United Nations


General Assembly

5 January 1996

     Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group of the General Assembly
                  on An Agenda for Development

                    REVISED SYNTHESIS PAPER
               Submitted by the two Vice-Chairmen


     We, the two vice-chairmen for the Open-ended Working Group
on an Agenda for Development have, with the valuable support from
the Secretariat, prepared this new synthesis text on an Agenda
for Development as the basis for our continued negotiations.

     For chapters I and II, the text is a revised synthesis text
based on the earlier synthesis and our consultations in August-
September.  For chapter III, the text is the first synthesis
text, based on written submissions and the first round of
consultations in August-September 1995 on this chapter.

     Based on chapters I and II and following our discussion in
January 1996 on the present synthesis text for chapter III (and
additional ideas and proposals that may be presented during the
discussion), the two vice-chairmen will be prepared to present a
revised synthesis text also for chapter III as a basis for our
continued discussions later on in the spring.

     For our work in January we hope that it will be possible to
finalize a reading and discussion on all three chapters within
the two-week period.  Being the second discussion of chapters I
and II, we also hope that it will, to a large degree, be possible
to finalize the text of these two chapters.  In order to allow
for negotiations on issues that might still be outstanding,
including further negotiations on chapter III, we should be
prepared to continue the work of the Group in another (two-week)
round, say in April or May 1996.

      Rene' Vale'ry Mongbe'                     Peter Osvald
   Permanent Representative of          Permanent Representative of
    the Republic of Benin to            Sweden to the United Nations
       the United Nations

                     AGENDA FOR DEVELOPMENT

1.   Development means the improvement of the quality of life,
the eradication of poverty, hunger, disease and illiteracy, the
provision of adequate shelter, securing employment for all, and
protecting the integrity and sustainable use of the environment.
The Agenda for Development aims at establishing a renewed and
strengthened partnership for development, based on shared
responsibilities.  It testifies to the renewed commitment of
Governments of all countries to revitalize and strengthen
international development cooperation and to mobilize national
and international efforts in pursuit of development.  



     Development, peace and security

2.   We recognize that peace and development are interrelated and
mutually supportive.  We also agree that development should be
pursued in its own right,  Development is indispensable to the
achievement and maintenance of peace and security within and
among nations.  Without development there can be neither peace
nor security.  For peace and stability to endure, national action
and effective international cooperation are required to eradicate
poverty and to promote a better life for all in larger freedom.  

3.   Development cannot be attained in the absence of peace and
security or in the absence of respect for all human rights and
fundamental freedoms.  Development efforts will be neglected and
abandoned under conditions of war, and short term emergency and
humanitarian needs.  Excessive military expenditures, arms trade
and investment for arms production and acquisition have a
negative impact on development prospects.  With the relaxation of
international tensions the opportunity exists for reducing, as
appropriate, military expenditures and investments for arms
production and acquisition, consistent with national security
requirements, in order to increase resources for social and
economic development.

      1. Globalization, regional cooperation and interdependence:

         the need for a commitment for partnership.
4.   We recognize that profound changes have occurred, especially
since the end of the cold war, which question some of the
traditional ways of addressing the challenge of development.

5.   One such increasingly important change affecting all
countries is the process of market-driven globalization. 
Globalization encompasses the varying degrees of increasing
integration of world markets of goods, services, capital,
technology, and labour.  This has generated greater openness,
freer movement of factors of production and created greater
opportunities for international cooperation.  Wider dissemination
of ideas, cultures, and lifestyles brought about by innovations
in transportation and communications are also important
manifestations of the globalization process.  Globalization
permits countries to share experiences and to learn from one
another's achievements and difficulties, and promote a cross-
fertilization of ideals, cultural values and aspirations.

6.   Globalization of the world economy presents opportunities
and challenges for the development process as well as risks and
uncertainties.  As a result of the process of globalization an
increasing number of policies cannot be effectively addressed by
countries individually.  Furthermore, non-state actors with a
global reach, such as transnational corporations, private
financial institutions, and non-governmental organizations, have
important roles to play in the emerging network of international

7.   Greater interdependence among states has accelerated the
international transmission of macro-economic policy decisions and
therefore their effects throughout the global economy.  This is
particularly true for the development prospects of the developing
countries, which have been particularly affected by

8.   Financial deregulation and the consequent growth and
integration of global capital markets has not only created ample
opportunities but also significant risks.  Rapid, short-term
private capital movements can cause considerable fluctuations in
domestic currencies of developed and developing countries alike. 
The volatility associated with these short-term flows may not
only strain national fiscal and monetary policies but even lead
to severe disruptions in the global financial system.  Developing
countries are particularly vulnerable and sensitive to these
external forces and will frequently have to modify their monetary
and fiscal policies in order to stem outflows of capital.

9.   Increasing the capacity to respond to these trends requires
sound domestic policies as well as a favourable international
economic environment.  Although new growth poles are emerging in
a number of developing countries which will provide an increasing
share of the stimulus to world development, it is likely that the
role of the developed countries in world finance will remain
preponderant for a long time.  The policies they follow in their
domestic affairs will, in the increasingly globalized capital
markets, be of decisive importance for the rest of the world as
they have a significant influence on world economic growth and,
consequently, over the international economic environment.

10.  Notwithstanding the importance of a favourable international
economic environment, ultimately each country bears primary
responsibility for its own economic and social policies for
development.  In order to take advantage of a rapidly integrating
world economy, all countries should adopt open and stable
domestic policies, address external and internal imbalances, and
encourage a continuous process of adjustment.  Sound national
policies are also essential for cushioning external shocks. 
Furthermore, national policies would benefit from improved
political institutions and legal systems.

11.  Partly as a consequence of the new nature of the world
economy, macroeconomic stability and transparent and accountable
governance, democratic and effective institutions, combatting
corruption, and full enjoyment of all human rights and
fundamental freedoms are increasingly important while setting
development priorities.

12.  Globalization is deepening the need and creating greater
opportunities for international cooperation.  The problems and
questions which globalization brings in its wake, show that there
clearly exists a shared, common interest among all countries in
solving and answering them.  International development
cooperation, not only founded in solidarity, but also based on
mutual interest and partnership, forms an essential part of this
effort.  With the waning of ideological confrontations, the rise
in globalization, and the deepening of interdependence among
nations, the historic opportunity has arisen for constructive
dialogue among all countries, in particular among the developed
and developing countries, and political mobilization for the
promotion of international cooperation for development based on
genuine partnership and mutuality of interests and benefits. 
This Agenda for Development manifests our commitment to grasp
this opportunity.

13.  The deepening interdependence among countries has already
led to the emergence and strengthening of regional economic
groupings and arrangements.  They are recognized as important
catalysts for global economic growth and expansion of trade. 
They offer a framework for fostering and enhancing cooperation
among States not only on economic policy but on other areas of
common concern as well.  Regional economic groupings and
arrangements are therefore important actors in the development
process and a complement to multilateralism.

     2.   Variety of development experiences

14.  The record of development reflects a variety of development
experiences with both progress and setbacks.  A number of
developing countries have experienced rapid economic growth over
the recent past and have become dynamic partners in the
international economy.  These countries, which maintain a high
rate of economic growth, have increased their share in world
trade and foreign direct investment thereby expanding their role
in the global economy.  
15.  At the same time, many developing countries have shown slow
or negative growth and continue to be marginalized and
effectively excluded from the globalization process.  Many of
them continue to be mired in poverty, famine, and economic
stagnation.  The global changes in finance, communications, and
technology have largely by-passed them, despite their efforts of
undertaking economic reforms including structural adjustment
programmes.  The gap between many developing and developed
countries continues to widen, further contributing to the
marginalization of the developing countries in the world economy. 
Imbalances and uncertainties continue to exist in the global
economy which affect all countries but in particular the
interests of the developing countries.  We reiterate the need for
broadening and strengthening the participation of developing
countries in the international economic decision making process.

16.  The development spectrum ranges widely not only among
countries but also within countries.  The varied country
situations indicate that there is no single set of policies of
general applicability.  Success will often depend on the removal
of key constraints which vary greatly from country to country. 
Cooperation among developing countries and sharing their
experiences can greatly contribute to achieving such success.  It
also requires that international development cooperation has to
take these varied situations into account while respecting the
needs, priorities and policies of developing countries.  A new
international partnership is required for development at the
national, subregional, regional and international levels. 

     3.   Critical situations and special problems in developing

         - critical situation in Africa
         - critical situation in the least developed countries
         - special problems in small island developing States
         - special problems in land-locked developing countries

17.  The critical socio-economic situation in Africa is of
priority concern.  Africa is the only region where poverty is
expected to increase substantially.  Lack of infrastructure and
institutions, of human resource development and of food security,
malnutrition, hunger, widespread epidemics and diseases, and
unemployment and underemployment characterize the continent. 
These are further compounded by a number of conflicts and
disaster situations.  The success of the economic and political
reforms undertaken by those countries has been hampered by
limited domestic and external resources for development and other
factors limiting the integration of these countries in the world
economy.  We recall our commitment to give full support to the
development efforts of Africa.

18.  Marginalization in the world economy is particularly
pronounced in the least developed countries, whose critical
situations require the priority attention of the entire
international community.  The heavy burden of debt and debt
service on their economies, deterioration in real terms in recent
years in the overall level of ODA and limited flows of private
resources are some of the main factors that impede the already
limited opportunities for these countries to participate in and
benefit from the process of globalization and liberalization.  By
most measures of economic and human well-being, the least
developed countries lag seriously behind.  Their social
indicators are consistently low and have worsened in some cases
and their institutions are fragile and therefore require the
support of the international community.

19.  The special problems in small island developing States and
in land-locked developing countries also need to be addressed. 
The constraints on their development arising from the special
transportation and communications problems they face, from their
limited internal markets and from their high degree of
vulnerability to environmental damage and natural disasters need
to be addressed.

     4.   Post-cold war realities and challenges:

         - Special problems and features of countries with
           economies in transition

20.  The special problems and features of countries with
economies in transition require particular attention in the post-
cold war era.  The dual transition to democracy and to a market
economy makes their situation especially complex.  Considerable
strains are put on the social fabric of their societies. 
Structural adjustments bring economic benefits but are causing
social problems which were unknown before the transition.  Severe
environmental degradation, a worsening demographic situation
compounded by migration, and the problem of conversion of
military production to civilian use are of special importance to
these countries.

21.  In spite of these problems, the completion of the transition
process and the integration of these countries in the world
economy will have a positive impact not only on these countries
themselves but also on the global economy.  Their integration
should  contribute to economic cooperation with developing
countries and to mutually beneficial exchanges of scientific and
industrial know-how.   Increased cooperation among countries with
economies in transition will also be important.  In order to
bring this integration about in a speedy manner, international
support for reforms in these countries is essential both in terms
of financial resources and of institutional expertise.

          - The end of the cold war and the developing countries

22.  While the end of the cold war has resulted in a new spirit
of dialogue and cooperation at the global political level, the
creation of an international economic environment conducive to
the socio-economic development of developing countries has fallen
short of expectations.

23.  In the post cold war situation the decline in ODA based on
cold war political considerations, the diversion of development
resources to other regions of the world and the deterioration of
terms of trade pose major concerns to developing countries.

     5.  Democracy, transparent and accountable governance, and
         promotion and protection of all human rights and
         fundamental freedoms, including the right to
24.  The waning of ideological conflicts has improved the climate
of cooperation at all levels.  Although there is no universal
prescription for successful development, a growing convergence of
views is emerging in that democracy, development and respects for
all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to
development, are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. 

25.  Success in building a solid, democratic and pluralistic
system based on the principles enshrined in the Charter of the
United Nations and international instruments on human rights, is
closely linked to policies aimed at promoting development and
improving the quality of life of all people by ensuring political
and civil liberties and equal opportunity.

26.  Respect for human rights, democracy, transparent and
accountable governance, popular participation, an independent
judiciary, the rule of law, and civil peace create conditions
necessary for development.  At the same time, we reaffirm that
the right to development is a universal and inalienable right and
an integral part of human rights.  Development facilitates the
enjoyment of all human rights, but the lack of development may
not be invoked to justify the abridgement of internationally
recognized human rights.
27.  Efforts to reinforce democratic institutions and actions are
vital for achieving peace and economic and social progress. 
Social stability, needed for productive growth, is nurtured by
conditions in which people can readily express their will.  For
this, strong national institutions of participation are

28.  The existence of widespread absolute poverty inhibits the
full and effective enjoyment of human rights, and renders
democracy, and popular participation fragile.  It is unacceptable
that absolute poverty, hunger and disease, lack of adequate
shelter, illiteracy and hopelessness should be the lot of over
one billion people.  We commit ourselves to the goal of
eradicating poverty in the world through decisive national
actions and international cooperation as an ethical social,
political and economic imperative of human kind.

29.  Democracy, which is spreading everywhere, has raised
development expectations everywhere.  Lack of their fulfillment
risks the rekindling of non-democratic forces.  Structural
reforms that do not take social realities into account could
destabilize democratization processes as they exacerbate the
reaching of that fulfillment.  While it is recognized that States
have the primary responsibility in securing a sound and stable
national political, economic and social environment for
development, international support and the creation of a
favourable international economic environment are crucial
ingredients in this effort.

30.  It is increasingly recognized that the role of the state in
development should be complemented by other relevant actors of
the civil society.  While retaining the overall responsibility in
various areas including inter alia policy formulation, promoting
social development, conserving the environment and creating an
enabling environment for the private sector, the state should
consider to limit its involvement in activities that can be
performed more effectively by the private sector and other major


     1.  Strengthening international cooperation for development:

          (a)  Implementing all international agreements and
               commitments for development
31.  International cooperation for development stands at a
crossroad.  Globalization, growing interdependence in the world
economy, the critical situations in many developing countries and
the special problems of countries with economies in transition
heighten the need for strengthened international cooperation. 
Yet, there are worrying signs that the political will essential
to sustain such cooperation may be waning.  Through this Agenda
for Development, we will renew our commitment and seek to impart
new vigor to the global partnership for sustained economic growth
and sustainable development.

32.  The international community has convened over the past five
years or so a number of  major conferences and meetings which
have adopted decisions and made commitments on key development
issues aimed at reinvigorating the development process and
international cooperation for development.  These include the
Declaration on International Economic Cooperation, in particular
the revitalization of Economic Growth and Development of the
Developing Countries, the International Development Strategy for
the Fourth United Nations Development Decade, the Conference on
Education held in Jomtien, Thailand, the Second United Nations
Conference on the Least Developed Countries, the World Summit for
Children, the United Nations New Agenda for the Development of
Africa in the 1990s, the Cartagena Commitment, Agenda 21 and the
various consensus agreements and conventions adopted before, at,
or after the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, the World Conference on Human Rights, the Global
Conference on Small Island Developing States, the International
Conference on Population and Development, the World Summit for
Social Development, the Fourth World Conference on Women, the
forthcoming United Nations Conference on Human Settlements
(Habitat II) and the World Food Summit. 

33.  These conferences bear witness that the United Nations
system is deeply involved in the full spectrum of development
issues.  The accords, commitments and internationally agreed
targets reached at these conferences should be fully implemented
by all States and international organizations.  Only through full
implementation can we give credence to the notion that these
development initiatives are truly a priority issue for the
international community. 

34.  Such implementation requires foremost political will by all
actors at all levels.  Too often the gap between what has been
agreed and what has been implemented leaves much to be desired
both at the national and international levels.  The commitments
we have made individually and collectively need to be fulfilled
if the development needs of all countries, particularly of the
developing countries, are to be addressed effectively.

35.  To this end we reaffirm, through this Agenda for
Development, the continued relevance of the agreements reached at
these international conferences and other meetings of the United
Nations and stress the need for an integrated, interrelated and
coherent implementation and follow-up of their outcomes based on
a common framework.
          (b)  Enhancing the role, capacity, effectiveness and
               efficiency of the United Nations system in
36.  As we approach the 21st century, it is the collective
responsibility of the international community to ensure that the
United Nations system is equipped to show leadership in the
attainment of development, to serve as a forum for the expression
of global goals, to be an advocate for core values such as human
rights and environmental soundness, to respond to humanitarian
needs when they arise and to prevent their emergence as well as
to maimtain peace and international security. 

37.  The United Nations system, by virtue of its global reach,
its universal membership, its impartiality and the unique and
comprehensive mandate reflected in its Charter has a vital role
to play in the development process.  Enhancing this role requires
a continuous focus on development issues and ensuring its sound
financial basis and improving its efficiency and effectiveness.

38.  The wide array of issues which the United Nations system
addresses, is reflected in its various functions, such as those
of the specialized agencies, including the Bretton Woods
institutions, and the regional commissions.  Each part of the
system has a specific role to play in addressing these issues. 
Relative strengths and weaknesses among the various parts of the
system cannot be ignored.  Enhancing the role, capacity,
effectiveness and efficiency of the United Nations system has to
take these basic facts into account and programmes should be
concentrated on areas where particular needs and the special
capacity of the organization converge.

39.  However, overarching these considerations of efficiency and
effectiveness of delivery, is the political dimension of the
development agenda.  The United Nations is unique because it
conducts international political debates on all issues in the
economic, social and related fields.  These debates should
provide political impetus to other fora to undertake the
necessary policies and measures.  Hence, the United Nations'
political interaction not only with member states, the
specialized agencies, including the Bretton Woods institutions,
and the regional commissions, as well as with organizations such
as the World Trade Organization, but also with non-state actors
should be intensified with a view to enhancing effective action
and coordination among them in the economic, social and related

40.  This Agenda for Development sets out a new framework for
international cooperation,  defines the role of the United
Nations, and how both can make a particular contribution, and
sets out the development priorities as well as time-frames for
implementation and keeps the implementation of the development
agenda under political review.

     2.   Promoting development based on an integrated approach   

41.  An acceleration of the rate of economic growth is essential
for expanding the resource base for development and hence, for
the economic, technical and social transformation.  It generates
the required financial, physical, human and technological
resources and creates a basis for sustained global economic
growth and sustainable development as well as for international
economic cooperation.  It is also essential to the eradication of
poverty.  An open and equitable framework for trade, investment
and technology transfer, as well as enhanced cooperation in the
management of a globalized world economy and in the formulation
and implementation of macroeconomic policies, are critical for
the promotion of sustained economic growth.  While the private
sector is a motor for economic growth, the importance of an
active role of governments in the formulation of social and
environmental policies should not be underestimated.

42.  In order to ensure an integrated approach to development
centred on human beings and to achieve sustainable development,
economic growth on its own is not sufficient and environmental
protection cannot be considered in isolation from the development
process.  The goal of development is the improvement of human
well being and the quality of life.  This involves the
eradication of poverty, the fulfillment of the basic needs of all
people and the protection of all human rights and fundamental
freedoms, including the right to development.  It requires that
Governments apply active social and environmental policies, and
the promotion and protection of all human rights and fundamental
freedoms on the basis of democratic and widely participatory
institutions.  Goals of economic growth and social progress in
larger freedom must therefore be pursued simultaneously and in an
integrated manner.

43.  Investments in health, education and training are
particularly critical in the development of human resources and
should be pursued in such a way that everyone, both women and
men, are given an equal opportunity to participate actively and
productively in the development process.  The improvement of the
role and status of women including their empowerment is central
to all efforts to achieve sustainable development in its
economic, social and environmental dimensions.  Diversion of
resources away from social priorities should be avoided and,
where it has occurred, be corrected.  When formulating structural
adjustment policies and programmes such considerations should be
taken into account.

44.  We emphasize that development is and should be centred on
human beings.  As the well being of human beings depends on all
facets of development, a multidimensional approach to development
is essential.  Therefore, any formulation of strategies,
policies, and national, subregional, regional and international
actions has to be based on an integrated and comprehensive
approach.  It is in this spirit that we frame this Agenda for


45.  An encouraging development in recent years has been the
almost universal pursuit of increased economic openness and
integration.  This has contributed to a growing economic and
social interdependence among countries.  It is a common
responsibility and in the common interest to ensure that these
trends continue and also to ensure that all countries benefit
from them.  The last point is fundamental:  the benefits
attributable to these various changes have been widespread, but
they have been neither universal nor achieved without costs.  A
primary objective of the implementation of this Agenda should be
to ensure that the benefits stemming from future growth and
development are distributed equitably among all countries and

46.  Achieving and maintaining an international environment
favourable to all countries is in the interest of all countries. 
Global economic and social issues can be approached effectively
only through a constructive dialogue and genuine partnership
among all countries.  This requires a recognition not only of the
mutuality of interests and benefits but also of common, though
differentiated, responsibilities.  This mutual understanding has
permeated the on-going sequence of United Nations' world
conferences and summits.

47.  However, some of the international commitments and
agreements for development resulting from these conferences and
summits, as well as from previous international undertakings,
remain to be fulfilled.  These earlier commitments, as well as
the new and additional priority actions identified here, should
be implemented in the spirit of solidarity and partnership that
is embodied in this Agenda for Development. 

     1.  Economic development

          a)   Macro-economic policies geared towards sustained
               economic growth and sustainable development

48.  National developmental policies should be formulated in
conformity with national needs, conditions and development
priorities and should take into account the lessons learned from
decades of development experience.  Among the latter, the dynamic
role of the private sector and the contribution of human resource
development in creating wealth figure prominently.  The challenge
for public authorities is to develop and implement policies that
are conducive to prosperity, eradicate poverty and conserve the

49.  To this end, Governments should foster a supportive
environment for the private sector including active competition
policies, the application of the rule of law, an open framework
for trade and investment and sound fiscal and monetary policies. 
In the area of finance, policies need both to promote domestic
savings and to attract external resources for productive
investment.  For both purposes, it is necessary to improve the
efficiency of domestic financial markets.  Addressing the needs
of people living in poverty, disadvantaged and vulnerable groups
of society and the creation of more and better jobs requires
attention to be given to such issues as human resources
development, including gender equality, transparent and
accountable governance, public participation and social

50.  Increased economic integration and interdependence places
greater responsibilities than before on all countries, but
particularly the developed countries, to ensure that their
domestic policies are favourable to growth and development in the
rest of the world.  National and international actions are
closely interrelated and should be seen as mutually reinforcing
components of the overall goal of achieving development.  In
order to foster a supportive international environment for
development, countries should pursue economic stability, full
employment, a low rate of inflation, sustainable external and
internal balances, including the avoidance of excessive budget
deficits, low long-term real interest rates and a measure of
exchange rate stability.  They should also ensure open financial
and commercial markets and, where appropriate, provide
concessional aid flows.  

51.  International cooperation in the formulation and
implementation of macroeconomic policies should be reinforced
with a view to promoting greater coherence and consistency of
domestic policies and thereby enhancing their effectiveness.
Measures should also be taken to broaden the cooperation among
monetary authorities in order to maintain a sound international
financial system.   This co-ordination of domestic policies
should take full account of the interests and concerns of all
countries.  Multilateral surveillance should correspondingly
address the policies and measures of all countries.  

          b)   International trade and commodities

52.  The growing, though far from complete, integration of all
countries in world trade and investment represents an historic
structural change in international economic relations.  In recent
years, developing countries' trade has increased, largely as a
result of these countries' policies concerning their trade and
investment regimes.  The expansion of developing countries'
markets appears to be creating a virtuous circle in which
mutually beneficial liberalization of trade and investment can
become major means for generating the resources necessary for

53.  The liberalization of trade regimes and the promotion of an
open and secure multilateral trading system are central
requirements for the promotion of economic development.  All
governments should commit themselves to the liberalization of
trade and investment policies and should foster international
cooperation towards this goal.  All countries have a shared
interest in an open, rule-based, equitable, non-discriminatory,
transparent and predictable multilateral trading system.  While
many provisions in this area have been identified by the General
Assembly over the last five years, the agreements as represented
by the World Trade Organization (WTO) are particularly important. 
The commitments agreed in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round
should be implemented fully.  Unilateral actions of a
protectionist nature, inconsistent with multilateral trade
agreements, should be avoided and prevented.  Appropriate
monitoring measures should be established to ensure that, in the
implementation of the Uruguay Round, the rights, interests and
concerns of all countries are protected, recognized and

54.  There is a need to promote greater integration in the world
economy of those countries which have not yet benefitted from the
overall increase in trade and investment flows, in particular
African countries and the least developed countries.  Special
attention should be given to the full implementation of the
specific provisions for the least developed countries, including
the provisions emanating from the Marrakesh agreements, and to
the needs of the net food importing developing countries so that
all countries benefit fully from the results of the Uruguay
Round.  These measures will also require domestic efforts to
promote greater diversification of these countries' trade and to
increase the competitiveness of their trading sectors.

55.  Efforts to make trade and environment policies mutually
supportive in favour of sustainable development should continue. 
Trade liberalization measures should be complemented by sound
environmental policies, but measures adopted for environmental
purposes should not become a means of arbitrary and unjustifiable
trade discrimination or a disguised form of protectionism.  In
the same vein, disguised protectionism related to social
development concerns must be avoided.
56.  Commodity exports continue to play a key role in the
economies of many developing countries, especially in terms of
their export earnings, the livelihoods of their people, and the
dependence of general economic vitality on these exports.  This
makes the continuing deterioration in their terms of trade of
special concern, even if there is some recent evidence of
improvement in the prices of some primary commodities.  Increased
participation of developing countries in the processing,
marketing and distribution of their commodities, if accompanied
by improved market access, provides an alternative means for
ensuring greater value added, as well as predictability and
increased export earnings, from commodity production.  This
diversification will require such countries to continue their
macroeconomic, trade and investment policy reforms.

57.  It will also require a strong commitment by the
international community to support such policy reforms.  The
international community should endeavour to improve the
functioning of commodity markets, with greater transparency and
more stable and predictable conditions.  There should be further
evaluation of the usefulness of Commodity Agreements in this
regard, taking into account the potential of new financial and
trading instruments and techniques.  Developed countries should
provide improved market access for primary commodities,
particularly in their processed forms.  They should also respond
favourably to requests for technical assistance aimed at
enhancing the diversification of the export sector in those
developing countries which are highly dependent on the export of
a limited number of commodities.  The strengthening of
multilateral compensatory financing schemes is a further means of
addressing the short-term difficulties that can arise as a result
of heavy dependence on commodity exports.  

58.  UNCTAD IX offers an important opportunity for the further
international consideration of issues in the areas of trade,
finance, technology, investment, services and sustainable
development.  A strong commitment by all concerned is needed to
take full advantage of this further opportunity to review the 
consequences of globalization, liberalization and other
developmental trends, both positive and negative, and to take
further action to promote sustained economic growth and
sustainable development throughout the world, in particular in
the developing countries.

          c)   Issues of internal and external finance

               i)   Mobilization of domestic resources for

59.  Both domestic and external resources are required for
development.  In most countries, domestic savings contribute by
far the larger part of the resources utilized for investment. 
The experiences of those developing countries which have achieved
high rates of economic growth in recent years show that sustained
economic growth is linked to an effective strategy for domestic
resource mobilization.  These economies have maintained
significantly higher rates of national savings and investment
than other developing countries.  However, some developing
countries have limited scope for increasing savings because
levels of consumption are already low and are difficult to
restrain further.  These countries will continue to need external
resources to stimulate their development.

               ii)  External resources

60.  Total net resource flows to developing countries have
expanded rapidly in the 1990s.  However, the trend has not been
universal, in terms of either the types of financing or the
recipients.  Within the total, official (public sector) flows
have languished; all the growth has been accounted for by an
increase in the private sector component.  Secondly, while some
low income countries have been the recipients of the increased
private sector capital flows, others have not benefitted at all.

               iii) External debt

61.  As a result of the evolving debt strategy, there has been an
improvement in the external debt situation of a number of
developing countries, with their ratio of debt payments to
exports of goods and services having been reduced to sustainable
levels.  Several middle-income countries have regained access to
capital markets.  Nevertheless, despite the implementation of
various agreements and commitments by the international community
over the past decade, debt problems persist, particularly for
many African countries and least developed countries and others
at the low and lower-middle income levels.  Much of the remaining
outstanding debt of these countries is owed to official
creditors, either bilateral or multilateral.  Multilateral debt,
in particular, accounts for a high proportion of the external
debt of many of the heavily indebted developing countries.  

               iv)  Official Development Assistance

62.  Official Development Assistance (ODA) is a small proportion
of a country's total resources for development, but is a
significant source of external resources for many developing
countries, particularly African countries and the least developed
countries.  As such, it can play an important complementary and
catalytic role in promoting economic growth.  Despite its
critical importance, ODA has declined in recent years.  

               v)   Role of Multilateral Financial Institutions

63.   Notwithstanding past efforts to enlarge the role and
resources of the multilateral financial institutions to meet
urgent needs and challenges, their financial growth has been
falling behind the growth of the world economy and behind that of
world capital markets.  

               vi)  United Nations financing for development

64.  At present, the capacity of United Nations' funds and
programmes to respond to the needs of developing countries is
being threatened by decreases in their funding levels.  At the
same time, the present sequence of Global Conferences and other
international meetings has resulted in a wide range of additional
development demands being imposed on the United Nations.  The
current efforts to increase efficiency in the United Nations'
operational activities for development need to be supported by
increased resources.  

               vii) Private investment flows

65.  Private resource flows to developing countries, including
foreign direct investment (FDI), have increased in recent years. 
Key determinants for attracting external private sector capital
are, inter alia, a stable domestic political, legal and economic
environment, based on the rule of law, sound economic policies
and an openness to foreign investment.  Other factors include the
prospects for growth and a favourable external environment.

66.   The growth in FDI in developing countries is of particular
importance since, in addition to finance, the recipient economy
usually benefits in terms of technology transfer and enhanced
access to export markets.  However, FDI in developing countries,
as well as the recent parallel surge in international portfolio
investment, has been concentrated in the more advanced economies,
the larger economies and those with high rates of economic
growth.  This situation needs to be addressed.

               viii)        Peace dividend

67.  When the Cold War ended, a peace dividend appeared at hand. 
The relaxation of international tensions was thought to offer
opportunities for reducing military spending worldwide and for
using the resources so released to enhance spending on social and
economic development for the benefit of all countries.  The
reduction of military spending in industrial countries was
expected to ease their budgetary constraints, allowing for an
increase in the flow of official development assistance in the
1990s.  While the reduction in global political tensions has
yielded many benefits, the impact on development has not
materialized in the tangible form or to the extent that was

          d)   Science and technology

68.  The ability of countries to participate in advances in
science and technology can significantly influence their
development.  Measures should therefore be taken to strengthen
capabilities and capacities in science and technology in
developing countries.  This requires a clear definition of the
respective roles in this area of the private sector, governments
and international organizations.  The private sector plays an
important role in the productive application of science and
technology and most commercially relevant technology is
controlled by the private sector, frequently by foreign entities. 
Governments should play a catalytic role by ensuring that there
is a propitious environment for the development, adaptation and
application of environmentally sound technologies.  This requires
a framework of laws and regulations that encourages initiative
and the introduction of appropriate technologies, including by
foreign enterprises.  It also requires a labour force that has
the professional and technical training necessary to utilize
newly-introduced technologies.

69.  Developing countries should increase their collective
technological research, development and dissemination and should
facilitate access and exchange of information on technology
experience and development.  

70.  International cooperation can complement national science
and technology policy measures and is necessary in areas where
global interests are at stake.  The world community has a common
interest in the development and widespread dissemination of
technology geared towards environmental protection and
conservation and the rational use of energy and raw materials. 
Governments should implement the commitments they made in Agenda
21 on this subject.

          e)   South-South cooperation

71.  South-South cooperation is an integral and dynamic part of
international development cooperation.  The end of the cold war,
increasing globalization, liberalization, regional cooperation,
and interdependence are all making such cooperation more
imperative.  The countries of the South exhibit common as well as
varying development experiences and know-how which offer many
opportunities at the bilateral, regional and international levels
for greater cooperation between them.  Grasping these
opportunities will result in a stronger basis for their
self-reliance and development as well as provide an important
complement to international development cooperation.

72.  Exploiting trade opportunities among countries of the South
by undertaking trade promotion activities, devising payment
arrangements and expanding availability of trade information is
particularly important.  However, there are many other areas,
such as communications, information, transportation, investments,
science and technology, environment, food and agriculture,
population, education, and human resource development, in which
South-South cooperation can be fostered and promoted.

73.  Technical cooperation, arrangements to improve market
access, technical and financial assistance, sharing of knowledge
and technology, and exchange of information are some of the many
ways and actions by which developing countries that have been
able to achieve social and economic progress can assist those
that have been less successful.  The concept of triangular
cooperation, which involves the participation of developed
countries in South-South cooperation, can make a significant
contribution to the promotion of cooperation among developing
countries.  All these collaborative efforts should be accorded
high priority and increased support from the international
community and assistance from all sources, including relevant
multilateral institutions and non-state actors.

          f)   Regional economic cooperation

74.  Regional economic integration and cooperation is
increasingly recognized as a means towards expanding trade and
investment opportunities, and for promoting development and other
forms of cooperation between countries of various regions. 
Regional arrangements can also contribute to the growth and
development of the world economy.

75.  Regional economic integration and cooperation should be
actively considered as a means of eliminating obstacles to trade
and investment and to foster economic cooperation within a
region.  However, there is the risk that regional organizations
may turn inward and that the world will evolve into competing
economic blocs.  Therefore, reductions of barriers to trade and
investment among members or participants in regional groupings
should be consistent with internationally agreed rules, where
applicable, and without detriment to other economies.

76.  Regional economic groupings should be open to the outside
world and supportive of the multilateral trading system.  This
requires a strong commitment by the international community, in
its pursuit of regional economic integration and cooperation, to
open regionalism within the framework of an equitable,
non-discriminatory and rule-based multilateral trading system.

77.  Regional cooperation provides also a vehicle for addressing
environmental and social issues of common concern.  The
development of common approaches to environmental problems of a
transboundary nature is particularly pertinent.  National efforts
in combatting poverty and unemployment and promoting social
integration can also benefit from regional cooperation. 
Furthermore, possibilities could be explored to use regional fora
as means of cooperation in supporting national action to promote
and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, the rule
of law and democratic institutions.

78.  Regional integration and cooperation should be complementary
and contributory to national policies and to global
multilateralism.  In order to take advantage of regionalism,
multilateral economic and trade institutions must have the
capacity to accommodate regional arrangements in their
structures.  The challenge is to use both global and regional
arrangements in a mutually supportive way.  

          g)   Development in agriculture, industry and the
               services sector

79.  The agricultural, industrial and service sectors need to be
developed in a balanced manner.  While it is recognized that the
private sector is the primary contributor to sectoral
development, governments have an important role to pay in
creating the enabling environment for sectoral development to
flourish particularly in the agricultural and services sectors. 
Besides promoting a dynamic and competitive domestic economy,
based on comparative advantages, and providing physical and
institutional infrastructures, domestic sectoral policies should
also seek to integrate the protection and conservation of the
environment and the achievement of social development objectives
into sectoral development plans.

80.  In implementing sectoral policies, particular attention
should be given to the potential of such policies to generate
employment and eradicate poverty.  In this context, the important
contribution of small and medium size enterprises should be

81.  The agricultural sector remains the main source of income
for the majority of the population in developing countries.  Its
marginalization from the overall process of economic development
should be avoided.  Agricultural policies should aim at
increasing food production, improving access to food by
low-income people and enhancing the income generating potential
of agriculture.  Developing countries, with the support of the
international community, should promote the development of small
and medium size agro- industries and cooperatives and improve the
processing, transportation, distribution and marketing of food
and other agricultural products.

82.  The industrial sector constitutes one of the key factors in
sutained economic growth and sustainable development and in
achieving social objectives.  In order to promote industrial
development, policies in this area should be geared towards
ensuring the legal and institutional framework that fosters
entrepreneurship and attracts foreign investment, protecting
intellectual property rights and facilitating technology
cooperation.  Moreover, special support should be given to the
promotion and development of environmentally sustainable industry
and attention needs to be directed to rural industrial
development, to industrialization programmes for marginalized
segments and regions, and to enhancing the role of women in
industrial development.  

83.  The services sector, is of increasing importance for the
economies of developing countries.  Developing countries should
continue to pursue policies to create conditions for the
development of their national services sector through the
modernization of the necessary infrastructures.  Measures should
include enhancing the efficiency of domestic sectors by
encouraging human resource development and by ensuring
appropriate investment policies.  

84.  The domestic sectoral policies elaborated by developing
countries should be supported by a favourable international
action.  Trade liberalization should be pursued on a global
basis.  It should include the liberalization of market access in
sectors and modes of supply of exports of interest to developing
countries and should cover access to technology on a commercial
basis, to distribution channels and to information networks. 
With the growing internationalization of the services sector,
further action should be taken to facilitate the participation of
developing countries in international service transactions.  

     2.   Social development

85.  Equitable social development is a necessary foundation for
development.  The commitments agreed at the World Summit for
Social Development (WSSD) should be fully implemented.

86.  The ultimate goal of development is to improve and enhance
the human well being and the quality of life of all people. 
Social development is best pursued if Governments actively
promote empowerment and participation in a democratic and
pluralistic system respectful of all human rights and fundamental
freedoms.  Efforts to sustain broad-based economic growth
reinforce the promotion of social development.  Processes to
promote increased and equal economic opportunities, to avoid
exclusion and overcome socially divisive disparities while
respecting diversity are also part of an enabling environment for
social development.

87.  It is the primary responsibility of States to attain social
development.  But the international community, the United Nations
system, the multilateral financial institutions, all regional
organizations and local authorities, and all actors of civil
society also need to contribute their own share of efforts and
resources to promote social development and to reduce
inequalities among people and narrow the gap between developed
and developing countries.  As part of these shared
responsibilities interested developed and developing country-
partners could agree on mutual commitments to allocate on average
20% of ODA and 20% of national budget respectively to basic
social programmes.

          a)   Eradication of poverty and hunger
88.  Poverty continues to affect far too many people in the
world.  Hunger and   malnutrition, ill-health, low access to
education and other public services and resources, exclusion,
lack of participation and violence are some of the many aspects
that characterize poverty.  Widespread poverty affects the future
of societies, as children growing up in poverty are often
permanently disadvantaged.  The burden of poverty is
disproportionately borne by women.  Though poverty occurs in all
countries, its extent and manifestation are particularly severe
in developing countries.  

89.  Eradicating poverty is an ethical, social, political and
economic imperative.  It can only be achieved through a
multi-dimensional and integrated approach, that combines
programmes targeted at people living in poverty with policies and
strategies that meet the basic needs of all, strengthen their
productive capacities, enable them to participate in decision
making on policies that affect them, ensure access of all to
productive resources, opportunities, public services, and enhance
social protection and reduce vulnerability.  Sustained and
broad-based economic growth and development are crucial for
raising living standards and for eliminating poverty in a
sustained manner.

90.  At international conferences organized by the United Nations
in the recent years, Governments committed themselves to meet the
basic needs of all.  High priority should be placed on achieving
and monitoring the goals and targets set in the areas of
education, health, food security, shelter and access to safe
drinking water and sanitation, in partnership with major
development actors.  These goals and targets will be presented in
annex I of this Agenda.

91.  At the WSSD, it was decided to formulate or strengthen, by
1996, national policies and strategies geared to substantially
reducing overall poverty in the shortest possible time, to
reducing inequalities, and eradicating absolute poverty by a
target date to be specified by each country.  National budgets
and policies should be designed with the strategic objective of
meeting basic needs, eradicating poverty and reducing
92.  The eradication of poverty requires determined national
actions.  At the same time, the international community,
bilaterally and through the multilateral financial institutions
and other international organizations, should support the efforts
of developing countries in the eradication of poverty and in
ensuring basic social protection.

93.  Commitments and targets agreed upon since 1990 to achieve
the overall goal of poverty eradication should be fully
implemented by Governments, in partnership with all development
actors, the United Nations system, including financial
institutions, international NGOs and the international community
as a whole.  The UN system should make all efforts to enhance the
coordination of actions relative to poverty eradication, and to
support developing countries and other countries in that

94.  Hunger and malnutrition continue to be the fate of hundreds
of millions of people most of whom live in Africa and the least
developed countries.  Eliminating hunger and malnutrition and
achieving food security are major objectives of this agenda.  

95.  The key to increasing food production lies in sustainable
development of the agricultural sector and in improving market
opportunities.  Solving the problems in developing countries
calls for improving agricultural productivity, but also for
financial incentives to encourage investment in agriculture. 
Also important is to promote secure land tenure and access to
resources and technology for farmers, in particular women, whose
role is crucial in food supply and food security.  The
macroeconomic and trade policy issues and the social factors that
constrain and limit the achievement of food security in least
developed countries should also be addressed.

96.  The international community should support the efforts of
Africa and least developed countries to increase food security. 
It should strive to ensure a coordinated and rapid delivery of
food assistance in situations of transitory food insecurity, in
full awareness of longer term national and local development
objectives and of the need to improve access to food of the most
vulnerable groups of the population.  The forthcoming World Food
Summit should contribute to determine actions and measures to be

          b)   Employment
97.  Creating adequately and appropriately remunerated employment
for all and reducing unemployment and underemployment are
essential for combatting poverty, and for promoting social

98.  The goal of full employment, should be a basic priority of
economic and social policies, so as to enable all men and women
to attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely
chosen productive employment and work.  At the WSSD, Governments
agreed on those common goals, and on a set of objectives,
policies and strategies to achieve them.

99.  Sustained economic growth and sustainable development as
well as the expansion of productive employment should go hand in
hand.  The expansion of adequately and appropriately remunerated
employment and the reduction of unemployment should be placed at
the center of economic and social policies with the participation
of employers, workers and their respective organizations.  The
basic rights and interests of workers and the quality of jobs
should be ensured and the relevant conventions of the
International Labour Organization (ILO) should be fully
respected.  Also essential is to ensure equal employment
opportunities for women and men.  Special efforts should be made
against long term and structural unemployment and
underemployment, particularly among youth and women.  In
employment creation, employment development strategies should
take into account the role of self-employment, entrepreneurship,
small and medium size enterprises, and of the informal sector.

100. The United Nations should elaborate ways and means to
implement, follow-up and assess the outcome of the WSSD related
to the goal of full employment through expansion of productive
employment and the reduction of unemployment.  The General
Assembly, through ECOSOC, and the World Bank as well as the IMF
are to be involved in the implementation, follow-up, and
assessment of international commitments on employment.  The ILO,
because of its mandate has a special role to play in this regard.

          c)   Social integration
101. The aim of social integration is to create "a society for
all", where every individual, each with rights and
responsibilities, has an active role to play.  Since the founding
of the  United Nations, the quest for humane, stable, safe,
tolerant and just societies has shown a mixed record.  While
progress has been achieved in many areas, there have also been
negative developments, such as social polarization and
fragmentation, widening disparities and inequalities of income
and wealth within and among nations, marginalization of people,
families and social groups.  Even entire countries have been
negatively affected due to rapid social change, economic
transformation, migration and major dislocations, particularly in
areas of armed conflicts, and violence in its various

102. These are compelling reasons for actions by Governments,
individually and, as appropriate, jointly, to foster social
cohesion, while recognizing and protecting diversity.  An
inclusive society must be based on respect for all human rights
and fundamental freedoms, on non-discrimination, tolerance,
equality of opportunity, solidarity, security, respect for
diversity, and on participation of all people, including the
vulnerable and disadvantaged groups and persons.  The problems of
crime, violence and abuse of and trafficking in drugs should also
be addressed.  International cooperation in the area of drugs
should be reinforced in accordance with the Global Programme of

          d)   Human resources development
103. At the World Conference on Education for All and the World
Summit for Social Development, Governments committed themselves
to ensuring universal access to quality education, attaining the
highest attainable standards of physical and mental health, and
to ensuring access of all to primary health care.  This should
include efforts to rectify inequalities relating to social
conditions, race, national origin, age, disability, and between
urban and rural areas.  Appropriate steps should be taken to
close the gender gap at all levels of education, and to ensure
the full access of women to health care throughout the life

104. Quality education is critical for enabling people to develop
their full capacities in health and dignity, and to participate
actively in the social, economic, and political process of
development.  It is also crucial for achieving the objectives of
economic development.  Education and vocational training are the
key to higher productivity, and allow faster and easier
adaptation to technological and economic change.  They are vital
for job creation and combatting unemployment, and for sustained

105. Resolute and vigorous national actions are crucial for
developing human resources.  Governments have committed
themselves to formulating or strengthening strategies for the
eradication of illiteracy and universalization of basic
education.  The link between education and training and labour
market policies should be strengthened, so as to facilitate the
adaptation of workers and employers to changing economic
conditions, technologies and labour markets.  Not only should the
importance of higher education and scientific research be
emphasized, but also of broadening the means and scope of basic
education, of enhancing the learning environment and of promoting
life-long learning.  

106. From the perspective of the economy at large, it is of great
importance that the requisite policies be applied to ensure human
resources development, including a satisfactory level of
education and training of the work-force and increasing their
receptivity to technological innovations, in particular in the
field of information technology.

107. Efforts to achieve the goals of national "Health-for-All"
strategies, in line with the Declaration on Primary Health Care
should be expedited.  The need for an integrated and
intersectoral approach to health strategies has been recognized,
as well as the importance of strengthening national and
international efforts to prevent and combat epidemics and other
diseases that are endemic in many developing countries, and in
particular to address more effectively malaria and the spread of

108.  At previous international conferences, Governments agreed
upon a set of goals and objectives for national and international
efforts in the area of education and literacy, and health, in
particular for maternal and child health and the control of major
communicable diseases.  We are committed to achieving those goals
within the timeframe we agreed to.

109. Enhanced international cooperation is also called for to
advance human resource development.  Concerted efforts should be
made to support the efforts of developing countries, especially
the least developed countries, and other countries in need, to
develop their human resources.  Developed countries have an
important role to play.  Human resources development and
institution building can also be promoted through cooperation
among developing countries.  International organizations,
including the international financial institutions, must give
high priority to supporting the objectives of human resources
development, and integrate them into their policies, programmes
and operations.  Support might include inter alia exchange of
information, training and skill development programmes, as well
as the provision of other forms of assistance.

          e)   Human settlements

110. The right to adequate housing as a basic human right is
enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 
In all countries however, human settlements, and more
particularly urban areas, face -in varying degrees- serious
deficiencies in the provision of adequate shelter, healthy living
environments and basic environmental infrastructure. 
Particularly severe is the situation in least developed
countries, where the vast majority of the population lacks
shelter or has shelter unfit for human habitation.

111. There is a clear and close linkage between human settlements
and poverty, environmental conditions and lack of access to land
and secure tenure.  Also, inadequate living conditions are a
primary cause of social conflict, degradation of personal safety
and violent disruptions of civil society.  The international
community has a major role in ensuring that these linkages are
made in international policies and actions.  It is also important
at the local and national level to ensure an integrated approach
to human settlements by means of partnership among national and
local governments, other public institutions, the private sector,
communities and non governmental organizations.

112. The Global Strategy for Shelter to the year 2000 contains
commitments to improve the availability of affordable and
adequate shelter for all.  In Agenda 21 the importance of
promoting sustainable human settlements to improve the living
environment of all people is stressed.  At the International
Conference on Population and Development, a number of
recommendations were agreed upon to inter alia foster a more
balanced spatial distribution of the population and promote
sustainable management of urban areas.  The forthcoming United
Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) must build
on the outcome of previous conferences and ensure an integrated
approach to improving living conditions.

113. Technical cooperation activities in the human settlement
sector considerably help to generate the internal resources
needed to improve the living and working environment of all
people, as emphasized by Agenda 21.  Enhanced financial and other
forms of support) should be provided to ensure the implementation
of the Global Strategy on Shelter for the year 2000 and of the
outcome of Habitat II, and to ensure access to safe drinking
water and sanitation to all by the year 2000, the target date set
by the World Summit for Children.

114. The UN system, in cooperation with all States and with
relevant international and non-governmental organizations also
has a key role to play in the provision of adequate shelter and
sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
as well as in rural areas.

     3.   Empowerment of women

115. While the status of women has advanced in some important
respects in the past decade, progress has been uneven,
inequalities between men and women have persisted and major
obstacles remain to women's empowerment, with serious
consequences for the well being of all people.

116. Empowering women is essential for achieving the goals of
sustainable development centered on human beings.  It requires
appropriate public policies to ensure that women enjoy all human
rights and fundamental freedoms, participate fully and equally in
all spheres of public life, including access to decision making
and power.  Public policies to promote women's economic potential
and independence and their full and equal participation in
development are also essential for women's empowerment.  Before
decisions are taken in the areas of social and economic
development and of the environment, an analysis should be made of
their impact on women and men respectively.

117. Measures should be taken to ensure the full enjoyment by
women and the girl child of all human rights and fundamental
freedoms.  All States, that have not yet done so, should be
encouraged to become party to the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and to other
relevant instruments, if possible by the year 2000, and to avoid
as far as possible to resort to  reservations.  Measures should
be taken to secure women's equal enjoyment of their economic

118. Measures are needed to ensure women's equal access to
education and to training and retraining.  The targets set by the
Fourth World Conference on Women for achieving gender equality in
primary and secondary education should be implemented.  Measures
should be taken to ensure women's equal access to economic
resources, including, inter alia, land, credit, sciences and
technology, vocational training, information, communication and
markets.  Eliminating occupational segregation and wage
inequality, creating a flexible work environment that facilitates
the restructuring of work patterns and the sharing of family
responsibilities, are also major goals.  Methods should be
developed for assessing the value of unremunerated work outside
national accounts.  Policies and development strategies that
address the needs and efforts of women living in poverty should
be reviewed, adopted or maintained in line with the
recommendations of the Beijing Platform of Action.

119. Measures are also needed to achieve women's full
participation in decision making processes in all walks of life
and at all levels.  Enhanced participation by women will also
contribute to ensuring that all policies and programmes be
designed, implemented and monitored in full awareness of their
possible or actual gender specific effects. 

120. The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action should be
urgently implemented in its entirety.  Adequate mobilization of
resources at the national and international levels as well as new
and additional resources to developing countries from all
available funding mechanisms to strengthen the advancement of
women are crucial.  The implementation the Nairobi
Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women - aimed
at achieving equality by the year 2000 - should be accelerated. 
Also called for is implementation of the relevant sections of
Agenda 21 and of the Programmes of Action adopted by the
International Conference on Population and Development and by the
World Summit for Social Development, as well as of the Geneva
Declaration on the Economic Advancement of Rural Women.
     4.   Rights of the child
121. Children are the most important resource for the future. 
Sustained economic growth and sutainable development will only be
achieved through greater investment in children by parents and
societies.  Therefore, the promotion, to the fullest extent, of
the health, well-being, and potential of all children,
adolescents and youth is a crucial objective.  The international
community expressed its commitment to that objective when it
adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child and at the
World Summit for Children.  We call for full implementation of
the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and encourage States
to remove all reservations to that Convention. 

122.  Measures must be undertaken by States, with the support of
the international community, to achieve, by the year 2000, the
goals contained in the plan of action adopted at the World Summit
for Children and to reach the goals set by subsequent
international fora for the year 2000 and beyond.  The rights of
children, particularly girls, must be ensured.  The exercise of
those rights should be promoted by providing education, adequate
nutrition and health care accessible to them, consistent with the
Convention on the Rights of the Child, and recognizing the
rights, duties and responsibilities of parents and other persons
legally responsible for children.  The efforts of developing
countries to achieve those major goals must be supported.

123. Exploitation, maltreatment, child prostitution and child
abuse should be combatted, and the root causes of these phenomena
have to be addressed.  Actions are also needed for improving the
situation and protecting the rights of children in especially
difficult circumstances and for allowing family reunification, in
line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child.  
124. Another key issue with regard to the Rights of the Child is
child labour, which is pervasive in many parts of the world. 
Overall socio-economic conditions, income uncertainty, women's
health and education, schooling opportunities, and the size of
households all have an impact on child labour.  Abolishing child
labour requires setting specific targets dates for eliminating
all forms of child labour that are contrary to accepted
international standards, and in particular article 32 of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child, for ensuring the full
enforcement of relevant existing laws, and, where appropriate,
for enacting the legislation necessary to implement the
Convention on the Rights of the Child, and relevant ILO
standards.  National efforts in dealing with the problem of
working children can be complemented by international support
measures which may include provision of education facilities as
well as compensatory support measures for their families.

     5.   Population and development and international migration

125. The Programme of Action adopted by the International
Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) emphasized the
importance of translating the Conference's recommendations into
actions at all levels.  This will involve decisive actions by
governments and increased support from the international
community.  The effective implementation of the Programme of
Action will require an increased commitment of financial
resources, both domestically and externally, and, in this
context, the developed countries have committed themselves to
complement the national efforts of developing countries on
population and development and to intensify their efforts to
transfer new and additional resources to the developing
countries, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the
Programme of Action, in order to ensure that population and
development objectives and goals are met.

126. In this connection, Governments should commit themselves at
the highest political level to achieving the goals and objectives
contained in the Programme of Action and should take a lead role
in coordinating the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of
follow-up actions.  The Programme of Action endorsed the crucial
role of NGOs, reflected in an effective partnership between
government and NGOs in all aspects of population and development
related programmes and policies.  The capacity of NGOs for
entering into such partnership needs to be enhanced.

127. The ICPD and Agenda 21, among others, affirm that
demographic trends cannot be considered in isolation from
development.  Therefore, population programmes are not simply
about numbers and demographic targets, but rather about the human
beings who are at the centre of population and development
activities.  Consequently, the ICPD Programme of Action is
grounded in a development framework and underscores the need to
reconcile the aspirations and requirements of individual women
and men with long-term development objectives.  

128. Countries have learnt much about the relationships between
population growth and sustainable development.  There is general
agreement that persistent widespread poverty as well as serious
social and gender inequities have significant influences on, and
are in turn influenced by, demographic parameters such as
population growth, structure and distribution.  Explicitly
integrating population into economic and development strategies
will both speed up the pace of sustainable development and
poverty eradication and contribute to the achievement of
population objectives and an improved quality of life of the

129. Successful reproductive health care including family
planning programmes must be based on the principle of free and
responsible choice of family size and child spacing which
includes the ability of men and women to make informed decisions
on the number and spacing of their children.  Such choice calls
for access to the widest possible range of health care programmes
and services and for greater support for reproductive health

130. Concomitant support is needed for stronger, better
coordinated global actions against major diseases that take a
heavy toll of human lives, such as malaria, tuberculosis,
cholera, typhoid and HIV/AIDS.  In this context, the joint and
co-sponsored United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS should be
brought into full operation as quickly as possible and the
relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and the Economic and
Social Council on malaria should be implemented. 

131. The international community also has a vital role to play in
attaining the objectives of the ICPD Programme of Action
regarding international migration and development, which reflects
the special importance attached to the impact of international
migration on both countries of origin and receiving States.  The
flow of people between countries, and indeed within countries
affects, and is affected by, the development process.  As
underlined in the Programme of Action, international economic
imbalances, poverty and environmental degradation, combined with
the absence of peace and security, violations of human rights and
the varying degrees of development of judicial and democratic
institutions are all factors in the movement of people.

132. The human rights of migrants, migrant workers and their
families must be strengthened and respected and migrant workers
should benefit from the protection provided by relevant national
and international instruments.  Ultimately, the long-term
manageability of international migration hinges on making the
option to remain in one's country a viable one for all people.
The possibility of convening an international conference on
migration and development could be considered.

     6.  Environment and development

          a)   Full implementation of Agenda 21 and other
               outcomes of UNCED

133. The consensus on and basis for actions at global, regional,
subregional, national and local levels to ensure sustainable
development has been established by the United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Agenda 21.  Priority
must be given to the prompt and full implementation of the
commitments and recommendations of UNCED.

134. At UNCED an integrated approach towards development and
environment was adopted, whereby the protection of the
environment would constitute an integral part of the development
process, and could not be viewed in isolation from it. 
Therefore, sustainable development strategies and programmes
which aim at integrating environmental protection requirements
into economic, social and development policies should be
formulated and implemented at all levels, while recognizing that
for developing countries, eradication of poverty and economic and
social development remain the first and overriding priorities. 
Developing countries have the right to utilize their resources
which are vital for their economic growth and development in an
environmentally sound manner.

135. Poverty, which affects most of all developing countries, is
closely related to environmental and natural resource degradation
and should have the highest priority on the international agenda. 
Unsustainable consumption and production patterns, which
characterize particularly the industrialized societies, are
equally closely related to environmental and natural resource
degradation.  Promoting changes in such consumption and
production patterns should also be of the highest priority. 
Developed countries bear a special responsibility and should take
the lead in this area. Action is required to promote changes in
unsustainable production and consumption patterns both through
behavioural changes and through the promotion of internalizing
environmental costs, through the use of economic instruments and
appropriate regulatory and other measures.

136. In general, the financing for the implementation of Agenda
21 will come from a country's own public and private sectors. 
For developing countries, in particular the least developed
countries, ODA is a main source of external funding, and
substantial new and additional funding for sustainable
development and implementation of Agenda 21 will be required.  So
far, the financial resources provided to developing countries
have fallen short of expectations and requirements set forth in
Agenda 21.  Developed countries should honour their commitments
on the provision of financial resources, as laid down in
paragraph 13 of Chapter 33 of Agenda 21.  Both domestic budgets
and development assistance, including by the United Nations
system, should be consistent with and supportive of the
objectives of sustainable development.  The potential of
innovative, additional financial resources should be urgently

137.      The Global Environment Facility (GEF), whose additional
grant and concessional funding is designed to achieve global
environmental benefits, should cover the agreed incremental costs
of relevant activities under Agenda 21, in particular for
developing countries.  The restructured GEF with replenishment
commitments of US$ 2 billion, constitutes a minimal first step in
providing resources to address global environment concerns. 
There is a need to speed up project approval procedures and to
ensure the full implementation of committed amounts, as well as
to ensure that the GEF's operational strategies are in line with
the Conventions for which it continues to act as the interim
financial mechanism.

138. Another essential dimension of the UNCED commitments
concerns concrete measures for the transfer of environmentally
sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms,
including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually
agreed.  The governments of developed countries have a major role
to play, both as a conduit for such transfers and by providing
market incentives for the private sector.  Recognizing the
importance of protecting intellectual property rights and taking
into account the special needs of developing countries are two
essential considerations in the transfer of environmentally sound

139. The UNCED process culminated in a new global partnership for
sustainable development.  Implementing the recommendations of
Agenda 21 is essential for strengthening this partnership based
on common but differentiated responsibilities.  In this
partnership, the special situation and needs of developing
countries, particularly the least developed countries and those
most environmentally vulnerable, must receive special priority.

140. The United Nations system has a key role in stimulating and
supporting countries and major groups in the implementation of
Agenda 21, in helping to build further consensus and in preparing
the ground for standard setting on issues of sustainable

          b)   Implementation of international conventions on the

141.  International legal instruments for the regulation of
activities affecting the environment form an essential framework
for practical efforts by the international community to reduce
environmental degradation and promote sustainable development.

142. The full implementation of these instruments will be an
important contribution to ensuring the sustainable use of land,
marine and air resources, including through reduction and
recycling of waste and through nature management.  Governments
should become Parties to and comply with the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on
Biological Diversity, signed at UNCED.  They should also become
Parties to and implement the United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought
and/or Desertification, Particularly In Africa; the Basel
Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
Wastes and their Disposal; and the Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.  Countries are
encouraged to sign and become Parties to the Agreement for the
Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention
on the Law of the Sea relating to the Conservation and Management
of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and
to implement this agreement.  Implementation of the Non-legally
Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global
Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable
Development of all types of Forests and of the Programme of
Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing
States is also called for.

143. Developed countries parties to the United Nations Convention
to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious
Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly In Africa;
bilaterally, and also by making use of the Global Mechanism
established by the Convention, and of international institutions,
must provide substantial financial resources and other form of
support to assist affected developing countries Parties, in
particular African countries, to develop and implement their own
long-term plans and strategies to combat desertification and
mitigate the effects of drought.

144. Developed countries should also accelerate their financial
and cooperation efforts to support developing countries parties
in implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity and the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.  Developed
countries should initiate agreements with developing countries
counterparts for the sharing of benefits from the use of
biological resources in accordance with the Convention.  Priority
should be given to the issue of biosafety, the development of
appropriate guidelines as well as to ensuring access to and
transfer of appropriate biotechnologies.

145. Action towards sustainable development is an evolving
process: additional commitments, actions and instruments may be
required in the light of new global, regional or national
developments and needs.  But, this should in no way delay the
implementation of what has been agreed.

     7.  Humanitarian issues and development

146. Humanitarian assistance is essential for the victims of
natural disasters and other emergencies. It is also important for
development.  Emergency measures should be seen as a first step
towards long term development.  The General Assembly has
recognized the necessity for the international community to
provide assistance to people in humanitarian needs, and the
obligation of states to their own people in humanitarian crises. 
It has also identified guiding principles and ways for
strengthening the coordination of the emergency humanitarian
assistance of the United Nations system.

          a)   Continuum from relief to rehabilitation and
147. Prevention, preparedness, emergency response, recovery and
rehabilitation are all part of a comprehensive response to reduce
developing country vulnerability to emergencies and to reorient
the recent trend of increased global expenditure on relief at the
expense of long term development programmes.  Thus far, however,
the international community has mostly only been able to react to
emergencies through the provision of humanitarian assistance
which can only alleviate human suffering in a short-term

148.      Many emergencies reflect the underlying crisis of
development facing many developing countries and which needs to
be addressed by governments and the international community if
the emergency is not to recur.  Therefore, in order to prevent
the occurrence or recurrence of emergency situations, support is
required for medium and long term social and economic
development.  Renewed commitments to economic growth and
sustainable development of developing countries will contribute
to disaster prevention and preparedness, including support for
food security, access to education, the building up of national
institutions, and for the rule of law as well as for
strengthening the capacity of recipient institutions to manage
emergency situations.

149. Where emergency situations arise, rapid provision of
humanitarian assistance by the international community remains,
of course, imperative.  However, this form of assistance must be
planned with a view to an equally rapid transition to
rehabilitation and reconstruction and be part of the continuum
concept which aims at resuming development at the earliest
opportunity.  At the same time, it should be recognized that the
continuum concept may require different approaches in different

150. In virtually all post emergency situations, resettlement of
refugees, displaced persons and other disaster victims as well as
the restoration of physical infrastructure are some of the major
conditions for recovery.  In case of post-conflict peace-building
situations, programmes such as  demining and demobilization and
reintegration of ex-combatants are essential for moving forward
in the continuum towards development.  Equally important are
restoring public institutions, police and judicial systems, and
resuming economic and social development in preventing possible
resurgence of conflicts situations.

151. Although certain intermediate phases can be established, the
distinction between different stages of the emergency to
development continuum is often vague.  This requires a
comprehensive and coordinated response not only to rehabilitation
and reconstruction but also to development needs, by the United
Nations system, including the Bretton Woods institutions, the
international community and governments.  The mandates of
humanitarian agencies and development organizations must be
delineated clearly in order to counter the tendency of these
agencies and organizations to extend mandates, either from relief
to development or vice-versa, without having necessarily the
institutional capacity to effectively take on such new roles.

152. In order for the international community to respond rapidly
and effectively to humanitarian emergencies at the various stages
of the continuum, the establishment of an international network
of voluntary humanitarian relief teams that can be deployed
rapidly to cope with humanitarian emergencies, such as the white
helmet initiative, could be considered.

          b)   Early warning, prevention, preparedness and
               reduction of natural disasters

153. In recent years, with, in many areas, ever larger
populations at risk, disasters have had increasingly major
impacts in terms of human and economic losses, impoverishment and
long term displacement of populations.  The commitments of the
Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World, adopted by the World
Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, which has defined
concrete actions for disaster reduction, should be implemented.  

154. Disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness are of
primary importance for reducing the need of disaster relief. 
They should become an integral part of national strategies and
programmes for sustainable development.  There should be greater
efforts to enhance national capabilities for early warning and
disaster mitigation, which should be supported with adequate
financial resources and transfer of technologies to developing

155. Enhanced subregional, regional and international cooperation
are essential for disaster preparedness.  Prevention, mitigation
and preparedness of natural disaster, and actions to implement
the Yokohama strategy, could be integrated into the country
strategy note, where appropriate.  A coordinated and timely
preventive response of Governments, non governmental and other
organizations and agencies and communities requires strengthening
of the early-warning potential of the United Nations system.

          c)   Response to other humanitarian emergencies

156.  Humanitarian emergency situations due to man-made and
political factors have become more frequent, more widespread,
more complex and long lasting, combining interstate and internal
conflicts, large scale displacements of people, mass famine,
disruption of economic, political and social institutions, and,
in some cases natural disasters.  A result has been that a
growing percentage of development assistance is being devoted to
such complex emergencies, increasingly at the expense of long
term development programmes which is of great concern and should
be addressed.

157. The response of the international community to complex
humanitarian emergencies has become better coordinated, more
effective and more efficient.  The United Nations plays a central
role in the international response to this daunting challenge,
working closely with other international agencies.  The creation
of the Department of Humanitarian Affairs illustrates the
determination of the United Nations to respond more effectively
to this task.  The coordinating role of this Department among the
various relevant agencies should be further strengthened,
including by developing formal memoranda of understanding with

158. Further progress requires the provision of adequate
contingency funds and the establishment of planning and
logistical mechanisms to allow a faster and more effective
response to complex emergencies.

159. Ways also have to be found to address basic needs during
complex emergencies.  Issues such as displaced persons and
continuing provision of safe drinking water and sanitation, which
are not under the direct mandate of humanitarian agencies, should
also be addressed.  Coordination and clear mandates and
responsibilities, particularly in the field, are also essential
in cases where there is a humanitarian assistance component to a
peace-keeping operation.

160. The effective delivery assistance of non governmental
organizations and volunteers in situation of complex emergencies
should be further recognized as an integral part of the
coordinated international, regional and subregional response and
incorporated into the programming of actions.

          d)   Refugees and displaced persons

161. The number of refugees and displaced persons has been
rapidly increasing due to a number of complex factors including
human rights violations, armed conflicts, and environmental
degradation linked to man-made and natural disasters.  Most of
the refugees find asylum in developing countries, often imposing
an enormous burden on those States which already face difficult
economic and social conditions to begin with.  International
support for activities of recipient countries for refugees and
displaced persons is hence a necessity.

162. The root causes of movements of refugees and displaced
persons should be tackled in a coordinated and integrated manner. 
A durable solution to the plight of the present large numbers of
refugees and asylum seekers should be found.  Their needs as
regards protection in accordance with internationally recognized
standards and with national law, as well as assistance, must
receive the necessary support.  Governments should strive to meet
their basic needs, build their self sufficiency.  The conditions
for voluntary repatriation of refugees and returnees in safety
and dignity, and for ensuring adequate reception arrangements and
smooth reintegration, should be created.

     8.   Participatory approach to development

163. There has been a multiplication of non-state actors in
development - those of the civil society - who are playing an
increasingly important role in development.  While the State
should retain overall responsibility for policy formulation in
the economic, social and environmental spheres, including the
correction of market failures, the provision of public goods, the
creation of a favourable enabling environment for the private
sector as well as a favourable legal and regulatory framework,
its involvement in activities that can be performed more
effectively by the private sector and other major groups should
be limited as much as possible.

164. Successful and lasting development depends on participation
as a means to secure development goals.  It contributes to equity
by involving people living in poverty and other groups in
planning and implementation.  Participatory decision making,
together with the rule of law and transparent and accountable
governance, is an essential requirement for the effectiveness of
development policies.

165. Full participation in society should be achieved through the
promotion and protection by Governments of all human rightsand
fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, bearing
inmind the interdependent and mutually reinforcing relationship
between democracy and respect for human rights.  Governments
should make public institutions more responsive to people's
needs.  Therefore, full respect for all human rights and
fundamental freedoms, in accordance with the conclusions of the
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action should be promoted.

166. There is a large potential benefit to be derived from
increased participation.  In order for it to be realized,
governments should establish institutional frameworks and
decentralized processes, that allow their people greater
involvement in the decisions that affect their lives.   This
requires that Governments give adequate support to the
administration of justice as well as to public administration
which should be responsive to the requirements of their people. 

167. Decentralization of public institutions and services
facilitates local participation and allows to better respond to
local needs.  The creation or strengthening of responsive,
adequately financed and effective local government structures,
and the devolution of power to those structures, compatible with
the overall responsibilities, priorities and objectives of
Governments, are also important elements of participation. 
Governments should work on decentralization programmes with the
support of donors.  The international institutions have a role to
play in support of the participatory approach at the local level.

168. The key to participatory development means fulfilling the
potential of people by enlarging their capabilities, and this
necessarily implies empowerment of people, enabling them to
participate actively in their own development.  In order to
fulfill their potential, people must participate actively in
constructing their own autonomous, democratic organizations,
including their political organizations.  Political empowerment
is an integral aspect of participatory development.

169. A vigorous civil society is indispensable for popular
participation at all levels and an essential component of any
successful development strategy.  Community organizations,
business and workers' organizations, NGOs and self-help groups
must be actively involved.  Governments should view them as
important actors and partners in development.  Greater
accountability and transparency in such organizations' activities
would be helpful in this regard.  In countries where the
participation of civil society is weak, it should be a major
purpose of public policy to strengthen it.

170. Participation is also necessary in international economic
decision making.  Effective participation of all countries in
multilateral surveillance is necessary to ensure sustained
economic growth and sustainable development.  International
institutions should, in accordance with their respective
charters, attain a truly democratic and international character
in terms of a broadened and strengthened participation of
developing countries in their decision-making processes.

     9.   Actions related to countries in special situations     

171. For international cooperation for development to be
effective, the variety of development experience among developing
countries has to be taken into account.  While this requires that
external assistance be tailored according to the needs and
conditions of each developing country, at the same time a
comprehensive development approach which goes beyond Official
Development Assistance alone is also necessary.

172. Action on many fronts is needed.  A combination of grant
aid, concessional loans and technical assistance which can
contribute to the financing of the necessary economic and social
infrastructure, together with strategies designed inter alia to
increase exports earnings, attract foreign direct investment and
reduce external debt, can provide sufficient conditions for

          a)   Africa 

173. The critical socio-economic condition in Africa concerns the
international community as a whole and requires global
partnership and solidarity to address and solve.  Although Africa
is faced with enormous problems, it also has great potential,
both in human and natural resources, for sustained economic
growth and sustainable development.  The obstacles to the socio-
economic development of Africa are well known.  Tackling these
problems and paving the way to accelerated and self-sustaining
growth and sustainable development through decisive
implementation of commitments and actions have, however, been

174. The external debt problems of Africa require urgent
attention.  Bilateral debts owed to official creditors remain
major problems.  The measures taken by the Paris Club including
the Naples terms should be enhanced and continue to be applied to
the largest number of countries possible.  New initiatives,
including proposals for debt cancellation, should be supported. 
Particular attention should be devoted to multilateral debt.  The
international financial institutions should be urged to use
existing instruments in a flexible way and to explore innovative
measures to deal with the problem of multilateral debt, including
through the provision of adequate and concessional financial
resources such as under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment
Facility (ESAF).

175. We recall our commitment to give full support to the
development efforts of Africa. This requires inter alia measures
to solve the external debt and debt service problems, to increase
financial direct investment, to enhance national capacity-
building, to deal with the shortage of domestic resources for
development and to facilitate the integration of the African
countries into sub-regional and regional trade as well as into
the world trade.

176. The international community should support African countries
so that they benefit fully from the results of the Uruguay Round
and to mitigate any adverse effect of the Final Act.  It is
essential to implement the measures decided upon in the Final Act
and the complementary provisions specified in the Marrakesh
Agreement, in favour of least developed countries and concerning
the possible negative effects of the reform programme on these
countries and on the net food importing developing countries. 
The need to support Africa's efforts at increasing commodity
diversification is also essential.  New export capacities have to
be created and diversification across markets and products should
be encouraged.  The call for financing the preparatory phase of
commodity diversification projects and programmes should be
pursued. State participants in the African Development Fund and
multilateral financial institutions are urged to pay special
attention to the diversification of African countries and to
contribute to the preparatory phase of African diversification
projects.  In order to support effectively efforts to diversify
commodity exports and boost earnings, the international
community, particularly the major trading partners, have
committed themselves to grant improved market access to Africa's
exports through substantial reduction in or removal of trade

177. There is an urgent need for concerted and better coordinated
international action on the myriad of adverse socio-economic
factors which compound poverty in Africa and hamper its prospects
for growth and development.  This includes addressing
comprehensively the issues of conflict resolution; including
post-conflict peace building and the continuum from relief to
rehabilitation and development; stronger and better coordinated
global actions against major diseases that take a heavy toll of
human lives; and against natural disaster through programmes on
early warning, preparedness, prevention and mitigation.  The
international community should also assist African countries in
their efforts to eradicate poverty and ensure basic human needs.

178. The United Nations system also has a major role to play in
coordinating and implementing activities which address the
critical situation in Africa, including through the
implementation of the United Nations New Agenda for the
Development of Africa in the 1990s and the follow-up of the
outcome of the Tokyo International Conference on African

          b)   Least developed countries

179. Since the adoption of the Paris Declaration and the
Programme of Action for the LDCs for the nineties, there has been
continued marginalization of the least developed countries, and
their number has increased from 41 to 48 without a proportionate
increase in support measures despite national and international
efforts.  Reversing the further marginalization of the least
developed countries and achieving their integration in the world
economy are essential for their growth and development and pose a
major challenge to the international community.

180.      In order to succeed, the full support of the
international community is required.  Appropriate economic and
social policies are also required and technical capacity and
institutional infrastructure need to be built up.  Special
support should therefore be given to the least developed
countries in their development efforts, in order to facilitate
their integration into the world economy, to enable them to
participate in and to allow them to fully benefit from the
process of globalization and liberalization of trade and the
increase in international private  resource flows.

181. In view of their limited domestic resources, the least
developed countries will continue to need enhanced external
financial assistance and other support.  Achieving the accepted
UN target for Official Development Assistance to the least
developed countries of 0.15 per cent of donor countries' GNP, is
particularly urgent.  Donor countries which have not met this
target should make their best efforts to reach it as soon as
possible, and donor countries which have met the 0.15 per cent
target should undertake to reach 0.20 per cent by the year 2000. 
Further improvements should be made in aid coordination and

182. Many LDCs face serious debt problems and more than half are
considered debt distressed.  Most of their debt is owed to
official creditors, both bilateral and multilateral.  The serious
debt problems of the LDCs necessitate strengthened efforts on the
international debt strategy.  This strategy should include
concrete measures to alleviate the debt burden and increased
concessional financing, in support of appropriate economic policy
measures, which will be critical to the revitalization of growth
and development.  Debt distressed LDCs should benefit from
substantial debt relief schemes.  Paris Club creditors are
invited to continue to implement expeditiously and in a flexible
manner the very concessional treatment under the Naples terms. 
In order to address the multilateral debt problems of LDCs, the
Bretton Woods institutions are encouraged to develop a
comprehensive approach to assist countries with multilateral debt
problems, through the flexible implementation of existing
instruments and new mechanisms where necessary.

183. The international community should support LDCs so that they
benefit fully from the results of the Uruguay Round and to
mitigate any adverse effect of the Final Act.  It is essential to
implement the measures decided upon in the Final Act and the
complementary provisions specified in the Marrakesh Agreement, in
favour of the LDCs and concerning the possible negative effects
of the reform programme on these countries and on the net food
importing developing countries.  Urgent steps are needed to
provide improved market access to major markets for products
originating from LDCs.  There is also scope for further
improvement of the GSP schemes and other supportive measures in
favour of LDCs.

184. In 1990, through the adoption of the Declaration and
Programme of Action of the Second United Nations Conference on
the Least Developed Countries, the international community agreed
on concrete measures to revitalize the development of the least
developed countries.  At UNCED, the ICPD, the World Summit for
Social Development, and in other relevant conferences, agreements
and conventions, further commitments have been made to support
the efforts of these countries. They should be operationalized
and implemented.  The international community must give high
priority to the full and timely implementation of the Programme
of Action and fulfill its commitments in favour of the least
developed countries.

          c)   Small island developing States

185. The international community, international organizations and
the United Nations system should cooperate in the implementation
of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States and of Agenda 21, and support
their economic transformation.  This requires adequate,
predictable, new and additional financial resources, transfer of
environmentally sound technologies, including on concessional and
preferential terms as mutually agreed, and promoting fair and
non-discriminatory trading arrangements.  Appropriate exchanges
among SIDS and between SIDS and other states with similar
development experiences are also to be encouraged.  The GEF
should constitute an important channel of assistance to SIDS
States in responding to their special needs and vulnerabilities.

186. The sustainable development of small island developing
States requires concrete action by the international community to
address the constraints to their development outlined in the
Programme of Action and in Agenda 21.  It also requires a
supportive international institutional framework, including a
strong monitoring and review role by the Commission for
Sustainable Development.  Priority should be given to the
SIDS/NET and SIDS/TAP programmes, which are important instruments
for technical cooperation and for promoting information exchange.

          d)   Land-locked developing countries

187. Specific action at national, bilateral, subregional,
regional and international levels, as appropriate, should be
taken to address the special development problems and needs of
land- locked developing countries and their neighboring
developing transit countries.  The high transport costs which
result from their particular geographical handicaps continue to
have a significant adverse impact on their international trade
performance and overall economic development.  In order to
alleviate the particular problems which these countries face, a
Global Framework for Transit Transport Cooperation was adopted in
June 1995.  This framework contains a comprehensive set of
recommendations for concrete action at the national and
subregional level designed to improve the efficiency of transit
transport systems.  The framework also underscores the need for
extensive financial and technical support by the donor community.

          e)   Countries with economies in transition

188. The international community should continue to give
attention to the needs of countries with economies in transition,
and support in particular their efforts to integrate into the
world economy.  A number of international meetings and
conferences, including those held under the UN auspices, have
recognized the specific needs of these countries in various areas
of development and the necessity to provide them with temporary
assistance upon their request aimed at the solution to the most
acute problems.  Such recommendations should be fully implemented
by the international community and the UN system.   To this end,
an appropriate strategy should be defined for strengthening
solidarity with these countries while avoiding to detract
international efforts from the high priority placed on
international development cooperation with the developing

     10.  Means of implementation

189.  The effective implementation of this Agenda, as well as of
the decisions and commitments reached at the recent series of
global conferences and other meetings, requires the urgent
mobilization and more efficient use of resources for development. 
Both dimensions call for creativity and inventiveness. 
Consideration should be given to holding world hearings on
disarmament and development.  It is critical to generate the
political will to mobilize and make available the necessary
resources - public and private, financial and human, national and
international - if all States, the United Nations system and the
international community as a whole are to mount a full and
effective response to this Agenda.  In formulating this response,
attention has to be given to both the quantitative and the
qualitative aspects of development as well as to time-frames for

          a)   Mobilization of domestic resources for development

190. All countries should continue to implement policies and
measures to mobilize domestic resources and to achieve an
appropriate level of domestic savings.  Measures should include
the maintenance of sound fiscal and monetary policies, efficient
and equitable taxation systems, low budget deficits and an
efficient allocation of budgetary resources in which priority is
given to productive expenditure, including in the social sector. 

191. Political institutions and legal systems that ensure the
equitable distribution of domestic resources enhance the
effectiveness and flexibility of national policy frameworks. 
Public expenditures offer significant opportunities for promoting
growth and the equitable redistribution of resources.
192.  All countries should explore new ways of generating new
public and private financial resources, inter alia, through the
appropriate reduction of excessive military expenditures,
including global military expenditures and the arms trade and
investments for arms production and acquisition, taking into
consideration national security requirements, so as to allow
possible allocation of additional funds for social and economic

          b)   External resources

193.  The savings efforts of developing countries, in particular
African countries and the least developed countries, that are
unable to generate sufficient domestic savings need to be
supplemented by external resources so as to raise investment to
the levels necessary for adequate sustained economic growth and
sustainable development.  New and innovative ideas for generating
resources for development should be explored.

               ~ External debt

194. The international community, including the international
financial institutions, should continue to explore ways of
implementing additional and innovative measures to alleviate
substantially the debt burdens of developing countries, in
particular of the highly indebted low income countries, in order
to help them to achieve sustained economic growth and sustainable
development without falling into a new debt crisis.

195. All members of the Paris Club should implement fully the
initiatives which aim at substantially reducing the bilateral
component of the debt burden of low income countries and at
permitting those sufficiently advanced in an adjustment strategy
to exit from the rescheduling process.  If these initiatives are
insufficient to achieve their objectives, the Paris Club should
continue to increase its flexibility in order to contribute to a
durable solution to the debt problems.

196. The international financial institutions should examine
proposals to tackle the problems of countries with regard to
multilateral debt, taking into account the specific situation of
each country.  Such proposals need to preserve the preferred
creditor status of the multilateral financial institutions, in
order to ensure that they can continue to provide concessional
financing for development to developing countries.

               ~ Official Development Assistance

197.  It is important to reverse the decline in ODA flows and to
achieve internationally agreed ODA targets as soon as possible. 
Such assistance should focus on Africa and the least developed
countries and people living in poverty in other developing
countries.   Donor countries which have reaffirmed their
commitment to reach the accepted United Nations target of 0.7 per
cent of GNP for overall ODA and 0.15 per cent of GNP for ODA for
the least developed countries should, to the extent that they
have not yet achieved that target, agree to augment their aid
programmes in order to reach it as soon as possible.  Donor
countries which are in a position to do so, but have not yet done
so, should strive to meet these targets as soon as possible. 
Countries should also honour their commitments in Agenda 21 to
provide resources to promote sustainable development.

               ~ Role and resources of multilateral financial

198.  The multilateral financial institutions should continue to
play a major role in all dimensions of development and in
promoting the stability of the international financial system. 
In their responses to developing countries' development needs,
priorities and specific circumstances, the World Bank and the IMF
should continue to adjust to the wide-ranging changes in global
circumstances.  Their programmes should not only respond to the
economic and social conditions, concerns and needs of each
country, but should explicitly include social development goals,
in particular eradicating poverty, promoting productive
employment, enhancing social integration and supporting people
living in poverty and vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of
society.  To this end, cooperation with other development
activities of the United Nations system should be increased.  At
the same time, both the World Bank and the IMF need an enhanced
capacity to fulfil their roles effectively.  In particular, the
International Development Association should be replenished

               ~ United Nations financing for development

199.  The fulfillment of the United Nations system's role in
development and in promoting development cooperation requires
resources to be provided on a sound and predictable basis.  The
international community should support the development efforts of
the United Nations system by providing a substantial increase in
resources for operational activities commensurate with the needs
of the developing countries and the overall resources of the
United Nations.  This requires both political commitment by all
States and an appropriate balance in terms of resources devoted
to all United Nations activities and to development.  New
approaches to financing the international development cooperation
activities undertaken by the United Nations should continue to be

               ~ Private investment flows

200.  Special attention should be given by all countries to
measures aimed at promoting international investment flows and
enhancing their contribution to development.  Governments need,
inter alia, to maintain an open framework for foreign direct
investment and to ensure sound institutional and regulatory
mechanisms, particularly for the banking system and capital
markets.  Governments in the developed countries should
facilitate long term investment flows to developing countries. 
Governments in the developing countries should continue domestic
reforms to encourage private investment flows.  All countries
should take measures to ensure that these flows have a positive
impact on development, equitable growth, productive capacity,
infrastructure, transfer of technology, eradication of poverty,
trade expansion, employment and social programmes.  They should
take the form of direct cooperation to promote the financing of
development projects or the establishment of companies with local

201. The globalization and growth of financial markets has given
rise to the need for improved measures to address the negative
effects of the volatility of international capital flows.  The
prevention of financial crises will require enhanced early
warning mechanisms, including improved and effective surveillance
of national and international financial market developments.  If
prevention fails, responding to financial market distress will
require enhancing the capacity of multilateral institutions to
respond in a quick and coordinated fashion.  Financial mechanisms
for this purpose need to be developed.

          c)   Qualitative aspects of development cooperation

202. The quantitative efforts set out above should be
complemented with measures to improve the qualitative aspects of
international development cooperation, particularly: a better
focus on its distribution; greater national capacities to
coordinate national and international resources; improved
national ownership of externally financed programmes;
international cooperation based on national priorities, involving
other development partners, including civil society; and
strengthened national capacities to plan for, manage, monitor and
evaluate the impact of development cooperation.

203. To translate the Agenda for Development into practical
action, it is essential that further steps are taken to enhance
the UN's performance in development.  Maintaining adequate levels
for funding for UN operational activities must be coupled with
continued improvements in their performance including monitoring
and evaluation and the measurement of output rather than input.

204. The UN system has made a serious effort to improve the
impact of its development assistance at the country level. 
Improved country level coordination has been a central theme of
UN development reform over the last six years.  There is now a
need to focus on the removal of obstacles to a more effective
operation of the Resident Coordinator system and on ways of
utilizing effectively the Country Strategy Note in interested
countries and on strengthening linkages with relevant World Bank
planning processes.

     d)   Capacity Building

205. If development activities are to have a lasting impact, the
future provision of technical cooperation must focus on
strengthening national capacities rather than using international
expertise, which is often expensive, and procuring equipment tied
to aid.  The United Nations system needs to scrutinize whether
its activities contribute to the promotion of national ownership
and capacity building.  Such promotion should be the central
objective of its field level activities.

206.      The international community, including the UN system,
shall give preference, wherever possible, to the utilization of
competent national experts or, where necessary, of competent
experts from within the subregion or region or from other
developing countries, in project and programme design,
preparation, and implementation and to the building of local
expertise where it does not exist.

207. National execution should be the principal modality for the
implementation of programmes by the United Nations system.  The
pace at which national execution is utilized by recipient
countries must depend upon their needs and capacities.  Effective
national execution also requires both the UN system and other
actors involved in the provision of technical assistance to give
increased priority to assisting recipient countries in building
and/or enhancing the necessary capacity to undertake services at
the field level.

208. The need to promote capacity building and national execution
should be taken into account in the design stage of development
programmes.  Governments will need to take a lead role in
identifying such needs at the planning stage and in ensuring that
there is adequate national ownership of the programmes as well as
in maximizing projects and programmes efficiency by keeping
overhead costs to a minimum.

209. The United Nations system must also be prepared to address
the capacity requirements of different national development
partners, including, in addition to Government, members of civil
society, such as the private sector, and NGOs.

210. When building national capacities a number of issues will
need to be taken into consideration.  These include the
articulation of clear development goals, strategies and
priorities that are nationally prescribed and supported by
external partners; effective performance of functions through a
well-trained human resource base; competent organizations and
management to effectively utilize and retain skilled people; a
policy and institutional environment that can facilitate the
performance and accountability of the public sector and other
national institutions; and sensitivity to the overall social,
economic and cultural environment in which capacity development
is to take place.

211. Technical and economic cooperation among developing
countries is an instrument that can make important contributions
to building national capacities through exchange of information,
experiences and expertise.


     1.   Strengthening of international cooperation for

212. The international community is entering a new and
challenging phase in invigorating the institutions in support of
international cooperation for development.  Globalization,
liberalization and interdependence have become key features of
the world economy as fewer problems can be solved by national
efforts alone.  International cooperation is more than ever
acknowledged as a necessity, that derives from recognized mutual

213. At the same time, there is an increasing acceptance of a
common concept of development, centered on human beings, their
needs, rights and aspirations, fostered by sustained and
sustainable global economic growth, and supported by a
revitalized and equitable system of multilateral cooperation. 
The major international conferences held over the last five
years, have played a key role in building this consensus and in
identifying the actions needed to fulfill common goals. 
Fulfilling the commitments reached at major international
conferences is essential if development is to materialize in all
its interrelated dimensions.  Development has to be approached in
a comprehensive and integrated manner, and actions in the areas
of economic growth, social policy, the environment, population,
human rights and democracy are complementary and mutually
reinforcing.  The frontiers between the various types of
interventions are thus becoming increasingly blurred.  The new
development consensus has to guide bilateral and multilateral
development cooperation and should serve as a guiding organizing
principle for the United Nations development system.
214. Among the many actors in international development, the
United Nations, because of its unique universal character and
impartiality and because of its physical presence in many parts
of the world, plays a special role in promoting international
development cooperation.  This special role should not be eroded,
but rather be reinforced.  Institutional reform will be required
while safeguarding the democratic and truly international
character of the Organization.  Therefore,  through this Agenda,
we make recommendations for a stronger, more effective and
efficient United Nations so that it, and the United Nations
system as a whole may contribute better to economic and social
development, and respond to the ever-changing economic and social
world conditions in a flexible way.  This requires that a number
of institutional issues be addressed.  These are set out below.

     2.   Role of the United Nations in development in its
          various functions

215. The United Nations Charter calls upon the Organization to
achieve international co-operation in solving international
problems of an economic, social and related character, and to
create conditions of stability and economic and social well being
that are necessary for friendly and peaceful relations among
nations.  Consequently, the role of the United Nations in
development ranges wide and deep.

216.      The key characteristics of the United Nations are its
universal membership and comprehensive mandate.  The United
Nations constitutes a unique forum for building international
consensus on global priorities for which there exists no
substitute.  Reaching consensus, through deliberation and
negotiation, on international economic social and related issues
is one of the most important functions of the United Nations
economic and social system.

217.      The United Nations is also singularly well placed for
developing international law and establishing norms and standards
as well as treaties.  Furthermore, the United Nations plays a
prominent role in raising public awareness, as an advocate of
core values, in responding to development and humanitarian needs,
in collecting and disseminating information, and especially
through its presence in the field.

218.      The United Nations is also the only international
organization with responsibilities related to both peace and
development.  The ability to make the link between peace and
development is a fundamental feature of the United Nations, and
the interdependence of these two issues is increasingly accepted. 
The United Nations  should play a leading role in formulating
policies that will ensure peace-building and a continuity between
peace-keeping, emergency assistance and development.

219.      At the same time, the United Nations, in cooperation
with the Bretton Wood Institutions, other parts of the United
Nations system, and the WTO, has the important role of fostering
greater coherence between the different components of global
economic policy making and of ensuring the effective
implementation of internationally agreed policies and goals.  It
must do so both in facilitating the establishment of
international development priorities and in promoting
coordination and cooperation between the many development actors. 
It is essential for the United Nations to harness as effectively
as possible the complementary and mutually reinforcing roles and
capacities of the various parts of the system, both at
headquarters and in the field.

220.      An important feature of the United Nations is its
operational activities for development in the field.  The United
Nations is able to offer assistance and advice in a neutral
manner and without preconditions.  Furthermore, because of its
comprehensive mandate, the Organization is well suited to promote
a more balanced approach to economic, social and environmental
aspects of development.  Therefore, the challenge for the United
Nations and its funds and programmes is to play a leading role in
supporting governments in their efforts to master increasingly
complex issues in an interdependent world.

221.      The United Nations performs many and differentiated
roles in the economic, social and related fields.  The
Organization will remain effective and relevant only as a result
of high quality performance, avoidance of overlap and
duplication, responsiveness to changing conditions and trends,
transparency in its operations and being fully accountable for
its actions.  However, enhancing its performance depends not only
on reform of its institutional structures, capabilities and
functions but also on adequate financial resources.  Both need to
be addressed urgently and expeditiously.

     3.   Enhancing the role, capacity, effectiveness and
          efficiency of the UN system in development

222. Over the last fifty years the United Nations system has
grown and expanded in the economic, social and related sectors. 
Through its activities the system has contributed significantly
to the development process.  The Organization is, however today,
being called upon to respond more effectively to the changing
development needs and demands.  Streamlining, consolidating,
rationalization and coordination of activities and institutions
will contribute to rendering the United Nations system's
development activities more effective and efficient.

223.      Efforts are needed with respect to the General
Assembly, especially its Second and Third committees, ECOSOC and
its subsidiary bodies, development assistance, emergency
response, United Nations Secretariat and reporting arrangements. 
Consolidating related activities and/or improving linkages
between them will also encourage a necessary streamlining of the
United Nations system's organizational structure.

224. Essential to improving the coordination and focus of the
United Nations system's development activities is to ensure that
it is guided by a clear set of priorities and strategies
identified by the General Assembly, with the support of ECOSOC,
and that incorporate the outcomes of recent major international
conferences.  Also essential is that ECOSOC has the capacity to
fulfill its role in overall coordination in the economic, social
and related sectors, and in guidance of operational activities. 
The rationalization of the distribution of work at the
intergovernmental level, between the General Assembly, in
particular with regard to its Second and Third Committees, and
ECOSOC, is a continuing requirement.  In this regard, it could be
useful for the United Nations as a whole that ECOSOC reports to
the General Assembly on complex cross-sectoral subjects deserving
priority attention.

          - General Assembly

225. The General Assembly is the highest intergovernmental
mechanism for the formulation and appraisal of policies in the
economic, social and related fields, and the main forum where
Governments pursue the development dialogue in its political
context.   This dialogue aims at both promoting an integrated
view of the various dimensions of development, thus fostering the
deeper political understanding needed for enhanced international
development cooperation, and at generating impulses for action
and launching initiatives.

226.      Measures have to be identified to enhance the ability
of the General Assembly debate to generate substantive solutions
to specific policy problems and to take an integrated approach to
development.  A more focussed General Debate, but also a more
thorough evaluation of a reduced number of themes by the
Assembly's committees might contribute to the first aspect. 
Improving the coherence of the work of the Assembly's committees,
in particular of its second, third and fifth committees, would
facilitate the consideration of development in an integrated
manner.  A necessary corollary to revitalizing the role of the
General Assembly is to assess possibilities to increase the
efficient involvement of relevant non state actors in its work,
including possible consultative mechanisms with the business or
scientific community or parliaments, at the Assembly itself, its
Committees or during its preparatory phases.  With such
improvements, better use would be made of the forum of the
General Assembly to deal with major economic, social or other
issues, which are now largely addressed by separately organized
major international conferences.

227.      At the same time, for the General Assembly to fully
perform its Charter role, measures also have to be taken in
addition to the strengthening of the General Assembly itself, to
ensure that priorities are transmitted to the entire UN system
and other development actors.  The guidance role of the General
Assembly should particularly be reaffirmed in the area of
macroeconomic policies.

228. An essential aspect of the transmission of priorities is to
establish a stronger link between substantive, programming,
coordination and budgeting processes.  There is an urgent need to
review the current intergovernmental machinery for priority
setting, to ensure that sufficient flexibility exists to realign
programmes and bodies as priorities evolve.

          - ECOSOC

229. The on-going efforts to reform ECOSOC have already produced
significant improvements in its functioning, but further efforts
are required to increase the capacity of ECOSOC to monitor and
coordinate the operations of the UN system.  This calls for more
effective procedures and further review of the work programme and
working methods of the Council with a view to better fulfilling
its responsibilities for coordination, guidance and conference
follow-up.  Enhancing the capacity of ECOSOC to identify and
react to critical developments in the economic and social fields,
including by alerting the Security Council and the General
Assembly of such development trends, would contribute to
strengthening the UN capability in social and economic

                    ~ Segments

230.      The organization and preparation of the high-level
segment should be improved, in particular the selection of its
main theme which should be topical, cross-sectoral and of global
interest.  The duration of the segment should be of an adequate
length to allow for a meaningful dialogue.  The segment should be
used to improve the synergy between the social and economic
sectors and to strengthen the dialogue and active cooperation
between the UN, the Bretton Woods institutions and the WTO.  The
dialogue with the heads of the international financial and trade
institutions should be more focussed on issues of common
interest, possibly based on a joint report.  To reinforce the
role of the high level segment, more weight should be given to
its conclusions, and its results should also be made more widely
known for example by transmitting them to the appropriate policy
bodies, including the General Assembly, the governing bodies of
the specialized agencies, organs, organizations and bodies of the
UN system.  In the case of joint discussions, the results should
be transmitted to the World Bank Development Committee, the IMF
Interim Committee and/or other bodies.

231. The coordination segment of the Council provides the
opportunity to carry out a review of a cross cutting theme common
to many organizations and to contribute to an overall review of
the programme of action of a UN conference.  There will be a need
to identify coordination and policy issues at all levels to be
addressed by ECOSOC and the GA, on the basis of a consolidated
report by the Secretariat.  For this purpose, a more focussed
dialogue should be developed between the United Nations and funds
and programmes, the regional commissions, the Bretton Woods
institutions and other specialized agencies, and with the World
Trade Organization.  The authoritative power of the conclusions
agreed upon by the segment should be enhanced.

232. The role of ECOSOC in policy-making in operational
activities should be reinforced by strengthening its role vis-a`-
vis UN development programmes.  The operational activities
segment should provide the UN system with cross-sectoral
coordination, including operational aspects of the follow-up to
major international conferences, and overall guidance in the
implementation of the policies formulated by the GA for
operational activities.  An effective and coordinated
implementation of these policies in the field by the UN system
should be ensured through the resident coordinator system and a
more unified field representation.  Further adjustments are
required to the segment, including better participation by field
representatives, discussions of case studies related to UN
technical assistance, preparation of common reports by
operational agencies, and focused debates with heads of agencies. 

233. The agenda of the general segment should be radically
streamlined.  The segment should be mostly devoted to the review
of the reports of ECOSOC's subsidiary bodies.  ECOSOC should
avoid a repetition of debates and focus its attention on issues
identified by the functional and regional commissions which
require priority setting and a coordinated response from the UN
system as a whole.  The subsidiary bodies should draw the
attention of the Council to new initiatives, emerging problems or
impediments to their activities.

                    ~ Functional commissions

234.      The extent to which ECOSOC may have ceded too much of
its authority and functions to its subsidiary bodies, or weakened
its standing within the UN system by having marginalized itself,
is an issue that requires examination.  Greater supervision by
ECOSOC over its functional commissions is particularly important. 
Further reforms are needed to ensure that the functional
commissions provide the best possible support to ECOSOC in its
role as an arbiter and a coordinator, and in the follow-up of
major UN conferences.  It is therefore crucial to ensure the
continuing technical credibility of these commissions so that
they can effectively serve as catalysts for action.  This
requires a clear division of labour between them, based on multi-
year programmes of work and agendas developed by them, as well as
a continuing review of their mandates, composition and working
methods, including periodicity of meetings, based on the breadth
and scope of their work.  The consolidation of activities of the
functional commissions may be considered if it appears necessary
to ensure an effective and coordinated follow-up to international
commitments.  A comprehensive review by ECOSOC of the composition
and functions of its subsidiary bodies could be undertaken.

                    ~ Regional commissions

235. The regional commissions play an important role in bringing
the work of the United Nations closer to the specific development
situations and concerns of countries, in providing the General
Assembly, through ECOSOC, with substantive analytical and policy
oriented work, and in assisting countries in each region in the
implementation and monitoring of recommendations of conferences
and of other commitments.  The Council and the General Assembly
should take appropriate measures to ensure that the regional
commissions carry out their tasks effectively.  ECOSOC should
strengthen coordination with and among the regional commissions,
and allow their active participation in the Council's examination
of the chosen theme for the follow-up of major conferences. 
There is scope for improving and streamlining the functioning of
the regional commissions and for adjusting their priorities and
structures.  A stronger focus on people living in poverty and
basic social services would be important as well as enhancing the
transparency of their operations.  Reviewing their mandates and
value-added in view of the fact that numerous other regional
institutions have been created, is also called for.

                    ~ Funds and programmes

236.      United Nations funds and programmes are important
vehicles for advancing international development objectives. 
However, a major effort must be made to improve the quality and
impact of the United Nations operational activities.

237.      There are many United Nations assistance programmes and
they are all relatively small in terms of resources thereby
lacking the critical mass to attain their objectives.  Therefore,
collaboration between operational funds and programmes should be
strengthened.  Where feasible, the integration of their
activities, both at headquarters and field level, should be
increased.  Furthermore, it is desirable to strengthen the
emerging role of ECOSOC as the overall policy body for UN
development programmes.

238. Enhancing the integration of the United Nations development
system, might call for reforming, merging or abolishing
individual organs, bodies and programmes in order to avoid
overlap of tasks and to focus on those tasks that are recognized
as priorities.  The work of bodies and programmes should be
consolidated around specific themes.  A clearer focus should be
placed on people living in poverty.  Within each body, new ways
should be identified to establish priorities and respond to them
even within a given programming cycle.  More work should be done
to ensure that programme performance evaluation takes place
throughout the system.

239. Operational activities should be organized by the funds and
programmes of the UN system in close cooperation with the
specialized agencies and based on a clear division of labour
between them.

                    ~ Specialized Agencies

240.      Specialized agencies play a vital role in furthering
the analytical work of relevance to the implementation of various
aspects of the global consensus on international economic
cooperation, and in promoting and securing the international
cooperation needed.  The key functions and mandates of these
agencies, including the Bretton Woods institutions, should be
assessed, in order to take the necessary steps to rationalize,
streamline and consolidate activities as required.  Agencies
should build their potential as centres of excellence in their
respective fields, and be encouraged to enhance their normative
and technical functions, rather than focus primarily on aid
management.  Mechanisms should be elaborated to enable ECOSOC to
provide guidance to specialized agencies, to transmit
institutional priorities and recommend institutional adjustments
in order to avoid duplication of efforts including those of the
funds and programmes.

241.      The purpose and functions of specialized agencies need
to be periodically examined in the governing bodies to ensure
that their activities, priorities and basic programmes remain
relevant to the preoccupations of the international community and
for the eradication of poverty.  Their respective roles and tasks
should be clearly defined and redundant activities and structures
should be phased out.  Further efforts are also called for to
enhance the transparency of the operations of the agencies. 
Cooperation and coordination with the specialized agencies on
themes of common interest need to be strengthened.  At the
intergovernmental level, ECOSOC has special responsibilities.  At
the Secretariat level, the relation of the Secretary-General with
the Agencies is an important issue.

                    ~ Bureau

242. The Bureau of the Council should play an active role between
sessions.  An expansion of the Bureau could be considered.  Such
a Bureau could assist the Council in identifying critical issues
for international cooperation, would maintain close contacts with
the bureaus of subsidiary bodies as well as with the specialized
agencies and the executive boards of the funds and programmes and
thus would contribute to assist ECOSOC in better fulfilling its

          - Secretariat

243. The effectiveness of the United Nations in the economic,
social and related fields is closely related to the transparency,
accountability, and efficient functioning of the Secretariat. 
Although progress has been achieved, further reforms should be
considered to enhance the role of the UN in development.  The
structure and functioning of departments should be further
reviewed.  The creation of a high post in charge of coordinating
all UN development activities could be considered.

          - Reporting

244.  Reports to intergovernmental bodies should be limited in
numbers, concise and provide a good basis for the identification
of problems and the taking of decisions.  Greater use could be
made of the practice of tasks managers, whereby a given agency is
responsible for coordinating the response of the entire UN system
on a subject.  Efforts should be made to simplify and consolidate
reports requested by Governments, thereby avoiding duplication to
the maximum extent possible.  A standardized and simplified
format should be prepared for use by Governments for the
voluntary presentation of national information.

          - Interagency coordination

245. Better inter-agency coordination within the UN system is
essential to support the goals of the Agenda for Development. 
This includes coordination and cooperation on themes of common
interest, and ensuring a more efficient division of labour within
the UN system taking into account respective mandates.  This
requires making better use of a strengthened Administrative
Committee on Coordination.  Further efforts should be made to
enhance the role of ACC and its standing committees (CCPOQ and
IACSD), with regard to oversight in particular.  A systematic
exchange of information and a rational division of labour should
be ensured within the ACC machinery and with any specific inter-
agency mechanism, including ad hoc mechanisms set up in the
context of the follow-up to individual conferences.  Full
information of the Member States on the work of ACC and a wider
distribution of the report of the ACC would be highly desirable. 
ACC should bring system wide coordination issues to the attention
of ECOSOC and make recommendations thereon.

     4.   Interaction between the United Nations and other
          multilateral development institutions, including the
          Bretton Woods institutions and the WTO

246. A strengthened cooperation and clearer division of work
between the United Nations, the Bretton Woods institutions, other
parts of the UN system, as well as the regional development banks
and the WTO, is necessary.  Existing working relations with other
international organizations should also be strengthened.  Such
organizations should be further encouraged to share with the UN
their work in specific areas of common interest.

247.      Enhancing the interaction between the United Nations,
the Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade Organization
at all levels is particularly important for international
cooperation to respond effectively to the growing interaction
between trade, finance and development.  Close and mutually
reinforcing ties of partnership and interaction should be
established between the United Nations system and the WTO. 
UNCTAD plays an important role in providing the General Assembly,
through ECOSOC, with the substantive inputs it needs to undertake
analytical and policy oriented work in the economic field and to
adequately interact with the Bretton Woods institutions and the
WTO.  The forthcoming UNCTAD IX will provide a good opportunity
to review the role and functions of UNCTAD so that it continues
to make an important contribution to development, taking into
account the role assigned to the World Trade Organization.

248. The importance of strengthening the relationship between the
United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions has been
repeatedly recognized by the General Assembly and the Economic
and Social Council.  The interaction between the United Nations
and the Bretton Woods institutions should be further enhanced by
fully implementing the relationship agreements with these
institutions while respecting the governing structure, mandate
and competence of each organization.

249.      Better interaction also requires the identification by
the respective governing bodies of areas of expertise and
competence special to each component of the multilateral system. 
The United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions should
build on their respective strengths, based on a clear division of

250.      One means of increasing the interaction between the
United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions is by
systematizing and deepening their connections with each other. 
Consideration should be given to establishing mechanisms for
cooperation and coordination at the intergovernmental, country
and Secretariat levels.

251.      At the intergovernmental level, there must be greater
interaction and coordination between these institutions and other
parts of the United Nations system.  In the case of the Bretton
Woods institutions a broadened and strengthened participation of
developing countries in their governance and internal decision-
making mechanisms is important so that they adequately reflect
the relevant changes and the growing participation of developing
countries as a whole in the world economy.

252.      The United Nations and the Bretton-Woods institutions
should identify, through constructive dialogue at the
intergovernmental level, areas for joint efforts to reach the
goals and objectives crucial to development.  The respective
memberships of the United Nations and the Bretton Woods
institutions should work together to ensure that sustained
ecobomic growth and sustainable development are central goals of
their shared policies and programmes.

253.      Closer links should be developed in particular between
ECOSOC, the IMF Interim Committee and the joint World Bank/IMF
Development Committee, with a view to achieving maximum
complementarity.  There should also be a more active
participation of the Bretton Woods institutions in the work of
the Organization and its relevant bodies and vice versa.

254.      The United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions
could cooperate more closely in the areas of capacity building
and field operations, particularly for projects requiring
decentralized implementation and an intimate knowledge of local
conditions.  In channelling technical assistance through
multilateral development finance institutions, donor countries
are encouraged to take into account the respective roles and
functions of the United Nations programmes and funds and the
Bretton Woods institutions so as to minimize overlap and
duplication among them.

255.      In post-emergency situations, the United Nations and
the Bretton Woods institutions must support the transition from
emergency to rehabilitation, reconstruction and long-term
development.  To this end, new coordination procedures between
the United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions should be

256.      At the Secretariat level improved arrangements for
consultations, including making better use of the United Nations'
Administrative Committee on Coordination as well as rationalized
analysis and reporting functions, should be explored.  The
Secretary-General is requested to examine in consultation with
the Executive Heads of the Bretton Woods Institutions and the WTO
ways and means of intensifying coordination and cooperation
between the United Nations, the Bretton Woods institutions and
the WTO at all levels and to submit his proposals through ECOSOC
to the General Assembly at its fifty-first session.  The
possibility of joint meetings between the Secretary General, the
Executive Heads of the United Nations funds and programmes, and
of the Bretton Woods institutions and other relevant
organizations on selected themes could be considered, in order to
achieve a greater complementarity of their activities.  Increased
cooperation and transparency for collecting and dissemination of
data, analyses, economic projections as well as the possible
preparation of joint reports should also be considered.

257.      Notwithstanding these calls for greater interaction, it
should be recognized that close relationships already exist
between the United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions. 
Cooperation between the United Nations entities and the World
Bank in relation to aid coordination, project execution and task
forces on substantive subjects is of long standing.  Innovative
approaches to cooperation, such as the Global Environment
Facility (GEF) and the Special Initiative for Africa should be
commended and built upon.  The GEF is a good example of tapping
the resources, management and expertise of both the United
Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions in order to jointly
tackle environmental problems.  Such a model could be followed
and adjusted to specific tasks existing in many other areas of
common concern.

     5. Follow-up

          Outcomes of UN major conferences and agreements on
          development including inter alia consideration of a
          common framework for their implementation and follow-up

258.      There is an urgent need for an integrated, interrelated
and coherent implementation and follow up at the national,
subregional, regional and international level of the
recommendations and commitments of recent UN major conferences
and agreements on development.  Compiling these commitments,
recommendations, and agreements, estimating their costs, ordering
and sequencing their implementation, and proposing schedules for
putting them into effect should proceed promptly.

259.      Within the UN system, the Economic and Social Council
promotes a coordinated and integrated follow-up to and
implementation of major international conferences.  To this end,
the Council has taken important decisions at the coordination
segment of its substantive session of 1995.  ECOSOC should
continue to draw together in a coherent way the outcomes of the
major conferences and summits, so as to ensure that they guide
the activities of the UN system.

          Agenda for Development

260. A strong political commitment by the international community
is needed to implement a strengthened international cooperation
for development as reflected in this Agenda.

261. The intergovernmental follow-up of the Agenda for
Development shall be within the framework of the UN system.  At
the same time, governments as well as regional economic and
technical organizations have an important role in the follow-up
of the Agenda.

262. The General Assembly as the highest intergovernmental
mechanism, is the principal policy making and appraisal organ on
matters related to the follow-up the Agenda.  The ECOSOC, in the
context of its role in the Charter vis-a`-vis the General
Assembly, shall assist the General Assembly by overseeing system-
wide implementation of the Agenda and by making recommendations
in this regard.

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Date last updated: 24 March 2000 by esa@un.org
Copyright 1999 United Nations