United Nations

A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I)


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL
12 August 1992

ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


 
                  REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON 
                         ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT*

                       (Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992)


     *    The present document is a preliminary version of the report of the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and is being issued
in five volumes.  The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and
section I (Social and economic dimensions) of Agenda 21 are in volume I;
section II (Conservation and management of resources for development) of
Agenda 21 is in volume II; and sections III (Strengthening the role of major
groups) and IV (Means of implementation) of Agenda 21 and the non-legally
binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the
management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests
are in volume III.  The proceedings of the Conference and opening and
closing statements are in volume IV.  Statements made during the Summit
Segment are in volume V.


92-38352  3325-26c (E)   080992                                         
/...
                                   CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                                                                   
Page

  I.  RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE CONFERENCE ..........................      6

      1.  Adoption of texts on environment and development ...........      7

                                    Annexes

               I.  Rio Declaration on Environment and Development ......... 8

         II.  Agenda 21 a/ ...........................................     14

        III.  Non-legally binding authoritative statement of principles
                   for a global consensus on the management, conservation 
                   and sustainable development of all types of forests b/

      2.  Expression of thanks to the people and Government of Brazil b/

      3.  Credentials of representatives to the Conference b/

 II.  ATTENDANCE AND ORGANIZATION OF WORK c/

      A.  Date and place of the Conference

      B.  Pre-Conference consultations

      C.  Attendance

      D.  Opening of the Conference

      E.  Election of the President

      F.  Messages from heads of State

      G.  Adoption of the rules of procedure


          

     a/   The present volume contains the preamble and section I (Social and
economic dimensions); for section II (Conservation and management of
resources for development), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. II); for section III
(Strengthening the role of major groups) and section IV (Means of
implementation), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. III).
                b/   See A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. III).

     c/   See A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. IV).
                             CONTENTS (continued)

                                                                                                                                                                                       


      H.  Adoption of the agenda

      I.  Election of officers other than the President

      J.  Organization of work, including the establishment of the
               Main Committee of the Conference

      K.  Appointment of members of the Credentials Committee

III.  GENERAL DEBATE c/

 IV.  REPORT OF THE MAIN COMMITTEE AND ACTION TAKEN BY THE CONFERENCE c/

      A.  Report of the Main Committee

      B.  Action taken by the Conference 

  V.  REPORT OF THE CREDENTIALS COMMITTEE c/

 VI.  SUMMIT SEGMENT OF THE CONFERENCE c/

VII.  ADOPTION OF THE REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE c/

                                    Annexes

  I.  LIST OF DOCUMENTS c/

 II.  OPENING STATEMENTS c/

III.  CLOSING STATEMENTS c/

 IV.  STATEMENTS MADE BY HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT AT THE SUMMIT
      SEGMENT OF THE CONFERENCE d/





          

     d/   See A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. V).
                                 ABBREVIATIONS


APELL          Awareness and Preparedness for Industrial Accidents at Local 
                 Level
CFC            chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR          Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
CILSS          Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the
               Sahel
EEZ            exclusive economic zone
ECA            Economic Commission for Africa
ECE            Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC          Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI           Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA         environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP          Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA          Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO            Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT           General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW            Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF            Global Environment Facility
GEMS           Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER     Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP         Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine 
                 Pollution
GIPME          Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment 
                 (UNESCO)
GIS            Geographical Information System
GLOBE          Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS            Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID           Global Resource Information Database
GSP            generalized system of preferences
HIV            human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA           International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD      International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable 
                 Agricultural Development 
IARC           International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM         International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA           International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES           International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC          International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC           International Civil Service Commission
ICSU           International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA           integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD           International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD          Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP           International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START                International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change 
                 System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO            International Labour Organisation
IMF            International Monetary Fund
IMO            International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA      International Environment Information System (UNEP)
IOC            Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC           Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS           International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM            integrated pest management
IRPTC          International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC            International Tin Council
ITTO           International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN           International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural 
                 Resources
MARPOL         International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from

                 Ships
OECD           Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA          plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC            prior informed consent procedure
SADCC          Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD           Sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD         United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP           United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO          Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP           United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO         United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
               Organization
UNFPA          United Nations Population Fund 
UNICEF         United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO          United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU            United Nations University
WCP            World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC            World Food Council
WHO            Whold Health Organization
WMO            World Meteorological Organization
WWF            World Wild Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW            World Weather Watch (WMO)

                                   Chapter 1

                     RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE CONFERENCE


    At its 19th plenary meeting, on 14 June 1992, the Conference adopted the
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21 and the
non-legally binding authoritative statement of principles for a global
consensus on the management, conservation and sustainable development of all
types of forests (resolution 1).  It also adopted a resolution expressing
thanks to the people and Government of Brazil (resolution 2) and a
resolution concerning the credentials of representatives to the Conference
(resolution 3).

                                 RESOLUTION 1

               Adoption of texts on environment and development

     The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,

     Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992,

     1.   Notes that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity were opened for signature
at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and were
signed at Rio de Janeiro by 154 States and one regional economic integration
organization and 156 States and one regional economic integration
organization respectively;

     2.   Adopts the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,
Agenda 21 and the Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles
for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable
Development of All Types of Forests, which are annexed to the present
resolution;

     3.   Recommends to the General Assembly of the United Nations at its
forty-seventh session that it endorse the texts referred to in paragraph 2
above, as adopted.
                                    Annex I

                RIO DECLARATION ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT


     The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,

     Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992,

     Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the
Human Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972, a/ and seeking to
build upon it,

     With the goal of establishing a new and equitable global partnership
through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States, key sectors
of societies and people,

     Working towards international agreements which respect the interests of
all and protect the integrity of the global environmental and developmental
system,

     Recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the Earth, our
home,

     Proclaims that:

                                  Principle 1

     Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. 
They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.


                                  Principle 2

     States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and
the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their
own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental
policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their
jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other
States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.


                                  Principle 3

     The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet
developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations.

          

     a/   Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment,
Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972 (United Nations publication, Sales No.
E.73.II.A.14 and corrigendum), chap. I.                                  Principle 4

     In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection
shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be
considered in isolation from it.


                                  Principle 5

     All States and all people shall cooperate in the essential task of
eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for sustainable
development, in order to decrease the disparities in standards of living and
better meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world.


                                  Principle 6

     The special situation and needs of developing countries, particularly
the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be
given special priority.  International actions in the field of environment
and development should also address the interests and needs of all
countries.


                                  Principle 7

     States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve,
protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem.  In
view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation,
States have common but differentiated responsibilities.  The developed
countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international
pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies
place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial
resources they command.


                                  Principle 8

     To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all
people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of
production and consumption and promote appropriate demographic policies.


                                  Principle 9

     States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for
sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through
exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge, and by enhancing the
development, adaptation, diffusion and transfer of technologies, including
new and innovative technologies.

                                 Principle 10

     Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all
concerned citizens, at the relevant level.  At the national level, each
individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the
environment that is held by public authorities, including information on
hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity
to participate in decision-making processes.  States shall facilitate and
encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely
available.  Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings,
including redress and remedy, shall be provided.


                                 Principle 11

     States shall enact effective environmental legislation.  Environmental
standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the
environmental and developmental context to which they apply.  Standards
applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic
and social cost to other countries, in particular developing countries.


                                 Principle 12

     States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international
economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable
development in all countries, to better address the problems of
environmental degradation.  Trade policy measures for environmental purposes
should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination
or a disguised restriction on international trade.  Unilateral actions to
deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing
country should be avoided.  Environmental measures addressing transboundary
or global environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an
international consensus.


                                 Principle 13

     States shall develop national law regarding liability and compensation
for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage.  States shall
also cooperate in an expeditious and more determined manner to develop
further international law regarding liability and compensation for adverse
effects of environmental damage caused by activities within their
jurisdiction or control to areas beyond their jurisdiction.

                                 Principle 14

     States should effectively cooperate to discourage or prevent the
relocation and transfer to other States of any activities and substances
that cause severe environmental degradation or are found to be harmful to
human health.


                                 Principle 15

     In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall
be widely applied by States according to their capabilities.  Where there
are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific
certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective
measures to prevent environmental degradation.


                                 Principle 16

     National authorities should endeavour to promote the internalization of
environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account
the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of
pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting
international trade and investment.


                                 Principle 17

     Environmental impact assessment, as a national instrument, shall be
undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant
adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a
competent national authority.


                                 Principle 18

     States shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters
or other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on
the environment of those States.  Every effort shall be made by the
international community to help States so afflicted.


                                 Principle 19

     States shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant
information to potentially affected States on activities that may have a
significant adverse transboundary environmental effect and shall consult
with those States at an early stage and in good faith.


                                 Principle 20

     Women have a vital role in environmental management and development. 
Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable
development.


                                 Principle 21

     The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be
mobilized to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable
development and ensure a better future for all.


                                 Principle 22

     Indigenous people and their communities and other local communities
have a vital role in environmental management and development because of
their knowledge and traditional practices.  States should recognize and duly
support their identity, culture and interests and enable their effective
participation in the achievement of sustainable development.


                                 Principle 23

     The environment and natural resources of people under oppression,
domination and occupation shall be protected.


                                 Principle 24

     Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development.  States
shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the
environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further
development, as necessary.


                                 Principle 25

     Peace, development and environmental protection are interdependent and
indivisible.


                                 Principle 26

     States shall resolve all their environmental disputes peacefully and by
appropriate means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

                                 Principle 27

     States and people shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of
partnership in the fulfilment of the principles embodied in this Declaration
and in the further development of international law in the field of
sustainable development.


                                   Annex II

                                   AGENDA 21


                                   CONTENTS*

Chapter                                                        Paragraphs 
Page

1.  Preamble ..............................................    1.1 - 1.615


                  SECTION I.  SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS

2.  International cooperation to accelerate sustainable
    development in developing countries and related
    domestic policies .....................................    2.1 - 2.4317

3.  Combating poverty .....................................    3.1 - 3.1231

4.  Changing consumption patterns .........................    4.1 - 4.2737

5.  Demographic dynamics and sustainability ...............    5.1 - 5.6643

6.  Protecting and promoting human health conditions ......    6.1 - 6.4654

7.  Promoting sustainable human settlement development ....    7.1 - 7.8073

8.  Integrating environment and development in 
    decision-making .......................................    8.1 - 8.5499














          

                *    For section II (Conservation and management of resources for
development), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. II); for section III (Strengthening
the role of major groups) and section IV (Means of implementation), see
A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. III).

                                   Chapter 1

                                   PREAMBLE*


1.1.  Humanity stands at a defining moment in history.  We are confronted
with a perpetuation of disparities between and within nations, a worsening
of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing
deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. 
However, integration of environment and development concerns and greater
attention to them will lead to the fulfilment of basic needs, improved
living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems and a
safer, more prosperous future.  No nation can achieve this on its own; but
together we can - in a global partnership for sustainable development.

1.2.  This global partnership must build on the premises of General Assembly
resolution 44/228 of 22 December 1989, which was adopted when the nations of
the world called for the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, and on the acceptance of the need to take a balanced and
integrated approach to environnment and development questions.

1.3.  Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of today and also aims at
preparing the world for the challenges of the next century.  It reflects a
global consensus and political commitment at the highest level on
development and environment cooperation.  Its successful implementation is
first and foremost the responsibility of Governments.  National strategies,
plans, policies and processes are crucial in achieving this.  International
cooperation should support and supplement such national efforts.  In this
context, the United Nations system has a key role to play.  Other
international, regional and subregional organizations are also called upon
to contribute to this effort.  The broadest public participation and the
active involvement of the non-governmental organizations and other groups
should also be encouraged.

1.4.  The developmental and environmental objectives of Agenda 21 will
require a substantial flow of new and additional financial resources to
developing countries, in order to cover the incremental costs for the
actions they have to undertake to deal with global environmental problems
and to accelerate sustainable development.  Financial resources are also
required for strengthening the capacity of international institutions for
the implementation of Agenda 21.  An indicative order-of-magnitude
assessment of costs is included in each of the programme areas.  This
assessment will need 

          

     *    When the term "Governments" is used, it will be deemed to include
the European Economic Community within its areas of competence.  Throughout
Agenda 21 the term "environmentally sound" means "environmentally safe and
sound", in particular when applied to the terms "energy sources", "energy
supplies", "energy systems" and "technology" or "technologies".
to be examined and refined by the relevant implementing agencies and
organizations.

1.5.  In the implementation of the relevant programme areas identified in
Agenda 21, special attention should be given to the particular circumstances
facing the economies in transition.  It must also be recognized that these
countries are facing unprecedented challenges in transforming their
economies, in some cases in the midst of considerable social and political
tension.

1.6.  The programme areas that constitute Agenda 21 are described in terms
of the basis for action, objectives, activities and means of implementation. 
Agenda 21 is a dynamic programme.  It will be carried out by the various
actors according to the different situations, capacities and priorities of
countries and regions in full respect of all the principles contained in the
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.  It could evolve over time
in the light of changing needs and circumstances.  This process marks the
beginning of a new global partnership for sustainable development.


                  SECTION I.  SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS


                                   Chapter 2

        INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
             IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES


                                 INTRODUCTION

2.1.  In order to meet the challenges of environment and development, States
have decided to establish a new global partnership.  This partnership
commits all States to engage in a continuous and constructive dialogue,
inspired by the need to achieve a more efficient and equitable world
economy, keeping in view the increasing interdependence of the community of
nations and that sustainable development should become a priority item on
the agenda of the international community.  It is recognized that, for the
success of this new partnership, it is important to overcome confrontation
and to foster a climate of genuine cooperation and solidarity.  It is
equally important to strengthen national and international policies and
multinational cooperation to adapt to the new realities.

2.2.  Economic policies of individual countries and international economic
relations both have great relevance to sustainable development.  The
reactivation and acceleration of development requires both a dynamic and a
supportive international economic environment and determined policies at the
national level.  It will be frustrated in the absence of either of these
requirements.  A supportive external economic environment is crucial.  The
development process will not gather momentum if the global economy lacks
dynamism and stability and is beset with uncertainties.  Neither will it
gather momentum if the developing countries are weighted down by external
indebtedness, if development finance is inadequate, if barriers restrict
access to markets and if commodity prices and the terms of trade of
developing countries remain depressed.  The record of the 1980s was
essentially negative on each of these counts and needs to be reversed.  The
policies and measures needed to create an international environment that is
strongly supportive of national development efforts are thus vital. 
International cooperation in this area should be designed to complement and
support - not to diminish or subsume - sound domestic economic policies, in
both developed and developing countries, if global progress towards
sustainable development is to be achieved.

2.3.  The international economy should provide a supportive international
climate for achieving environment and development goals by:

     (a)  Promoting sustainable development through trade liberalization;
                (b)  Making trade and environment mutually supportive;

     (c)  Providing adequate financial resources to developing countries and
dealing with international debt;

     (d)  Encouraging macroeconomic policies conducive to environment and
development.

2.4.  Governments recognize that there is a new global effort to relate the
elements of the international economic system and mankind's need for a safe
and stable natural environment.  Therefore, it is the intent of Governments
that consensus-building at the intersection of the environmental and trade
and development areas will be ongoing in existing international forums, as
well as in the domestic policy of each country.


                                PROGRAMME AREAS

              A.  Promoting sustainable development through trade

Basis for action

2.5.  An open, equitable, secure, non-discriminatory and predictable
multilateral trading system that is consistent with the goals of sustainable
development and leads to the optimal distribution of global production in
accordance with comparative advantage is of benefit to all trading partners. 
Moreover, improved market access for developing countries' exports in
conjunction with sound macroeconomic and environmental policies would have a
positive environmental impact and therefore make an important contribution
towards sustainable development.

2.6.  Experience has shown that sustainable development requires a
commitment to sound economic policies and management, an effective and
predictable public administration, the integration of environmental concerns
into decision-making and progress towards democratic government, in the
light of country-specific conditions, which allows for full participation of
all parties concerned.  These attributes are essential for the fulfilment of
the policy directions and objectives listed below.

2.7.  The commodity sector dominates the economies of many developing
countries in terms of production, employment and export earnings.  An
important feature of the world commodity economy in the 1980s was the
prevalence of very low and declining real prices for most commodities in
international markets and a resulting substantial contraction in commodity
export earnings for many producing countries.  The ability of those
countries to mobilize, through international trade, the resources needed to
finance investments required for sustainable development may be impaired by
this development and by tariff and non-tariff impediments, including tariff
escalation, limiting their access to export markets.  The removal of
existing distortions in international trade is essential.  In particular,
the achievement of this objective requires that there be substantial and
progressive reduction in the support and protection of agriculture -
coveringinternal regimes, market access and export subsidies - as well as of
industry and other sectors, in order to avoid inflicting large losses on the
more efficient producers, especially in developing countries.  Thus, in
agriculture, industry and other sectors, there is scope for initiatives
aimed at trade liberalization and at policies to make production more
responsive to environment and development needs.  Trade liberalization
should therefore be pursued on a global basis across economic sectors so as
to contribute to sustainable development.

2.8.  The international trading environment has been affected by a number of
developments that have created new challenges and opportunities and have
made multilateral economic cooperation of even greater importance.  World
trade has continued to grow faster than world output in recent years. 
However, the expansion of world trade has been unevenly spread, and only a
limited number of developing countries have been capable of achieving
appreciable growth in their exports.  Protectionist pressures and unilateral
policy actions continue to endanger the functioning of an open multilateral
trading system, affecting particularly the export interests of developing
countries.  Economic integration processes have intensified in recent years
and should impart dynamism to global trade and enhance the trade and
development possibilities for developing countries.  In recent years, a
growing number of these countries have adopted courageous policy reforms
involving ambitious autonomous trade liberalization, while far-reaching
reforms and profound restructuring processes are taking place in Central and
Eastern European countries, paving the way for their integration into the
world economy and the international trading system.  Increased attention is
being devoted to enhancing the role of enterprises and promoting competitive
markets through adoption of competitive policies.  The GSP has proved to be
a useful trade policy instrument, although its objectives will have to be
fulfilled, and trade facilitation strategies relating to electronic data
interchange (EDI) have been effective in improving the trading efficiency of
the public and private sectors.  The interactions between environment
policies and trade issues are manifold and have not yet been fully assessed. 
An early, balanced, comprehensive and successful outcome of the Uruguay
Round of multilateral trade negotiations would bring about further
liberalization and expansion of world trade, enhance the trade and
development possibilities of developing countries and provide greater
security and predictability to the international trading system.

Objectives

2.9.  In the years ahead, and taking into account the results of the Uruguay
Round of multilateral trade negotiations, Governments should continue to
strive to meet the following objectives:

     (a)  To promote an open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral
trading system that will enable all countries - in particular, the
developing countries - to improve their economic structures and improve the
standard of living of their populations through sustained economic
development;

     (b)  To improve access to markets for exports of developing countries;

     (c)  To improve the functioning of commodity markets and achieve sound,
compatible and consistent commodity policies at national and international
levels with a view to optimizing the contribution of the commodity sector to
sustainable development, taking into account environmental considerations;

     (d)  To promote and support policies, domestic and international, that
make economic growth and environmental protection mutually supportive.

Activities

(a)  International and regional cooperation and coordination

     Promoting an international trading system that takes account of the
     needs of developing countries

2.10.  Accordingly, the international community should:

     (a)  Halt and reverse protectionism in order to bring about further
liberalization and expansion of world trade, to the benefit of all
countries, in particular the developing countries;

     (b)  Provide for an equitable, secure, non-discriminatory and
predictable international trading system;

     (c)  Facilitate, in a timely way, the integration of all countries into
the world economy and the international trading system;

     (d)  Ensure that environment and trade policies are mutually
supportive, with a view to achieving sustainable development;

     (e)  Strengthen the international trade policies system through an
early, balanced, comprehensive and successful outcome of the Uruguay Round
of multilateral trade negotiations.

2.11.  The international community should aim at finding ways and means of
achieving a better functioning and enhanced transparency of commodity
markets, greater diversification of the commodity sector in developing
economies within a macroeconomic framework that takes into consideration a
country's economic structure, resource endowments and market opportunities,
and better management of natural resources that takes into account the
necessities of sustainable development.

2.12.  Therefore, all countries should implement previous commitments to
halt and reverse protectionism and further expand market access,
particularly in areas of interest to developing countries.  This improvement
of market access will be facilitated by appropriate structural adjustment in
developed countries.  Developing countries should continue the trade-policy
reforms and structural adjustment they have undertaken.  It is thus urgent
to achieve animprovement in market access conditions for commodities, notably through the
progressive removal of barriers that restrict imports, particularly from
developing countries, of commodity products in primary and processed forms,
as well as the substantial and progressive reduction of types of support
that induce uncompetitive production, such as production and export
subsidies.

(b)  Management related activities

     Developing domestic policies that maximize the benefits of trade
     liberalization for sustainable development

2.13.  For developing countries to benefit from the liberalization of
trading systems, they should implement the following policies, as
appropriate:

     (a)  Create a domestic environment supportive of an optimal balance
between production for the domestic and export markets and remove biases
against exports and discourage inefficient import-substitution;

     (b)  Promote the policy framework and the infrastructure required to
improve the efficiency of export and import trade as well as the functioning
of domestic markets.

2.14.  The following policies should be adopted by developing countries with
respect to commodities consistent with market efficiency:

     (a)  Expand processing, distribution and improve marketing practices
and the competitiveness of the commodity sector;

     (b)  Diversify in order to reduce dependence on commodity exports;

     (c)  Reflect efficient and sustainable use of factors of production in
the formation of commodity prices, including the reflection of
environmental, social and resources costs.

(c)  Data and information

     Encouraging data collection and research

2.15.  GATT, UNCTAD and other relevant institutions should continue to
collect appropriate trade data and information.  The Secretary-General of
the United Nations is requested to strengthen the Trade Control Measures
Information System managed by UNCTAD.

     Improving international cooperation in commodity trade and the
     diversification of the sector
2.16.  With regard to commodity trade, Governments should, directly or
     through appropriate international organizations, where appropriate:

     (a)  Seek optimal functioning of commodity markets, inter alia, through
improved market transparency involving exchanges of views and information on
investment plans, prospects and markets for individual commodities. 
Substantive negotiations between producers and consumers should be pursued
with a view to achieving viable and more efficient international agreements
that take into account market trends, or arrangements, as well as study
groups.  In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the
agreements on cocoa, coffee, sugar and tropical timber.  The importance of
international commodity agreements and arrangements is underlined. 
Occupational health and safety matters, technology transfer and services
associated with the production, marketing and promotion of commodities, as
well as environmental considerations, should be taken into account;

     (b)  Continue to apply compensation mechanisms for shortfalls in
commodity export earnings of developing countries in order to encourage
diversification efforts;

     (c)  Provide assistance to developing countries upon request in the
design and implementation of commodity policies and the gathering and
utilization of information on commodity markets;

     (d)  Support the efforts of developing countries to promote the policy
framework and infrastructure required to improve the efficiency of export
and import trade;

     (e)  Support the diversification initiatives of the developing
countries at the national, regional and international levels.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

2.17.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual
cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities in this programme area to be
about $8.8 billion from the international community on grant or concessional
terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have
not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms,
including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the
specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation.

(b)  Capacity-building

2.18.  The above-mentioned technical cooperation activities aim at
strengthening national capabilities for design and implementation of
commodity policy, use and management of national resources and the gathering
and utilization of information on commodity markets.

             B.  Making trade and environment mutually supportive

Basis for action

2.19.  Environment and trade policies should be mutually supportive.  An
open, multilateral trading system makes possible a more efficient allocation
and use of resources and thereby contributes to an increase in production
and incomes and to lessening demands on the environment.  It thus provides
additional resources needed for economic growth and development and improved
environmental protection.  A sound environment, on the other hand, provides
the ecological and other resources needed to sustain growth and underpin a
continuing expansion of trade.  An open, multilateral trading system,
supported by the adoption of sound environmental policies, would have a
positive impact on the environment and contribute to sustainable
development.

2.20.  International cooperation in the environmental field is growing, and
in a number of cases trade provisions in multilateral environment agreements
have played a role in tackling global environmental challenges.  Trade
measures have thus been used in certain specific instances, where considered
necessary, to enhance the effectiveness of environmental regulations for the
protection of the environment.  Such regulations should address the root
causes of environmental degradation so as not to result in unjustified
restrictions on trade.  The challenge is to ensure that trade and
environment policies are consistent and reinforce the process of sustainable
development.  However, account should be taken of the fact that
environmental standards valid for developed countries may have unwarranted
social and economic costs in developing countries.

Objectives

2.21.  Governments should strive to meet the following objectives, through
relevant multilateral forums, including GATT, UNCTAD and other international
organizations:

     (a)  To make international trade and environment policies mutually
supportive in favour of sustainable development;

     (b)  To clarify the role of GATT, UNCTAD and other international
organizations in dealing with trade and environment-related issues,
including, where relevant, conciliation procedure and dispute settlement;

     (c)  To encourage international productivity and competitiveness and
encourage a constructive role on the part of industry in dealing with
environment and development issues.

Activities

     Developing an environment/trade and development agenda

2.22.  Governments should encourage GATT, UNCTAD and other relevant
international and regional economic institutions to examine, in accordance
with their respective mandates and competences, the following propositions
and principles:

     (a)  Elaborate adequate studies for the better understanding of the
relationship between trade and environment for the promotion of sustainable
development;

     (b)  Promote a dialogue between trade, development and environment
communities;

     (c)  In those cases when trade measures related to environment are
used, ensure transparency and compatibility with international obligations;

     (d)  Deal with the root causes of environment and development problems
in a manner that avoids the adoption of environmental measures resulting in
unjustified restrictions on trade;

     (e)  Seek to avoid the use of trade restrictions or distortions as a
means to offset differences in cost arising from differences in
environmental standards and regulations, since their application could lead
to trade distortions and increase protectionist tendencies;

     (f)  Ensure that environment-related regulations or standards,
including those related to health and safety standards, do not constitute a
means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised
restriction on trade;

     (g)  Ensure that special factors affecting environment and trade
policies in the developing countries are borne in mind in the application of
environmental standards, as well as in the use of any trade measures.  It is
worth noting that standards that are valid in the most advanced countries
may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing
countries;

     (h)  Encourage participation of developing countries in multilateral
agreements through such mechanisms as special transitional rules;

     (i)  Avoid unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges
outside the jurisdiction of the importing country.  Environmental measures
addressing transborder or global environmental problems should, as far as
possible, be based on an international consensus.  Domestic measures
targeted to achieve certain environmental objectives may need trade measures
to render them effective.  Should trade policy measures be found necessary
for the enforcement of environmental policies, certain principles and rules
should apply.  These could include, inter alia, the principle of
non-discrimination; the principle that the trade measure chosen should be
the leasttrade-restrictive necessary to achieve the objectives; an obligation to
ensure transparency in the use of trade measures related to the environment
and to provide adequate notification of national regulations; and the need
to give consideration to the special conditions and developmental
requirements of developing countries as they move towards internationally
agreed environmental objectives;

     (j)  Develop more precision, where necessary, and clarify the
relationship between GATT provisions and some of the multilateral measures
adopted in the environment area;

     (k)  Ensure public input in the formation, negotiation and
implementation of trade policies as a means of fostering increased
transparency in the light of country-specific conditions;

     (l)  Ensure that environmental policies provide the appropriate legal
and institutional framework to respond to new needs for the protection of
the environment that may result from changes in production and trade
specialization.


            C.  Providing adequate financial resources to developing
                countries

Basis for action

2.23.  Investment is critical to the ability of developing countries to
achieve needed economic growth to improve the welfare of their populations
and to meet their basic needs in a sustainable manner, all without
deteriorating or depleting the resource base that underpins development. 
Sustainable development requires increased investment, for which domestic
and external financial resources are needed.  Foreign private investment and
the return of flight capital, which depend on a healthy investment climate,
are an important source of financial resources.  Many developing countries
have experienced a decade-long situation of negative net transfer of
financial resources, during which their financial receipts were exceeded by
payments they had to make, in particular for debt-servicing.  As a result,
domestically mobilized resources had to be transferred abroad instead of
being invested locally in order to promote sustainable economic development.

2.24.  For many developing countries, the reactivation of development will
not take place without an early and durable solution to the problems of
external indebtedness, taking into account the fact that, for many
developing countries, external debt burdens are a significant problem.  The
burden of debt-service payments on those countries has imposed severe
constraints on their ability to accelerate growth and eradicate poverty and
has led to a contraction in imports, investment and consumption.  External
indebtedness has emerged as a main factor in the economic stalemate in the
developing countries.  Continued vigorous implementation of the evolving
international debt strategy is aimed at restoring debtor countries' external
financialviability, and the resumption of their growth and development would assist
in achieving sustainable growth and development.  In this context,
additional financial resources in favour of developing countries and the
efficient utilization of such resources are essential.

Objectives

2.25.  The specific requirements for the implementation of the sectoral and
cross-sectoral programmes included in Agenda 21 are dealt with in the
relevant programme areas and in chapter 33 (Financial resources and
mechanisms).

Activities

(a)  Meeting international targets of official development assistance
     funding

2.26.  As discussed in chapter 33, new and additional resources should be
provided to support Agenda 21 programmes.

(b)  Addressing the debt issue

2.27.  In regard to the external debt incurred with commercial banks, the
progress being made under the strengthened debt strategy is recognized and a
more rapid implementation of this strategy is encouraged.  Some countries
have already benefited from the combination of sound adjustment policies and
commercial bank debt reduction or equivalent measures.  The international
community encourages:

     (a)  Other countries with heavy debts to banks to negotiate similar
commercial bank debt reduction with their creditors;

     (b)  The parties to such a negotiation to take due account of both the
medium-term debt reduction and new money requirements of the debtor country;

     (c)  Multilateral institutions actively engaged in the strengthened
international debt strategy to continue to support debt-reduction packages
related to commercial bank debt with a view to ensuring that the magnitude
of such financing is consonant with the evolving debt strategy;

     (d)  Creditor banks to participate in debt and debt-service reduction;

     (e)  Strengthened policies to attract direct investment, avoid
unsustainable levels of debt and foster the return of flight capital.

2.28.  With regard to debt owed to official bilateral creditors, the recent
measures taken by the Paris Club with regard to more generous terms of
relief to the poorest most indebted countries are welcomed.  Ongoing efforts
to implement these "Trinidad terms" measures in a manner commensurate with
the payments capacity of those countries and in a way that gives additional
support to their economic reform efforts are welcomed.  The substantial
bilateral debt reduction undertaken by some creditor countries is alsowelcomed, and others which are in a position to do so are encouraged to take
similar action.

2.29.  The actions of low-income countries with substantial debt burdens
which continue, at great cost, to service their debt and safeguard their
creditworthiness are commended.  Particular attention should be paid to
their resource needs.  Other debt-distressed developing countries which are
making great efforts to continue to service their debt and meet their
external financial obligations also deserve due attention.

2.30.  In connection with multilateral debt, it is urged that serious
attention be given to continuing to work towards growth-oriented solutions
to the problem of developing countries with serious debt-servicing problems,
including those whose debt is mainly to official creditors or to
multilateral financial institutions.  Particularly in the case of low-income
countries in the process of economic reform, the support of the multilateral
financial institutions in the form of new disbursements and the use of their
concessional funds is welcomed.  The use of support groups should be
continued in providing resources to clear arrears of countries embarking
upon vigorous economic reform programmes supported by IMF and the World
Bank.  Measures by the multilateral financial institutions such as the
refinancing of interest on non-concessional loans with IDA reflows - "fifth
dimension" - are noted with appreciation.

Means of implementation

     Financing and cost evaluation*


           D.  Encouraging economic policies conducive to sustainable
               development

Basis for action

2.31.  The unfavourable external environment facing developing countries
makes domestic resource mobilization and efficient allocation and
utilization of domestically mobilized resources all the more important for
the promotion of sustainable development.  In a number of countries,
policies are necessary to correct misdirected public spending, large budget
deficits and other macroeconomic imbalances, restrictive policies and
distortions in the areas of exchange rates, investment and finance, and
obstacles to entrepreneurship.  In developed countries, continuing policy
reform and adjustment, including appropriate savings rates, would help
generate resources to support the transition to sustainable development both
domestically and in developing countries.

          
                *    See chap. 33 (Financial resources and mechanisms).

2.32.  Good management that fosters the association of effective, efficient,
honest, equitable and accountable public administration with individual
rights and opportunities is an essential element for sustainable, broadly
based development and sound economic performance at all development levels. 
All countries should increase their efforts to eradicate mismanagement of
public and private affairs, including corruption, taking into account the
factors responsible for, and agents involved in, this phenomenon.  

2.33.  Many indebted developing countries are undergoing structural
adjustment programmes relating to debt rescheduling or new loans.  While
such programmes are necessary for improving the balance in fiscal budgets
and balance-of-payments accounts, in some cases they have resulted in
adverse social and environmental effects, such as cuts in allocations for
health care, education and environmental protection.  It is important to
ensure that structural adjustment programmes do not have negative impacts on
the environment and social development so that such programmes can be more
in line with the objectives of sustainable development.

Objectives

2.34.  It is necessary to establish, in the light of the country-specific
conditions, economic policy reforms that promote the efficient planning and
utilization of resources for sustainable development through sound economic
and social policies, foster entrepreneurship and the incorporation of social
and environmental costs in resource pricing, and remove sources of
distortion in the area of trade and investment.

Activities

(a)  Management-related activities

     Promoting sound economic policies

2.35.  The industrialized countries and other countries in a position to do
so should strengthen their efforts:

     (a)  To encourage a stable and predictable international economic
environment, particularly with regard to monetary stability, real rates of
interest and fluctuations in key exchange rates;

     (b)  To stimulate savings and reduce fiscal deficits;

     (c)  To ensure that the processes of policy coordination take into
account the interests and concerns of the developing countries, including
the need to promote positive action to support the efforts of the least
developed countries to halt their marginalization in the world economy;

                (d)  To undertake appropriate national macroeconomic and structural
policies aimed at promoting non-inflationary growth, narrowing their major
external imbalances and increasing the adjustment capacity of their
economies.

2.36.  Developing countries should consider strengthening their efforts to
implement sound economic policies:

     (a)  That maintain the monetary and fiscal discipline required to
promote price stability and external balance;

     (b)  That result in realistic exchange rates;

     (c)  That raise domestic savings and investment, as well as improve
returns to investment.

2.37.  More specifically, all countries should develop policies that improve
efficiency in the allocation of resources and take full advantage of the
opportunities offered by the changing global economic environment.  In
particular, wherever appropriate, and taking into account national
strategies and objectives, countries should:

     (a)  Remove the barriers to progress caused by bureaucratic
inefficiencies, administrative strains, unnecessary controls and the neglect
of market conditions;

     (b)  Promote transparency in administration and decision-making;

     (c)  Encourage the private sector and foster entrepreneurship by
improving institutional facilities for enterprise creation and market entry. 
The essential objective would be to simplify or remove the restrictions,
regulations and formalities that make it more complicated, costly and
time-consuming to set up and operate enterprises in many developing
countries;

     (d)  Promote and support the investment and infrastructure required for
sustainable economic growth and diversification on an environmentally sound
and sustainable basis;

     (e)  Provide scope for appropriate economic instruments, including
market mechanisms, in harmony with the objectives of sustainable development
and fulfilment of basic needs;

     (f)  Promote the operation of effective tax systems and financial
sectors;

     (g)  Provide opportunities for small-scale enterprises, both farm and
non-farm, and for the indigenous population and local communities to
contribute fully to the attainment of sustainable development;

     (h)  Remove biases against exports and in favour of inefficient import
substitution and establish policies that allow them to benefit fully from
the flows of foreign investment, within the framework of national, social,
economic and developmental goals;

     (i)  Promote the creation of a domestic economic environment supportive
of an optimal balance between production for the domestic and export
markets.

(b)  International and regional cooperation and coordination

2.38.  Governments of developed countries and those of other countries in a
position to do so should, directly or through appropriate international and
regional organizations and international lending institutions, enhance their
efforts to provide developing countries with increased technical assistance
for the following:

     (a)  Capacity-building in the nation's design and implementation of
economic policies, upon request;

     (b)  Design and operation of efficient tax systems, accounting systems
and financial sectors;

     (c)  Promotion of entrepreneurship.

2.39.  International financial and development institutions should further
review their policies and programmes in the light of the objective of
sustainable development.

2.40.  Stronger economic cooperation among developing countries has long
been accepted as an important component of efforts to promote economic
growth and technological capabilities and to accelerate development in the
developing world.  Therefore, the efforts of the developing countries to
promote economic cooperation among themselves should be enhanced and
continue to be supported by the international community.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

2.41.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual
cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities in this programme area to be
about $50 million from the international community on grant or concessional
terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have
not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms,
including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the
specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation.

(b)  Capacity-building

2.42.  The above-mentioned policy changes in developing countries involve
substantial national efforts for capacity-building in the areas of public
administration, central banking, tax administration, savings institutions
and financial markets.

2.43.  Particular efforts in the implementation of the four programme areas
identified in this chapter are warranted in view of the especially acute
environmental and developmental problems of the least developed countries.
                                   Chapter 3

                               COMBATING POVERTY


                                PROGRAMME AREA

             Enabling the poor to achieve sustainable livelihoods

Basis for action

3.1.  Poverty is a complex multidimensional problem with origins in both the
national and international domains.  No uniform solution can be found for
global application.  Rather, country-specific programmes to tackle poverty
and international efforts supporting national efforts, as well as the
parallel process of creating a supportive international environment, are
crucial for a solution to this problem.  The eradication of poverty and
hunger, greater equity in income distribution and human resource development
remain major challenges everywhere.  The struggle against poverty is the
shared responsibility of all countries.

3.2.  While managing resources sustainably, an environmental policy that
focuses mainly on the conservation and protection of resources must take due
account of those who depend on the resources for their livelihoods. 
Otherwise it could have an adverse impact both on poverty and on chances for
long-term success in resource and environmental conservation.  Equally, a
development policy that focuses mainly on increasing the production of goods
without addressing the sustainability of the resources on which production
is based will sooner or later run into declining productivity, which could
also have an adverse impact on poverty.  A specific anti-poverty strategy is
therefore one of the basic conditions for ensuring sustainable development. 
An effective strategy for tackling the problems of poverty, development and
environment simultaneously should begin by focusing on resources, production
and people and should cover demographic issues, enhanced health care and
education, the rights of women, the role of youth and of indigenous people
and local communities and a democratic participation process in association
with improved governance.

3.3.  Integral to such action is, together with international support, the
promotion of economic growth in developing countries that is both sustained
and sustainable and direct action in eradicating poverty by strengthening
employment and income-generating programmes.

Objectives

3.4.  The long-term objective of enabling all people to achieve sustainable
livelihoods should provide an integrating factor that allows policies to
address issues of development, sustainable resource management and poverty
eradication simultaneously.  The objectives of this programme area are:

     (a)  To provide all persons urgently with the opportunity to earn a
sustainable livelihood;

     (b)  To implement policies and strategies that promote adequate levels
of funding and focus on integrated human development policies, including
income generation, increased local control of resources, local
institution-strengthening and capacity-building and greater involvement of
non-governmental organizations and local levels of government as delivery
mechanisms;

     (c)  To develop for all poverty-stricken areas integrated strategies
and programmes of sound and sustainable management of the environment,
resource mobilization, poverty eradication and alleviation, employment and
income generation;

     (d)  To create a focus in national development plans and budgets on
investment in human capital, with special policies and programmes directed
at rural areas, the urban poor, women and children.

Activities

3.5.  Activities that will contribute to the integrated promotion of
sustainable livelihoods and environmental protection cover a variety of
sectoral interventions involving a range of actors, from local to global,
and are essential at every level, especially the community and local levels. 
Enabling actions will be necessary at the national and international levels,
taking full account of regional and subregional conditions to support a
locally driven and country-specific approach.  In general design, the
programmes should:

     (a)  Focus on the empowerment of local and community groups through the
principle of delegating authority, accountability and resources to the most
appropriate level to ensure that the programme will be geographically and
ecologically specific;

     (b)  Contain immediate measures to enable those groups to alleviate
poverty and to develop sustainability;

     (c)  Contain a long-term strategy aimed at establishing the best
possible conditions for sustainable local, regional and national development
that would eliminate poverty and reduce the inequalities between various
population groups.  It should assist the most disadvantaged groups - in
particular, women, children and youth within those groups -  and refugees. 
The groups will include poor smallholders, pastoralists, artisans, fishing
communities, landless people, indigenous communities, migrants and the urban
informal sector.

3.6.  The focus here is on specific cross-cutting measures - in particular,
in the areas of basic education, primary/maternal health care, and the
advancement of women.

(a)  Empowering communities

3.7.  Sustainable development must be achieved at every level of society. 
Peoples' organizations, women's groups and non-governmental organizations
are important sources of innovation and action at the local level and have a
strong interest and proven ability to promote sustainable livelihoods. 
Governments, in cooperation with appropriate international and
non-governmental organizations, should support a community-driven approach
to sustainability, which would include, inter alia:

     (a)  Empowering women through full participation in decision-making;

     (b)  Respecting the cultural integrity and the rights of indigenous
people and their communities;

     (c)  Promoting or establishing grass-roots mechanisms to allow for the
sharing of experience and knowledge between communities;

     (d)  Giving communities a large measure of participation in the
sustainable management and protection of the local natural resources in
order to enhance their productive capacity;

     (e)  Establishing a network of community-based learning centres for
capacity-building and sustainable development.

(b)  Management-related activities

3.8.  Governments, with the assistance of and in cooperation with
appropriate international, non-governmental and local community
organizations, should establish measures that will directly or indirectly:

     (a)  Generate remunerative employment and productive occupational
opportunities compatible with country-specific factor endowments, on a scale
sufficient to take care of prospective increases in the labour force and to
cover backlogs;

     (b)  With international support, where necessary, develop adequate
infrastructure, marketing systems, technology systems, credit systems and
the like and the human resources needed to support the above actions and to
achieve a widening of options for resource-poor people.  High priority
should be given to basic education and professional training;

     (c)  Provide substantial increases in economically efficient resource
productivity and measures to ensure that the local population benefits in
adequate measure from resource use;

     (d)  Empower community organizations and people to enable them to
achieve sustainable livelihoods;

     (e)  Set up an effective primary health care and maternal health care
system accessible to all;

     (f)  Consider strengthening/developing legal frameworks for land
management, access to land resources and land ownership - in particular, for
women - and for the protection of tenants;

     (g)  Rehabilitate degraded resources, to the extent practicable, and
introduce policy measures to promote sustainable use of resources for basic
human needs;

     (h)  Establish new community-based mechanisms and strengthen existing
mechanisms to enable communities to gain sustained access to resources
needed by the poor to overcome their poverty;

     (i)  Implement mechanisms for popular participation - particularly by
poor people, especially women - in local community groups, to promote
sustainable development;

     (j)  Implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance with
country-specific conditions and legal systems, measures to ensure that women
and men have the same right to decide freely and responsibly on the number
and spacing of their children and have access to the information, education
and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercise this right in keeping
with their freedom, dignity and personally held values, taking into account
ethical and cultural considerations.  Governments should take active steps
to implement programmes to establish and strengthen preventive and curative
health facilities, which include women-centred, women-managed, safe and
effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessible services, as
appropriate, for the responsible planning of family size, in keeping with
freedom, dignity and personally held values, taking into account ethical and
cultural considerations.  Programmes should focus on providing comprehensive
health care, including pre-natal care, education and information on health
and responsible parenthood and should provide the opportunity for all women
to breast-feed fully, at least during the first four months post-partum. 
Programmes should fully support women's productive and reproductive roles
and well-being, with special attention to the need for providing equal and
improved health care for all children and the need to reduce the risk of
maternal and child mortality and sickness;

     (k)  Adopt integrated policies aiming at sustainability in the
management of urban centres;

     (l)  Undertake activities aimed at the promotion of food security and,
where appropriate, food self-sufficiency within the context of sustainable
agriculture;

     (m)  Support research on and integration of traditional methods of
production that have been shown to be environmentally sustainable;

                (n)  Actively seek to recognize and integrate informal-sector
activities into the economy by removing regulations and hindrances that
discriminate against activities in those sectors;

     (o)  Consider making available lines of credit and other facilities for
the informal sector and improved access to land for the landless poor so
that they can acquire the means of production and reliable access to natural
resources.  In many instances special considerations for women are required. 
Strict feasibility appraisals are needed for borrowers to avoid debt crises;

     (p)  Provide the poor with access to fresh water and sanitation;

     (q)  Provide the poor with access to primary education.

(c)  Data, information and evaluation

3.9.  Governments should improve the collection of information on target
groups and target areas in order to facilitate the design of focused
programmes and activities, consistent with the target-group needs and
aspirations.  Evaluation of such programmes should be gender-specific, since
women are a particularly disadvantaged group.

(d)  International and regional cooperation and coordination

3.10.  The United Nations system, through its relevant organs, organizations
and bodies, in cooperation with Member States and with appropriate
international and non-governmental organizations, should make poverty
alleviation a major priority and should: 

     (a)  Assist Governments, when requested, in the formulation and
implementation of national action programmes on poverty alleviation and
sustainable development.  Action-oriented activities of relevance to the
above objectives, such as poverty eradication, projects and programmes
supplemented where relevant by food aid, and support and special emphasis on
employment and income generation, should be given particular attention in
this regard;

     (b)  Promote technical cooperation among developing countries for
poverty eradication activities;

     (c)  Strengthen existing structures in the United Nations system for
coordination of action relating to poverty eradication, including the
establishment of a focal point for information exchange and the formulation
and implementation of replicable pilot projects to combat poverty;

     (d)  In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21, give high
priority to the review of the progress made in eradicating poverty;

     (e)  Examine the international economic framework, including resource
flows and structural adjustment programmes, to ensure that social and
environmental concerns are addressed, and in this connection, conduct a
review of the policies of international organizations, bodies and agencies,
including financial institutions, to ensure the continued provision of basic
services to the poor and needy;

     (f)  Promote international cooperation to address the root causes of
poverty.  The development process will not gather momentum if developing
countries are weighted down by external indebtedness, if development finance
is inadequate, if barriers restrict access to markets and if commodity
prices and the terms of trade in developing countries remain depressed.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

3.11.  The secretariat of the Conference has estimated the average total
annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to
be about $30 billion, including about $15 billion from the international
community on grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and
order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. 
This estimate overlaps estimates in other parts of Agenda 21.  Actual costs
and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend
upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide
upon for implementation.

(b)  Capacity-building

3.12.  National capacity-building for implementation of the above activities
is crucial and should be given high priority.  It is particularly important
to focus capacity-building at the local community level in order to support
a community-driven approach to sustainability and to establish and
strengthen mechanisms to allow sharing of experience and knowledge between
community groups at national and international levels.  Requirements for
such activities are considerable and are related to the various relevant
sectors of Agenda 21 calling for requisite international, financial and
technological support.

                                    Chapter 4

                          CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS


4.1.  This chapter contains the following programme areas: 

     (a)  Focusing on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption; 

     (b)  Developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in
unsustainable consumption patterns.

4.2.  Since the issue of changing consumption patterns is very broad, it is
addressed in several parts of Agenda 21, notably those dealing with energy,
transportation and wastes, and in the chapters on economic instruments and the
transfer of technology.  The present chapter should also be read in conjunction
with chapter 5 (Demographic dynamics and sustainability).


                                 PROGRAMME AREAS

                     A.  Focusing on unsustainable patterns
                         of production and consumption

Basis for action

4.3.  Poverty and environmental degradation are closely interrelated.  While
poverty results in certain kinds of environmental stress, the major cause of
the continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable
pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized
countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and
imbalances. 

4.4.  Measures to be undertaken at the international level for the protection
and enhancement of the environment must take fully into account the current
imbalances in the global patterns of consumption and production.

4.5.  Special attention should be paid to the demand for natural resources
generated by unsustainable consumption and to the efficient use of those
resources consistent with the goal of minimizing depletion and reducing
pollution.  Although consumption patterns are very high in certain parts of the
world, the basic consumer needs of a large section of humanity are not being
met.  This results in excessive demands and unsustainable lifestyles among the
richer segments, which place immense stress on the environment.  The poorer
segments, meanwhile, are unable to meet food, health care, shelter and
educational needs.  Changing consumption patterns will require a multipronged
strategy focusing on demand, meeting the basic needs of the poor, and reducing
wastage and the use of finite resources in the production process. 

4.6.  Growing recognition of the importance of addressing consumption has also
not yet been matched by an understanding of its implications.  Some economists
are questioning traditional concepts of economic growth and underlining the
importance of pursuing economic objectives that take account of the full value
of natural resource capital.  More needs to be known about the role of
consumption in relation to economic growth and population dynamics in order to
formulate coherent international and national policies.

Objectives

4.7.  Action is needed to meet the following broad objectives:

     (a)  To promote patterns of consumption and production that reduce
environmental stress and will meet the basic needs of humanity;

     (b)  To develop a better understanding of the role of consumption and how
to bring about more sustainable consumption patterns.

Activities

(a)  Management-related activities

     Adopting an international approach to achieving sustainable consumption
     patterns

4.8.  In principle, countries should be guided by the following basic
objectives in their efforts to address consumption and lifestyles in the
context of environment and development:

     (a)  All countries should strive to promote sustainable consumption
patterns;

     (b)  Developed countries should take the lead in achieving sustainable
consumption patterns;

     (c)  Developing countries should seek to achieve sustainable consumption
patterns in their development process, guaranteeing the provision of basic
needs for the poor, while avoiding those unsustainable patterns, particularly
in industrialized countries, generally recognized as unduly hazardous to the
environment, inefficient and wasteful, in their development processes.  This
requires enhanced technological and other assistance from industrialized
countries. 

4.9.  In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21 the review of
progress made in achieving sustainable consumption patterns should be given
high priority. 

(b)  Data and information

     Undertaking research on consumption

4.10.  In order to support this broad strategy, Governments, and/or private
research and policy institutes, with the assistance of regional and
international economic and environmental organizations, should make a concerted
effort to:

     (a)  Expand or promote databases on production and consumption and develop
methodologies for analysing them;

     (b)  Assess the relationship between production and consumption,
environment, technological adaptation and innovation, economic growth and
development, and demographic factors;

     (c)  Examine the impact of ongoing changes in the structure of modern
industrial economies away from material-intensive economic growth;

     (d)  Consider how economies can grow and prosper while reducing the use of
energy and materials and the production of harmful materials;

     (e)  Identify balanced patterns of consumption worldwide which the Earth
can support in the long term.

     Developing new concepts of sustainable economic growth and prosperity

4.11.  Consideration should also be given to the present concepts of economic
growth and the need for new concepts of wealth and prosperity which allow
higher standards of living through changed lifestyles and are less dependent on
the Earth's finite resources and more in harmony with the Earth's carrying
capacity.  This should be reflected in the evolution of new systems of national
accounts and other indicators of sustainable development.

(c)  International cooperation and coordination

4.12.  While international review processes exist for examining economic,
development and demographic factors, more attention needs to be paid to issues
related to consumption and production patterns and sustainable lifestyles and
environment. 

4.13.  In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21, reviewing the role
and impact of unsustainable production and consumption patterns and lifestyles
and their relation to sustainable development should be given high priority. 

Financing and cost evaluation

4.14.  The Conference secretariat has estimated that implementation of this
programme is not likely to require significant new financial resources. 


          B.  Developing national policies and strategies to encourage
              changes in unsustainable consumption patterns

Basis for action

4.15.  Achieving the goals of environmental quality and sustainable development
will require efficiency in production and changes in consumption patterns in
order to emphasize optimization of resource use and minimization of waste.  In
many instances, this will require reorientation of existing production and
consumption patterns that have developed in industrial societies and are in
turn emulated in much of the world.

4.16.  Progress can be made by strengthening positive trends and directions
that are emerging, as part of a process aimed at achieving significant changes
in the consumption patterns of industries, Governments, households and
individuals. 

Objectives

4.17.  In the years ahead, Governments, working with appropriate organizations,
should strive to meet the following broad objectives:

     (a)  To promote efficiency in production processes and reduce wasteful
consumption in the process of economic growth, taking into account the
development needs of developing countries;

     (b)  To develop a domestic policy framework that will encourage a shift to
more sustainable patterns of production and consumption;

     (c)  To reinforce both values that encourage sustainable production and
consumption patterns and policies that encourage the transfer of
environmentally sound technologies to developing countries.

Activities

(a)  Encouraging greater efficiency in the use of energy and resources

4.18.  Reducing the amount of energy and materials used per unit in the
production of goods and services can contribute both to the alleviation of
environmental stress and to greater economic and industrial productivity and
competitiveness.  Governments, in cooperation with industry, should therefore
intensify efforts to use energy and resources in an economically efficient and
environmentally sound manner by: 

     (a)  Encouraging the dissemination of existing environmentally sound
technologies;

     (b)  Promoting research and development in environmentally sound
technologies; 

     (c)  Assisting developing countries to use these technologies efficiently
and to develop technologies suited to their particular circumstances;

     (d)  Encouraging the environmentally sound use of new and renewable
sources of energy;

     (e)  Encouraging the environmentally sound and sustainable use of
renewable natural resources.

(b)  Minimizing the generation of wastes

4.19.  At the same time, society needs to develop effective ways of dealing
with the problem of disposing of mounting levels of waste products and
materials.  Governments, together with industry, households and the public,
should make a concerted effort to reduce the generation of wastes and waste
products by:

     (a)  Encouraging recycling in industrial processes and at the consumed
level; 

     (b)  Reducing wasteful packaging of products;

     (c)  Encouraging the introduction of more environmentally sound products. 

(c)  Assisting individuals and households to make environmentally sound
     purchasing decisions

4.20.  The recent emergence in many countries of a more environmentally
conscious consumer public, combined with increased interest on the part of some
industries in providing environmentally sound consumer products, is a
significant development that should be encouraged.  Governments and
international organizations, together with the private sector, should develop
criteria and methodologies for the assessment of environmental impacts and
resource requirements throughout the full life cycle of products and processes. 
Results of those assessments should be transformed into clear indicators in
order to inform consumers and decision makers.

4.21.  Governments, in cooperation with industry and other relevant groups,
should encourage expansion of environmental labelling and other environmentally
related product information programmes designed to assist consumers to make
informed choices.
4.22.  They should also encourage the emergence of an informed consumer public
and assist individuals and households to make environmentally informed choices
by: 

     (a)  Providing information on the consequences of consumption choices and
behaviour so as to encourage demand for environmentally sound products and use
of products; 

     (b)  Making consumers aware of the health and environmental impact of
products, through such means as consumer legislation and environmental
labelling; 

     (c)  Encouraging specific consumer-oriented programmes, such as recycling
and deposit/refund systems.

(d)  Exercising leadership through government purchasing

4.23.  Governments themselves also play a role in consumption, particularly in
countries where the public sector plays a large role in the economy and can
have a considerable influence on both corporate decisions and public
perceptions.  They should therefore review the purchasing policies of their
agencies and departments so that they may improve, where possible, the
environmental content of government procurement policies, without prejudice to
international trade principles.

(e)  Moving towards environmentally sound pricing

4.24.  Without the stimulus of prices and market signals that make clear to
producers and consumers the environmental costs of the consumption of energy,
materials and natural resources and the generation of wastes, significant
changes in consumption and production patterns seem unlikely to occur in the
near future.

4.25.  Some progress has begun in the use of appropriate economic instruments
to influence consumer behaviour.  These instruments include environmental
charges and taxes, deposit/refund systems, etc.  This process should be
encouraged in the light of country-specific conditions.

(f)  Reinforcing values that support sustainable consumption

4.26.  Governments and private-sector organizations should promote more
positive attitudes towards sustainable consumption through education, public
awareness programmes and other means, such as positive advertising of products
and services that utilize environmentally sound technologies or encourage
sustainable production and consumption patterns.  In the review of the
implementation of Agenda 21, an assessment of the progress achieved in
developing these national policies and strategies should be given due
consideration. 

Means of implementation

4.27.  This programme is concerned primarily with changes in unsustainable
patterns of consumption and production and values that encourage sustainable
consumption patterns and lifestyles.  It requires the combined efforts of
Governments, consumers and producers.  Particular attention should be paid to
the significant role played by women and households as consumers and the
potential impacts of their combined purchasing power on the economy. 

                                    Chapter 5

                     DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY


5.1.  This chapter contains the following programme areas:

     (a)  Developing and disseminating knowledge concerning the links between
demographic trends and factors and sustainable development;

     (b)  Formulating integrated national policies for environment and
development, taking into account demographic trends and factors;

     (c)  Implementing integrated, environment and development programmes at
the local level, taking into account demographic trends and factors.


                                 PROGRAMME AREAS

             A.  Developing and disseminating knowledge concerning
                 the links between demographic trends and factors
                 and sustainable development

Basis for action

5.2.  Demographic trends and factors and sustainable development have a
synergistic relationship.

5.3.  The growth of world population and production combined with unsustainable
consumption patterns places increasingly severe stress on the life-supporting
capacities of our planet.  These interactive processes affect the use of land,
water, air, energy and other resources.  Rapidly growing cities, unless
well-managed, face major environmental problems.  The increase in both the
number and size of cities calls for greater attention to issues of local
government and municipal management.  The human dimensions are key elements to
consider in this intricate set of relationships and they should be adequately
taken into consideration in comprehensive policies for sustainable development. 
Such policies should address the linkages of demographic trends and factors,
resource use, appropriate technology dissemination, and development. 
Population policy should also recognize the role played by human beings in
environmental and development concerns.  There is a need to increase awareness
of this issue among decision makers at all levels and to provide both better
information on which to base national and international policies and a
framework against which to interpret this information. 

5.4.  There is a need to develop strategies to mitigate both the adverse impact
on the environment of human activities and the adverse impact of environmental
change on human populations.  The world's population is expected to exceed
8 billion by the year 2020.  Sixty per cent of the world's population already
live in coastal areas, while 65 per cent of cities withpopulations above 2.5 million are located along the world coasts; several of
them are already at or below the present sea level.

Objectives

5.5.  The following objectives should be achieved as soon as practicable:

     (a)  To incorporate demographic trends and factors in the global analysis
of environment and development issues;

     (b)  To develop a better understanding of the relationships among
demographic dynamics, technology, cultural behaviour, natural resources and
life support systems;

     (c)  To assess human vulnerability in ecologically sensitive areas and
centres of population to determine the priorities for action at all levels,
taking full account of community defined needs.

Activities

     Research on the interaction between demographic trends and factors and
     sustainable development 

5.6.  Relevant international, regional and national institutions should
consider undertaking the following activities:

     (a)  Identifying the interactions between demographic processes, natural
resources and life support systems, bearing in mind regional and subregional
variations deriving from, inter alia, different levels of development;

     (b)  Integrating demographic trends and factors into the ongoing study of
environmental change, using the expertise of international, regional and
national research networks and of local communities, first, to study the human
dimensions of environmental change and, second, to identify vulnerable areas; 

     (c)  Identifying priority areas for action and developing strategies and
programmes to mitigate the adverse impact of environmental change on human
populations, and vice versa. 

Means of implementation

(a)             Financing and cost evaluation 

5.7.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$10 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. 
These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been
reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including any that
are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 

(b)  Strengthening research programmes that integrate population, environment
     and development 

5.8.  In order to integrate demographic analysis into a broader social science
perspective on environment and development, interdisciplinary research should
be increased.  International institutions and networks of experts should
enhance their scientific capacity, taking full account of community experience
and knowledge, and should disseminate the experience gained in
multidisciplinary approaches and in linking theory to action.

5.9.  Better modelling capabilities should be developed, identifying the range
of possible outcomes of current human activities, especially the interrelated
impact of demographic trends and factors, per capita resource use and wealth
distribution, as well as the major migration flows that may be expected with
increasing climatic events and cumulative environmental change that may destroy
people's local livelihoods. 

(c)  Developing information and public awareness

5.10.  Socio-demographic information should be developed in a suitable format
for interfacing with physical, biological and socio-economic data.  Compatible
spatial and temporal scales, cross-country and time-series information, as well
as global behavioural indicators should be developed, learning from local
communities' perceptions and attitudes.

5.11.  Awareness should be increased at all levels concerning the need to
optimize the sustainable use of resources through efficient resource
management, taking into account the development needs of the populations of
developing countries. 

5.12.  Awareness should be increased of the fundamental linkages between
improving the status of women and demographic dynamics, particularly through
women's access to education, primary and reproductive health care programmes,
economic independence and their effective, equitable participation in all
levels of decision-making. 

5.13.  Results of research concerned with sustainable development issues should
be disseminated through technical reports, scientific journals, the media,
workshops, forums or other means so that the information can be used by
decision makers at all levels and increase public awareness.

(d)             Developing and/or enhancing institutional capacity and collaboration

5.14.  Collaboration and exchange of information should be increased between
research institutions and international, regional and national agencies and all
other sectors (including the private sector, local communities,
non-governmental organizations and scientific institutions) from both the
industrialized and developing countries, as appropriate. 

5.15.  Efforts should be intensified to enhance the capacities of national and
local governments, the private sector and non-governmental organizations in
developing countries to meet the growing needs for improved management of
rapidly growing urban areas.


                B.  Formulating integrated national policies for
                    environment and development, taking into
                    account demographic trends and factors

Basis for action

5.16.  Existing plans for sustainable development have generally recognized
demographic trends and factors as elements that have a critical influence on
consumption patterns, production, lifestyles and long-term sustainability.  But
in future, more attention will have to be given to these issues in general
policy formulation and the design of development plans.  To do this, all
countries will have to improve their own capacities to assess the environment
and development implications of their demographic trends and factors.  They
will also need to formulate and implement policies and action programmes where
appropriate.  Policies should be designed to address the consequences of
population growth built into population momentum, while at the same time
incorporating measures to bring about demographic transition.  They should
combine environmental concerns and population issues within a holistic view of
development whose primary goals include the alleviation of poverty; secure
livelihoods; good health; quality of life; improvement of the status and income
of women and their access to schooling and professional training, as well as
fulfilment of their personal aspirations; and empowerment of individuals and
communities.  Recognizing that large increases in the size and number of cities
will occur in developing countries under any likely population scenario,
greater attention should be given to preparing for the needs, in particular of
women and children, for improved municipal management and local government.

Objective

5.17.  Full integration of population concerns into national planning, policy
and decision-making processes should continue.  Population policies and
programmes should be considered, with full recognition of women's rights.

Activities

5.18.  Governments and other relevant actors could, inter alia, undertake the
following activities, with appropriate assistance from aid agencies, and report
on their status of implementation to the International Conference on Population
and Development to be held in 1994, especially to its committee on population
and environment.

(a)  Assessing the implications of national demographic trends and factors

5.19.  The relationships between demographic trends and factors and
environmental change and between environmental degradation and the components
of demographic change should be analysed.

5.20.  Research should be conducted on how environmental factors interact with
socio-economic factors as a cause of migration.

5.21.  Vulnerable population groups (such as rural landless workers, ethnic
minorities, refugees, migrants, displaced people, women heads of household)
whose changes in demographic structure may have specific impacts on sustainable
development should be identified.

5.22.  An assessment should be made of the implications of the age structure of
the population on resource demand and dependency burdens, ranging from
educational expenses for the young to health care and support for the elderly,
and on household income generation.

5.23.  An assessment should also be made of national population carrying
capacity in the context of satisfaction of human needs and sustainable
development, and special attention should be given to critical resources, such
as water and land, and environmental factors, such as ecosystem health and
biodiversity.

5.24.  The impact of national demographic trends and factors on the traditional
livelihoods of indigenous groups and local communities, including changes in
traditional land use because of internal population pressures, should be
studied.

(b)  Building and strengthening a national information base

5.25.  National databases on demographic trends and factors and environment
should be built and/or strengthened, disaggregating data by ecological region
(ecosystem approach), and population/environment profiles should be established
by region.

5.26.  Methodologies and instruments should be developed to identify areas
where sustainability is, or may be, threatened by the environmental effects of
demographic trends and factors, incorporating both current and projected
demographic data linked to natural environmental processes.  
5.27.  Case-studies of local level responses by different groups to demographic
dynamics should be developed, particularly in areas subject to environmental
stress and in deteriorating urban centres.

5.28.  Population data should be disaggregated by, inter alia, sex and age in
order to take into account the implications of the gender division of labour
for the use and management of natural resources.

(c)  Incorporating demographic features into policies and plans

5.29.  In formulating human settlements policies, account should be taken of
resource needs, waste production and ecosystem health.

5.30.  The direct and induced effects of demographic changes on environment and
development programmes should, where appropriate, be integrated, and the impact
on demographic features assessed.

5.31.  National population policy goals and programmes that are consistent with
national environment and development plans for sustainability and in keeping
with the freedom, dignity and personally held values of individuals should be
established and implemented.

5.32.  Appropriate socio-economic policies for the young and the elderly, both
in terms of family and state support systems, should be developed.

5.33.  Policies and programmes should be developed for handling the various
types of migrations that result from or induce environmental disruptions, with
special attention to women and vulnerable groups.

5.34.  Demographic concerns, including concerns for environmental migrants and
displaced people, should be incorporated in the programmes for sustainable
development of relevant international and regional institutions.

5.35.  National reviews should be conducted and the integration of population
policies in national development and environment strategies should be monitored
nationally.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation 

5.36.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$90 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. 
These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been
reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including any that
are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 

(b)             Raising awareness of demographic and sustainable development interactions 

5.37.  Understanding of the interactions between demographic trends and factors
and sustainable development should be increased in all sectors of society. 
Stress should be placed on local and national action.  Demographic and
sustainable development education should be coordinated and integrated in both
the formal and non-formal education sectors.  Particular attention should be
given to population literacy programmes, notably for women.  Special emphasis
should be placed on the linkage between these programmes, primary environmental
care and the provision of primary health care and services. 

(c)  Strengthening institutions

5.38.  The capacity of national, regional and local structures to deal with
issues relating to demographic trends and factors and sustainable development
should be enhanced.  This would involve strengthening the relevant bodies
responsible for population issues to enable them to elaborate policies
consistent with the national prospects for sustainable development. 
Cooperation among government, national research institutions, non-governmental
organizations and local communities in assessing problems and evaluating
policies should also be enhanced.

5.39.  The capacity of the relevant United Nations organs, organizations and
bodies, international and regional intergovernmental bodies, non-governmental
organizations and local communities should, as appropriate, be enhanced to help
countries develop sustainable development policies on request and, as
appropriate, provide assistance to environmental migrants and displaced people.


5.40.  Inter-agency support for national sustainable development policies and
programmes should be improved through better coordination of population and
environment activities.

(d)  Promoting human resource development

5.41.  The international and regional scientific institutions should assist
Governments, upon request, to include concerns regarding the
population/environment interactions at the global, ecosystem and micro-levels
in the training of demographers and population and environment specialists. 
Training should include research on linkages and ways to design integrated
strategies. 


            C.  Implementing integrated environment and development
                programmes at the local level, taking into account
                demographic trends and factors

Basis for action

5.42.  Population programmes are more effective when implemented together with
appropriate cross-sectoral policies.  To attain sustainability at the local
level, a new framework is needed that integrates demographic trends and factors
with such factors as ecosystem health, technology and human settlements, and
with socio-economic structures and access to resources.  Population programmes
should be consistent with socio-economic and environmental planning. 
Integrated sustainable development programmes should closely correlate action
on demographic trends and factors with resource management activities and
development goals that meet the needs of the people concerned. 

Objective

5.43.  Population programmes should be implemented along with natural resource
management and development programmes at the local level that will ensure
sustainable use of natural resources, improve the quality of life of the people
and enhance environmental quality. 

Activities

5.44.  Governments and local communities, including community-based women's
organizations and national non-governmental organizations, consistent with
national plans, objectives, strategies and priorities, could, inter alia,
undertake the activities set out below with the assistance and cooperation of
international organizations, as appropriate.  Governments could share their
experience in the implementation of Agenda 21 at the International Conference
on Population and Development, to be held in 1994, especially its committee on
population and environment.

(a)  Developing a framework for action

5.45.  An effective consultative process should be established and implemented
with concerned groups of society where the formulation and decision-making of
all components of the programmes are based on a nationwide consultative process
drawing on community meetings, regional workshops and national seminars, as
appropriate.  This process should ensure that views of women and men on needs,
perspective and constraints are equally well reflected in the design of
programmes, and that solutions are rooted in specific experience.  The poor and
underprivileged should be priority groups in this process.

5.46.  Nationally determined policies for integrated and multifaceted
programmes, with special attention to women, to the poorest people living in
critical areas and to other vulnerable groups should be implemented, ensuring
the involvement of groups with a special potential to act as agents for change
and sustainable development.  Special emphasis should be placed on those
programmes that achieve multiple objectives, encouraging sustainable economic
development, and mitigating adverse impacts of demographic trends and factors,
and avoiding long-term environmental damage.  Food security, access to secure
tenure, basic shelter, and essential infrastructure, education, family welfare,
women's reproductive health, family credit schemes, reforestation programmes,
primary environmental care, women's employment should, as appropriate, be
included among other factors. 
5.47.  An analytical framework should be developed to identify complementary
elements of sustainable development policies as well as the national mechanisms
to monitor and evaluate their effects on population dynamics.

5.48.  Special attention should be given to the critical role of women in
population/environment programmes and in achieving sustainable development. 
Projects should take advantage of opportunities to link social, economic and
environmental gains for women and their families.  Empowerment of women isessential and should be assured through education, training and policies to
accord and improve women's right and access to assets, human and civil rights,
labour-saving measures, job opportunities and participation in decision-making. 
Population/environment programmes must enable women to mobilize themselves to
alleviate their burden and improve their capacity to participate in and benefit
from socio-economic development.  Specific measures should be undertaken to
close the gap between female and male illiteracy rates. 

(b)  Supporting programmes that promote changes in demographic trends and
     factors towards sustainability 

5.49.  Reproductive health programmes and services, should, as appropriate, be
developed and enhanced to reduce maternal and infant mortality from all causes
and enable women and men to fulfil their personal aspirations in terms of
family size, in a way in keeping with their freedom and dignity and personally
held values.

5.50.  Governments should take active steps to implement, as a matter of
urgency, in accordance with country-specific conditions and legal systems,
measures to ensure that women and men have the same right to decide freely and
responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, to have access to the
information, education and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercise
this right in keeping with their freedom, dignity and personally held values
taking into account ethical and cultural considerations.

5.51.  Governments should take active steps to implement programmes to
establish and strengthen preventive and curative health facilities that include
women-centred, women-managed, safe and effective reproductive health care and
affordable, accessible services, as appropriate, for the responsible planning
of family size, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values and
taking into account ethical and cultural considerations.  Programmes should
focus on providing comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care,
education and information on health and responsible parenthood and should
provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at least during the
first four months post-partum.  Programmes should fully support women's
productive and reproductive roles and well being, with special attention to the
need for providing equal and improved health care for all children and the need
to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness. 

5.52.  Consistent with national priorities, culturally based information and
education programmes that transmit reproductive health messages to men and
women that are easily understood should be developed.

(c)  Creating appropriate institutional conditions

5.53.  Constituencies and institutional conditions to facilitate the
implementation of demographic activities should, as appropriate, be fostered. 
This requires support and commitment from political, indigenous, religious andtraditional authorities, the private sector and the national scientific
community.  In developing these appropriate institutional conditions, countries
should closely involve established national machinery for women.

5.54.  Population assistance should be coordinated with bilateral and
multilateral donors to ensure that population needs and requirements of all
developing countries are addressed, fully respecting the overall coordinating
responsibility and the choice and strategies of the recipient countries.

5.55.  Coordination should be improved at local and international levels. 
Working practices should be enhanced in order to make optimum use of resources,
draw on collective experience and improve the implementation of programmes. 
UNFPA and other relevant agencies should strengthen the coordination of
international cooperation activities with recipient and donor countries in
order to ensure that adequate funding is available to respond to growing needs.


5.56.  Proposals should be developed for local, national and international
population/environment programmes in line with specific needs for achieving
sustainability.  Where appropriate, institutional changes must be implemented
so that old-age security does not entirely depend on input from family members.


Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

5.57.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$7 billion, including about $3.5 billion from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation. 

(b)  Research

5.58.  Research should be undertaken with a view to developing specific action
programmes; it will be necessary to establish priorities between proposed areas
of research. 
5.59.  Socio-demographic research should be conducted on how populations
respond to a changing environment. 

5.60.  Understanding of socio-cultural and political factors that can
positively influence acceptance of appropriate population policy instruments
should be improved.

5.61.  Surveys of changes in needs for appropriate services relating to
responsible planning of family size, reflecting variations among different
socio-economic groups and variations in different geographical regions should
be undertaken. 

(c)  Human resource development and capacity-building

5.62.  The areas of human resource development and capacity-building, with
particular attention to the education and training of women, are areas of
critical importance and are a very high priority in the implementation of
population programmes.

5.63.  Workshops to help programme and projects managers to link population
programmes to other development and environmental goals should be conducted. 

5.64.  Educational materials, including guides/workbooks for planners and
decision makers and other actors of population/environment/development
programmes, should be developed.

5.65.  Cooperation should be developed between Governments, scientific
institutions and non-governmental organizations within the region, and similar
institutions outside the region.  Cooperation with local organizations should
be fostered in ordered to raise awareness, engage in demonstration projects and
report on the experience gained.

5.66.  The recommendations contained in this chapter should in no way prejudice
discussions at the International Conference on Population and Development in
1994, which will be the appropriate forum for dealing with population and
development issues, taking into account the recommendations of the
International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in 1984, 1/ and the
Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, 2/ adopted by the
World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Decade
for Women:  Equality, Development and Peace, held in Nairobi in 1985. 


                                      Notes

     1/   Report of the International Conference on Population, Mexico City,
6-14 August 1984 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.84.XIII.8), chap. I. 

     2/   Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the
Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women:  Equality, Development and
Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985 (United Nations publication, Sales
No. E.84.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

                                    Chapter 6

                      PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH


                                  INTRODUCTION

6.1.  Health and development are intimately interconnected.  Both insufficient
development leading to poverty and inappropriate development resulting in
overconsumption, coupled with an expanding world population, can result in
severe environmental health problems in both developing and developed nations. 
Action items under Agenda 21 must address the primary health needs of the
world's population, since they are integral to the achievement of the goals of
sustainable development and primary environmental care.  The linkage of health,
environmental and socio-economic improvements requires intersectoral efforts. 
Such efforts, involving education, housing, public works and community groups,
including businesses, schools and universities and religious, civic and
cultural organizations, are aimed at enabling people in their communities to
ensure sustainable development.  Particularly relevant is the inclusion of
prevention programmes rather than relying solely on remediation and treatment. 
Countries ought to develop plans for priority actions, drawing on the programme
areas in this chapter, which are based on cooperative planning by the various
levels of government, non-governmental organizations and local communities.  An
appropriate international organization, such as WHO, should coordinate these
activities. 

6.2.  The following programme areas are contained in this chapter: 

     (a)  Meeting primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas; 

     (b)  Control of communicable diseases;

     (c)  Protecting vulnerable groups; 

     (d)  Meeting the urban health challenge; 

     (e)  Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards. 


                                 PROGRAMME AREAS

                  A.  Meeting primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas

Basis for action

6.3.  Health ultimately depends on the ability to manage successfully the
interaction between the physical, spiritual, biological and economic/social
environment.  Sound development is not possible without a healthy population;
yet most developmental activities affect the environment to some degree, which
in turn causes or exacerbates many health problems.  Conversely, it is thevery lack of development that adversely affects the health condition of many
people, which can be alleviated only through development.  The health sector
cannot meet basic needs and objectives on its own; it is dependent on social,
economic and spiritual development, while directly contributing to such
development.  It is also dependent on a healthy environment, including the
provision of a safe water supply and sanitation and the promotion of a safe
food supply and proper nutrition.  Particular attention should be directed
towards food safety, with priority placed on the elimination of food
contamination; comprehensive and sustainable water policies to ensure safe
drinking water and sanitation to preclude both microbial and chemical
contamination; and promotion of health education, immunization and provision of
essential drugs.  Education and appropriate services regarding responsible
planning of family size, with respect for cultural, religious and social
aspects, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values and taking
into account ethical and cultural considerations, also contribute to these
intersectoral activities.

Objectives

6.4.  Within the overall strategy to achieve health for all by the year 2000,
the objectives are to meet the basic health needs of rural peri-urban and urban
populations; to provide the necessary specialized environmental health
services; and to coordinate the involvement of citizens, the health sector, the
health-related sectors and relevant non-health sectors (business, social,
educational and religious institutions) in solutions to health problems.  As a
matter of priority, health service coverage should be achieved for population
groups in greatest need, particularly those living in rural areas.

Activities

6.5.  National Governments and local authorities, with the support of relevant
non-governmental organizations and international organizations, in the light of
countries' specific conditions and needs, should strengthen their health sector
programmes, with special attention to rural needs, to:

     (a)  Build basic health infrastructures, monitoring and planning systems: 

     (i)  Develop and strengthen primary health care systems that are
          practical, community-based, scientifically sound, socially acceptable
          and appropriate to their needs and that meet basic health needs for
          clean water, safe food and sanitation;
    (ii)             Support the use and strengthening of mechanisms that improve
          coordination between health and related sectors at all appropriate
          levels of government, and in communities and relevant organizations; 

   (iii)  Develop and implement rational and affordable approaches to the
          establishment and maintenance of health facilities;

    (iv)  Ensure and, where appropriate, increase provision of social services
          support; 

     (v)  Develop strategies, including reliable health indicators, to monitor
          the progress and evaluate the effectiveness of health programmes;

    (vi)  Explore ways to finance the health system based on the assessment of
          the resources needed and identify the various financing alternatives;


   (vii)  Promote health education in schools, information exchange, technical
          support and training;

  (viii)  Support initiatives for self-management of services by vulnerable
          groups; 

    (ix)  Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into national health
          systems, as appropriate;

     (x)  Promote the provisions for necessary logistics for outreach
          activities, particularly in rural areas;

    (xi)  Promote and strengthen community-based rehabilitation activities for
          the rural handicapped.

     (b)  Support research and methodology development:

     (i)  Establish mechanisms for sustained community involvement in
          environmental health activities, including optimization of the
          appropriate use of community financial and human resources;

    (ii)  Conduct environmental health research, including behaviour research
          and research on ways to increase coverage and ensure greater
          utilization of services by peripheral, underserved and vulnerable
          populations, as appropriate to good prevention services and health
          care; 

   (iii)  Conduct research into traditional knowledge of prevention and
          curative health practices. 

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation 

6.6.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$40 billion, including about $5 billion from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation. 

(b)  Scientific and technological means

6.7.  New approaches to planning and managing health care systems and
facilities should be tested, and research on ways of integrating appropriate
technologies into health infrastructures supported.  The development of
scientifically sound health technology should enhance adaptability to local
needs and maintainability by community resources, including the maintenance and
repair of equipment used in health care.  Programmes to facilitate the transfer
and sharing of information and expertise should be developed, including
communication methods and educational materials. 

(c)  Human resource development 

6.8.  Intersectoral approaches to the reform of health personnel development
should be strengthened to ensure its relevance to the "Health for All"
strategies.  Efforts to enhance managerial skills at the district level should
be supported, with the aim of ensuring the systematic development and efficient
operation of the basic health system.  Intensive, short, practical training
programmes with emphasis on skills in effective communication, community
organization and facilitation of behaviour change should be developed in order
to prepare the local personnel of all sectors involved in social development
for carrying out their respective roles.  In cooperation with the education
sector, special health education programmes should be developed focusing on the
role of women in the health-care system.

(d)  Capacity-building

6.9.  Governments should consider adopting enabling and facilitating strategies
to promote the participation of communities in meeting their own needs, in
addition to providing direct support to the provision of health-care services. 
A major focus should be the preparation of community-based health and
health-related workers to assume an active role in community health education,
with emphasis on team work, social mobilization and the support of other
development workers.  National programmes should cover district health systems
in urban, peri-urban and rural areas, the delivery of health programmes at the
district level, and the development and support of referral services. 


                      B.  Control of communicable diseases

Basis for action
6.10.  Advances in the development of vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents have
brought many communicable diseases under control.  However, there remain many
important communicable diseases for which environmental control measures are
indispensable, especially in the field of water supply and sanitation.  Such
diseases include cholera, diarrhoeal diseases, leishmaniasis, malaria and
schistosomiasis.  In all such instances, the environmental measures, either as
an integral part of primary health care or undertaken outside the healthsector, form an indispensable component of overall disease control strategies,
together with health and hygiene education, and in some cases, are the only
component. 

6.11.  With HIV infection levels estimated to increase to 30-40 million by the
year 2000, the socio-economic impact of the pandemic is expected to be
devastating for all countries, and increasingly for women and children.  While
direct health costs will be substantial, they will be dwarfed by the indirect
costs of the pandemic - mainly costs associated with the loss of income and
decreased productivity of the workforce.  The pandemic will inhibit growth of
the service and industrial sectors and significantly increase the costs of
human capacity-building and retraining.  The agricultural sector is
particularly affected where production is labour-intensive. 

Objectives 

6.12.  A number of goals have been formulated through extensive consultations
in various international forums attended by virtually all Governments, relevant
United Nations organizations (including WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNESCO, UNDP and
the World Bank) and a number of non-governmental organizations.  Goals
(including but not limited to those listed below) are recommended for
implementation by all countries where they are applicable, with appropriate
adaptation to the specific situation of each country in terms of phasing,
standards, priorities and availability of resources, with respect for cultural,
religious and social aspects, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally
held values and taking into account ethical considerations.  Additional goals
that are particularly relevant to a country's specific situation should be
added in the country's national plan of action (Plan of Action for Implementing
the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children
in the 1990s). 1/  Such national level action plans should be coordinated and
monitored from within the public health sector.  Some major goals are: 

     (a)  By the year 2000, to eliminate guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis); 

     (b)  By the year 2000, eradicate polio; 

     (c)  By the year 2000, to effectively control onchocerciasis (river
blindness) and leprosy; 

     (d)  By 1995, to reduce measles deaths by 95 per cent and reduce measles
cases by 90 per cent compared with pre-immunization levels;
                (e)  By continued efforts, to provide health and hygiene education and to
ensure universal access to safe drinking water and universal access to sanitary
measures of excreta disposal, thereby markedly reducing waterborne diseases
such as cholera and schistosomiasis and reducing: 

     (i)  By the year 2000, the number of deaths from childhood diarrhoea in
          developing countries by 50 to 70 per cent; 

    (ii)  By the year 2000, the incidence of childhood diarrhoea in developing
          countries by at least 25 to 50 per cent; 

     (f)  By the year 2000, to initiate comprehensive programmes to reduce
mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under five years by at
least one third, particularly in countries with high infant mortality; 

     (g)  By the year 2000, to provide 95 per cent of the world's child
population with access to appropriate care for acute respiratory infections
within the community and at first referral level;

     (h)  By the year 2000, to institute anti-malaria programmes in all
countries where malaria presents a significant health problem and maintain the
transmission-free status of areas freed from endemic malaria;

     (i)  By the year 2000, to implement control programmes in countries where
major human parasitic infections are endemic and achieve an overall reduction
in the prevalence of schistosomiasis and of other trematode infections by
40 per cent and 25 per cent, respectively, from a 1984 baseline, as well as a
marked reduction in incidence, prevalence and intensity of filarial infections;


     (j)  To mobilize and unify national and international efforts against AIDS
to prevent infection and to reduce the personal and social impact of HIV
infection; 

     (k)  To contain the resurgence of tuberculosis, with particular emphasis
on multiple antibiotic resistant forms; 

     (l)  To accelerate research on improved vaccines and implement to the
fullest extent possible the use of vaccines in the prevention of disease. 

Activities

6.13.  Each national Government, in accordance with national plans for public
health, priorities and objectives, should consider developing a national health
action plan with appropriate international assistance and support, including,
at a minimum, the following components:

     (a)  National public health systems:

                (i)  Programmes to identify environmental hazards in the causation of
          communicable diseases;

    (ii)  Monitoring systems of epidemiological data to ensure adequate
          forecasting of the introduction, spread or aggravation of
          communicable diseases;

   (iii)  Intervention programmes, including measures consistent with the
          principles of the global AIDS strategy; 

    (iv)  Vaccines for the prevention of communicable diseases;

     (b)  Public information and health education:

          Provide education and disseminate information on the risks of endemic
          communicable diseases and build awareness on environmental methods
          for control of communicable diseases to enable communities to play a
          role in the control of communicable diseases; 

     (c)  Intersectoral cooperation and coordination: 

     (i)  Second experienced health professionals to relevant sectors, such as
          planning, housing and agriculture;  

    (ii)  Develop guidelines for effective coordination in the areas of
          professional training, assessment of risks and development of control
          technology;

     (d)  Control of environmental factors that influence the spread of
          communicable diseases: 

          Apply methods for the prevention and control of communicable
          diseases, including water supply and sanitation control, water
          pollution control, food quality control, integrated vector control,
          garbage collection and disposal and environmentally sound irrigation
          practices; 

     (e)  Primary health care system: 

     (i)  Strengthen prevention programmes, with particular emphasis on
          adequate and balanced nutrition; 

    (ii)  Strengthen early diagnostic programmes and improve capacities for
          early preventative/treatment action;

   (iii)  Reduce the vulnerability to HIV infection of women and their
          offspring;

     (f)  Support for research and methodology development:

     (i)  Intensify and expand multidisciplinary research, including focused
          efforts on the mitigation and environmental control of tropical
          diseases;

    (ii)  Carry out intervention studies to provide a solid epidemiological
          basis for control policies and to evaluate the efficiency of
          alternative approaches;

   (iii)  Undertake studies in the population and among health workers to
          determine the influence of cultural, behavioural and social factors
          on control policies;

     (g)  Development and dissemination of technology: 

     (i)  Develop new technologies for the effective control of communicable
          diseases; 

    (ii)  Promote studies to determine how to optimally disseminate results
          from research; 

   (iii)  Ensure technical assistance, including the sharing of knowledge and
          know-how. 

Means of implementation 

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation 

6.14.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$4 billion, including about $900 million from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation. 

(b)  Scientific and technological means

6.15.  Efforts to prevent and control diseases should include investigations of
the epidemiological, social and economic bases for the development of more
effective national strategies for the integrated control of communicable
diseases.  Cost-effective methods of environmental control should be adapted to
local developmental conditions.

(c)  Human resource development

6.16.  National and regional training institutions should promote broad
intersectoral approaches to prevention and control of communicable diseases,
including training in epidemiology and community prevention and control,
immunology, molecular biology and the application of new vaccines.  Health
education materials should be developed for use by community workers and for
the education of mothers for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoeal
diseases in the home. 
(d)             Capacity-building 

6.17.  The health sector should develop adequate data on the distribution of
communicable diseases, as well as the institutional capacity to respond and
collaborate with other sectors for prevention, mitigation and correction of
communicable disease hazards through environmental protection.  The advocacy at
policy- and decision-making levels should be gained, professional and societal
support mobilized, and communities organized in developing self-reliance. 


                        C.  Protecting vulnerable groups

Basis for action

6.18.  In addition to meeting basic health needs, specific emphasis has to be
given to protecting and educating vulnerable groups, particularly infants,
youth, women, indigenous people and the very poor as a prerequisite for
sustainable development.  Special attention should also be paid to the health
needs of the elderly and disabled population. 

6.19.  Infants and children.  Approximately one third of the world's population
are children under 15 years old.  At least 15 million of these children die
annually from such preventable causes as birth trauma, birth asphyxia, acute
respiratory infections, malnutrition, communicable diseases and diarrhoea.  The
health of children is affected more severely than other population groups by
malnutrition and adverse environmental factors, and many children risk
exploitation as cheap labour or in prostitution. 

6.20.  Youth.  As has been the historical experience of all countries, youth
are particularly vulnerable to the problems associated with economic
development, which often weakens traditional forms of social support essential
for the healthy development, of young people.  Urbanization and changes in
social mores have increased substance abuse, unwanted pregnancy and sexually
transmitted diseases, including AIDS.  Currently more than half of all people
alive are under the age of 25, and four of every five live in developing
countries.  Therefore it is important to ensure that historical experience is
not replicated. 

6.21.  Women.  In developing countries, the health status of women remains
relatively low, and during the 1980s poverty, malnutrition and general
ill-health in women were even rising.  Most women in developing countries still
do not have adequate basic educational opportunities and they lack the means of
promoting their health, responsibly controlling their reproductive life and
improving their socio-economic status.  Particular attention should be given to
the provision of pre-natal care to ensure healthy babies.

6.22.  Indigenous people and their communities.  Indigenous people had their
communities make up a significant percentage of global population.  The
outcomes of their experience have tended to be very similar in that the basis
of their relationship with traditional lands has been fundamentally changed. 
They tend to feature disproportionately in unemployment, lack of housing,
poverty and poor health.  In many countries the number of indigenous people is
growing faster than the general population.  Therefore it is important to
target health initiatives for indigenous people. 

Objectives

6.23.  The general objectives of protecting vulnerable groups are to ensure
that all such individuals should be allowed to develop to their full potential
(including healthy physical, mental and spiritual development); to ensure thatyoung people can develop, establish and maintain healthy lives; to allow women
to perform their key role in society; and to support indigenous people through
educational, economic and technical opportunities. 

6.24.  Specific major goals for child survival, development and protection were
agreed upon at the World Summit for Children and remain valid also for
Agenda 21.  Supporting and sectoral goals cover women's health and education,
nutrition, child health, water and sanitation, basic education and children in
difficult circumstances.

6.25.  Governments should take active steps to implement, as a matter of
urgency, in accordance with country specific conditions and legal systems,
measures to ensure that women and men have the same right to decide freely and
responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, to have access to the
information, education and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercise
this right in keeping with their freedom, dignity and personally held values,
taking into account ethical and cultural considerations. 

6.26.  Governments should take active steps to implement programmes to
establish and strengthen preventive and curative health facilities which
include women-centred, women-managed, safe and effective reproductive health
care and affordable, accessible services, as appropriate, for the responsible
planning of family size, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held
values and taking into account ethical and cultural considerations.  Programmes
should focus on providing comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care,
education and information on health and responsible parenthood and should
provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at least during the
first four months post-partum.  Programmes should fully support women's
productive and reproductive roles and well being, with special attention to the
need for providing equal and improved health care for all children and the need
to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness. 

Activities

6.27.  National Governments, in cooperation with local and non-governmental
organizations, should initiate or enhance programmes in the following areas: 

     (a)  Infants and children: 

     (i)  Strengthen basic health-care services for children in the context of
          primary health-care delivery, including prenatal care,
          breast-feeding, immunization and nutrition programmes; 

    (ii)  Undertake widespread adult education on the use of oral rehydration
          therapy for diarrhoea, treatment of respiratory infections and
          prevention of communicable diseases; 

   (iii)  Promote the creation, amendment and enforcement of a legal framework
          protecting children from sexual and workplace exploitation; 

    (iv)  Protect children from the effects of environmental and occupational
          toxic compounds; 

     (b)  Youth: 

          Strengthen services for youth in health, education and social sectors
          in order to provide better information, education, counselling and
          treatment for specific health problems, including drug abuse; 

     (c)  Women:

     (i)  Involve women's groups in decision-making at the national and
          community levels to identify health risks and incorporate health
          issues in national action programmes on women and development;

    (ii)  Provide concrete incentives to encourage and maintain attendance of
          women of all ages at school and adult education courses, including
          health education and training in primary, home and maternal health
          care; 

   (iii)  Carry out baseline surveys and knowledge, attitude and practice
          studies on the health and nutrition of women throughout their life
          cycle, especially as related to the impact of environmental
          degradation and adequate resources;

     (d)  Indigenous people and their communities:

     (i)  Strengthen, through resources and self-management, preventative and
          curative health services;

    (ii)  Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into health systems. 

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

6.28.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$3.7 billion, including about $400 billion from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation. 

(b)  Scientific and technological means

6.29.  Educational, health and research institutions should be strengthened to
provide support to improve the health of vulnerable groups.  Social researchon the specific problems of these groups should be expanded and methods for
implementing flexible pragmatic solutions explored, with emphasis on preventive
measures.  Technical support should be provided to Governments, institutions
and non-governmental organizations for youth, women and indigenous people in
the health sector. 

(c)  Human resources development

6.30.  The development of human resources for the health of children, youth and
women should include reinforcement of educational institutions, promotion of
interactive methods of education for health and increased use of mass media in
disseminating information to the target groups.  This requires the training of
more community health workers, nurses, midwives, physicians, social scientists
and educators, the education of mothers, families and communities and the
strengthening of ministries of education, health, population etc. 

(d)  Capacity-building

6.31.  Governments should promote, where necessary:  (i) the organization of
national, intercountry and interregional symposia and other meetings for the
exchange of information among agencies and groups concerned with the health of
children, youth, women and indigenous people, and (ii) women's organizations,
youth groups and indigenous people's organizations to facilitate health and
consult them on the creation, amendment and enforcement of legal frameworks to
ensure a healthy environment for children, youth, women and indigenous peoples.



                     D.  Meeting the urban health challenge

Basis for action

6.32.  For hundreds of millions of people, the poor living conditions in urban
and peri-urban areas are destroying lives, health, and social and moral values. 
Urban growth has outstripped society's capacity to meet human needs, leaving
hundreds of millions of people with inadequate incomes, diets, housing and
services.  Urban growth exposes populations to serious environmental hazards
and has outstripped the capacity of municipal and local governments to provide
the environmental health services that the people need.  All too often, urban
development is associated with destructive effects on the physical environment
and the resource base needed for sustainable development.  Environmental
pollution in urban areas is associated with excess morbidity and mortality.
Overcrowding and inadequate housing contribute to respiratory diseases,
tuberculosis, meningitis and other diseases.  In urban environments, many
factors that affect human health are outside the health sector.  Improvements
in urban health therefore will depend on coordinated action by all levels of
government, health care providers, businesses, religious groups, social and
educational institutions and citizens. 

Objectives

6.33.  The health and well-being of all urban dwellers must be improved so that
they can contribute to economic and social development.  The global objective
is to achieve a 10 to 40 per cent improvement in health indicators by the year
2000.  The same rate of improvement should be achieved for environmental,
housing and health service indicators.  These include the development of
quantitative objectives for infant mortality, maternal mortality, percentage of
low birth weight newborns and specific indicators (e.g. tuberculosis as an
indicator of crowded housing, diarrhoeal diseases as indicators of inadequate
water and sanitation, rates of industrial and transportation accidents that
indicate possible opportunities for prevention of injury, and social problems
such as drug abuse, violence and crime that indicate underlying social
disorders).

Activities

6.34.  Local authorities, with the appropriate support of national Governments
and international organizations should be encouraged to take effective measures
to initiate or strengthen the following activities:

     (a)  Develop and implement municipal and local health plans:

     (i)  Establish or strengthen intersectoral committees at both the
          political and technical level, including active collaboration on
          linkages with scientific, cultural, religious, medical, business,
          social and other city institutions, using networking arrangements; 

    (ii)  Adopt or strengthen municipal or local "enabling strategies" that
          emphasize "doing with" rather than "doing for" and create supportive
          environments for health;

   (iii)  Ensure that public health education in schools, workplace, mass media
          etc. is provided or strengthened;

    (iv)  Encourage communities to develop personal skills and awareness of
          primary health care;

     (v)  Promote and strengthen community-based rehabilitation activities for
          the urban and peri-urban disabled and the elderly;

                (b)  Survey, where necessary, the existing health, social and
          environmental conditions in cities, including documentation of
          intra-urban differences;

     (c)  Strengthen environmental health services:

     (i)  Adopt health impact and environmental impact assessment procedures; 

    (ii)  Provide basic and in-service training for new and existing personnel;


     (d)  Establish and maintain city networks for collaboration and exchange
          of models of good practice. 

Means of implementation 

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation 

6.35.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$222 million, including about $22 million from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation. 

(b)  Scientific and technological means

6.36.  Decision-making models should be further developed and more widely used
to assess the costs and the health and environment impacts of alternative
technologies and strategies.  Improvement in urban development and management
requires better national and municipal statistics based on practical,
standardized indicators.  Development of methods is a priority for the
measurement of intra-urban and intra-district variations in health status and
environmental conditions, and for the application of this information in
planning and management.

(c)  Human resources development

6.37.  Programmes must supply the orientation and basic training of municipal
staff required for the healthy city processes.  Basic and in-service training
of environmental health personnel will also be needed.

(d)  Capacity-building

6.38.  The programme is aimed towards improved planning and management
capabilities in the municipal and local government and its partners in central
Government, the private sector and universities.  Capacity development should
be focused on obtaining sufficient information, improving coordination
mechanisms linking all the key actors, and making better use of available
instruments and resources for implementation.

             E.  Reducing health risks from environmental pollution
                 and hazards

Basis for action

6.39.  In many locations around the world the general environment (air, water
and land), workplaces and even individual dwellings are so badly polluted that
the health of hundreds of millions of people is adversely affected.  This is,inter alia, due to past and present developments in consumption and production
patterns and lifestyles, in energy production and use, in industry, in
transportation etc., with little or no regard for environmental protection.
There have been notable improvements in some countries, but deterioration of
the environment continues.  The ability of countries to tackle pollution and
health problems is greatly restrained because of lack of resources.  Pollution
control and health protection measures have often not kept pace with economic
development.  Considerable development-related environmental health hazards
exist in the newly industrializing countries.  Furthermore, the recent analysis
of WHO has clearly established the interdependence among the factors of health,
environment and development and has revealed that most countries are lacking
such integration as would lead to an effective pollution control mechanism. 2/ 
Without prejudice to such criteria as may be agreed upon by the international
community, or to standards which will have to be determined nationally, it will
be essential in all cases to consider the systems of values prevailing in each
country and the extent of the applicability of standards that are valid for the
most advanced countries but may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost
for the developing countries. 

Objectives

6.40.  The overall objective is to minimize hazards and maintain the
environment to a degree that human health and safety is not impaired or
endangered and yet encourage development to proceed.  Specific programme
objectives are: 

     (a)  By the year 2000, to incorporate appropriate environmental and health
safeguards as part of national development programmes in all countries; 

     (b)  By the year 2000, to establish, as appropriate, adequate national
infrastructure and programmes for providing environmental injury, hazard
surveillance and the basis for abatement in all countries; 

     (c)  By the year 2000, to establish, as appropriate, integrated programmes
for tackling pollution at the source and at the disposal site, with a focus on
abatement actions in all countries;

     (d)  To identify and compile, as appropriate, the necessary statistical
information on health effects to support cost/benefit analysis, including
environmental health impact assessment for pollution control, prevention and
abatement measures. 
Activities

6.41.  Nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance,
support and coordination, where necessary, in this area should include:

     (a)  Urban air pollution: 

     (i)  Develop appropriate pollution control technology on the basis of          risk assessment and epidemiological research for the introduction of
          environmentally sound production processes and suitable safe mass
          transport; 

    (ii)  Develop air pollution control capacities in large cities, emphasizing
          enforcement programmes and using monitoring networks, as appropriate;


     (b)  Indoor air pollution:

     (i)  Support research and develop programmes for applying prevention and
          control methods to reducing indoor air pollution, including the
          provision of economic incentives for the installation of appropriate
          technology; 

    (ii)  Develop and implement health education campaigns, particularly in
          developing countries, to reduce the health impact of domestic use of
          biomass and coal; 

     (c)  Water pollution: 

     (i)  Develop appropriate water pollution control technologies on the basis
          of health risk assessment; 

    (ii)  Develop water pollution control capacities in large cities;

     (d)  Pesticides: 

          Develop mechanisms to control the distribution and use of pesticides
          in order to minimize the risks to human health by transportation,
          storage, application and residual effects of pesticides used in
          agriculture and preservation of wood; 

     (e)  Solid waste: 

     (i)  Develop appropriate solid waste disposal technologies on the basis of
          health risk assessment;

    (ii)  Develop appropriate solid waste disposal capacities in large cities; 

     (f)  Human settlements:
                     Develop programmes for improving health conditions in human
          settlements, in particular within slums and non-tenured settlements,
          on the basis of health risk assessment;

     (g)  Noise:

          Develop criteria for maximum permitted safe noise exposure levels and
          promote noise assessment and control as part of environmental health
          programmes; 

     (h)  Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation:

          Develop and implement appropriate national legislation, standards and
          enforcement procedures on the basis of existing international
          guidelines; 

     (i)  Effects of ultraviolet radiation:

          Undertake, as a matter of urgency, research on the effects on human
          health of the increasing ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's
          surface as a consequence of depletion of the stratospheric ozone
          layer; 

    (ii)  On the basis of the outcome of this research, consider taking
          appropriate remedial measures to mitigate the above-mentioned effects
          on human beings;

     (j)  Industry and energy production:

     (i)  Establish environmental health impact assessment procedures for the
          planning and development of new industries and energy facilities;

    (ii)  Incorporate appropriate health risk analysis in all national
          programmes for pollution control and management, with particular
          emphasis on toxic compounds such as lead;

   (iii)  Establish industrial hygiene programmes in all major industries for
          the surveillance of workers' exposure to health hazards;

    (iv)  Promote the introduction of environmentally sound technologies within
          the industry and energy sectors;

     (k)  Monitoring and assessment:

          Establish, as appropriate, adequate environmental monitoring
          capacities for the surveillance of environmental quality and the
          health status of populations;

     (l)  Injury monitoring and reduction:

     (i)  Support, as appropriate, the development of systems to monitor the
          incidence and cause of injury to allow well-targeted
          intervention/prevention strategies;

    (ii)  Develop, in accordance with national plans, strategies in all sectors
          (industry, traffic and others) consistent with the WHO safe cities
          and safe communities programmes, to reduce the frequency and severity
          of injury; 

   (iii)  Emphasize preventive strategies to reduce occupationally derived
          diseases and diseases caused by environmental and occupational toxins
          to enhance worker safety;

     (m)  Research promotion and methodology development:

     (i)  Support the development of new methods for the quantitative
          assessment of health benefits and cost associated with different
          pollution control strategies;

    (ii)  Develop and carry out interdisciplinary research on the combined
          health effects of exposure to multiple environmental hazards,
          including epidemiological investigations of long-term exposures to
          low levels of pollutants and the use of biological markers capable of
          estimating human exposures, adverse effects and susceptibility to
          environmental agents. 

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation 

6.42.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$3 billion, including about $115 million from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation. 

(b)  Scientific and technological means

6.43.  Although technology to prevent or abate pollution is readily available
for a large number of problems, for programme and policy development countries
should undertake research within an intersectoral framework.  Such efforts
should include collaboration with the business sector.  Cost/effect analysis
and environmental impact assessment methods should be developed through
cooperative international programmes and applied to the setting of priorities
and strategies in relation to health and development. 

6.44.  In the activities listed in paragraph 6.41 (a) to (m) above, developing
country efforts should be facilitated by access to and transfer of technology,
know-how and information, from the repositories of such knowledge and
technologies, in conformity with chapter 34. 

(c)  Human resource development

6.45.  Comprehensive national strategies should be designed to overcome the
lack of qualified human resources, which is a major impediment to progress in
dealing with environmental health hazards.  Training should includeenvironmental and health officials at all levels from managers to inspectors. 
More emphasis needs to be placed on including the subject of environmental
health in the curricula of secondary schools and universities and on educating
the public. 

(d)  Capacity-building

6.46.  Each country should develop the knowledge and practical skills to
foresee and identify environmental health hazards, and the capacity to reduce
the risks.  Basic capacity requirements must include knowledge about
environmental health problems and awareness on the part of leaders, citizens
and specialists; operational mechanisms for intersectoral and intergovernmental
cooperation in development planning and management and in combating pollution;
arrangements for involving private and community interests in dealing with
social issues; delegation of authority and distribution of resources to
intermediate and local levels of government to provide front-line capabilities
to meet environmental health needs. 


                                      Notes

     1/   A/45/625, annex. 

     2/   Report of the WHO Commission on Health and Environment (Geneva,
forthcoming). 

                                    Chapter 7

               PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT


                                  INTRODUCTION

7.1.  In industrialized countries, the consumption patterns of cities are
severely stressing the global ecosystem, while settlements in the developing
world need more raw material, energy, and economic development simply to
overcome basic economic and social problems.  Human settlement conditions in
many parts of the world, particularly the developing countries, are
deteriorating mainly as a result of the low levels of investment in the sector
attributable to the overall resource constraints in these countries.  In the
low-income countries for which recent data are available, an average of only
5.6 per cent of central government expenditure went to housing, amenities,
social security and welfare. 1/  Expenditure by international support and
finance organizations is equally low.  For example, only 1 per cent of the
United Nations system's total grant-financed expenditures in 1988 went to human
settlements, 2/ while in 1991, loans from the World Bank and the International
Development Association (IDA) for urban development and water supply and
sewerage amounted to 5.5 and 5.4 per cent, respectively, of their total
lending. 3/

7.2.  On the other hand, available information indicates that technical
cooperation activities in the human settlement sector generate considerable
public and private sector investment.  For example, every dollar of UNDP
technical cooperation expenditure on human settlements in 1988 generated a
follow-up investment of $122, the highest of all UNDP sectors of assistance. 4/

7.3.  This is the foundation of the "enabling approach" advocated for the human
settlement sector.  External assistance will help to generate the internal
resources needed to improve the living and working environments of all people
by the year 2000 and beyond, including the growing number of unemployed - the
no-income group.  At the same time the environmental implications of urban
development should be recognized and addressed in an integrated fashion by all
countries, with high priority being given to the needs of the urban and rural
poor, the unemployed and the growing number of people without any source of
income.

Human settlement objective
7.4.             The overall human settlement objective is to improve the social, economic
and environmental quality of human settlements and the living and working
environments of all people, in particular the urban and rural poor.  Such
improvement should be based on technical cooperation activities, partnerships
among the public, private and community sectors and participation in the
decision-making process by community groups and special interest groups such as
women, indigenous people, the elderly and the disabled.  These approaches
should form the core principles of national settlement strategies.  In
developing these strategies, countries will need to set priorities amongthe eight programme areas in this chapter in accordance with their national
plans and objectives, taking fully into account their social and cultural
capabilities.  Furthermore, countries should make appropriate provision to
monitor the impact of their strategies on marginalized and disenfranchised
groups, with particular reference to the needs of women.

7.5.  The programme areas included in this chapter are:

     (a)  Providing adequate shelter for all;

     (b)  Improving human settlement management;

     (c)  Promoting sustainable land-use planning and management;

     (d)  Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: 
water, sanitation, drainage and solid-waste management;

     (e)  Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human
settlements;

     (f)  Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone
areas;

     (g)  Promoting sustainable construction industry activities;

     (h)  Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human
settlement development.


                                 PROGRAMME AREAS

                     A.  Providing adequate shelter for all

Basis for action

7.6.  Access to safe and healthy shelter is essential to a person's physical,
psychological, social and economic well-being and should be a fundamental part
of national and international action.  The right to adequate housing as a basic
human right is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.  Despite this,
it is estimated that at the present time, at least 1 billion people do not have
access to safe and healthy shelter and that if appropriate action is not taken,
this number will increase dramatically by the end of the century and beyond.

7.7.  A major global programme to address this problem is the Global Strategy
for Shelter to the Year 2000, adopted by the General Assembly in December 1988
(resolution 43/181, annex).  Despite its widespread endorsement, the Strategy
needs a much greater level of political and financial support to enable it to
reach its goal of facilitating adequate shelter for all by the end of the
century and beyond.

Objective

7.8.  The objective is to achieve adequate shelter for rapidly growing
populations and for the currently deprived urban and rural poor through an
enabling approach to shelter development and improvement that is
environmentally sound.

Activities

7.9.  The following activities should be undertaken:

     (a)  As a first step towards the goal of providing adequate shelter for
all, all countries should take immediate measures to provide shelter to their
homeless poor, while the international community and financial institutions
should undertake actions to support the efforts of the developing countries to
provide shelter to the poor;

     (b)  All countries should adopt and/or strengthen national shelter
strategies, with targets based, as appropriate, on the principles and
recommendations contained in the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000. 
People should be protected by law against unfair eviction from their homes or
land;

     (c)  All countries should, as appropriate, support the shelter efforts of
the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the no-income group by adopting
and/or adapting existing codes and regulations, to facilitate their access to
land, finance and low-cost building materials and by actively promoting the
regularization and upgrading of informal settlements and urban slums as an
expedient measure and pragmatic solution to the urban shelter deficit;

     (d)  All countries should, as appropriate, facilitate access of urban and
rural poor to shelter by adopting and utilizing housing and finance schemes and
new innovative mechanisms adapted to their circumstances;

     (e)  All countries should support and develop environmentally compatible
shelter strategies at national, state/provincial and municipal levels through
partnerships among the private, public and community sectors and with the
support of community-based organizations;

     (f)  All countries, especially developing ones, should, as appropriate,
formulate and implement programmes to reduce the impact of the phenomenon of
rural to urban drift by improving rural living conditions;

     (g)  All countries, where appropriate, should develop and implement
resettlement programmes that address the specific problems of displaced
populations in their respective countries;

     (h)  All countries should, as appropriate, document and monitor the
implementation of their national shelter strategies by using, inter alia, the
monitoring guidelines adopted by the Commission on Human Settlements and theshelter performance indicators being produced jointly by the United Nations
Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) and the World Bank;

     (i)  Bilateral and multilateral cooperation should be strengthened in
order to support the implementation of the national shelter strategies of
developing countries;

     (j)  Global progress reports covering national action and the support
activities of international organizations and bilateral donors should be
produced and disseminated on a biennial basis, as requested in the Global
Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

7.10.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$75 billion, including about $10 billion from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation.

(b)  Scientific and technological means

7.11.  The requirements under this heading are addressed in each of the other
programme areas included in the present chapter.

(c)  Human resource development and capacity-building

7.12.  Developed countries and funding agencies should provide specific
assistance to developing countries in adopting an enabling approach to the
provision of shelter for all, including the no-income group, and covering
research institutions and training activities for government officials,
professionals, communities and non-governmental organizations and by
strengthening local capacity for the development of appropriate technologies.


                    B.  Improving human settlement management
Basis for action

7.13.  By the turn of the century, the majority of the world's population will
be living in cities.  While urban settlements, particularly in developing
countries, are showing many of the symptoms of the global environment and
development crisis, they nevertheless generate 60 per cent of gross national
product and, if properly managed, can develop the capacity to sustain their
productivity, improve the living conditions of their residents and manage
natural resources in a sustainable way.

7.14.  Some metropolitan areas extend over the boundaries of several political
and/or administrative entities (counties and municipalities) even though they
conform to a continuous urban system.  In many cases this political
heterogeneity hinders the implementation of comprehensive environmental
management programmes.

Objective

7.15.  The objective is to ensure sustainable management of all urban
settlements, particularly in developing countries, in order to enhance their
ability to improve the living conditions of residents, especially the
marginalized and disenfranchised, thereby contributing to the achievement of
national economic development goals.

Activities

(a)  Improving urban management

7.16.  One existing framework for strengthening management is in the United
Nations Development Programme/World Bank/United Nations Centre for Human
Settlements (Habitat) Urban Management Programme (UMP), a concerted global
effort to assist developing countries in addressing urban management issues. 
Its coverage should be extended to all interested countries during the period
1993-2000.  All countries should, as appropriate and in accordance with
national plans, objectives and priorities and with the assistance of
non-governmental organizations and representatives of local authorities,
undertake the following activities at the national, state/provincial and local
levels, with the assistance of relevant programmes and support agencies:

     (a)  Adopting and applying urban management guidelines in the areas of
land management, urban environmental management, infrastructure management and
municipal finance and administration;

     (b)  Accelerating efforts to reduce urban poverty through a number of
actions, including:

     (i)  Generating employment for the urban poor, particularly women, through
          the provision, improvement and maintenance of urban infrastructure
          and services and the support of economic activities in the informal
          sector, such as repairs, recycling, services and small commerce;

    (ii)             Providing specific assistance to the poorest of the urban poor
          through, inter alia, the creation of social infrastructure in order
          to reduce hunger and homelessness, and the provision of adequate
          community services;

   (iii)  Encouraging the establishment of indigenous community-based
          organizations, private voluntary organizations and other forms of
          non-governmental entities that can contribute to the efforts to
          reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for low-income
          families;

     (c)  Adopting innovative city planning strategies to address environmental
and social issues by:

     (i)  Reducing subsidies on, and recovering the full costs of,
          environmental and other services of high standard (e.g. water supply,
          sanitation, waste collection, roads, telecommunications) provided to
          higher income neighbourhoods;

    (ii)  Improving the level of infrastructure and service provision in poorer
          urban areas;

     (d)  Developing local strategies for improving the quality of life and the
environment, integrating decisions on land use and land management, investing
in the public and private sectors and mobilizing human and material resources,
thereby promoting employment generation that is environmentally sound and
protective of human health. 

(b)  Strengthening urban data systems

7.17.  During the period 1993-2000 all countries should undertake, with the
active participation of the business sector as appropriate, pilot projects in
selected cities for the collection, analysis and subsequent dissemination of
urban data, including environmental impact analysis, at the local,
state/provincial, national and international levels and the establishment of
city data management capabilities. 5/  United Nations organizations, such as
Habitat, UNEP and UNDP, could provide technical advice and model data
management systems.

(c)  Encouraging intermediate city development

7.18.  In order to relieve pressure on large urban agglomerations of developing
countries, policies and strategies should be implemented towards the
development of intermediate cities that create employment opportunities for
unemployed labour in the rural areas and support rural-based economic
activities, although sound urban management is essential to ensure that urban
sprawl does not expand resource degradation over an ever wider land area and
increase pressures to convert open space and agricultural/buffer lands for
development.

7.19.  Therefore all countries should, as appropriate, conduct reviews of
urbanization processes and policies in order to assess the environmental
impacts of growth and apply urban planning and management approaches
specifically suited to the needs, resource capabilities and characteristics of
their growing intermediate-sized cities.  As appropriate, they should alsoconcentrate on activities aimed at facilitating the transition from rural to
urban lifestyles and settlement patterns and at promoting the development of
small-scale economic activities, particularly the production of food, to
support local income generation and the production of intermediate goods and
services for rural hinterlands.

7.20.  All cities, particularly those characterized by severe sustainable
development problems, should, in accordance with national laws, rules and
regulations, develop and strengthen programmes aimed at addressing such
problems and guiding their development along a sustainable path.  Some
international initiatives in support of such efforts, as in the Sustainable
Cities Programme of Habitat and the Healthy Cities Programme of WHO, should be
intensified.  Additional initiatives involving the World Bank, the regional
development banks and bilateral agencies, as well as other interested
stakeholders, particularly international and national representatives of local
authorities, should be strengthened and coordinated.  Individual cities should,
as appropriate:

     (a)  Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable urban
development, based on a continuous dialogue between the actors involved in
urban development (the public sector, private sector and communities),
especially women and indigenous people;

     (b)  Improve the urban environment by promoting social organization and
environmental awareness through the participation of local communities in the
identification of public services needs, the provision of urban infrastructure,
the enhancement of public amenities and the protection and/or rehabilitation of
older buildings, historic precincts and other cultural artifacts.  In addition,
"green works" programmes should be activated to create self-sustaining human
development activities and both formal and informal employment opportunities
for low-income urban residents;

     (c)  Strengthen the capacities of their local governing bodies to deal
more effectively with the broad range of developmental and environmental
challenges associated with rapid and sound urban growth through comprehensive
approaches to planning that recognize the individual needs of cities and are
based on ecologically sound urban design practices;

     (d)  Participate in international "sustainable city networks" to exchange
experiences and mobilize national and international technical and financial
support;
                (e)  Promote the formulation of environmentally sound and culturally
sensitive tourism programmes as a strategy for sustainable development of urban
and rural settlements and as a way of decentralizing urban development and
reducing discrepancies among regions;

     (f)  Establish mechanisms, with the assistance of relevant international
agencies, to mobilize resources for local initiatives to improve environmental
quality;

     (g)  Empower community groups, non-governmental organizations and
individuals to assume the authority and responsibility for managing and
enhancing their immediate environment through participatory tools, techniques
and approaches embodied in the concept of environmental care.

7.21.  Cities of all countries should reinforce cooperation among themselves
and cities of the developed countries, under the aegis of non-governmental
organizations active in this field, such as the International Union of Local
Authorities (IULA), the International Council for Local Environmental
Initiatives (ICLEI) and the World Federation of Twin Cities.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

7.22.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$100 billion, including about $15 billion from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation.

(b)  Human resource development and capacity-building

7.23.  Developing countries should, with appropriate international assistance,
consider focusing on training and developing a cadre of urban managers,
technicians, administrators and other relevant stakeholders who can
successfully manage environmentally sound urban development and growth and are
equipped with the skills necessary to analyse and adapt the innovative
experiences of other cities.  For this purpose, the full range of training
methods - from formal education to the use of the mass media - should be
utilized, as well as the "learning by doing" option.

7.24.  Developing countries should also encourage technological training and
research through joint efforts by donors, non-governmental organizations and
private business in such areas as the reduction of waste, water quality, saving
of energy, safe production of chemicals and less polluting transportation.

7.25.  Capacity-building activities carried out by all countries, assisted as
suggested above, should go beyond the training of individuals and functional
groups to include institutional arrangements, administrative routines,
inter-agency linkages, information flows and consultative processes.

7.26.  In addition, international efforts, such as the Urban Management
Programme, in cooperation with multilateral and bilateral agencies, should
continue to assist the developing countries in their efforts to develop a
participatory structure by mobilizing the human resources of the privatesector, non-governmental organizations and the poor, particularly women and the
disadvantaged. 


           C.  Promoting sustainable land-use planning and management

Basis for action

7.27.  Access to land resources is an essential component of sustainable
low-impact lifestyles.  Land resources are the basis for (human) living systems
and provide soil, energy, water and the opportunity for all human activity.  In
rapidly growing urban areas, access to land is rendered increasingly difficult
by the conflicting demands of industry, housing, commerce, agriculture, land
tenure structures and the need for open spaces.  Furthermore, the rising costs
of urban land prevent the poor from gaining access to suitable land.  In rural
areas, unsustainable practices, such as the exploitation of marginal lands and
the encroachment on forests and ecologically fragile areas by commercial
interests and landless rural populations, result in environmental degradation,
as well as in diminishing returns for impoverished rural settlers. 

Objective

7.28.  The objective is to provide for the land requirements of human
settlement development through environmentally sound physical planning and land
use so as to ensure access to land to all households and, where appropriate,
the encouragement of communally and collectively owned and managed land. 6/ 
Particular attention should be paid to the needs of women and indigenous people
for economic and cultural reasons.

Activities

7.29.  All countries should consider, as appropriate, undertaking a
comprehensive national inventory of their land resources in order to establish
a land information system in which land resources will be classified according
to their most appropriate uses and environmentally fragile or disaster-prone
areas will be identified for special protection measures.

7.30.  Subsequently, all countries should consider developing national
land-resource management plans to guide land-resource development and
utilization and, to that end, should:

                (a)  Establish, as appropriate, national legislation to guide the
implementation of public policies for environmentally sound urban development,
land utilization, housing and for the improved management of urban expansion;

     (b)  Create, where appropriate, efficient and accessible land markets that
meet community development needs by, inter alia, improving land registry
systems and streamlining procedures in land transactions;

     (c)  Develop fiscal incentives and land-use control measures, including
land-use planning solutions for a more rational and environmentally sound use
of limited land resources;

     (d)  Encourage partnerships among the public, private and community
sectors in managing land resources for human settlements development;

     (e)  Strengthen community-based land-resource protection practices in
existing urban and rural settlements;

     (f)  Establish appropriate forms of land tenure that provide security of
tenure for all land-users, especially indigenous people, women, local
communities, the low-income urban dwellers and the rural poor;

     (g)  Accelerate efforts to promote access to land by the urban and rural
poor, including credit schemes for the purchase of land and for
building/acquiring or improving safe and healthy shelter and infrastructure
services;

     (h)  Develop and support the implementation of improved land-management
practices that deal comprehensively with potentially competing land
requirements for agriculture, industry, transport, urban development, green
spaces, preserves and other vital needs;

     (i)  Promote understanding among policy makers of the adverse consequences
of unplanned settlements in environmentally vulnerable areas and of the
appropriate national and local land-use and settlements policies required for
this purpose.

7.31.  At the international level, global coordination of land-resource
management activities should be strengthened by the various bilateral and
multilateral agencies and programmes, such as UNDP, FAO, the World Bank, the
regional development banks, other interested organizations and the UNDP/World
Bank/Habitat Urban Management Programme, and action should be taken to promote
the transfer of applicable experience on sustainable land-management practices
to and among developing countries.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

7.32.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$3 billion, including about $300 million from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation.

(b)  Scientific and technological means

7.33.  All countries, particularly developing countries, alone or in regional
or subregional groupings, should be given access to modern techniques of
land-resource management, such as geographical information systems, satellite
photography/imagery and other remote-sensing technologies.

(c)  Human resource development and capacity-building

7.34.  Environmentally focused training activities in sustainable
land-resources planning and management should be undertaken in all countries,
with developing countries being given assistance through international support
and funding agencies in order to:

     (a)  Strengthen the capacity of national, state/provincial and local
educational research and training institutions to provide formal training of
land-management technicians and professionals;

     (b)  Facilitate the organizational review of government ministries and
agencies responsible for land questions, in order to devise more efficient
mechanisms of land-resource management, and carry out periodic in-service
refresher courses for the managers and staff of such ministries and agencies in
order to familiarize them with up-to-date land-resource-management
technologies;

     (c)  Where appropriate, provide such agencies with modern equipment, such
as computer hardware and software and survey equipment;

     (d)  Strengthen existing programmes and promote an international and
interregional exchange of information and experience in land management through
the establishment of professional associations in land-management sciences and
related activities, such as workshops and seminars.


            D.  Promoting the integrated provision of environmental
                infrastructure:  water, sanitation, drainage and
                solid-waste management

Basis for action

7.35.  The sustainability of urban development is defined by many parameters
relating to the availability of water supplies, air quality and the provision
of environmental infrastructure for sanitation and waste management.  As a
result of the density of users, urbanization, if properly managed, offers
unique opportunities for the supply of sustainable environmental infrastructure
through adequate pricing policies, educational programmes and equitable access
mechanisms that are economically and environmentally sound.  In most developing
countries, however, the inadequacy and lack of environmental infrastructure is
responsible for widespread ill-health and a large number of preventable deaths
each year.  In those countries conditionsare set to worsen due to growing needs that exceed the capacity of Governments
to respond adequately.

7.36.  An integrated approach to the provision of environmentally sound
infrastructure in human settlements, in particular for the urban and rural
poor, is an investment in sustainable development that can improve the quality
of life, increase productivity, improve health and reduce the burden of
investments in curative medicine and poverty alleviation.

7.37.  Most of the activities whose management would be improved by an
integrated approach, are covered in Agenda 21 as follows:  chapter 6
(Protecting and promoting human health conditions), chapters 9 (Protecting the
atmosphere), 18 (Protecting the quality and supply of freshwater resources) and
21 (Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related
issues).

Objective

7.38.  The objective is to ensure the provision of adequate environmental
infrastructure facilities in all settlements by the year 2025.  The achievement
of this objective would require that all developing countries incorporate in
their national strategies programmes to build the necessary technical,
financial and human resource capacity aimed at ensuring better integration of
infrastructure and environmental planning by the year 2000.

Activities

7.39.  All countries should assess the environmental suitability of
infrastructure in human settlements, develop national goals for sustainable
management of waste, and implement environmentally sound technology to ensure
that the environment, human health and quality of life are protected. 
Settlement infrastructure and environmental programmes designed to promote an
integrated human settlements approach to the planning, development, maintenance
and management of environmental infrastructure (water supply, sanitation,
drainage, solid-waste management) should be strengthened with the assistance of
bilateral and multilateral agencies.  Coordination among these agencies and
with collaboration from international and national representatives of local
authorities, the private sector and community groups should also be
strengthened.  The activities of all agencies engaged in providing
environmental infrastructure should, where possible, reflect an ecosystem or
metropolitan area approach to settlements and should include monitoring,
applied research, capacity-building, transfer of appropriate technology and
technical cooperation among the range of programme activities.

7.40.  Developing countries should be assisted at the national and local levels
in adopting an integrated approach to the provision of water supply, energy,
sanitation, drainage and solid-waste management, and external funding agencies
should ensure that this approach is applied in particular to environmental
infrastructure improvement in informal settlements based on regulations and
standards that take into account the living conditions and resources of the
communities to be served. 

7.41.  All countries should, as appropriate, adopt the following principles for
the provision of environmental infrastructure:

     (a)  Adopt policies that minimize if not altogether avoid environmental
damage, whenever possible;

     (b)  Ensure that relevant decisions are preceded by environmental impact
assessments and also take into account the costs of any ecological
consequences;

     (c)  Promote development in accordance with indigenous practices and adopt
technologies appropriate to local conditions;

     (d)  Promote policies aimed at recovering the actual cost of
infrastructure services, while at the same time recognizing the need to find
suitable approaches (including subsidies) to extend basic services to all
households;

     (e)  Seek joint solutions to environmental problems that affect several
localities.

7.42.  The dissemination of information from existing programmes should be
facilitated and encouraged among interested countries and local institutions.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

7.43.  The Conference secretariat has estimated most of the costs of
implementing the activities of this programme in other chapters.  The
secretariat estimates the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of technical
assistance from the international community grant or concessional terms to be
about $50 million.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only
and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms,
including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the
specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b)  Scientific and technological means

7.44.  Scientific and technological means within the existing programmes should
be coordinated wherever possible and should:
                (a)  Accelerate research in the area of integrated policies of
environmental infrastructure programmes and projects based on cost/benefit
analysis and overall environmental impact;

     (b)  Promote methods of assessing "effective demand", utilizing
environment and development data as criteria for selecting technology.

(c)  Human resource development and capacity-building

7.45.  With the assistance and support of funding agencies, all countries
should, as appropriate, undertake training and popular participation programmes
aimed at:

     (a)  Raising awareness of the means, approaches and benefits of the
provision of environmental infrastructure facilities, especially among
indigenous people, women, low-income groups and the poor;

     (b)  Developing a cadre of professionals with adequate skills in
integrated infrastructural service planning and maintenance of
resource-efficient, environmentally sound and socially acceptable systems;

     (c)  Strengthening the institutional capacity of local authorities and
administrators in the integrated provision of adequate infrastructure services
in partnership with local communities and the private sector;

     (d)  Adopting appropriate legal and regulatory instruments, including
cross-subsidy arrangements, to extend the benefits of adequate and affordable
environmental infrastructure to unserved population groups, especially the
poor.


                E.  Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in
               human settlements

Basis for action

7.46.  Most of the commercial and non-commercial energy produced today is used
in and for human settlements, and a substantial percentage of it is used by the
household sector.  Developing countries are at present faced with the need to
increase their energy production to accelerate development and raise the living
standards of their populations, while at the same time reducing energy
production costs and energy-related pollution.  Increasing the efficiency of
energy use to reduce its polluting effects and to promote the use of renewable
energies must be a priority in any action taken to protect the urban
environment.

7.47.  Developed countries, as the largest consumers of energy, are faced with
the need for energy planning and management, promoting renewable and alternate
sources of energy, and evaluating the life-cycle costs of current systems and
practices as a result of which many metropolitan areas are suffering from
pervasive air quality problems related to ozone, particulate matters and carbon
monoxide.  The causes have much to do with technological inadequacies and with
an increasing fuel consumption generated by inefficiencies, high demographic
and industrial concentrations and a rapid expansion in the number of motor
vehicles. 

7.48.  Transport accounts for about 30 per cent of commercial energy
consumption and for about 60 per cent of total global consumption of liquid
petroleum.  In developing countries, rapid motorization and insufficient
investments in urban-transport planning, traffic management and infrastructure,
are creating increasing problems in terms of accidents and injury, health,
noise, congestion and loss of productivity similar to those occurring in many
developed countries.  All of these problems have a severe impact on urban
populations, particularly the low-income and no-income groups.

Objectives

7.49.  The objectives are to extend the provision of more energy-efficient
technology and alternative/renewable energy for human settlements and to reduce
negative impacts of energy production and use on human health and on the
environment.

Activities

7.50.  The principal activities relevant to this programme area are included in
chapter 9 (Protection of the atmosphere), programme area B, subprogramme 1
(Energy development, efficiency and consumption) and subprogramme 2
(Transportation).

7.51.  A comprehensive approach to human settlements development should include
the promotion of sustainable energy development in all countries, as follows:

     (a)  Developing countries, in particular, should:
 
     (i)  Formulate national action programmes to promote and support
          reafforestation and national forest regeneration with a view to
          achieving sustained provision of the biomass energy needs of the
          low-income groups in urban areas and the rural poor, in particular
          women and children;

    (ii)  Formulate national action programmes to promote integrated
          development of energy-saving and renewable energy technologies,
          particularly for the use of solar, hydro, wind and biomass sources;

   (iii)  Promote wide dissemination and commercialization of renewable energy
          technologies through suitable measures, inter alia, fiscal and
          technology transfer mechanisms;
    (iv)             Carry out information and training programmes directed at
          manufacturers and users in order to promote energy-saving techniques
          and energy-efficient appliances;

     (b)  International organizations and bilateral donors should: 

     (i)  Support developing countries in implementing national energy
          programmes in order to achieve widespread use of energy-saving and
          renewable energy technologies, particularly the use of solar, wind,
          biomass and hydro sources;

    (ii)  Provide access to research and development results to increase
          energy-use efficiency levels in human settlements.

7.52.  Promoting efficient and environmentally sound urban transport systems in
all countries should be a comprehensive approach to urban-transport planning
and management.  To this end, all countries should:

     (a)  Integrate land-use and transportation planning to encourage
development patterns that reduce transport demand;

     (b)  Adopt urban-transport programmes favouring high-occupancy public
transport in countries, as appropriate;

     (c)  Encourage non-motorized modes of transport by providing safe
cycleways and footways in urban and suburban centres in countries, as
appropriate;

     (d)  Devote particular attention to effective traffic management,
efficient operation of public transport and maintenance of transport
infrastructure;

     (e)  Promote the exchange of information among countries and
representatives of local and metropolitan areas;

     (f)  Re-evaluate the present consumption and production patterns in order
to reduce the use of energy and national resources.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

7.53.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the costs of implementing the
activities of this programme in chapter 9 (Protection of the atmosphere).

(b)  Human resource development and capacity-building

7.54.  In order to enhance the skills of energy service and transport
professionals and institutions, all countries should, as appropriate:

     (a)  Provide on-the-job and other training of government officials,
planners, traffic engineers and managers involved in the energy-service and
transport section;

     (b)  Raise public awareness of the environmental impacts of transport and
travel behaviour through mass media campaigns and support for non-governmental
and community initiatives promoting the use of non-motorized transport, shared
driving and improved traffic safety measures;

     (c)  Strengthen regional, national, state/provincial, and private sector
institutions that provide education and training on energy service and urban
transport planning and management.


                F.  Promoting human settlement planning and management in
               disaster-prone areas

Basis for action

7.55.  Natural disasters cause loss of life, disruption of economic activities
and urban productivity, particularly for highly susceptible low-income groups,
and environmental damage, such as loss of fertile agricultural land and
contamination of water resources, and can lead to major resettlement of
populations.  Over the past two decades, they are estimated to have caused some
3 million deaths and affected 800 million people.  Global economic losses have
been estimated by the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
to be in the range of $30-50 billion per year.

7.56.  The General Assembly, in resolution 44/236, proclaimed the 1990s as the
International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.  The goals of the
Decade 7/ bear relevance to the objectives of the present programme area.

7.57.  In addition, there is an urgent need to address the prevention and
reduction of man-made disasters and/or disasters caused by, inter alia,
industries, unsafe nuclear power generation and toxic wastes (see chapter 6 of
Agenda 21).

Objective

7.58.  The objective is to enable all countries, in particular those that are
disaster-prone, to mitigate the negative impact of natural and man-made
disasters on human settlements, national economies and the environment.

Activities

7.59.  Three distinct areas of activity are foreseen under this programme area,
namely, the development of a "culture of safety", pre-disaster planning and
post-disaster reconstruction.

(a)  Developing a culture of safety

7.60.  To promote a "culture of safety" in all countries, especially those that
are disaster-prone, the following activities should be carried out:

     (a)  Completing national and local studies on the nature and occurrence of
natural disasters, their impact on people and economic activities, the effects
of inadequate construction and land use in hazard-prone areas, and the social
and economic advantages of adequate pre-disaster planning;

     (b)  Implementing nationwide and local awareness campaigns through all
available media, translating the above knowledge into information easily
comprehensible to the general public and to the populations directly exposed to
hazards;

     (c)  Strengthening, and/or developing global, regional, national and local
early warning systems to alert populations to impending disasters;

     (d)  Identifying industrially based environmental disaster areas at the
national and international levels and implementing strategies aimed at the
rehabilitation of these areas through, inter alia:

     (i)  Restructuring of the economic activities and promoting new job
          opportunities in environmentally sound sectors;

    (ii)  Promoting close collaboration between governmental and local
          authorities, local communities and non-governmental organizations and
          private business;

   (iii)  Developing and enforcing strict environmental control standards.

(b)  Developing pre-disaster planning

7.61.  Pre-disaster planning should form an integral part of human settlement
planning in all countries.  The following should be included:

     (a)  Undertaking complete multi-hazard research into risk and
vulnerability of human settlements and settlement infrastructure, including
water and sewerage, communication and transportation networks, as one type of
risk reduction may increase vulnerability to another (e.g., an
earthquake-resistant house made of wood will be more vulnerable to wind
storms);

     (b)  Developing methodologies for determining risk and vulnerability
within specific human settlements and incorporating risk and vulnerability
reduction into the human settlement planning and management process;
                (c)  Redirecting inappropriate new development and human settlements to
areas not prone to hazards;

     (d)  Preparing guidelines on location, design and operation of potentially
hazardous industries and activities;

     (e)  Developing tools (legal, economic etc.) to encourage
disaster-sensitive development, including means of ensuring that limitations on
development options are not punitive to owners, or incorporate alternative
means of compensation;

     (f)  Further developing and disseminating information on
disaster-resistant building materials and construction technologies for
buildings and public works in general;

     (g)  Developing training programmes for contractors and builders on
disaster-resistant construction methods.  Some programmes should be directed
particularly to small enterprises, which build the great majority of housing
and other small buildings in the developing countries, as well as to the rural
populations, which build their own houses;

     (h)  Developing training programmes for emergency site managers,
non-governmental organizations and community groups which cover all aspects of
disaster mitigation, including urban search and rescue, emergency
communications, early warning techniques, and pre-disaster planning;

     (i)  Developing procedures and practices to enable local communities to
receive information about hazardous installations or situations in these areas,
and facilitate their participation in early warning and disaster abatement and
response procedures and plans;

     (j)  Preparing action plans for the reconstruction of settlements,
especially the reconstruction of community life-lines.

(c)  Initiating post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation planning

7.62.  The international community, as a major partner in post-reconstruction
and rehabilitation, should ensure that the countries involved derive the
greatest benefits from the funds allocated by undertaking the following
activities:
 
     (a)  Carrying out research on past experiences on the social and economic
aspects of post-disaster reconstruction and adopting effective strategies and
guidelines for post-disaster reconstruction, with particular focus on
development-focused strategies in the allocation of scarce reconstruction
resources, and on the opportunities that post-disaster reconstruction provides
to introduce sustainable settlement patterns; 
                (b)  Preparing and disseminating international guidelines for adaptation
to national and local needs;

     (c)  Supporting efforts of national Governments to initiate contingency
planning, with participation of affected communities, for post-disaster
reconstruction and rehabilitation. 

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

7.63.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$50 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. 
These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been
reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including any that
are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b)  Scientific and technological means

7.64.  Scientists and engineers specializing in this field in both developing
and developed countries should collaborate with urban and regional planners in
order to provide the basic knowledge and means to mitigate losses owing to
disasters as well as environmentally inappropriate development.

(c)  Human resource development and capacity-building

7.65.  Developing countries should conduct training programmes on
disaster-resistant construction methods for contractors and builders, who build
the majority of housing in the developing countries.  This should focus on the
small business enterprises, which build the majority of housing in the
developing countries. 

7.66.  Training programmes should be extended to government officials and
planners and community and non-governmental organizations to cover all aspects
of disaster mitigation, such as early warning techniques, pre-disaster planning
and construction, post-disaster construction and rehabilitation.


           G.  Promoting sustainable construction industry activities

Basis for action

7.67.  The activities of the construction sector are vital to the achievement
of the national socio-economic development goals of providing shelter,
infrastructure and employment.  However, they can be a major source of
environmental damage through depletion of the natural resource base,
degradation of fragile eco-zones, chemical pollution and the use of building
materials harmful to human health.

Objectives

7.68.  The objectives are, first, to adopt policies and technologies and to
exchange information on them in order to enable the construction sector to meet
human settlement development goals, while avoiding harmful side-effectson human health and on the biosphere, and, second, to enhance the
employment-generation capacity of the construction sector.  Governments should
work in close collaboration with the private sector in achieving these
objectives. 

Activities

7.69.  All countries should, as appropriate and in accordance with national
plans, objectives and priorities:

     (a)  Establish and strengthen indigenous building materials industry,
based, as much as possible, on inputs of locally available natural resources;

     (b)  Formulate programmes to enhance the utilization of local materials by
the construction sector by expanding technical support and incentive schemes
for increasing the capabilities and economic viability of small-scale and
informal operatives which make use of these materials and traditional
construction techniques;

     (c)  Adopt standards and other regulatory measures which promote the
increased use of energy-efficient designs and technologies and sustainable
utilization of natural resources in an economically and environmentally
appropriate way;

     (d)  Formulate appropriate land-use policies and introduce planning
regulations specially aimed at the protection of eco-sensitive zones against
physical disruption by construction and construction-related activities;

     (e)  Promote the use of labour-intensive construction and maintenance
technologies which generate employment in the construction sector for the
underemployed labour force found in most large cities, while at the same time
promoting the development of skills in the construction sector;

     (f)  Develop policies and practices to reach the informal sector and
self-help housing builders by adopting measures to increase the affordability
of building materials on the part of the urban and rural poor, through,
inter alia, credit schemes and bulk procurement of building materials for sale
to small-scale builders and communities.

7.70.  All countries should:

                (a)  Promote the free exchange of information on the entire range of
environmental and health aspects of construction, including the development and
dissemination of databases on the adverse environmental effects of building
materials through the collaborative efforts of the private and public sectors; 

     (b)  Promote the development and dissemination of databases on the adverse
environmental and health effects of building materials and introduce
legislation and financial incentives to promote recycling of energy-intensivematerials in the construction industry and conservation of waste energy in
building-materials production methods;

     (c)  Promote the use of economic instruments, such as product charges, to
discourage the use of construction materials and products that create pollution
during their life cycle;

     (d)  Promote information exchange and appropriate technology transfer
among all countries, with particular attention to developing countries, for
resource management in construction, particularly for non-renewable resources; 

     (e)  Promote research in construction industries and related activities,
and establish and strengthen institutions in this sector.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

7.71.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$40 billion, including about $4 billion from the international community on
grant or concessional terms.  These are indicative and order-of-magnitude
estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,
inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for
implementation.

(b)  Human resource development and capacity-building

7.72.  Developing countries should be assisted by international support and
funding agencies in upgrading the technical and managerial capacities of the
small entrepreneur and the vocational skills of operatives and supervisors in
the building materials industry, using a variety of training methods.  These
countries should also be assisted in developing programmes to encourage the use
of non-waste and clean technologies through appropriate transfer of technology.

7.73.  General education programmes should be developed in all countries, as
appropriate, to increase builder awareness of available sustainable
technologies.

7.74.  Local authorities are called upon to play a pioneering role in promoting
the increased use of environmentally sound building materials and construction
technologies, e.g., by pursuing an innovative procurement policy.


         H.  Promoting human resource development and capacity-building
             for human settlements development

Basis for action

7.75.  Most countries, in addition to shortcomings in the availability of
specialized expertise in the areas of housing, settlement management, land
management, infrastructure, construction, energy, transport, and pre-disaster
planning and reconstruction, face three cross-sectoral human resource
development and capacity-building shortfalls.  First is the absence of an
enabling policy environment capable of integrating the resources and activities
of the public sector, the private sector and the community, or social sector;
second is the weakness of specialized training and research institutions; and
third is the insufficient capacity for technical training and assistance for
low-income communities, both urban and rural.

Objective

7.76.  The objective is to improve human resource development and
capacity-building in all countries by enhancing the personal and institutional
capacity of all actors, particularly indigenous people and women, involved in
human settlement development.  In this regard, account should be taken of
traditional cultural practices of indigenous people and their relationship to
the environment.

Activities

7.77.  Specific human resource development and capacity-building activities
have been built into each of the programme areas of this chapter.  More
generally, however, additional steps should be taken to reinforce those
activities.  In order to do so, all countries, as appropriate, should take the
following action:

     (a)  Strengthening the development of human resources and of capacities of
public sector institutions through technical assistance and international
cooperation so as to achieve by the year 2000 substantial improvement in the
efficiency of governmental activities;

     (b)  Creating an enabling policy environment supportive of the partnership
between the public, private and community sectors;

                (c)  Providing enhanced training and technical assistance to
institutions providing training for technicians, professionals and
administrators, and appointed, elected and professional members of local
governments and strengthening their capacity to address priority training
needs, particularly in regard to social, economic and environmental aspects of
human settlements development;

     (d)  Providing direct assistance for human settlement development at the
community level, inter alia, by:

     (i)  Strengthening and promoting programmes for social mobilization and
          raising awareness of the potential of women and youth in human
          settlements activities;

    (ii)  Facilitating coordination of the activities of women, youth,
          community groups and non-governmental organizations in human
          settlements development;

   (iii)  Promoting research on women's programmes and other groups, and
          evaluating progress made with a view to identifying bottlenecks and
          needed assistance;

     (e)  Promoting the inclusion of integrated environmental management into
general local government activities.

7.78.  Both international organizations and non-governmental organizations
should support the above activities by, inter alia, strengthening subregional
training institutions, providing updated training materials and disseminating
the results of successful human resource and capacity-building activities,
programmes and projects.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

7.79.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$65 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. 
These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been
reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including any that
are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b)  Scientific and technological means

7.80.  Both formal training and non-formal types of human resource development
and capacity-building programmes should be combined, and use should be made of
user-oriented training methods, up-to-date training materials and modern
audio-visual communication systems.


                                                 Notes

     1/   No aggregate figures are available on internal expenditure or
official development assistance on human settlements.  However, data available
in the World Development Report, 1991, for 16 low-income developing countries
show that the percentage of central government expenditure on housing,
amenities and social security and welfare for 1989 averaged 5.6 per cent, with
a high of 15.1 per cent in the case of Sri Lanka, which has embarked on a                                Notes (continued)

vigorous housing programme.  In OECD industrialized countries, during the same
year, the percentage of central government expenditure on housing, amenities
and social security and welfare ranged from a minimum of 29.3 per cent to a
maximum of 49.4 per cent, with an average of 39 per cent (World Bank, World
Development Report, 1991, World Development Indicators, table 11
(Washington, D.C., 1991)).

     2/   See the report of the Director-General for Development and
International Economic Cooperation containing preliminary statistical data on
operational activities of the United Nations system for 1988
(A/44/324-E/1989/106/Add.4, annex).

     3/   World Bank, Annual Report, 1991 (Washington, D.C., 1991).

     4/   UNDP, "Reported investment commitments related to UNDP-assisted
projects, 1988", table 1, "Sectoral distribution of investment commitment in
1988-1989".

     5/   A pilot programme of this type, the City Data Programme (CDP), is
already in operation in the United Nations Centre on Human Settlements
(Habitat) aimed at the production and dissemination to participating cities of
microcomputer application software designed to store, process and retrieve city
data for local, national and international exchange and dissemination.

     6/   This calls for integrated land-resource management policies, which
are also addressed in chapter 10 of Agenda 21 (Integrated approach to planning
and management of land resources).

     7/   The goals of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction,
set out in the annex to General Assembly resolution 44/236, are as follows:

     (a)  To improve the capacity of each country to mitigate the effects of
natural disasters expeditiously and effectively, paying special attention to
assisting developing countries in the assessment of disaster damage potential
and in the establishment of early warning systems and disaster-resistant
structures when and where needed;

     (b)  To devise appropriate guidelines and strategies for applying existing
scientific and technical knowledge, taking into account the cultural and
economic diversity among nations;

     (c)  To foster scientific and engineering endeavours aimed at closing
critical gaps in knowledge in order to reduce loss of life and property;

     (d)  To disseminate existing and new technical information related to
measures for the assessment, prediction and mitigation of natural disasters;

                                Notes (continued)

     (e)  To develop measures for the assessment, prediction, prevention and
mitigation of natural disasters through programmes of technical assistance and
technology transfer, demonstration projects, and education and training,
tailored to specific disasters and locations, and to evaluate the effectiveness
of those programmes.

                                    Chapter 8

           INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING


                                  INTRODUCTION

8.1.  This chapter contains the following programme areas:

     (a)  Integrating environment and development at the policy, planning and
management levels;

     (b)  Providing an effective legal and regulatory framework;

     (c)  Making effective use of economic instruments and market and other
incentives;

     (d)  Establishing systems for integrated environmental and economic
accounting.


                                 PROGRAMME AREAS

               A.  Integrating environment and development at the policy,
                   planning and management levels

Basis for action

8.2.  Prevailing systems for decision-making in many countries tend to separate
economic, social and environmental factors at the policy, planning and
management levels.  This influences the actions of all groups in society,
including Governments, industry and individuals, and has important implications
for the efficiency and sustainability of development.  An adjustment or even a
fundamental reshaping of decision-making, in the light of country-specific
conditions, may be necessary if environment and development is to be put at the
centre of economic and political decision-making, in effect achieving a full
integration of these factors.  In recent years, some Governments have also
begun to make significant changes in the institutional structures of government
in order to enable more systematic consideration of the environment when
decisions are made on economic, social, fiscal, energy, agricultural,
transportation, trade and other policies, as well as the implications of
policies in these areas for the environment.  New forms of dialogue are also
being developed for achieving better integration among national and local
government, industry, science, environmental groups and the public in the
process of developing effective approaches to environment and development.  The
responsibility for bringing about changes lies with Governments in partnership
with the private sector and local authorities, and in collaboration with
national, regional and international organizations, including in particular
UNEP, UNDP and the World Bank.  Exchange of experience between countries can
also be significant.  National plans, goals andobjectives, national rules, regulations and law, and the specific situation in
which different countries are placed are the overall framework in which such
integration takes place.  In this context, it must be borne in mind that
environmental standards may pose severe economic and social costs if they are
uniformly applied in developing countries. 

Objectives

8.3.  The overall objective is to improve or restructure the decision-making
process so that consideration of socio-economic and environmental issues is
fully integrated and a broader range of public participation assured. 
Recognizing that countries will develop their own priorities in accordance with
their prevailing conditions, needs, national plans, policies and programmes,
the following objectives are proposed:

     (a)  To conduct a national review of economic, sectoral and environmental
policies, strategies and plans to ensure the progressive integration of
environmental and developmental issues; 

     (b)  To strengthen institutional structures to allow the full integration
of environmental and developmental issues, at all levels of decision-making;

     (c)  To develop or improve mechanisms to facilitate the involvement of
concerned individuals, groups and organizations in decision-making at all
levels;

     (d)  To establish domestically determined procedures to integrate
environment and development issues in decision-making.

Activities

(a)  Improving decision-making processes

8.4.  The primary need is to integrate environmental and developmental
decision-making processes.  To do this, Governments should conduct a national
review and, where appropriate, improve the processes of decision-making so as
to achieve the progressive integration of economic, social and environmental
issues in the pursuit of development that is economically efficient, socially
equitable and responsible and environmentally sound.  Countries will develop
their own priorities in accordance with their national plans, policies and
programmes for the following activities: 
                (a)  Ensuring the integration of economic, social and environmental
considerations in decision-making at all levels and in all ministries;

     (b)  Adopting a domestically formulated policy framework that reflects a
long-term perspective and cross-sectoral approach as the basis for decisions,
taking account of the linkages between and within the various political,
economic, social and environmental issues involved in the development process;

     (c)  Establishing domestically determined ways and means to ensure the
coherence of sectoral, economic, social and environmental policies, plans and
policy instruments, including fiscal measures and the budget; these mechanisms
should apply at various levels and bring together those interested in the
development process;

     (d)  Monitoring and evaluating the development process systematically,
conducting regular reviews of the state of human resources development,
economic and social conditions and trends, the state of the environment and
natural resources; this could be complemented by annual environment and
development reviews, with a view to assessing sustainable development
achievements by the various sectors and departments of government; 

     (e)  Ensuring transparency of, and accountability for, the environmental
implications of economic and sectoral policies;

     (f)  Ensuring access by the public to relevant information, facilitating
the reception of public views and allowing for effective participation.

(b)  Improving planning and management systems

8.5.  To support a more integrated approach to decision-making, the data
systems and analytical methods used to support such decision-making processes
may need to be improved.  Governments, in collaboration, where appropriate,
with national and international organizations, should review the status of the
planning and management system and, where necessary, modify and strengthen
procedures so as to facilitate the integrated consideration of social, economic
and environmental issues.  Countries will develop their own priorities in
accordance with their national plans, policies and programmes for the following
activities:

     (a)  Improving the use of data and information at all stages of planning
and management, making systematic and simultaneous use of social, economic,
developmental, ecological and environmental data; analysis should stress
interactions and synergisms; a broad range of analytical methods should be
encouraged so as to provide various points of view;

     (b)  Adopting comprehensive analytical procedures for prior and
simultaneous assessment of the impacts of decisions, including the impacts
within and among the economic, social and environmental spheres; these
procedures should extend beyond the project level to policies and programmes;
analysis should also include assessment of costs, benefits and risks;

     (c)  Adopting flexible and integrative planning approaches that allow the
consideration of multiple goals and enable adjustment of changing needs;
integrative area approaches at the ecosystem or watershed level can assist in
this approach;

     (d)  Adopting integrated management systems, particularly for the
management of natural resources; traditional or indigenous methods should be
studied and considered wherever they have proved effective; women's traditional
roles should not be marginalized as a result of the introduction of new
management systems;

     (e)  Adopting integrated approaches to sustainable development at the
regional level, including transboundary areas, subject to the requirements of
particular circumstances and needs;

     (f)  Using policy instruments (legal/regulatory and economic) as a tool
for planning and management, seeking incorporation of efficiency criteria in
decisions; instruments should be regularly reviewed and adapted to ensure that
they continue to be effective;

     (g)  Delegating planning and management responsibilities to the lowest
level of public authority consistent with effective action; in particular the
advantages of effective and equitable opportunities for participation by women
should be discussed;

     (h)  Establishing procedures for involving local communities in
contingency planning for environmental and industrial accidents, and
maintaining an open exchange of information on local hazards.

(c)  Data and information

8.6.  Countries could develop systems for monitoring and evaluation of progress
towards achieving sustainable development by adopting indicators that measure
changes across economic, social and environmental dimensions.

(d)  Adopting a national strategy for sustainable development

8.7.  Governments, in cooperation, where appropriate, with international
organizations, should adopt a national strategy for sustainable development
based on, inter alia, the implementation of decisions taken at the Conference,
particularly in respect of Agenda 21.  This strategy should build upon and
harmonize the various sectoral economic, social and environmental policies and
plans that are operating in the country.  The experience gained through
existing planning exercises such as national reports for the Conference,
national conservation strategies and environment action plans should be fully
used and incorporated into a country-driven sustainable development strategy. 
Its goals should be to ensure socially responsible economic development while
protecting the resource base and the environment for the benefit of future
generations.  It should be developed through the widest possible participation. 
It should be based on a thorough assessment of the current situation and
initiatives.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

8.8.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$50 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. 
These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been
reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including any that
are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b)  Researching environment and development interactions

8.9.  Governments, in collaboration with the national and international
scientific community and in cooperation with international organizations, as
appropriate, should intensify efforts to clarify the interactions between and
within social, economic and environmental considerations.  Research should be
undertaken with the explicit objective of assisting policy decisions and
providing recommendations on improving management practices.

(c)  Enhancing education and training

8.10.  Countries, in cooperation, where appropriate, with national, regional or
international organizations, should ensure that essential human resources
exist, or be developed, to undertake the integration of environment and
development at various stages of the decision-making and implementation
process.  To do this, they should improve education and technical training,
particularly for women and girls, by including interdisciplinary approaches, as
appropriate, in technical, vocational, university and other curricula.  They
should also undertake systematic training of government personnel, planners and
managers on a regular basis, giving priority to the requisite integrative
approaches and planning and management techniques that are suited to
country-specific conditions.

(d)  Promoting public awareness

8.11.  Countries, in cooperation with national institutions and groups, the
media and the international community, should promote awareness in the public
at large, as well as in specialized circles, of the importance of considering
environment and development in an integrated manner, and should establish
mechanisms for facilitating a direct exchange of information and views with the
public.  Priority should be given to highlighting the responsibilities and
potential contributions of different social groups.

(e)  Strengthen national institutional capacity

8.12.  Governments, in cooperation, where appropriate, with international
organizations, should strengthen national institutional capability and capacity
to integrate social, economic, developmental and environmental issuesat all levels of development decision-making and implementation.  Attention
should be given to moving away from narrow sectoral approaches, progressing
towards full cross-sectoral coordination and cooperation.


            B.  Providing an effective legal and regulatory framework

Basis for action

8.13.  Laws and regulations suited to country-specific conditions are among the
most important instruments for transforming environment and development
policies into action, not only through "command and control" methods, but also
as a normative framework for economic planning and market instruments.  Yet,
although the volume of legal texts in this field is steadily increasing, much
of the law-making in many countries seems to be ad hoc and piecemeal, or has
not been endowed with the necessary institutional machinery and authority for
enforcement and timely adjustment.

8.14.  While there is continuous need for law improvement in all countries,
many developing countries have been affected by shortcomings of laws and
regulations.  To effectively integrate environment and development in the
policies and practices of each country, it is essential to develop and
implement integrated, enforceable and effective laws and regulations that are
based upon sound social, ecological, economic and scientific principles.  It is
equally critical to develop workable programmes to review and enforce
compliance with the laws, regulations and standards that are adopted. 
Technical support may be needed for many countries to accomplish these goals. 
Technical cooperation requirements in this field include legal information,
advisory services and specialized training and institutional capacity-building.

8.15.  The enactment and enforcement of laws and regulations (at the regional,
national, state/provincial or local/municipal level) are also essential for the
implementation of most international agreements in the field of environment and
development, as illustrated by the frequent treaty obligation to report on
legislative measures.  The survey of existing agreements undertaken in the
context of conference preparations has indicated problems of compliance in this
respect, and the need for improved national implementation and, where
appropriate, related technical assistance.  In developing their national
priorities, countries should take account of their international obligations.

Objectives
8.16.  The overall objective is to promote, in the light of country-specific
conditions, the integration of environment and development policies through
appropriate legal and regulatory policies, instruments and enforcement
mechanisms at the national, state, provincial and local level.  Recognizing
that countries will develop their own priorities in accordance with their needs
and national and, where appropriate, regional plans, policies and programmes,
the following objectives are proposed:

     (a)  To disseminate information on effective legal and regulatory
innovations in the field of environment and development, including appropriate
instruments and compliance incentives, with a view to encouraging their wider
use and adoption at the national, state, provincial and local level;

     (b)  To support countries that request it in their national efforts to
modernize and strengthen the policy and legal framework of governance for
sustainable development, having due regard for local social values and
infrastructures;

     (c)  To encourage the development and implementation of national, state,
provincial and local programmes that assess and promote compliance and respond
appropriately to non-compliance.

Activities

(a)  Making laws and regulations more effective

8.17.  Governments, with the support, where appropriate, of competent
international organizations, should regularly assess the laws and regulations
enacted and the related institutional/administrative machinery established at
the national/state and local/municipal level in the field of environment and
sustainable development, with a view to rendering them effective in practice. 
Programmes for this purpose could include the promotion of public awareness,
preparation and distribution of guidance material, and specialized training,
including workshops, seminars, education programmes and conferences, for public
officials who design, implement, monitor and enforce laws and regulations.

(b)  Establishing judicial and administrative procedures

8.18.  Governments and legislators, with the support, where appropriate, of
competent international organizations, should establish judicial and
administrative procedures for legal redress and remedy of actions affecting
environment and development that may be unlawful or infringe on rights under
the law, and should provide access to individuals, groups and organizations
with a recognized legal interest.

(c)  Providing legal reference and support services

8.19.  Competent intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations could
cooperate to provide Governments and legislators, upon request, with an
integrated programme of environment and development law (sustainable
development law) services, carefully adapted to the specific requirements of
the recipient legal and administrative systems.  Such systems could usefully
include assistance in the preparation of comprehensive inventories and reviews
of national legal systems.  Past experience has demonstrated the usefulness of
combining specialized legal information services with legal expert advice. 
Within the United Nations system, closer cooperation among all agencies
concerned would avoid duplication of databases and facilitate division oflabour.  These agencies could examine the possibility and merit of performing
reviews of selected national legal systems.

(d)  Establishing a cooperative training network for sustainable development
     law

8.20.  Competent international and academic institutions could, within agreed
frameworks, cooperate to provide, especially for trainees from developing
countries, postgraduate programmes and in-service training facilities in
environment and development law.  Such training should address both the
effective application and the progressive improvement of applicable laws, the
related skills of negotiating, drafting and mediation, and the training of
trainers.  Intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations already active
in this field could cooperate with related university programmes to harmonize
curriculum planning and to offer an optimal range of options to interested
Governments and potential sponsors.

(e)  Developing effective national programmes for reviewing and enforcing
     compliance with national, state, provincial and local laws on environment
     and development

8.21.  Each country should develop integrated strategies to maximize compliance
with its laws and regulations relating to sustainable development, with
assistance from international organizations and other countries as appropriate. 
The strategies could include:

     (a)  Enforceable, effective laws, regulations and standards that are based
on sound economic, social and environmental principles and appropriate risk
assessment, incorporating sanctions designed to punish violations, obtain
redress and deter future violations;

     (b)  Mechanisms for promoting compliance;

     (c)  Institutional capacity for collecting compliance data, regularly
reviewing compliance, detecting violations, establishing enforcement
priorities, undertaking effective enforcement, and conducting periodic
evaluations of the effectiveness of compliance and enforcement programmes;

     (d)  Mechanisms for appropriate involvement of individuals and groups in
the development and enforcement of laws and regulations on environment and
development.
(f)             National monitoring of legal follow-up to international instruments

8.22.  Contracting parties to international agreements, in consultation with
the appropriate secretariats of relevant international conventions as
appropriate, should improve practices and procedures for collecting information
on legal and regulatory measures taken.  Contracting parties to international
agreements could undertake sample surveys of domestic follow-up action subject
to agreement by the sovereign States concerned.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

8.23.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$6 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. 
These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been
reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including any that
are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b)  Scientific and technological means

8.24.  The programme relies essentially on a continuation of ongoing work for
legal data collection, translation and assessment.  Closer cooperation between
existing databases may be expected to lead to better division of labour
(e.g., in geographical coverage of national legislative gazettes and other
reference sources) and to improved standardization and compatibility of data,
as appropriate.

(c)  Human resource development

8.25.  Participation in training is expected to benefit practitioners from
developing countries and to enhance training opportunities for women.  Demand
for this type of postgraduate and in-service training is known to be high.  The
seminars, workshops and conferences on review and enforcement that have been
held to date have been very successful and well attended.  The purpose of these
efforts is to develop resources (both human and institutional) to design and
implement effective programmes to continuously review and enforce national and
local laws, regulations and standards on sustainable development.

(d)  Strengthening legal and institutional capacity

8.26.  A major part of the programme should be oriented towards improving the
legal-institutional capacities of countries to cope with national problems of
governance and effective law-making and law-applying in the field of
environment and sustainable development.  Regional centres of excellence could
be designated and supported to build up specialized databases and training
facilities for linguistic/cultural groups of legal systems.

                                     C.  Making effective use of economic instruments and market
                   and other incentives

Basis for action

8.27.  Environmental law and regulation are important but cannot alone be
expected to deal with the problems of environment and development.  Prices,
markets and governmental fiscal and economic policies also play a complementary
role in shaping attitudes and behaviour towards the environment.

8.28.  During the past several years, many Governments, primarily in
industrialized countries but also in Central and Eastern Europe and in
developing countries, have been making increasing use of economic approaches,
including those that are market-oriented.  Examples include the polluter-pays
principle and the more recent natural-resource-user-pays concept.

8.29.  Within a supportive international and national economic context and
given the necessary legal and regulatory framework, economic and
market-oriented approaches can in many cases enhance capacity to deal with the
issues of environment and development.  This would be achieved by providing
cost-effective solutions, applying integrated pollution prevention control,
promoting technological innovation and influencing environmental behaviour, as
well as providing financial resources to meet sustainable development
objectives.

8.30.  What is needed is an appropriate effort to explore and make more
effective and widespread use of economic and market-oriented approaches within
a broad framework of development policies, law and regulation suited to
country-specific conditions as part of a general transition to economic and
environmental policies that are supportive and mutually reinforcing.

Objectives

8.31.  Recognizing that countries will develop their own priorities in
accordance with their needs and national plans, policies and programmes, the
challenge is to achieve significant progress in the years ahead in meeting
three fundamental objectives:

     (a)  To incorporate environmental costs in the decisions of producers and
consumers, to reverse the tendency to treat the environment as a "free good"
and to pass these costs on to other parts of society, other countries, or to
future generations;

     (b)  To move more fully towards integration of social and environmental
costs into economic activities, so that prices will appropriately reflect the
relative scarcity and total value of resources and contribute towards the
prevention of environmental degradation;

     (c)  To include, wherever appropriate, the use of market principles in the
framing of economic instruments and policies to pursue sustainable development.

Activities

(a)  Improving or reorienting governmental policies

8.32.  In the near term, Governments should consider gradually building on
experience with economic instruments and market mechanisms by undertaking to
reorient their policies, keeping in mind national plans, priorities and
objectives, in order to:

     (a)  Establish effective combinations of economic, regulatory and 
voluntary (self-regulatory) approaches;

     (b)  Remove or reduce those subsidies that do not conform with sustainable
development objectives;

     (c)  Reform or recast existing structures of economic and fiscal
incentives to meet environment and development objectives; 

     (d)  Establish a policy framework that encourages the creation of new
markets in pollution control and environmentally sounder resource management;

     (e)  Move towards pricing consistent with sustainable development
objectives.

8.33.  In particular, Governments should explore, in cooperation with business
and industry, as appropriate, how effective use can be made of economic
instruments and market mechanisms in the following areas:

     (a)  Issues related to energy, transportation, agriculture and forestry,
water, wastes, health, tourism and tertiary services;

     (b)  Global and transboundary issues;

     (c)  The development and introduction of environmentally sound technology
and its adaptation, diffusion and transfer to developing countries in
conformity with chapter 34.

(b)  Taking account of the particular circumstances of developing countries and
     countries with economies in transition

8.34.  A special effort should be made to develop applications of the use of
economic instruments and market mechanisms geared to the particular needs of
developing countries and countries with economies in transition, with the
assistance of regional and international economic and environmental
organizations and, as appropriate, non-governmental research institutes, by:

     (a)  Providing technical support to those countries on issues relating to
the application of economic instruments and market mechanisms;

     (b)  Encouraging regional seminars and, possibly, the development of
regional centres of expertise.

(c)  Creating an inventory of effective uses of economic instruments and market
     mechanisms

8.35.  Given the recognition that the use of economic instruments and market
mechanisms is relatively recent, exchange of information about different
countries' experiences with such approaches should be actively encouraged.  In
this regard, Governments should encourage the use of existing means of
information exchange to look at effective uses of economic instruments.

(d)  Increasing understanding of the role of economic instruments and market
     mechanisms

8.36.  Governments should encourage research and analysis on effective uses of
economic instruments and incentives with the assistance and support of regional
and international economic and environmental organizations, as well as
non-governmental research institutes, with a focus on such key issues as:

     (a)  The role of environmental taxation suited to national conditions;

     (b)  The implications of economic instruments and incentives for
competitiveness and international trade, and potential needs for appropriate
future international cooperation and coordination;

     (c)  The possible social and distributive implications of using various
instruments.

(e)  Establishing a process for focusing on pricing

8.37.  The theoretical advantages of using pricing policies, where appropriate,
need to be better understood, and accompanied by greater understanding of what
it means to take significant steps in this direction.  Processes should
therefore be initiated, in cooperation with business, industry, large
enterprises, transnational corporations, as well as other social groups, as
appropriate, at both the national and international levels, to examine:

     (a)  The practical implications of moving towards greater reliance on
pricing that internalize environmental costs appropriate to help achieve
sustainable development objectives;

     (b)  The implications for resource pricing in the case of
resource-exporting countries, including the implications of such pricing
policies for developing countries;

     (c)  The methodologies used in valuing environmental costs.

(f)  Enhancing understanding of sustainable development economics

8.38.  Increased interest in economic instruments, including market mechanisms,
also requires a concerted effort to improve understanding of sustainable
development economics by:
                (a)  Encouraging institutions of higher learning to review their curricula
and strengthen studies in sustainable development economics;

     (b)  Encouraging regional and international economic organizations and
non-governmental research institutes with expertise in this area to provide
training sessions and seminars for government officials;

     (c)  Encouraging business and industry, including large industrial
enterprises and transnational corporations with expertise in environmental
matters, to organize training programmes for the private sector and other
groups.

Means of implementation

8.39.  This programme involves adjustments or reorientation of policies on the
part of Governments.  It also involves international and regional economic and
environmental organizations and agencies with expertise in this area, including
transnational corporations.

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

8.40.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$5 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. 
These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been
reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including any that
are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.


               D.  Establishing systems for integrated environmental and
                   economic accounting

Basis for action

8.41.  A first step towards the integration of sustainability into economic
management is the establishment of better measurement of the crucial role of
the environment as a source of natural capital and as a sink for by-products
generated during the production of man-made capital and other human activities. 
As sustainable development encompasses social, economic and environmental
dimensions, it is also important that national accounting procedures are not
restricted to measuring the production of goods and services that are
conventionally remunerated.  A common framework needs to be developed whereby
the contributions made by all sectors and activities of society, that are not
included in the conventional national accounts, are included, to the extent
consistent with sound theory and practicability, in satellite accounts.  A
programme to develop national systems of integrated environmental and economic
accounting in all countries is proposed.
Objectives

8.42.  The main objective is to expand existing systems of national economic
accounts in order to integrate environment and social dimensions in the
accounting framework, including at least satellite systems of accounts for
natural resources in all member States.  The resulting systems of integrated
environmental and economic accounting (IEEA) to be established in all member
States at the earliest date should be seen as a complement to, rather than asubstitute for, traditional national accounting practices for the foreseeable
future.  IEEAs would be designed to play an integral part in the national
development decision-making process.  National accounting agencies should work
in close collaboration with national environmental statistics as well as the
geographic and natural resource departments.  The definition of economically
active could be expanded to include people performing productive but unpaid
tasks in all countries.  This would enable their contribution to be adequately
measured and taken into account in decision-making.

Activities

(a)  Strengthening international cooperation

8.43.  The Statistical Office of the United Nations Secretariat should:

     (a)  Make available to all member States the methodologies contained in
the SNA Handbook on Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting;

     (b)  In collaboration with other relevant United Nations organizations,
further develop, test, refine and then standardize the provisional concepts and
methods such as those proposed by the SNA Handbook, keeping member States
informed of the status of the work throughout this process;

     (c)  Coordinate, in close cooperation with other international
organizations, the training of national accountants, environmental
statisticians and national technical staff in small groups for the
establishment, adaptation and development of national IEEAs.

8.44.  The Department of Economic and Social Development of the United Nations
Secretariat, in close collaboration with other relevant United Nations
organizations, should:

     (a)  Support, in all member States, the utilization of sustainable
development indicators in national economic and social planning and
decision-making practices, with a view to ensuring that IEEAs are usefully
integrated in economic development planning at the national level;

     (b)  Promote improved environmental and economic and social data
collection.

(b)  Strengthening national accounting systems
8.45.  At the national level, the programme could be adopted mainly by the
agencies dealing with national accounts, in close cooperation with
environmental statistics and natural resource departments, with a view to
assisting national economic analysts and decision makers in charge of national
economic planning.  National institutions should play a crucial role not only
as the depositary of the system but also in its adaptation, establishment and
continuous use.  Unpaid productive work such as domestic work and child care
should be included, where appropriate, in satellite national accounts andeconomic statistics.  Time-use surveys could be a first step in the process of
developing these satellite accounts.

(c)  Establishing an assessment process

8.46.  At the international level, the Statistical Commission should assemble
and review experience and advise member States on technical and methodological
issues related to the further development and implementation of IEEAs in member
States.

8.47.  Governments should seek to identify and consider measures to correct
price distortions arising from environmental programmes affecting land, water,
energy and other natural resources.

8.48.  Governments should encourage corporations:

     (a)  To provide relevant environmental information through transparent
reporting to shareholders, creditors, employees, governmental authorities,
consumers and the public;

     (b)  To develop and implement methods and rules for accounting for
sustaining development.

(d)  Strengthening data and information collection

8.49.  National Governments could consider implementing the necessary 
enhancement in data collection to set in place national IEEAs with a view to
contributing pragmatically to sound economic management.  Major efforts should
be made to augment the capacity to collect and analyse environmental data and
information and to integrate it with economic data, including gender
disaggregated data.  Efforts should also be made to develop physical
environmental accounts.  International donor agencies should consider financing
the development of intersectoral data banks to help ensure that national
planning for sustainable development is based on precise, reliable and
effective information and is suited to national conditions.

(e)  Strengthening technical cooperation

8.50.  The Statistical Office of the United Nations Secretariat, in close
collaboration with relevant United Nations organizations, should strengthen
existing mechanisms for technical cooperation among countries.  This should
also include exchange of experience in the establishment of IEEAs, particularly
in connection with the valuation of non-marketed natural resources and
standardization in data collection.  The cooperation of business and industry,
including large industrial enterprises and transnational corporations with
experience in valuation of such resources, should also be sought.

Means of implementation

(a)  Financing and cost evaluation

8.51.  The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost
(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about
$2 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. 
These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been
reviewed by Governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including any that
are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b)  Strengthening institutions

8.52.  To ensure the application of IEEAs:

     (a)  National institutions in developing countries could be strengthened
to ensure the effective integration of environment and development at the
planning and decision-making levels;

     (b)  The Statistical Office should provide the necessary technical support
to member States, in close collaboration with the assessment process to be
established by the Statistical Commission; the Statistical Office should
provide appropriate support for establishing IEEAs, in collaboration with
relevant United Nations agencies.

(c)  Enhancing the use of information technology

8.53.  Guidelines and mechanisms could be developed and agreed upon for the
adaptation and diffusion of information technologies to developing countries. 
State-of-the-art data management technologies should be adopted for the most
efficient and widespread use of IEEAs.

(d)  Strengthening national capacity

8.54.  Governments, with the support of the international community, should
strengthen national institutional capacity to collect, store, organize, assess
and use data in decision-making.  Training in all areas related to the
establishment of IEEAs, and at all levels, will be required, especially in
developing countries.  This should include technical training of those involved
in economic and environmental analysis, data collection and national
accounting, as well as training decision makers to use such information in a
pragmatic and appropriate way.


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Date last updated: 13 January, 2000 by DESA/DSD
Copyright 1999 United Nations