United Nations

A/AC.250/CRP.1


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL 
14 March 1996
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


              Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group of the General Assembly
                          on An Agenda for Development 


                     PARAGRAPHS AS AMENDED AND/OR ACCEPTED 


                            AGENDA FOR DEVELOPMENT


1.     Development means [G77] economic growth in particular in
developing countries / [US amendment to G77 amendment :] economic
development, social development and environmental protection, the
improvement of the quality of life, through the eradication of
poverty, hunger, disease and illiteracy, the provision of
adequate shelter, advancement of women, securing employment for
all, and protecting the integrity and sustainable use of the
environment.  [EU] Democracy, participation and transparent and
accountable governance, as well as the protection and promotion
of all human rights and fundamental freedoms are indispensable
foundations for development.  Building on the outcome of recent
UN Conferences and other relevant agreements, the Agenda for
Development aims at establishing a renewed and strengthened
partnership for development, [G77] based on shared
responsibilities.  It testifies to the renewed commitment of
Governments of all countries to mobilize national and
international efforts in pursuit of development and to revitalize
and strengthen international development cooperation.  

1. bis        [G77] Equally important, the Agenda for Development
must promote agreement on and adoption of effective measures for
removing the obstacles to development, inter alia, in areas
relative to financing for development, trade, transfer of
appropriate technology for development, poverty eradication,
solutions to the external debt and debt-servicing problem of
developing countries, combating the scourge of drugs and
protection of the environment.

I.  SETTING AND OBJECTIVES

A.  SETTING

       Development, peace and security

2.     AGREED Peace and development are closely interrelated and
mutually supportive.  Development should also be pursued in its
own right.  Development is indispensable to the achievement and
maintenance of peace and security both within and among nations. 
Without development there can be neither peace nor security. 
There is complementarity between the processes related to the
Agenda for Development and the Agenda for Peace.  For peace and
stability to endure, national action and effective international
cooperation are required to promote a better life for all in
larger freedom, a critical element of which is the eradication of
poverty.  

3.     AGREED Development cannot be attained in the absence of
peace and security or in the absence of respect for all human
rights and fundamental freedoms.  Under conditions of war, and
during periods of short term emergencies and humanitarian needs,
development efforts are often neglected, diminished or abandoned. 
Excessive military expenditures, arms trade, investment for arms
production, acquisition and stockpiling have a negative impact on
development prospects.  With the relaxation of international
tensions the opportunity exists for reducing, as appropriate,
military expenditures and investments for arms production and
acquisition, consistent with national security requirements, in
order to increase resources for social and economic development.

        1. Globalization, regional cooperation and interdependence:

           the need for a commitment for partnership.
         
4.     AGREED Profound changes have occurred, especially coupled
with the end of the cold war, which question some of the
traditional ways of addressing the challenge of development.

5.     AGREED One such increasingly important change affecting all
countries is the process of market-driven globalization,
including due to rapid progress in information exchange and
telecommunications.  Globalization encompasses the varying
degrees of increasing integration of world markets of goods,
services, capital, technology, and labour.  This has generated
greater openness, freer movement of factors of production and
created greater opportunities for international cooperation. 
Greatly increased trade and capital flows and technological
developments open new opportunities for sustained economic growth
of the world  economy, particularly in developing countries. 
Wider dissemination of ideas, cultures, and lifestyles brought
about by innovations in transportation and communications are
also important manifestations of the globalization process. 
Globalization permits countries to share experiences and to learn
from one another's achievements and difficulties, and promote a
cross-fertilization of ideals, cultural values and aspirations,
taking into account the recognition of cultural diversity.

6.     AGREED Globalization of the world economy presents
opportunities and challenges for the development process as well
as risks and uncertainties.  As a result of the process of
globalization and growing interdependence in the economic, social
and environmental fields, an increasing number of issues cannot
be effectively addressed by countries individually.  Therefore,
international cooperation is required.  Furthermore, non-state
actors with a global reach, such as transnational corporations,
private financial institutions, and non-governmental
organizations, have important roles to play in the emerging
network of international cooperation.

7.     AGREED, NO CHANGE Greater interdependence among states has
accelerated the international transmission of macro-economic
policy decisions and therefore their effects throughout the
global economy.  This is particularly true for the development
prospects of the developing countries, which have been
particularly affected by globalization. 

8.     Financial deregulation and the consequent growth and
integration of global capital markets has not only created ample
opportunities but also significant risks.  [EU:] Private capital
flows increasingly play a major role in the financing of
development.  Deregulation improves opportunities for such flows
and for an efficient allocation of resources world-wide,
including in the developing countries; thus strengthening their
integration into the world economy.  At the same time, rapid,
short-term private capital movements [G77] can cause considerable
fluctuations in exchange rates of [Russian Federation] developed
and developing all countries alike.  The volatility associated
with these short-term flows may not only strain national fiscal
and monetary policies but even lead to severe disruptions in the
global financial system.  Developing countries are particularly
vulnerable and sensitive to these external forces [US/EU delete
rest of sentence]/[G77 keep as follows:] and will frequently have
are forced to modify their monetary and fiscal policies in order
to stem outflows of capital].
[US alternative proposal if sentence kept:] and often must modify
their monetary and fiscal policies in order to stem outflows of
capital].

9.     AGREED, NO CHANGE Increasing the capacity to respond to
these trends requires sound domestic policies as well as a
favourable international economic environment.  Although new
growth poles are emerging in a number of developing countries
which will provide an increasing share of the stimulus to world
development, it is likely that the role of the developed
countries in world finance will remain preponderant for a long
time.  The policies they follow in their domestic affairs will,
in the increasingly globalized capital markets, be of decisive
importance for the rest of the world as they have a significant
influence on world economic growth and, consequently, over the
international economic environment.

10.    Notwithstanding the importance of a favourable international
economic environment, ultimately each country bears primary
responsibility for its own economic and social policies for
development.  In order to take advantage of a rapidly integrating
world economy, all countries should adopt [G77] sound and stable
domestic policies, address external and internal imbalances, and
encourage a continuous process of adjustment.  [Latest text
discussed in informal informals:] Sound national policies are
also essential for cushioning external shocks.  National policies
of all countries would also benefit from improved political
institutions and legal systems.  In this context, the
international community should give a strong support to the
efforts of developing countries to solve their serious social and
economic problems as well as to promote a more favourable
international and national framework for development.

11.    Partly as a consequence of the new nature [US: clarify] of
the world economy, macroeconomic stability and transparent, [US]
representative and accountable governance, democratic and
effective institutions, combatting corruption, and full enjoyment
of all human rights and fundamental freedoms are increasingly
important while setting development priorities [US: reformulate
last 4 words].   [G.77] : move paragraph 11 under section 5 and
incorporate in paragraph 26.

12.    AGREED Globalization and interdependence are deepening the
need and creating greater opportunities for international
cooperation.  The problems and questions which globalization and
interdependence bring in their wake, show that there clearly
exists a shared, common interest among all countries in solving
and answering them.  International development cooperation, not
only founded in solidarity, but also based on mutual interest and
partnership, forms an essential part of this effort.  With the
waning of ideological confrontations, the rise in globalization,
and the deepening of interdependence among nations, the historic
opportunity has arisen for constructive dialogue among all
countries, in particular among the developed and developing
countries, and political mobilization for the promotion of
international cooperation for development based on genuine
partnership and mutuality of interests and benefits.  This Agenda
for Development manifests our commitment to grasp this
opportunity.

13.    AGREED The deepening interdependence among countries has
already led to the emergence and strengthening of regional
economic groupings and arrangements.  They are recognized as
important catalysts for global economic growth and expansion of
trade.  They offer a framework for fostering and enhancing
cooperation among States not only on economic policy but on other
areas of common concern as well.  Regional economic groupings and
arrangements which are outward oriented, supportive of and
complementary to the multilateral trading system are important
actors in the global development process.

       2.     [G77:] Variety of development experiences Varied impact
              of globalization [US alternative proposal:] Differing
              development experiences

14.     The record of development experiences among countries
reflects wide differences a variety of development experiences,
with both progress and setbacks [US, as amended by G.77 and
Nigeria].  A number of developing countries have experienced
rapid economic growth over the recent past and have become
dynamic partners in the international economy.  These countries,
which maintain a high rate of economic growth, have increased
their share in world trade and foreign direct investment thereby
expanding their role in the global economy.   

15.    AGREED At the same time, developing countries continue to
face difficulties participating in the globalization process. 
Many risk being marginalized and effectively excluded from the
globalization process.  Many of them continue to be mired in
poverty, hunger and malnutrition, and economic stagnation,
including slow or negative economic growth.  The global changes
in finance, communications, and technology have largely by-passed
them, despite their efforts of undertaking economic reforms
including structural adjustment programmes.  The gap between the
developed and developing countries remains unacceptably wide. 
Imbalances and uncertainties continue to exist in the global
economy which affect all countries but in particular the
interests of the developing countries.  We reiterate the need for
broadening and strengthening the participation of developing
countries in the international economic decision making process.

16.    AGREED The development spectrum ranges widely not only among
countries but also within countries.  The varied country
situations indicate that in addition to overall measures needed
for the promotion of a favourable international economic
environment for development, there is a need for specific
measures in particular country situations.  Success will often
depend on the removal of key constraints which vary greatly from
country to country.  Cooperation among developing countries and
sharing their experiences can greatly contribute to achieving
such success.  It also requires that international development
cooperation has to take into account the respective plans,
programmes, needs, priorities and policies of developing
countries.  A new international partnership is required for
development at the national, subregional, regional and
international levels. 

       3.     Critical situations and special problems in developing
              countries:          

         - critical situation in Africa
         - critical situation in the least developed countries
         - special problems in small island developing States
         - special problems in land-locked developing countries

17.    AGREED The critical socio-economic situation in Africa is of
priority concern.  Africa is the only region where poverty is
expected to continue to increase substantially.  Much of the
continent suffers from inter alia inadequate physical and
institutional infrastructure, poor human resource development,
lack of food security, malnutrition, hunger, widespread epidemics
and diseases, and unemployment and underemployment.  These
conditions are further compounded by a number of conflict and
disaster situations.  All these diverse limitations and
constraints make it difficult for Africa to fully benefit from
the processes of globalization and liberalization of trade and to
integrate fully in the world economy.  Increased mobilization of
domestic and external resources for development, as well as their
more effective use, are critical for the success of the economic
and political reforms undertaken by African countries. 
International solidarity is fundamental to Africa's development
and international cooperation and support must necessarily
complement the national resources mobilized by the African
countries themselves.

18.    AGREED The critical situations of the least developed
countries, which are particularly marginalized from the world
economy, require the priority attention of the entire
international community, in support of appropriate domestic
economic and social policies.  The heavy burden of debt and debt
service on their economies, deterioration in the terms of trade,
decline in real terms in recent years in the overall level of ODA
and limited flows of private resources are some of the main
factors that impede the already limited opportunities for these
countries to participate in and benefit from the process of
globalization and liberalization.  By most measures of economic
and human well-being, the least developed countries lag seriously
behind.  Their social indicators are consistently low and have
worsened in some cases.  Their institutional and physical
infrastructure is fragile and therefore enhanced national and
international support are required to strengthen them.

19.    AGREED The special problems of small island developing
states also need to be given priority attention by the
international community.  The special challenges and constraints
to their development arising from, inter alia their limited
market size and resource base, from their particular
transportation and communication problems, and from their high
degree of vulnerability to natural and environmental disaster
need to be addressed.

19 bis.       AGREED Lack of territorial access to the sea,
aggravated by remoteness and isolation from world markets,
prohibitive transit costs and risks impose serious constraints on
the overall socio-economic development efforts of the land-locked
developing countries.  The special challenges and constraints
specific to these countries need to be addressed.  


       4.     Post-cold war realities and challenges:

           - Special problems and features of countries with
             economies in transition

20.    AGREED The special problems and features of countries with
economies in transition require particular attention in the post-
cold war era.  The dual transition to democracy and to a market
economy makes their situation especially complex particularly
regarding their economic growth and sustainable development. 
This on-going process is guided by and based on the respect for
human rights, transparent, representative and accountable
governance, the rule of law and civil peace.

20bis AGREED         Considerable strains are put on the social fabric
of these societies of the countries with economies in transition. 
Structural adjustments bring economic benefits but are causing
social problems which were unknown before the transition.  Severe
environmental degradation, a worsening population situation and
the problem of conversion of military production to civilian in
these countries are of primary concern.

21.    The completion of the transition process and the integration
of these countries in the world economy and their effective
involvement in the multilateral institutions will have a positive
impact not only on these countries themselves but also on the
global economy.  Thus, it is especially important for them to
promote effective cooperation in trade, economy, finance, science
and technology with all countries and regions.  Their integration
should  contribute to economic cooperation with developing
countries and to mutually beneficial exchanges of scientific and
industrial know-how.  Increased cooperation among countries with
economies in transition will also be important.  In order to
bring this integration about in a speedy manner, effective
international support for reforms in these countries is essential
both in terms of financial resources and of institutional
expertise [G77:], taking into account the interests of the
developing countries/ [Malaysia: move last sentence to paragraph
188].

              - The end of the cold war and the developing countries

22.    AGREED While the end of the cold war has fostered a new
spirit of dialogue and cooperation at the global political level,
there is a need to improve the international economic environment
so that it is more conducive to the socio-economic development of
developing countries, including through the fulfillment of
commitments agreed to at the recent major United Nations
conferences.

23.    [EU/US/Japan/Russia:] In the post cold war situation the
decline in ODA based on cold war political considerations, the
diversion of development resources to other regions of the world
and the deterioration of terms of trade pose major concerns to
developing countries.

23.    [EU partially supported by US and Japan:] In the post cold
war situation the recent decline in ODA based on cold war
political considerations, the diversion of development resources
to other regions of the world and the deterioration of terms of
trade pose major concerns to developing countries.

23.    [EU:] In the post cold war situation, the record of
development is so far a mixed one.  New situations have emerged
such as the increasing number of humanitarian emergencies an the
need to provide assistance to many regions of the world.  The
successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round, the consensus on
development arising from recent major UN conferences and the
expansion in private flows to developing countries are positive
developments.  On the other hand, the recent decline in ODA , the
deterioration in  terms of trade and the marginalisation from the
world economy of the least developed countries are particular
concerns.

23.    In the post cold war situation the decline in ODA [G77:]
based on cold war political considerations, the diversion of
development resources to other regions of the world and the
deterioration of terms of trade pose major concerns to developing
countries.

23.    [G77:] In the post Cold War situation, the resources being
allocated to the countries with economies in transition are
causing a reduction or diversion of Official Development
Assistance (ODA) and other development resources flowing to
developing countries.  The developed countries and multilateral
financial institutions should ensure that this does not take
place.  Furthermore, many developing countries are affected by
the changes in their economic relations with countries with
economies in transitions.  The international community should
assist developing countries whose economies have been most
affected by these developments.

       5.  Democracy, transparent and accountable governance, and
the
           promotion and protection of all human rights and
           fundamental freedoms, including the right to
development.
         
24.    AGREED The waning of ideological conflicts has improved the
climate of cooperation at all levels.  Although there is no
universal prescription for successful development, a consensus
has emerged, inter alia, that economic development, social
development, and environmental protection are interdependent and
mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development, which
is the framework of our efforts to achieve a higher quality of
life for all people.  In this context, we reaffirm that
democracy, development and respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, are
interdependent and mutually reinforcing.

25.    Success in building a solid, democratic and pluralistic
system based on the principles [G77:] of sovereign equality among
States, the inalienable right of each State to choose its own
political, economic, social, and cultural system enshrined in the
Charter of the United Nations [G77:] and international
instruments on human rights [G77:] and other relevant
international instruments, is closely linked to policies aimed at
promoting development and improving the quality of life of all
people by ensuring political and civil liberties and equal
opportunity.  [G77:] In this context, the elimination of
inequalities within and among countries is of fundamental
importance.

25.    [Canada (supported by US and EU) amendment to G77
amendment:] Success in building a solid, democratic and
pluralistic system based on the purposes and principles of
sovereign equality among States, the inalienable right of each
State to choose its own political, economic, social, and cultural
system enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations,
international instruments on human rights and other relevant
international instruments, is closely linked to policies aimed at
promoting development and improving the quality of life of all
people by ensuring political and civil liberties and equal
opportunity.  In this context The elimination of inequalities
within and among countries is of fundamental importance.

25.    [US and EU amendment to G77:] Success in building a solid,
democratic and pluralistic system based on the principles of
sovereign equality among States, the inalienable right of each
State to choose its own political, economic, social, and cultural
system enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations,
international instruments on human rights and other relevant
international instruments, is closely linked to policies aimed at
promoting development and improving the quality of life of all
people by ensuring political and civil liberties and equal
opportunity.  The promotion of equity within and equality The
elimination of inequalities within and among countries is of
fundamental importance.

26.    Respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms,
democratic and effective institutions, combatting corruption,
transparent, representative and accountable governance, popular
participation, an independent judiciary, the rule of law, and
civil peace [G77:] create facilitate the creation of conditions
necessary for development.  At the same time, we reaffirm that
the right to development is a universal and inalienable right and
an integral part of human rights.  Development facilitates the
enjoyment of all human rights, but the lack of development may
not be invoked to justify the abridgement of internationally
recognized human rights.

26.    [EU amendment to G77 amendment:] Respect for all human
rights and fundamental freedoms, democratic and effective
institutions, combatting corruption, transparent, representative
and accountable governance, popular participation, an independent
judiciary, the rule of law, and civil peace are indispensable
foundations facilitate the creation of conditions necessary for
development.  At the same time, we reaffirm that the right to
development is a universal and inalienable right and an integral
part of human rights.  As stated in the Declaration on the Right
to Development. the human person is the central subject of
development.  Development facilitates the enjoyment of all human
rights, but the lack of development may not be invoked to justify
the abridgement of internationally recognized human rights.

27.    AGREED Efforts to reinforce democratic institutions and
actions are vital for achieving peace and economic and social
progress.  Social stability, needed for productive growth, is
nurtured by conditions in which people can readily express their
will.  For this, strong national institutions of participation
are essential.

28.    AGREED The existence of widespread absolute poverty inhibits
the full and effective enjoyment of human rights, and renders
democracy, and popular participation fragile.  It is unacceptable
that absolute poverty, hunger and disease, lack of adequate
shelter, illiteracy and hopelessness should be the lot of over
one billion people.  We commit ourselves to the goal of
eradicating poverty in the world through decisive national
actions and international cooperation as an ethical social,
political and economic imperative of human kind.

29.    AGREED Democracy, which is spreading everywhere, has raised
development expectations everywhere.  Lack of their fulfillment
risks the rekindling of non-democratic forces.  Structural
reforms that do not take social realities into account could
destabilize democratization processes as they exacerbate the
reaching of that fulfillment.  While it is recognized that States
have the primary responsibility in securing a sound and stable
national political, economic and social environment for
development, international support, at the request of interested
governments, and the creation of a favourable international
economic environment are crucial ingredients in this effort.

30.    AGREED It is increasingly recognized that the state's role
in development should be complemented by other relevant actors of
the civil society, including the private sector.  The State has
the overall responsibility in various areas including inter alia
social, economic and environmental policy formulation, and for
creating an enabling environment for the private sector; the
State should encourage effective participation by the private
sector and major groups in activities which complement and
reinforce national objectives.


B.   OBJECTIVES

       1.  Strengthening international cooperation for development:

              (a)    Implementing all international agreements and
                     commitments for development
           
31.    International cooperation for development stands at a
crossroad.  Globalization, growing interdependence in the world
economy, the critical situations and special problems in many
developing countries and the special problems of countries with
economies in transition heighten the need for strengthened
international cooperation. [EU:] Yet, there are worrying signs
that the political will essential to sustain such cooperation may
be waning. Maintaining political will is essential to sustain
such cooperation.  Through this Agenda for Development, we will
renew our commitment and seek to impart new vigor to the global
partnership for... 
[G77:]  ... sustained economic growth and sustainable development
in particular the developing countries.
[EU]   ... people-centered sustainable development 
[US]  Social justice and environmental protection as components
of people-centered sustainable development 

32.    AGREED The international community has convened over the
past five years or so a number of  major conferences and meetings
which have adopted decisions and made commitments on key
development issues aimed at reinvigorating the development
process and international cooperation for development.  These
include the Declaration on International Economic Cooperation, in
particular the revitalization of Economic Growth and Development
of the Developing Countries, the International Development
Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development Decade, the
World Conference on Education for All held in Jomtien, Thailand,
the Second United Nations Conference on the Least Developed
Countries, the World Summit for Children, the United Nations New
Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s, the Cartagena
Commitment, Agenda 21 and the various consensus agreements and
conventions adopted before, at, or after the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development, the World Conference
on Human Rights, the Global Conference on Small Island Developing
States, the International Conference on Population and
Development, the World Summit for Social Development, the Fourth
World Conference on Women, the forthcoming UNCTAD IX, the United
Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and the
World Food Summit. 

33.    AGREED These conferences bear witness that the United
Nations system is and should continue to be more actively
involved in the full spectrum of development issues.  The
accords, commitments and internationally agreed targets reached
at these conferences should be fully implemented by all States
and international organizations.  Only through full
implementation can we give credence to the notion that these
development initiatives are truly a priority issue for the
international community. 

34.    AGREED Such implementation requires foremost political will
by all actors at all levels.  Too often the gap between what has
been agreed and what has been implemented leaves much to be
desired both at the national and international levels.  The
commitments we have made individually and collectively need to be
fulfilled if the development needs of all countries, particularly
of the developing countries, are to be addressed effectively.

35.    AGREED To this end we reaffirm, through this Agenda for
Development, the continued relevance of the agreements reached at
these international conferences and other meetings of the United
Nations and stress the need for an integrated, interrelated and
coherent implementation and coordinated follow-up to these
conferences.

              (b)    Enhancing the role, capacity, effectiveness and
                     efficiency of the United Nations system in
                     development
         
36.    AGREED As we approach the 21st century, it is the collective
responsibility of the international community to ensure that
within the multidimensional and integrated character of its
mandate the United Nations system is equipped to show leadership
in the fulfillment of the commitments made on international
cooperation for development, and to serve as a forum for the
expression of global goals and as an advocate for the promotion
and protection of all human rights, including the right to
development, the protection of the environment, as well as to
respond to humanitarian assistance requirements and to maintain
peace and international security. 

37.    AGREED The United Nations system, by virtue of its global
reach, its universal membership, its impartiality and the unique
and comprehensive mandate reflected in its Charter has a vital
role to play in the development process.  Enhancing this role,
capacity, effectiveness and efficiency requires a continuous
focus on development issues and ensuring its sound financial
basis. 

38.    AGREED The wide array of issues which the United Nations
system addresses, is reflected in its various functions, such as
those of the specialized agencies, including the Bretton Woods
institutions, and the regional commissions.  Each part of the
system has a specific role to play in addressing these issues. 
Relative strengths and weaknesses among the various parts of the
system cannot be ignored.  Enhancing the role, capacity,
effectiveness and efficiency of the United Nations system has to
take these basic facts into account and programmes should be
concentrated on areas where particular needs and the special
capacity of the organization converge.

39.    AGREED However, overarching these considerations of
efficiency and effectiveness of delivery, is the political
dimension of the development agenda.  The United Nations is
unique because it conducts international political debates on all
issues in the economic, social and related fields.  These debates
should provide political impetus to other fora to undertake the
necessary policies and measures.  Hence, the United Nations'
political interaction not only with member states, the
specialized agencies, including the Bretton Woods institutions,
and the regional commissions, as well as with organizations such
as the World Trade Organization, but also with non-state actors
should be intensified with a view to enhancing effective action
and coordination among them in the economic, social and related
fields.

40.    AGREED This Agenda for Development sets out a new framework
for international cooperation,  defines the role of the United
Nations, and how both can make a particular contribution, and
sets out the development priorities as well as time-frames for
implementation and keeps the implementation of the development
agenda under political review.

       2.     Promoting development based on an integrated approach   
               


41.    AGREED Sustained economic growth is essential for expanding
the resource base for development and hence, for sustainable
economic, technical and social transformation.  It generates the
required financial, physical, human and technological resources. 
It is also essential to the eradication of poverty.  An open and
equitable framework for trade, investment and technology
transfer, as well as enhanced cooperation in the management of a
globalized world economy and in the formulation and
implementation of macroeconomic policies, are critical for the
promotion of sustained and sustainable economic growth.  While
the private sector is a motor for economic growth, the government
has an active and essential role in the formulation of economic,
social and environmental policies.

42.    AGREED In order to ensure an integrated approach to
development centred on human beings and to achieve sustainable
development, economic growth on its own is not sufficient and
environmental protection cannot be considered in isolation from
the development process.  The goal of development is the
improvement of human well being and the quality of life.  This
involves the eradication of poverty, the fulfillment of the basic
needs of all people and the protection of all human rights and
fundamental freedoms, including the right to development.  It
requires that Governments apply active social and environmental
policies, and the promotion and protection of all human rights
and fundamental freedoms on the basis of democratic and widely
participatory institutions.  

43.    AGREED Investments in health, education and training are
particularly critical in the development of human resources and
should be pursued in such a way that everyone, both women and
men, are given an equal opportunity to participate actively and
productively in the development process.  The improvement of the
role and status of women including their empowerment is central
to all efforts to achieve sustainable development in its
economic, social and environmental dimensions.  Diversion of
resources away from social priorities and needs should be avoided
and, where it has occurred, be corrected.  Basic social
programmes and expenditures, in particular those affecting people
living in poverty and the disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of
society, should be protected from budget reductions.  When
formulating and implementing structural adjustment policies and
programmes such considerations should be taken into account.

44.    AGREED Development is and should be centred on human beings. 
Economic development, social development and environmental
protection are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components
of sustainable development, which is the framework of efforts to
achieve a higher quality of life for all people.  As the well
being of human beings depends on all facets of development, a
multidimensional approach to development is essential. 
Therefore, any formulation of strategies, policies, and national,
subregional, regional and international actions has to be based
on an integrated and comprehensive approach.  It is in this
spirit that we frame this Agenda for Development.

II.  POLICY FRAMEWORK INCLUDING MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION

45.    AGREED An encouraging development in recent years has been
the almost universal pursuit of increased economic openness and
integration.  This has contributed to a growing economic and
social interdependence among countries.  It is a common
responsibility and in the common interest to ensure that these
trends continue and also to ensure that all countries benefit
from them.  The last point is fundamental:  the benefits
attributable to these various changes have been widespread, but
they have been neither universal nor achieved without costs.  A
primary objective of the implementation of this Agenda should be
to contribute in such a way that the benefits stemming from
future growth and development are distributed equitably among all
countries and peoples.

46.    AGREED Achieving and maintaining an international
environment favourable to all countries is in the interest of all
countries.  Global economic, environmental and social issues can
be approached effectively only through a constructive dialogue
and genuine partnership among all countries.  This requires a
recognition not only of the mutuality of interests and benefits
but also of common, though differentiated, responsibilities. 
This mutual understanding has permeated the on-going sequence of
United Nations' world conferences and summits.

47.    However, some of the [EU:] international commitments and
agreements for development resulting from these conferences and
summits, as well as from previous international undertakings,
remain to be fulfilled.  These [G77:] earlier commitments, as
well as the new and additional priority actions identified here,
should be implemented in the spirit of solidarity and partnership
[G77:] that is embodied in this Agenda for Development.  [EU:]
Each of the areas for action identified in this Agenda are
closely interrelated and should be seen as components of the
overall goal of achieving people-centred sustainable development.

47bis         [Japan:] Setting a set of global targets is an
effective means of consolidating international efforts toward
development.  Consideration should therefore be given to the
possibility of organizing studies needed for that purpose in
cooperation with relevant international bodies.

       1.  Economic development

              a)     Macro-economic policies geared towards sustained
                     economic growth and sustainable development

48.    AGREED National developmental policies should be formulated
in conformity with national needs, conditions and development
priorities and should take into account the lessons learned from
decades of development experience.  Among the latter, the dynamic
role of the private sector and the contribution of human resource
development in creating wealth figure prominently.  The challenge
for public authorities is, inter alia, to develop and implement
policies that are conducive to prosperity, eradicate poverty and
conserve the environment.
49.    To this end, Governments should encourage a supportive
environment for the private sector including active competition
policies, the application of the rule of law, an open framework
for trade and investment and sound fiscal and monetary policies. 
In the area of finance, policies need both to promote domestic
savings and to attract external resources for productive
investment.  For both purposes, it is necessary to improve the
efficiency of domestic financial markets.  Addressing the needs
of people living in poverty, disadvantaged and vulnerable groups
of society and the creation of more and better jobs requires
attention to be given to conducive macroeconomic policies and to
such issues as human resources development, gender equality,
public participation and social integration.  [EU:] Social and
environmental factors should be integrated in the formulation and
implementation of macroeconomic policies.  Particular attention
should be paid to the effect of structural adjustment programmes
on people living in poverty, and disadvantaged and vulnerable
groups of society.

50.    Increased economic integration and interdependence places
greater responsibilities than before on all countries, but
particularly the developed countries, to contribute to ensuring
that their domestic policies are favourable to [G77:] sustained
economic growth and [EU:] sustainable development in the rest of
the world.  National and international actions are closely
interrelated and should be seen as mutually reinforcing
components of the overall goal of achieving development.  In
order to foster a supportive international environment for
development, countries should pursue economic stability, full
employment, a low rate of inflation, sustainable external and
internal balances, including the avoidance of excessive budget
deficits, low long-term real interest rates and a measure of
exchange rate stability.  They should also ensure open financial
and commercial markets and, where appropriate, provide
concessional aid flows.  

51.    AGREED International cooperation in the formulation and
implementation of macroeconomic policies should be reinforced
with a view to promoting greater coherence and consistency of
domestic policies and thereby enhancing their effectiveness.
Measures should also be taken to broaden the cooperation among
monetary authorities in order to maintain a sound international
financial system.   This enhanced cooperation should take full
account of the interests and concerns of all countries. 
Multilateral surveillance should correspondingly address the
policies and measures of all countries.  


              b)     International trade and commodities

52.    AGREED The growing, though far from complete, integration of
all countries in world trade and investment represents an
historic structural change in international economic relations. 
In recent years, developing countries' trade has increased,
largely as a result of their liberalization policies concerning
trade and investment.  The expansion of developing countries'
markets appears to be creating a virtuous circle in which
mutually beneficial liberalization of trade and investment can
become major means for generating the resources necessary for
development.

53.    AGREED The liberalization of trade regimes and the promotion
of an open and secure multilateral trading system are central
requirements for the promotion of economic development.  All
governments should commit themselves to the liberalization of
trade and investment policies and should foster international
cooperation towards this goal.  All countries have a shared
interest in an open, ruled-based equitable, non-discriminatory
transparent and predictable multilateral trading system.  While
many provisions in this area have been identified by the General
Assembly, over the last five years, the agreements as represented 
by the World Trade Organization (WTO) are particularly important. 
In this regard, the WTO dispute settlements mechanism is a key
element for the credibility of the multilateral trade system.   
The Commitments agreed in the Final Act Of Uruguay Round should
be implemented fully.  Unilateral actions of a protectionist
nature, inconsistent with multilateral trade agreements, should
be avoided and prevented.  Appropriate monitoring measures should
be established to ensure that, in the implementation of the
Uruguay Round, the rights, interests and concerns of all
countries are protected, recognized and redressed.

54.    AGREED There is a need to promote greater integration in the
world economy of those countries which have not yet benefitted
from the overall increase in trade and investment flows, in
particular African countries and the least developed countries. 
Special attention should be given to the full implementation of
the specific provisions for the least developed countries,
including the provisions emanating from the Marrakesh agreements,
and to the needs of the net food importing developing countries
so that all countries benefit fully from the results of the
Uruguay Round.  These measures will also require domestic efforts
to promote greater diversification of these countries' trade and
to increase the competitiveness of their trading sectors.

55.    Efforts to make trade and environment policies mutually
supportive in favour of sustainable development should continue. 
Trade liberalization measures should be complemented by sound
environmental policies, but measures adopted for environmental
purposes should not become a means of arbitrary and unjustifiable
trade discrimination or a disguised form of protectionism.  In
the same vein, disguised protectionism related to social [EU, US]
development concerns [G77:] including labour rules must be
avoided.
56.    AGREED Commodity exports continue to play a key role in the
economies of many developing countries, especially in terms of
their export earnings, the livelihoods of their people, and the
dependence of general economic vitality on these exports.  This
makes the continuing deterioration in their terms of trade of
special concern, even if there is some recent evidence of
improvement in the prices of some primary commodities.  Increased
participation of developing countries in the processing,
marketing and distribution of their commodities, if accompanied
by improved market access, provides an alternative means for
ensuring greater value added, as well as predictability and
increased export earnings, from commodity production.  This
diversification will require such countries to continue their
macroeconomic, trade and investment policy reforms.

57.    It will also require a strong commitment by the
international community to support such policy reforms.  The
international community should endeavour to improve the
functioning of commodity markets, with greater transparency and
more stable and predictable conditions.  There should be further
evaluation of the usefulness of Commodity Agreements in this
regard, taking into account the potential of new financial and
trading instruments and techniques.  Developed countries [US:]
are encouraged should provide improved market access for primary
commodities, particularly in their processed forms.  They should
also respond favourably to requests for technical assistance
aimed at enhancing the diversification of the export sector in
those developing countries which are highly dependent on the
export of a limited number of commodities.  The strengthening of
multilateral compensatory financing schemes is a further means of
addressing the short-term difficulties that can arise as a result
of heavy dependence on commodity exports.  

58.    UNCTAD IX [G77:] as a major intergovernmental economic and
development event of 1996 offers an important opportunity for the
further international consideration of issues in the areas of
trade, finance, technology, investment, services and sustainable
development.  A strong commitment by all concerned is needed to
take full advantage of this further opportunity to review the 
consequences of globalization, liberalization and other
developmental trends, both positive and negative, and to take
further action to promote sustained economic growth and
sustainable development throughout the world, in particular in
the developing countries.  [G77:] As the focal point within the
United Nations for the integrated treatment of development and
interrelated issues in the areas of trade, finance, technology,
investment, services and sustainable development, UNCTAD should
be enabled to discharge its mandate, thereby making it a more
effective and efficient instrument for promoting development.  A
strong commitment is needed in the context of UNCTAD IX aimed at
enhancing the role and functions of UNCTAD in promoting sustained
economic growth and development of developing countries.
58.    [Japan:] UNCTAD IX presents an important opportunity to
consider the future role of UNCTAD, including its relationship
with other international institutions to generate synergies among
them.  On the basis of UNCTAD's mandate and with a view to
strengthening the United nations system, the Conference should
enable UNCTAD to become a more effective instrument for promoting
development.

              c)     Issues of internal and external finance

                     i)     Mobilization of domestic resources for
                            development

59.    Both domestic and external resources are required for
development.  In most countries, domestic savings contribute by
far the larger part of the resources utilized for investment
[Canada:] and are mobilized through such measures as equitable
taxation, reallocation of resources committed to military
purposes, and economic and fiscal incentives and mechanisms in
the framework of sound economic policies.  The experiences of
those developing countries which have achieved high rates of
economic growth in recent years show that sustained economic
growth is linked to an effective strategy for domestic resource
mobilization.  These economies have maintained significantly
higher rates of national savings and investment than other
developing countries.  However, some developing countries have
limited scope for increasing savings [G77:] because of their low
per capita income levels and because levels of consumption are
already low and are difficult to restrain further.  These
countries will continue to need [G77:] substantial external
resources [G77:] as an essential complement to domestic efforts
to stimulate their development.

                     ii)    External resources

60.    AGREED Total net resource flows to developing countries have
expanded rapidly in the 1990s.  However, the trend has not been
universal, in terms of either the types of financing or the
recipients.  Within the total, official (public sector) flows
have languished; all the growth has been accounted for by an
increase in the private sector component.  Secondly, while some
low income countries have been the recipients of the increased
private sector capital flows, others have not benefitted at all.

                     iii)   External debt

61.    As a result of the evolving debt strategy, there has been an
improvement in the external debt situation of a number of
developing countries, with their ratio of debt payments to
exports of goods and services having been reduced to sustainable
levels.  Several middle-income countries have regained access to
capital markets.  Nevertheless, despite the implementation of
various agreements and commitments by the international community
over the past decade, debt problems persist, [Japan:] in the
poorest and heavily indebted countries [EU:] in particular for
many of the poorest countries, especially in Africa [EU/Japan:]
particularly for many African countries and least developed
countries and others at the low and lower-middle income levels. 
Much of the remaining outstanding debt of these countries is owed
to official creditors, either bilateral or multilateral. 
Multilateral debt, in particular, accounts for a high proportion
of the external debt of [EU;] some many of the heavily indebted
developing countries.  

61.    [G77:] The evolving debt strategy has contributed to the
improvement in the debt situation of a number of developing
countries.  Debt relief measures have been  undertaken by
creditor countries both within the framework of the Paris Club
and through their cancellation and equivalent relief of bilateral
official debt.  Nevertheless, external debt and debt-servicing
problems of developing countries have persisted, particularly for
many African countries and least developed countries and others
at the low and lower-middle income levels.  There is an urgent
need for effective, equitable, development oriented and durable
solutions to the external debt and debt-servicing problems of
developing countries, and to help them exit from the rescheduling
process.

61.    [Japan on G77 text:] The evolving debt strategy has
contributed to the improvement in the debt situation of a number
of developing countries.  Debt relief measures have been 
undertaken by creditor countries both within the framework of the
Paris Club and through their cancellation and equivalent relief
of bilateral official debt.  Nevertheless, external debt and
debt-servicing problems of indebted developing countries have
persisted, particularly for the poorest and heavily indebted
countries many African countries and least developed countries
and others at the low and lower-middle income levels.  Effective,
equitable, development-oriented and durable solutions to the
external debt and debt servicing-problems of developing countries
can substantially contribute to strengthening the global economy
and to the efforts of developing countries to achieve sustained
economic growth and sustainable development.  There is an urgent
need for effective, equitable, development oriented and durable
solutions to the external debt and debt-servicing problems of
developing countries, and to help them exit from the rescheduling
process.

61bis         [G77:] Indebted developing countries have continued
their efforts in fulfilling their commitments on debt servicing
despite the incurring of high social cost and serious external
and financial constraints.  In a number of developing countries
that are making continuous and strenuous reform efforts, the
burden of debt and debt service continues to constitute a major
obstacle to the revitalization of the economic growth and
development of those countries, in particular the least developed
among them. 

61ter         [G77 (based on last sentence of para 61):] Many
indebted developing countries continue to have very high level of
total debt stock and servicing burdens.  Multilateral debt, in
particular, accounts for a high proportion of the external debt
of many of the heavily indebted developing countries.  

                     iv)    Official Development Assistance

62.    Official Development Assistance (ODA) is a small proportion
of a country's total resources for development, but is a
significant source of external resources for many developing
countries, particularly African countries and the least developed
countries.  As such, it can play an important complementary and
catalytic role in promoting economic growth.  Despite its
critical importance, ODA has declined [Japan:] in real terms in
recent years.  

                     v)     Role of Multilateral Financial Institutions

63.     Notwithstanding past efforts to enlarge the role and
resources of the multilateral financial institutions to meet
urgent needs and challenges, their financial growth has been
falling behind the growth of the world economy and behind that of
world capital markets [G77:] and the commitments made in the
series of recent international conferences.  Uncertainties
regarding IDA-XI and the incomplete replenishment of IDA-X will
impact adversely on development.

63.    [EU (more or less supported by Canada and Japan):] The
multilateral financial institutions have an important role to
play in meeting the urgent needs and challenges of developments;
the level of their resources needs to be commensurate with this
role. Notwithstanding past efforts to enlarge the role and
resources of the multilateral financial institutions to meet
urgent needs and challenges, their financial growth has been
falling behind the growth of the world economy and behind that of
world capital markets. 

                     vi)    United Nations financing for development

64.    At present, the capacity of United Nations' funds and
programmes [Ukraine:] to respond to the needs of developing
countries is being threatened by decreases in their funding
levels.  At the same time, the present sequence of Global
Conferences and other international meetings has resulted in a
wide range of additional development demands being imposed on the
United Nations.  [Canada:] Increased efficiency in the United
nations operational activities for development should be pursued
further and success in this regard could attract increased
resources. The current efforts to increase efficiency in the
United Nations' operational activities for development need to be
supported by increased resources.

The current efforts to increase efficiency in the United Nations'
operational activities for development [US:] would be enhanced
need to be supported by increased resources, [US:] and efforts to
leverage UN resources by more effective collaboration with other
multilateral and bilateral donors should be intensified.

                     vii)   Private investment flows

65.    AGREED Private resource flows to developing countries,
including foreign direct investment (FDI), have increased in
recent years.  Key determinants for attracting external private
sector capital are, inter alia, a stable domestic political,
legal and economic environment, based on the rule of law, sound
economic policies and an openness to foreign investment.  Other
factors include the prospects for growth and a favourable
external environment.

66.     AGREED The growth in FDI in developing countries is of
particular importance since, in addition to finance, the
recipient economy usually benefits in terms of technology
transfer and enhanced access to export markets.  However, FDI in
developing countries, as well as the recent parallel surge in
international portfolio investment, has been concentrated in the
more advanced economies, the larger economies and those with high
rates of economic growth.  This situation needs to be addressed. 
There is also a need to promote favourable conditions for
achieving international stability in private capital flows, and
to prevent the destabilization arising from swift movements of
private capital flows.

                     viii)            Peace dividend

67.    AGREED When the Cold War ended, a peace dividend appeared at
hand.  The relaxation of international tensions was thought to
offer opportunities for reducing military spending worldwide and
for using the resources so released to enhance spending on social
and economic development for the benefit of all countries.  There
should be an appropriate reduction of excessive military
expenditures, including global military expenditures and the arms
trade, and investments for arms production and acquisition,
taking into consideration national security requirements, so as
to allow possible allocation of additional funds for social and
economic development.  While the reduction in global political
tensions has yielded many benefits, the impact on development has
not materialized in the tangible form or to the extent that was
foreseen. 

              d)     Science and technology

68.    The ability of countries to participate in, [G77:] benefit
from and contribute to the rapid advances in science and
technology can significantly influence their development.  [G77]
Measures should therefore be taken to strengthen capabilities and
capacities in science and technology in developing countries. 
Hence, international cooperation efforts must be intensified to
strengthen the developing countries' endogenous capacity-building
in science and technology, including their capacity to utilize
scientific and technological developments from abroad and to
adapt them to suit local conditions, and to promote, facilitate
and finance, as appropriate, access to and transfer of
environmentally sound technologies, including new and emerging
technologies and publicly owned technologies, to developing
countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and
preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account the
need to protect intellectual property rights as well as the
special needs of developing countries.  [G77: split Paragraph 68]


[New 68 bis]    [G77:] To promote science and technology for
development calls for This requires a clear definition of the
respective roles in this area of the private sector, governments
and international organizations.  The private sector plays an
important role in the productive application of science and
technology and most commercially relevant technology is
controlled by the private sector, frequently by foreign entities. 
Governments [G77] should play a catalytic role by play an
important role in ensuring that there is a propitious environment
for the development, [G77:] access to, transfer, adaptation and
application of environmentally sound technologies.  This requires
[G77:]  a an appropriate regulatory  framework [G77:] of laws and
regulations that encourages initiative and the introduction of
appropriate technologies, including by foreign enterprises [G77:]
and incentives that facilitate the introduction of such
technologies.  It also requires a labour force that has the
professional and technical training necessary to utilize
newly-introduced technologies.

69.    Developing countries should increase their collective
technological research, development and dissemination and should
facilitate access and exchange of information on technology
experience and development, [G77:] which calls for the continued
and enhanced support from the international community through
technical assistance and financing.  [UKRAINE] The international
community should also continue to promote the development of
effective technological cooperation between countries in
transition and all other countries.  

70.    AGREED International cooperation can complement national
science and technology policy measures and is necessary in areas
where global interests are at stake.  The world community has a
common interest in the development and widespread dissemination
of technology geared towards environmental protection and
conservation and the rational use of energy and raw materials. 
Governments should implement the commitments they made in Agenda
21 on this subject.


              e)     South-South cooperation

71.    AGREED South-South cooperation is an integral and dynamic
part of international development cooperation.  The end of the
cold war, increasing globalization, liberalization, regional
cooperation, and interdependence are all making such cooperation
more imperative.  The countries of the South exhibit common as
well as varying development experiences and know-how which offer
many opportunities at the bilateral, subregional, regional,
inter-regional and international levels for greater cooperation
between them.  Grasping these opportunities will result in a
stronger basis for their self-reliance and development as well as
provide an important complement to international development
cooperation.

72.    AGREED Exploiting trade opportunities among countries of the
South by undertaking trade promotion activities, devising payment
arrangements and expanding availability of trade information is
particularly important.  At the same time, there are many other
areas, such as communications, information, transportation,
investments, science and technology, environment, food and
agriculture, population, education, and human resource
development, in which South-South cooperation can be fostered and
promoted.

73.    AGREED Technical cooperation, arrangements to improve market
access, technical and financial assistance, sharing of knowledge
and technology, and exchange of information are some of the many
ways and actions by which developing countries that have been
able to achieve social and economic progress can assist those
that have been less successful.  The concept of triangular
cooperation, which involves inter alia technical, financial and
other support by developed countries and international
organizations for South-South cooperation, can also make a
significant contribution to the promotion of cooperation among
developing countries.  All these collaborative efforts should be
accorded high priority and increased support from the
international community and assistance from all sources,
including relevant multilateral institutions and non-state
actors.

              f)     Regional economic cooperation

74.    AGREED Regional economic integration and cooperation is
increasingly recognized as a means towards expanding trade and
investment opportunities, and for promoting sustained economic
growth and sustainable development and other forms of cooperation
between countries of various regions.  Regional arrangements can
also contribute to the sustained economic growth and sustainable
development of the world economy.

75.    AGREED, NO CHANGE Regional economic integration and
cooperation should be actively considered as a means of
eliminating obstacles to trade and investment and to foster
economic cooperation within a region.  However, there is the risk
that regional organizations may turn inward and that the world
will evolve into competing economic blocs.  Therefore, reductions
of barriers to trade and investment among members or participants
in regional groupings should be consistent with internationally
agreed rules, where applicable, and without detriment to other
economies.

76.    AGREED Regional economic groupings should be outward
oriented and supportive of the multilateral trading system.  This
requires a strong commitment by the international community, in
its pursuit of regional economic integration and cooperation, to
open regionalism within the framework of an equitable,
non-discriminatory and rule-based multilateral trading system.

77.    AGREED, NO CHANGE Regional cooperation provides also a
vehicle for addressing environmental and social issues of common
concern.  The development of common approaches to environmental
problems of a transboundary nature is particularly pertinent. 
National efforts in combatting poverty and unemployment and
promoting social integration can also benefit from regional
cooperation.  Furthermore, possibilities could be explored to use
regional fora as means of cooperation in supporting national
action to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental
freedoms, the rule of law and democratic institutions.

78.    AGREED, NO CHANGE Regional integration and cooperation
should be complementary and contributory to national policies and
to global multilateralism.  In order to take advantage of
regionalism, multilateral economic and trade institutions must
have the capacity to accommodate regional arrangements in their
structures.  The challenge is to use both global and regional
arrangements in a mutually supportive way.  


              g)     Development in agriculture, industry and the
                     services sector

79.    AGREED, NO CHANGE The agricultural, industrial and service
sectors need to be developed in a balanced manner.  While it is
recognized that the private sector is the primary contributor to
sectoral development, governments have an important role to play
in creating the enabling environment for sectoral development to
flourish particularly in the agricultural and services sectors. 
Besides promoting a dynamic and competitive domestic economy,
based on comparative advantages, and providing physical and
institutional infrastructures, domestic sectoral policies should
also seek to integrate the protection and conservation of the
environment and the achievement of social development objectives
into sectoral development plans.

80.    AGREED In implementing sectoral policies, particular
attention should be given to the potential of such policies to
generate employment and contribute towards the eradication of
poverty.  In this context, the important contribution of small
and medium size enterprises should be recognized.  It is also
essential to facilitate women's equal access to resources,
training, employment, market and trade and to strengthen their
economic capacity and commercial networks, as well as their equal
access to and equal opportunity to participate in scientific and
technological areas.  

81.    AGREED The agricultural sector remains the main source of
income for the majority of the population in developing
countries.  Its marginalization from the overall process of
economic development should be avoided.  Agricultural policies
should particularly aim at increasing food production, improving
access to food by low-income people and enhancing the income
generating potential of agriculture.  Developing countries, with
the support of the international community, should promote the
development of small and medium size agro- industries and
cooperatives and improve the processing, transportation,
distribution and marketing of food and other agricultural
products.  Governments should enhance, at the national and local
levels, rural women's income-generating potential by facilitating
their equal access to and control over productive resources,
land, credit, capital, property rights, development programmes
and cooperative structures.

82.    AGREED The industrial sector constitutes one of the key
factors in sustained economic growth and sustainable development
and in achieving social objectives.  In order to promote
industrial development, policies in this area should be geared
towards ensuring the legal and institutional framework that
fosters entrepreneurship and attracts foreign investment,
protecting intellectual property rights and facilitating
technology cooperation.  Moreover, special support should be
given to the promotion and development of environmentally
sustainable industry and attention needs to be directed to rural
industrial development, to industrialization programmes for
marginalized segments and regions, and to enhancing the role of
women in industrial development.   

83.    AGREED, NO CHANGE The services sector, is of increasing
importance for the economies of developing countries.  Developing
countries should continue to pursue policies to create conditions
for the development of their national services sector through the
modernization of the necessary infrastructures.  Measures should
include enhancing the efficiency of domestic sectors by
encouraging human resource development and by ensuring
appropriate investment policies.  

83 bis        [EU] All countries should enhance the efficiency of
domestic service sectors through greater internal and external
competition and by ensuring the transparency, effectiveness and
non-discriminatory nature of domestic regulations.  

84.    AGREED, NO CHANGE The domestic sectoral policies elaborated
by developing countries should be supported by a favourable
international action.  Trade liberalization should be pursued on
a global basis.  It should include the liberalization of market
access in sectors and modes of supply of exports of interest to
developing countries and should cover access to technology on a
commercial basis, to distribution channels and to information
networks.  With the growing internationalization of the services
sector, further action should be taken to facilitate the
participation of developing countries in international service
transactions.  

       2.   Social development

85.    AGREED Equitable social development is a necessary
foundation for development and an important factor for the
eradication of poverty.  The commitments agreed at the World
Summit for Social Development (WSSD) should be fully implemented.

86.    AGREED, NO CHANGE The ultimate goal of development is to
improve and enhance the human well being and the quality of life
of all people.  Social development is best pursued if Governments
actively promote empowerment and participation in a democratic
and pluralistic system respectful of all human rights and
fundamental freedoms.  Efforts to sustain broad-based economic
growth reinforce the promotion of social development.  Processes
to promote increased and equal economic opportunities, to avoid
exclusion and overcome socially divisive disparities while
respecting diversity are also part of an enabling environment for
social development.

87.    AGREED, NO CHANGE [ US reservation at the WSSD] It is the
primary responsibility of States to attain social development. 
But the international community, the United Nations system, the
multilateral financial institutions, all regional organizations
and local authorities, and all actors of civil society also need
to contribute their own share of efforts and resources to promote
social development and to reduce inequalities among people and
narrow the gap between developed and developing countries.  As
part of these shared responsibilities interested developed and
developing country-partners could agree on mutual commitments to
allocate on average 20% of ODA and 20% of national budget
respectively to basic social programmes.

              a)     Eradication of poverty and hunger
         
88.    AGREED Poverty continues to affect far too many people in
the world.  Hunger and malnutrition, ill-health, lack of access
to safe drinking water, low access to education and other public
services and resources, exclusion, lack of participation and
violence are some of the many aspects that characterize poverty. 
Widespread poverty affects the future of societies, as children
growing up in poverty are often permanently disadvantaged.  The
burden of poverty is disproportionately borne by women.  Though
poverty occurs in all countries, its extent and manifestation are
particularly severe in developing countries. 
  
89.    AGREED The goal of eradicating poverty in the world is an
ethical, social, political and economic imperative.  It can only
be achieved through a multi-dimensional and integrated approach,
that combines programmes targeted at people living in poverty
with policies and strategies that meet the basic needs of all,
strengthen their productive capacities, empower them to
participate in decision making on policies that affect them,
ensure access of all to productive resources, opportunities,
public services, and enhance social protection and reduce
vulnerability.  Sustained and broad-based economic growth, social
development and environmental protection are crucial for raising
living standards and for eliminating poverty in a sustained
manner.

90.    AGREED, NO CHANGE At international conferences organized by
the United Nations in the recent years, Governments committed
themselves to meet the basic needs of all.  High priority should
be placed on achieving and monitoring the goals and targets set
in the areas of education, health, food security, shelter and
access to safe drinking water and sanitation, in partnership with
major development actors.  These goals and targets will be
presented in annex I of this Agenda.

91.    AGREED At the WSSD, it was decided to formulate or
strengthen, preferably by 1996, national policies and strategies
geared to substantially reducing overall poverty in the shortest
possible time, to reducing inequalities, and eradicating absolute
poverty by a target date to be specified by each country. 
National budgets and policies should be designed with the
strategic objective of meeting basic needs, eradicating poverty
and reducing inequalities.

92.    AGREED, NO CHANGE The eradication of poverty requires
determined national actions.  At the same time, the international
community, bilaterally and through the multilateral financial
institutions and other international organizations, should
support the efforts of developing countries in the eradication of
poverty and in ensuring basic social protection.

93.    AGREED Commitments and targets agreed upon since 1990 to
achieve the overall goal of poverty eradication should be fully
implemented by Governments, in partnership with all development
actors, the United Nations system, including financial
institutions, NGOs and the international community as a whole. 
The UN system should make all efforts to enhance the coordination
of actions relative to poverty eradication, and to support
developing countries and other countries in that endeavour.

94.    AGREED, NO CHANGE Hunger and malnutrition continue to be the
fate of hundreds of millions of people most of whom live in
Africa and the least developed countries.  Eliminating hunger and
malnutrition and achieving food security are major objectives of
this agenda.  

94 bis [G77] The institutional structures of the United Nations
system must therefore be made more effective in eliminating
hunger and malnutrition in the world.

95.    AGREED, NO CHANGE The key to increasing food production lies
in sustainable development of the agricultural sector and in
improving market opportunities.  Solving the problems in
developing countries calls for improving agricultural
productivity, but also for financial incentives to encourage
investment in agriculture.  Also important is to promote secure
land tenure and access to resources and technology for farmers,
in particular women, whose role is crucial in food supply and
food security.  The macroeconomic and trade policy issues and the
social factors that constrain and limit the achievement of food
security in least developed countries should also be addressed.

96.    AGREED, NO CHANGE The international community should support
the efforts of Africa and least developed countries to increase
food security.  It should strive to ensure a coordinated and
rapid delivery of food assistance in situations of transitory
food insecurity, in full awareness of longer term national and
local development objectives and of the need to improve access to
food of the most vulnerable groups of the population.  The
forthcoming World Food Summit should contribute to determine
actions and measures to be taken.

              b)     Employment
         
97.    AGREED, NO CHANGE Creating adequately and appropriately
remunerated employment for all and reducing unemployment and
underemployment are essential for combatting poverty, and for
promoting social integration.
98.    [US] Pursuing the goal of full employment, should be a basic
priority of economic and social policies, so as to enable all men
and women to attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through
freely chosen productive employment and work.  At the WSSD,
Governments agreed on those common goals, and on a set of
objectives, policies and strategies to achieve them.

99.    AGREED, NO CHANGE  Sustained economic growth and sustainable
development as well as the expansion of productive employment
should go hand in hand.  The expansion of adequately and
appropriately remunerated employment and the reduction of
unemployment should be placed at the center of economic and
social policies with the participation of employers, workers and
their respective organizations.  The basic rights and interests
of workers and the quality of jobs should be ensured and the
relevant conventions of the International Labour Organization
(ILO) should be fully respected.  Also essential is to ensure
equal employment opportunities for women and men.  Special
efforts should be made against long term and structural
unemployment and underemployment, particularly among youth and
women.  In employment creation, employment development strategies
should take into account the role of self-employment,
entrepreneurship, small and medium size enterprises, and of the
informal sector.

100.   The United Nations should elaborate ways and means to
implement, follow-up and assess the outcome of the WSSD related
to the goal of full employment through expansion of productive
employment and the reduction of unemployment.  The General
Assembly, through ECOSOC with the support of the Commission on
Social Development and other relevant bodies as well as the World
Bank and the IMF [US] are to should be involved in the
implementation, follow-up, and assessment of international
commitments on employment.  The ILO, because of its mandate has a
special role to play in this regard.

              c)     Social integration
         
101.   AGREED, NO CHANGE  The aim of social integration is to
create "a society for all", where every individual, each with
rights and responsibilities, has an active role to play.  Since
the founding of the  United Nations, the quest for humane,
stable, safe, tolerant and just societies has shown a mixed
record.  While progress has been achieved in many areas, there
have also been negative developments, such as social polarization
and fragmentation, widening disparities and inequalities of
income and wealth within and among nations, marginalization of
people, families and social groups.  Even entire countries have
been negatively affected due to rapid social change, economic
transformation, migration and major dislocations, particularly in
areas of armed conflicts, and violence in its various
manifestations.
102.   These are compelling reasons for actions by Governments,
individually and, as appropriate, jointly, to foster social
cohesion, while recognizing and protecting diversity.  An
inclusive society must be based on respect for all human rights
and fundamental freedoms, on non-discrimination, tolerance,
equality of opportunity, solidarity, security, respect for
diversity, and on participation of all people, including the
vulnerable and disadvantaged groups and persons.  The problems of
crime, violence and abuse of and trafficking in drugs should also
be addressed.  International cooperation in the area of drugs
should be reinforced in accordance with the Global Programme of
Action adopted in the context of the international decade to
fight drug abuse.  [Mexico:] In this context, the proposal to
convene an international conference for the purpose of evaluating
the international situation and the status of international
cooperation against the illicit production, sale, demand, traffic
and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances
and related activities is of the highest importance.

              d)     Human resources development
         
103.   AGREED, NO CHANGE  At the World Conference on Education for
All and the World Summit for Social Development, Governments
committed themselves to ensuring universal access to quality
education, attaining the highest attainable standards of physical
and mental health, and to ensuring access of all to primary
health care.  This should include efforts to rectify inequalities
relating to social conditions, race, national origin, age,
disability, and between urban and rural areas.  Appropriate steps
should be taken to close the gender gap at all levels of
education, and to ensure the full access of women to health care
throughout the life cycle.

104.   AGREED, NO CHANGE  Quality education is critical for
enabling people to develop their full capacities in health and
dignity, and to participate actively in the social, economic, and
political process of development.  It is also crucial for
achieving the objectives of economic development.  Education and
vocational training are the key to higher productivity, and allow
faster and easier adaptation to technological and economic
change.  They are vital for job creation and combatting
unemployment, and for sustained growth.  

105.   AGREED, NO CHANGE  Resolute and vigorous national actions
are crucial for developing human resources.  Governments have
committed themselves to formulating or strengthening strategies
for the eradication of illiteracy and universalization of basic
education.  The link between education and training and labour
market policies should be strengthened, so as to facilitate the
adaptation of workers and employers to changing economic
conditions, technologies and labour markets.  Not only should the
importance of higher education and scientific research be
emphasized, but also of broadening the means and scope of basic
education, of enhancing the learning environment and of promoting
life-long learning.  

106.   AGREED, NO CHANGE  From the perspective of the economy at
large, it is of great importance that the requisite policies be
applied to ensure human resources development, including a
satisfactory level of education and training of the work-force
and increasing their receptivity to technological innovations, in
particular in the field of information technology.

107.   AGREED Efforts to achieve the goals of national
"Health-for-All" strategies, in line with the Alma Ata Conference
Declaration on Primary Health Care should be expedited.  The need
for an integrated and intersectoral approach to health strategies
has been recognized, as well as the importance of strengthening
national and international efforts to prevent and combat
epidemics and other diseases that are endemic in many developing
countries, and in particular to address more effectively malaria
and the spread of HIV/AIDS .

108.    AGREED, NO CHANGE  At previous international conferences,
Governments agreed upon a set of goals and objectives for
national and international efforts in the area of education and
literacy, and health, in particular for maternal and child health
and the control of major communicable diseases.  We are committed
to achieving those goals within the timeframe we agreed to.

109.   AGREED, NO CHANGE  Enhanced international cooperation is
also called for to advance human resource development.  Concerted
efforts should be made to support the efforts of developing
countries, especially the least developed countries, and other
countries in need, to develop their human resources.  Developed
countries have an important role to play.  Human resources
development and institution building can also be promoted through
cooperation among developing countries.  International
organizations, including the international financial
institutions, must give high priority to supporting the
objectives of human resources development, and integrate them
into their policies, programmes and operations.  Support might
include inter alia exchange of information, training and skill
development programmes, as well as the provision of other forms
of assistance.

              e)     Human settlements

[Reserved pending prepcom for Habitat II or Habitat II]

110.   The right to adequate housing as a basic human right is
enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 
In all countries however, human settlements, and more
particularly urban areas, face -in varying degrees- serious
deficiencies in the provision of adequate shelter, healthy living
environments and basic environmental infrastructure. 
Particularly severe is the situation in least developed
countries, where the vast majority of the population lacks
shelter or has shelter unfit for human habitation.

111.   There is a clear and close linkage between human settlements
and poverty, environmental conditions and lack of access to land
and secure tenure.  Also, inadequate living conditions are a
primary cause of social conflict, degradation of personal safety
and violent disruptions of civil society.  The international
community has a major role in ensuring that these linkages are
made in international policies and actions.  It is also important
at the local and national level to ensure an integrated approach
to human settlements by means of partnership among national and
local governments, other public institutions, the private sector,
communities and non governmental organizations.

112.   The Global Strategy for Shelter to the year 2000 contains
commitments to improve the availability of affordable and
adequate shelter for all.  In Agenda 21 the importance of
promoting sustainable human settlements to improve the living
environment of all people is stressed.  At the International
Conference on Population and Development, a number of
recommendations were agreed upon to inter alia foster a more
balanced spatial distribution of the population and promote
sustainable management of urban areas.  The forthcoming United
Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) must build
on the outcome of previous conferences and ensure an integrated
approach to improving living conditions.

113.   Technical cooperation activities in the human settlement
sector considerably help to generate the internal resources
needed to improve the living and working environment of all
people, as emphasized by Agenda 21.  Enhanced financial and other
forms of support) should be provided to ensure the implementation
of the Global Strategy on Shelter for the year 2000 and of the
outcome of Habitat II, and to ensure access to safe drinking
water and sanitation to all by the year 2000, the target date set
by the World Summit for Children.

114.   The UN system, in cooperation with all States and with
relevant international and non-governmental organizations also
has a key role to play in the provision of adequate shelter and
sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
as well as in rural areas.

       3.   Empowerment of women

115.   AGREED, NO CHANGE  While the status of women has advanced in
some important respects in the past decade, progress has been
uneven, inequalities between men and women have persisted and
major obstacles remain to women's empowerment, with serious
consequences for the well being of all people.

115 bis.      AGREED The Declaration and Platform for Action adopted
at the fourth World Conference on Women are important
contributions to the advancement of women world-wide and must be
translated into effective action by all States, the United
Nations system and other organizations concerned as well as non-
governmental organizations.

116.   AGREED Empowering women is essential for achieving the goals
of sustainable development centered on human beings.  It requires
appropriate public policies to ensure that women enjoy all human
rights and fundamental freedoms, participate fully and equally in
all spheres of public life, including in decision making.  Public
policies to promote women's economic potential and independence
and their full and equal participation in development are also
essential for women's empowerment.  Before decisions are taken in
the areas of social and economic development and of the
environment, an analysis should be made of their impact on women
and men respectively.

117.   Measures should be taken to ensure the full enjoyment by
women and the girl child of all human rights and fundamental
freedoms.  All States, [Canada:] that have not yet done so,
should be encouraged to become party to should ratify and accede
to and ensure the implementation of the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and to
other relevant instruments, [Canada, EU:] if possible by the year
2000 so that universal ratification of the Convention can be
achieved by the year 2000, and to avoid as far as possible to
resort to  reservations.  [EU:] States should avoid and withdraw
reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention or otherwise incompatible with international treaty
law.  Measures should be taken to secure women's equal enjoyment
of [EU:] their economic rights.  [Canada:] [to replace last
sentence, or to be placed in paragraph 115] Measures should be
taken to ensure women's equal access to economic and social
resources through full respect for their human rights and
fundamental freedoms.

118.   Measures are needed to ensure women's equal access to
education and to training and retraining.  The targets set by the
Fourth World Conference on Women for achieving gender equality in
primary and secondary education should be implemented.  Measures
should be taken to ensure women's equal [EU] rights with men and
equal access to economic resources, including, inter alia, land,
[EU] the right to inheritance, credit, sciences and technology,
vocational training, information, communication and markets. 
Eliminating occupational segregation and wage inequality,
creating a flexible work environment that facilitates the
restructuring of work patterns and the sharing of family
responsibilities, are also major goals.  Methods should be
developed for assessing the value of unremunerated work outside
national accounts.  Policies and development strategies that
address the needs and efforts of women living in poverty should
be reviewed, adopted or maintained in line with the
recommendations of the Beijing Platform of Action.

119.   AGREED Measures are also needed to achieve women's full
participation in decision making processes in all walks of life
and at all levels.  The success of policies and measures aimed at
supporting or strengthening the promotion of gender equality and
the improvement of the status of women should be based on the
integration of the gender perspective in general policies
relating to all spheres of society as well as the implementation
of positive measures with adequate institutional and financial
support at all levels.  Enhanced participation by women will also
contribute to ensuring that all policies and programmes be
designed, implemented and monitored in full awareness of their
possible or actual gender specific effects. 

120.   The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action should be
urgently implemented in its entirety.  Adequate mobilization of
resources at the national and international levels as well as new
and additional resources to developing countries from all
available funding mechanisms to strengthen the advancement of
women are crucial required [EU].  The implementation the Nairobi
Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women - aimed
at achieving equality by the year 2000 - should be accelerated. 
Also called for is implementation of the relevant sections of
Agenda 21 and of the Programmes of Action adopted by the
International Conference on Population and Development and by the
World Summit for Social Development, as well as of the Geneva
Declaration on the Economic Advancement of Rural Women and the
Vienna World Conference on Human Rights.

       4.   Rights of the child
    
121.   AGREED Children are the most important resource for the
future.  Greater investment in children by parents and societies
is essential to the achievement of sustained economic growth,
social development and environmental protection.  Therefore, the
promotion, to the fullest extent, of the health, well-being, and
potential of all children, adolescents and youth is a crucial
objective.  The international community expressed its commitment
to that objective when it adopted the Convention on the Rights of
the Child and at the World Summit for Children.  We call for full
implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and
encourage States to remove all reservations to that Convention.

122.    AGREED  Measures must be undertaken by States, with the
support of the international community, to achieve, by the year
2000, the goals contained in the plan of action adopted at the
World Summit for Children and to reach the goals set by
subsequent international fora for the year 2000 and beyond.  The
rights of children, must be ensured with special attention paid
to the particular situation of girls.  Their rights to a standard
of living adequate for their health and well-being, including
food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social
services and their rights to education must be ensured,
recognizing the rights, duties and responsibilities of parents
and other persons legally responsible for children to provide in
a manner consistent with the evolving capacity of the child,
appropriate direction.  The efforts of developing countries to
achieve those major goals must be supported.

123.   Exploitation, maltreatment, child prostitution and child
abuse should be combatted, and the root causes of these phenomena
have to be addressed.  Actions are also needed for improving the
situation and protecting the rights of children in especially
difficult circumstances and [Canada:] for allowing family
reunification  and ensure that the vital importance of family
reunification is recognized, in line with the [Canada] Convention
on the Rights of the Child 1951 Convention relating to the Status
of Refugees.  

124.   Another key issue with regard to the Rights of the Child is
child labour, which is pervasive in many parts of the world. 
Overall socio-economic conditions, income uncertainty, women's
health and education, schooling opportunities, and the size of
households all have an impact on child labour.  Abolishing child
labour requires setting specific targets dates for eliminating
all forms of child labour that are contrary to accepted
international standards, and in particular article 32 of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child, for ensuring the full
enforcement of relevant existing laws, and, where appropriate,
for enacting the legislation necessary to implement the
Convention on the Rights of the Child, and relevant ILO
standards.  [EU:] All necessary measures should be taken to
eliminate all extreme forms of child labour such as forced
labour, bonded labour and other forms of slavery.  / [G77 to
accommodate EU amendment:] In this regard all necessary measures
should be taken at the national level.  National efforts in
dealing with the problem of working children can be complemented
by international support measures which may include provision of
education facilities as well as compensatory support measures for
their families.

       5.   Population and development and international migration


       [EU proposes to reorder Section 5 in the following order: 
Para 128, Para 125 -1st and 2nd sentences, Para 126, Para 125
(remaining text as amended)]
125.   The Programme of Action adopted by the International
Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) emphasized the
importance of translating the Conference's recommendations into
actions at all levels.  This will involve decisive actions by
governments and increased support from the international
community.  The effective implementation of the Programme of
Action will require an increased commitment of financial
resources, both domestically and externally [EU: stop sentence
here] and, in this context,.//  The developed countries have
committed themselves to complement the national efforts of
developing countries on population and development [Canada:]  and
to intensify their efforts to transfer new and additional
resources to the developing countries, in accordance with the
relevant provisions of the Programme of Action, in order to
ensure that population and development objectives and goals are
met.  [Canada:] The ICPD Programme of Action includes agreement
to increase substantially the availability of international
financial assistance in the field of population and development
in order to ensure that population and development objectives and
goals are met.  

[EU: delete text after "externally" (//) replace with:] Efforts
should be made to provide new and additional financial resources
from all available funding sources and mechanisms including
multilateral, bilateral and private sources in order to implement
the efforts of developing countries on population and
development.  
126.   NO AMENDMENTS In this connection, Governments should commit
themselves at the highest political level to achieving the goals
and objectives contained in the Programme of Action and should
take a lead role in coordinating the implementation, monitoring
and evaluation of follow-up actions.  The Programme of Action
endorsed the crucial role of NGOs, reflected in an effective
partnership between government and NGOs in all aspects of
population and development related programmes and policies.  The
capacity of NGOs for entering into such partnership needs to be
enhanced.

127.   The ICPD and Agenda 21, among others, affirm that
demographic trends cannot be considered in isolation from
development.  Therefore, population programmes are not simply
about numbers and demographic targets, but rather about the human
beings who are at the centre of population and development
activities.  Consequently, the ICPD Programme of Action is
grounded in a development [EU] and human rights framework and
underscores the need to reconcile the aspirations and
requirements of individual women and men with long-term
development objectives. 

128.   Countries have learnt much about the relationships between
population growth and sustainable development.  There is general
agreement that persistent widespread poverty as well as serious
social and gender [EU] inequities inequalities have significant
influences on, and are in turn influenced by, demographic
parameters such as population growth, structure and distribution. 
[EU] Gender equality including full and equal access to education
by women, and universal access to health care services, including
those relating to reproductive health services, are essential to
achieving population and development objectives.   [EU]
Explicitly Furthermore, integrating population into economic and
development strategies will both speed up the pace of sustainable
development and poverty eradication and contribute to the
achievement of population objectives and an improved quality of
life of the population.

129.   Successful reproductive health care including family
planning programmes must be based on the principle of free and
responsible choice of family size and child spacing which
includes the ability of men and women to make informed decisions
on the number and spacing of their children.  Such choice calls
for access to the widest possible range of health care programmes
and services and for greater support for reproductive health
services [EU] and appropriate educational programmes.

130.   NO AMENDMENTS Concomitant support is needed for stronger,
better coordinated global actions against major diseases that
take a heavy toll of human lives, such as malaria, tuberculosis,
cholera, typhoid and HIV/AIDS.  In this context, the joint and
co-sponsored United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS should be
brought into full operation as quickly as possible and the
relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and the Economic and
Social Council on malaria should be implemented. 

131.   NO AMENDMENTS The international community also has a vital
role to play in attaining the objectives of the ICPD Programme of
Action regarding international migration and development, which
reflects the special importance attached to the impact of
international migration on both countries of origin and receiving
States.  The flow of people between countries, and indeed within
countries affects, and is affected by, the development process. 
As underlined in the Programme of Action, international economic
imbalances, poverty and environmental degradation, combined with
the absence of peace and security, violations of human rights and
the varying degrees of development of judicial and democratic
institutions are all factors in the movement of people.

132.   AGREED There is a need to formulate or strengthen measures
at the national level to ensure respect for and protection of the
human rights of migrants, migrant workers and their families, to
eliminate the increasing acts of racism and xenophobia in sectors
of many societies, and to promote greater harmony and tolerance
in all societies.  Ultimately, the long-term manageability of
international migration hinges on making the option to remain in
one's country a viable one for all people.  The possibility of
convening an international conference on migration and
development could be considered.


       6.  Environment and development

              a)     Full implementation of Agenda 21 and other
                     outcomes of UNCED

133.   AGREED The consensus on and basis for actions at global,
regional, subregional, national and local levels to ensure
sustainable development has been established by the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in
Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and
the Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for
a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and
Sustainable Development of all Types of Forests, as well as in
all international conventions on the environment and development. 
Priority must be given to the prompt and full implementation of
these commitments and recommendations. 

134.   At UNCED an integrated approach towards development and
environment was adopted, whereby the protection of the
environment would constitute an integral part of the development
process, and could not be viewed in isolation from it. [EU]
Depletion and degradation of nature and its resources endanger
the prospects for development, for our generation and even more
so for the future generations, whose well being should not be
sacrificed to present day needs and short term political goals. 
The cost of reversal will be far higher than the cost of
prevention.  Therefore, sustainable development strategies and
programmes which aim at integrating environmental protection
requirements into economic, social and development policies
should be formulated and implemented at all levels [Canada, EU:
break sentence here].  

[Alternatives for penultimate sentence:] [EU] While recognizing
that  For developing countries, eradication of poverty and
economic and social development remain the first and overriding
priorities and should be integral components of sustainable
development strategies. //  [Canada:] While recognizing that for
developing countries, eradication of poverty and economic and
social development remain the first and overriding priorities in
order to achieve sustainable development, environmental
protection constitutes an integral part of the development
process.  

[Last sentence] Developing countries have [Mexico] in accordance
with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of
international law, the [Mexico] sovereign right to utilize [EU
(moved from end of sentence):] , in an environmentally sound
manner, their resources which are vital  for their [G77]
sustained economic growth and [G77] sustainable development [EU]
in an environmentally sound manner// [Mexico, after "right"] ...
to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own
environmental and development policies.

135.   Poverty, which affects most of all developing countries, is
closely related to environmental and natural resource degradation
and should have the highest priority on the international agenda. 
[Canada]  The essential task of eradicating poverty is an
indispensable requirement for sustainable development. 
Strategies aimed at poverty eradication are also necessary to
prevent the overexploiting of natural resources out of sheer
survival strategies, which leads to the degradation of resources
required to sustain populations over the long term. 
Unsustainable consumption and production patterns, which
characterize particularly the industrialized societies, are
equally closely related to environmental and natural resource
degradation.  Promoting changes in such consumption and
production patterns should also be of the highest priority. 
[Canada]  All countries should strive to promote sustainable
consumption and production patterns; Developed countries bear a
special responsibility and should take the lead in this area
[Canada] by taking effective measures for change in their own
countries.  Action is required to promote changes in
unsustainable production and consumption patterns both through
behavioural changes and through the promotion of internalizing
environmental costs, through the use of economic instruments and
appropriate regulatory and other measures [Canada] and
incentives.

       [MEXICO] proposes to delete the last sentence and replace
with the following:
Action is required to promote changes in unsustainable production
and consumption patterns through behavioural changes.  The latter
could be accomplished, inter alia, by implementing command and
control schemes, by promoting the internationalization of
environmental costs and through the use of economic instruments.

136.   In general, the financing for the implementation of Agenda
21 will come from a country's own public and private sectors. 
[G77, on EU amendment:] Provision to developing countries of...
[EU, moved from latter part of sentence:] ... Substantial new and
additional funding for sustainable development and implementation
of Agenda 21 will be required /  [US: to advise on part of Agenda
21 to be used in this sentence].  For developing countries, [EU]
particularly in particular the least developed countries, ODA is
a main source of external funding [EU] and substantial new and
additional funding for sustainable development and implementation
of Agenda 21 will be required.  So far, the financial resources
provided to developing countries have fallen short of
expectations and requirements set forth in Agenda 21.  Developed
countries should honour their commitments on the provision of
financial resources, as laid down in paragraph 13 of Chapter 33
of Agenda 21.  Both domestic budgets and development assistance,
including by the United Nations system, should be consistent with
and supportive of the objectives of sustainable development.  The
potential of innovative, additional financial resources should be
urgently explored.

137.          The Global Environment Facility (GEF), whose additional
grant and concessional funding is designed to achieve global
environmental benefits, should [EU] meet cover the agreed
incremental costs of relevant activities under Agenda 21, [EU] ,
in accordance with the GEF instrument, in particular for
developing countries.  The restructured GEF with replenishment
commitments of US$ 2 billion, constitutes a [US] minimal first
step //  [EU] the substantial first step// in providing resources
to address global environment concerns.  [EU]  The prime task now
is for the GEF to embark on its operational phase in line with
its agreed operational strategy and the guidance from the
Conventions for which it is the interim financial mechanism. 
[EU] There is a need to speed up project approval procedures and
to ensure the full implementation of committed amounts, as well
as to ensure that the GEF's operational strategies are in line
with the Conventions for which it continues to act as the interim
financial mechanism.

138.   AGREED Another essential dimension of the UNCED commitments
concerns concrete measures for the transfer of environmentally
sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms,
including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually
agreed.  The governments of developed countries have a major role
to play, both as a conduit for such transfers and by providing
market incentives for the private sector.  Recognizing the
importance of protecting intellectual property rights and taking
into account the special needs of developing countries are two
essential considerations in the transfer of environmentally sound
technology.

139.   AGREED The UNCED process culminated in a new global
partnership for sustainable development.  Implementing the
recommendations of Agenda 21 is essential for strengthening this
partnership based on common but differentiated responsibilities. 
In this partnership, the special situation and needs of
developing countries, particularly the least developed countries
and those most environmentally vulnerable, must receive special
priority.

140.   AGREED The United Nations system has a key role in
stimulating and supporting countries and major groups in the
implementation of Agenda 21, in helping to build further
consensus and in preparing the ground for standard setting on
issues of sustainable development.  

              b)     Implementation of international conventions on the
                     environment

141.    International legal instruments for the regulation of
activities affecting the environment form an essential framework
for practical efforts by the international community to reduce
environmental degradation and promote sustainable development. 
[Mexico, as reviewed in informal informals] In this context, it
is important to promote further the development and
implementation of environmental regulations consistent with the
precautionary approach as contained in the Rio Declaration.   

142.   AGREED The full implementation of these instruments will be
an important contribution to ensuring the sustainable use of
land, marine and air resources, including through reduction and
recycling of waste and through nature management.  Governments
should become Parties to and comply with the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on
Biological Diversity, signed at UNCED.  They should also become
Parties to and implement the United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought
and/or Desertification, Particularly In Africa; the Basel
Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
Wastes and their Disposal; and the Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.  Countries are
encouraged to sign and become Parties to the Agreement for the
Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention
on the Law of the Sea relating to the Conservation and Management
of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and
to implement this agreement.  Implementation of the Programme of
Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing
States is also called for.

143.   Developed countries parties to the United Nations Convention
to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious
Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly In Africa;
bilaterally, and also by making use of the Global Mechanism
established by the Convention, and of international
institutions,..
[EU, Canada:] must provide // [EU:] should support the effort of
..  // [Canada] should endeavour to provide substantial financial
resources and other form of support to assist..// [US:] must
provide assistance to.. // ... affected developing countries
Parties, in particular African countries, to develop and
implement their own long-term plans and strategies to combat
desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.

144.   Developed countries should also accelerate their financial
[G77:] commitments and [G77:] cooperative cooperation efforts to
support developing countries parties in implementing the
Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change.  [G77:]  In respect of
the Convention on Biological Diversity, developed countries
should initiate agreements with developing countries counterparts
for the sharing of benefits from the use of biological resources
in accordance with the Convention.  [G77] In respect of the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, priority
should be given to the full implementation of the commitments in
the UNFCCC in support of its central objectives.  Priority should
also be given to the strengthening of the commitments in para
4.2(a) of the Framework Convention through the adoption of a
protocol or other legal instrument containing targets and time-
tables for the reduction and stabilization of greenhouse gases in
accordance with the Berlin Mandate.  Priority should be given to
the issue of biosafety, [Mexico] the protection of traditional
knowledge and practices of indigenous and local communities
relevant to conservation and sustainable use of biological
resources, the development of appropriate guidelines as well as
to ensuring access to and transfer of appropriate
biotechnologies.

145.   Action towards sustainable development is an evolving
process: additional commitments, actions and instruments may be
required in the light of new global, regional [G77:] and
subregional or national developments and needs.  But, this should
in no way delay the implementation of what has been agreed.  [EU,
to insert here or in paragraph 140:] For example, the
International Panel on Forests was established in 1995 in order
to conduct an in-depth review of a key area. 



       7.  Humanitarian issues and development

145 bis [G77] Many humanitarian emergencies reflect the
underlying  crisis in development facing developing countries. 
Therefore, humanitarian asssistance should be accomplished by a
renewal of the commitment to economic growth and sustainable
development of developing countries.

146.   Humanitarian assistance is essential for the victims of
natural disasters and other emergencies including major
technological and man-made disasters. It is also important for
development.  Emergency measures should be seen as a first step
towards long term development.  [G77:] The General Assembly has
recognized [EU:] the impartiality of humanitarian assistance and
the necessity for the international community to provide
assistance to people in humanitarian needs, and the obligation of
states to their own people in humanitarian crises.  It has also
identified guiding principles and ways for strengthening the
coordination of the emergency humanitarian assistance of the
United Nations system.

146 bis [G77:] The General Assembly has recognized that
humanitarian asssistance must be provided with the principles of
humanity, neutrality and impartiality.  It has also recognized
that the sovereignty, territorial integrity and national unity of
States must be fully respected in accordance with the charter of
the United Nations.  Humanitarian assistance should be provided
with the consent of the affected country and in principle on the
basis of an appeal by the affected country.

146 ter [G77:] At the same time, each State has the
responsibility first and foremost to take care of the victims of
natural disasters and other emergencies occurring on its
territories.  Hence, the affected State has the primary role in
the initiation, organization, coordination, and implementation of
humanitarian assistamce within its territory.

              a)     Continuum from relief to rehabilitation and
                     development

147.   [EU former para 149] Where emergency situations arise, rapid
provision of humanitarian assistance by the international
community remains, of course, imperative.  However, this form of
assistance must be planned with a view to an equally rapid
transition to rehabilitation and reconstruction and be part of
the continuum concept which aims at resuming development at the
earliest opportunity.  At the same time, it should be recognized
that the continuum concept may require different approaches in
different situations.

148.   [EU former para 147] Prevention, preparedness, emergency
response, [G77:] economic recovery and rehabilitation are all
part of a comprehensive response to reduce developing country
vulnerability to emergencies [EU:] and to reorient the recent
trend of increased global expenditure on relief at the expense of
long term development programmes.  Thus far, however, the
international community has mostly only been able to react to
emergencies through the provision of humanitarian assistance
which can only alleviate human suffering in a short-term
perspective.

149.          [EU former para 148] Many emergencies reflect the
underlying crisis of development facing many developing countries
and which needs to be addressed by governments and the
international community if the emergency is not to recur. 
Therefore, in order to prevent the occurrence or recurrence of
emergency situations, support is required for medium and long
term social and economic development.  Renewed commitments to
economic growth and sustainable development of developing
countries will contribute to disaster prevention and
preparedness, including [G77:] , inter alia, support for food
security, [G77:] strengthening health and education systems in
affected countries, as well as access to education, the building
up of national institutions, and for the rule of law as well as
for strengthening the capacity of recipient institutions to
manage emergency situations.

150.   In virtually all post emergency situations, resettlement of
refugees, displaced persons and other disaster victims as well as
the restoration of physical infrastructure are some of the major
conditions for recovery.  In case of post-conflict peace-building
situations, programmes such as  demining and demobilization and
reintegration of ex-combatants are essential for moving forward
in the continuum towards development.  Equally important are
restoring public institutions, police and judicial systems, and
resuming economic and social development in preventing possible
resurgence of conflicts situations. [EU:] Confidence building and
reconciliation measures in support of peace building efforts
should also be undertaken.

151.   NO AMENDMENTS Although certain intermediate phases can be
established, the distinction between different stages of the
emergency to development continuum is often vague.  This requires
a comprehensive and coordinated response not only to
rehabilitation and reconstruction but also to development needs,
by the United Nations system, including the Bretton Woods
institutions, the international community and governments.  The
mandates of humanitarian agencies and development organizations
must be delineated clearly in order to counter the tendency of
these agencies and organizations to extend mandates, either from
relief to development or vice-versa, without having necessarily
the institutional capacity to effectively take on such new roles.

152.   In order for the international community to respond rapidly
and effectively to humanitarian emergencies at the various stages
of the continuum, the establishment of an international network
of voluntary humanitarian relief teams that can be deployed
rapidly to cope with humanitarian emergencies, such as the white
helmet initiative [G77:] acting within the framework of the
United Nations volunteers, could be considered.

              b)     Early warning, prevention, preparedness and
                     reduction of natural disasters

153.   NO AMENDMENTS In recent years, with, in many areas, ever
larger populations at risk, disasters have had increasingly major
impacts in terms of human and economic losses, impoverishment and
long term displacement of populations.  The commitments of the
Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World, adopted by the World
Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, which has defined
concrete actions for disaster reduction, should be implemented.  

154.   AGREED Disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness are
of primary importance for reducing the need of disaster relief. 
They should become an integral part of national strategies and
programmes for sustainable development.  There should be greater
efforts to enhance national capabilities for early warning and
disaster mitigation, which should be supported with adequate
financial resources and transfer of technologies to developing
countries and, as appropriate, countries with economies in
transition.

155.   NO AMENDMENTS Enhanced subregional, regional and
international cooperation are essential for disaster
preparedness.  Prevention, mitigation and preparedness of natural
disaster, and actions to implement the Yokohama strategy, could
be integrated into the country strategy note, where appropriate. 
A coordinated and timely preventive response of Governments, non
governmental and other organizations and agencies and communities
requires strengthening of the early-warning potential of the
United Nations system.

              c)     Response to other humanitarian emergencies

156.    AGREED Humanitarian emergency situations have become more
frequent, more widespread, more complex and long lasting,
combining interstate and internal conflicts, large scale
displacements of people, mass famine, disruption of economic,
political and social institutions, and, in some cases natural
disasters.  A result has been that a growing percentage of
development assistance is being devoted to such complex
emergencies.  There is a need to avoid the situation in which
such a trend has a negative impact on long term development
programmes.

157.   NO AMENDMENTS The response of the international community to
complex humanitarian emergencies has become better coordinated,
more effective and more efficient.  The United Nations plays a
central role in the international response to this daunting
challenge, working closely with other international agencies. 
The creation of the Department of Humanitarian Affairs
illustrates the determination of the United Nations to respond
more effectively to this task.  The coordinating role of this
Department among the various relevant agencies should be further
strengthened, including by developing formal memoranda of
understanding with them.

158.   NO AMENDMENTS Further progress requires the provision of
adequate contingency funds and the establishment of planning and
logistical mechanisms to allow a faster and more effective
response to complex emergencies.

159.   Ways also have to be found to address basic needs during
complex emergencies.  Issues such as displaced persons and
continuing provision of safe drinking water and sanitation, which
are not under the direct mandate of humanitarian agencies, should
also be addressed.  Coordination and clear mandates and
responsibilities, particularly in the field, are also essential
in cases where there is a humanitarian assistance component to a
peace-keeping operation.  [EU:] Peace keeping, civilian,
humanitarian and political activities are all part of the
integrated process of peace building. [G77:] Special attention
should be given to the observance of teh principles and norms of
international humanitarian law.

160.   The [G77:] effective delivery assistance of non governmental
organizations and volunteers in situation of complex emergencies
should be further recognized as [G77:] an integral a complement
part of the coordinated international, regional and subregional
response and incorporated [G77:] , as appropriate, into the
programming of actions.

              d)     Refugees and displaced persons

161.   The number of refugees and displaced persons has been
rapidly increasing due to a number of complex factors including
[G77:] underdevelopment, human rights violations, armed
conflicts, and environmental degradation linked to man-made and
natural disasters.  Most of the refugees find asylum in
developing countries [UKRAINE:] and some countries with economies
in transition, often imposing an enormous burden on those States
which already face difficult economic and social conditions to
begin with.  International support for activities of recipient
countries for refugees and displaced persons is hence a
necessity.

162.   NO AMENDMENTS The root causes of movements of refugees and
displaced persons should be tackled in a coordinated and
integrated manner.  A durable solution to the plight of the
present large numbers of refugees and asylum seekers should be
found.  Their needs as regards protection in accordance with
internationally recognized standards and with national law, as
well as assistance, must receive the necessary support. 
Governments should strive to meet their basic needs, build their
self sufficiency.  The conditions for voluntary repatriation of
refugees and returnees in safety and dignity, and for ensuring
adequate reception arrangements and smooth reintegration, should
be created.

       8.     Participatory approach to development

163.   There has been a multiplication of non-state actors in
development - those of the civil society - who are playing an
increasingly important role in development.  While the State
should retain overall responsibility for policy formulation in
the economic, social and environmental spheres, including the
correction of market failures, the provision of public goods, the
creation of a favourable enabling environment for the private
sector as well as a favourable legal and regulatory framework,
[G77:] its involvement in activities that can be performed more
effectively by the private sector and other major groups should
be limited as much as possible. it should also encourage
effective participation by the private sector and major groups in
activities which complement and reinforce national objectives.

164.   [G77:] successful and lasting development depends on p
Participation, as a means to secure development goals [G77:]
contributes to successful and lasting development.  It
contributes to equity by involving people living in poverty and
other groups in planning and implementation.  Participatory
decision making, together with the rule of law and transparent
[US:] , representative and accountable governance, is an
essential requirement for the effectiveness of development
policies.

165.   NO AMENDMENTS Full participation in society should be
achieved through the promotion and protection by Governments of
all human rights and fundamental freedoms, [US query] including
the right to development, bearing in mind the interdependent and
mutually reinforcing relationship between democracy and respect
for human rights.  Governments should make public institutions
more responsive to people's needs.  Therefore, full respect for
all human rights and fundamental freedoms, in accordance with the
conclusions of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
should be promoted.

166.   NO AMENDMENTS There is a large potential benefit to be
derived from increased participation.  In order for it to be
realized, governments should establish institutional frameworks
and decentralized processes, that allow their people greater
involvement in the decisions that affect their lives.   This
requires that Governments give adequate support to the
administration of justice as well as to public administration
which should be responsive to the requirements of their people. 
167.   [G77:] Encouraging Decentralization of public institutions
and services [G77:] facilitates local participation and allows to
better respond to a level that, compatible with the overall
responsibilities, priorities and objectives of Governments,
responds properly to local needs [G77:] and facilitates local
participation.  In this context, the adopting of measures to keep
under review. within each country's constitutional framework, the
national, provincial, municipal, and local capacity and
capability in raising revenue, and allocating resources to
promote local initiatives, is also an important element of
participation.  The creation or strengthening of responsive,
adequately financed and effective local government structures,
and the devolution of power to those structures, compatible with
the overall responsibilities, priorities and objectives of
Governments, are also important elements of participation. 
Governments [G77:] , when they consider it appropriate, could
should work on decentralization programmes with the support of
donors [G77:] and international institutions.  The international
institutions have a role to play in support of the participatory
approach at the local level.

168.   The key to participatory development means fulfilling the
potential of people by enlarging their capabilities, and this
necessarily implies empowerment of people, enabling them to
participate actively in their own development.  In order to
fulfill their potential, people [G77:] , especially thiose that
who are vulnerable and disadvantaged, must participate actively
in [G77:] constructing their own autonomous, democratic
organizations, including their political organizations
establishing and maintaining independent organizations
representing their interests, within each country's
constitutional framework.  Political empowerment is an integral
aspect of participatory development.

169.   NO AMENDMENTS A vigorous civil society is indispensable for
popular participation at all levels and an essential component of
any successful development strategy.  Community organizations,
business and workers' organizations, NGOs and self-help groups
must be actively involved.  Governments should view them as
important actors and partners in development.  Greater
accountability and transparency in such organizations' activities
would be helpful in this regard.  In countries where the
participation of civil society is weak, it should be a major
purpose of public policy to strengthen it.

170.   Participation is also necessary in international economic
decision making.  Effective participation of all countries in
multilateral surveillance is necessary to ensure sustained
economic growth [US: in the context of] and sustainable
development.  International institutions should, in accordance
with their respective charters, [EU: encourage attain a truly
democratic and international character in terms of a broadened
and strengthened participation of developing countries in their
[EU:] work decision-making processes.

       9.   Actions related to countries in special situations     

171.    For international cooperation for [EU/Japan:] sustainable
development to be effective,...
[G77:] ...the variety of development experience among developing
countries the country-specific conditions and development
experiences among countries...
...the variety of development experience among [Russia:]
developing countries [Russia:], particularly among developing
countries...
has to be taken into account.  While this requires that external
assistance be tailored [G77:] according to the needs and
conditions of each [Russia:] developing country, at the same time
a comprehensive development approach which goes beyond Official
Development Assistance alone is also necessary.
172.   NO AMENDMENTS Action on many fronts is needed.  A
combination of grant aid, concessional loans and technical
assistance which can contribute to the financing of the necessary
economic and social infrastructure, together with strategies
designed inter alia to increase exports earnings, attract foreign
direct investment and reduce external debt, can provide
sufficient conditions for development.

172bis        [EU:] The critical situation of Africa and the least
developed countries requires that priority should be given to
such countries in international cooperation for development and
in the allocation of ODA.  These countries should implement at
the national level structural adjustment policies which include
social development goals as well as effective development
strategies that establish a more favourable climate for trade and
investment, give priority to human resources development and
further promote the development of democratic institutions. 
These national efforts should be supported by the international
community.

              a)     Africa 

173.   NO AMENDMENTS The critical socio-economic condition in
Africa concerns the international community as a whole and
requires global partnership and solidarity to address and solve. 
Although Africa is faced with enormous problems, it also has
great potential, both in human and natural resources, for
sustained economic growth and sustainable development.  The
obstacles to the socio-economic development of Africa are well
known.  Tackling these problems and paving the way to accelerated
and self-sustaining growth and sustainable development through
decisive implementation of commitments and actions have, however,
been lacking.

174.   The external debt problems of [EU:] many African countries
Africa require [EU:] further urgent attention.  [EU:] Bilateral
debts owed to official creditors remain major problems.  The
measures taken by the Paris Club including the Naples terms
should... 

[EU:] be further implemented in a full and constructive manner

[Japan] be enhanced and continue to be applied to the largest
number of countries possible.

[Canada:] be implemented fully and constructively/as generously
as possible be enhanced and continue to be applied to the largest
number of countries possible.

[US:] be enhanced and continue to be applied to the largest
possible number of countries undertaking structural adjustment
programmes possible.
[EU:] New initiatives, including proposals for debt cancellation,
should be supported.  Particular attention should be devoted to
multilateral debt.  The international financial institutions
should [EU:] be urged to use existing instruments in a flexible
way and [EU:] to explore [EU:] new mechanisms where necessary to
support countries innovative measures to deal with the problem of
[EU:] with multilateral debt [EU:] problems, including [EU:]
through the provision of adequate [EU:] and concessional
financial resources [EU:] such as under the Enhanced Structural
Adjustment Facility (ESAF).

175.   [G77:] The international community should reaffirm its We
recall our commitment to give full support to the development
efforts of Africa. This requires inter alia measures to [EU:]
contribute to a durable solution to solve the external debt and
debt service problems, to increase financial direct investment,
to enhance national capacity-building, to deal with the shortage
of domestic resources for development and to facilitate the
integration of the African countries into sub-regional and
regional trade as well as into the world trade.

176.   The international community should support African countries
so that they benefit fully from the results of the Uruguay Round
and to mitigate any adverse effect of the Final Act.  It is
essential to implement the measures decided upon in the Final Act
and the complementary provisions specified in the Marrakesh
Agreement, in favour of least developed countries and concerning
the possible negative effects of the reform programme on these
countries and on the net food importing developing countries. 
[G77:] In this regard, there is urgent need for financial and
technical assistance to African countries to enable them evaluate
the impact of the Final Act and to identify and implement
adaptive measures to enhance their competitiveness and trade
performance on order to benefit from the Uruguay Round.  In
addition, it is essential to support the efforts of African
countries to diversify their economies.  The need to support
Africa's efforts at increasing commodity diversification is also
essential.  New export capacities [G77:] and opportunities have
to be created and diversification across markets and products
should be encouraged.  The call for financing the preparatory
phase of commodity diversification projects and programmes should
be pursued. State participants in the African Development Fund
and multilateral [Japan:] financial institutions are urged to pay
special attention to the diversification of African
[Secretariat:] commodities countries and to contribute to the
preparatory phase of African diversification projects.  In order
to support effectively efforts to diversify commodity exports and
boost earnings, the international community, particularly the
major trading partners, [G77:] must commit have committed
themselves to grant [G77:] enhanced improved market access to
Africa's exports through substantial reduction in or removal of
trade barriers [Japan:] in accordance with the Uruguay Round
Agreements.

177. There is an urgent need for concerted and better coordinated
international action on the myriad of adverse socio-economic
factors which compound poverty in Africa and hamper its prospects
for growth and development.  This includes [G77:] effectively
addressing comprehensively the issues of conflict resolution,
including post-conflict peace building and the continuum from
relief to rehabilitation and development; stronger and better
coordinated global actions against major diseases that take a
heavy toll of human lives; and [G77:] mitigating the effects of
against natural disaster through programmes on early warning,
preparedness, prevention and mitigation.  The international
community should also assist African countries in their efforts
to eradicate poverty and ensure [G77:] the provision of basic
human needs.

178.   The United Nations system also has a major role to play in
coordinating and implementing activities which address the
critical situation in Africa, including through the
implementation of the United Nations New Agenda for the
Development of Africa in the 1990s and the follow-up of the
outcome of the Tokyo International Conference on African
Development [G77:] and other related initiatives.

              b)     Least developed countries

179.   [EU:] Despite Since the adoption of the Paris Declaration
and the Programme of Action for the LDCs for the nineties, there
has been continued marginalization of [G77:] and reduction of the
flow of development resources to the least developed countries,
and their number has increased from 41 to 48 without a
proportionate increase in support measures despite national and
international efforts.  Reversing the further marginalization of
the least developed countries and achieving their integration in
the world economy are essential for their growth and development
and pose a major challenge to the international community.

180.          In order to succeed, the full support of the
international community is required.  Appropriate economic and
social policies are also required and technical capacity [G77:]
and physical and institutional infrastructure need to be built
up.  Special support should therefore be given to the least
developed countries in their development efforts, in order to
facilitate their integration into the world economy, to enable
them to participate in and to allow them to fully benefit from
the process of globalization and liberalization of trade and the
increase in international private  resource flows.

181.   In view of their limited domestic resources, the least
developed countries will continue to need enhanced external
financial assistance and other support.  [US query] Achieving the
accepted UN target for Official Development Assistance to the
least developed countries of 0.15 per cent of donor countries'
GNP, is particularly urgent.  Donor countries which have not met
this target should make their best efforts to reach it as soon as
possible, and donor countries which have met the 0.15 per cent
target should undertake to reach 0.20 per cent by the year 2000. 
Further improvements should be made in aid coordination and
effectiveness.

182.   [Japan:] The external debt and its servicing burden remains
a crucial issue for the majority of LDCs Many LDCs face serious
debt problems and more than half are considered debt distressed.
[EU:] Many LDCs face serious debt problems and more than half are
considered debt distressed.
Most of their debt is owed to official creditors, both bilateral
and multilateral.  The serious debt problems of [EU:] many the
LDCs necessitate [EU:] continued strengthened efforts [EU:] in
the framework of on the international debt strategy.  This
strategy [EU:]includes should include concrete measures to
alleviate the debt burden and increased concessional financing,
in support of appropriate economic policy measures, which will be
critical to the revitalization of growth and development.  [EU:]
Severely indebted LDCs already Debt distressed LDCs should
benefit from substantial debt relief schemes.  Paris Club
creditors are invited to continue to implement expeditiously ...

[EU:] and in a flexible manner the very concessional treatment
under the Naples terms.

[G77:] the Naples terms and to further widen and enhance their
scope and in a flexible manner the very concessional treatment
under the Naples terms.

In order to address the multilateral debt problems of LDCs, the
Bretton Woods institutions are encouraged to develop a
comprehensive [G77:] and innovative approach to assist countries
with multilateral debt problems, through the flexible
implementation of existing instruments and new mechanisms where
necessary.

183.   The international community should support LDCs so that they
benefit fully from the results of the Uruguay Round and to
mitigate any adverse effect of the Final Act.  It is essential to
implement the measures decided upon in the Final Act and the
complementary provisions specified in the Marrakesh Agreement, in
favour of the LDCs and concerning the possible negative effects
of the reform programme on these countries and on the net food
importing developing countries.  Urgent steps are needed to
provide [G77:] enhanced improved market access to major markets
for products originating from LDCs.  There is also scope for
further improvement of the GSP schemes and other supportive
measures in favour of LDCs.
184.   In 1990, through the adoption of the Declaration and
Programme of Action of the Second United Nations Conference on
the Least Developed Countries, the international community agreed
on [US:] concrete measures to revitalize the development of the
least developed countries.  At UNCED, the ICPD, the World Summit
for Social Development, and in other relevant conferences,
agreements and conventions, further commitments have been made to
support the efforts of these countries. [G77:] At the mid-term
Global Review of the Implementation of the Programme of Action
for the Least Developed Countries in the 1990s, concrete measures
and recommendations were agreed on to implement the Programme of
Action.  They should be operationalized and implemented. [US?:]
They should be as appropriate operationalized and implemented. 
The international community must give high priority to the full
and timely implementation of the Programme of Action and fulfill
[G77:] all its commitments in favour of the least developed
countries.

              c)     Small island developing States

185.   The international community, international organizations and
the United Nations system should cooperate in the implementation
of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States and of Agenda 21, and support
their economic transformation.  This requires adequate,
predictable, new and additional financial resources, transfer
[US:], as mutually agreed, of environmentally sound technologies,
including on concessional and preferential terms as mutually
agreed, and promoting fair and non-discriminatory trading
arrangements.  Appropriate exchanges among SIDS and between SIDS
and other states with similar development experiences are also to
be encouraged.  The GEF should constitute an important channel of
assistance to SIDS [Secretariat:] States in responding to their
special needs and vulnerabilities.

186.   AGREED The sustainable development of small island
developing States requires concrete action by the international
community to address the constraints to their development
outlined in the Programme of Action and in Agenda 21.  It also
requires a supportive international institutional framework,
including a strong monitoring and review role by the Commission
for Sustainable Development.  Appropriate support should be given
to the SIDS/NET and SIDS/TAP programmes, which are important
instruments for technical cooperation and for promoting
information exchange.

              d)     Land-locked developing countries

187.   AGREED Specific action at national, bilateral, subregional,
regional and international levels, should be taken as a matter of
urgency and priority, to address the special development problems
and needs of land-locked developing countries.  To that end,
international support, through appropriate technical cooperation
and financial assistance by developed countries and multilateral
financial and development institutions is needed to enhance the
capacity of the land-locked developing countries to effectively
participate in the rapidly globalizing world economy, including
global trading, investment and technology transfer processes.  

187bis.       AGREED Particular emphasis should be given to the
cooperative and collaborative efforts of the land-locked and
transit developing countries in dealing with the transit
problems, inter alia, through improving the transit transport
infrastructure facilities and bilateral agreements to govern
transit transport operations; development of joint ventures in
the area of transit transport; and strengthening of institutions
and human resources dealing with transit transport. Active and
consistent efforts are called to implement the Global Framework
for Transit Transport Cooperation between land-locked and transit
developing countries and the donor community endorsed by the
General Assembly at its fiftieth session. Since most transit
countries are themselves developing countries facing serious
economic problems, their efforts at developing a viable transit
infrastructure also need financial and technical support.   

              e)     Countries with economies in transition

188.   The international community should continue to give
attention to the needs of countries with economies in transition,
and support in particular their efforts to integrate into the
world economy.  A number of international meetings and
conferences, including those held under the UN auspices, have
recognized the specific needs of these countries in various areas
of development and the necessity to provide them with temporary
assistance upon their request aimed at the solution to the most
acute problems.  Such recommendations should be fully implemented
by the international community and the UN system.   To this end,
an appropriate strategy should be defined for strengthening
solidarity with these countries [UKRAINE:] while avoiding to
detract international efforts from the high priority placed on
international development cooperation with the developing
countries. (taking into account the UN system's high priorities.)


       10.  Means of implementation

189. AGREED The effective implementation of this Agenda, as well
as of the decisions and commitments reached at the recent series
of UN global conferences, summits and other meetings, requires
the urgent mobilization and more efficient use of resources for
development. It is critical to generate the political will to
mobilize and make available the necessary resources - public and
private, financial and human, national and international - if all
States, the United Nations system and the international community
as a whole are to mount a full and effective response to this
Agenda.  In formulating this response, attention has to be given
to both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of
development as well as to time-frames for implementation.

              a)     Mobilization of domestic resources for development

190. All countries should continue to implement policies and
measures to mobilize domestic resources [G77] according to
national strategies and priorities and to achieve an appropriate
level of domestic savings.  Measures should include the
maintenance of sound fiscal and monetary policies, efficient and
equitable taxation systems, low budget deficits and an efficient
allocation of budgetary resources
a. [G77] in which priority is given to productive expenditure,
including in the social sector.  
b. in which [EU] due priority is given to productive expenditure,
including in the social sector.  

191. NO AMENDMENTS Political institutions and legal systems that
ensure the equitable distribution of domestic resources enhance
the effectiveness and flexibility of national policy frameworks. 
Public expenditures offer significant opportunities for promoting
growth and the equitable redistribution of resources.

192. NO AMENDMENTS All countries should explore new ways of
generating new public and private financial resources, inter
alia, through the appropriate reduction of excessive military
expenditures, including global military expenditures and the arms
trade and investments for arms production and acquisition, taking
into consideration national security requirements, so as to allow
possible allocation of additional funds for social and economic
development.

              b)     External resources

193. The savings efforts of developing countries, in particular
African countries and the least developed countries, 
a. [G77] that are unable                         b [EU] that are currently
unable
to generate sufficient domestic savings need to be supplemented
by external resources so as to raise investment to the levels
necessary for adequate sustained economic growth and sustainable
development.  New and innovative ideas for generating resources
for development should be explored.

                      External debt

194.
a.  US "brackets" this sentence.

b.  EU  The international community, including the international
financial institutions, should continue to explore ways of
implementing additional and innovative measures to alleviate
substantially the debt burdens of  support developing countries,
in particular the highly indebted low income countries, in order
to alleviate substantially their debt burdens, so as in order to
help them to achieve sustained economic growth and sustainable
development without falling into a new debt crisis.  

c.  G77  The international community, including the international
financial institutions, should continue to explore ways of
implementing additional, constructive and innovative measures to
alleviate considerably the debt burdens and debt servicing
problems of developing countries, in particular of the highly
indebted low income countries, in order to help them to achieve
sustained economic growth and sustainable development without
falling into a new debt crisis

195. All members of the Paris Club [US] are encouraged to should
implement fully the initiatives which aim at substantially
reducing the bilateral component of the debt burden 
a. [G77] of low income countries                 
b. [US] of low income countries implementing structural
adjustment reforms
and at permitting those sufficiently advanced in an adjustment
strategy to exit from the rescheduling process.
a. [Japan]  If these initiatives are insufficient to achieve
their objectives, the Paris Club should continue to increase its
flexibility in order to contribute to a durable solution to the
debt problems.
b. [EU]  If these initiatives are insufficient to achieve their
objectives, the Paris Club should  continue to increase its
flexibility in order to contribute to a durable solution to the
debt problems apply the Naples terms in an expeditious and
constructive manner in order to contribute to a durable solution
to the debt problems.

195bis [G77]  Private creditors and, in particular, commercial
banks should be encouraged to continue their initiatives and
efforts to address the commercial debt problems of indebted
developing countries. The international community should
implement fully the appropriate actions identified in the mid-
term global review of the implementation of the Programme of
Action for the least developed countries for the 1990s concerning
the external debt problems of those countries. 

196.   The international financial institutions should [G77]
examine proposals to tackle provide definitive approaches to
tackling the problems of [Japan] the poorest and heavily indebted
countries with regard to multilateral debt, taking into account
the specific situation of each country.  Such proposals need [US
questioned the following italicized text] to preserve the
preferred creditor status of the multilateral financial
institutions, in order to ensure that they can continue to
provide concessional financing for development to developing
countries.

                      Official Development Assistance

197.  It is important to reverse the decline [Japan] in real
terms in ODA flows and to achieve internationally agreed ODA
targets as soon as possible.  
a. [Ukraine]         Such assistance should continue to focus first of
                     all on Africa and the least developed countries
                     and people living in poverty in other developing
                     countries.
b. [G77]      Such assistance should focus on developing countries,
in particular Africa and                  the least developed countries and
people living in poverty in other developing countries.
[EU]Donor Developed countries which have reaffirmed their
commitment to reach the accepted United Nations target of 0.7 per
cent of GNP for overall ODA and 0.15 per cent of GNP for ODA for
the least developed countries should, to the extent that they
have not yet achieved [EU] that target those targets, agree to
augment their aid programmes in order to reach [EU] it them as
soon as possible.  Donor countries which are in a position to do
so, but have not yet done so, should strive to meet these targets
as soon as possible.  Countries should also honour their
commitments in Agenda 21 to provide resources to promote
sustainable development.

                      Role and resources of multilateral [G77]
                     including regional financial institutions

198.  The multilateral financial institutions should continue to
play a major role in all dimensions of development and in
promoting the stability of the international financial system. 
In their responses to developing countries' development needs,
priorities and specific circumstances, the World Bank and the IMF
should continue to adjust to the wide-ranging changes in global
circumstances.  Their programmes should [EU] not only respond to
the economic and social conditions, concerns and needs of each
country, [EU] but should and should also explicitly include
social development goals, in particular eradicating poverty,
promoting productive employment, enhancing social integration and
supporting people living in poverty and vulnerable and
disadvantaged groups of society.  To this end, cooperation with
other development activities of the United Nations system should
be increased.  At the same time, both the World Bank and the IMF
need an enhanced capacity to fulfil their roles effectively.  In
particular, the International Development Association should
[G77] periodically be replenished adequately.   

198bis        [G77] Regional development banks should continue to
play an important role in the financing of development.  They
should respond effectively to the new development priorities.  In
this regard, enhanced and periodical replenishment of
concessional mechanisms of the regional development banks is
essential.

                      United Nations financing for development

199.  US asked to "bracket" this paragraph.
The fulfillment of the United Nations system's role in
development and in promoting development cooperation requires
resources to be provided on a sound and predictable [G77],
continuous and assured basis.  The international community should
support the development efforts of the United Nations system by
providing a substantial increase in resources for operational
activities [Ukraine] commensurate with the needs of the
developing countries in accordance with the high priorities and
the overall resources of the United Nations.  This requires both
political commitment by all States and an appropriate balance in
terms of resources devoted to all United Nations activities and
to development.  New approaches to financing the international
development cooperation activities undertaken by the United
Nations [G77] , including innovative funding sources, should
continue to be examined.

199bis        [G77]International cooperation and assistance should be
rendered for the developing countries in strengthening their
indigenous capacity in science and technology, including the
capacity to utilize scientific and technological developments
from abroad and adapt them to suit local conditions.

199ter        [G77]The international community should promote,
facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the access to and the
transfer of environmentally sound technologies; in particular, to
developing countries on favourable terms, including concessional
and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account
the need to protect intellectual property rights as well as the
special needs of developing countries.  In this regard,
governments should fulfil the commitments they made in Agenda 21
as soon as possible.

Japan proposed the insertion of a sentence from para. 203 of the
Chairmen's previous draft.  The Chairman pointed out that there
had been a lack on consensus on this at the previous session.

                      Private investment flows

200.  Special attention should be given by all countries to
measures aimed at promoting international investment flows and
enhancing their contribution to [EU] sustainable development. 
Governments need, inter alia, to [G77] maintain an open framework
promote a favourable climate for foreign direct investment [G77]
and to ensure sound institutional and regulatory mechanisms,
particularly for the banking system and capital markets. 
[G77]Governments in the developed countries should facilitate
long term investment flows to developing countries.  [G77]
Governments in the developing countries should continue domestic
reforms to encourage private investment flows.  All countries
should take measures to ensure that these flows have a positive
impact on development, equitable growth, productive capacity,
infrastructure, transfer of technology, eradication of poverty,
trade expansion, employment and social programmes.  [G77] They
should take the form of direct cooperation to promote the
financing of development projects or the establishment of
companies with local partners.
[US proposed deletion of only the word direct in the foregoing
sentence.] 

201.   The globalization and growth of financial markets has given
rise to the need for improved measures to address the negative
effects of the volatility of international capital flows.  The
prevention of financial crises will require enhanced early
warning mechanisms, including improved and effective surveillance
of national and international financial market developments.  If
prevention fails, responding to financial market distress will
require enhancing the capacity of multilateral institutions to
respond in a quick and coordinated fashion.  Financial mechanisms
for this purpose need to be developed [Ukraine] to meet the
challenge of the post-cold war era.  [G77] In this context, the
international community should explore ways to broaden
appropriate enhanced cooperation and, where appropriate,
coordination of macroeconomic policy among interested countries,
monetary and financial authorities and institutions, so as to
enhance preventive consultation arrangements between such
institutions as a means of promoting a stable international
financial environment conducive to economic growth, particularly
in developing countries, taking into account the needs of
developing countries as well as institutions that may have a
significant impact on the international financial system.   


              c)     Qualitative aspects of development cooperation

202.   NO AMENDMENTS The quantitative efforts set out above should
be complemented with measures to improve the qualitative aspects
of international development cooperation, particularly: a better
focus on its distribution; greater national capacities to
coordinate national and international resources; improved
national ownership of externally financed programmes;
international cooperation based on national priorities, involving
other development partners, including civil society; and
strengthened national capacities to plan for, manage, monitor and
evaluate the impact of development cooperation.

203.   NO AMENDMENTS To translate the Agenda for Development into
practical action, it is essential that further steps are taken to
enhance the UN's performance in development.  Maintaining
adequate levels for funding for UN operational activities must be
coupled with continued improvements in their performance
including monitoring and evaluation and the measurement of output
rather than input.

204.   [G77]  Move this para to Chapter III.
       The UN system has made a serious effort to improve the
impact of its development assistance at the country level. 
Improved country level coordination has been a central theme of
UN development reform over the last six years.  There is now a
need to focus on the removal of obstacles to a more effective
operation of the Resident Coordinator system and on ways of
utilizing effectively the Country Strategy Note in interested
countries and on strengthening linkages with relevant World Bank
planning processes.

       d)     Capacity Building

205.   NO AMENDMENTS If development activities are to have a
lasting impact, the future provision of technical cooperation
must focus on strengthening national capacities rather than using
international expertise, which is often expensive, and procuring
equipment tied to aid.  The United Nations system needs to
scrutinize whether its activities contribute to the promotion of
national ownership and capacity building.  Such promotion should
be the central objective of its field level activities.

206. AGREED The international community, including the UN system,
shall give preference, wherever possible, to the utilization of
competent national experts or, where necessary, of competent
experts from within the subregion or region or from other
developing countries, in project and programme design,
preparation, and implementation and to the building of local
expertise where it does not exist.

207.   AGREED National execution should be the principal modality
for the implementation of programmes by the United Nations
system.  The pace at which national execution is utilized by
recipient countries must depend upon their needs and capacities. 
Effective national execution also requires both the UN system and
other actors involved in the provision of technical assistance to
give increased priority to assisting recipient countries in
building and/or enhancing the necessary capacity to undertake
services at the field level.

208.   NO AMENDMENTS The need to promote capacity building and
national execution should be taken into account in the design
stage of development programmes.  Governments will need to take a
lead role in identifying such needs at the planning stage and in
ensuring that there is adequate national ownership of the
programmes as well as in maximizing projects and programmes
efficiency by keeping overhead costs to a minimum.

209.   NO AMENDMENTS The United Nations system must also be
prepared to address the capacity requirements of different
national development partners, including, in addition to
Government, members of civil society, such as the private sector,
and NGOs.

210.   AGREED When building national capacities a number of issues
will need to be taken into consideration.  These include the
articulation of clear development goals, strategies and
priorities that are nationally prescribed and supported, where
necessary, by external partners; effective performance of
functions through a well-trained human resource base; competent
organizations and management to effectively utilize and retain
skilled people; a policy and institutional environment that can
facilitate the performance and accountability of the public
sector and other national institutions; and sensitivity to the
overall social, economic and cultural environment in which
capacity development is to take place.

211.   NO AMENDMENTS Technical and economic cooperation among
developing countries is an instrument that can make important
contributions to building national capacities through exchange of
information, experiences and expertise.

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Date last updated: 24 March 2000 by esa@un.org
Copyright 1999 United Nations