological Diversity, 10/ the
         Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
         Fauna and Flora 11/ and other relevant international and regional
         conventions.

   (iii) Promote community support for the conservation of biological
         diversity and the designation of protected areas by concentrating on
         educational strategies that increase awareness of the significance
         of biodiversity conservation, in particular the fundamental
         importance to resource-owning communities of a diverse biological
         resource base.

    (iv) Generate and maintain buffer stocks or gene banks of biogenetic
         resources for reintroduction into their natural habitat, especially
         in the case of post-disaster restoration and rehabilitation.

     (v) Develop or continue studies and research on biological resources,
         their management and their intrinsic socio-economic and cultural
         value, including biotechnology.

    (vi) Conduct detailed inventories of existing flora, fauna and ecosystems
         to provide basic data needed for the preservation of biodiversity.

   (vii) Ensure that the ownership of intellectual property rights is
         adequately and effectively protected.  Ensure, subject to national
         legislation and policies, that the technology, knowledge, and
         customary and traditional practices of local and indigenous people,
         including resource owners and custodians, are adequately and
         effectively protected, and that they thereby benefit directly, on an
         equitable basis and on mutually agreed terms, from any utilization
         of such technologies, knowledge and practices, or from any
         technological development directly derived therefrom.

  (viii) Support the involvement of non-governmental organizations, women,
         indigenous people and other major groups, as well as fishing
         communities and farmers, in the conservation and sustainable use of
         biodiversity and biotechnology.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Encourage countries to give priority to known, existing sites of
         biological significance - while recognizing that there are many
         important sites whose biological significance remains unknown - and
         to build up community support for the protection of those areas
         including their protection from the introduction of non-indigenous
         species.

    (ii) Promote regional studies of the socio-economic and cultural value of
         biological resources, including genetic engineering, intellectual
         property rights and access to biotechnology, with the participation
         of existing or strengthened scientific institutions, relevant
         international agencies and non-governmental organizations.

   (iii) Promote the establishment of regional gene-bank centres for
         research, seeking the development and introduction of more resistant
         and productive varieties of species, and provide the appropriate
         legal and technical procedures for the use of those biological
         resources.

    (iv) Coordinate information exchange, training and technical assistance
         in support of national efforts to establish and manage conservation
         areas and for species conservation, including the identification and
         use of traditional knowledge and techniques for resource management
         that assist the conservation of biological resources and diversity.

     (v) Promote and/or strengthen already existing regional scientific
         institutions that can operate as reference centres for problems
         related to the conservation and sustainable management of
         biodiversity.

    (vi) Strengthen the capacity of regional organizations to provide
         technical support and coordination in the development of inventories
         of flora, fauna and ecosystems and, where feasible, to establish
         regional databases and gene banks.

   (vii) Support the development of adequate and effective legal mechanisms
         for the protection of intellectual property rights.



                           C.  International action

     (i) Provide improved access to financial and technical resources for the
         conservation of biological diversity, including funds for basic
         institutional and logistic support for the conservation and
         management of biological diversity, with priority to be accorded to
         terrestrial as well as coastal and marine biodiversity, such as
         coral reef ecosystems.

    (ii) Improve access to environmentally sound biotechnology, including
         know-how and delivery mechanisms.

   (iii) Ensure that the activities of relevant international organizations,
         agencies and programmes of the United Nations as well as relevant
         non-governmental organizations are closely coordinated with and
         supportive of identified regional small island developing States
         centres or ongoing programmes in the conservation and sustainable
         use of biodiversity and biotechnology.

    (iv) Make greater use of import restrictions under the Convention on
         International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora on
         products from endangered species endemic to small island developing
         States.

     (v) Support national and regional actions for developing inventories of
         flora, fauna and ecosystems, including training and technical
         assistance.

    (vi) Support strategies to protect small island developing States from
         the introduction of non-indigenous species.

   (vii) Promote the full involvement of non-governmental organizations,
         women, indigenous people and other major groups, as well as fishing
         communities and farmers, in the conservation and sustainable use of
         biodiversity and biotechnology.


             X.  NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY

                               Basis for action

46.  To address the environmental resource management priorities essential to
the sustainable development of small island developing States, national
institutional and administrative arrangements are increasingly embracing the
interrelated nature of activities in their limited land area.  The integration
of environmental considerations into the national decision-making processes is
considered to be the single most important step to be taken by small island
developing States to ensure that those problems are addressed and that the
principles of sustainability guide all future development.

47.  Economic imperatives must be evaluated from the perspective of
socio-environmental considerations if the natural resource base is to be
preserved for the benefit of present and future generations and social and
cultural values safeguarded.  Economic development must become sustainable
development by incorporating environmental and resource management.  This
requires the adoption of interdisciplinary approaches to both planning and
decision-making, as well as, to the extent possible, the encouragement of
public participation in the process.

48.  Formal integration of economic and environmental considerations will
necessitate a series of institutional adjustments within government
administrations, accompanied by across-the-board strengthening of
environmental administrative capacity.  This must happen at all levels of
government, including at the local level.  Many forms of institutional
adjustment are conceivable and should be tailored to specific country needs. 
It is recognized that that process would benefit from public participation.

49.  Many countries have prepared environmental strategies and plans that
integrate environment and development; they are seen as the first step in a
process leading to the wide application of sustainable development principles.

For those plans to promote sustainable development, however, they must be
utilized for national decision-making, including at all appropriate levels of
government, in order that environment and development policy can be carefully
integrated.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Strengthen institutional arrangements and administrative capacity,
         including cross-sectoral/inter-ministerial committees and task
         forces, in order to integrate environment and economic policy into
         national planning and across sectors and ensure the capacity to
         implement Agenda 21 and the decisions of the Global Conference.

    (ii) Develop implementation strategies and schedules, including
         financing, for both regional and national activities.

   (iii) Establish or strengthen environmental agencies with adequate
         financial and staff resources.

    (iv) Increase the awareness and involvement of non-governmental
         organizations, local communities and other major groups in public
         education, national planning and the implementation of sustainable
         development programmes.

     (v) Improve public education in order to familiarize local,
         provincial/State and national bodies with environmental laws already
         in existence, facilitate discussion of the value of environmental
         legislation and standards to local communities and open wider
         discussion on more culturally appropriate penalties for the
         contravention of laws and regulations.

    (vi) Develop appropriate national, provincial/State and local
         environmental regulations that reflect the needs and incorporate the
         principles of sustainability, create appropriate environmental
         standards and procedures, and ensure their integration into national
         planning instruments and development projects at an early stage in
         the design process, including specific legislation for appropriate
         environmental impact assessment for both public and private sector
         development.

   (vii) Give sustainable development task forces or their equivalent the
         official authority and validity to permit their continued meeting as
         interdisciplinary and communally representative advisory bodies.

  (viii) Provide adequate resources for the enforcement of environmental
         regulations.

    (ix) Enact the domestic legislation required for the implementation of
         the wide range of international environmental conventions and
         agreements directly relevant to small island developing States.

     (x) Establish national information nodes on the sustainable development
         of small island developing States in order to encourage, at the
         international level, the development of a small islands' sustainable
         development information network to facilitate the exchange of
         experience among small island developing States.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Assist, where appropriate, with the preparation and implementation
         of national environmental strategies and plans.

    (ii) Provide appropriate research, training and information dissemination
         in order to facilitate the mainstreaming of environment in
         development planning and decision-making and coordination among
         sectors.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Improve access to financial and technical assistance in order to
         strengthen national institutions and administrative and operational
         capacity.

    (ii) Support the development of a small islands' sustainable development
         information network to facilitate the exchange of experience among
         small island developing States.

   (iii) Assist in providing training and capacity-building services to
         facilitate the ratification and implementation of appropriate
         international instruments.

    (iv) Promote closer cooperation to improve national and international
         measures to combat illicit drug trafficking and money laundering.


             XI.  REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION

                               Basis for action

50.  The limited human resources and small size of small island developing
States makes it especially important to pool those resources through regional
cooperation and institutions.  It is essential that effective support for
regional projects be coordinated through regional bodies.  This is desirable
to avoid duplication and achieve complementarity of assistance.

51.  Regional organizations, both United Nations and non-United Nations, can
play a key role in facilitating efficient and effective assistance to small
island developing States.  Regional organizations are also useful vehicles, in
many instances, for the implementation of regional programmes.  The
programming, administrative and implementation capacities of those bodies can
further be improved with the support of member nations and other donors.

52.  Currently, multilateral and bilateral donors undertake their own
regional programming exercises through regular dialogue with small island
developing States and relevant bodies.  Non-governmental organizations also
deliver services at the national and regional level in support of regional
programmes.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Support regional organizations through membership and budgetary
         contributions.

    (ii) Encourage improved coordination and collaboration among regional
         bodies and between the international community and regional
         programmes.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Improve coordination among regional bodies for the sustainable
         development of small island developing States as outlined in
         Agenda 21.

    (ii) Formulate regional programmes and strategies jointly between
         regional bodies and national authorities consistent with Agenda 21.

   (iii) Develop a small island developing States technical assistance
         programme to promote inter- and intraregional cooperation on
         sustainable development in small island developing States. 

    (iv) Establish, where appropriate, and support regional sustainable
         development centres to facilitate the sustainable development of
         small island developing States in the areas of research, training,
         the development of endogenous technology, the transfer of technology
         and the provision of legal and technical advice, taking into account
         the work of existing relevant institutions, including universities.

     (v) Draft model environmental provisions as a guide for countries,
         leaving to each small island developing State the incorporation of
         country-specific provisions to reflect the variety and diversity of
         national and customary laws and procedures, and encourage, where
         appropriate, the harmonization of environmental legislation and
         policies within and among small island developing States with a view
         to ensuring a high degree of environmental protection.

    (vi) Prepare environmental law training manuals for both lawyers and
         others working in the environmental field.

   (vii) Conduct regional and in-country workshops on environmental law
         subjects, including environmental conventions and treaties,
         environmental impact assessment, heritage, pollution, civil
         enforcement, prosecution and environmental mediation.

  (viii) Assess and inform small island developing States about the content,
         notification processes, financial and legal implications of relevant
         international environmental instruments and conventions in order to
         encourage small island developing States to accede to and implement
         them.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Support environmental law offices within regional and subregional
         organizations to implement regional approaches, including the
         development of relevant expertise.

    (ii) Improve access to financial and technical resources for the
         development and/or strengthening of regional bodies in order to
         respond to the sustainable development needs of small island
         developing States.

   (iii) Improve coordination with relevant regional/subregional bodies to
         implement Agenda 21 and the decisions of the Global Conference.

    (iv) Strengthen regional bodies in order to improve their capacity to
         respond to the sustainable development needs of small island
         developing States.


                       XII.  TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

                               Basis for action

53.  Transport and communications are the lifelines linking small island
developing States with the outside world, with each other and within their own
countries, and are an important means of achieving sustainable development. 
Distance and isolation have resulted in relatively high transport costs,
including high transport insurance costs, for many small island developing
States.  The quality and frequency of international shipping and air services
are largely beyond the control of island States.  Domestic markets are too
small to provide economies of scale and the remoteness of many rural and
outer-island communities constrains options and increases costs.  While
national airlines are necessary to serve the local market, especially in
archipelagic States, they tend to fragment the regional market.  The
constraining influence of those factors on the sustainable development of
island countries cannot be underestimated.

54.  The environmental uses associated with transport and communications
development, including quarantine, also need to be properly addressed.  Such
issues include land transport, which has been found to be one of the greatest
degraders of the urban environment, at both national and regional levels and
which appears to have lagged behind improvements and major changes in
transport services.

55.  Devising innovative approaches to resolving transport and communications
problems, such as the development of low-cost high-tech methods for the moving
of cargo, and improving community access to telephone, radio and related
services are major challenges.  Improving the management and maintenance of
existing transport and communications infrastructure is a further challenge. 
In building new infrastructure, particular consideration needs to be given to
maintenance and recurrent cost issues.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Continue efforts to strengthen transport services and facilities at
         both the national and local levels, paying particular attention to
         environmental protection, safety, and innovative energy-efficient
         and low-cost transport solutions.

    (ii) Upgrade domestic communication facilities, including radio and
         telephone coverage, to remote rural and outer island communities,
         and continue efforts to improve international telecommunications
         links.

   (iii) Address quarantine problems and requirements stemming from changing
         transport situations and longer-term climatic changes.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Foster increased cooperation in civil aviation, shipping and
         telecommunications, including exploring possibilities for the 
         consolidation of national airline services, recognizing the
         important contribution that could be made through the regional
         planning of transport and telecommunications facilities and
         networks.

    (ii) Develop effective quarantine services, including through upgrading
         existing plant protection and related programmes.

   (iii) Encourage the application of appropriate communications technologies
         to promote sustainable development in areas such as education,
         health, eco-tourism and other areas critical to sustainable
         development, including the promotion of greater public awareness.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Develop innovative energy-efficient transport solutions to move
         people and cargo to and from island ports without the need to
         establish high-cost infrastructure.

    (ii) Cooperate with national and regional bodies in designing and
         enforcing effective quarantine systems.

   (iii) Improve access to financial and technical resources in support of
         regional organizations that are coordinating and advising small
         island developing States in the fields of transport and
         communications.

    (iv) Promote research and development in telecommunications and
         transportation that is relevant to the sustainable development of
         small island developing States.

     (v) Promote improved international telecommunications at the lowest
         possible cost for small island developing States, while recognizing
         the need to create an environment conducive to investment in
         telecommunications infrastructure and service to benefit local
         business and people.



                         XIII.  SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

                               Basis for action

56.  Science and technology are crucial for the achievement of sustainable
development.  There would be considerable benefit if all countries
incorporated environmentally friendly technologies to a greater extent. 
However, in small island developing States, science and technological capacity
remains underdeveloped both in terms of research and development institutions
and of the availability of scientists to serve such institutions on a
sustained basis.  At the same time, some island peoples survive on traditional
knowledge and its application, which is being threatened in small island
developing States increasingly driven to adopt modern technologies and
scientific understanding.  A better integration of contemporary and
traditional knowledge could also prove beneficial.

57.  Many new environmentally sound technologies relevant to economic
activities in small island developing States are becoming available,
information concerning which and the ability to assess which are crucial for
technological change to achieve sustainable development.  Science and
technological capacity require trained people to serve in production
enterprises, to engage in training and to help in the assessment and
adaptation of imported technologies.

58.  Small island developing States will benefit from increased access to
imported technologies to facilitate their sustainable development.  However,
an improved capacity to tap local knowledge and to develop environmentally
sound endogenous technologies is also an important step towards sustainable
development in a number of areas, including agriculture, agricultural
processing, construction, communications and the marine sciences.

59.  Trained people are needed in a wider range of fields in order to ensure
adequate training and capacity for environmental impact and technology
assessment.  Limited national capacities mean that in a number of those areas,
emphasis will have to be given to regional and subregional approaches and
joint ventures with the international community.  Encouragement of private
sector involvement could also be very important because of limited
governmental capacity to undertake both training and research and development.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Ensure that science and technology policy is closely linked to
         national environmental strategies and sustainable development plans
         and is responsive to local and sectoral sustainable development
         needs, emphasizing self-sufficiency and the minimization of import
         dependency.

    (ii) Give greater emphasis to research and development, as well as to
         training for science and technology and economic development
         generally, and for environmental and technology assessment in
         particular; refine analytical tools for natural resource accounting;
         and encourage the development and use of information and
         communications technology to overcome size and isolation problems.

   (iii) Promote research and development in areas where endogenous
         technologies and traditional practices have great relevance,
         including agriculture, agricultural processing, waste-recycling,
         ethnobiology and biotechnology, construction and renewable energy,
         ensuring that mechanisms are in place for the appropriate protection
         of intellectual property rights in accordance with relevant
         international conventions.

    (iv) Encourage the use of endogenous, environmentally friendly
         technologies by establishing regulations, standards and economic
         incentives.

     (v) Develop or ensure access to databases on environmentally sound
         technologies of local relevance and collect consistent time-series
         data for monitoring the performance of sustainable development.

    (vi) Promote and strengthen the role of women in science and technology
         disciplines.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Develop or strengthen efforts, through relevant regional
         organizations and institutions, to assist small island developing
         States in assessing technology, developing databases on
         environmentally sound technologies, conducting relevant research and
         development and training, and developing appropriate information
         systems to share experience within and among small island developing
         States.

    (ii) Encourage appropriate regional standards and the standardization of
         analytical methods as well as scientific inter-calibration exercises
         in order to facilitate the exchange of data.

   (iii) Develop and strengthen regional ocean sciences networks, with
         particular reference to data collection and the dissemination of
         information relevant to small island developing States.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Facilitate the access to and development of environmentally sound
         technologies that are relevant to small island developing States,
         including coastal zone management and marine and ocean sciences,
         using, inter alia, joint ventures, joint research and development
         programmes and financial mechanisms.

    (ii) Strengthen the coordination and networking of the various national
         centres, regional organizations and institutions, and international
         organizations working in areas of science and technology in order to
         facilitate information flows, database creation and access, and
         greater collaboration and technical cooperation in programmes.

   (iii) Encourage development within the international community, including
         the United Nations system, of appropriate programmes in support of
         regional and national efforts to build the science and technology
         capacities of small island developing States, including those that
         increase the output and range of their limited human resources,
         taking into account relevant activities of the Commission on
         Sustainable Development and the Commission on Science and Technology
         for Development.

    (iv) Take account of the needs of small island developing States in the
         action plan for training in integrated coastal zone management being
         developed cooperatively by UNDP and the Division for Ocean Affairs
         and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations Secretariat.

     (v) Facilitate the full involvement of scientists and other experts from
         small island developing States in marine scientific research.

    (vi) Promote the free flow of, and access to, data and information
         resulting from marine scientific research, particularly as it
         relates to monitoring in small island developing States.

   (vii) Accelerate the development of the coastal module of the Global Ocean
         Observing System, due to its particular importance to small island
         developing States.


                       XIV.  HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

                               Basis for action

60.  Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development
and thus significant attention must be given to projects that will enhance the
quality of human life in small island developing States.  Projects should be
undertaken with a view to not only the contribution that individuals, groups,
communities and nations can make towards sustainable development but more
importantly how those projects will ultimately affect the well-being of those
living in small island developing States.

61.  The smallness and vulnerability of small island developing States
necessitates that special attention be paid to population issues, education
and training, and health for effective human resource development.  The need
for attention to human resource development issues is demonstrated by poor
health and social services; poor nutrition and housing; low levels of female
participation in development; the current insufficiency of education,
information and means, as appropriate, for the responsible planning of family
size; and inadequate family planning services.  In addition, the uncounted
costs of drug abuse include rising health costs, increased unemployment and
the diversion of scarce human resources.  High population densities and
growth, as well as depopulation in some areas, are constraints to achieving
sustainable development in many small island developing States.  Increasing
attention must be given to the concept of island carrying capacity and
environmental health, especially for fragile and highly populated environments
in urban areas, coastal zones and hillsides.

62.  It is a matter of high priority to strengthen national educational and
training mechanisms in order to facilitate the flow of information on
sustainable development issues, enhance public awareness of the environment
and encourage participation in the implementation of effective solutions.  A
key requirement is to promote access to and improve the quality of basic
education.

63.  Environmental education and science training, particularly on issues
specific to small island developing States, are essential to developing
environmental awareness.  Training in environmental management and sustainable
development are needed at all levels of the education system.  For
professional training, multidisciplinary approaches are needed.  There is a
demand for knowledge on the environment to meet both educational and
professional needs.  Areas in which more training is greatly needed are
science and technology generally; technology assessment; environmental impact
assessment; environmental management and sustainable development;
environmental chemistry; environmental engineering; physical planning and the
development of geographic information systems; and information and
communications technology.

64.  Chapter 6 of Agenda 21 recognizes the close dependency of human health
on a healthy environment and provides a list of priority actions.  Although
some small island developing States have implemented relevant activities, the
overall improvement in the health of their populations continues to slow down.

Furthermore, in many cases the health conditions of vulnerable groups, such as
poor women and children, have actually deteriorated.


                  A.  National action, policies and measures

     (i) Infuse sustainable development ideas into education curricula at all
         levels and promote participation by all groups, emphasizing the link
         between environment and social and economic issues, and continue to
         improve access to scientific, mathematics and technical training.

    (ii) Incorporate population issues into the mainstream of decision-making
         and planning mechanisms of government, including developing
         comprehensive population policies consistent with sustainable
         development objectives while respecting and promoting the dignity
         and the fundamental rights of the human person and of the family.

   (iii) Improve urban/rural settlements, in consultation with local
         communities, by giving priority to the improvement of basic
         services, such as access to potable water, environmentally sound
         sewage treatment and disposal, shelter, education, family planning
         and health care, as well as to the elimination of poverty; ensuring
         that development projects are people-centred and have explicit
         environment and health objectives; ensuring adequate resources for
         public health and preventive medicine activities; and considering
         urban development options, including decentralization.

    (iv) Direct efforts to improve urban/rural settlements through the
         promotion of projects aimed at the elimination of poverty that give
         priority to the improvement of basic services such as shelter and
         comprehensive public health, including potable water, sewage
         disposal, maternal and child health care, the responsible planning
         of family size and other specific measures aimed at health promotion
         and disease prevention.

     (v) Encourage the use of distance training to meet the expanding
         educational demand and the large demand for knowledge and training
         in the area of the environment.

    (vi) Promote and strengthen the role of major groups, including
         non-governmental organizations and women, in the creation and
         implementation of sustainable development initiatives.

   (vii) Seek to improve the quality of education, training and human
         resource development by upgrading basic education and
         technical/vocational skills training and by making improvements,
         where necessary, to national management and planning capacities and
         labour market linkages.

  (viii) Encourage the use of traditional knowledge and skills in
         environment, resource management and health, and the use of
         community groups to assist in promoting environmental awareness.


                              B.  Regional action

     (i) Support national efforts to develop appropriate curricula for
         sustainable development at all levels, including the introduction,
         development and/or access to interdisciplinary training in
         environmental sciences at a tertiary level, and improve the
         coordination of training activities on sustainable development and
         environmental issues that are being conducted throughout small
         island developing States by different organizations, including
         non-governmental organizations.

    (ii) Assess the impact of urbanization on the physical and human
         environments and provide health evaluation and impact assessment
         capability for small island developing States.

   (iii) Enhance regional cooperation in educational and human resource
         development and improve the responsiveness of education centres to
         regional requirements.


                           C.  International action

     (i) Support efforts to develop curricula for sustainable development, in
         particular tertiary level courses on environmental management and
         sustainable development, encouraging multidisciplinary approaches.

    (ii) Provide appropriate resources to meet the particular population
         concerns of small island developing States, including the
         implementation of any relevant outcomes of the International
         Conference on Population and Development.

   (iii) Improve the coordination and targeting of the education and human
         resource development programmes provided by the development partners
         of small island developing States.

    (iv) Support national and regional efforts to improve education and human
         resource development in small island developing States.

     (v) Encourage and support technical cooperation among small island
         developing States and other developing countries as a means of
         enhancing sustainable development.

    (vi) Support efforts to promote and strengthen the role of small island
         developing States in the creation and implementation of sustainable
         development initiatives.

   (vii) Support basic regional and national formal and informal health
         training institutions and research on the technology and health
         problems of small island developing States, paying more attention to
         malaria, nutrition, drugs, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
         and maternal and infant health care, and support national and
         regional efforts to improve urban/rural settlements.

  (viii) Support an integrated approach to drug-abuse control, in accordance
         with international conventions, including the Single Convention on
         Narcotic Drugs, 1961, 12/ 14/ the Protocol amending the Single
         Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, 13/ 14/ the Convention on
         Psychotropic Substances (1971), 15/ and the United Nations
         Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and
         Psychotropic Substances (1988). 16/

    (ix) Support environmental education programmes specific to island
         environments and adapted to all levels, including primary and
         secondary schools, with curricula and materials tailored to the
         interests and needs of end-users.

     (x) Continue to support and increase, where possible, scientific and
         technical training in order to promote sustainable development.

    (xi) Support programmes aimed at increasing the involvement of community-
         based organizations in conservation and natural resource management
         programmes, including planning and decision-making.

   (xii) Provide assistance for the training of policy makers in the area of
         natural resources management, including policy related courses for
         the resolution of competing demands, the multiple use of resources
         and other policy related environmental issues.

  (xiii) Support small island developing States in their efforts to improve
         urban/rural settlements, by promoting projects aimed at human
         development and the elimination of poverty, particularly urban
         development options such as decentralization, and by ensuring that
         such projects have adequate resources.

65.  The recommendations and language contained in the present chapter should
in no way prejudge discussions at the International Conference on Population
and Development, to be held in Cairo from 5 to 13 September 1994.


                  XV.  IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND REVIEW

66.  Effective implementation, monitoring and review of the present Programme
of Action is essential for the sustainable development of small island
developing States.  The Programme of Action provides an opportunity for the
international community to demonstrate its commitment to the means of
implementation adopted in Agenda 21.  Since small island developing States are
among the most environmentally vulnerable, the United Nations system and the
international community, in line with Principle 6 of the Rio Declaration on
Environment and Development and on the basis of chapter 17, section G of
Agenda 21, shall give special priority to the situations and the needs of
small island developing States in the implementation of the Programme of
Action.  That will require, in particular, providing adequate resources for
implementation and actions at the national, regional and international levels.

67.  The implementation of the Programme of Action shall be consistent with a
number of parallel international processes important to the sustainable
development of small island developing States that contain relevant
provisions.  Those processes include the Commission on Sustainable
Development; the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; the
Convention on Biological Diversity; the United Nations Conference on
Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks; the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea; 17/ the International Conference on
Population and Development; the intergovernmental negotiations on land-based
sources of marine pollution of UNEP; the Intergovernmental Negotiating
Committee for the Elaboration of a Convention to Combat Desertification in
those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification,
particularly in Africa (INCD); the World Coast Conference 1993; the Bamako
Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of
Transboundary Movements and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa; 18/
the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
Wastes and their Disposal, and other relevant international instruments for
the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal;
the Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of
the South Pacific Region; the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); the Convention on Wetlands of
International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat; 20/ the Fourth World
Conference on Women; the World Summit for Social Development; and the World
Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction.  Support for the participation of
small island developing States in those processes will be important and those
processes will need to reflect the outcome of the Global Conference on the
Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.  As small island
developing States develop their approaches for sustainable development, the
international community should pursue actions that will improve the capacity
of small islands to address a number of specific issues, making the most
efficient use possible of opportunities in other international forums to
ensure an integrated and comprehensive approach.

68.  As recognized in Agenda 21, Governments will be primarily responsible
for the implementation of the Programme of Action.  The sustainable
development of small island developing States will require the development of
national and regional strategies, plans, policies and processes. 
International cooperation to support and complement such efforts will be
essential.  The United Nations system has a key role to play in close
cooperation and coordination with other international, regional and
subregional organizations, which are called upon to contribute in large
measure to that effort.  For small island developing States, regional and
subregional efforts have proved successful and will remain the principal
instruments for collective action.  Consistent with Agenda 21, the
implementation of the Programme of Action will also require the engagement and
active participation of major groups, including women; children and youth;
indigenous people and their communities; non-governmental organizations; local
authorities; workers and their trade unions; business and industry; the
scientific and technological community; and farmers.


                          A.  National implementation

69.  Small island developing States have begun to implement Agenda 21.  In
many cases, national strategies have been or are being developed as a basis
for action.  Further progress is required in order to ensure that
environmental considerations are given appropriate significance, in particular
at central levels of decision-making, and that there is a full integration of
environmental and developmental considerations at both micro- and macro-levels
respecting domestic, environmental and cultural values.  Considerable emphasis
has been placed on building endogenous capacity throughout the Programme of
Action, which will require considerable effort to implement.

70.  Progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and the decisions of the
Global Conference will depend ultimately on the resources that small island
developing States can mobilize from internal and external sources to meet the
great challenges of sustainable development in general and capacity-building
in particular.

71.  Critical to the effective implementation of the objectives, policies and
mechanisms agreed to by Governments in all programme areas of Agenda 21 will
be the commitment and genuine involvement of all social groups.  New
participatory approaches to policy-making and implementation of sustainable
development programmes will be necessary at all levels.  In that regard, there
is a special role for groups that include women, youth, senior citizens,
indigenous people and local communities, as well as the private sector, labour
and non-governmental organizations.  As stated in Agenda 21, one of the
fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is
broad public participation in decision-making.

72.  Some of the important actions necessary at the national level are
described below.


                                  1.  Finance

73.  The implementation of the Programme of Action will require adequate
resources to reflect the increased significance attached to sustainable
development considerations in national development planning.  Environment and
development strategies will also need to be integrated at the outset of
decision-making processes so as to ensure that macroeconomic policies are
supportive of national sustainable development goals and priorities.  In that
regard, while in general the financing for the implementation of the Programme
of Action at the national level will come from the public and private sectors
of small island developing States, various financing channels, including those
referred to in chapter 33 of Agenda 21, need to be explored in line with the
specific circumstances of small island developing States.

74.  In addition, resources at the national level should be further increased
to meet the sustainable development goals and priorities articulated in the
light of the Programme of Action, by optimizing the impact of available
resources and by exploring possibilities for increasing the use of economic
instruments, promoting private sector investment and using innovative
financial mechanisms with a view to achieving an appropriate mix between
traditional regulation and market-based mechanisms.  A move towards increasing
the use of economic instruments could be regarded as an important indirect
complementary mechanism for the financing of sustainable development at the
national level.

75.  Among possible innovative financial mechanisms, small-scale grants and
micro-enterprise loans for sustainable development activities at the community
level should be explored.

76.  For small island developing States, in particular the least developed
amongst them, official development assistance (ODA) is a major source of
external funding.  To maximize the benefits and impact of that financial and
technical assistance, operational mechanisms should be reviewed and/or
developed to ensure the fullest possible coordination among donors, small
island developing States and relevant international and non-governmental
organizations, taking into account local and community concerns.


                                   2.  Trade

77.  In order to achieve greater and more stable export earnings, small
island developing States should seek to develop a more diversified production
structure for goods and services that exploits existing or potential
comparative advantages and is consistent with environment and development
policies that are mutually supportive.


                                3.  Technology

78.  Measures should be encouraged to enhance the capacity for developing
indigenous technology, including the capacity to manage, assess, acquire,
disseminate and develop technologies, and for utilizing appropriate and
environmentally sound technologies, while adequately and effectively
protecting intellectual property rights.  Efforts should also be made to
ensure, subject to national legislation and policies, that the technology,
knowledge and customary and traditional practices of local and indigenous
people, including resource owners and custodians, are adequately and
effectively protected and that they thereby benefit directly, on an equitable
basis and on mutually agreed terms, from any utilization of such technologies,
knowledge and practices or from any technological development directly derived
therefrom.


                                4.  Legislation

79.  New legislation should be developed and existing legislation revised,
where appropriate, to support sustainable development, incorporating customary
and traditional legal principles where appropriate, backed up with training
and adequate resources for enforcement.


                         5.  Institutional development

80.  Appropriate national measures for institutional development should be
adopted to integrate environmental, population and development strategies in
national and sectoral development planning in order to achieve sustainable
development.


                       6.  Information and participation

81.  Efforts should be made to increase the awareness and involvement of
non-governmental organizations, women, local communities and other major
groups in national planning, the development of environmentally sound and
sustainable technologies, and the implementation of sustainable development
programmes.  They should include establishing or strengthening networks for
the dissemination of information to assist effective participation in the
planning and implementation of sustainable development activities.


                        7.  Human resource development

82.  National capacity-building should be increased at all levels by
promoting public awareness and human resource development, including
education, training and skill development, particularly of technicians,
scientists and decision makers, to enable them to better plan and implement
sustainable development programmes.


                          B.  Regional implementation

83.  In addition to ongoing programmes for the sustainable development of
small island developing States, and recognizing the need to implement all
activities within the Programme of Action, a number of important programmes
and measures are necessary at the regional level to support national
priorities.  Those programmes and measures are described below.


                                  1.  Finance

84.  Coordinated approaches should be developed to the extent possible, using
the mechanisms for consultations referred to in paragraph 132 below, as
appropriate, to mobilize financial resources for national and regional efforts
to implement sustainable development, including improving access to financial
resources, continuing to encourage private investment and identifying
opportunities for introducing innovative financial mechanisms.

85.  Regional development banks and other regional and subregional
organizations should also be encouraged to increase their technical and, as
appropriate, financial assistance in support of sustainable development in
small island developing States at the community, national and subregional
levels, including through mechanisms that can provide small-scale grants and
micro-enterprise loans.


                                2.  Technology

86.  The cooperative development and sharing of appropriate technology
through regional organizations and centres/networks should be encouraged as a
means of supporting the sustainable development of small island developing
States.


                                3.  Legislation

87.  National efforts to develop comprehensive legislation in support of
sustainable development and to ratify and implement international conventions
should be supported.  Legal training and training manuals in the areas of
environmental impact assessment, cultural heritage, pollution, civil
enforcement, mediation, and prosecution should be supported and, where
appropriate, the harmonization of environmental legislation and policies
within and among small island developing States in order to ensure high levels
of environmental protection should be encouraged.


                         4.  Institutional development

88.  National efforts to implement effective institutional models, at all
levels, for integrating environmental and population considerations within
development and sectoral planning, including the development and
implementation of appropriate approaches to integrated coastal zone management
should be supported.


                        5.  Human resource development

89.  National efforts at capacity-building through human resource
development, particularly through increased training at all levels,
particularly of technicians, scientists and decision makers, should be
promoted and supported to facilitate all aspects of planning and implementing
programmes for sustainable development.


                       C.  International implementation

90.  The Programme of Action is part of the process of the implementation of
Agenda 21, in particular, chapter 17, section G.


                                  1.  Finance

91.  The implementation of the Programme of Action will require the provision
of effective means, including adequate, predictable, new and additional
financial resources in accordance with chapter 33 of Agenda 21 to reflect the
increased significance attached to sustainable development considerations in
small island developing States.  The international community should supplement
national efforts on the part of small island developing States for the
implementation of Agenda 21 and the Programme of Action through mechanisms to
maximize access to concessional financial and technical assistance, and grant
assistance, at the levels necessary to support their sustainable development
efforts.

92.  To that end, it is essential to honour all financial commitments
contained in Agenda 21, taking into account, inter alia, Principle 6 of the
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.  In particular, there is a
need to activate the commitment made at UNCED to maximize the availability of
adequate, predictable, new and additional resources using all available
funding sources and mechanisms, as laid down in chapter 33 of Agenda 21.  In
that respect, there is a need to ensure better and more efficient use of ODA
and other existing external sources of finance.  In addition, the use of
innovative financing mechanisms, taking into account the objectives and
provisions of chapter 33 of Agenda 21, should be explored.  Furthermore, there
is a need to coordinate the efforts of donors and recipients.

93.  The international community should provide to small island developing
States concessional financial and technical assistance, and grant assistance,
at the levels necessary to support their sustainable development. 
International financial and technical assistance should take account of the
specific development needs and priorities, at the national and regional
levels, of small island developing States, as outlined in the Programme of
Action; of their sustainable development potential; and of the prospects for
increasing their contribution to global sustainability.  The concessional
assistance provided to small island developing States, both multilaterally and
bilaterally, should be targeted where it is most needed and should be
consistent with their sustainable development objectives and priorities.

94.  Since global environmental problems, particularly with respect to
climate change, biological diversity and international waters, are of great
significance and concern to small island developing States, the restructured
GEF should be seen as an important channel of assistance in those areas,
through the provision of new and additional resources.  In the determination
of eligibility criteria related to funding, and in the development of project
proposals for funding, GEF should pay due attention to the special needs and
requirements of small island developing States.

95.  The international community should seek to ensure that international
institutions, including financial institutions, pay appropriate attention to
the needs and priorities of small island developing States identified in the
Programme of Action.  In that regard, the UNDP Capacity 21 programme is
particularly applicable.  The international community should also support, as
appropriate, increased access to credit, including the facilitation of
micro-enterprise loans and the establishment of environmental trust funds, and
should promote foreign direct investment, joint ventures and other private
sector initiatives in accordance with national laws.  In that context, a
supportive international and domestic economic climate conducive to sustained
economic growth and development is important in order to achieve
sustainability.


                                   2.  Trade

96.  In order to achieve sustained economic growth and sustainable
development, small island developing States need to develop overseas markets
for value-added exports in areas in which they are internationally
competitive.  In addition, many small island developing States are dependent
on the international commodity markets for a major proportion of their export
receipts.  Poor market access and reliance on a single commodity are among the
problems faced by many small island developing States.  The need for a
supportive international economic climate and an open and non-discriminatory
trading system is essential, as demonstrated by the conclusion of the Uruguay
Round, to the sustained economic growth and sustainable development of the
small island developing States.  Trade liberalization with a view to enhancing
access to markets for the exports of small island developing States is
particularly important.

97.  Given their limited possibilities for generating local value-added,
deriving from their small market size, narrow resources base and limited
production of inputs, special efforts are needed to assist small island
developing States to increase their production and exports.  Towards that
objective, special consideration should be given, where appropriate, to the
local value-added criteria applicable to the exports of small island
developing States.

98.  The international community should seek to develop better functioning
and transparent international commodity markets.  The international community
should also assist small island developing States in their efforts to achieve
greater diversification of commodity sectors within a macroeconomic framework
that takes into account a country's economic structure, resource endowments
and market opportunities, as well as environmental considerations.  In that
connection, the fulfilment of measures designed under paragraph 2.16 of Agenda
21 is relevant to the sustainable development of small island developing
States.

99.  Taking into account the relevant work of international economic and
trade organizations, a study should be undertaken on the effects of trade
liberalization and globalization on the sustainable development of small
island developing States, including relevant recommendations.


                3.  Transfer of environmentally sound technologies,
                    cooperation and capacity-building

100. The transfer of environmentally sound technologies, cooperation and
capacity-building, technical cooperation among developing countries, including
among small island developing States, and the development and use of
indigenous technology constitute a crucial process for achieving sustainable
development in small island developing States.  In particular, the promotion
of and access to environmentally sound technologies is a key requirement for
enhancing the endogenous capacity of small island developing States.

101. In the context of small island developing States, there is a particular
need to focus on disseminating information regarding available technology;
improving the endogenous capacity of small island developing States to absorb,
manage and utilize environmentally sound technologies through, inter alia,
education and training; promoting, facilitating and financing access to and
the transfer of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how,
in particular to developing countries, on favourable terms, including on
concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, ensuring the need to
adequately and effectively protect intellectual property rights as well as
taking into account the special needs of developing countries; and ensuring,
as appropriate, the need to adequately and effectively protect the technology,
knowledge and customary and traditional practices of local and indigenous
people, including resource owners and custodians.

102. The fulfilment by Governments and international organizations of the
measures described in paragraph 34.18 of Agenda 21 is also of critical
importance to small island developing States.

(a)  Information

103. The use of the existing, as well as the establishment of, collaborative
networks of subregional and regional research and information systems, in
particular mechanisms to facilitate access by small island developing States
to information, should be supported.

104. Information on environmental emergencies that may result from poor or
inappropriate application of technologies, as well as early warning
information aimed at preventing natural and environmental disasters, should be
disseminated.

105. UNDP should be invited to coordinate a feasibility study in
collaboration with the small island developing States and relevant subregional
organizations for the implementation of a small island developing States
information network (SIDS/NET).  Such a study should be completed before the
commencement of the forty-ninth session of the United Nations General
Assembly.

106. UNDP should be invited to coordinate a feasibility study, in
collaboration with small island developing States and relevant subregional
organizations, to develop a small island developing States technical
assistance programme (SIDS/TAP) to promote inter- and intraregional
cooperation on sustainable development.  An integral component of SIDS/TAP
should be the compilation of a directory of institutions and scholars with
recognized expertise in the sustainable development of small island developing
States.  The study and the initial compilation of the directory should be
completed before the commencement of the forty-ninth session of the United
Nations General Assembly.

107. To support small island developing States in identifying and developing
facilities for eco-, nature and cultural tourism, as identified in
chapter VIII, section A, subparagraph (iii) and section C, subparagraph (i),
and consistent with current approaches to conserve biological diversity in
small island developing States, relevant international organizations, in
particular the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),
should, in close collaboration with small island developing States and through
their relevant regional organizations, facilitate the listing of areas within
small island developing States for listing under natural and cultural
provisions of the World Heritage Convention.  Those areas, and others
conserved using community-based, participatory approaches, would form the
basis of small island developing States/Heritage - a comprehensive
network/trail of sites of natural and cultural significance throughout small
island developing States.

(b)  Capacity-building

108. The national capacities of small island developing States to assess,
manage, absorb and utilize new technologies should be strengthened.  In that
context, the existing administrative infrastructure will need to be
strengthened so as to train personnel at all levels and educate the end-users
of those technologies.  The process should include training and skills
development, especially for women, youth and indigenous people.

109. Small island developing States should cooperate among themselves and
with other developing countries that are in a position to do so with a view to
developing and improving environmentally sound technologies.  The
international community should extend its full support to initiatives aimed at
promoting technology cooperation and capacity-building among small island
developing States and other developing countries.

110. The Commission on Sustainable Development plays an important role in
monitoring and focusing on proposals for mechanisms to promote the transfer,
use and dissemination of environmentally sound technologies that should be
explored in the implementation of the Programme of Action.

(c)  Finance

111. Bilateral and multilateral donors should strive to increase their
financial support at the national, regional and international levels for
activities that are designed to promote and facilitate the transfer of
environmentally sound technologies and capacity-building to small island
developing States.


                         4.  Legislation and training

112. International environmental law is an increasingly complex subject that
requires careful analysis with respect to its applicability to, and
integration with, national law.  Regional and international programmes to
enhance the capacity of small island developing States to develop and
implement appropriate national environmental legislation are very important. 
Such programmes should include providing support to small island developing
States for:

     (a) Training, including in all aspects of environmental law and, where
applicable, customary law;

     (b) Strengthening their capacity to participate effectively in the
negotiation of new or revised agreements or instruments;

     (c) Initiating national implementation of international agreements or
instruments.


                            5.  Vulnerability index

113. Small island developing States, in cooperation with national, regional
and international organizations and research centres, should continue work on
the development of vulnerability indices and other indicators that reflect the
status of small island developing States and integrate ecological fragility
and economic vulnerability.  Consideration should be given to how such an
index, as well as relevant studies undertaken on small island developing
States by other international institutions, might be used in addition to other
statistical measures as quantitative indicators of fragility.

114. Appropriate expertise should continue to be utilized in the development,
compilation and updating of the vulnerability index.  Such expertise could
include scholars and representatives of international organizations that have
at their disposal the data required to compile the vulnerability index. 
Relevant international organizations are invited to contribute to the
development of the index.  In addition, it is recommended that the work
currently under way in the United Nations system on the elaboration of
sustainable development indicators should take into account proposals on the
vulnerability index.


             D.  Institutional arrangements, monitoring and review

115. Existing international funding sources and mechanisms should ensure that
available financial resources, including new and additional financial
resources, are effectively applied to address the specific needs and concerns
of small island developing States identified in the Programme of Action.

116. Donors should utilize appropriate international coordination mechanisms
to focus attention on the special needs of small island developing States.


                        1.  Intergovernmental follow-up

117. The Commission on Sustainable Development, in carrying out its functions
in accordance with General Assembly resolution 47/191 and its Multi-Year
Thematic Programme of Work, should include in its consideration matters
related to the implementation of the outcome of the Global Conference on the
Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.  To that effect,
the Commission on Sustainable Development should, inter alia:

     (a) Make arrangements for monitoring and reviewing, in a distinct and
identifiable manner, in the context of its Multi-Year Thematic Programme of
Work and the annual consideration of cross-sectoral issues, the implementation
of the provisions agreed upon in the Programme of Action;

     (b) Carry out an initial review of the progress achieved and steps taken
to implement the Programme of Action, to be undertaken by the Commission on
Sustainable Development in 1996 in accordance with its Multi-Year Thematic
Programme of Work.  Furthermore, in 1997, when the Commission will carry out
the overall review of Agenda 21 with a view to preparing for the 1997 special
session of the General Assembly, the Commission should recommend specific
modalities for the full review of the Programme of Action in 1999.  That full
review would include the question of the convening of a second global
conference in accordance with chapter 17, section G of Agenda 21;

     (c) Recommend that the sub-item on the agenda of the General Assembly
entitled "Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States", under the item "Environment and sustainable development",
be retained and amended to read "Implementation of the outcome of the Global
Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States".


                                 2.  Reporting

118. In preparation for the reviews in 1996 and 1999, the Secretary-General
should prepare analytical reports on the implementation of the Programme of
Action, identifying, where possible, any obstacle to its implementation.  The
Secretary-General's reports should include consideration of system-wide
coordination and inputs from the relevant regions.

119. The reports should also analyse activities in respect of regional
implementation and should include:

     (a) Activities of United Nations agencies at the regional level;

     (b) Activities of other appropriate non-United Nations regional and
subregional organizations;

     (c) Multilateral, regional and bilateral activities;

     (d) National level activities;

     (e) Activities of non-governmental organizations, women and other major
groups;

     (f) Means by which the coordination of United Nations regional
activities has taken place at the inter-agency level, together with
suggestions for improvement.

120. The Secretary-General should also prepare reports for the reviews
in 1996 and 1999 that contain updated information on current donor activities
in support of the sustainable development of small island developing States,
as well as on the adequacy of international resources devoted to the Programme
of Action.

121. In that context, all States and relevant organs, organizations and
bodies of the United Nations, as well as other organizations and groups, are
invited to provide information on action taken to implement the Programme of
Action.


                         3.  Inter-agency coordination

122. The Programme of Action should provide in the context of Agenda 21 the
principal basis for the coordination of activities within the United Nations
system for the sustainable development of small island developing States.  To
ensure the effective implementation of the Programme of Action by the United
Nations system and taking into account the relevant provisions contained in
chapter 38 of Agenda 21 and resolution 47/191, the Inter-Agency Committee on
Sustainable Development should make the necessary provisions to consider, on a
regular basis, system-wide coordination in the implementation of Conference
outcomes.


                       4.  Secretariat support structure

123. It is essential for the follow-up to the Conference and the
implementation of the Programme of Action that a clearly identifiable,
qualified and competent entity within the Department for Policy Coordination
and Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat be put in place
to provide secretariat support for both intergovernmental and inter-agency
coordination mechanisms.  To that end, the necessary resources should be
provided, relying on the most efficient and cost-effective use of resources,
to fulfil the following functions:

     (a) Provide substantive secretariat support to intergovernmental and
inter-agency processes related to the monitoring, review and coordination of
the implementation of the Programme of Action;

     (b) Act as a liaison and focal point for Governments, organs, programmes
and agencies of the United Nations system, as well as other relevant
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, on matters related to
the follow-up to the Conference and the implementation of the Programme of
Action;

     (c) Prepare reports to be submitted to the Commission on Sustainable
Development, and other relevant bodies, on the implementation of the Programme
of Action, drawing on the inputs from all appropriate sources;

     (d) Provide support, as appropriate, to other activities emanating from
the Programme of Action.


                  5.  Organs, programmes and organizations of the
                      United Nations system

124. In the implementation of the Programme of Action, all relevant organs,
programmes and organizations of the United Nations system have an important
role within their respective areas of expertise and mandates in supporting and
supplementing national efforts.  The relevant programmes being carried out by
the United Nations system and the relevant regional and multinational
organizations in the regions and individual countries should be recognized,
consolidated and expanded or rationalized, as appropriate.  Initiatives to
promote economies of scale through integration should also be encouraged. 
Where applicable, the common objectives of members of regional integration
arrangements should be taken into account.

125. As set forth in Agenda 21, UNEP, taking into account development
perspectives, should continue to provide policy guidance and coordination in
the field of the environment, including in the implementation of the Programme
of Action for the sustainable development of small island developing States.

126. As set forth in Agenda 21, UNDP should continue to carry out its mandate
as the lead agency in organizing United Nations system efforts towards
capacity-building at the local, national and regional levels, and in fostering
the United Nations collective thrust in support of the implementation of the
Programme of Action through its network of field offices.

127. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development should have a
strengthened capacity to carry out, in accordance with its mandate, the
research and analysis necessary to complement the work of the Department for
Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development with respect to the
implementation of the Programme of Action.

128. The Secretary-General is requested to report to the General Assembly at
its forty-ninth session on action taken by the organs, organizations and
bodies of the United Nations system to implement the Programme of Action and
in that regard invite them to consider the establishment of focal points for
the implementation of the Programme of Action.


                   6.  Regional and subregional cooperation and
                       implementation

129. In accordance with Agenda 21, regional and subregional cooperation will
play an important role in the implementation of the Programme of Action for
the sustainable development of small island developing States.  The United
Nations regional commissions, regional development banks and regional and
subregional economic, environmental and technical cooperation organizations
can contribute to that process by:

     (a) Promoting regional and subregional capacity-building;

     (b) Promoting the integration of environmental concerns in regional and
subregional development policies;

     (c) Promoting regional and subregional cooperation, where appropriate,
regarding transboundary issues related to sustainable development.

130. Regional intergovernmental technical, economic and environmental
organizations have an important role to play in helping Governments to take
coordinated action to solve environment issues of regional significance.

131. As has been highlighted within the Programme of Action, pooling the
limited human resources of small island developing States through regional
cooperation and institutions is a necessary part of their progress towards
sustainable development.  Regional actions, based on priorities identified in
the national strategies and plans of many small island developing States,
require better coordination of effort, stronger regional organizations and
improved access to regional and external financial and technical resources,
both public and private.  To assist in those efforts, renewed emphasis should
be given to a more effective implementation of relevant international
programmes, including coordination and interchange between regions and among
islands within regions.

132. To facilitate the coordination and implementation of the Programme of
Action, a mechanism for consultation should be identified or devised, where
appropriate, within each region.  That would include:

     (a) Donors and recipients;

     (b) Relevant United Nations organizations, regional commissions and
non-United Nations regional and subregional organizations and banks;

     (c) Appropriate arrangements for the participation of non-governmental
organizations.

133. Relevant non-United Nations regional and subregional organizations,
including regional economic integration organizations, should be encouraged to
take the Programme of Action into account in the fulfilment of their
respective functions.

134. Each of the relevant regional commissions of the United Nations should
be enabled to support regional activities to coordinate the implementation of
Conference outcomes at the regional level, including providing the necessary
autonomy and adequate resources to their subregional offices and operational
centres, taking into account the ongoing process of decentralization.  That
would involve:

     (a) Assisting regional and subregional organizations and mechanisms
involved in the promotion of sustainable development, as appropriate;

     (b) Acting as a point of liaison between United Nations agencies and the
Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United
Nations Secretariat in New York, and among United Nations agencies at the
regional and subregional levels.

135. The Secretary-General, in his report to be submitted to the General
Assembly at its forty-ninth session, as requested in paragraph 128 above, is
also requested to report on progress made in the implementation of the above
recommendations and to include a section on the action taken by regional
commissions to implement the Programme of Action, particularly at the
subregional level.


                                     Notes

     1/  Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions adopted by
the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and
corrigendum), resolution 1, annex II.

     2/  Ibid., annex I.

     3/  A/AC.237/18 (Part II) and Add.1 and Add.1/Corr.1.

     4/  International Legal Materials, vol. 26, No. 6 (November 1987),
p. 1550.

     5/  UNEP/190/4 (forthcoming United Nations Treaty Series publication).

     6/  United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1046, No. 15749, p. 120.

     7/  See Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for
the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1340, No. 22484), p. 263.

     8/  Report of the Interregional Conference of Small Island Countries on
Sustainable Development and Environment in Agriculture, Forestry and
Fisheries, Christ Church, Barbados, 7-10 April 1992 (Rome, Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993), Part III.

     9/  Ibid., Part II.

     10/ See United Nations Environment Programme, Convention on Biological
Diversity (Environmental Law and Institutions Programme Activity Centre),
June 1992.

     11/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 993, No. 14537, p. 243.

     12/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 520, No. 7515, p. 151.

     13/ Ibid., vol. 976, No. 14151, p. 3.

     14/ See also Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by
the Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 (1975)
(United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 976, No. 14152), p. 105.

     15/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1019, No. 14956, p. 175.

     16/ E/CONF.82/15 and Corr.1 and Corr.2.

     17/ United Nations publication, Sales No. E.83.V.5

     18/ International Legal Materials, vol. 30, No. 3 (May 1991), p. 775 and
vol. 31, No. 1 (January 1992), p. 164.

     19/ Ibid., vol. 26, No. 1 (January 1987), p. 38.

     20/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 996, No. 14583, p. 245.


                                 Resolution 2

                   Expression of gratitude to the people and
                            Government of Barbados

     The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States,

     Having met in Bridgetown, Barbados at the invitation of the Government
of Barbados from 25 April to 6 May 1994,

     1.  Extends its deep appreciation to His Excellency the Prime Minister
of Barbados, the Right Honourable L. Erskine Sandiford, for his outstanding
contribution as President of the Global Conference on the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States to the successful outcome of the
Conference;

     2.  Expresses its profound gratitude to the Government of Barbados for
having made it possible for the Conference to be held in Bridgetown and for
the excellent facilities, staff and services so graciously placed at its
disposal;

     3.  Requests the Government of Barbados to convey to the people of
Barbados the gratitude of the Conference for the hospitality and warm welcome
extended to the participants.


                                 Resolution 3

                   Credentials of representatives to the Global
                   Conference on the Sustainable Development of
                        Small Island Developing States

     The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States,

     Having considered the report of the Credentials Committee and the
recommendation contained therein,

     Approves the report of the Credentials Committee.


                                 Resolution 4

                          Elections in South  Africa

     The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States,

     Noting with joy the successful conclusion of the historic elections in
South Africa,

     1.  Expresses its great satisfaction at the exercise of their democratic
franchise by the people of South Africa in the most dignified manner;

     2.  Looks forward to the assumption of office by the first President of
South Africa elected in that process;

     3.  Also looks forward to the early participation of a democratic and
non-racial Government of South Africa in the work of the United Nations.


                                  Chapter II

                         PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE


                    A.  Attendance and organization of work

                     1.  Date and place of the Conference

1.   The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States was held at Bridgetown, Barbados, from 25 April to
6 May 1994, in conformity with General Assembly resolution 47/189 of 22
December 1992.  During that period the Conference held 15 plenary meetings.


                       2.  Pre-Conference consultations

2.   Pre-Conference consultations open to all States invited to participate in
the Conference were held at Bridgetown on 24 April 1994 to consider a number
of procedural and organizational matters.  These and other informal
consultations were conducted under the chairmanship of His Excellency Mr.
Besley Maycock, the Permanent Representative of Barbados to the United
Nations.  The report on the consultations (A/CONF.167/L.3) was submitted to
the Conference and the recommendations contained in it were accepted as the
basis for the organization of the Conference's work.


                                3.  Attendance

3.   The following States were represented at the Conference:

   Afghanistan
   Algeria
   Antigua and Barbuda
   Argentina
   Australia
   Austria
   Bahamas
   Bahrain
   Barbados
   Belgium
   Belize
   Benin
   Brazil
   Brunei Darussalam
   Burundi
   Cambodia
   Canada
   Cape Verde
   Chile
   China
   Colombia
   Comoros
   Congo
   Cook Islands
   Costa Rica
   Cte d'Ivoire
   Croatia
   Cuba
   Cyprus
   Denmark
   Dominica
   Dominican Republic
   Egypt
   Equatorial Guinea
   Fiji
   Finland
   France
   Gambia
   Germany
   Greece
   Grenada
   Guinea-Bissau
   Guyana
   Haiti
   Holy See
   Hungary
   Iceland
   India
   Indonesia
   Ireland
   Israel
   Italy
   Jamaica
   Japan
   Jordan
   KiribatiLao People's Democratic Republic
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Niger
Norway
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Portugal
Republic of Korea
Romania
Russian Federation
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
Sao Tome and Principe
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Solomon Islands
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Sweden
Switzerland
Thailand
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Tuvalu
Uganda
United Kingdom of Great Britain
  and Northern Ireland
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Yemen
Zaire
Zambia

4.   The following associate members of the regional commissions were
represented by observers:

     American Samoa
     Aruba
     British Virgin Islands
     French Polynesia
     Guam
     Hong Kong
     Macau
     Montserrat
     Netherlands Antilles
     New Caledonia
     Niue
     Northern Mariana Islands
     Palau
     United States Virgin Islands

5.   The secretariats of the following regional commissions were represented:

     Economic Commission for Africa
     Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
     Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

6.   The following United Nations bodies and programmes were also represented:

     United Nations Children's Fund
     United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
     United Nations Development Fund for Women
     United Nations Development Programme
     United Nations Environment Programme
     United Nations Population Fund
     United Nations University
     United Nations Volunteers
     United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)
     United Nations International Drug Control Programme

7.   The following specialized agencies and related organizations were
represented:

     International Labour Organization
     Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
     United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
     International Civil Aviation Organization
     World Health Organization
     World Bank
     International Monetary Fund
     International Telecommunication Union
     World Meteorological Organization
     International Maritime Organization
     World Intellectual Property Organization
     United Nations Industrial Development Organization

8.   The following intergovernmental, regional and subregional organizations
were represented by observers:

     African Development Bank
     Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation
     Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee
     Caribbean Community
     Caribbean Development Bank
     Central American Commission for Environment and Development
     Caribbean Meteorological Organization
     Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
     Commonwealth Secretariat
     Commission of the Indian Ocean
     European Commission
     Inter-American Development Bank
     Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
     International Council on Scientific Unions
     International Organization for Migration
     International Organization for Standardization
     Latin American Economic System
     Latin American Fisheries Development
     Organization of American States
     Organization of Eastern Caribbean States
     South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission
     South Pacific Forum
     South Pacific Regional Environment Programme
     Tata Energy Research Institute
     University of the South Pacific
     University of the West Indies
     World Conservation Union
     World Tourism Organization

9.   Eighty-nine non-governmental organizations attended the Conference.  The
list of participating non-governmental organizations is contained in annex IV.


                         4.  Opening of the Conference

10.  The Conference was declared open by the Secretary-General of the United
Nations.


                         5.  Election of the President

11.  At the 1st plenary meeting, on 25 April, the Conference elected, by
acclamation, as President of the Conference, His Excellency
Mr. L. Erskine Sandiford, Prime Minister of Barbados.

12.  The inaugural address of the President of the Conference is contained in
annex II below.


                    6.  Adoption of the rules of procedure

13.  At the 1st plenary meeting, on 25 April, the Conference adopted the
provisional rules of procedure (A/CONF.167/2) as recommended by the
Preparatory Committee and approved by the General Assembly in paragraph 7 of
its resolution 48/193 of 21 December 1993, and as recommended in paragraph 5
of the report of the pre-Conference consultations (A/CONF.167/L.3).


                          7.  Adoption of the agenda

14.  At the 1st plenary meeting, on 25 April, the Conference adopted as its
agenda the provisional agenda (A/CONF.167/1) as recommended by the Preparatory
Committee and approved by the General Assembly in paragraph 7 of its
resolution 48/193 of 21 December 1993, and as recommended in paragraph 6 of
the report of the pre-Conference consultations.  The agenda as adopted was as
follows:

      1.  Opening of the Conference.

      2.  Election of the President.

      3.  Adoption of the rules of procedure.

      4.  Adoption of the agenda.

      5.  Election of officers other than the President.

      6.  Organization of work, including establishment of the Main Committee
          of the Conference.

      7.  Credentials of representatives to the Conference:

          (a)  Appointment of the members of the Credentials Committee;

          (b)  Report of the Credentials Committee.

      8.  General debate.

      9.  Consideration of plans and programmes to support the sustainable
          development of small island developing States and the utilization of
          their marine and coastal resources, which includes meeting essential
          human needs, maintaining biodiversity, and improving the quality of
          life for island people, as well as measures that will enable small
          island developing States to cope effectively, creatively and in a
          sustainable manner with environmental changes and to mitigate the
          impacts on and reduce the threats posed to marine and coastal
          resources:

          (a)  Consideration of proposals for a Barbados declaration;

          (b)  Consideration of the draft programme of action for the
               sustainable development of small island developing States.

     10.  Adoption of the report of the Conference.


               8.  Election of officers other than the President

15.  At the 1st plenary meeting, on 25 April, the Conference elected
Vice-Presidents from the following regional groups:

     African States:  Mauritius and Niger.

     Asian States:  China and Samoa.

     Eastern European States:  Hungary.

     Latin American and Caribbean States:  Cuba.

     Western European and other States:  Germany and New Zealand.

16.  Also at the 1st plenary meeting, the Conference elected an ex officio
Vice-President from the host country, His Excellency Mr. Branford M. Taitt,
Minister for Foreign Affairs of Barbados.

17.  At the same meeting, the Conference elected Ms. Penelope Anne Wensley
(Australia) Chairman of the Main Committee.

18.  At the 9th plenary meeting, on 2 May, Croatia, of the Eastern European
States, was elected Vice-President of the Conference.

19.  At the same meeting, Italy, of the Western European and other States, was
elected Vice-President of the Conference, to fill the vacancy created by the
resignation of Germany.


          9.  Appointment of the members of the Credentials Committee

20.  At the 1st plenary meeting, on 25 April, in conformity with rule 4 of the
rules of procedure of the Conference and the recommendation of the
pre-Conference consultations contained in paragraph 16 of document
A/CONF.167/3, the Conference established a Credentials Committee composed of
Austria, Bahamas, Chile, China, Cte d'Ivoire, Mauritius, Russian Federation,
Thailand and United States of America.


                              B.  General debate

1.   The general debate, which took place at the 2nd to 11th plenary meetings,
from 26 April to 2 May 1994 and on 4 May 1994, and at the 15th plenary
meeting, on 6 May 1994, covered the range of topics considered by the
Conference, including the adoption of agreements on the sustainable
development of small island developing States (agenda item 9), which was more
specifically the work of the Main Committee.  All speakers expressed their
appreciation for the efforts made by the host Government and by the
secretariat in preparing for the Conference.

2.   The Conference was addressed by representatives of States, observers,
specialized agencies, United Nations bodies, programmes and offices,
intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations.  The
Conference was also addressed by five experts in the field of sustainable
development, each of whom presented a case-study that had been prepared at the
request of the Conference secretariat. 1/

3.   At the 2nd plenary meeting, on 26 April, following a proposal by the
representative of Trinidad and Tobago, the Conference decided that the
statement made by the President of the Conference at the 1st plenary meeting
should be issued as an official document of the Conference (A/CONF.167/6).

4.   At the same meeting, the special representative of the Secretary-General,
Mr. Rafeeuddin Ahmed, made a statement.

5.   Also at the same meeting, statements were made by the representatives of
Algeria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77 and China), Greece (on behalf of the States Members
of the United Nations that are members of the European Community), the
Bahamas, China, Malaysia and Japan.

6.   At the same meeting, statements were made by the representatives of the
United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Environment
Programme.

7.   Also at the same meeting, Dr. G. P. Obasi, Secretary-General, World
Meteorological Organization, presented to the Conference Case Study No. 3,
entitled "Natural disasters and sustainable development of small developing
islands" (A/CONF.167/CRP.4).

8.   At the 3rd plenary meeting, on 26 April, the Conference heard statements
by the representatives of Grenada, Iceland (also on behalf of Denmark,
Finland, Norway and Sweden), the Marshall Islands, Venezuela, Trinidad and
Tobago, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines and Mauritania.

9.   At the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by the Secretary-
General of the Caribbean Community, an intergovernmental organization, and by
the representative of the International Organization for Migration, also an
intergovernmental organization.

10.  Also at the same meeting, the Conference heard a statement by the United
Nations Development Fund for Women.

11.  At the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by the
representatives of the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Union rgionale des
associations due patrimoine et de l'environnement de la guadeloupe,
non-governmental organizations.

12.  At the 4th plenary meeting, on 27 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Cuba, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Maldives, the Lao People's
Democratic Republic, Australia, India and Mauritius.

13.  At the same meeting, a statement was made by the observer for New
Caledonia.

14.  Also at the same meeting, a statement was made by the representative of
the World Bank.

15.  At the same meeting, Professor Bisnodat Persaud, Director, Centre for
Environment and Development, University of the West Indies, presented to the
Conference Case Study No. 1, entitled "Alternative energy sources for small
island developing States" (A/CONF.167/CRP.1).

16.  At the 5th plenary meeting, on 27 April, the Conference heard statements
by the representatives of Kiribati, Canada, Benin, Romania, Indonesia and the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

17.  At the same meeting, the Conference heard a statement by the
representative of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, an
intergovernmental organization.

18.  Also at the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by the
representatives of the World Health Organization, the United Nations
Population Fund, the United Nations Children's Fund and the United Nations
International Drug Control Programme.

19.  At the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by the
representatives of Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era and the
Trickle-up Program, non-governmental organizations.

20.  At the 6th plenary meeting, on 28 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Brazil, Singapore, Uganda, Jamaica and Samoa.

21.  At the same meeting, statements were made by the representatives of the
Organization of American States and the Latin American Economic System,
intergovernmental organizations.

22.  Also at the same meeting, a statement was made by the representative of
the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.

23.  At the same meeting, a statement was made by the representative of
Greenpeace International, a non-governmental organization.

24.  Also at the same meeting, Dr. Vili A. Fuavao, Director, South Pacific
Regional Environment Programme, presented to the Conference Case Study No. 4,
entitled "Coastal management in small island developing States"
(A/CONF.167/CRP.5).

25.  At the 7th plenary meeting, on 28 April, the Conference heard statements
by the representatives of Federated States of Micronesia, Solomon Islands,
Egypt, Seychelles, Afghanistan, Mali, Nauru and Costa Rica.

26.  At the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by the
representatives of the African Development Bank, the Commission de l'ocean
indien, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme and the Caribbean
Development Bank, intergovernmental organizations.

27.  Also at the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by the
representatives of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the
Economic Commission for Africa and the Economic Commission for Latin America
and the Caribbean.

28.  At the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by the
representatives of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom,
International Social Service and the Pan-African Movement, non-governmental
organizations.

29.  At the 8th plenary meeting, on 29 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Cambodia, Israel, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Malta, New
Zealand, Chile, the Holy See, Niger and the United States of America.

30.  At the same meeting, a statement was made by the observer for Montserrat.

31.  Also at the same meeting, a statement was made by the representative of
the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, an intergovernmental
organization.

32.  At the same meeting, statements were made by the representatives of the
International Council for Adult Education and the Commonwealth Human Ecology
Council, non-governmental organizations.

33.  At the 9th plenary meeting, on 2 May, the Conference heard statements by
the representatives of Nepal, Madagascar, Colombia, Pakistan, Thailand,
Equatorial Guinea, Brunei Darussalam and the Sudan.

34.  At the same meeting, the Conference heard a statement by the observer for
the United States Virgin Islands.

35.  Also at the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by the
representatives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,
and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

36.  At the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by the
representatives of the World Federation of United Nations Associations and
Conservation International, non-governmental organizations.

37.  At the 10th plenary meeting, on 2 May, statements were made by the
representatives of Tonga, the Comoros, Antigua and Barbuda, Cyprus, the
Russian Federation, Hungary, Bahrain, Namibia, Tunisia, Burundi and Barbados.

38.  At the same meeting, a statement was made by the observer for Aruba.

39.  Also at the same meeting, statements were made by the representatives of
the Agence de cooperation culturelle et technique and the Regional Seas
Programme, intergovernmental organizations.

40.  At the same meeting, a statement was made by the representative of the
International Maritime Organization.

41.  Also at the same meeting, a statement was made by the representative of
the Barbados Environmental Association, a non-governmental organization.

42.  At the 11th plenary meeting, on 4 May, the Conference heard a statement
by the representative of Jamaica in her capacity as Chairperson of the United
Nations University Governing Council.

43.  At the same meeting, the Conference heard a statement by the
representative of the International Telecommunication Union.

44.  Also at the same meeting, the Conference heard a statement by the
representative of Germany introducing Case Study No. 6.  Mr. John Scott,
Centre for Public Service Communications, also on behalf of
Mr. C. E. Berridge, Caribbean Meteorological Organization, and Mr. Jeremy
Collymore, Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency, presented to the
Conference the study, entitled "A study of the early warning capabilities of
the Caribbean Meteorological Organization and the Caribbean Disaster Emergency
Response Agency".

45.  At the 14th plenary meeting, on 6 May, a statement was made by the
President of the Inter-American Development Bank.



                 C.  Report of the Main Committee and action taken
                     by the Conference

                       1.  Report of the Main Committee

1.   At the 1st plenary meeting, on 25 April 1994, the Conference approved the
organization of its work as set out in document A/CONF.167/3 and decided to
allocate agenda item 9 (b) (Consideration of the draft programme of action for
the sustainable development of small island developing States) to the Main
Committee, which was to submit its recommendations to the Conference.

2.   The Main Committee had before it the following documents:

     (a)  Note by the Secretariat on the organization of work, including
establishment of the Main Committee of the Conference (A/CONF.167/3);

     (b)  Report of the Secretary-General on current donor activities in
support of sustainable development in small island developing States
(A/CONF.167/4);

     (c)  Note by the Secretariat on the draft programme of action for the
sustainable development of small island developing States (A/CONF.167/L.1);

     (d)  Inventory of current donor activities in support of sustainable
development of small island developing States (A/CONF.167/CRP.2).

3.   The Chairman of the Main Committee was Ms. Penelope Anne Wensley
(Australia), who was elected by acclamation at the 1st plenary meeting of the
Conference, on 25 April.

4.   At its 1st and 2nd meetings, on 26 April, the Main Committee elected the
following officers by acclamation:

     Vice-Chairmen:  Marc Marengo (Seychelles)
                     Takao Shibata (Japan)
                     Ioan Barac (Romania)
                     John Ashe (Antigua and Barbuda)

It was decided that Mr. Shibata would also serve as Rapporteur of the Main
Committee.

5.   At its 1st meeting, on 26 April, the Main Committee heard a statement by
its Chairman.

6.   Also at its 1st meeting, the Main Committee heard statements by the
representatives of Greece (on behalf of the European Community) and Trinidad
and Tobago (on behalf of the Group of 77, China and the Alliance of Small
Island States).

7.   At its 2nd meeting, on 26 April, the Main Committee heard a statement by
its Chairman.

8.   At its 3rd meeting, on 29 April, the Main Committee heard a statement by
the observer for Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era, and the
Women's Environment and Development Organization, non-governmental
organizations.

9.   At its 4th meeting, on 4 May, the Main Committee heard a statement by its
Chairman.

10.  At the same meeting, the Main Committee heard a statement by the
representative of Brazil.

11.  The Main Committee considered item 9 (b) at its 1st to 5th meetings, on
26 and 29 April and on 4 May.  The Committee also held a number of informal
meetings.

12.  The Committee reviewed the draft programme of action for the sustainable
development of small island developing States (A/CONF.167/L.1), which had been
negotiated by the Preparatory Committee, as orally amended and subject to
further consideration of the bracketed parts.

13.  At its 5th meeting, on 4 May, the Rapporteur of the Main Committee
introduced and orally revised the draft report.

14.  At the same meeting, the Main Committee approved the text of the preamble
to the draft programme of action (A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.1) as amended on the
basis of informal consultations and recommended to the Conference that it
adopt the preamble as amended.

15.  After the approval of the preamble, the Main Committee heard statements
by the representatives of France and Spain.

16.  At the same meeting, the Main Committee approved the amendments to
chapters I through VII of the draft programme of action (A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.2-
8) made on the basis of informal consultations and recommended to the
Conference that it adopt those chapters as amended.

17.  Also at the same meeting, the Rapporteur of the Main Committee orally
revised and the Main Committee approved the amendments to chapter VIII of the
draft programme of action (A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.9) made on the basis of informal
consultations, and the Main Committee recommended to the Conference that it
adopt that chapter as amended and orally revised.

18.  At the same meeting, the Main Committee approved the amendments to
chapter IX of the draft programme of action (A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.10) made on
the basis of informal consultations and recommended to the Conference that it
adopt that chapter as amended.

19.  Also at the same meeting, the Rapporteur of the Main Committee orally
revised and the Main Committee approved chapter X of the draft programme of
action (A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.11) and the Main Committee recommended to the
Conference that it adopt that chapter as orally revised.

20.  At the same meeting, the Main Committee approved the amendments to
chapters XI, XII and XIII of the draft programme of action
(A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.12, 13 and 14) made on the basis of informal consultations
and recommended to the Conference that it adopt those chapters as amended.

21.  Also at the same meeting, the Rapporteur of the Main Committee orally
revised and the Main Committee approved the amendments to chapter XIV of the
draft programme of action (A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.15) made on the basis of
informal consultations, and the Main Committee recommended to the Conference
that it adopt that chapter as amended and orally revised.

22.  In connection with the programme budget implications of the draft
recommendations contained in chapter XV of the draft programme of action, the
Secretary made a statement.

23.  At the same meeting, the Rapporteur of the Main Committee orally revised
and the Main Committee approved the text of chapter XV of the draft programme
of action (A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.16) as amended on the basis of informal
consultations, and the Main Committee recommended to the Conference that it
adopt chapter XV as amended and orally revised.

24.  After the approval of chapter XV of the draft programme of action, the
Main Committee heard statements by the representatives of Brazil and Colombia.

25.  At the same meeting, the Main Committee approved the organizational
section of its draft report (A/CONF.167/L.6) and recommended it to the
Conference for adoption.

26.  Also at the same meeting, the Main Committee, on the proposal of the
Chairman, decided to approve and transmit to the Conference the text of the
draft programme of action for the sustainable development of small island
developing States (A/CONF.167/L.1) as amended (A/CONF.167/L.6/Add.1-16) and
orally revised, and recommended it to the Conference for adoption.

27.  After the approval of the draft programme of action, the Main Committee
heard statements by the observers for the World Wide Fund for Nature and
Greenpeace International, non-governmental organizations.

28.  At the same meeting, the Main Committee heard a concluding statement by
its Chairman.

29.  Also at the same meeting, the Main Committee heard concluding statements
by the representatives of Guinea-Bissau, Greece (on behalf of the European
Community), Algeria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations
that are members of the Group of 77), China, Trinidad and Tobago (on behalf of
the Alliance of Small Island States), New Zealand, Romania, the United States
of America, Iceland (on behalf of the Nordic countries) and Barbados.


                      2.  Action taken by the Conference

30.  At its 15th plenary meeting, on 6 May, the Conference had before it a
draft resolution (A/CONF.167/L.8) entitled "Adoption of texts on the
sustainable development of small island developing States", sponsored by
Algeria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77) and China.  Annexed to that draft resolution were
the Declaration of Barbados and the Programme of Action for the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States.

31.  The Conference adopted the draft resolution.  For the final text, see
chapter I, resolution 1, of the present report.

32.  Before the draft resolution was adopted, the Secretary of the Conference
brought to the attention of the Conference document A/CONF.167/L.1/Add.1 and
Corr.1, entitled "Programme budget implications of the draft programme of
action for the sustainable development of small island developing States".

33.  Also before the draft resolution was adopted, statements were made by the
representatives of Trinidad and Tobago (on behalf of the Alliance of Small
Island States), the United States of America, Australia, the Philippines,
Algeria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77 and China) and Greece (on behalf of the European
Community).

34.  After the draft resolution was adopted, statements were made by the
representative of Malta and the observer for the Holy See.

35.  The Government of Malta submitted the following written statement:

          My delegation would like to place on record its understanding of the
     term "family planning" when used in the Programme of Action for the
     Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, and namely
     that the interpretation it gives to the term "family planning" is in
     accordance with the use of the term in the Recommendations of the
     International Conference on Population held in Mexico City in 1984.

36.  The delegation of the Holy See submitted the following written statement:


             STATEMENT OF INTERPRETATION OF THE HOLY SEE'S CONSENSUS
             TO THE FINAL DOCUMENT ADOPTED BY THE GLOBAL CONFERENCE
             ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL ISLAND
                               DEVELOPING STATES

          The Holy See, in conformity with its nature and its particular
     mission, by joining the overall consensus of the Conference, wishes to
     express its understanding of certain paragraphs of the Programme of
     Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.

          With reference to chapter XIV, paragraph 61, as well as to
     section A, subparagraph (iii) of the same chapter, the Holy See's joining
     the consensus should in no way be interpreted as constituting a change in
     its well-known position concerning those family planning methods that the
     Catholic Church considers morally unacceptable or on family planning
     services that do not respect the liberty of the spouses, human dignity
     and human rights of those concerned.

          The Holy See requests that this statement be included in the
     official report of the Conference.


                    D.  Report of the Credentials Committee

1.   At its first plenary meeting, on 25 April 1994, the Global Conference on
the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, in accordance
with rule 4 of the rules of procedure of the Conference, appointed a
Credentials Committee, based on that of the Credentials Committee of the
General Assembly of the United Nations at its forty-eighth session, consisting
of the following nine members:  Austria, Bahamas, Chile, China, Cte d'Ivoire,
Mauritius, Russian Federation, Thailand and United States of America.

2.   The Credentials Committee held one meeting, on 2 May 1994.

3.   Mr. Manop Mekprayoonthong (Thailand) was unanimously elected Chairman of
the Committee.

4.   The Committee had before it a memorandum by the Secretary-General dated
29 April 1994 on the status of credentials of representatives participating in
the Conference.  Additional information on credentials received by the
Secretary-General after the issuance of the memorandum was provided to the
Committee by its Secretary.

5.   As noted in paragraph 1 of the memorandum of the Secretary-General, as
updated by the additional information received, formal credentials issued by
the head of State or Government or by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, as
provided for in rule 3 of the rules of procedure, had been received by the
Secretary-General for the representatives of the following 52 States
participating in the Conference:  Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas,
Bahrain, Barbados, Brazil, Cape Verde, China, Cook Islands, Costa Rica,
Croatia, Cyprus, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Finland, France, Grenada,
Guyana, Haiti, Iceland, Indonesia, Israel, Jamaica, Kiribati, Madagascar,
Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Micronesia (Federated States of),
Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Romania, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands,
Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Tuvalu
and Vanuatu.

6.   As noted in paragraph 2 of the memorandum, as updated by the additional
information received, information concerning the appointment of
representatives participating in the Conference had been communicated by means
of facsimile or in the form of letters or notes verbale from ministries,
embassies, permanent missions to the United Nations or other government
offices or authorities, or through local United Nations offices, by the
following 59 States participating in the Conference:  Afghanistan, Algeria,
Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Brunei Darussalam, Burundi,
Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cte d'Ivoire, Cuba,
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Gambia, Germany, Greece, Guinea Bissau,
Holy See, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lao People's
Democratic Republic, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Nepal, Niger,
Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Togo, Uganda, United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America,
Venezuela, Yemen, Zaire and Zambia.

7.   The representatives of China, the Russian Federation and the United
States of America requested some factual clarifications, which were provided
by the Secretary of the Committee.

8.   The Chairman proposed that the Committee should accept the credentials of
all the representatives mentioned in the memorandum of the Secretary-General,
on the understanding that formal credentials for representatives referred to
in paragraph 2 of the Secretary-General's memorandum would be communicated to
the Secretary-General as soon as possible.  The following draft resolution was
proposed by the Chairman for adoption by the Committee:

          "The Credentials Committee,

          "Having examined the credentials of the representatives to the
     Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island
     Developing States referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the memorandum of
     the Secretary-General dated 29 April 1994, as orally updated,

          "Accepts the credentials of the representatives concerned."

9.   The draft resolution was adopted by the Committee without a vote.

10.  Subsequently, the Chairman proposed that the Committee should recommend
to the Conference the adoption of a draft resolution (para. 11 below).  The
proposal was adopted by the Committee without a vote.

Recommendation of the Credentials Committee

11.  The Credentials Committee recommends to the Conference the adoption of
the following draft resolution:


                  "Credentials of representatives to the Global
                   Conference on the Sustainable Development of
                        Small Island Developing States"

          "The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small
     Island Developing States,

          "Having considered the report of the Credentials Committee and the
     recommendation contained therein,

          "Approves the report of the Credentials Committee."


                        Action taken by the Conference

12.  At the 11th plenary meeting, on 4 May 1994, the Conference considered the
report of the Credentials Committee (A/CONF.167/7).

13.  The Conference then adopted the draft resolution recommended by the
Committee.  For the final text, see chapter I of the present report,
resolution 3.


                   E.  High-level segment of the Conference

1.   The high-level segment of the Conference was held on 5 and 6 May 1994. 
During that period, three meetings were held, at which 45 heads of State or
Government, ministers and special representatives made statements.  A round
table open to heads of State or Government and ministerial participants was
also held, on 6 May 1994.

2.   The President of the Conference declared open the 1st meeting of the
high-level segment, on 5 May, and made a statement.

3.   At the same meeting, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General
and Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
Pacific read a message from the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the
Conference.

4.   Also at the same meeting, the Conference heard statements by heads of
State or Government and ministers of the following countries:  Trinidad and
Tobago, China, the United States of America, Iceland, the Bahamas, Australia,
the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Cyprus, Vanuatu, Cuba, Papua New Guinea,
Venezuela and Jamaica.

5.   At the 2nd meeting, on 5 May, the Conference heard statements by heads of
State or Government, ministers and special representatives of the following
countries:  Mauritius, Kiribati, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland, Brazil, Maldives, Federated States of Micronesia, Tonga,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Fiji, Malaysia, Germany (also on behalf of the European
Community), Solomon Islands, Indonesia, Seychelles, Samoa, Canada, the
Republic of Korea and Saint Lucia.

6.   At the 3rd meeting, on 6 May, the Conference heard statements by heads of
State or Government, ministers and special representatives of the following
countries:  Japan, Colombia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Cook
Islands, Guyana, Niue, Pakistan, India, Belize, Haiti, Grenada, Italy and New
Zealand.

7.   In accordance with a decision of the Conference, the round table for
participants in the high-level segment, organized by the host country, was
held on 6 May.

8.   At the 15th plenary meeting, the Conference heard the presidential
summary of the results of the high-level segment and of the round table.  In
keeping with a proposal made by the representative of Trinidad and Tobago on
behalf of the Alliance of Small Island Developing States and agreed to by the
Conference, the presidential summary is contained in annex III to the present
report.


                 F.  Adoption of the report of the Conference

1.   The Rapporteur-General introduced the report of the Conference
(A/CONF.167/L.5) at the 15th plenary meeting, on 6 May 1994.

2.   At the same meeting, the Conference adopted the draft report, as orally
amended, and authorized the Rapporteur-General to complete the report, in
conformity with the practice of the United Nations, with a view to its
submission to the General Assembly at its forty-ninth session.

3.   Also at the same meeting, the President of the Conference presented to
the Conference a presidential summary of the results of the high-level segment
of the Conference.  Upon the proposal of the representative of Trinidad and
Tobago, on behalf of the Alliance of Small Island States, the Conference
agreed to annex both the presidential summary and the opening statement of the
President of the Conference (A/CONF.167/6) to the report of the Conference. 
Accordingly, those documents are contained in annexes II and III to the
present report.

4.   At the same meeting, the President of the Conference introduced a draft
resolution (A/CONF.167/L.9) expressing the great satisfaction of the
Conference at the successful conclusion of elections in South Africa.

5.   The Conference then adopted the draft resolution.  For the final text,
see chapter I of the present report, resolution 4.

6.   Also at the same meeting, the representative of Algeria, on behalf of the
States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and
China, introduced a draft resolution (A/CONF.167/L.7) expressing the gratitude
of the Conference to the people and Government of Barbados.

7.   The Conference then adopted the draft resolution.  For the final text,
see chapter I of the present report, resolution 2.


                         G.  Closure of the Conference

8.   At the 15th plenary meeting, statements were made by the representatives
of Algeria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77 and China, the African States, the Asian States,
and the Latin American and Caribbean States), Greece (on behalf of the
European Community), Romania (on behalf of the Eastern European States),
Germany (on behalf of the Western European and other States), Nauru (on behalf
of the South Pacific Forum), Mauritius (on behalf of the Indian Ocean
Islands), the United States of America, and Trinidad and Tobago (on behalf of
the Alliance of Small Island States).

9.   After a statement by the Under-Secretary-General for Policy Coordination
and Sustainable Development, the President of the Conference made a concluding
statement and declared the Conference closed.


                                     Notes

     1/   Case Study No. 2, entitled "Tourism and sustainable development"
(A/CONF.167/CRP.3), was presented to the Conference by
H.E. Mr. George Vassiliou, former President of the Republic of Cyprus, at the
1st plenary meeting, prior to the commencement of the general debate.


                                    Annex I

                    LIST OF DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE CONFERENCE


     Symbol                                   Title or description

A/CONF.167/1                        Provisional agenda

A/CONF.167/2                        Provisional rules of procedure:  note by
                                    the Secretariat

A/CONF.167/3                        Organization of work, including
                                    establishment of the Main Committee of the
                                    Conference:  note by the Secretariat

A/CONF.167/4                        Current donor activities in support of
                                    sustainable development in small island
                                    developing States:  report of the
                                    Secretary-General

A/CONF.167/5                        Statement by the Group of Eminent Persons
                                    on the sustainable development of small
                                    island developing States, Bridgetown,
                                    Barbados, 21-22 April 1994

A/CONF.167/6                        Statement by H.E. Mr. L. Erskine
                                    Sandiford, Prime Minister of Barbados and
                                    President of the Global Conference on the
                                    Sustainable Development of Small Island
                                    Developing States

A/CONF.167/7                        Report of the Credentials Committee

A/CONF.167/8                        Letter dated 4 May 1994 from the Permanent
                                    Representative of Trinidad and Tobago to
                                    the United Nations addressed to the
                                    President of the Conference

A/CONF.167/L.1                      Draft programme of action for the
                                    sustainable development of small island
                                    developing States:  note by the
                                    Secretariat

A/CONF.167/L.1/Add.1 and Corr.1     Programme budget implications of the draft
                                    programme of action for the sustainable
                                    development of small island developing
                                    States:  statement submitted by the
                                    Secretary-General in accordance with
                                    provisions of General Assembly resolution
                                    46/189 and rule 16 of the rules of
                                    procedure of the Conference

A/CONF.167/L.2                      Proposals for a Barbados declaration: 
                                    note by the Secretary-General

A/CONF.167/L.3                      Report of the pre-Conference consultations
                                    held at the Sherbourne Centre

A/CONF.167/L.4                      Barbados:  draft proposals for a Barbados
                                    declaration

A/CONF.167/L.4/Rev.1                Declaration of Barbados:  draft
                                    declaration submitted by Barbados

A/CONF.167/L.5                      Draft report of the Global Conference on
                                    the Sustainable Development of Small
                                    Island Developing States

A/CONF.167/L.6 and Add.1-16         Report of the Main Committee

A/CONF.167/L.7                      Expression of gratitude to the people and
                                    Government of Barbados:  draft resolution
                                    submitted by Algeria (on behalf of the
                                    States Members of the United Nations that
                                    are members of the Group of 77) and China

A/CONF.167/L.8                      Adoption of texts on the sustainable
                                    development of small island developing
                                    States:  draft resolution submitted by
                                    Algeria (on behalf of the States Members
                                    of the United Nations that are members of
                                    the Group of 77) and China

A/CONF.167/L.9                      Elections in South Africa:  draft
                                    resolution submitted by the President of
                                    the Conference

A/CONF.167/INF/1                    Information for participants

A/CONF.167/INF/2                    List of documents before the Conference

A/CONF.167/INF/3/Rev.1              Provisional list of delegations

A/CONF.167/CRP.1                    Alternative energy sources for small
                                    island developing States:  paper prepared
                                    for the Conference by Professor Bishnodat
                                    Persaud, Director, Centre for Environment
                                    and Development, University of the West
                                    Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica, at the
                                    request of the Conference secretariat
                                    (Case Study No. 1)

A/CONF.167/CRP.2*                   Current donor activities in support of the
                                    sustainable development of small island
                                    developing States:  inventory prepared by
                                    the Secretariat

A/CONF.167/CRP.3*                   Tourism and sustainable development: 
                                    paper prepared for the Conference by
                                    H.E. Mr. George Vassiliou, former
                                    President of the Republic of Cyprus, at
                                    the request of the Conference secretariat
                                    (Case Study No. 2)

A/CONF.167/CRP.4*                   Natural disasters and sustainable
                                    development of small developing islands: 
                                    paper prepared for the Conference by
                                    Dr. G. P. Obasi, Secretary-General, World
                                    Meteorological Organization, at the
                                    request of the Conference secretariat
                                    (Case Study No. 3)

A/CONF.167/CRP.5*                   Coastal management in small island
                                    developing States:  paper prepared for the
                                    Conference by Dr. Vili A. Fuavao,
                                    Director, South Pacific Regional
                                    Environmental Programme, at the request of
                                    the Conference secretariat (Case Study No.
                                    4)

A/CONF.167/CRP.7*                   A study of the early warning capabilities
                                    of the Caribbean Meteorological
                                    Organization and the Caribbean Disaster
                                    Emergency Response Agency:  paper prepared
                                    for the Conference by Mr. John Scott,
                                    Center for Public Service Communications,
                                    in cooperation with Mr. C. E. Berridge,
                                    Caribbean Meteorological Organization and
                                    Mr. Jeremy Collymore, Caribbean Disaster
                                    Emergency Response Agency, at the request
                                    of the Conference secretariat (Case Study
                                    No. 6)

A/48/36 and Add.1 and 2             Report of the Preparatory Committee for
                                    the Global Conference on the Sustainable
                                    Development of Small Island Developing
                                    States

-------------------
     *   English only.


                                   Annex II

                OPENING STATEMENT BY H.E. MR. L. ERSKINE SANDIFORD,
                PRIME MINISTER OF BARBADOS AND PRESIDENT OF THE
                GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                       OF SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES


     First, I thank you for the honour you have done me in acclaiming me
President of this important Conference.  With your cooperation, I will
endeavour to achieve a successful meeting.  I promise you the Chair's
unfailing courtesy.

     And now, on behalf of the Government and people of Barbados, I take
great pleasure in warmly and enthusiastically welcoming you to this, the
opening ceremony of the first ever Global Conference on the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States.  You have done us an esteemed
honour in granting us the privilege of hosting this historic meeting, which
will address matters pregnant with significance not only for present but also
for future generations.

     This Conference represents one of the most significant events in the
history of small island developing States.  It takes its origins in the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in
1992.

     I led the Barbados delegation to the Rio Conference; indeed, it was
following upon the formal acceptance there by the international community that
small island developing States represented a distinctive category of States
meriting special attention that I offered Barbados as the venue for the
present Conference.  Today, I therefore feel a special sense of fulfilment as
we meet here to continue the work started some two years ago in Brazil.

     At the Rio Conference, the international community agreed at the highest
political level to act in concert in order to pursue the goal of sustainable
development.  We took a stand that the high level of unsustainability
prevalent in developed as well as developing countries was unacceptable.  We
also reached a consensus on the need to change our course and to put an end to
the vicious cycle of environmental degradation, economic decline and social
deprivation, in which the vast majority of countries appeared to be locked.

     The decisions made at that Summit and formalized in Agenda 21, the Rio
Declaration on Environment and Development, a body of principles for the
world-wide management of forests, and two conventions on global climate change
and biodiversity, signalled a firm resolve to conquer the economic, social and
environmental problems that ultimately threaten our continued survival on this
planet Earth.  Our task here in Barbados is to convert that resolve into
concrete action by outlining realistic policies and setting attainable targets
in the search for patterns of sustainable development.

     The Rio Conference, following upon the United Nations Conference on the
Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972, represented the first step in a
long journey.  It is essential that we build on that start by laying a strong
foundation for sustainable development in small island developing States.  To
do otherwise would be self-defeating and self-destructive of the progress
achieved so far.

     As we commence our deliberations, we must remain conscious of the
ultimate goal towards which we are aspiring.  That goal is of course
sustainable development, a concept coined just seven years ago, which is for
me a process of bringing about desirable growth plus change on the basis of
the efficient utilization of the Earth's non-renewable (and indeed renewable)
resources in order to achieve sound, economic progress without compromising
the ability of future generations to achieve the same.  Quality of life
issues, issues of equity and issues of environmental practices are all
involved.  The economic, social and environmental components of sustainable
development are therefore interconnected and mutually reinforcing.  They exist
in a symbiotic relationship that requires us to adopt an integrated and
creative approach.

     For us as small island developing States, however, the question of
sustainability is not an abstruse, arcane concern.  It is rather a matter that
affects the very nature of our existence.  It is therefore crucial for us to
fully sensitize the international community about the issues and to promote
greater understanding of the vulnerabilities and special circumstances that
apply to our countries.  For the Marshall Islands in the Pacific and Maldives
in the Indian Ocean, the issue of climate change and sealevel rise is not
simply a theoretical issue; it is a threat to their continued existence.  The
management of limited freshwater resources is a problem that many States, such
as Malta, Cyprus and many of us in the Caribbean, Barbados included, have to
contend with on a daily basis.  For a majority of us, natural disasters in the
form of hurricanes, cyclones and floods are a seasonal fact of life.

     As we prepare to embark on our substantive discussions, I would urge all
of us to be guided by the following simple but fundamental guidelines.

     1.  Sustainable development will best be achieved under conditions of
     peace, not war.

     2.  Sustainable development connotes change:  change from the way in
     which we abuse renewable and non-renewable resources, but above all
     change in our value systems and in our attitudes to people, who must be
     at the centre of our concerns.  Where is the conscience of the world? 
     Where is the centre of justice?  How can a caring world permit the wide
     disparities among States that would not be permitted within States?

     3.  We will not even begin to solve the problems of sustainable
     development in small developing States or other developing States unless
     there is a greater flow of resources in the form of foreign-direct
     investment, official development assistance, flows from the
     international institutions and other flows from the industrialized to
     the developing world.  It is a worrying fact that the gap between rich
     and poor countries is growing, but should rather be closing.

     4.  There is a need for a new partnership and new efforts at genuine
     cooperation between small developing States and industrialized countries
     to effect sustainable development.  Now that the resource-wasteful East-
     West ideological conflicts are at an end, a more economically beneficial
     encounter and a more morally uplifting one between North and South
     should be seriously embarked upon.  The conclusions and decisions
     arrived at during the dialogue should not be left to languish, but there
     should be discrete and dedicated mechanisms for implementation.

     5.  Small island developing States should collaborate in a deeper manner
     with one another in a spirit of self-reliance and for mutual support and
     assistance in dealing with problems of sustainable development.

     6.  Sustainable development in small countries should aim at the full
     participation in the socio-economic thrust of all social elements,
     including the poor, the disabled and the disadvantaged, as well as
     women, youth and indigenous people.  This is advanced on the grounds not
     only of social equity but also of the need for small island States to
     utilize their human resources to the fullest possible extent.

     7.  There can be no sustainable development without sound health and
     healthy lifestyles, good education, poverty alleviation, the creation of
     wealth leading to greater employment opportunities, and good governance.

     8.  Further reforms should be carried out within the United Nations
     system in order to strengthen its capacity to take speedy decisions, to
     have ready access to resources and to allocate those resources speedily
     in areas of sustainable development.

     It is essential for all sectors of economic and social activity to play
a major role in any strategy developed to address the problem of
sustainability.  In this regard, the establishment of cross-sectoral linkages
at the decision-making level is vital to the process.  This must all take
place within a national policy framework that promotes sound environmental
management as well as technology based on the efficient utilization of
available resources.  I recognize that the development of technology in most
of our countries is still in its infancy.  But there have been some success
stories.  The one that readily springs to mind, perhaps because it is so close
to home, is solar water-heating technology.  Here in the Caribbean, great
strides have been made in developing this alternative source of energy. 
Indeed, I am told that Barbados has one of the highest levels of solar water-
heater utilization in the world.

     Regardless of the mechanisms employed, no strategy for sustainable
development will be effective in the long term unless its focus is on people -
the ordinary man in the street, the housewife, the farmer, the office worker
and the child.  These are the persons who must ultimately live the lessons of
sustainable development if they are to be successful.

     As leaders, it is our duty to ensure that there is effective
participation by all members of society as far as possible and that there is a
partnership in which they work together with government towards a new shared
vision at the individual, community and private-sector levels.  It is
therefore especially pleasing to me that non-governmental organizations are
playing such an active role in the whole process surrounding this Conference,
both participating in the official Conference itself and organizing their own
parallel activities.

     When all is said and done, our best hope for achieving sustainable
development is through the creation of partnerships.  I have just spoken of
partnerships at the national level.  However, the process should not end
there.  It should extend beyond national boundaries to include regional as
well as international partnerships.

     We share one world and if the environment is degraded, whether by a few
countries or by many, we will all eventually suffer the consequences.  We must
therefore join forces if we are to have any chance to successfully reconcile
our justifiable desire for growth and development with the finite resources
available to us.

     The importance of joining forces is all the greater given the fact that
all the countries in the international community have not reached the same
stage of development.  The time has come for the international community to
honour the commitments made at the Rio Conference and to provide new and
additional financial and other resources to enhance the institutional and
technological capacity of small island developing States as well as other
developing States.

     The case in support of the need for assistance to developing countries
has already been made and accepted.  It is now time to act.  We all have much
to gain and just as much to lose.  In the spirit of true cooperation and
solidarity, we must all take the necessary steps to discharge our
responsibility to this planet on which we live, to each other and to future
generations.

     In closing, I can do no other than repeat the final lines of a poem
entitled "Ode to the Environment", which I wrote for the Rio Summit.

     "The themes are grand, the ends climacteric.
     So globally we must cooperate, 
     Share the costs proportionate
     Lest the globe itself disintegrate.
     Let our sure guides be balance and judgement
     So we too may bequeath an environment
     Sustainable in development,
     Rich, bounteous, beneficent
     For our children and their posterity.
     Let a great chain of being
     Link animate and inanimate
     In this space,
     In this time and place."

     I thank you.



                                   Annex III

                    PRESIDENTIAL SUMMARY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL
                           SEGMENT OF THE CONFERENCE


High-level debate

     Upon the recommendation of the Preparatory Committee for the Global
Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, a
high-level segment, open to participation at the head of State or Government
or ministerial level, was held at the Sherbourne Centre on 5 and 6 May 1994. 
The session was devoted to a debate on the theme "Forging partnerships for
sustainable development" which lay at the heart of the commitments made by the
international community at the Rio Conference from which the current
Conference took its origins.  That theme was considered to be highly
appropriate because the unique characteristics of small island developing
States - their small size and populations, limited resources and isolation
from markets, high transport and infrastructure costs, vulnerability to
natural disasters and to the vagaries of the international economy, to name
but a few - called for the forging of new types of partnerships if those
States were to achieve the goal of sustainable development.

     In that context, the major assets of small island developing States were
identified as being their coastal and marine resources, their natural beauty
and, most importantly, their people.  Human resource development was seen as
being fundamental to the sustainable development of small island developing
States; their potential in that area needed to be developed to the full, for
without an educated and skilled human resource base, sustainable development
was  not possible.

     The careful management of finite marine resources, particularly fish
stocks, and the need for the development of integrated coastal management
plans were identified as being critical to long-term growth and improving
living standards.

     It was noted that the natural beauty of small islands and their coastal
resources constituted the foundation of the tourism industry, on which many
island countries had become increasingly dependent for the growth of their
economies and for providing employment.  In that regard, attention was drawn
to the fragile nature of the resources on which tourism was based and the
commensurate need to protect those resources if tourism was to continue to be
a major growth sector.  Sustainable tourism development, it was noted, should
take into account not only environmental health but also the quality of life
and the culture of island peoples.

     One of the major areas identified by participants as posing a serious
threat to the environment of small island developing States was global
warming, resulting in climate change and sealevel rise.  It was noted that the
problems created by global warming were multifaceted and far-reaching. 
Examples included the retreat of shorelines and the consequent loss of
agricultural land, increased flooding, the salination of coastal aquifers and
a reduction in the availability of freshwater supplies.  As part of the
process of dealing with that problem, a call was made for States to accede to
the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

     The problems posed by natural and environmental disasters were also
prominent in the statements presented in the debate.  On account of their
geographic location,  many small island developing States experienced frequent
natural disasters caused by cyclones, earthquakes and landslides, with obvious
adverse impacts on the sustainability of consumption, investment and growth. 
Attention was also drawn to the increasing difficulty island States faced in
ensuring themselves against natural disasters.

     There was general agreement on the need to implement appropriate
population policies in small island developing States if the adverse socio-
economic and environmental consequences of high rates of population growth
were to be avoided.

     Marine pollution and its consequences for tourism, marine biodiversity
and coral reefs were also identified as a significant problem.  Marine
pollution was seen as being the result of land-based activities, for which
small island developing States were themselves responsible, and sea-based
activities, particularly the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes in the
oceans.  The need for greater control over land-based sources of marine
pollution through sustainable agricultural and industrial practices, as well
as the need for waste-treatment facilities, were stressed.  It was noted that
action dealing with sea-based sources of marine pollution required the
cooperation of industrialized countries.

     Reference was made to the development of a vulnerability index to
supplement the use of the GNP per capita criterion as a measure of economic
development.  It was argued that the latter distorted the real position of
small island developing States in that it failed to take account of the high
costs incurred by those States in providing essential services.  It was
suggested that a vulnerability index that took into account environmental
considerations would give small island developing States more equitable access
to international assistance, including financial assistance.

     Participants highlighted the need for partnerships to be formed at
several levels to deal with the problems and challenges facing small island
developing States in their achievement of sustainable development.  First, and
consistent with the principle that the small island developing States
themselves must bear primary responsibility for their sustainable development,
was the need for effective partnerships to be formed between national
Governments and the people they served.  In attempting to activate a sense of
common purpose, it was noted that all sectors of society, including women,
youth, indigenous groups and non-governmental organizations would need to be
involved in the formulation and implementation of sustainable development
strategies and programmes.  The importance of national-level partnerships was
related not only to the attainment of economic and environmental goals but
also to ensuring equity and justice in the distribution of national income. 
Inequitable distribution led to poverty and poverty led to environmental
degradation, which in turn posed a constraint to sustained development.

     A second level at which partnerships were called for involved regional
cooperation.  It was recognized that some sustainable development issues and
problems were best managed at the regional level.  Regional cooperation
offered the benefits of economies of scale that were not available at the
national level.  In several areas, such as higher education and training, air
and sea transport and natural disaster preparedness, small island States stood
to gain much from regional cooperation.

     As a result of their small size, most small island developing States had
a very limited capacity to build and maintain the infrastructure necessary for
sustainable development and at the same time invest in productive activities
to raise income levels.  Since the development of infrastructure called for
large investments, small island developing States needed adequate financial
and technical resources to meet their development needs.  Similarly,
sustainable development called for the application of environmentally sound
technologies, particularly in the areas of energy and waste management.  Given
the high costs of such technologies, small island developing States, would
need to be provided with ready access to them.

     Another crucial area in which small island developing States would need
external assistance was the development of human resources.  National efforts
in that area could be supplemented to some extent through regional
cooperation, but in many areas the need for specialized skills - both for
development and environmental management - could be met only through
international assistance.

     It was noted that small island developing States generally suffered from
imbalances in their external trade because they imported more than they
exported.  In order to diversify their productive sector and increase their
exports, they needed to secure access to the markets of developed countries.

     The efforts of small island developing States at the national and
regional levels needed to be supplemented by cooperation between those States
and the broader international community, particularly the developed countries.

International partnerships were necessary to supplement the financial and
technical resources available to small island developing States at the
national and regional levels in crucial areas, such as those mentioned above.

     Participants noted that the effective implementation of the Programme of
Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States would
required a concerted and sustained commitment of resources from the
international community.  In that context, reference was made to the
importance of the commitments made by Governments as the Rio Conference and
reflected in Agenda 21.  Additional financial resources were also called for
to underpin the Programme of Action, requiring new and innovative approaches
to funding and the creation of special windows in existing funding mechanisms.

In addition, there was a call for greater cooperation and coordination of
effort between donors.

     It was stressed that international cooperation should not be limited to
financial and technical assistance to meet the needs of small island
developing States.  The international community, particularly the developed
countries, could do much in their own countries that would benefit small
islands.  An example concerned global warming and climate change and the need
for developed countries to increase their efforts to reduce greenhouse gases. 
Two other areas in which the actions of developed countries or agents from
developed countries would help maintain the environmental integrity of small
island States were ocean dumping and the transboundary movement of hazardous
and toxic wastes.  Developed countries needed to enact and enforce laws that
would make it illegal for either the State or private agents to dump hazardous
wastes, including nuclear wastes, in the seas of small island States.  A call
was also made for a ban on the transport of toxic and hazardous wastes,
especially nuclear materials, through the seas of small island States. 
Existing legal instruments in that area, such as the Basel Convention, needed
to be honoured and strengthened, where appropriate.  For their part, small
island developing States should stop importing hazardous wastes from developed
countries, as the short-term monetary gains from such transactions would be
more than offset by adverse effects on the environment and on human health.

Round table

     The round table provided an important opportunity for an open and frank
exchange of views, ideas and concerns, at a high political level, on pressing
issues concerning the sustainable development of small island developing
States, and the challenges that the international community and small island
developing States themselves faced in that area.

     The discussions focused on the presentations made by
H.E. Dr. Patrick Manning, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, on the theme
"Sustainable development of small island developing States - the AOSIS
Perspective";  H.E. Mr. Frank F. Lui, Premier of Niue, on the theme "Regional
and interregional cooperation for sustainable development";
H.E. Mr. Henrique Brandao Cavalcanti, Minister for the Environment and the
Amazon of Brazil, on the theme "From Rio to Bridgetown - regaining the UNCED
momentum"; and H.E. Professor Dr. Klaus Topfer, Federal Minister for the
Environment of Germany, on the theme "International support for the
sustainable development of small island developing States".

     The participants at the meeting emphasized the special and in many
respects unique situation of small island developing States, in terms of their
geographical location, economic and social conditions and vulnerability, and
they noted that special policy approaches were required to effectively address
and resolve the sustainable development problems of those States.  It was felt
that the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States should become an important policy framework for national
Governments, regions and the international community in general.  At the same
time, experiences gained in its implementation would be of great value not
only for the small island developing nations but for many other developing
countries, which, in some areas such as coastal zone management, marine
pollution and the disposal of wastes, experienced many of the same problems as
the small islands.  Thus, the Programme of Action should be seen as a truly
global instrument from which both small island developing States and other
countries would benefit.  The adoption of the Programme of Action was a
practical demonstration of the global partnership for sustainable development
that had been launched two years before at UNCED.

     The participants stressed that in order to ensure successful
implementation of the Programme of Action all parties - developed and
developing countries, small island developing States, and international and
regional institutions - should implement its commitments and recommendations. 
In particular, it was of great significance that the Programme of Action
clearly recognized that its implementation would require the provision of
effective means, including adequate, predictable, new and additional financial
resources.

     The participants exchanged views and ideas on a number of specific
matters that were of special importance to small island developing States and
the prospects for their transition towards sustainable development, including
concessional funding; better conditions for trade, which should be fair,
equitable and non-discriminatory; the diversification of economies; affordable
terms of insurance; and the impact of small island developing States of
environmental laws and regulations.  The need for the integration of social
dimensions into structural adjustment programmes, as well as the need for
effective policy reforms aimed at achieving sustainable development, were
discussed.

     Furthermore, matters related to the foreign debt problem of small island
developing States were discussed.  In that context, the need for a full and
effective implementation of the Trinidad Terms was emphasized.  The need for a
supportive economic environment and the stabilization of the world economy
were stressed as important conditions for the effective implementation of the
Programme of Action.

     The participants expressed their concern that in spite of some recent
positive developments, further effective measures were urgently needed to
preserve the marine environment and its resources, including halting the
dumping of wastes and other illegal discharges from ships.  In that regard, it
was suggested that modern outer space environmental monitoring systems should
be made use of.

     It was emphasized that measures in developed countries to change
consumption and production patterns and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse
gases to give effect to the provisions of the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change would be beneficial for small island developing
States.  The need for other legally binding instruments in the field of
environment was also emphasized.

     The participants at the round table stressed the crucial importance for
the sustainable development of small island developing States of education,
building public awareness, improving health services and social and human
resource development in general.  It was further underscored that the creation
of better infrastructure, both physical and environmental, and the elaboration
of effective environmental laws and regulations that took into account the
development perspective were essential.

     The participants stressed that sustainable development was a people-
centred process that required the active involvement, both as contributors and
beneficiaries, of all social groups, in particular women and youth.  Views
were expressed that the expected results of the forthcoming International
Conference on Population and Development, the World Conference on Natural
Disaster Reduction, the World Summit for Social Development, the United
Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and other relevant United
Nations conferences could provide important inputs to the sustainable
development of small island developing States.

     The participants emphasized that the Global Conference provided a most
important opportunity to exchange the regional and country experiences of
small island developing States in the field of environment and development. 
Further exchanges of such experience, in particular experience in regional and
interregional cooperation, would be of great importance in the course of the
implementation of the Programme of Action.

     The participants emphasized the crucial role that would be played by the
United Nations system, as well as by other multilateral organizations and
financial institutions and mechanisms, including the Global Environment
Facility, in the process of implementing the Programme of Action.

     The importance of effectively monitoring and reviewing progress achieved
in the implementation of the Programme of Action was also stressed by the
participants.  The particular role of the Commission on Sustainable
Development was highlighted in that context.


                                   Annex IV

             LIST OF PARTICIPATING NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS


Action for Development

Anglican Consultative Council

Association of Caribbean Universities

Association of the Bar of the City of New York

Association pour la Sauvegarde du Patrimoine Martiniquais

Bah '! International Community

Barbados Association of Canada, Inc.

Barbados Environmental Association

Barbados Museum and Historical Society

Barbados National Trust

Belize Enterprise for Sustained Technology

Both ENDS

Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University

Caribbean Conservation Association

Caribbean Forest Conservation Association

Caribbean Natural Resources Institute

Caribbean Network for Integrated Rural Development 

Caribbean People's Development Agency

Caribbean Policy Development Centre

Centre for Documentation, Research and Training on the Southwest Indian Ocean

Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies

Centro de Educaci"n Popular

Citi-Habitat/Centro de Investigaao e Technologia Intermediaria para o Habitat

Commonwealth Human Ecology Council

Conservation International

Council for Development, Environmental Studies and Conservation

Council of Voluntary Social Services

Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era

ECO - Sao Tom e Pr!ncipe

Environnement et Developpement du Tiers-Monde

Environment Liaison Centre International

Environmental Defense Fund

European Centre for Studies, Information and Education on Pacific Issues

Forum for Energy and Development

Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development

Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific

Franciscans International, Inc.

Friends of the Earth Curacao (Amigu di Terra)

Friends of the Environment

Friends World Committee for Consultation

Fundashon Defensa Ambiental

Global Coral Reef Alliance

Greenpeace International

Institute of Island Studies

International Coastal and Ocean Organization

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

International Council for Adult Education

International Council of Environmental Law

International Federation of Business and Professional Women

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 

International Institute for Sustainable Development

International Ocean Institute

International Organization of Consumers Unions

International Scientific Council for Island Development

International Social Service

International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems

International Union Against Cancer

International Union of Local Authorities

Island Resources Foundation

Jamaica Conservation and Development Trust

Marine Environmental Research Institute

Mauritius Family Planning Association

Micronesia and South Pacific Program

Montserrat National Trust

Na Po'e Kokua

Nature Conservancy

O le Siosiomaga Society, Inc.

Organization for Agricultural Development

Pacific Concerns Resource Centre/Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Movement

Pan-African Movement

Panos Institute

Ralphe Bunche Institute of International Studies

Remedial Ecotoxicological Expeditions Fund

Service, Justice and Peace in Latin America

Soroptimist International

Together Foundation for Global Unity

Trickle-Up Program

Union regionale des Associations du Patrimoine et de l'Environnement de la
Guadeloupe

University of the South Pacific

University of the West Indies Centre for Environment and Development

Women's Environment and Development Organization

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom

World Association of Industrial and Technological Research Organizations

World Conservation Monitoring Centre

World Conservation Union

World Federation of United Nations Associations

World Wide Fund for Nature International

Worldwide Network (Women in Development and Environment)

World YMCA


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Date last posted: 16 February 2000 14:26:35
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