United Nations

E/1996/28
E/CN.17/1996/38


Economic and Social Council

 Distr. GENERAL
27 June 1996
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


                                    United Nations

                        Commission on Sustainable Development
                             Report on the Fourth Session
                                 (18 April-3 May 1996)

                              Economic and Social Council
                                Official Records, 1996
                                    Supplement No.8

                            United Nations - New York, 1996


                                          NOTE

Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined
                                      with figures. 
                                     ISSN 1020-3559


                                   CONTENTS

Chapter                                                                  Page

 I.   MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OR
      BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION .........................................    1

      A. Draft resolution .............................................     1

         Institutional arrangements for the implementation of the 
         Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine
         Environment from Land-based Activities .......................     1

      B. Draft decisions ..............................................     4

         I.   Matters relating to the third and fourth sessions of the
              Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests ................    4

         II.  Report of the Commission on Sustainable Development on its
              fourth session and provisional agenda for the fifth
              session of the Commission ................................    4

      C. Matters brought to the attention of the Council ..............     5

         Decision 4/1.    Trade, environment and sustainable development    5

         Decision 4/2.    Combating poverty ............................    9

         Decision 4/3.    Demographic dynamics and sustainability ......   10

         Decision 4/4.    Integrating environment and development in
                          decision-making ..............................   12

         Decision 4/5.    Information for decision-making ..............   13

         Decision 4/6.    International legal instruments and mechanisms   13

         Decision 4/7.    International institutional arrangements .....   15

         Decision 4/8.    Information provided by Governments and
                          organizations ................................   17

         Decision 4/9.    Major groups .................................   18

         Decision 4/10.   Transfer of environmentally sound technologies,
                          cooperation and capacity-building ............   20

         Decision 4/11.   Promoting education, public awareness and 
                          training .....................................   22

         Decision 4/12.   National mechanisms and international
                          cooperation for capacity-building in 
                          developing countries .........................   25

         Decision 4/13.   Changing production and consumption patterns .   26

         Decision 4/14.   Financial resources and mechanisms ...........   31

         Decision 4/15.  Protection of the atmosphere and protection 
                           of the oceans and all kinds of seas .........   36

           Decision 4/16.  Review of the implementation of the Programme
                           of Action for the Sustainable Development of
                           Small Island Developing States ..............   47

           Decision 4/17.  Matters relating to the inter-sessional work
                           of the Commission ...........................   53

           Decision 4/18.  Proposals for the medium-term plan for the
                           period 1998-2001 ............................   53

  II.  CHAIRMAN'S SUMMARY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL SEGMENT OF THE FOURTH 
       SESSION OF THE COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ............   54

 III.  CROSS-SECTORAL ISSUES, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE CRITICAL
       ELEMENTS OF SUSTAINABILITY ......................................   61

  IV.  FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS ..............................   64

   V.  REVIEW OF CROSS-SECTORAL CLUSTERS ...............................   66

  VI.  REVIEW OF SECTORAL CLUSTERS .....................................   69

 VII.  PROGRESS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE
       SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES .......   73

VIII.  OTHER MATTERS ...................................................   75

  IX.  HIGH-LEVEL MEETING ..............................................   76

   X.  PROVISIONAL AGENDA FOR THE FIFTH SESSION OF THE COMMISSION ......   79

  XI.  ADOPTION OF THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON ITS FOURTH SESSION ..   80

 XII.  ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSION .....................................   81

       A.  Opening and duration of the session .........................   81

       B.  Attendance ..................................................   81

       C.  Election of officers ........................................   81

       D.  Agenda and organization of work .............................   81

       E.  Documentation ...............................................   82

                                    Annexes

   I.  ATTENDANCE ......................................................   83

  II.  LIST OF DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE COMMISSION AT ITS FOURTH SESSION ...   89

 III.  PROGRAMME BUDGET IMPLICATIONS OF DRAFT DECISION I ...............   95


                                   Chapter I

             MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
                      COUNCIL OR BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION


                             A.  Draft resolution

1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development recommends to the Economic and
Social Council the adoption of the following draft resolution:


             Institutional arrangements for the implementation of the
             Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the
                Marine Environment from Land-based Activities*

               (*  For the discussion, see chapter VI below.)


     The Economic and Social Council

     Recommends to the General Assembly the adoption of the following draft
resolution:

         The General Assembly,

         Recalling the relevant provisions of Agenda 21, 1/ in particular
     chapters 17, 33, 34, 38 and other related chapters, and the Rio
     Declaration on Environment and Development, 2/ 

         Recalling further its resolution 50/110 of 20 December 1995 on the
     report of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment
     Programme, in which it endorsed, inter alia, Governing Council decision
     18/31 on the protection of the marine environment from land-based
     activities,

         Noting the successful conclusion of the Intergovernmental Conference
     to Adopt a Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine
     Environment from Land-based Activities, which was held in Washington,
     D.C. from 23 October to 3 November 1995,

         Having considered the Washington Declaration and the Global
     Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from
     Land-based Activities, as well as the proposal of the United Nations
     Environment Programme on institutional arrangements and implementation
     of the Global Programme of Action and relevant recommendations of the
     Commission on Sustainable Development,

         1.    Endorses the Washington Declaration 3/ and the Global
     Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from
     Land-based Activities; 4/

         2.    Stresses the need for States to take the necessary measures for
     the implementation of the Global Programme of Action at the national
     and, as appropriate, regional and international levels;

         3.    Also stresses the need for States to take action for the formal
     endorsement by each competent international organization of those parts
     of the Global Programme of Action which are relevant to their mandates
     and to accord appropriate priority to the implementation of the Global
     Programme of Action in the work programme of each organization;

         4.    Further stresses the need for States to take such action at the
     next meetings of the governing bodies of the United Nations Environment
     Programme, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations
     Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), the Food and Agriculture
     Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the
     International Maritime Organization, the International Atomic Energy
     Agency, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations
     Industrial Development Organization and in the Intergovernmental
     Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
     and Cultural Organization and the relevant bodies of the International
     Monetary Fund and the World Bank, as well as in other competent
     international and regional organizations within and outside the United
     Nations system;

         5.    Finally stresses the need for international cooperation, as
     outlined in sections IV.A and B of the Global Programme of Action, in
     capacity-building, technology transfer and cooperation, and the
     mobilization of financial resources, including support, in particular,
     for developing countries, especially the least developed countries,
     countries with economies in transition and small island developing
     States, and to this end calls upon bilateral donors and international,
     regional and subregional financial institutions and mechanisms,
     including the Global Environment Facility, and other competent
     development and financial institutions to:

         (a)   Ensure that their programmes give appropriate priority for
     country-driven projects aimed at the implementation of the Global
     Programme of Action;

         (b)   Assist with capacity-building in the preparation and
     implementation of national programmes and in identifying ways and means
     of funding them;

         (c)   Improve their coordination so as to enhance the delivery of
     financial and other support;

         6.    Invites non-governmental organizations and major groups to
     initiate and strengthen their actions to facilitate and support the
     effective implementation of the Global Programme of Action;

         7.    Requests the Executive Director of the United Nations
     Environment Programme to prepare, for the consideration of the Governing
     Council at its nineteenth session, specific proposals on:

         (a)   The role of the United Nations Environment Programme in the
     implementation of the Global Programme of Action, including the relevant
     role of its Regional Seas Programme and Water Unit;

         (b)   Arrangements for secretariat support to the Global Programme of
     Action;

         (c)   Modalities for periodic intergovernmental review of progress in
     implementing the Global Programme of Action;

         8.    Calls upon the United Nations Environment Programme, within its
     available resources, and with the aid of voluntary contributions from
     States for this purpose, to take expeditious action to provide for the
     establishment and implementation of the clearing-house mechanism
     referred to in the Global Programme of Action, and requests the
     Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme to
     prepare and submit to the Governing Council at its nineteenth session
     specific proposals on, inter alia:

         (a)   The establishment of an inter-organizational group to develop
     the basic design and structure of the clearing-house data directory and
     its linkages to information delivery mechanisms;

         (b)   The means of linking the inter-organizational group to ongoing
     work within the United Nations system on the identification of and
     access to relevant databases and the comparability of data;

         (c)   The outline of a pilot project on the development of the
     clearing-house's source category component on sewage, to be implemented
     in partnership with the World Health Organization;

         9.    Calls upon States, in relation to the clearing-house mechanism,
     to take action in the governing bodies of relevant intergovernmental
     organizations and programmes so as to ensure that these organizations
     and programmes take the lead in coordinating the development of the
     clearing-house mechanism with respect to the following source
     categories, which are not listed in order of priority:

         (a)   Sewage - the World Health Organization;

         (b)   Persistent organic pollutants - Inter-organizational Programme
     for the Sound Management of Chemicals, the International Programme on
     Chemical Safety and Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety;

         (c)   Heavy metals - the United Nations Environment Programme in
     cooperation with the Inter-organizational Programme for the Sound
     Management of Chemicals;

         (d)   Radioactive substances - the International Atomic Energy
     Agency;

         (e)   Nutrients and sediment mobilization - the Food and Agriculture
     Organization of the United Nations;

         (f)   Oils (hydrocarbons) and litter - the International Maritime
     Organization;

         (g)   Physical alterations, including habitat modification and
     destruction of areas of concern - the United Nations Environment
     Programme;

         10.   Decides to determine, at its special session to be held in
     June 1997 in accordance with its resolution 50/113 of 20 December 1995,
     specific arrangements for integrating the outcomes of periodic
     intergovernmental reviews, as envisaged in paragraph 7 (c) above, in the
     future work of the Commission on Sustainable Development related to the
     monitoring of the implementation of and follow-up to Agenda 21, in
     particular chapter 17.


                              B.  Draft decisions

2.   The Commission on Sustainable Development recommends to the Economic and
Social Council the adoption of the following draft decisions:


                               DRAFT DECISION I

               Matters relating to the third and fourth sessions
              of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests*

               (* For the discussion, see chapter VI below.)


     The Economic and Social Council approves:

     (a) The request of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests to hold
its third session at Geneva from 9 to 20 September 1996 and its fourth session
in New York for a period of two weeks in 1997;

     (b) The Panel's request that provision be made so that the two sessional
working groups it intends to establish during its third and fourth sessions,
as originally envisaged at its first session, can meet simultaneously.


                               DRAFT DECISION II

            Report of the Commission on Sustainable Development on its
            fourth session and provisional agenda for the fifth session
                               of the Commission

     The Economic and Social Council takes note of the report of the
Commission on Sustainable Development on its fourth session and approves the
provisional agenda for the fifth session of the Commission set out below.


                PROVISIONAL AGENDA FOR THE FIFTH SESSION OF THE
                     COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

     1.  Election of officers.

     2.  Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters.

     3.  Report of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests.

     4.  Preparations for the special session of the General Assembly for the
         purpose of an overall review and appraisal of the implementation of
         Agenda 21.

     5.  Other matters.

     6.  Provisional agenda for the sixth session of the Commission.

     7.  Adoption of the report of the Commission on its fifth session.


              C.  Matters brought to the attention of the Council

3.   The attention of the Council is drawn to the following decisions adopted
by the Commission:

        Decision 4/1.  Trade, environment and sustainable development*

(* Chapter II of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter III below. 
Recommendations with respect to the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) should bear in mind the outcome of the ninth session of
UNCTAD, which is being held concurrently with the present session of the
Commission. )


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development takes note of the report of
the Secretary-General on trade, environment and sustainable development
(E/CN.17/1996/8 and Add.1) and welcomes with appreciation the analysis
contained therein.

2.   The Commission reiterates all the decisions made at its second and third
sessions on issues related to trade, environment and sustainable development.

3.   As to trade measures in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs),
the Commission:

     (a) Calls on Governments to ensure appropriate coordination between
trade and environment officials at the national level and to take appropriate
steps at the national and international levels in order to ensure the mutual
supportiveness of trade and environment policies in support of sustainable
development, and looks to the World Trade Organization (WTO) to address the
relationship between WTO provisions and trade measures for environmental
purposes, including those pursuant to multilateral environment agreements;

     (b) Recognizes that positive measures, such as improved market access,
capacity-building, improved access to finance, and access to and transfer of
technology, taking into account the relationship between trade-related
agreements and technology, are effective instruments for assisting developing
countries in meeting multilaterally agreed targets in keeping with the
principle of common but differentiated responsibilities;

     (c) Notes that trade measures can, in certain cases, play a role in
achieving the objectives of MEAs, while safeguarding a non-discriminatory and
equitable multilateral trading system, and that positive measures should be
employed, as appropriate, to reduce or obviate the necessity for trade
measures to secure compliance with MEAs, and also stresses that the use of
trade measures should not deter the consideration of other options that may be
more effective.  All measures should uphold principles 7, 11 and 12 of the Rio
Declaration on Environment and Development; 2/

     (d) Recognizes that the different trade provisions in MEAs may have
different objectives and that they may involve broader economic and
developmental issues, and invites the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),
jointly and in cooperation with WTO, in accordance with their respective
mandates and competencies, to undertake further analysis on the issue of trade
and environment, including policy instruments in MEAs, in particular positive
measures, taking into account the specific context of each MEA, with a view to
promoting sustainable development;

     (e) Recalls its invitation at its third session to UNCTAD and UNEP, in
cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),
international financial institutions, and other relevant bodies, programmes
and organizations, to examine the effects of trade measures in MEAs on the
achievement of environmental goals and on trade and competitiveness of
developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and to
consider how positive measures could assist those countries in meeting their
obligations under the MEAs.

4.   As to environmental policies and competitiveness, the Commission:

     (a) Recognizes that the link between environmental policies and
competitiveness is a complex one, and notes that there is no available
evidence to suggest that environmental policy generally has a significant
detrimental impact on competitiveness.  Efforts could be made to identify
"win-win" opportunities in the design and implementation of environmental
policies, which could improve resource efficiency, competitiveness, employment
and market access;

     (b) Firmly rejects the use of "green countervailing duties" or other
protectionist or trade measures inconsistent with WTO to compensate for the
negative competitiveness effects, whether real or perceived, of environmental
policies;

     (c) Stresses that it would be inappropriate to relax environmental laws,
regulations and standards or their enforcement in order to encourage foreign
direct investment or to promote exports;

     (d) Considering that complying with the environmental requirements of
importing countries may raise particular competitiveness concerns for
developing countries and countries with economies in transition, recommends
that Governments of developed countries facilitate continued market access for
developing countries by ensuring greater transparency and providing them with
technical and financial assistance in the area of environmental capacity-
building in accordance with the provisions of relevant chapters of Agenda 21;

     (e) Encourages UNCTAD to propose positive measures at the national and
international levels for supporting developing countries in their efforts to
achieve the objectives of sustainable development, focusing on capacity-
building and support for national efforts to internalize environmental costs;

     (f) Takes note of the progress report submitted by UNCTAD on the
analytical study of the relationship of environmental protection to
international competitiveness, job creation and development, and invites
UNCTAD to further elaborate the study, with input from Governments and
regional economic integration organizations, as well as the private sector,
non-governmental organizations, and other relevant regional and international
organizations, and to submit the results of the study to future sessions of
the Commission, as appropriate.

5.   The Commission recognizes that eco-labelling can have an impact on
trade.  The Commission invites Governments to ensure adequate transparency of
eco-labelling, inter alia, by considering inputs from interested parties,
including consumer and environmental groups, domestic and foreign producers,
at an appropriately early stage in the design of the measures, and to
encourage private bodies involved in eco-labelling to do the same.  The
Commission also calls upon national Governments and private bodies involved in
eco-labelling to explore the scope for mutual recognition of procedures and
approaches on the basis of equivalency at appropriately high levels of
environmental protection, taking into account differing environmental and
developmental conditions in different countries.  The Commission also invites
UNCTAD, UNEP, WTO and, as appropriate, the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) to give the fullest consideration to such concepts in
future work on environmental labelling in the best interests of transparency.

6.   The Commission supports the promotion of balanced public awareness and
educational programmes on issues related to eco-friendly classification to
assist both producers and consumers in making environmentally sound decisions.

7.   As to trade liberalization and the environment, the Commission:

     (a) Recalls the recommendation made in paragraph 67 of the report on its
third session, 5/ in which it invited the UNEP/UNCTAD programme to carry
out further work and report on the development of a framework to facilitate
the assessment of the environmental impact of trade policies, taking into
account the special needs of developing countries and countries with economies
in transition;

     (b) Recognizes the usefulness of UNEP and the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations continuing to examine the environmental
effects on importing countries of the export of goods prohibited for sale on
environmental grounds in the exporting countries;

     (c) Invites UNCTAD, in cooperation with UNEP and other relevant
organizations, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), taking into account work already under way at WTO, to
examine how further trade liberalization, such as through the reduction or
elimination of tariff escalation, export taxes or restriction, trade-
distortive subsidies and the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to
trade, can result in environmental benefits and contribute to sustainable
development, including by examining recent analyses on such topics;

     (d) Reaffirms the importance of efforts aimed at internalizing
environmental costs in order to promote the positive and avoid the negative
environmental effects of trade liberalization.

8.   As to sustainable development of the commodity sector, the Commission:

     (a) Invites UNCTAD, in cooperation with UNEP, the United Nations
Industrial Development Organization and other relevant organizations, to
assist developing countries in implementing pilot projects in export-oriented
production and processing activities aimed at internalizing environmental
costs;

     (b) Encourages international organizations, Governments and the business
community to intensify the search for pragmatic methods for increasing
cooperation between exporters and importers with a view to facilitating
developing countries' efforts to internalize environmental costs in their
development process and to assess the scope for the establishment of sectoral
round tables and other formal or informal arrangements for identifying
efficient and cost-effective approaches.

9.   As to biological diversity and trade issues, the Commission welcomes the
BIOTRADE initiative of UNCTAD as a collaborative effort, with the secretariat
of the Convention on Biological Diversity, interested United Nations agencies
and other intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, the private
sector, local communities and academic institutions, aimed at strengthening
capacity-building, and encourages further consultations in that area.

10.  The Commission invites UNCTAD, UNDP, the International Trade Centre,
UNEP and other relevant United Nations bodies to strengthen cooperation in the
implementation of a programme of technical assistance for capacity-building in
accordance with the mandates and expertise of each agency, inter alia, with a
view to assisting developing countries and countries with economies in
transition in participating effectively in international deliberations on
trade and environment, international trade negotiations and international
environmental negotiations.

11.  The Commission takes note of the preliminary background paper prepared
by UNCTAD on research into trade, environment and sustainable development
linkages carried out by international organizations, as well as academic
institutions and non-governmental organizations in developed and developing
countries; encourages additional research in particular areas where gaps
exist; and recommends that international and bilateral aid agencies support
research activities in developing countries and countries with economies in
transition, in particular in these areas.

12.  The Commission:

     (a) Takes note of the work of the WTO Committee on Trade and
Environment, looks forward to a substantive report on the results of its
deliberations, including further progress in making trade and environmental
policies mutually supportive in order to promote sustainable development, and
invites ministers to consider all items listed in the Marrakesh Decision on
Trade and Environment of 15 April 1994, taking into account the objectives of
Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and to give
due consideration to the results of the deliberations of the Commission at the
present session;

     (b) Looks to the WTO ministerial meeting in Singapore to continue the
important work of the WTO Committee on Trade and Environment;

     (c) Invites UNCTAD and UNEP to transmit the results of their activities
in the area of trade, environment and sustainable development to the WTO
Committee on Trade and Environment for consideration at the WTO ministerial
meeting in Singapore;

     (d) Requests UNCTAD, in accordance with operative paragraph 27 of
General Assembly resolution 50/95 of 20 December 1995, to continue its special
role in the field of trade and environment, and invites UNCTAD at its ninth
session to consider appropriate arrangements for carrying out
intergovernmental activities, taking into account its mandate and competence,
as well as the need for continued cooperation and complementarity in the work
of UNCTAD, UNEP and WTO;

     (e) Invites UNEP to continue its work on trade and environment in
accordance with its mandate;

     (f) Invites the regional commissions, within their mandates and taking
into account the specific context of each region, and OECD, in close
cooperation with the competent international organizations, such as UNCTAD,
UNEP and WTO, to organize meetings, as necessary, for the purpose of enhancing
coordination on trade and environment;

     (g) Recalls General Assembly resolution 50/95 of 20 December 1995, in
which the Assembly requested UNCTAD and invited WTO, in accordance with their
respective mandates and competence and in close cooperation with other
competent United Nations bodies and the regional commissions, to address trade
and environment matters comprehensively, and to report, through the
Commission, to the Economic and Social Council and to the Assembly at its
special session in 1997 on the concrete progress achieved on the issue of
trade and environment;

     (h) Invites UNCTAD and UNEP to continue their joint programme of work on
trade, environment and sustainable development, in accordance with chapter I,
paragraph 59 of the report on its third session 5/ and paragraph 14 of
Assembly resolution 50/95 of 20 December 1995;

     (i) Takes note of the ongoing analytical work being conducted by OECD on
trade and environment, especially that of the Joint Session of Trade and
Environment Experts, including its report to the OECD Council at the
ministerial level in May 1995, and encourages OECD to make available to the
Commission the results of that work.


                       Decision 4/2.  Combating poverty*

    (* Chapter 3 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter III below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development takes note of the report of
the Secretary-General on combating poverty (E/CN.17/1996/9).

2.   The Commission reiterates all the decisions made at its third session on
the issue of combating poverty.

3.   In accordance with commitment 2 of the Copenhagen Declaration on Social
Development 6/ adopted by the World Summit for Social Development, the
Commission urges Governments to formulate or strengthen, as a matter of
urgency and preferably by the end of the International Year for the
Eradication of Poverty (1996), national strategies to eradicate absolute
poverty and reduce overall poverty.  Such strategies should be comprehensive
in order to address all aspects of poverty and integrate gender perspectives,
and should also be geared towards substantially and sustainably reducing
overall poverty in the shortest possible time, reducing inequalities, and
eradicating absolute poverty by a target date to be specified by each country
in its national context.  In addition, the Commission recommends that
Governments integrate environmental issues in such strategies and ensure that
they are related to national sustainable development strategies, while
recognizing that economic growth is a fundamental element of sustainable
development.  Such strategies should be supported by the international
community, which should assist developing countries, including through
international organizations, in their efforts to achieve the overall goal of
eradicating poverty and ensuring basic social protection.

4.   The Commission recognizes that meeting the basic human needs of all and
eradicating absolute poverty is an objective of the highest priority that has
been regarded as such in all the recent United Nations conferences convened
since the World Summit for Children in 1990.  In addition to the relevant
conferences and conventions mentioned in the report on its third session, 5/
the Commission welcomes the Beijing Platform for Action of the Fourth World
Conference on Women. 7/  The Commission notes, in particular, the
important role played by women in poverty eradication strategies and the
particularly difficult situations that they face, as described in chapter IV.A
of the Platform, as well as the importance of integrating gender perspectives
in policies and programmes.  The Commission welcomes the preparatory work for
the forthcoming United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II),
which emphasizes the importance of achieving the eradication of absolute
poverty, the reduction of overall poverty and the creation of sustainable
human settlements for ensuring sustainable development.

5.   Since the general problem of poverty in developing countries,
particularly in the least developed countries, is related to political,
economic and social marginalization, all efforts to eradicate absolute poverty
and reduce overall poverty within the context of sustainable development must
be accompanied by mechanisms that would effectively address those issues.

6.   The Commission suggests to the Economic and Social Council that in its
future work the Commission focus its attention on the interlinkages between
poverty and the environment, taking into account the fact that poverty is a
complex multidimensional problem with origins in both the national and
international domains, and recognizing that economic development, social
development and environmental protection are interdependent and mutually
reinforcing components of sustainable development.


            Decision 4/3.  Demographic dynamics and sustainability*

    (* Chapter 5 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter III below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development takes note of the report of
the Secretary-General on demographic dynamics and sustainability
(E/CN.17/1996/10 and Corr.1 and Add.1), which includes information on a broad
range of factors that have been shown to have a significant impact on
demographic variables and on population and sustainable development policies
in general, taking into account the outcome of the International Conference on
Population and Development (ICPD). 8/  The Commission acknowledges the
importance of actions taken by Governments in support of the formulation and
implementation of national population policies and programmes.  The Commission
notes with satisfaction that greater importance is being attached to
population questions and to the need to integrate population factors into
environment and development planning, according to information obtained from
field offices by the Task Force on ICPD Implementation of the United Nations
Population Fund.  The Commission also welcomes the activities and measures
undertaken by non-governmental organizations and organizations of the United
Nations system as a follow-up to chapter 5 of Agenda 21 and chapter III of the
Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and
Development. 9/

2.   In view of the continuing relevance of the proposals made at its third
session, the Commission reaffirmed the decisions made at that session on the
further implementation of chapter 5 of Agenda 21 and chapter III of the
Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and
Development.

3.   The Commission encourages Governments, regional and international
organizations and non-governmental organizations to continue to develop,
conduct or support research studies on gender-sensitive analysis and the
linkages between population, poverty, consumption and production, environment
and natural resources, education and health as a guide to effective
sustainable development.

4.   In order to give greater visibility to the critical linkages between
population issues and developmental and environmental issues, and to increase
people's understanding of such linkages, the Commission encourages Governments
and non-governmental organizations, and the relevant organizations of the
United Nations system, to formulate and implement effective information,
education and communication strategies that take into account such linkages,
thereby creating the necessary conditions for the rapid achievement of the
goals of Agenda 21 and the Programme of Action of the International Conference
on Population and Development.

5.   The Commission stresses the importance of the full and equal
participation of women in all aspects of sustainable development planning and
programmes, as called for in the Beijing Platform for Action, 7/ and
emphasizes the need for Governments to integrate women, on an equal basis with
men, in decision-making regarding sustainable resource management and the
development of policies and programmes for population and sustainable
development.  The Commission urges Governments, United Nations system
organizations and non-governmental organizations to mainstream a gender
perspective, including gender-sensitive analysis, inter alia, as an essential
step in the development and monitoring of sustainable development policies.

6.   The Commission suggests to the Economic and Social Council that it
examine the division of labour between the Commission on Population and
Development and the Commission on Sustainable Development in the future
consideration of the issue of population and sustainable development, taking
into account the link between chapter 5 of Agenda 21 and chapter III of the
Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and
Development.


              Decision 4/4.  Integrating environment and development
                             in decision-making*

    (*  Chapter 8 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter V below.)

1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development, having examined the report of
the Secretary-General on integrating environment and development in decision-
making (E/CN.17/1996/11 and Add.1), notes the progress made at the national
level in providing a framework that integrates economic, social and
environmental policies.

2.   The Commission recognizes that responsibility for bringing about changes
aiming at integrating environment and development in decision-making lies with
national Governments, and encourages Governments to establish national
mechanisms, where appropriate, and to develop an integrated approach and
participatory strategies for sustainable development, including economic,
social and environmental aspects of growth.

3.   The Commission requests organizations of the United Nations system and
other relevant organizations to support the efforts of Governments to
integrate environment and development in decision-making by, inter alia,
strengthening coordination and exchange of information on "best practices"
relating to sustainable development strategies.

4.   The Commission calls on organizations and bodies of the United Nations
system, in cooperation with Governments and, as appropriate, major group
organizations, to place a high priority on actions aimed at supporting
national coordination and planning activities related to the implementation of
Agenda 21; consistent guidelines for national execution of projects and
programmes should be provided to support this process.

5.   The Commission calls on Governments to review, as appropriate, their
national legislation in the light of the integrated nature of sustainable
development and the need to implement international legal agreements and
conventions.  It requests the international community to continue and
strengthen support for developing the capacities of developing countries for
this purpose.

6.   The Commission, having noted the work on integrated environmental and
economic accounting being undertaken by the Statistics Division of the United
Nations Secretariat, organizations of the United Nations system and other
intergovernmental organizations, and calls upon them, inter alia, to continue
the work in this area, particularly with regard to methodological development
and technical cooperation.

7.   The Commission recalls the importance of integrated environmental and
economic accounting for sustainable development, and encourages Governments to
undertaken further national activities in this area.


               Decision 4/5.  Information for decision-making

    (*  Chapter 40 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter V below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development, having taken note of the
report of the Secretary-General on information for decision-making
(E/CN.17/1996/18 and Add.1), welcomes the measures taken by Governments to
make information more accessible to decision makers at the national level.

2.   The Commission expresses its appreciation of the meetings held during
the inter-sessional period to further the work and understanding of issues
addressed in chapter 40 of Agenda 21, particularly as they relate to
indicators of sustainable development, Earthwatch, Development Watch, the
establishment of common and compatible systems of access to data, and common
core data sets.

3.   The Commission takes note of the progress made in the implementation of
the work programme on indicators of sustainable development, approved at its
third session, and welcomes that progress, particularly with regard to the
preparation of methodology sheets for the various indicators.

4.   The Commission invites Governments to test, develop and use the
indicators of sustainable development based, inter alia, on the work done to
date, as appropriate, on identifying the indicators and preparing the
corresponding methodology sheets.  In this regard, Governments are encouraged,
as appropriate, to adopt indicators at the national level and to consider the
advantages of working in partnership with other countries in the testing,
further development and use of the indicators.  For example, twinning between
countries with more and less experience in using indicators could prove
beneficial to both.

5.   The Commission expresses its appreciation of the conclusions of the
meeting on common and compatible systems of access to data, and requests the
Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the
Secretariat, in cooperation with other organizations of the United Nations
system, and within available resources, to establish a sustainable development
home page on the World Wide Web, with "hot links" to relevant databases
throughout the United Nations system, as a means to facilitate access by
countries to sources of information relevant to sustainable development.

6.   The Commission requests the Economic and Social Council's Ad Hoc Open-
Ended Working Group on the Need to Harmonize and Improve United Nations
Information Systems (for Optimal Utilization and Accessibility by States) to
give particular attention to devising a means of facilitating the access of
States Members of the United Nations to environmental databases throughout the
United Nations system, within available resources.


        Decision 4/6.  International legal instruments and mechanisms*

    (*  Chapter 39 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter V below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development, having examined the report of
the Secretary-General on international legal instruments and mechanisms
(E/CN.17/1996/17 and Add.1), welcomes the progress made in reflecting the
integrated nature of sustainable development in international legal
instruments and in the further development of international law related to the
implementation of Agenda 21.

2.   The Commission takes note of the report of the Expert Group on the
Identification of Principles of International Law for Sustainable Development,
which was made available to the Commission as a background document, and
expresses its appreciation of the work of the Expert Group, which was convened
by the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the
Secretariat.

3.   The Commission recalls that at its second session it requested the
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to study further the concept,
requirements and implications of sustainable development and international
law; welcomed the adoption by the Governing Council of UNEP of decision 18/9
on the further development of international environmental law aiming at
sustainable development; 10/ and noted with appreciation the steps
undertaken by UNEP towards the review of the Montevideo Programme for the
Development and Periodic Review of Environmental Law scheduled for 1997 as an
important contribution to achieving the tasks set out in Agenda 21.

4.   The Commission recognizes the potential value of identifying generally
recognized principles of international law as they pertain to sustainable
development and decides to keep this issue under review at its session in 1997
with a view to its further consideration by the General Assembly at its
special session, and to take into account the results of the review of the
Montevideo Programme, as appropriate.

5.   The Commission calls upon Governments to consider, as appropriate, the
work of the Expert Group in the development of both national legislation and
national policies for sustainable development, and requests Governments to
provide information on their experiences in this regard.

6.   The Commission considers flexible approaches as important in
international law-making, as they allow international consensus to develop,
especially under new scientific and technical information, and recognizes the
positive role of framework conventions and of non-legally binding instruments
as steps in the evolution of international rule-making related to sustainable
development.

7.   The Commission emphasizes the necessity, as recognized in UNEP Governing
Council decision 18/9, of further exploring, in the interest of sustainable
development, mechanisms for dispute settlement or avoidance and, with the aim
of preventing international disputes, for facilitating the implementation of
international environmental instruments by assisting and encouraging parties
to fulfil their obligations and commitments, and notes that, in the case of
several international environmental instruments, such mechanisms have either
become operative, have been established, or are at present under discussion. 
In this context, the Commission notes the importance of compliance and
monitoring mechanisms of international agreements, including reporting
requirements, and stresses the importance of national and local capacity-
building aimed at improving compliance, monitoring, inspection and enforcement
of international obligations.

8.   The Commission urges the international community to continue to develop
procedures and mechanisms that promote informed decisions, mutual
understanding and confidence-building with a view to avoiding or resolving
disputes.

9.   The Commission recommends the exploration of more effective
participation of major groups in the elaboration of international legal
instruments and mechanisms in the field of sustainable development.

10.  The Commission recognizes the administrative burden imposed,
particularly on the developing countries, by the implementation of
international agreements, and recognizes the need for consolidation and
integration of procedures, and for cooperation among the secretariats of
different conventions to this end.


           Decision 4/7.  International institutional arrangements*

    (*  Chapter 38 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter V below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development:

     (a) Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General on institutional
arrangements to follow up the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development (E/CN.17/1996/16) as well as the more detailed background paper on
the subject.  The Commission notes that the institutional arrangements put in
place in follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development at various levels have served the international community well
over the past four years;

     (b) Notes the new and innovative elements introduced into the work of
the Commission on Sustainable Development and considers that these functional
considerations, including the working methods and multi-year programme of work
of the Commission, will be an important element of the 1997 review process;

     (c) Welcomes General Assembly resolution 50/113 of 20 December 1995, in
particular paragraph 13, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General
to prepare, for the consideration of the Commission at its fifth session, a
comprehensive report containing an overall assessment of the progress achieved
since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in the
implementation of Agenda 21 at all levels, and in the implementation of
related outcomes, as well as recommendations for future actions and
priorities;

     (d) Also welcomes the system-wide cooperation and coordination efforts
undertaken by the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development, through
its system of task managers, in implementing Agenda 21;

     (e) Reaffirms the importance placed by the Economic and Social Council
at its substantive session of 1995 on the coordinated follow-up of
international conferences and the need to coordinate the multi-year programmes
of all relevant functional commissions and the division of labour among them;

     (f) Welcomes the proposed review by the Economic and Social Council of
the regional commissions, with a view, inter alia, to strengthening, as
appropriate, their participation relating to the implementation of the results
of major United Nations international conferences;

     (g) Recognizes the major steps made by the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), in accordance with its mandate and in implementation of
Agenda 21, to provide effective support to the work of the Commission,
inter alia, through the provision of scientific, technical and legal
information and policy advice on the environment.  In this context, the
Commission welcomes decisions adopted by the Governing Council of UNEP at its
eighteenth session, 10/ in which the Governing Council of UNEP specified ways
in which UNEP could support the Commission and encouraged closer cooperation
and collaboration between UNEP and other organizations;

     (h) Welcomes initiatives taken by bilateral, regional, intergovernmental
and United Nations system organizations, as well as financial institutions,
that integrate sustainable development as a central focus into their policies
and programmes to facilitate Agenda 21 implementation.

2.   The Commission therefore:

     (a) Encourages national Governments to ensure that their countries'
institutional arrangements further promote the implementation of Agenda 21,
while ensuring the broad participation of all stakeholders;

     (b) Emphasizes the need for the Commission to continue providing
guidance on key sustainable development issues and playing a leading role in
providing the forum for reviewing national, regional and international
efforts, including, as appropriate, the role of major groups, in the pursuit
of sustainable development;

     (c) Stresses the need for all relevant bodies of the United Nations
system to make further efforts to make sustainable development a central focus
of their programmes and policies;

     (d) Recommends that ever-closer links be established, particularly
through the bureaux of the organizations concerned, between the work of the
Commission and other relevant subsidiary bodies of the Economic and Social
Council so as to ensure that the Commission can contribute to and/or draw on
the relevant output of other bodies in a timely manner and to avoid
duplication of work.  The multi-year programmes of work of the commissions, to
be coordinated by the Council, should be seen as an important instrument for
facilitating the linkage among those commissions;

     (e) Encourages the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development to
continue to enhance inter-agency coordination, inter alia, by promoting a more
focused approach to coordination and close collaboration aimed at elaborating
action-oriented recommendations on main policy and cooperation issues.  The
Commission has requested the Committee to continue its work aimed at ensuring
complementarity of efforts and avoidance of duplication and overlap in United
Nations system activities to implement Agenda 21 and to keep the Commission
informed of its activities through the Administrative Committee on
Coordination;

     (f) Recommends that the 1997 review give special attention also to
post-United Nations Conference on Environment and Development institutional
arrangements in order to ensure their continued relevance and increased
effectiveness in the years to come.  In this regard, possible results of the
ongoing negotiations on the further measures for the restructuring and
revitalization of the United Nations in the economic, social and related
fields, on an agenda for development and on other related reform processes,
such as the High-level Working Group on the Strengthening of the United
Nations System, will be taken into account to promote better coordination
among various United Nations bodies;

     (g) Recommends that the preparatory work for the special session of the
General Assembly should examine the institutional implications for forging new
alliances for sustainable development between the United Nations and other
major organizations relevant for sustainable development, in particular the
Global Environment Facility, the Bretton Woods institutions, the Organisation
for Economic Cooperation and Development and the World Trade Organization, as
well as between Governments and civil society.


                Decision 4/8.  Information provided by Governments
                               and organizations*

                (*  For the discussion, see chapter III below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development notes with appreciation the
receipt of information from 74 States and 11 organizations.  It welcomes the
country presentations on coastal area management and national sustainable
development strategies.

2.   The Commission welcomes the efforts of the Secretariat in trying to
simplify the guidelines for the 1996 session which had facilitated the
provision of information on national and other relevant experience in
implementing Agenda 21, and the summary report on that information.

3.   The Commission requests relevant organizations within and outside the
United Nations system, as well as donors, to consider favourably requests for
the provision of technical and financial assistance to help developing
countries with the preparation of national strategies for sustainable
development, national Agenda 21 action plans and periodic communications and
reports on these activities for the Commission.  The Commission notes with
appreciation the intention of several donors and organizations to favourably
consider such requests.

4.   The Commission welcomes and supports the preparation of country profiles
by the Secretariat for the 1997 special session of the General Assembly, as
envisaged in Assembly resolution 50/113.  The country profiles, to be prepared
in close cooperation with the Governments concerned, and based on voluntary
information submitted by these Governments, will provide a concise
presentation of progress made and constraints encountered in implementing
Agenda 21 at the national level.  In this context, the Commission appeals to
countries to provide information and to cooperate with the Secretariat on this
matter.

5.   The Commission requests the Secretariat to consult members at an
appropriate time on proposals for reporting to future sessions, taking into
account, among other elements, the work on indicators for sustainable
development.

6.   The Commission notes that, in the period following the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development, States have been confronted with a
growing number of reporting requirements in the field of sustainable
development.  In order to reduce duplication of work, the Commission requests
the Secretary-General, in cooperation with interested States, to provide the
Commission at its fifth session with proposals for streamlining national
reporting in the field of sustainable development.  The country profiles could
be the initial step towards streamlining reporting requirements.


                         Decision 4/9.  Major groups*

  (*  Chapters 23-32 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter V below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development:

     (a) Welcomes the contributions of major groups to its fourth session and
their continued participation in Agenda 21 follow-up at the local, national,
regional and international levels.  Their commitment to sustainable
development objectives strengthens the Commission's work and efforts in this
direction throughout the world;

     (b) Also welcomes the work of the major group sectors in preparing the
Day of the Workplace and the youth panel/exhibition for the fourth session of
the Commission.  The Commission also welcomes the financial and other support
provided by Governments and international organizations to these special
events and calls on Governments, international organizations and the private
sector to continue assisting through these activities in the preparations for
future events;

     (c) Stresses the positive experience gained from the special events
focusing on particular major groups and recognizes that the success of these
events was due in part to the partnerships catalysed among the major group
partners and their networks;

     (d) Welcomes General Assembly resolution 50/113 of 20 December 1995, in
which the Assembly recognized the important role played by major groups at the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and in the
implementation of its recommendations and recognized the need for their active
involvement in preparations for the special session, as well as the need to
ensure appropriate arrangements for their contribution during the special
session;

     (e) Recognizing the important contribution by all major groups on issues
related to sustainable development, invites their active participation during
the preparations for and at both the 1997 session of the Commission on
Sustainable Development and the 1997 special session of the General Assembly
for the five-year comprehensive review of Agenda 21;

     (f) Welcomes the initiative of the International Council for Local
Environmental Initiatives, together with the Department for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat, to
assess the state of local Agenda 21 initiatives through a worldwide survey,
and invites Governments and the national sustainable development coordination
institutions to give their full support in gathering this valuable information
for the 1997 review process;

     (g) Emphasizes the need to preserve and expand major group
participation, as appropriate, in the Commission on Sustainable Development
and in relevant international organizations whose work is an essential part of
the Agenda 21 follow-up process;

     (h) Recognizing the efforts of major groups organizations, in particular
non-governmental organizations, in mobilizing technical and financial
assistance to support the sustainable development initiatives of developing
countries, encourages further action in this regard, particularly by those
organizations that are able to effect such action.

2.   The Commission therefore:

     (a) Encourages all parties to uphold the objective of partnership in
their collaboration with major groups at all levels and in preparation for the
special events that may be organized in the context of the 1997 review;

     (b) Encourages Governments and international organizations to actively
support the initiatives of major groups aiming to make contributions to the
1997 review;

     (c) Encourages Governments to involve major group representatives in the
preparations for the 1997 review process at the national level and to
favourably consider including major group representatives in national
delegations to the fifth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development,
and, as appropriate, to the special session of the General Assembly in June
1997;

     (d) Supports the recommendations agreed to at the second
session 11/ and the third session 12/ of the Commission and
endorsed by the Economic and Social Council in its decisions 1994/300 and
1995/235 concerning the accreditation of non-governmental organizations to the
Commission, and recommends that the Council, at its substantive session of
1996, decide to keep those non-governmental organizations accredited to the
Commission by Council decision 1993/220 on the Roster, as envisaged in Council
decision 1993/215;

     (e) Invites the General Assembly, through the Economic and Social
Council, to ensure, in conformity with Assembly resolution 50/113, appropriate
arrangements for the most effective contribution to and active involvement of
major groups, including non-governmental organizations, in the special session
of the Assembly in 1997;

     (f) Requests United Nations organizations to foster the emerging trends
towards greater openness and transparency with respect to major groups, and
calls upon them, as appropriate, to broaden the scope of their cooperation
with major groups;

     (g) Requests major groups to report to the Commission on Sustainable
Development on positive examples of recent international meetings, conferences
and panels where innovative approaches to major group participation have been
taken;

     (h) Emphasizes the need to achieve comprehensive reporting as well as
independent assessments as prepared by major groups, and requests the
secretariat of the Commission as well as other United Nations bodies to
maintain continuous collaboration with major groups;

     (i) Requests further efforts by Governments, United Nations
organizations and other bodies to develop simple and accessible information
materials related to Agenda 21 so as to assist people at the local level in
taking a more active role both in assessing social, economic and environmental
conditions, and in participating in decision-making processes for sustainable
development at the local level.

          Decision 4/10.  Transfer of environmentally sound technologies,
                          cooperation and capacity-building*

    (*  Chapter 34 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter V below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development takes note of the report of
the Secretary-General on the transfer of environmentally sound technologies,
cooperation and capacity-building (E/CN.17/1996/13 and Add.1), which provides
an overview of the policies and initiatives taken and the results achieved in
the implementation of the work programme on the transfer of environmentally
sound technologies (ESTs) approved by the Commission at its third session.

2.   The Commission welcomes the initiatives taken by countries and
organizations to organize inter-sessional meetings on specific elements of the
work programme, and notes that the above-mentioned report made use of those
meetings.

3.   The Commission reaffirms the relevance of the work programme and urges
Governments, relevant organizations of the United Nations system, other
intergovernmental organizations, the secretariats of the various international
conventions, and major groups, particularly business and industry, to further
implement the work programme.

4.   The Commission recognizes that new and efficient technologies will be
essential to increase the capabilities of countries, in particular developing
countries, to achieve sustainable development, sustain the world's economy,
protect the environment and alleviate poverty.

5.   The Commission also recognizes that the level of technology transfer and
technological transformation required to accelerate progress towards cleaner,
more efficient systems of production in many developing countries and
countries with economies in transition can be realized through financial
support and partnership arrangements with donor countries and agencies, as
well as with the encouragement of private-sector initiatives and investments.

6.   The Commission reaffirms the need for Governments and regional and
international bodies to take measures to ensure that women have equal access
to and equal opportunity to participate in educational, scientific and
technological activities, particularly as participants in and beneficiaries of
technology innovation, transfer and dissemination.

7.   The Commission urges Governments of developed and developing countries
and countries with economies in transition to adopt appropriate environmental
legislation that will enhance the successful dissemination of ESTs in their
own countries.  They are also encouraged to develop and implement an
appropriate mix of policy measures, including regulations and economic
instruments and incentives aimed at stimulating the adoption of cleaner
production technologies and improved, more efficient systems of production
that emphasize pollution prevention and waste minimization and recycling, with
particular attention to the adoption of such systems by small and medium-sized
enterprises (SMEs).

8.   The Commission encourages Governments, the private sector and industry
to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the access to and transfer
of ESTs and corresponding know-how, in particular to developing countries, on
favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as
mutually agreed, as well as technological cooperation, taking into account the
need to protect intellectual property rights as well as the special needs of
developing countries for the implementation of Agenda 21.

9.   The Commission encourages the greater use of partnership arrangements in
and between the private and public sectors, including through voluntary
agreements, as a means to achieve commonly agreed environmental goals and
objectives and to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits that can
accrue through the application of cleaner production technologies and methods
and eco-efficiency concepts.

10.  The Commission urges countries, international and business organizations
to share information on the use and effectiveness of policy measures adopted
by Governments and the private sector to promote, develop or create greater
demand for technology and technological innovations aimed at changing methods
of production, including improving efficiency in the use of energy and natural
resources and in reducing pollution and waste.

11.  The Commission urges Governments of developed and developing countries
and countries with economies in transition, with the assistance of regional
institutions and international organizations, to strengthen the role of
technology centres, where necessary, including cleaner production centres and
information clearing-houses, as intermediaries and facilitators for the
transfer of ESTs, inter alia, to SMEs.  In this regard, innovative
partnerships between and sharing of experience by and among such centres
should be promoted to increase interaction and to benefit from methods that
have proved successful in other contexts.

12.  The Commission encourages Governments and national research and
technology centres to conduct national technology needs assessment pilot
projects in priority areas of development and environment, as appropriate.  In
identifying priority areas, national environmental action plans or sustainable
development strategies, where existing, may be used.  Governments may wish to
include business associations and other stakeholders in national technology
needs assessment exercises.  The private sector, in particular, would be in a
position to pursue investment opportunities that are generated through
national technology needs assessment and to thereby enhance technology
cooperation.

13.  The Commission calls upon Governments of developing countries and
countries with economies in transition to strengthen, with the assistance of
donors, where necessary, EST support structures, including technical advisory
or consultancy services, marketing support, legal advice, research and
development and laboratory facilities and services with the aim of
facilitating the successful transfer and development of ESTs.  Assistance in
project formulation, negotiation and technology sourcing and matchmaking may
be needed.  In this regard, the private sector could also play an important
role.

14.  The Commission invites the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
to continue its work to develop an EST information system network so as to
increase compatibility and cooperation among information systems and sources
related to ESTs, and to keep the Commission informed of its progress.  In this
context, UNEP is invited to consider developing and maintaining a catalogue of
EST-related information systems, and to eventually make such a catalogue
publicly available in printed form or on diskette and through global networks,
such as the Internet.

15.  The Commission takes note of the further development of the
International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 14000 and other
environmental management standards, such as eco-audit standards and schemes,
and invites countries to share information and experiences on the impact of
such standards on the demand for and wider application of ESTs and cleaner
production methods.

16.  The Commission urges Governments, in cooperation with business and
industry, to apply appropriate measures that would assist local companies, in
particular SMEs, in accessing financial markets to facilitate technological
cooperation and technology transfer.  In this context, priority may be given
to improving the overall availability of finance to SMEs through appropriate
measures that stimulate investments.

17.  The Commission invites business and industry, including transnational
corporations, to take steps aimed at (a) facilitating the access of SMEs to
financial markets and ESTs and (b) promoting capacity-building, in particular
in developing countries.


               Decision 4/11.  Promoting education, public awareness
                               and training*

    (*  Chapter 36 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter V below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development:

     (a) Welcomes the many initiatives undertaken to promote education,
public awareness and training for sustainable development, as noted in the
report of the Secretary-General thereon (E/CN.17/1996/14 and Add.1) and notes
the progress made in cooperative initiatives such as the International
Environmental Education Programme of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP); 

     (b) Reaffirms that education, public awareness and training are critical
for promoting sustainable development and increasing the capacity to address
environment and development issues, and that therefore the implementation of
chapter 36 of Agenda 21 will influence progress in the implementation of all
the other chapters of Agenda 21;

     (c) Notes that recommendations concerning education appear in the action
plans of all the major United Nations conferences and in the conventions
adopted after the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development;

     (d) Also notes the series of international meetings and studies that had
taken place since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
to discuss the status and future directions of environment and development
education, and expresses its appreciation to the Czech Republic for having
organized the inter-sessional workshop on "Education and public awareness for
sustainable development" (Prague, 28 November-1 December 1995), which put
forward to the Commission recommendations for use in preparing a work
programme.  The Commission also recognized the work of UNESCO's International
Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century;

     (e) Recognizes that education for sustainable development needs to be
understood as part of a broad new vision of education as a lifelong process. 
This will require restructuring and reform of formal education, as well as the
utilization of all non-formal channels, including distance education;

(**  Formal education refers to education in schools, and non-formal education
to all other types of education.)

     (f) Draws attention to the need to further refine the concept of
education for sustainable development and to identify the key messages;

     (g) Reiterates the importance of basic education for all and of lifelong
learning about environment and development.  Traditional knowledge should be
valued and not submerged in this process;

     (h) Recognizes the potential of technical and vocational education and
training in the promotion of sustainable development in key economic sectors;

     (i) Stresses the need to give greater emphasis to the role of education
for sustainable development, including environmental economics, as well as
public awareness in changing unsustainable production and consumption patterns
and lifestyles;

     (j) Emphasizes the important role that the media and the advertising
industry can play in raising public awareness about sustainable development,
including changes in unsustainable patterns of production and consumption;

     (k) Recognizes the need to give increasing emphasis to raising awareness
and taking action in implementing Agenda 21 at the community and municipality
levels, as well as to targeting households as a key point of entry;

     (l) Stresses the need to broaden cooperation at the international level,
building on past experience, in particular that of the UNESCO/UNEP
International Environmental Education Programme, and involving all relevant
bodies of the United Nations system, Governments and major groups, in
particular non-governmental organizations, business and industry, youth and
the educational community.  A new cooperative arrangement should be developed
that is bold and imaginative and concentrates on a limited number of key
undertakings during the next four or five years.

2.   The Commission, taking into account relevant linkages with the programme
of work on changing production and consumption patterns adopted at its third
session, therefore agrees to initiate a programme of work in the context of
which it:

     (a) Urges UNESCO as task manager for chapter 36 to actively pursue, in
partnership with UNEP, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) and other key institutions, international initiatives that lead towards
a broad alliance for education for sustainable development taking into account
the experience of the UNESCO/UNEP International Environmental Education
Programme and other relevant programmes, and to promote networks on education
and training for sustainable development at all levels, particularly at the
grass-roots level;

     (b) Urges the United Nations system, Governments and major groups to
implement in an integrated manner the recommendations concerning education,
public awareness and training contained in the action plans of all the major
United Nations conferences and in the conventions adopted after the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development;

     (c) Invites UNESCO, working in close cooperation with governmental and
non-governmental organizations, and the educational and scientific
communities, to advise on how education and training for sustainable
development can be integrated into national educational policies;

     (d) Calls upon UNESCO to refine the concept and key messages of
education for sustainable development, taking into account the experience of
environmental education and integrating considerations pertaining to
population, health, economics, social and human development, and peace and
security;

     (e) Urges Governments to advance education and training for sustainable
development, with assistance as appropriate from the United Nations system and
other relevant international bodies.  The Commission encourages the
involvement of the educational community, the sharing of experience (including
among the youth themselves) and the highlighting of best practices, in
particular within local communities, in the preparation and implementation of
action plans to this effect;

     (f) Calls upon developed countries, international organizations and the
private sector to assist in promoting education, public awareness and training
in developing countries, through the provision of financial and technical
support;

     (g) Encourages the development of new partnership arrangements among
educators, scientists, Governments, non-governmental organizations, business
and industry, youth, the media and other major groups, to communicate the key
messages of sustainable development through both formal and non-formal
channels.  The new communications technologies should be exploited for this
purpose.  Education and training for sustainable development should be based
on a broad participatory approach, taking into account local needs and values;

     (h) Encourages Governments and all relevant stakeholders to work in
partnership with youth to strengthen tools for youth empowerment and to
provide skills and training to prepare youth for decision-making roles and
sustainable livelihoods;

     (i) Urges the Bretton Woods institutions to analyse their current
investments in education, with respect to the needs of promoting education for
sustainable development;

     (j) Requests the Secretary-General to take the preliminary results of
this work programme into account in the context of the 1997 review of
education, public awareness and training.




         Decision 4/12.  National mechanisms and international cooperation
                         for capacity-building in developing countries*

    (*  Chapter 37 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter V below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development:

     (a) Having examined the report of the Secretary-General on capacity-
building for sustainable development (E/CN.17/1996/15 and Add.1), notes the
enhanced understanding and recognition in the international community of
capacity-building issues, which has led to a greater focus on strengthening
national capacities for designing national plans and strategies for
sustainable development;

     (b) Welcomes the efforts of those countries that have taken significant
steps towards capacity-building by formulating national Agenda 21 strategies,
conservation strategies and environmental action plans, expresses its
appreciation to those organizations, notably the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP), which have provided assistance to those efforts and
encourages the continuation of such support;

     (c) Notes the existence of long-standing institutional and other
constraints in many developing countries and countries with economies in
transition that need to be overcome when implementing national strategies and
affirms, in this connection, that the sharing of experiences and insights from
diverse capacity-building situations and measures constitutes the basis for a
collaborative learning process, noting, in this context, that the African
High-Level Meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), sponsored by the
United Nations Environment Programme in 1995, led to the adoption of a plan of
action on EIA for African countries;

     (d) Emphasizes the importance of donor collaboration and coordination,
highlights, in this context, the relevant role of capacity-building while
promoting a more participatory approach, recognizes that there is a greater
role for information technology in capacity-building and notes the planned
Workshop on Capacity-Building for the Environment, to be held in November 1996
under the sponsorship of the Development Assistance Committee of the
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

2.   The Commission therefore:

     (a) Stresses the need to keep capacity-building as one of the central
objectives in the promotion of development projects and programmes in
developing countries in accordance with their national priorities and
stresses, in this context, the need for a long-term commitment and systematic
focus in pursuing capacity-building efforts;

     (b) Urges Governments and international organizations to share
experiences in capacity-building and assist the developing countries through
strengthened international cooperation programmes for sustainable development;

     (c) Calls upon Governments and international organizations to enhance
coordinated efforts to assist developing countries in their own capacity-
building efforts and to encourage the active involvement of non-state actors,
including non-governmental organizations, the private sector and other major
groups, in the capacity-building of developing countries;

     (d) Encourages United Nations programmes and funds, including UNDP, and
other relevant organizations, to continue to assist developing countries in
strengthening their capacities in planning and policy-making for sustainable
development through consultative processes and requests UNDP to further
disseminate the results of programmes and evaluations of Capacity 21 projects
undertaken at the country level;

     (e) Encourages further work in carrying out action- and problem-oriented
research on capacity-building issues in specific priority areas at the
national level by concerned international, bilateral and non-governmental
organizations.


        Decision 4/13.  Changing production and consumption patterns*

(*  Chapter 4 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter III below.)


1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development:

     (a) Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General on changing
consumption and production patterns (E/CN.17/1996/5 and Add.1) presenting an
overview of progress with regard to policy developments, and welcomes the
progress reported therein in the implementation of the international work
programme.  In addition the Commission noted the contributions of Member
States, non-governmental organizations and business and international
organizations, in particular the Workshop on Policy Measures for Changing
Consumption Patterns, hosted by the Government of the Republic of Korea, the
Rosendal Workshop on Consumption and Production Patterns:  Clarifying the
Concepts, organized by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) and the Government of Norway, and the international
conference on sustainable industrial development hosted by the Government of
the Netherlands;

     (b) Takes note of the report of the Ad Hoc Inter-sessional Working Group
on Finance and Changing Consumption and Production Patterns (E/CN.17/1996/7);

     (c) Reaffirms the relevance of the programme of work and urges
Governments, relevant organizations of the United Nations system, other
intergovernmental organizations, the secretariats of the various international
conventions, and major groups, particularly business and industry, to further
implement the work programme and remain seized of the subject;

     (d) Notes that the work programme adopted at the third session of the
Commission is mainly research oriented, and also notes that the 1997 review of
the implementation of Agenda 21 will provide an opportunity for further
directing the work programme towards a more action-oriented approach.  In this
respect, the Commission requests the Secretariat to consider specific
proposals for action in the reports to be presented under the work programme;

     (e)  Stresses that there must be an appropriate balance in the attention
given to both the supply side and the demand side in the context of changing
unsustainable consumption and production patterns.  Changes in end use and
consumer lifestyles are needed, particularly in the industrialized countries,
while increased eco-efficiency will yield benefits to business and to
industry, as well as to the government sector in all countries.  A balanced
approach to more sustainable production and consumption requires both good
management and appropriate technology;

     (f)  Notes that the concept of eco-efficiency should not be a substitute
for changes in unsustainable lifestyles of consumers, and also notes that the
pursuit of eco-efficiency also requires enhanced efforts to assist developing
countries in their efforts to promote sustainable consumption and production
patterns, by improving access to financial resources and environmentally sound
technologies;

     (g) Reiterates all the decisions taken on issues relating to changing
consumption and production patterns at its second and third sessions;

     (h) Notes an important linkage between the issues of changing
consumption and production patterns and financial issues of Agenda 21:  at the
macroeconomic level, savings are generated as a function of income and
consumption.  These savings are among the national and international resources
available for financing sustainable development which includes economic and
social development and environmental protection.  At the same time, such
savings in many developing countries are limited in view of their already low
levels of income;

     (i) Reaffirms that the major cause of continued degradation of the
global environment is the unsustainable patterns of consumption and
production, particularly in industrialized countries;

     (j) Reiterates that measures to be undertaken at the international level
for the protection and enhancement of the environment must take fully into
account the current imbalances in the global patterns of consumption and
production, and that changing consumption patterns will require a multipronged
strategy focusing on demand, meeting the basic needs of the poor, and reducing
wastage and the use of finite resources in the production process;

     (k) Notes that changes in consumption and production patterns could
result in the sustainable utilization of natural resources, through their
transformation into products and services for the equitable benefit of all
countries, as well as in the prevention and mitigation of the environmental,
health and social cost of pollution;

     (l) Stresses the need for more efficiency in energy use and measures to
promote the use of renewable energy, and for enhanced international
cooperation to support national actions in this regard;

     (m) Emphasizes that efforts to change patterns of consumption and
production should take into account developing countries' sustainable
development strategies, including economic, social and environmental aspects
of growth;

     (n) Notes the trend towards a global consensus on the importance of
changing consumption and production patterns, in the context of common but
differentiated responsibilities, and also notes that many countries -
developed countries, developing countries and countries with economies in
transition - have reported on national initiatives to make consumption and
production patterns more sustainable;

     (o) Recommends that measures for changing consumption and production
patterns worldwide should take into account, as appropriate, the need for
improved market access, particularly for developing countries and countries
with economies in transition, for more sustainably produced goods and
services;

     (p) Welcomes efforts undertaken by various countries in making use of
policy instruments proposed by the Commission and recommends that the exchange
of experiences in that field continue;

     (q) Acknowledging the progress made by various countries in the
development of national policies intended to change consumption and production
patterns, reaffirms the need for additional substantial efforts to be
undertaken and real progress to be achieved by countries, in particular the
developed countries, in changing their unsustainable consumption and
production patterns and in assisting to redress the present imbalances between
industrialized and developing countries and within themselves.  The Commission
recognizes that the industrialized countries should be taking the lead (as
some already are) in these efforts, and that such countries have a
responsibility to demonstrate that resource-efficient, low-pollution
consumption and production patterns and sustainable lifestyles are feasible,
desirable, and essential for progress in achieving sustainable development;
and renews its call on all countries to strive to promote sustainable
consumption patterns, and on developed countries to continue to take the lead
in promoting and achieving more sustainable consumption patterns;

     (r) Considers that designing and implementing eco-efficiency as well as
product-related strategies could be useful in reducing the energy and
materials intensities of production and consumption, and that such concepts as
energy and materials intensity, carrying capacity, eco-space and ecological
footprints should be analysed for further development and use;

     (s) Recognizes that Governments at all levels can influence other
stakeholders in society, inter alia, through the setting of environmental
regulations and through their purchasing and investment policies.  Procurement
policies can address the issue of the purchase and maintenance of goods and
services of hospital and school equipment and vehicle fleets, and that of the
use of environmentally sound products;

     (t) Recognizes the potential for using economic instruments that can
both generate revenue for financing sustainable development and send signals
to the market to help change unsustainable consumption and production
patterns;

     (u) Stresses the importance of the contribution made by major groups and
the private sector towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and
production worldwide;

     (v) Also stresses that the issues specified in paragraphs 2 to 4 of the
present decision are relevant to all stakeholders, and calls on Governments,
international organizations, business and industry, trade unions and
non-governmental organizations to bring forward the findings and results of
their work for consideration by the Commission at its fifth session as regards
inclusion in the review at the 1997 special session of the General Assembly;

     (w) Requests the Secretariat to compile information on measures taken by
Governments, the private sector, trade unions and non-governmental
organizations in response to the priorities set out in chapter 4 of Agenda 21,
and decides to review this information at future sessions of the Commission,
as appropriate.

2.   The Commission urges Governments:

     (a) To continue their efforts aimed at achieving more sustainable
patterns of production and consumption, taking into account the particular
needs and conditions of the developing countries.  The Commission reaffirms
the need for additional and substantial efforts and real progress by all
countries, and renews its call on developed countries to continue to take the
lead in promoting and achieving more sustainable production and consumption
patterns;

     (b) To effectively continue efforts to reduce pollution and the
generation of waste and to increase efforts to promote continuous improvements
in the energy and materials intensities of production and consumption, and
encourages Governments to share information on their experience with such
policies, and to ensure the full participation of major groups;

     (c) To explore the implications of eco-efficiency for policy development
and implementation, in particular in combination with priority identification
and goal-setting;

     (d) To give more attention, in conjunction with major groups, business
and industry, to the role that media, advertising and marketing play in
shaping consumption and production patterns, and to report findings and
national experiences to the Commission at its fifth session, in 1997;

     (e) To analyse and implement optimal mixes of regulatory, voluntary,
economic and social instruments and measures, based on close collaboration
between the public and private sectors, to make production and consumption
patterns more sustainable, taking due account of the potential roles of
domestic measures, such as education, procurement policies, eco-labelling,
extended and shared producer responsibility, environmental auditing and
accounting, environmental taxes, other market-based instruments, and the
reduction and removal of environmentally damaging subsidies;

     (f)  To bear in mind, in this regard, that such instruments should not
constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised
restriction on trade; and that the design and implementation of such
instruments should be transparent and would need to include careful assessment
and consultation so as to reflect the concerns of all countries involved.  The
Commission emphasizes that eco-labelling needs to be approached in a manner
that takes into account the special situation and needs of developing
countries and the specific requirements of countries with economies in
transition.  In this context, the Commission notes that domestic eco-
labelling, adopted at national discretion within countries and on a voluntary
basis, remains an important strategy for promoting sustainable consumption and
production patterns;

     (g) To establish and implement policies for the procurement of
environmentally sound and otherwise sustainable products and services for use
within Governments, and invites Governments to report to the Commission at its
fifth session on their experiences in this regard with a view to their
inclusion in the review to be conducted at the 1997 special session of the
General Assembly.  The Commission also notes with satisfaction that in
February 1996 OECD Governments agreed to strive to achieve the highest
standards of environmental performance in their facilities and operations, the
Commission has asked them to report to it at future sessions, as appropriate,
on progress achieved;





     (h) To foster a dialogue with relevant non-governmental organizations,
for example national consumer organizations, and the business community,
pursuant to paragraph 45.D in chapter I of the report of the Commission on its
third session; 13/

     (i) To facilitate the participation of major groups, in particular
non-governmental organizations, women, youth and trade unions, in developing
and implementing policies for promoting sustainable consumption and production
patterns.

3.   The Commission calls upon international organizations:

     (a) To strengthen their work in support of national initiatives by
undertaking sound analyses on (i) projected trends in consumption and
production patterns and their policy implications, (ii) the implications of
eco-efficiency for policy development and (iii) the merits and drawbacks of
the different types of instruments available to achieve changes in consumption
and production patterns;

     (b) In particular the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),
the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and OECD, to consider
undertaking, within existing resources, policy-relevant studies of the
possible impacts for developing countries of changes in consumption and
production patterns in developed countries.  The focus of this work should be
on two aspects:  (i) assisting Governments in identifying impacts and options
for the mitigation of adverse environmental, social and economic impacts and
(ii) identifying and stimulating new trade and investment opportunities;

     (c) Including relevant United Nations organizations, the Bretton Woods
institutions, OECD and other intergovernmental organizations, with good data
and knowledge of policy development and implementation, to establish or
contribute to an information clearing-house on new and innovative policies for
more sustainable consumption and production patterns, including the use of
economic instruments, voluntary measures and education.  In this context, the
Commission invites these organizations, in particular UNEP, the World Bank and
the regional development banks, to undertake joint efforts aimed at helping
all countries, particularly developing countries and countries with economies
in transition, to benefit mutually from existing experiences with sustainable
industrial development approaches and to adapt these approaches to domestic
circumstances;

     (d) To support Governments in initiatives to improve their environmental
performance, with regard to materials and energy efficiency, waste management
and pollution prevention, procurement and investment policies, and the
continued integration of environmental policy with economic and other
policies.  In addition, the Commission calls upon international organizations
to use high environmental performance standards in the day-to-day management
of their own facilities and operations.

4.   The Commission encourages major groups:

     (a) To cooperate with Governments in the design and implementation of
new and innovative policies, and mixes of instruments, to achieve changes in
consumption and production patterns;

     (b) In particular Consumers International, to assist the United Nations
and its member Governments in the early revision of the United Nations
Guidelines for Consumer Protection, 14/ to include aspects of more
sustainable consumption and production patterns;

     (c) And calls specifically on business and industry:

     (i) To continue exercising environmental responsibility, inter alia, by
         developing and implementing the concept of eco-efficiency, and in
         particular to assess its potentials and limitations in terms of
         achieving sustainable development, without reducing profitability;

    (ii) To help design optimal mixes of instruments for achieving more
         sustainable patterns.  Special attention could be given to the
         obstacles and opportunities, and the costs and benefits, of
         implementing voluntary initiatives, partnerships and agreements,
         incorporating extended and shared producer responsibility (for
         example, the consideration of life-cycle impacts at the design stage
         of production and producer take-back requirements), and adopting
         environmental management systems such as the International
         Organization for Standardization series, ISO 14000.


              Decision 4/14.  Financial resources and mechanisms*

    (* Chapter 33 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter IV below.)
1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development welcomes the report of the Ad
Hoc Inter-sessional Working Group on Finance and Changing Consumption and
Production Patterns (E/CN.17/1996/7) and the report of the Secretary-General
entitled "Financial resources and mechanisms for sustainable developments: 
overview of current issues and developments (E/CN.17/1996/4 and Add.1), and
reiterates all decisions made at its second and third sessions on issues
related to financial resources and mechanisms.

2.   Having reviewed the financing of sustainable development, the Commission
reaffirms that the commitments made at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development on new and additional resources remain a key
element of financial resources and mechanisms.  The Commission also reaffirms
that chapter 33 of Agenda 21 provides the framework and guidance for the
discussion of various current and emerging issues, and that that framework is
clear enough to take into consideration new developments, including the
decline in official development assistance (ODA) relative to gross national
product (GNP) and the increase of private flows to some developing countries. 
The Commission further reaffirms that, in general, financing for the
implementation of Agenda 21 will come from countries' own public and private
sectors.

3.   As to mobilizing external financial resources for sustainable
development, the Commission recognizes that ODA has a special role to play in
promoting sustainable development in developing countries, particularly in the
least developed countries.  The Commission underlines the urgent need to
fulfil all financial commitments of Agenda 21, especially those contained in
chapter 33, and attaches importance to its decision at its third session to
promote, inter alia, new approaches to enhancing the effectiveness of ODA and
increasing it within relevant bilateral and multilateral mechanisms with the
objective of achieving the United Nations target of 0.7 per cent of GNP, as
reaffirmed in paragraph 33.13 of Agenda 21, as soon as possible.  The
Commission stresses that it is important that donor countries promote greater
public awareness of commitments concerning ODA as set forth in chapter 33 of
Agenda 21.

4.   The Commission emphasizes the need to improve the effectiveness of ODA
by various means, including the leveraging of private-sector investments from
national and external sources.  Furthermore, where it is not already the case,
the effectiveness of ODA could also be enhanced by tailoring it to the
specific needs and circumstances of developing countries.  ODA flows should be
further examined on a continuing basis, particularly with respect to their
overall levels and allocation among the interlinked components of sustainable
development.

5.   The Commission acknowledges the positive aspects of the expansion of
external private capital flows to some developing countries, and emphasizes
the importance of their contribution to economic growth and sustainable
development of those countries.  However, it stresses its concern at the
volatility of such flows, which has a negative bearing on the efforts of
developing countries to achieve sustainable development.  Therefore, both
developed and developing countries should examine initiatives conducive to a
stable and more favourable environment for enhancing the stability of external
private capital flows.

6.   The Commission also acknowledges that the expansion of external private
capital flows has been limited to some developing countries, and that
therefore the great majority of developing countries are not benefiting from
the expansion of such flows.  The Commission recognizes that the further
increase and more widespread distribution of external private capital flows
should be encouraged through appropriate national economic, environmental and
social policies and laws or regulations, as well as through a conducive
international environment, including non-discriminatory trade and open
investment.

7.   The Commission, having examined the issue of external capital flows and
their impacts, notes that foreign investors, in particular transnational
corporations, should be encouraged to consider the goals of sustainable
development and environmental responsibility in their investment projects, and
also recognizes the importance of host countries adopting appropriate
sustainable development policies.

8.   The Commission welcomes the progress made in discussions on the debt
problem of heavily indebted poor countries held at the meeting of the
Development Committee of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) in Washington, D.C., on 23 April 1996.  Consideration should be given to
comprehensive approaches to assisting low-income countries with substantial
multilateral debt problems through the flexible implementation of existing
instruments and new mechanisms, where necessary.  The Commission also
recognizes that effective, equitable, development-oriented and durable
solutions to the external debt and debt-service problems of developing
countries, in particular the poorest and heavily indebted countries, can
contribute substantially to the strengthening of the global economy and to the
efforts of developing countries to achieve economic development, social
development and environmental protection as interdependent and mutually
reinforcing components of sustainable development.

9.   As to mobilizing national financial resources for sustainable
development, the Commission emphasizes the importance of the participation of
the private sector in sustainable development, in particular through increased
investments.  Sound and predictable macroeconomic and sustainable development
policies at the national and international levels are important for promoting
private-sector investment consistent with sustainable development objectives. 
Trade liberalization, an appropriate legal framework that protects private and
intellectual property rights, and the development of appropriate domestic
financial markets are also required.

10.  To further promote private-sector participation, the Commission calls
for greater use of innovative mechanisms, such as build-operate-transfer and
similar mechanisms for financing infrastructure projects for sustainable
development.  The privatization of public enterprises and contracting-out of
services should be encouraged, as appropriate, taking into consideration the
different conditions and circumstances of countries.

11.  The Commission encourages Governments to consider further studies and,
on a voluntary basis, the gradual implementation of economic instruments,
further examining the costs and benefits associated with the use of such
instruments.  The Commission also notes that in practice the application of
economic instruments in a number of countries generally yields satisfactory
results.

12.  The Commission recommends that pollution abatement funds should improve
their performance by greater use of project evaluation techniques. 
Governments are encouraged to consider measures for enhancing the
effectiveness and reach of such funds.

13.  As to financing the transfer of environmentally sound technologies
(ESTs), the Commission emphasizes that financing for ESTs should come from
national and external resources and innovative mechanisms in accordance with
chapters 33 and 34 of Agenda 21.  In pursuance of chapter 34 of Agenda 21,
technology transfer efforts should be enhanced within a stable, predictable
national and international economic and regulatory environment that will
ensure the identification and development of markets for ESTs.

14.  As to the development of innovative mechanisms for the financing of
sustainable development, the Commission welcomes the decision of the Economic
and Social Council to include an item entitled "New and innovative ideas for
generating funds" in the provisional agenda for its substantive session of
1996 (Council decision 1996/210), and recommends that the report of the Third
Expert Group Meeting on Financial Issues of Agenda 21 be made available to the
Council under that item.  The Commission also emphasizes that the scope of the
examination of such mechanisms should encompass all aspects - economic, social
and environmental - of sustainable development.

15.  As to policy options and financial instruments in the matrix approach,
the Commission recognizes that economic instruments need to be tailored to
reflect individual countries' circumstances, and reiterates the decision
contained in chapter I, section B, paragraphs 137-139 of the report on its
third session. 13/  Furthermore, the Commission stresses that that approach
should not divert attention from the commitments contained in chapter 33 of
Agenda 21.  The Commission also recommends that the coverage of the matrix be
broadened by including such issues as benefits to the traditional holders of
indigenous knowledge.  The Commission encourages wider dissemination of
information on the use of such instruments and the costs and benefits
associated with their use so as to enable further work on the matrix approach.

16.  The Commission recognizes the relevant role to be played by major
groups, including in financing the activities set out in Agenda 21, in
particular the transfer of technology, and emphasizes that that contribution
should be carried out in compliance with the policies and strategies of
recipient countries. 

17.  In its discussion of practical steps towards resolving the
above-mentioned issues, the Commission calls attention to the need for further
studies, the desirability of strengthening cooperation and the necessity of
improving the exchange of information.  As to further studies, which should
complement the work being carried out in other forums, the Commission
emphasized that:

     (a) ODA flows should be further examined on a continuing basis,
particularly with respect to their overall levels and allocation among the
interlinked components of sustainable development;

     (b) There is a need to conduct an in-depth analysis of external capital
flows to developing countries in order to better understand their social,
distributional, economic and environmental impacts on sustainable development.

In addition, a detailed analysis of the options for a regulatory framework for
improving the impact of such flows on sustainable development is required;

     (c) A study of trends in capital flows, especially towards developing
countries, including the connection between private foreign investments and
the objectives of sustainable development, should be carried out in order to
facilitate a comprehensive debate on that issue;

     (d) Further studies of the effects, costs and benefits of economic
instruments should be undertaken.  In addition, further studies on the impact
of subsidies on sustainable development should be promoted to provide a better
basis for policy makers to identify and gradually abolish subsidies that have
clear negative impacts on sustainable development.  Such studies should assess
the economic, social and distributional impacts of subsidy reduction, as well
as the transfer of resources to more sustainable and efficient activities,
taking into account the specific circumstances and economic, social and
ecological conditions of countries.  Such studies should also examine the
viability of ecological tax reform, its impact on international
competitiveness and the modalities that could facilitate such reforms;

     (e) A detailed cross-country performance review should be undertaken to
identify how conservation trust funds can be made more cost-effective
mechanisms for environmental conservation.  Such a review should also aim to
simplify the administrative framework of such funds and to improve strategies
for leveraging their financial resources with other sources of financing;

     (f) As to innovative mechanisms for financing sustainable development,
it is important to study the feasibility of various innovative mechanisms,
while continuing to pursue efforts to increase ODA, secure the adequate
replenishment of the Global Environment Facility and encourage private-sector
investment.  The Commission stresses the importance of exploring other
innovative mechanisms, as well as of continuing studies on the possible roles
for insurance companies and alternative banking in facilitating the financing
of sustainable development;

     (g) As stated in chapter I, section B, paragraph 131 of the report on
its third session, 13/ the need for and effectiveness of environmentally sound
technology rights banks and the practical feasibility of establishing such
banks should be further studied, and action in that area is called for;

     (h) The use of economic instruments in different countries and sectoral
strategies and programmes should be studied and the results reported to the
Commission.

18.  As to the desirability of strengthening cooperation, the Commission
emphasizes that:

     (a) Bilateral aid agencies, United Nations organizations, funds and
programmes, the Bretton Woods institutions and other multilateral financial
institutions should become more responsive to national priorities and
sustainable development strategies, and should enhance their cooperation and
coordination efforts for greater effectiveness in meeting the objectives of
Agenda 21, particularly the mobilization of financial resources.  In
structural adjustment programmes, more consideration should be given to
economic, social and environmental impacts, taking into account commitment 8
of the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development; 15/

     (b) Cooperation on developing innovative financial mechanisms is
important, and the Commission would welcome an involvement of the World Bank,
IMF, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the United
Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the United Nations Development
Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Civil
Aviation Organization and other institutions in making further progress
towards understanding the prospects and requirements for the practical
implementation of such mechanisms;

     (c) In the context of promoting the transfer of ESTs, bilateral aid
agencies, international organizations and financial institutions should
cooperate with Governments to formulate and implement an enabling policy
environment.  In addition, the importance of the provisions of the Agreement
on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights of the World Trade
Organization is recalled.

19.  As to the necessity of improving the exchange of information, the
Commission emphasizes that:

     (a) The United Nations Environment Programme should further disseminate
its two recent statements on the banking and insurance services industries,
noting that the financial services industry is taking a strong interest in
improving the environmental management practices of its business clients;

     (b) The sharing of national experiences in the use of economic
instruments should be promoted, and countries are invited to report to the
Commission on their experiences concerning the implementation of various
financial mechanisms and the use of economic instruments.  The Commission
should explore ways and means of enhancing the sharing of experiences in
consultation with all interested parties;

     (c) In the context of promoting the transfer of ESTs, international
organizations, in particular financial institutions, should assist Governments
in developing and implementing appropriate technical assistance programmes
that help buyers and sellers of technology to identify each other, reducing
pre-investment costs by providing technical, financial and legal expertise,
and identifying and supporting projects that demonstrate and commercialize
ESTs in specific sectors.


            Decision 4/15.  Protection of the atmosphere and protection
                            of the oceans and all kinds of seas*

(* Chapters 9 and 17 of Agenda 21.  For the discussion, see chapter VI below).


                               A.  Interlinkages

1.   The Commission notes that a number of issues are common to both chapters
under review - chapter 9 (Protection of the atmosphere) and chapter 17
(Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and
semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and
development of their living resources).  It also notes that both these
chapters have interlinkages with several other chapters of Agenda 21.  Indeed,
the broad-based nature of chapters 9 and 17 can be seen to encompass all
important aspects of sustainable development.

2.   The Commission stresses the close interrelationship between protection
of oceans and all kinds of seas and protection of the atmosphere, in view of
the exchange of matter and energy that takes place between the atmosphere and
oceans and their influence on marine and terrestrial ecosystems.  It therefore
calls for the integration of protective measures in order to address
effectively the problems of adverse impacts of human activity on the
atmosphere and the oceans.  To this end, in particular, the Commission
considers that there is a need to further strengthen coordination mechanisms
between regions and subregions for better exchange of information and
experience gained.


                       B.  Protection of the atmosphere

3.   The Commission welcomes, with reservations, the proposals contained in
the report of the Secretary-General on protection of the atmosphere
(E/CN.17/1996/22 and Add.1).  It stresses the need for broad international
action to address global atmospheric problems, taking into full account
principle 7, 16/ of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
and paragraph 4.3, 17/ of chapter 4 of Agenda 21 (Changing consumption
patterns) in developing measures to protect the atmosphere on a global scale. 
It furthermore stresses that atmospheric protection measures to reduce air
pollution, combat climate change and prevent ozone layer depletion should be
undertaken at the national, subregional, regional and international levels.

4.   The Commission notes the risk of exacerbating other environmental, as
well as socio-economic, problems through actions to address an individual
issue, and stresses the need to address atmosphere-related problems in an
integrated and comprehensive way.  It emphasizes that an essential component
of measures to protect the atmosphere, environment and human health is the
reduction of local emissions - especially urban air pollution - which must be
dealt with at the local, regional and international levels on the basis of
common but differentiated responsibilities.  In addition, it stresses the
importance of combating all kinds of land degradation, deforestation, forest
degradation and desertification, which have adverse impacts on human health
and the environment, and the importance of improved land use management.  In
this context, the Commission refers to principle 15, 18/ of the Rio
Declaration and principle 3, 19/ of article 3 of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (A/AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add.1, annex I),
which reflect the precautionary principle approach.  The Commission recommends
the application of this approach, taking into account related uncertainties
and risks.

5.   The Commission stresses the importance of a sound scientific and
socio-economic knowledge base upon which appropriate responses to atmospheric
pollution can be formulated, and encourages national participation in, and
support for, international programmes of relevant scientific, technical and
socio-economic research, monitoring and assessment, taking into account the
precautionary principle referred to in paragraph 4 above.  The Commission
welcomes the Second Assessment Report (SAR) adopted by the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in December 1995 as the most comprehensive
assessment of climate change issues to date.  The report states, among other
conclusions, and in the full context of the report, that the balance of
evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate. 20/ 
The report emphasizes that the scientific and technical expertise required by
the developing countries and by countries with economies in transition to
protect the atmosphere needs further strengthening and, to this end, requires
the financial and technical support of the international community.  It
supports the initiative of a number of international organizations to
establish an integrated international framework for climate-related
programmes.

6.   The Commission urges countries that have not yet done so to sign and
ratify the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, with special
emphasis on the successful conclusion of the Berlin Mandate process; the
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, its Montreal Protocol
and subsequent amendments and adjustments; and the United Nations Convention
to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought
and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, and fully implement their
commitments therein.

7.   The Commission encourages parties to the United Nations Convention to
Combat Desertification, as well as those countries in the process of
ratification, to coordinate activities with those undertaken under relevant
international agreements, including the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the work of the
Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests.

8.   The Commission asserts that the production, conversion and use of energy
has been and will continue to be one of the fundamental requirements for
economic growth and social improvement.  Non-sustainable development and use
in the energy and other sectors is linked to environmental and societal
problems, including air and water pollution, health impacts and global
warming.

9.   The Commission welcomes the outcome of the Seminar on Decentralized
Electrification of Rural Areas (Marrakesh, Morocco, 13-17 November 1995) and
calls upon Governments as well as international organizations and
non-governmental organizations to consider supporting, as appropriate, the
recommendations of the Seminar.

10.  The Commission calls on Governments to consider the broad spectrum of
cost-effective policy instruments - economic and fiscal, regulatory and
voluntary - available to them, including environmental cost internalization
and removal of environmentally damaging subsidies, to improve energy
efficiency and efficiency standards and to promote the use of sustainable and
environmentally sound renewable energy sources, as well as the use of energy
sources with low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in all relevant sectors; and
encourages Governments and relevant institutions and organizations to
cooperate, as appropriate, in the implementation of policy and economic
instruments aimed at minimizing adverse effects on international
competitiveness and at optimizing the allocation of resources, and to
cooperate in minimizing the possible adverse economic impacts on developing
countries resulting from the implementation of those policies and measures.

11.  The Commission urges Governments and relevant institutions and
organizations to utilize education and training, information dissemination,
enhancement of knowledge and voluntary agreements to improve efficiency in the
production, distribution and use of energy and other natural resources.

12.  The Commission urges multilateral financial institutions to use their
investment strategies, in cooperation with interested recipient countries, for
the development and dissemination of environmentally sound technologies,
provided that such considerations do not constitute new barriers and
conditions to accessing financial resources.

13.  With regard to international cooperation, the Commission refers to
paragraph 2 of its decision on financial resources and mechanisms
(decision 4/14).

14.  The Commission urges Governments and the private sector to increase
their research into energy and material efficiency and more environmentally
sound production technologies, including improved GHG sequestration
technologies, and to actively participate in technology transfer and capacity-
building in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. 
It also urges the industrial sector to take full account of concerns related
to the protection of atmosphere and the use of cost-effective environmentally
sound technologies in their investment strategies.

15.  The Commission notes the rapid growth in the transport sector resulting
in a concomitant increase in energy requirements in both industrialized and
developing countries.  It urges Governments to consider appropriate options,
such as the different measures mentioned in paragraph 64 of the report of the
Ad Hoc Inter-sessional Working Group on Sectoral Issues (E/CN.17/1996/6).  The
Commission notes that a Conference on Environment and Transport will be held
in 1997 under the auspices of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), as
suggested in paragraph 9.15 (f) of chapter 9 of Agenda 21 (Protection of the
atmosphere).

16.  The Commission recommends that Governments and organizations actively
support the Montreal Protocol and the efforts of its parties to eliminate the
illegal trade in ozone-depleting substances; continue, within existing
financial mechanisms, to provide adequate financial and technical support to
developing countries and countries with economies in transition, to assist
them in phasing out production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances,
in accordance with their obligations under the Montreal Protocol; consider the
total environmental impact of alternatives to ozone-depleting substances; and
give priority to solutions that provide the greatest overall benefit in terms
of both ozone protection and prevention of global warming.  This will be
consistent with an integrated approach to the protection of the atmosphere. 
The Commission expresses concern about the financial state of the Multilateral
Fund of the Montreal Protocol, and calls upon States to make contributions
thereto.

17.  The Commission urges Governments and organizations, in considering
transboundary air pollution issues, to take measures to reduce emissions of
acidifying substances with the aim of not exceeding critical loads and levels
and to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds; and urges developed
countries to enhance programmes that share management expertise, scientific
expertise and information on technical mitigation options with developing
countries and countries with economies in transition.

18.  The Commission encourages Governments to address the growing problem of
transboundary air pollution and, in particular, risks caused by persistent
organic pollutants.  The Commission notes, in particular, the pollution
affecting the Arctic.  In this respect the Commission reaffirms the need for
effective transboundary air pollution agreements such as the ECE Convention on
Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and its protocols in all affected
regions.  It urges Governments, as appropriate, to develop and implement
policies and programmes, in a cooperative manner, to control emissions and
prevent transboundary air pollution in their regions, through, inter alia,
increased technology transfer and shared technical information.  The
Commission stresses the need for research and evaluation of endocrine
disrupting chemicals.

19.  The Commission requests the Secretary-General to prepare a report for
consideration by the Commission at its fifth session, in 1997, covering an
inventory of ongoing energy-oriented programmes and activities within the
United Nations system, as well as proposals for arrangements as appropriate,
that might be needed to foster the linkage between energy and sustainable
development within the United Nations system.


            C.  Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including
                enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and
                the protection, rational use and development of their
                living resources

20.  The Commission takes note of the report of the Secretary-General on
protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and
semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and
development of their living resources (E/CN.17/1996/3 and Add.1).

21.  The Commission reaffirms the common aim of promoting the sustainable
development, conservation and management of the coastal and marine
environment.  It stresses that action at the national, subregional and
regional levels must play the prime role, but that effective arrangements are
needed within global institutions for establishing their coherent priorities
for action.  It affirms that decisions on questions affecting the marine
environment must be the result of an integrated approach taking into account
all relevant environmental, social and economic factors, including the special
requirements of developing countries, and the best available scientific
evidence.  To this end, it supports collaboration between the holders of such
information and those concerned with the formulation of policies including
national policy makers.  Such collaboration should reflect a precautionary
approach taking into account the uncertainties in the information available
and the related risks for people and resources.  The Commission therefore
states that international arrangements for decision-making must recognize the
importance of financial resources, transfer of environmentally sound
technology, capacity-building, resource ownership and management, and the
exchange of information as well as know-how, among developing and developed
countries and countries with economies in transition.

22.  The Commission welcomes the considerable progress in recent
intergovernmental negotiations related to oceans and seas.  The entry into
force in 1994 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 21/
was a fundamental achievement and provides the framework for the protection of
the marine environment.  Other recent successes include, inter alia, the
Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management
Measures by Vessels Fishing in the High Seas; 22/ the Agreement relating
to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law
of the Sea of 10 December 1982; 23/ the Agreement for the Implementation
of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and
Highly Migratory Fish Stocks; 24/ the Code of Conduct for Responsible
Fisheries; 25/ and the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of
the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (UNEP, November 1995)
(A/51/116, annex II).  The immediate need is for the Governments concerned to
participate in and implement these agreements.

23.  The Commission also welcomes the Jakarta initiative entitled
"Conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biological diversity"
(decision II/10 of the second meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the
Convention on Biological Diversity), adopted in November 1995, 26/ and
the Kyoto Declaration and Plan of Action, adopted in December 1995 by the
International Conference on the Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries to Food
Security.  

24.  The Commission recognizes the importance of coral reefs and other
related ecosystems as a life-support system of many countries, particularly
small island developing States, and as a rich source of biodiversity.  The
Commission emphasizes the need for development and implementation of
integrated coastal and marine area management plans to deal with issues
relating to the coastal and marine environment.  To this end the Commission
welcomes the Call to Action of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI)
of June 1995 as a means to address threats to coral reefs and related
ecosystems and the inauguration of the 1997 International Year of the Reefs
(IYR).  The Commission likewise acknowledges that other marine ecosystems such
as mangroves, estuaries and seagrass beds gather a broad variety of
biodiversity and productivity and also deserve special attention.  The
Commission requests organizations of the United Nations system to contribute
to public education on coral reefs and other coastal marine ecosystems.  It
urges the international community to strengthen existing institutional
mechanisms and knowledge bases in these areas.  The Commission further urges
concerned Governments, entities within the United Nations systems,
multilateral development banks, donor institutions, local communities,
non-governmental organizations, the private sector and the scientific
community to support the implementation of the ICRI Call to Action, launching
local or national coral reef initiatives as part of their plans for integrated
coastal development and management.

25.  The Commission encourages States, individually and through the
International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other relevant United Nations
organizations and programmes, to continue taking measures to address the
environmental effects of shipping.

26.  The Commission takes note that with regard to offshore oil and gas
activities, IMO conclusions on harmonized environmental regulations have been
and are being developed in specific regional programmes.  The Commission also
notes that IMO supported this approach and encouraged its wider adoption, and
concludes that there is no compelling need at this time to further develop
globally applicable environmental regulations in respect of the exploitation
and exploration aspects of offshore oil and gas activities.

27.  The Commission encourages States to continue relevant national and
regional reviews of the need for additional measures to address the issue of
degradation of the marine environment, as called for in paragraph 17.30 of
Agenda 21, taking into account the relevant expertise of IMO, the United
Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Division for Ocean Affairs and
the Law of the Sea of the United Nations Secretariat.  To this end, it calls
for partnership, within specific regions, between Governments and the private
sector.  

28.  The Commission encourages relevant and competent international and
regional bodies to make available appropriate inputs to expert meetings to be
held in the Netherlands on offshore oil and gas activities, in which national
and regional experiences could be exchanged, and invites the Netherlands and
Brazil, where a regional meeting recently took place on this subject, to make
available to Commission members and other interested States the outcome of
these expert meetings.

29.  The Commission urges countries that have not yet done so to sign, ratify
and implement the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution
from Ships (MARPOL), the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by
Dumping from Ships and Aircraft (London Convention) (1972) and the Basel
Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and
their Disposal (1989).

30.  The Commission calls on States to adopt, according to their national
policies and priorities and with appropriate financial and technical support,
appropriate measures to ensure that the management of their watercourses,
inland waters and the related catchments are consistent with the aims of their
integrated coastal area management.  It also calls for account to be taken of
the potential impact of decisions on freshwater management systems upon the
coastal seas into which relevant rivers drain.  It requests States and
entities within the United Nations system to promote programmes to guide
management and corrective actions to control pollution in the larger coastal
urban settlements, and requests the World Bank and regional development banks
to continue developing effective means for their implementation.

31.  The Commission welcomes the successful outcome of the Intergovernmental
Conference to Adopt a Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the
Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, held in Washington, D.C., in
1995, and decides to submit to the Economic and Social Council at its
substantive session of 1996 a draft resolution to be considered by the General
Assembly at its fifty-first session on the institutional arrangements for the
implementation of the Global Programme of Action (see chap. I, sect. A).

32.   The Commission endorses the request contained in the Washington
Declaration on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based
Activities, adopted by the Intergovernmental Conference, for the Executive
Director of UNEP, in close partnership with the World Health Organization
(WHO), the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and other relevant organizations, to
prepare proposals for a plan to address the global nature of the problem of
inadequate management and treatment of waste water and its consequences for
human health and the environment, and to promote the transfer of appropriate
and affordable technology drawn from the best available techniques, and
referred to in the Global Programme of Action.  Such proposals are to be
considered by the Governing Council of UNEP at its nineteenth session.  

33.  The Commission further recognizes the intention of the Governments
participating in the Washington Intergovernmental Conference to take action to
develop, in accordance with the provisions of the Global Programme of Action,
a global, legally binding instrument for the reduction and/or elimination of
emissions, discharges and, where appropriate, the elimination of the
manufacture and use of the persistent organic pollutants identified in
decision 18/32 adopted by the Governing Council of UNEP at its eighteenth
session (see A/50/25, annex).  The nature of the obligations undertaken must
be developed, recognizing the special circumstances of countries in need of
assistance.  Particular attention should be devoted to the potential need for
the continued use of certain persistent organic pollutants to safeguard human
health, sustain food production and alleviate poverty in the absence of
alternatives and the difficulty of acquiring substitutes and transferring
technology for the development and/or production of those substitutes.

34.  The Commission urges, as mentioned in paragraph 113 (d) of the Global
Programme of Action, consideration by all Governments and international
organizations that have expertise in the field of clean-up and disposal of
radioactive contaminants to giving appropriate assistance as may be requested
for remedial purposes in adversely affected areas.

35.  The Commission stresses the fact that the insufficiency of research
capacity and information systems is particularly noticeable in the developing
world and in small island developing States.  It expresses its support for the
Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), established by the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization/Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO/IOC), and notes the initiative to develop the
EuroGOOS system.


            1.  Implementation of international fishery instruments

36.  The Commission on Sustainable Development notes with concern that
significant fish stocks are depleted or overexploited, and considers that
urgent corrective action is needed to rebuild depleted fish stocks and to
ensure the sustainable use of all fish stocks.  The Commission therefore
welcomes the major steps that have been made towards fulfilling the goals of
Agenda 21 as a result of the entry into force of the United Nations Convention
on the Law of the Sea in November 1994 and the adoption of two agreements:

     (a) The Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation
and Management Measures by Vessels Fishing in the High Seas (1993);

     (b) The Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the
Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory
Fish Stocks (1995);

and the voluntary instrument:

     (c) The Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1995).

37.  The Commission also welcomes the successful adoption, in 1995, of the
following:

     (a) The Rome Consensus on World Fisheries of the FAO Ministerial Meeting
on Fisheries (Rome, March);

     (b) The Jakarta Mandate on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of
Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity (decision II/10 of the second meeting
of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity),
adopted in November;

     (c) General Assembly resolutions 50/23, 50/24 and 50/25 relating to the
law of the sea and the sustainable use and conservation of marine living
resources, adopted on 5 December;

     (d) The Kyoto Declaration and Plan of Action on the Sustainable
Contribution of Fisheries to Food Security (Kyoto, December).

38.  The Commission recalls Agenda 21, according to which the ability of
developing countries to fulfil the objectives of chapter 17, programme area D
is dependent upon their capabilities, including the financial, scientific and
technological means at their disposal.  Adequate financial, scientific and
technological cooperation should be provided to support actions by them to
implement these objectives, as well as the provisions of the Agreement for the
Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law
of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of
Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (1995) and the FAO
Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (1995).

39.  The Commission agrees that sustainable world fisheries, including
aquaculture, contribute significantly to the food supply and to achieving
social, economic and development goals.  The Commission stresses the
importance of effective conservation and management of fish stocks and to this
end recommends implementing the recently adopted international instruments in
order to:

     (a) Prevent or eliminate overfishing and excess fishing capacity;

     (b) Apply the precautionary approach as referred to in the Agreement for
the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the
Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management
of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and the FAO Code of
Conduct for Responsible Fisheries;

     (c) Rebuild fish stocks throughout their entire range of distribution
and protect vital habitats;

     (d) Strengthen/create regional and subregional fisheries management
organizations and arrangements in accordance with the Agreement for the
Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law
of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of
Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and the FAO Code of
Conduct for Responsible Fisheries;

     (e) Strengthen fishery research and increase cooperation in this field;

     (f) Promote environmentally sound fisheries technologies, prohibiting
dynamiting, poisoning and other comparable destructive fishing practices;

     (g) Minimize waste, discards, catch by lost or abandoned gear, catch of
non-target species, both fish and non-fish species, and impacts on associated
or dependent species, in particular endangered species, in accordance with the
Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the
Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory
Fish Stocks and the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries;

     (h) Protect fisheries from harmful sea- and land-based activities;

     (i) Deter, in accordance with the instruments referred to in
paragraph 36 above and international law, the activities of vessels flying the
flag of non-members or non-participants which engage in activities which
undermine the effectiveness of subregional or regional conservation and
management measures;

     (j) Increase efforts to ensure full compliance with applicable
conservation and management measures;

     (k) Increase consultations among all local parties affected by fishery
management decisions;

     (l) Avoid adverse impacts on small-scale and artisanal fisheries
consistent with the sustainable management of fish stocks, while protecting
the rights of fishers, including subsistence, small-scale and artisanal
fishers.

40.  The Commission notes that the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible
Fisheries, in paragraph 6.14, states that international trade in fish and
fishery products should be conducted in accordance with the principles, rights
and obligations established in the World Trade Organization Agreement and
other relevant international agreements.  States should ensure that their
policies, programmes and practices related to trade in fish and fishery
products do not result in obstacles to this trade, environmental degradation
or negative social, including nutritional, impacts.

41.  The Commission recommends that in the preparations for the World Food
Summit, the crucial contribution of sustainably managed fisheries should be
taken into consideration.

42.  The Commission further recommends that States and entities that have not
yet done so should be called upon to sign/ratify/implement and promote
awareness and understanding of the instruments referred to in paragraph 36 (a)
to (c) above.

43.  The Commission also recommends that FAO, as the competent specialized
agency for fisheries, should be invited to prepare a report, based on
information provided by its member States, on the actions listed above and,
more generally, on progress made in improving the sustainability of fisheries,
for consideration by the FAO Committee on Fisheries and for submission to the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.  Such a report would be relevant to
the review of ocean issues recommended by the Commission in subsection 2
below.


                2.  International cooperation and coordination

44.  The Commission on Sustainable Development, in order to enhance
implementation of the commitment set forth in section F of chapter 17 of
Agenda 21 to promote regular intergovernmental review and consideration,
within the United Nations system, of general marine and coastal issues,
including environment and development matters, agrees on the need:

     (a) To better identify priorities for action at the global level to
promote conservation and sustainable use of the marine environment;

     (b) For better coordination among the relevant United Nations
organizations and intergovernmental financial institutions;

     (c) To ensure sound scientific, environmental, economic and social
advice on these issues.

45.  The Commission therefore recommends that the Economic and Social Council
approve the following conclusions as regards addressing these issues, subject
to the outcome of the special session of the General Assembly in 1997 at which
the Assembly will, inter alia, decide on the future work programme of the
Commission:

     (a) There should be a periodic overall review by the Commission of all
aspects of the marine environment and its related issues, as described in
chapter 17 of Agenda 21, and for which the overall legal framework is provided
by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 21/  This review
should cover other chapters and provisions of Agenda 21 directly related to
the marine environment.  This review should draw upon reports of the United
Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and those of other relevant United
Nations bodies and international organizations in their respective fields,
coordinated by the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Subcommittee
on Oceans and Coastal Areas.  Other modalities for the review should be
decided by the Commission on Sustainable Development.  The results of such
reviews should be considered by the General Assembly under an agenda item
entitled "Oceans and the law of the sea";

     (b) In order to address the need for improved coordination, the
Secretary-General should be invited to review the working of the ACC
Subcommittee on Oceans and Coastal Areas, with a view to improving its status
and effectiveness, including the need for closer inter-agency links between,
inter alia, the secretariat of the Subcommittee and UNEP;

     (c) The Secretary-General and the executive heads of the agencies and
organizations of the United Nations system sponsoring the Joint Group of
Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP)
should be invited to review the Group's terms of reference, composition and
methods of work, with a view to improving its effectiveness and
comprehensiveness while maintaining its status as a source of agreed,
independent scientific advice.


         Decision 4/16.  Review of the implementation of the Programme of
                         Action for the Sustainable Development of Small
                         Island Developing States*

                (*  For the discussion, see chapter VII below.)


                          A.  Overall considerations

1.   The Commission recalls that the Global Conference on the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States, held in 1994, adopted the
Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing
States to promote concrete action at the national, regional and international
levels in 15 priority areas, with provisions for an initial review in 1996. 
The Commission notes that its recommendations are complementary to those
contained in the Programme of Action.  In the context of the special session
of the General Assembly, to be convened in 1997 to review the overall
implementation of Agenda 21, specific modalities will be recommended by the
Commission for the full review of the Programme of Action in 1999.

2.   The Commission, having examined the report of the Secretary-General on
the sustainable development of coastal areas, tourism, energy resources, air
transport, maritime transport, telecommunications, and management of
environmental and natural disasters in small island developing States 
(E/CN.17/1996/20 and Add.1-7), the report of the Secretary-General on current
donor activities in support of sustainable development in small island
developing States (E/CN.17/1996/21) and the report of the High-level Panel
Meeting on Island Developing Countries (E/CN.17/1996/IDC/3-UNCTAD/LLDC/IDC/3),
and having the benefit of the views expressed, notes the action taken by small
island developing States at the national and regional levels to implement the
Programme of Action.

3.   The Commission notes the support of the international community, and the
plans and programmes of organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations
system to assist in the implementation of the Programme of Action and in the
coordination and monitoring of its implementation.  The Commission welcomes
the support given by other relevant intergovernmental organizations.

4.   The Commission recognizes the importance of SIDSTAP and SIDSNET in the
overall implementation of the Programme of Action, and encourages the United
Nations Development Programme to continue, in cooperation with Governments,
its action to operationalize the two mechanisms.

5.   The Commission stresses the importance of coordination in the area of
strategy and policy formulation and recognizes the importance of consultation
and interaction at the national, regional and international levels.  In this
context, the Commission emphasizes the role played by the Economic and Social
Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the Economic Commission for Latin America
and the Caribbean, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme and the
Caribbean Community.

6.   The Commission expresses concern at the overall trend of declining
levels of flows of official development assistance to small island developing
States (SIDS), but notes the need for better information on flows.  The
Commission emphasizes that it is imperative that the domestic efforts of SIDS
to mobilize financial resources for the effective implementation of the
Programme of Action are adequately supported by the international community,
as envisaged in the provisions of the Programme of Action, in particular those
contained in paragraph 66.  Recognizing that small island developing States
are among the most environmentally vulnerable, the Commission urges the
international community to give special priority to their situations and
needs, including through access to grants and other concessional resources.

7.   The Commission notes that a vulnerability index that takes into account
the constraints arising from small size and environmental fragility, as well
as the incidence of natural disasters on a national scale, and the consequent
relationship of these constraints to economic vulnerability, should bring
greater clarity to the development challenges and needs of SIDS.  The
Commission notes the slow progress on the index to date and encourages the
relevant bodies of the United Nations system to accord priority to the
development of the index, in keeping with the provisions of the Programme of
Action and General Assembly resolution 50/116.  The Commission notes with
appreciation the offer by the Government of Malta to host the centre for the
computation of the index on an ongoing basis.

8.   The Commission notes that current trends of trade liberalization and
globalization are bringing new challenges as well as possible opportunities to
SIDS.  It recommends that to meet the new challenges and take advantage of the
new opportunities SIDS need to undertake necessary institutional reforms;
develop responsive economic policy frameworks and human resources in order to
enhance their competitiveness and their ability to diversify quickly into new
activities; explore cooperative approaches for sharing information and
experience and building human and institutional capacity.  The Commission
urges the international community to recognize the inherent weaknesses of SIDS
and recommends that it provide adequate support to SIDS to meet their
adjustment costs and their information, human development and technology needs
to enable them to sustain the development of their exports, while maintaining
the integrity of their natural resource base.

9.   Recognizing the coordinating role of the Department for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development in implementing the Programme of
Action, the Commission recommends that the Secretary-General:

     (a) Take into account the need to continue to provide substantive
secretariat support to intergovernmental and inter-agency processes related to
the monitoring, review and coordination of the implementation of the Programme
of Action;

     (b) Ensure that the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
Development continues to act as a liaison and focal point for agencies of the
United Nations system, as well as other relevant intergovernmental and
non-governmental organizations, on matters related to the follow-up and
implementation of the Programme of Action;

     (c) Request the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
Development of the United Nations Secretariat, in its coordinating role, to
look into the appropriate modalities for mobilizing resources for effective
implementation of the Programme of Action.

10.  The Commission stresses the important role the private sector can play
in investment for sustainable development in SIDS, particularly in the
infrastructure and tourism sectors.  This should be based on a sustainable
development strategy that integrates economic, social and environmental
policies and regulatory frameworks to promote appropriate private investment.


                     B.  Climate change and sealevel rise

11.  The Commission recalls that SIDS are particularly vulnerable to global
climate change and sealevel rise.  Potential effects of global climate change
and sealevel rise are increased strength and frequency of tropical storms and
inundation of some islands with loss of exclusive economic zones, economic
infrastructure, human settlements and culture.

12.  The Commission welcomes the growing number of ratifications of the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the decision that
commitments contained in article 4, paragraph 2 (a) and (b), were inadequate
to meet the ultimate objective of the Convention. 

13.  The Commission also calls upon the international community to support
SIDS in their efforts to adapt to the sealevel rise that will be experienced
as a result of the impact of greenhouse gases that have already been emitted
into the atmosphere.


                    C.  Natural and environmental disasters

14.  The Commission noted that this issue was being considered following a
two-year period in which SIDS experienced several major natural disasters that
brought catastrophes of national proportions to these countries because of
their small size and fragile ecosystems.

15.  The Commission recognizes that the most effective strategy for
responding to natural disasters is formulated through regional cooperation as
an integral part of sustainable development frameworks, with international
support.  In support of this objective the Commission:

     (a) Encourages the Governments of the small island developing States to
further increase their efforts towards subregional, regional and interregional
cooperation;

     (b) Supports the implementation of the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of
Action 27/ with particular regard to improved education and training in
disaster reduction, including the creation of interdisciplinary scientific and
technical networking at all levels, for the purpose of capacity-building and
human resource development in SIDS;

     (c) Calls upon all Governments to support the facilitation of an
effective synergy between the implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme of
Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and
the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action;

     (d) Invites Governments to consider establishing an informal open-ended
working group within the existing International Framework of Action for the
International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, with the membership of
concerned States, as well as of all relevant sectors in disaster reduction,
with a view to ensuring full integration and participation of SIDS in the
mapping of a concerted strategy for disaster reduction into the twenty-first
century.

16.  The Commission also calls on the international community to support the
efforts of SIDS directed towards:

     (a) Mobilizing additional resources to address urgent disaster reduction
requirements in SIDS;

     (b) Improving access to disaster and warning information in order to
enhance the capability of SIDS with respect to disaster management;

     (c) Providing technical, financial and expert support for the
establishment of a mechanism for interregional cooperation and the exchange of
information among small island States on disaster reduction, in particular
with respect to training, institutional development and disaster mitigation
programming;

     (d) Targeting research and further development of knowledge in the
following thematic areas for building risk-reduction capacities in small
island States:

     (i) Insurance as a preventive and mitigating tool for disaster
         reduction;

    (ii) Telecommunications and information systems as a tool for disaster
         reduction;

   (iii) Limits and opportunities for the establishment of national disaster
         emergency funds and emergency administrative procedures;

    (iv) Evaluation of constraints in the access of small island States to
         reliable data, disaster-specific knowledge, and technology means;

     (v) A review of the linkages between disasters, development and
         environment, including the development of methods for the systematic
         appraisal of developments in relation to disaster risks;

    (vi) An analysis of the linkage between global climate change and the
         characteristics and occurrence of natural hazards in small island
         States.


                       D.  Coastal and marine resources

17.  The Commission stresses the fact that for SIDS, effective coastal zone
management is a prerequisite for sustainable development.  In addition, the
marine areas play an important role in meeting some essential needs.  The
importance of these areas in the sustainable development of SIDS were
recognized in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea itself
and in the 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating
to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly
Migratory Fish Stocks (A/50/550, annex I), as well as in the International
Coral Reef Initiative (convened in the Philippines in June 1995) and the 1995
Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from
Land-based Activities.

18.  The Commission also recognizes the importance of decision II/10 of the
second meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on
Biological Diversity in the context of the protection and conservation of
coastal and marine resources of SIDS.

19.  The Commission recommends that in developing integrated national coastal
area management strategies and plans, Governments should ensure that all steps
are undertaken with the active participation of the private sector and local
communities.  Mechanisms for institutional coordination should also be
established.

20.  Within the context of integrated coastal area management (ICAM) for
SIDS, the activities, planned or under way, by international organizations
should be implemented in a coordinated and cost-effective manner.  These
activities should include, as one of the priorities, the protection and
management of marine and coastal areas through ICAM, including a number of
demonstration or pilot projects in integrated "island" management, in which
marine and coastal resource issues are incorporated into the development
planning process of selected SIDS.

21.  To assist national authorities in their tasks of designing and
implementing ICAM plans, guidelines for specific subsectors such as tourism,
fisheries, agriculture and forestry, which are among the main users of
resources in the coastal areas of SIDS, should be further developed.  The
experience gained by the United Nations Environment Programme and the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in these areas should be used
in the process.  Such guidelines can be of assistance to planners and users in
these subsectors.


                             E.  Energy resources

22.  The Commission notes that SIDS continue to be heavily dependent on
conventional sources of energy, although as a group the total consumed was a
small percentage of world consumption.  The Commission also notes that due to
the small quantities involved the cost per capita was relatively high and use
was generally inefficient.

23.  The Commission calls upon the international community, including the
Global Environment Facility, within the framework of its operational strategy,
to support commercial energy development in SIDS based on those
environmentally sound renewable sources with demonstrated viability, to
support improvement of the efficiency of existing technologies and end-use
equipment based on conventional energy sources, and to assist with the
financing of investments necessary to expand energy supplies beyond urban
areas.

24.  The Commission notes that many SIDS continue to depend on biomass fuels. 
It encourages the implementation of projects that will ensure a sustainable
fuelwood industry.


                             F.  Tourism resources

25.  The Commission recognizes the continued importance of tourism as one of
only a few development options for many SIDS, both as a dynamic sector and as
one that can stimulate growth in others.

26.  The Commission encourages SIDS to pursue policies of sustainable tourism
development by:

     (a) Diversifying the tourism product, enhancing its quality and
increasingly targeting the upper segment of the tourist market;

     (b) Strengthening linkages of other economic sectors with tourism so
that domestic production can viably provide for the consumer needs of tourists
to the maximum extent possible;

     (c) Investing adequately in the collection of data on all relevant
indicators of benefits and costs necessary for cost-benefit analysis in order
to be able to carry out systematic evaluations of the contribution of the
tourism sector to the domestic economy in relation to other sectors and in
relation to social and environmental costs;

     (d) Developing a multidisciplinary approach for the rigorous vetting of
tourism development proposals, taking into account prospective cumulative
impacts of tourism development, and establishing environmental standards for
the approval of projects.

27.  The Commission calls upon the international community to provide
appropriate assistance for the improvement and development of basic physical
infrastructures in SIDS, such as airports and harbours, roads,
telecommunications systems and freshwater systems.

28.  The Commission notes the importance of regional cooperation in tourism
and proposes that consideration be given to the development of common policy
guidelines and standards at the regional level for the mutual benefit of SIDS.

The Commission calls upon the international community to support the efforts
of regional tourism organizations to improve their effectiveness.


                       G.  Transport and communications

29.  Bearing in mind the resource constraint for expansion and modernization
of the telecommunications network in SIDS, the high per capita cost of
infrastructure due to small market size and the lack of economies of scale,
the Commission encourages SIDS to continue their telecommunications
development and to improve facilities and availability.  The Commission also
encourages SIDS to maintain and strengthen communications and business links,
on a regional and subregional basis, with larger neighbours in the continental
shelf, as well as with development partners.

30.  The Commission calls upon the international community to assist SIDS in
identifying the most feasible ways and means of securing financial assistance
from different sources, and invites the World Bank and the regional
development banks, where appropriate, to systematically finance
telecommunications development, particularly where most urgently needed.

31.  The Commission takes note of developments in air transport since the
1994 Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States and proposes a study of the impact on SIDS of changes taking
place in the regulation of air transport.  The Commission also proposes that
more regional cooperation with regard to the regulatory aspects of air
transport, such as joint negotiation of air transport agreements, should be
pursued.

32.  The Commission calls upon the international community, where
appropriate, to facilitate and support new and existing initiatives taken at
the regional level to improve air transport for the benefit of SIDS.

33.  The Commission notes that with respect to the economies of SIDS which
are open, maritime transport continues to represent an important lifeline to
other markets.  The Commission is convinced that improved maritime transport,
which responds to the peculiar circumstances of SIDS and includes reduced
overall costs, would be supportive of sustainable development goals.

34.  The Commission encourages the modernization of fleets through
appropriate investment incentives and innovative measures.  It invites SIDS to
consider becoming parties to relevant international legal instruments to
promote maritime safety and environmental protection, and standardization in
shipping.  Regional initiatives are also encouraged to support these goals,
expand maritime capabilities of regions, and provide an improved intraregional
sea transportation service with the support of the international community.

35.  In view of the large investments involved in the development of
infrastructure and acquisition of the means of maritime transport, the
Commission calls upon the international community, where appropriate, to
support the efforts of SIDS at the national and regional levels.  


           Decision 4/17.  Matters relating to the inter-sessional work
                           of the Commission*

                         (*  See chapter VIII below.)


     The Commission on Sustainable Development decides, pursuant to
paragraph 3 of General Assembly resolution 50/113 of 20 December 1995,
entitled "Special session for the purpose of an overall review and appraisal
of the implementation of Agenda 21", to devote its Inter-sessional Ad Hoc
Open-ended Working Group meeting, to be held from 24 February to 7 March 1997,
in New York, to assisting the Commission in undertaking the review for the
special session of the Assembly.


              Decision 4/18.  Proposals for the medium-term plan for 
                              the period 1998-2001*

                         (**  See chapter VIII below.)


     The Commission takes note of the note by the Secretary-General
containing proposals for the medium-term plan for the period 1998-2001
(E/CN.17/1996/37) and requests relevant intergovernmental bodies, when
considering proposals for subprogramme 4 (Sustainable development) of
programme 5 (Policy coordination and sustainable development), to take into
account decisions of the Commission on Sustainable Development, as well as the
outcome of the 1997 special session of the General Assembly, convened for the
purpose of carrying out an overall review and appraisal of progress achieved
in the implementation of Agenda 21 pursuant to Assembly resolution 50/113 of
20 December 1995.


                                     Notes

1/   Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,
Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by the Conference
(United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigendum),
resolution 1, annex II.

2/   Ibid., annex I.

3/   A/51/116, annex I, appendix II.

4/   Ibid., annex II.

5/   Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1995, Supplement
No. 12 (E/1995/32).

6/   Report of the World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen,
6-12 March 1995 (A/CONF.166/9), chap. I, resolution 1, annex I.

7/   Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15 September
1995 (A/CONF.177/20), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.

8/   See Report of the International Conference on Population and
Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales
No. E.95.XIII.18).

9/   Ibid., chap. I, resolution 1, annex.

10/  Official Records of the General Assembly, Fiftieth Session, Supplement
No. 25 (A/50/25), annex.

11/  See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1994,
Supplement No. 13 (E/1994/33/Rev.1), chap. I, para. 24 (a).

12/  Ibid., 1995, Supplement No. 12 (E/1995/32), chap. I, para. 26.

13/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1995, Supplement
No. 12 (E/1995/32).

14/  General Assembly resolution 39/248, annex.

15/  Report of the World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen,
6-12 March 1995 (A/CONF.166/9), chap. I, resolution 1, annex I.

16/  "States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve,
protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem.  In
view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation,
States have common but differentiated responsibilities.  The developed
countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international
pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures that their
societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and
financial resources they command."

17/  "Poverty and environmental degradation are closely interrelated.  While
poverty results in certain kinds of environmental stress, the major cause of
the continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable
pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized
countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and
imbalances."

18/  "In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall
be widely applied by States according to their capabilities.  Where there are
threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty
shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to
prevent environmental degradation."

19/  "The Parties should take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent
or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its adverse effects. 
Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full
scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such
measures, taking into account that policies and measures to deal with climate
change should be cost-effective so as to ensure global benefits at the lowest
possible cost.  To achieve this, such policy and measures should take into
account different socio-economic contexts, be comprehensive, cover all
relevant sources, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases and adaptation, and
comprise all economic sectors.  Efforts to address climate change may be
carried out cooperatively by interested Parties."

20/  This conclusion must be considered within the full context of the
IPCC/SAR, and its preamble.  The conclusions of the IPCC/SAR must be
considered with the caveats and uncertainties contained in the report.

21/  Official Records of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of
the Sea, vol. XVII (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.84.V.3), document
A/CONF.62/122.

22/  Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993.

23/  General Assembly resolution 48/263, annex.

24/  Document A/50/550, annex I; see also A/CONF.164/37.

25/  Rome, FAO, 1995.

26/  See A Call to Action:  Decisions and Ministerial Statement from the
Second Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Conference on
Biological Diversity, Jakarta, Indonesia, 6-17 November 1995 (UNEP, 1996).

27/  Report of the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, Yokohama,
23-27 May 1994 (A/CONF.172/9 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annex I.


                                  Chapter II

          CHAIRMAN'S SUMMARY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL SEGMENT OF THE FOURTH
             SESSION OF THE COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

                            (New York, 3 May 1996)


                                  A.  General

1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development held its fourth session with
the active participation of many ministers and other representatives of
national Governments, United Nations organizations and international financial
institutions.  The energetic involvement of major groups, including business
and industry, trade unions, youth and non-governmental organizations, in the
session was particularly noteworthy.

2.   The session was enriched by a number of special and side events,
initiated by major group representatives, Governments and United Nations
organizations.  The Day of the Workplace was organized by business and
industry and trade union organizations to demonstrate what those major groups
were doing to promote sustainable development in the workplace.
Representatives of youth groups presented a statement to the Commission, in
which they expressed the strong desire of youth to be full partners in the
Agenda 21 process, at both the national and international levels, including
through the creation of a task force.  The diversity and enthusiasm of these
various efforts served to emphasize the growing commitment to the principles
of sustainable development and their implementation at all levels.  Many
speakers noted that this was a most encouraging demonstration of the
continuing vitality of the Rio process.

3.   Participants in the high-level segment stressed the continuing
importance of the inter-sessional process, expressed their gratitude to
Governments and organizations that had sponsored inter-sessional initiatives
and welcomed new initiatives in this regard from a number of Governments and
organizations, especially as part of preparations for the 1997 review of
progress achieved since the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED).

4.   Particularly welcomed was the evidence of progress made at the national
level, as reflected in national reporting to the Commission and in
presentations of national experience made by a number of countries.  However,
participants stressed the need to disseminate further the message of Agenda 21
at the local level.


               B.  Finalization of the Work Programme, 1993-1996

5.   At the current session, the Commission completed its review of all the
chapters of Agenda 21 in the context of its first multi-year thematic
programme of work.  In carrying out its mandate, the Commission established
itself as a key intergovernmental forum for follow-up to UNCED and
implementation of the Rio commitments.  It has mobilized the support and
cooperation of the entire United Nations family of organizations.  It has
stimulated important innovations in United Nations processes, including
improved inter-agency coordination for sustainable development, extensive
inter-sessional activity, arrangements for follow-up and reporting at the
national level and the organized involvement of major group representatives.

6.   The session offered the first opportunity to review events since UNCED
in the important area of oceans and seas (chapter 17 of Agenda 21).  The
Commission welcomed the considerable progress in recent intergovernmental
negotiations related to oceans and seas, including, in particular, the entry
into force in 1994 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS) and the 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of
the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982
relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and
Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.  Commission members agreed that the immediate
need was for the Governments concerned to participate in and implement those
agreements.

7.   The Commission also endorsed the Global Programme of Action for the
Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, adopted at
the Intergovernmental Conference in Washington, D.C., in November 1995.  As
requested by the Conference, the Commission formulated a draft resolution, for
consideration by the General Assembly at its fifty-first session, on
institutional arrangements for the implementation of the Global Programme of
Action.  The Commission also recognized the intention of the Governments
participating in the Washington Conference to take action to develop a global,
legally binding instrument for the reduction and/or elimination of emissions,
discharges and, where appropriate, the elimination of the manufacture and use
of persistent organic pollutants.

8.   Regarding marine living resources, both on the high seas and under
national jurisdiction, participants expressed concern that significant fish
stocks were depleted or overexploited and considered that urgent, corrective
action was needed to rebuild depleted fish stocks and to ensure the
sustainable use of all fish stocks.  The Commission welcomed a number of very
important recent international agreements, instruments and other decisions
relating to fisheries resources.  It acknowledged that much work needed to be
done to ensure participation in and full compliance with them.  It also noted
that, as stated in Agenda 21, adequate financial, scientific and technological
cooperation should be provided to support actions by developing countries, in
particular, to implement these objectives.  

9.   The Commission has also placed special importance on ensuring more
effective methods and activities, including in the United Nations system, for
enhancing international cooperation and coordination of ocean issues.  It has
therefore recommended, for approval by the Economic and Social Council and
subject to the outcome of the special session in 1997, that there should be a
periodic overall review by the Commission of all aspects of the marine
environment, the results of which should be considered by the General Assembly
under a new consolidated agenda item entitled "Oceans and the law of the sea".

It further recommended a review of existing inter-agency coordination
mechanisms dealing with ocean issues.

10.  This session also offered the first opportunity since UNCED for the
discussion of issues relating to protection of the atmosphere (chapter 9 of
Agenda 21).  The Commission urged countries that had not yet done so to sign
and ratify the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, with a
special emphasis on the successful conclusion of the Berlin Mandate process;
the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, and its Montreal
Protocol and subsequent amendments and adjustments; and the United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Severe
Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa; and to implement their
commitments fully. 

11.  The Commission welcomed the Second Assessment Report (SAR) adopted by
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in December 1995, in
Rome, as the most comprehensive assessment of climate change issues to date.

12.  It was emphasized that an essential component of measures to protect the
atmosphere, environment and human health was the reduction of local emissions
- especially urban air pollution - which had to be dealt with at the local,
regional and international levels on the basis of common but differentiated
responsibilities.

13.  Attention was paid to the production, conversion and use of energy which
was and would continue to be one of the fundamental requirements for economic
growth and social improvement.  Unsustainable development in the energy sector
and other sectors was linked to environmental and social problems, including
air and water pollution, health impacts and global warming.  Governments were
invited to consider the broad spectrum of cost-effective policy instruments to
improve energy efficiency and efficiency standards and to promote the use of
sustainable and environmentally sound renewable energy sources.

14.  Participants in the high-level segment noted the rapid growth in the
transport sector resulting in a concomitant increase in energy requirements in
both industrialized and developing countries.  It was mentioned that
Governments should consider integrated solutions which incorporated planning
and infrastructural measures as well as technical and economic measures
regarding vehicles and fuels.

15.  The work done by the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests at its
two sessions was welcomed.  Participants in the high-level segment stressed
the need to continue supporting the work of the Panel in producing concrete,
action-oriented recommendations for consideration by the Commission at its
fifth session.  The importance of the working relationship and partnership
established by the Panel with the community of non-governmental organizations
and with United Nations organizations was emphasized.

16.  Participants welcomed the initial review of the implementation of the
Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing
States (SIDS).  They recognized the vulnerability of SIDS and stressed the
need for effective action at all levels for their sustainable development.  At
the national level they emphasized the need for greater efforts in developing
and implementing sustainable development policies and measures as well as for
building human resources and institutional facilities to meet their
sustainable development needs.  

17.  Participants underscored the need for enhanced international support for
SIDS in the development of infrastructure, building of institutional and
human-resources capacity, and transfer of environmentally sound technology. 
They expressed the view that, for specific areas such as adaptability of SIDS
to sealevel rise, development of renewable energy resources, development of
sustainable tourism, maritime transport, and adaptation to the current trends
of trade liberalization and globalization of production, SIDS merited special
attention from the international community.

18.  The importance of education was recognized by the Commission in
promoting the achievement of sustainable development.  It recognized the need
to further refine and make more precise the concept of education for
sustainable development and to clearly identify what the key messages of
education for sustainable development should be.  This would ensure more
effective communication with the public at large.  The Youth Panel, which
addressed the high-level segment, gave particular attention to the need for
substantial, practical and effective education for sustainable development,
since education was an effective tool for spreading the message about
sustainable development to young people.  In that regard, the Panel stressed
the need for youth to be involved in creating and implementing local Agenda 21
programmes as a means of involving youth more widely in the educational
process.

19.  In regard to changing consumption and production patterns, the
Commission stressed that policy development and implementation should give
attention to an appropriate balance between the supply and demand side and
should be viewed in a broad perspective, taking into account the principle of
common but differentiated responsibilities.  It further noted that
eco-efficiency could be useful in reducing energy and material intensities of
production and consumption, while yielding benefits to business, industry and
Governments in all countries.  However, the concept of eco-efficiency should
not be a substitute for changes in the unsustainable lifestyles of consumers.

20.  The Commission acknowledged the progress reported by many countries,
developed, developing and those with economies in transition.  Participants in
the high-level segment reaffirmed the need for additional, substantial efforts
by countries, in particular the developed countries, in changing unsustainable
consumption and production patterns and in assisting to redress the present
imbalances between, and within, industrialized and developing countries.
  
21.  The Commission urged Governments to establish and implement policies for
the procurement of environmentally sound and otherwise sustainable products
and services to improve the environmental performance of their facilities and
operations.  The Commission recognized the potential for using economic
instruments, which could both generate revenue for financing sustainable
development and send signals to the market to help change unsustainable
consumption and production patterns.

22.  The linkage between better education and public awareness and changing
unsustainable patterns of production and consumption was highlighted. 
Participants in the high-level segment emphasized the important role that the
information media and the advertising industry could play in raising public
awareness about sustainable development and in promoting changes in
unsustainable patterns of production and consumption.

23.  With regard to mobilizing financial resources for sustainable
development, participants stressed the urgent need to fulfil all financial
commitments of Agenda 21, in particular those in chapter 33, and recognized
that official development assistance had a special role to play in promoting
sustainable development in developing countries, particularly in the least
developed countries.  Furthermore, participants emphasized that it was
important to pursue the adequate replenishment of the Global Environment
Facility.

24.  Participants in the high-level segment acknowledged the positive aspects
of the expansion of external private capital flows to some developing
countries.  However, they stressed their concern about the volatility and
unequal distribution of those flows among developing countries. 

25.  As to mobilizing national financial resources, the Commission emphasized
the importance of the participation of the private sector, in particular
through increased investment.  In addition, the Commission encouraged
Governments to consider the gradual implementation of economic instruments, on
a voluntary basis, while examining further the costs and benefits associated
with the use of these instruments. In this regard, the Commission emphasized
the importance of sharing national experiences.

26.  Many participants emphasized the need for improving mechanisms which
would ensure that private investment contributed to achieving all the
objectives of sustainable development.  The role of major groups was also
stressed in that regard.

27.  Finally, with regard to innovative financial mechanisms, the Commission
continued its work on various technical aspects of those mechanisms and
welcomed the decision of the Economic and Social Council to include an item
entitled "new and innovative ideas for generating funds" in the provisional
agenda for its substantive session of 1996.

28.  Participants recognized that significant and increasingly rapid gains in
resource and productive efficiency were required to achieve sustainable
development.  That meant that the technological transformation of developing
countries had to be accelerated through the infusion of more efficient and
environmentally sound technologies and systems of production.  While there had
been considerable discussion and many international meetings on the transfer
of environmentally sound technology over the past few years, there was general
agreement that the actual transfer of such technology had been slow and
uneven.  It was also difficult to measure the real transfer of technology
because the bulk of such movement took place through the private sector at an
enterprise-to-enterprise level.

29.  Several participants proposed the establishment of a Commission task
force on technology transfer and sustainable industrial development as a means
to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, achieving greater
eco-efficiency in the industrial sector and for promoting the transfer of
environmentally sound technologies on favourable terms, particularly to
developing countries.

30.  In the area of trade, environment and sustainable development,
participants in the high-level segment called on Governments to ensure
appropriate coordination between trade and environment officials at the
national and international levels in order to ensure the mutual support of
trade and environment policies, including those resulting from multilateral
environmental agreements.

31.  In that connection, they took note of the work of the World Trade
Organization (WTO) Committee on Trade and Environment and looked forward to a
substantive report on the results of its deliberations, and looked to the WTO
ministerial meeting in Singapore to continue the important work of the
Committee on Trade and Environment.

32.  Participants recognized that the link between environmental policies and
competitiveness was complex.  They noted that, although so far there was no
available evidence to suggest that environmental policy generally had a
significant detrimental effect on competitiveness, further study was required
of the potential impacts of environmental policies on competitiveness and on
market access, in particular for developing countries.

33.  Participants encouraged the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development, at its ninth session (Midrand, Ganteng Province, South Africa,
22 April-11 May 1996) to make arrangements to continue its analytical work and
consensus-building activities in the area of trade, environment and
sustainable development, and to provide focused technical cooperation to
developing countries and countries with economies in transition.


                           C.  Preparations for 1997

34.  Participants in the high-level segment stressed the vital importance of
the special session of the General Assembly in June 1997, when the Assembly
was to review the overall progress achieved in implementing the Rio
commitments and discuss appropriate strategies for implementation in the
coming years.  Participation in the special session at the highest possible
level was felt to be essential for its success.  Discussions during the
high-level segment were enriched by a Panel composed of eminent persons
involved in UNCED and its follow-up.

35.  There was a broad consensus that the special session should not attempt
to renegotiate Agenda 21, or other intergovernmental agreements in the field
of sustainable development, but should concentrate on their further
implementation.  In that context, participants highlighted a number of
objectives:  

     (a) To revitalize and energize commitment to the concept of sustainable
development, to ensure it a central place on the political agenda and to
reinforce momentum for its implementation at the international, national and
local levels.  Participants recognized the need to strengthen the Commission's
public visibility and improve its outreach;

     (b) To frankly recognize failures to meet certain goals and identify
reasons for failure;

     (c) To boost implementation of the Rio commitments through such means as
the identification of innovative approaches to cooperation and financial
assistance, and through concrete proposals for action; 

     (d) To define priorities for the period beyond 1997.  A number of
participants felt that the Commission should focus on a limited number of key
issues rather than reviewing every chapter of Agenda 21, in particular those
issues where it was felt that real progress could be made;

     (e) To raise the profile of issues that had not been sufficiently
addressed by UNCED or where significant developments had taken place since
UNCED.  Such issues might include changing consumption and production
patterns, energy (including renewables) and transport, urban issues,
enterprises, fresh water, and management of risks).

36.  Participants in the high-level segment recognized that, in future work,
more attention should be paid to addressing the driving forces that impacted
on the sustainable management of natural resources while at the same time
giving more attention to the economic and social dimensions of sustainable
development, including combating poverty.  The crucial link between the
driving forces - economic growth and trade, consumption and production
patterns and population growth - and resource management were the economic
sectors that often defined the way that policy-making and implementation were
organized.  To be truly effective, the Commission's consideration of resource
management issues had to be combined with an equal emphasis on sectoral policy
development.  Many sectors, such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries,
industry, human settlements and social services, were already dealt with in
existing forms in the United Nations system.  The impact of UNCED and Agenda
21 on the work in those forums had helped to inject considerations of
sustainability into their discussions.  However, there were some gaps and,
from the perspective of sustainability, the most obvious gap related to
transport and energy.

37.  Participants reflected on the implementation of Agenda 21 objectives
since UNCED, and noted the continuing need to strengthen mechanisms within the
United Nations system which helped to integrate environmental concerns more
fully into regular decision-making processes.  Participants encouraged other
intergovernmental bodies, especially the Bretton Woods institutions, WTO and
the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, to ensure that
sustainable development issues were taken into consideration in a systemic and
consistent manner.  A number of participants stressed the link between
international and national follow-up and encouraged the Commission to promote
the integration of conclusions from major international conferences, including
those held at Cairo, Copenhagen and Beijing and the forthcoming Habitat II
conference in Istanbul.

38.  Particular stress was laid on the importance of devolving implementing
actions from global to regional level, and decentralizing responsibilities
from national to local level where appropriate.  In highlighting the value and
effectiveness of local empowerment, it was suggested that the United Nations
might sponsor an award that would recognize globally significant examples of
sustainable development undertaken at the local or micro-level.

39.  Participants in the high-level segment stressed the importance of
developing a broad-based consensus involving major groups for achieving
sustainable development.  The development of new partnerships between
stakeholders, such as educators, scientists, Governments, non-governmental
organizations, business and industry, trade unions, youth and the media, among
others, was encouraged as a means to foster better communication and to get
across the key issues of sustainable development.  It was noted that closer
involvement of the private sector was essential for achieving sustainable
development, but that appropriate mechanisms of interaction still needed to be
developed in that area.

40.  Participants emphasized the importance of the involvement of major
groups in the preparations for the 1997 special session of the General
Assembly and in the session itself, in accordance with the appropriate rules
of procedure.  They also welcomed initiatives for self-reporting by major
groups in 1997.

41.  During the high-level segment, a number of proposals were received for
improvement in reporting and institutional arrangements and other activities
after 1997, to be considered in the context of the preparations for the
special session.




                                  Chapter III

               CROSS-SECTORAL ISSUES, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE
                  TO THE CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF SUSTAINABILITY


1.   The Commission considered item 3 of its agenda at its 1st to 4th and
20th meetings, on 18 and 19 April and 3 May 1996.  It had before it the
following documents:

     (a)  Report of the Secretary-General on changing consumption and
production patterns (E/CN.17/1996/5 and Add.1);

     (b)  Report of the Ad Hoc Inter-sessional Working Group on Finance and
Changing Consumption and Production Patterns (E/CN.17/1996/7);

     (c)  Report of the Secretary-General on trade, environment and
sustainable development (E/CN.17/1996/8 and Add.1);

     (d)  Report of the Secretary-General on combating poverty
(E/CN.17/1996/9);

     (e)  Report of the Secretary-General on demographic dynamics and
sustainability (E/CN.17/1996/10 and Add.1);

     (f)  Letter dated 19 December 1995 from the Charge' d'affaires a.i. of
the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations addressed
to the Secretary-General (E/CN.17/1996/27);

     (g)  Note verbale dated 8 March 1996 from the Permanent Representative
of Malaysia to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General
(E/CN.17/1996/30);

     (h)  Note verbale dated 8 April 1996 from the Permanent Mission of the
United States of America to the United Nations addressed to the Secretariat of
the United Nations (E/CN.17/1996/33);

     (i)  Letter dated 28 February 1996 from the Charge' d'affaires a.i. of
the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations and the Charge'
d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Observer Mission of Switzerland to the United
Nations addressed to the Secretary-General (E/CN.17/1996/34);

     (j)  Letter dated 18 April 1996 from the Permanent Representative of the
Netherlands to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General
(E/CN.17/1996/35);

     (k)  Letter dated 19 April 1996 from the Minister of Environment of
Norway addressed to the Secretary-General (E/CN.17/1996/36).

2.   The Commission held a discussion on item 3 and item 5 (Review of cross-
sectoral clusters) concurrently at its 1st to 4th meetings, on 18 and 19
April.

3.   At the 1st meeting, on 18 April, introductory statements were made by
the representatives of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
the United Nations Population Fund, the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization and the United Nations Development Programme.  The
Director of the Division for Sustainable Development of the Department for
Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United Nations
Secretariat also made an introductory statement.

4.   At the same meeting a statement was made by the representative of
Switzerland.

5.   At the 2nd meeting, on 18 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Italy (on behalf of the States Members of the United
Nations that are members of the European Union), the Netherlands, Sweden,
Canada, the United States of America, China and Venezuela and the observers
for the Republic of Korea, Denmark and Cuba.

6.   At the 3rd meeting, on 19 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Italy (on behalf of the States Members of the United
Nations that are members of the European Union), India, Australia,
Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Mexico,
Colombia, Sweden, Japan and the United States of America and the observer for
the Czech Republic.

7.   The observer for the Natural Resources Defence Council, Inc., a
non-governmental organization in consultative status with the Economic and
Social Council, also made a statement.

8.   At the 4th meeting, on 19 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Italy (on behalf of the States Members of the United
Nations that are members of the European Union), Germany, Brazil, Malaysia,
Japan and the Philippines and the observers for Costa Rica (on behalf of the
States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and
China), Indonesia and Cuba.

9.   Statements were also made by the observers for the European Community
and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

10.  The representative of the United Nations Environment Programme made a
statement.

11.  A statement was also made by the observer for the International Union
for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, a non-governmental
organization in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council,
category II.


                        ACTION TAKEN BY THE COMMISSION

Demographic dynamics and sustainability

12.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.1) entitled "Demographic dynamics and
sustainability", which was submitted by the Chairman.

13.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/3).

Combating poverty

14.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.2) entitled "Combating poverty", which was submitted
by the Chairman.

15.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/2).

Information provided by Governments and organizations

16.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.6) entitled "Information provided by Governments and
organizations", which was submitted by the Chairman.

17.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/8).

Trade, environment and sustainable development

18.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.15) entitled "Trade, environment and sustainable
development", which was submitted by the Chairman.

19.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/1).

Changing production and consumption patterns

20.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.16) entitled "Changing production and consumption
patterns", which was submitted by the Chairman.

21.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/13).




                                  Chapter IV

                      FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS


1.   The Commission considered item 4 of its agenda at its 5th, 6th, 10th and
20th meetings, on 22 and 24 April and 3 May 1996.  It had before it the
following documents:

     (a)  Report of the Secretary-General on financial resources and
mechanisms for sustainable development:  overview of current issues and
developments (E/CN.17/1996/4 and Add.1);

     (b)  Report of the Secretary-General on changing consumption and
production patterns (E/CN.17/1996/5 and Add.1);

     (c)  Report of the Ad Hoc Inter-sessional Working Group on Finance and
Changing Consumption and Production Patterns (E/CN.17/1996/7);

     (d)  Note verbale dated 1 March 1996 from the Permanent Representative
of Japan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General
(E/CN.17/1996/28).

2.   At the 5th meeting, on 22 April, an introductory statement was made by
the Chairman of the Ad Hoc Inter-sessional Working Group on Finance and
Changing Consumption and Production Patterns.

3.   Also at the 5th meeting, statements were made by the representatives of
Italy (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members
of the European Union), India, Pakistan, the United States of America, China,
Japan, Brazil, Switzerland and Australia and the observers for Costa Rica (on
behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
Group of 77 and China), Norway, Cuba and the Republic of Korea.

4.   At the same meeting, a statement was made by the observer for the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

5.   Also at the same meeting, a statement was made by the observers for two
non-governmental organizations, Kenya Energy and Environment Organizations and
Netherlands National Committee for IUCN.

6.   At the 6th meeting, on 22 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Poland, the Philippines, Bulgaria, Guyana, Bangladesh,
Mexico, Malaysia and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
and the observer for Indonesia.

7.   The Commission also heard presentations by members of a panel consisting
of Lin See Yan (Chairman, Pacific Bank, Malaysia), Chairman of the Panel;
James Michel (Chairman, Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation
for Economic Cooperation and Development); Roberto De Ocampo (Finance
Minister, Philippines); Luise Diogo (Deputy Finance Minister, Mozambique);
Fridrik Sophusson (Finance Minister, Iceland); Andrew Steer (World Bank); and
Ved Gandhi (International Monetary Fund).

8.   At the 10th meeting, on 24 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Thailand, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Colombia and Italy
(on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
European Union) and the observer for Costa Rica (on behalf of the States
Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77).

9.   Statements were also made by the observers for Friends of the Earth, a
non-governmental organization on the Roster, and the International
Confederation of Free Trade Unions, a non-governmental organization in
consultative status with the Economic and Social Council, category I.


                        ACTION TAKEN BY THE COMMISSION

Financial resources and mechanisms

10.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.18) entitled "Financial resources and mechanisms",
which was submitted by the Chairman.

11.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/14).

12.  After the adoption of the draft decision, the representative of the
United States of America made the following statement:

         "With respect to paragraph 3 of draft decision E/CN.17/1996/L.18,
     the United States is not one of the countries that have affirmed, or
     reaffirmed in chapter 33.13 of Agenda 21, a commitment to the United
     Nations 0.7 per cent target for official development assistance.  The
     United States believes that national Governments, not international
     donors, must have the primary responsibility for their country's
     development.  Targets detract from the more important issues of the
     effectiveness and quality of aid and the policies of the recipient
     country.  The United States has traditionally been one of the largest
     aid donors in volume terms and, consistent with the commitment it made
     in chapter 33.13, will continue to work with developing countries to
     provide aid in support of their efforts."



                                   Chapter V

                       REVIEW OF CROSS-SECTORAL CLUSTERS


1.   The Commission considered item 5 of its agenda at its 1st to 4th and
20th meetings, on 18 and 19 April and 3 May 1996.  It had before it the
following documents:

     (a)  Report of the Secretary-General on integrating environment and
development in decision-making (E/CN.17/1996/11 and Add.1);

     (b)  Report of the Secretary-General on the role of major groups in
implementation of Agenda 21 (E/CN.17/1996/12);

     (c)  Report of the Secretary-General on the transfer of environmentally
sound technologies, cooperation and capacity-building (E/CN.17/1996/13 and
Add.1);

     (d)  Report of the Secretary-General on promoting education, public
awareness and training (E/CN.17/1996/14 and Add.1);

     (e)  Report of the Secretary-General on capacity-building for
sustainable development (E/CN.17/1996/15);

     (f)  Report of the Secretary-General on institutional arrangements to
follow up the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(E/CN.17/1996/16);

     (g)  Report of the Secretary-General on international legal instruments
and mechanisms (E/CN.17/1996/17 and Add.1);

     (h)  Report of the Secretary-General on information for decision-making
(E/CN.17/1996/18 and Add.1);

     (i)  Report of the Secretary-General on national information
(E/CN.17/1996/19).

2.   The Commission held a discussion on item 5 and item 3 (Cross-sectoral
issues, with particular reference to the critical elements of sustainability)
concurrently at its 1st to 4th meetings, on 18 and 19 April (for the
discussion see chap. III, paras. 3-11).


                        ACTION TAKEN BY THE COMMISSION

Major groups

3.   At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.7) entitled "Major groups", which was submitted by
the Chairman.

4.   At the same meeting, the Commission was informed that, in paragraph 2
(c) of the draft decision, the words "and in accordance with the appropriate
rules of procedure" after the words "as appropriate" had been deleted.

5.   Also at the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision, as
orally revised (see chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/9).

International institutional arrangements

6.   At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.8) entitled "International institutional
arrangements", which was submitted by the Chairman.

7.   At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/7).

Promoting education, public awareness and training

8.   At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.9) entitled "Promoting education, public awareness
and training", which was submitted by the Chairman.

9.   At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/11).

National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in
developing countries

10.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.10) entitled "National mechanisms and international
cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries", which was
submitted by the Chairman.

11.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/12).

Integrating environment and development in decision-making

12.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.11) entitled "Integrating environment and development
in decision-making", which was submitted by the Chairman.

13.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/4).

Information for decision-making

14.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.12) entitled "Information for decision-making", which
was submitted by the Chairman.

15.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/5).

16.  After the adoption of the draft decision, the representative of Pakistan
made a statement.

International legal instruments and mechanisms

17.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.13) entitled "International legal instruments and
mechanisms", which was submitted by the Chairman.

18.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision, as
corrected (see chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/6).

Transfer of environmentally sound technologies, cooperation and
capacity-building

19.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.14) entitled "Transfer of environmentally sound
technologies, cooperation and capacity-building", which was submitted by the
Chairman.

20.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/10).



                                  Chapter VI

                          REVIEW OF SECTORAL CLUSTERS


1.   The Commission considered item 6 of its agenda at its 1st, 7th, 8th,
10th, 12th, 14th and 20th meetings, on 18 and 23 to 26 April and 3 May 1996. 
It had before it the following documents:

     (a)  Report of the Secretary-General on protection of the oceans, all
kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas
and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
(E/CN.17/1996/3 and Add.1);

     (b)  Report of the Ad Hoc Inter-sessional Working Group on Sectoral
Issues (E/CN.17/1996/6);

     (c)  Report of the Secretary-General on protection of the atmosphere
(E/CN.17/1996/22 and Add.1);

     (d)  Letter dated 1 February 1996 from the Permanent Representatives of
Brazil and of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the
United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General (E/CN.17/1996/23);

     (e)  Report of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests on its
second session (E/CN.17/1996/24);

     (f)  Report of the Secretary-General on progress in the implementation
of the decisions and recommendations made by the Commission at its third
session (E/CN.17/1996/26);

     (g)  Note verbale dated 29 February 1996 from the Permanent
Representative of Japan to the United Nations addressed to the
Secretary-General (E/CN.17/1996/29);

     (h)  Note by the Secretary-General concerning the Ad Hoc
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (E/CN.17/1996/32).

2.   At the 1st meeting, on 18 April, the Director of the Division for
Sustainable Development of the Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat made a statement.

3.   At the same meeting, a statement was made by the observer for the
National Wildlife Federation, a non-governmental organization in consultative
status with the Economic and Social Council, category II (also on behalf of
the Sierra Club and Friends of the Earth).

4.   At the 7th meeting, on 23 April, the Chairman of the Ad Hoc
Inter-sessional Working Group on Sectoral Issues made a statement.

5.   The Commission then heard presentations by members of a panel consisting
of Svante Bodin (Assistant Under-Secretary, Ministry of the Environment,
Sweden), Chairman of the Panel; Edward Saliah (Minister of Transport and
Communications, Ghana); Antonio Dias Leite (former Minister of Energy and
Mines, Brazil); David Mcdonald (former Minister of Transport, Canada); Paolo
Scolari (Vice-President of Fiat); Douglas Durante (Executive Director of the
Clean Fuels Development Coalition); and B. W. Ang (National University of
Singapore).

6.   At the 8th meeting, on 23 April, a statement was made by the Chairman of
the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the Elaboration of an
International Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries
Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa.

7.   At the same meeting, statements were made by the representatives of
Italy (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members
of the European Union), the United States of America, Canada, India, Morocco,
Brazil, Papua New Guinea, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Philippines, Saudi
Arabia, Colombia, Venezuela, Switzerland, Australia and Thailand and the
observers for the Republic of Korea, New Zealand and Portugal.

8.   A statement was also made by the observer for the European Community.

9.   At the 10th meeting, on 24 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Sweden, China, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland and Malaysia and the observer for Iceland.

10.  The observer for the International Ocean Institute, a non-governmental
organization on the Roster, also made a statement.

11.  At the 12th meeting, on 25 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Bangladesh, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Russian
Federation and Mexico and the observers for Trinidad and Tobago (on behalf of
the Alliance of Small Island States) and South Africa.

12.  At the same meeting, the representative of the United Nations Industrial
Development Organization made a statement.

13.  Also at the same meeting, a statement was made by the observer for the
International Council of Scientific Unions, a non-governmental organization in
consultative status with the Economic and Social Council, category II.

14.  At the 14th meeting, on 26 April, the observer for the Permanent South
Pacific Commission made a statement.

15.  At the same meeting, statements were made by the observers for the
Coordinating Board of Jewish Organizations, a non-governmental organization in
consultative status with the Economic and Social Council, category II, and
Friends of the Earth, a non-governmental organization on the Roster.  The
observer for the United Nations Association of Sweden in Stockholm, a
non-governmental organization, also made a statement.


                        ACTION TAKEN BY THE COMMISSION

Institutional arrangements for the implementation of the Global Programme of
Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities

16.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.19) entitled "Institutional arrangements for the
implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the
Marine Environment from Land-based Activities", submitted by the Chairman,
which contained a draft resolution recommended for adoption by the Economic
and Social Council.

17.  At the same meeting, the Commission approved the draft resolution for
submission to the Economic and Social Council (see chap. I, sect. A).

18.  A statement was then made by the observer for Trinidad and Tobago.

International cooperation and coordination

19.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.20) entitled "International cooperation and
coordination", which was submitted by the Chairman.

20.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/15, sect. C.2).

Protection of the atmosphere and protection of the oceans and all kinds of
seas

21.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.21) entitled "Protection of the atmosphere and
protection of the oceans and all kinds of seas", which was submitted by the
Chairman.

22.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/15).

Implementation of international fishery instruments

23.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.22) entitled "Implementation of international fishery
instruments", which was submitted by the Chairman.

24.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/15, sect. C.1).

25.  The observer for the European Community then made the following
statement:

         "The European community considers that the Commission on Sustainable
     Development's decision on implementation of international fishery
     instruments is without prejudice to the rights and obligations of States
     in accordance with international law, the United Nations Agreement
     relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks
     and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (1995) and the Code of Conduct for
     Responsible Fisheries (1995).

         "The European Community regrets that the very important issue of a
     call for States to cooperate by becoming members of regional and
     subregional fisheries management organizations and by participating in
     regional and subregional fisheries management arrangements, which the
     European Community considers necessary to ensure the sustainability of
     the living marine resources, is not at all reflected in the Commission's
     decision.

         "This issue is of paramount importance to ensure the effective
     implementation and the widest possible acceptance of the United Nations
     Agreement relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish
     Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and of the Code of Conduct for
     Responsible Fisheries.

         "For the European Community, it is clear that the application of the
     conservation and management measures established by such competent
     regional and subregional organizations and arrangements will only become
     efficient through membership or participation as provided for in the
     said United Nations Agreement and will ensure the effectiveness of the
     obligation to cooperate under the United Nations Convention on the Law
     of the Sea.

         "For these reasons we consider it unfortunate that a political
     appeal for States to cooperate by becoming members of or participants in
     regional and subregional fisheries management organizations and
     agreements could not be adopted by the Commission on Sustainable
     Development." 

Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and
semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and
development of their living resources

26.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.23) entitled "Protection of the oceans, all kinds of
seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the
protection, rational use and development of their living resources", which was
submitted by the Chairman.

27.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/15, sect. C).

Matters relating to the third and fourth sessions of the Ad Hoc
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests

28.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission considered a draft
decision entitled "Matters relating to the third and fourth sessions of the Ad
Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests", which the Panel, through the
Commission, recommended for adoption by the Economic and Social Council (see
E/CN.17/1996/24, para. 1).

29.  At the same meeting, the Secretary of the Commission read out a
statement of the programme budget implications pertaining to the draft
decision (see annex III below).

30.  Also at the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. A, draft decision I).



                                  Chapter VII

       PROGRESS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE
           SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES


1.   The Commission considered item 7 of its agenda at its 9th, 10th and 20th
meetings, on 24 April and 3 May 1996.  It had before it the following
documents:

     (a)  Report of the Secretary-General on the sustainable development of
coastal areas, tourism, energy resources, air transport, maritime transport,
telecommunications, and management of natural and environmental disasters in
small island developing States (E/CN.17/1996/20);

     (b)  Report of the Secretary-General on the management of natural and
environmental disasters in small island developing States
(E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.1);

     (c)  Report of the Secretary-General on the sustainable development of
energy resources in small island developing States (E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.2);

     (d)  Report of the Secretary-General on sustainable tourism development
in small island developing States (E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.3);

     (e)  Report of the Secretary-General on maritime transport in small
island developing States (E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.4);

     (f)  Report of the Secretary-General on the sustainable development of
air transport in small island developing States (E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.5);

     (g)  Report of the Secretary-General on the development of
communications in small island developing States (E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.6);

     (h)  Report of the Secretary-General on coastal area management in small
island developing States (E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.7);

     (i)  Report of the Secretary-General on current donor activities in
support of sustainable development in small island developing States
(E/CN.17/1996/21).

2.   At the 9th meeting, on 24 April, the Director of the Division for
Sustainable Development of the Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat made an introductory
statement.

3.   Introductory statements were also made by the Task Managers of the
Division for Sustainable Development, the International Telecommunication
Union, the World Meteorological Organization, the International Civil Aviation
Organization and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

4.   At the same meeting, the Vice-Chairman of the Panel on Small Island
Developing States and External Trade made a statement.

5.   Statements were made by the representatives of Papua New Guinea and
India and the observers for Trinidad and Tobago (on behalf of the Alliance of
Small Island States), the Marshall Islands and Samoa.

6.   A statement was made by the representative of the United Nations
Development Programme.

7.   At the 10th meeting, on 24 April, statements were made by the
representatives of Italy (on behalf of the States members of the United
Nations that are members of the European Union), Japan, the Bahamas, Pakistan,
the United States of America, Australia, Canada, Barbados, Mexico and Brazil
and the observers for Cuba, Jamaica, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea,
Malta, Argentina and Fiji.

8.   The observer for the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme also
made a statement.


                        ACTION TAKEN BY THE COMMISSION

Review of the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States

9.   At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.17) entitled "Review of the implementation of the
Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing
States", which was submitted by the Chairman.

10.  At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/16).

11.  After the adoption of the draft decision, the observer for Trinidad and
Tobago made a statement.



                                 Chapter VIII

                                 OTHER MATTERS


1.   The Commission considered item 8 of its agenda at its 20th meeting, on
3 May 1996.  It had before it a note by the Secretary-General containing
proposals for the medium-term plan for the period 1998-2001 (E/CN.17/1996/37).


                        ACTION TAKEN BY THE COMMISSION

Matters relating to the inter-sessional work of the Commission

2.   At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.17/1996/L.5) entitled "Matters related to the inter-sessional
work of the Commission", submitted by the Chairman.

3.   At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 4/17).

4.   Also at the same meeting, on the proposal of the Chairman, the
Commission adopted a draft decision regarding proposals for the medium-term
plan for the period 1998-2001 (see chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision
4/18).


                                  Chapter IX

                              HIGH-LEVEL MEETING


1.   The Commission considered item 9 of its agenda at its 15th to 20th
meetings, from 1 to 3 May 1996.  It had before it the following documents:

     (a)  Report of the High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development
on its fourth session (E/CN.17/1996/2);

     (b)  Report of the Secretary-General on preparing for the 1997 special
session of the General Assembly (E/CN.17/1996/25);

     (c)  Report of the High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development
on its fifth session (E/CN.17/1996/31).

2.   At the 15th meeting, on 1 May, the Under-Secretary-General for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development made a statement.

3.   At the same meeting, the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the
Global Environment Facility made a statement.

4.   Also at the 15th meeting, statements were made by the Minister of
Environment and Tourism of Zimbabwe, the Minister of the Environment of Italy
(also on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members
of the European Union), the Minister of Environmental Protection, Natural
Resources and Forestry of Poland, the Minister of Sustainable Development of
Bolivia, the Minister of Environment of the Republic of Korea, the Minister
for the Environment and Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, the
Federal Minister for the Environment, Youth and Family of Austria, the
Vice-President of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Head of the Organization
for the Protection of the Environment, the Minister for the Environment of
France, the Minister of the Environment of Colombia, the Secretary of Housing,
Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands, the State Secretary
for the Environment of Hungary and the Secretary of Socio-economic
Planning/National Economic and Development Authority of the Philippines.

5.   A statement was also made on behalf of 25 non-governmental
organizations.

6.   At the 16th meeting, on 1 May, statements were made by the Permanent
Representative of China, the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature,
Conservation and Nuclear Safety of Germany, the Minister for the Environment
of Canada, the Secretary-General of the Ministry of Environment of Finland,
the Minister of Environment, Science and Technology of Ghana, the Minister of
Finance of Iceland, and the Commissioner for the Environment and Nuclear
Safety of the European Commission.

7.   The Commission then held a panel discussion on Youth and Agenda 21.  The
panel consisted of Nitin Desai, Under-Secretary-General for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development, Chairman of the Panel; and Ghada
Ahmadein, Satria Candao, Mariana Rodriguez, Peter Wilson, Robert Micaleff,
Rebecca Huft and Souleyman Diop.

8.   At the 17th meeting, on 2 May, statements were made by the Minister of
the Interior of Switzerland, the Minister for the Environment, Natural
Resources and Fisheries of Mexico, the Minister, Department of the Environment
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Minister of
Science, Technology and Environment of Malaysia, the Minister of the
Environment of Sweden, the Minister for Health and Environment of Barbados,
the Minister of Environment of Slovakia, the Minister of the Environment of
Costa Rica, the Vice-Prime Minister of the Republic of Belarus, the Secretary
of Natural Resources and Human Environment of Argentina, the Minister for
Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba, the Deputy Minister for the
Environment and the Protection of Nature of Senegal and the Under-Secretary of
State of the United States of America.

9.   A statement was also made by the Secretary-General of the World
Meteorological Organization.

10.  At the 18th meeting, on 2 May, statements were made by the Chairman of
the High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development, the State Secretary
of the Ministry of Environment of Norway, the Minister for Development
Cooperation of Denmark, the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for the
Environment of Australia, the Chief of the Division Cabinet of Ministers of
Ukraine, the Vice-Minister of Environment, Water Resources and the Legal
Amazon of Brazil and the Deputy Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
of South Africa.

11.  A statement was made by the Executive Director of the United Nations
Environment Programme.

12.  The Commission then held a panel discussion on the 1997 special session
of the General Assembly.  The panel, which was chaired by the Chairman of the
Commission, consisted of Razali, Ismail (Permanent Representative of
Malaysia); Klaus To"pfer (Federal Minister for Regional Planning, Building and
Urban Planning of Germany); Henrique Cavalcanti (Brazil); Maurice Strong
(Canada); Tommy Koh (Singapore); Barbara Bramble (National Wildlife
Federation, a non-governmental organization in consultative status with the
Economic and Social Council, category II).

13.  At the 19th meeting, on 3 May, statements were made by the Deputy
Minister of the Environment of Bulgaria, the Minister of
State/Director-General of the Environment Agency of Japan, the Ambassador for
the Environment of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, the Joint Secretary of the
Government, Ministry of Environment of India, the Member of the Executive
Committee, National Council for the Environment of Peru, the Deputy Permanent
Representative of Indonesia, the Permanent Representative of Guyana, the
Permanent Representative of Morocco, the Permanent Representative of Belgium,
the Director-General of International Affairs, Ministry of the Environment of
Venezuela, the Deputy Permanent Representative of Egypt and the Permanent
Representative of Pakistan.

14.  The Deputy Secretary-General of the Organisation for Economic
Cooperation and Development also made a statement.

15.  Also at the 19th meeting, statements were made by the observers for the
following non-governmental organizations:  International Union for
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Environnement et de'veloppement
du tiersmonde (ENDA) and Pan African Movement (on behalf of a number of
non-governmental organizations).  A statement was also made on behalf of the
Women's Caucus and women's development organizations.


                        ACTION TAKEN BY THE COMMISSION

16.  At the 20th meeting, on 3 May, the Chairman made a statement summarizing
the high-level meeting.

17.  Statements were then made by the representatives of Morocco and Belarus.

18.  At the same meeting, the Commission agreed to include the Chairman's
summary in the report of the Commission (see chap. II above).


                                   Chapter X

          PROVISIONAL AGENDA FOR THE FIFTH SESSION OF THE COMMISSION


1.   The Commission considered item 10 of its agenda at its 20th meeting, on
3 May 1996.  It had before it the draft provisional agenda for the fifth
session (E/CN.17/1996/L.4).

2.   At the same meeting, the Commission approved the provisional agenda for
its fifth session (see chap. I, sect. B, draft decision II).



                                  Chapter XI

        ADOPTION OF THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON ITS FOURTH SESSION


1.   At the 20th meeting, on 3 May 1996, the Rapporteur introduced the draft
report of the Commission on its fourth session (E/CN.17/1996/L.3).

2.   At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft report and
entrusted the Rapporteur with its completion.



                                  Chapter XII

                          ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSION


                    A.  Opening and duration of the session

1.   The Commission on Sustainable Development held its fourth session at
United Nations Headquarters from 18 April to 3 May 1996.  The Commission held
20 meetings (1st to 20th meetings).

2.   The session was opened by the temporary Chairman, Mr. Henrique
Cavalcanti (Brazil), who also made a statement.

3.   The Under-Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
Development addressed the Commission.


                                B.  Attendance

4.   In accordance with Economic and Social Council decision 1993/207, the
Commission is composed of 53 members elected from among the States Members of
the United Nations and members of the specialized agencies.

5.   The session was attended by representatives of 44 States members of the
Commission.  Observers for other States Members of the United Nations,
representatives of organizations of the United Nations system and observers
for intergovernmental, non-governmental and other organizations also attended.

A list of participants is contained in annex I below.


                           C.  Election of officers

6.   At the 1st and 4th meetings, on 18 and 19 April 1996, the Commission
elected the following officers by acclamation:

     Chairman:  Rumen Gechev (Bulgaria)

     Vice-Chairmen:  Enrique Provencio (Mexico)
                     Paul de Jongh (Netherlands)
                     Adam Vai Delaney (Papua New Guinea)
                     Daudi Ngelautwa Mwakawago (United Republic of Tanzania)

7.   At the 5th meeting, on 22 April, Adam Vai Delaney (Papua New Guinea) was
elected to serve also as Rapporteur.


                      D.  Agenda and organization of work

8.   At the 1st meeting, on 18 April 1996, the Commission adopted its
provisional agenda, as contained in document E/CN.17/1996/1, and approved its
organization of work.  The agenda was as follows:

     1.  Election of officers.

     2.  Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters.

     3.  Cross-sectoral issues, with particular reference to the critical
         elements of sustainability (Agenda 21, chapters 2-5).

     4.  Financial resources and mechanisms (Agenda 21, chapter 33).

     5.  Review of cross-sectoral clusters:

         (a)   Education, science and the transfer of environmentally sound
               technology, with particular reference to Agenda 21, chapters
               34, 36 and 37;

         (b)   Decision-making structures, with particular reference to
               Agenda 21, chapters 8 and 38-40;

         (c)   Role of major groups, with particular reference to Agenda 21,
               chapters 23-32.

     6.  Review of sectoral clusters:

         (a)   Protection of the atmosphere (Agenda 21, chapter 9) and
               protection of the oceans and all kinds of seas (Agenda 21,
               chapter 17);

         (b)   Progress report of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on
               Forests;

         (c)   Progress report on the implementation of the decisions made by
               the Commission at its second and third sessions.

      7. Progress in the implementation of the Programme of Action for the
         Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.

      8. Other matters.

      9. High-level meeting.

     10. Provisional agenda for the fifth session of the Commission.

     11. Adoption of the report of the Commission on its fourth session.

9.   Also at the 1st meeting, the Commission agreed to establish three
in-sessional working groups, each one to be chaired by one of the three
Vice-Chairmen.  It further agreed that not more than two working groups would
meet simultaneously.


                               E.  Documentation

10.  The documents before the Commission at its fourth session are listed in
annex II below.



                                    Annex I

                                  ATTENDANCE


                                    Members

Antigua and Barbuda:  Patrick A. Lewis, John W. Ashe, Conrod Hunte,
                      Dornella M. Seth, Aqeelah Akbar

Australia:            Howard Bamsey*, Ian Campbell**, Joanne Disano,
                      Annie Ilett, Sean Sullivan, Karen Lanyon, Andre Mayne,
                      Murray Johns, Mark Gray, Alana Oatham, Jennifer Wolcott,
                      Jim Silva

Bahamas:              Lynn Holowsko, Harcourt L. Turnquest,
                      Sharon Brennen-Haylock, Allison P. Christie

Bangladesh:

Barbados:             Elizabeth Thompson, Atheline Haynes, Vernese Inniss,
                      Carlston Boucher, Betty Russell, David Blackman

Belarus:              Alyaksandr Sychou, Alexei Mojoukhov, Uladzimir Gerus,
                      Uladzimir Garkun, Mikhail Rusy

Belgium:              Alex Reyn, Nadine Gouzee, Jean-Pierre Heirman,
                      Dirk Wouters, Jos Engelen, Bernard Mazijn, Georges
                      Pichot, L. Coppens, Remy Merckx, Ph. Pignolet, Jan De
                      Mulder, Ulrik Lenaerts, Hugo Brauwers, E. Paridis

Benin:                Rene' Vale'ry Mongbe, Damien Houeto, Joe"l W. Adechi,
                      Rogatien Biaou, Bienvenu E. Accrombessi, Pascal I.
                      Sossou, Paul H. Houansou

Bolivia:

Brazil:               Celso Luiz Nunes Amorim, Henrique R. Valle,
                      Antonio Augusto Dayrell de Lima,
                      Mauro Vianna de Araripe Macedo, Haroldo Mattos de Lemos,
                      Se'rgio de Abreu e Lima Flore^ncio,
                      Luiz Antonio Fachini Gomes, Enio Cordeiro,
                      Antonio F. Cruz de Mello, Luiz Alberto Figueiredo
                      Machado, Jair Alberto Ribas Marques, Jacques Ribemboin,
                      Mari'lia Marreco Cerqueira, Elisa Cavalcanti,
                      Leonel Graca Generoso Pereira,
                      Antonio Carlos Robert de Moraes, Paulo Roge'rio
                      Conc'alves, Eduardo Paes Saboia, Rubens Harry Born

Bulgaria:             Rumen Gechev, Yordan Uzunov, Mityo Videlov, Raiko
                      Raichev, Meglena Kuneva, George Dimov, Tsvetolyub
                      Basmadjiev, Valentin Hadjiyski, Yoncho Pelovski, Mityo
                      Videlov,
                      Meglena Kuneva

Burundi:

Canada:               Sergio Marchi, John Fraser, Brenda Elliott,
                      Charles Caccia, Mel Cappe, Avrim Lazar, Cheryl Fraser,
                      Richard Ballhorn, Jennifer Irish, Carmel Whelton,
                      Shirley Lewchuk, Louise Co^te', Tim Hodges, David Drake,
                      Andrew Kenyon, Len Hinds, Amos Donohue, Kathryn Bruce,
                      John Walsh, John Karau, Guy Rochon, Brigita Gravitis,
                      Anthony Knill, Susan Waters, Jeanne Andrews,
                      Anne Marie Sahagian, Craig Boljkovac, Peter Padbury,
                      Liseanne Forand, David Vander Zwaag, Nola Kate Seymoar,
                      David MacDonald

Central African
Republic:

China:                Qin Huasun, Zhang Kunmin, Xia Kunbao, Wang Baoqing,
                      Qu Guilin, Cui Tiankai, Yu Qingtai, Wang Xiaodu,
                      Bai Yongjie, Wang Qun, Li Liyan, Liu Hua

Colombia:             Jose' Vicente Mogollo'n, Julio London~o-Paredes,
                      Ernesto Guhl Naneti, Jairo Montoya Pedroza,
                      Mari'a Andrea Alba'n, Fernando Casas, Mari'a Fernanda
                      Acosta

Ethiopia:             Kifle LemmaFesseha A. Tessema, Daniel T. Taye

Finland:              Sirkka Hautoja"rvi, Birgitta Stenious-Mladenov,
                      Jukka Uosukainen, Taisto Huimasalo, Aira Kalela,
                      Marit Huhta, Markku Aho, Camilla Lommi-Kippola,
                      Minna Wilkki, Erja Fagerlund, Ann-Sofie Stude-Vidal,
                      Sari Jormanainen, Jukka Sarjala, Liisa Ja"a"skela"inen,
                      Vuokko Heikkinen, Esa Tommila, Iri Marika Suojanen,
                      Peter Kunnas

France:               Corinne Lepage, Jacques Andreani, Odile Roussel,
                      Herve' Ladsous, Michel Oblin, Laurent Stefanini,
                      Daniel Silvestre, Mauricette Steinfelder, Marc Vedele,
                      M. Peronne, Ce'cile Sportis, M. Brohag, Philippe
                      Delacroix

Gabon:

Germany:              Angela Merkel, Klaus To"pfer, Gerhard Henze,
                      Dagmara Berbalk, Wolfgang Runge, Bernd Wulffen,
                      Cornelia Quennet-Thielen, Hans-Peter Schipulle,
                      Ortwin Gottsmann, Susanne Lottermoser, Rainald Roesch,
                      Knut Beyer, Manfred Konukiewitz, Ulrike Metzger,
                      Elfriede Bierbrauer, Ju"rgen Wenderoth, Monika Luxem,
                      Michael Leibrandt, Norbert Reichel, Christine
                      Kindervater, Beate Baumann, Andrea Kienle, Nicole
                      Bosheck

Ghana:                Christine Amoako-Nuama, Jack B. Wilmot, E. P. D. Barnes,
                      Charles Biney, Messie Y. Amoah

Guinea:

Guyana:               S. R. Insanally, P. Cornette, G. Talbot, K. Simon,
                      T. Rajkuman, T. Singh

Hungary:

India:                N. R. Krishnan, Prakash Shah, Nirmal Andrews,
                      B. R. Balasubramanian, Arun K. Singh, C. Gururaj Rao

Iran (Islamic         Hadi Manafi Raei, Mehdi Danesh-Yazdi, 
Republic of):         Mehran Roouzbahani, Seyed Mohammad Saeid Hosseini Emami,
                      Amir Hossein Hakimian, Mohammad Reza Hadi Karim
                      Djabbari, Mehdi Saffari Anaraki

Italy:                Paolo Baratta, Francesco Paolo Fulci, Giuseppe
                      Jacoangeli, Paolo Coppini, Costanza Pera, Corrado Clini,
                      Alberto Colella, Francesco Genuardi,
                      Marina Romualdi Vaccari, Valeria Rizzo,
                      Tiziano Pignatelli, Marinella Lulli, Paolo Soprano,
                      Massimo Avancini, Paola Pettinari, Maria Dalla Costa,
                      Bonizella Biagini, Francesco Mauro, Sergio Garribba

Japan:                Sukio Iwatare, Masaki Konishi, Hironori Hamanaka,
                      Akio Tanaka, Takao Shibata, Kazuo Watanabe,
                      Hiroyasu Kobayashi, Yoshihiro Natori, Yasuhiro Shimizu,
                      Ken Okaniwa, Keiichi Muraoka, Hirohiko Nishikubo,
                      Osamu Hayakawa, Norihiko Tanaka, Masanobu Miyakawa,
                      Masamichi Saigou, Yuji Hashimoto, Kinji Shinoda,
                      Nenemu Oshida, Akira Nakamae, Hideki Tsubata,
                      Kenji Kagawa, Koichi Tahara, Hideaki Saito,
                      Akira Yamazaki, Eiko Aoki, Yukihiro Nikaido,
                      Hironori Shibata, Yutaka Yoshino

Malaysia:             Datuk Law Kieng Ding, Razali Ismail,
                      Tan Sri Dato' Lin See Yan, Mohd. Sinon Mudzakir,
                      Saw Ching Hong, Nadzri Yahaya, Himmat Singh,
                      Raj D. K. Nathan, Musline Suliman, Mohd. Nizam Basiron

Mexico:               Julia Carabias, Enrique Provencio, Jose' Luis Samaniego,
                      Gerardo Lozano, Oscar Manuel Ramirez, Edgar Gonzalez,
                      Margarita Paras, Julia Martinez, Ulises Canchola,
                      He'ctor Marquez, Germa'n Gonzalez, Sergio Gomez,
                      Luisa Montes, Jaime Palafox

Morocco:              Ahmed Snoussi, Ahmed Amaziane, Mohamed Berdai,
                      Mohamed Benyahia, Abderrahmane Sekkaki

Mozambique:

Netherlands:          D. K. J. Tommel, Paul de Jongh, N. H. Biegman,
                      J. van Zijst, A. P. Hamburger, J. P. Hoogeveen,
                      R. H. Dekker, K. A. Koekkoek, D. F. W. T. Pietermaat,
                      H. Th. H. Verheij, R. Droop, Margot K. de Jong,
                      G. A. C. M. Braken, A. E. Kohl, F. Kok, C. van der
                      Schoor, J. Suurland, C. M. Wilson

Pakistan:             Ahmad Kamal, Khalid Aziz Babar, Syad Mansur Raza

Papua New Guinea:     Utula U. Samana, Max H. Rai, Kappa Yarka, Adam V.
                      Delaney, Chalapan Kaluwin, Gerald Miles

Peru:                 Fernando Guille'n, Elvira Vela'squez, Ana Pen~a, Italo
                      Acha, Patricia Iturregui

Philippines:          Cielito F. Habito, Felipe Mabilangan, Cecilia B. Rebong,
                      Cecile J. Yasay, Leonora Gonzales, Jose Miguel de la
                      Rosa, Manuel S. Gaspay, Robert Jara, Glenn F. Corpin,
                      Roquena Domingo, Roger Birosel, Patricia Ma. Araneta,
                      Hillarin Manaog, Luis Corral, Doreen Carla E. Erfe,
                      Ma. Lourdes M. Lagarde, Ronald Oblepias,
                      Evan Oliver Eleazar, Ramon Fernan

Poland:               Stanislaw Zelichowski, Mieczyslaw S. Ostojski,
                      Czeslaw Wieckowski, Bronislawa Kowalak, Joanna Wronecka,
                      Mark Maciejowski, Anna Raduchowska-Brochwicz

Russian               Victor Ivanovich Danilov-Danilyan, Z. A. Yakobashvili, 
Federation:           Nikolai Vasilievich Chulkov,
                      Aleksandr Michailovich Gudima,
                      Vacilii Alekseyevich Nebenzya,
                      Nadejda Victorovna Kolokolchikova,
                      Aleksandr Anatolevich Pankin,
                      Aleksandr Vasilyevich Davidenko,
                      Nikolai Pavlovich Ovsyenko, V. G. Fedorenko, A. I.
                      Melech

Saudi Arabia:         Mohamed S. Al-Sabban, Abdul Rashid Nawab,
                      Abdullah N. Al-Sarhan, Saad Mohd. S. Mohalfi, Sameer
                      Ghzi, Khalid Abu Aleif, Abdul Salam Emam, Mohammed
                      Al-Kelabi, Abdullsalam-Baker Emmam

Senegal:              Abdoulaye Bathily, Ibra Degue`ne Ka, Mbaye Indoye,
                      Oumar Demba Ba, Abdourahmane Samb

Spain:                Cristina Narbona, Juan Antonio Ya'n~ez-Barnuevo,
                      Arturo Gonzalo, Arturo LaClaustra, Alicia Montalvo,
                      Mari'a Jose' Go'mez, Carlos Domi'nguez, Amparo Rambla,
                      Miguel Aguirre de Ca'rcer, Santiago Go'mez-Acebo,
                      Roma'n Marti'n, Jesu's Miranda, Antonio Novas

Sweden:               Anna Lindh, Peter Osvald, Bo Kjelle'n, Henrik Salander,
                      Sture Persson, Svante Bodin, Lennarth Hjelm†ker,
                      Michael Odevall, Susanne Jacobsson, Eva Frankell,
                      Carina Ericksson, Ulf Ottoson, Karin Sjo"lin, Rolf
                      ¸kesson, Per Enarsson, Marie Sargren, Per Erik Boivie,
                      Linn Persson

Switzerland:          Ruth Dreifuss, Jean-Franc'ois Giovannini,
                      Monika Linn Locher, Bernard Perrin, Urs Herren,
                      Rolf Stalder, Christian Risch, Livia Leu

Thailand:             Kasem Snidvongs, Asda Jayanama, Sunthad Somchevita,
                      Surapong Posayanond, Saksit Tridech,
                      Suphavit Piamphongsant, Boonlert Phasuk,
                      Apichai Chvajarernpun, Sa-nguan Kakhong,
                      Orapin Wongchumpit, Chaipat Rojahavipart,
                      Manop Mekprayoonthong, Wanee Chetsuttayangul,
                      Manopchai Vongphakdi, Wanna Tanunchaiwatana

Uganda:

Ukraine:              Yuri I. Kostenko, Anatoli M. Zlenko, Anatoli P.
                      Dembitsky, Olexandr I. Zakrevsky, Volodymyr M.
                      Reshetnyak

United Kingdom of     John Gummer, John Weston, Stephen Gomersall, Ann Grant, 
Great Britain and     Alan Davies, Dinah Nichols, Tom Burke, Alan Simcock, 
Northern Ireland:     Peter Unwin, David Lyscom, Victoria Harris, Brian
                      Oliver, Chris Tompkins, Peter Dearden, Donald MacLaren,
                      Michael Massey, Mark Hammond, Vernon Smith, Trevor
                      Harvey, Felix Dodds, John Harman

United Republic       Daudi N. Mwakawago, K. E. Kamando
of Tanzania:

United States         Mark G. Hambley***, Timothy E. Wirth****, 
of America:           Eileen Claussen, R. Tucker Scully, Adela Backiel,
                      Rick Bradley, Donald Brown, Alan Hecht, George
                      Herrfurth, Thomas Laughlin, John P. McGuinness, Alan
                      Sielen, Bisa Williams-Manigault, John Wilson, Norine
                      Kennedy, Sharyle Patton

Venezuela:            Lui's Castro Morales, Oscar de Rojas, Miguel Alvarez
                      Di'az, Jean Francois Pulvenis, Beatriz Pineda, Mari'a
                      Rincones, Lui's Nin~o, Gonzalo Vivas, Carmen Velasquez,
                      Jacnedine Dordelly, Evelyn Bravo

Zimbabwe:             Chen Chimutengwe, Ngoni Sengwe, Pearson Chigiji,
                      Alfred Mutiwazuka, Moses D. Munemo


         States Members of the United Nations represented by observers

     Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Austria, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cape
Verde, Chile, Congo, Costa Rica, Co^te d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji, Greece, Guatemala,
Haiti, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Jamaica, Kazakstan, Kenya, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mali,
Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Panama, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Samoa, Slovakia,
Slovenia, South Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad
and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey


                       Entities represented by observers

     European Community


                                United Nations

     Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations
Children's Fund


                Specialized agencies and related organizations

     International Labour Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization, International Civil Aviation Organization, International
Monetary Fund, World Meteorological Organization, International Maritime
Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization,
International Atomic Energy Agency


           Intergovernmental organizations represented by observers

     Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation, Commonwealth Secretariat,
League of Arab States, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development,
Organization of African Unity


                        Non-governmental organizations

     Category I:  International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

     Category II:  Coordinating Board of Jewish Organizations, International
Council of Scientific Unions, International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources, National Wildlife Federation

     Roster:  Caribbean Conservation Association, Friends of the Earth,
International Ocean Institute

     Other non-governmental organizations:  Environnement et de'veloppement
du tiersmonde (ENDA), Kenya Energy and Environment Organizations, Netherlands
National Committee for IUCN, Pan African Movement, United Nations Association
of Sweden in Stockholm


                                     Notes

     *   From 18 to 28 April.

    **   From 29 April to 3 May.

   ***   From 18 to 30 April.

  ****   From 1 to 3 May.


                                   Annex II

         LIST OF DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE COMMISSION AT ITS FOURTH SESSION


Document symbol          Agenda item             Title or description

E/CN.17/1996/1             2             Provisional agenda

E/CN.17/1996/2             9             Report of the High-level Advisory
                                         Board on Sustainable Development on
                                         its fourth session

E/CN.17/1996/3             6             Protection of the oceans, all kinds
of 
and Add.1                                seas, including enclosed and
                                         semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas
                                         and the protection, rational use and
                                         development of their living
                                         resources:  report of the Secretary-
                                         General

E/CN.17/1996/4             4             Financial resources and mechanisms
for 
and Add.1                                sustainable development:  overview of
                                         current issues and developments: 
                                         report of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/5             3 and 4       Changing consumption and production 
and Add.1                                patterns:  report of the Secretary-
                                         General

E/CN.17/1996/6             6 (a)         Report of the Ad Hoc Inter-sessional
                                         Working Group on Sectoral Issues

E/CN.17/1996/7             3 and 4       Report of the Ad Hoc Inter-sessional
                                         Working Group on Finance and Changing
                                         Consumption and Production Patterns

E/CN.17/1996/8             3             Trade, environment and sustainable
and Add.1                                development:  report of the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/9             3             Combating poverty:  report of the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/10            3             Demographic dynamics and 
and Corr.1 and Add.1                     sustainability:  report of the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/11            5             Integrating environment and
development
and Add.1                                in decision-making:  report of the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/12            5             Role of major groups in
                                         implementation of Agenda 21:  report
                                         of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/13            5             Transfer of environmentally sound 
and Add.1                                technologies, cooperation and
                                         capacity-building:  report of the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/14            5             Promoting education, public awareness
and Add.1                                and training:  report of the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/15            5             Capacity-building for sustainable
                                         development:  report of the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/16            5             Institutional arrangements to follow
                                         up the United Nations Conference on
                                         Environment and Development:  report
                                         of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/17            5             International legal instruments and 
and Add.1                                mechanisms:  report of the Secretary-
                                         General

E/CN.17/1996/18            5             Information for decision-making:  
and Add.1                                report of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/19            5             National information:  report of the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/20            7             Sustainable development of coastal
                                         areas, tourism, energy resources, air
                                         transport, maritime transport,
                                         telecommunications, and management of
                                         natural and environmental disasters
                                         in small island developing States: 
                                         report of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.1      7             Management of natural and
                                         environmental disasters in small
                                         island developing States:  report of
                                         the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.2      7             Sustainable development of energy
                                         resources in small island developing
                                         States:  report of the Secretary-
                                         General

E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.3      7             Sustainable tourism development in
                                         small island developing States: 
                                         report of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.4      7             Maritime transport in small island
                                         developing States:  report of the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.5      7             Sustainable development of air
                                         transport in small island developing
                                         States:  report of the Secretary-
                                         General

E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.6      7             Development of communications in    
and Corr.1                               small island developing States: 
                                         report of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.7      7             Coastal area management in small
                                         island developing States:  report of
                                         the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/21            7             Current donor activities in support
                                         of sustainable development in small
                                         island developing States:  report of
                                         the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/22            6             Protection of the atmosphere:  report
and Add.1                                of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/23            6             Letter dated 1 February 1996 from the
                                         Permanent Representatives of Brazil
                                         and of the United Kingdom of Great
                                         Britain and Northern Ireland to the
                                         United Nations addressed to the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/24            6             Report of the Ad Hoc
                                         Intergovernmental Panel on Forests on
                                         its second session

E/CN.17/1996/25            9             Preparing for the 1997 special
                                         session of the General Assembly: 
                                         report of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/26            6 (c)         Progress in the implementation of the
                                         decisions and recommendations made by
                                         the Commission at its third session: 
                                         report of the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/27            3             Letter dated 19 December 1995 from
                                         the Charge' d'affaires a.i. of the
                                         Permanent Mission of the Republic of
                                         Korea to the United Nations addressed
                                         to the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/28            4             Note verbale dated 1 March 1996 from
                                         the Permanent Representative of Japan
                                         to the United Nations addressed to
                                         the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/29            6 (a)         Note verbale dated 29 February 1996
                                         from the Permanent Representative of
                                         Japan to the United Nations addressed
                                         to the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/30             3            Note verbale dated 8 March 1996 from
                                         the Permanent Representative of
                                         Malaysia to the United Nations
                                         addressed to the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/31             9            Report of the High-level Advisory
                                         Board on Sustainable Development on
                                         its fifth session

E/CN.17/1996/32             6 (b)        Progress report of the Ad Hoc
                                         Intergovernmental Panel on Forests: 
                                         note by the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/33             3            Note verbale dated 8 April 1996 from
                                         the Permanent Mission of the United
                                         States of America to the United
                                         Nations addressed to the Secretariat
                                         of the United Nations

E/CN.17/1996/34             3            Letter dated 28 February 1996 from
                                         the Charge' d'affaires a.i. of the
                                         Permanent Mission of the Netherlands
                                         to the United Nations and the Charge'
                                         d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent
                                         Observer Mission of Switzerland to
                                         the United Nations addressed to the
                                         Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/35             3            Letter dated 18 April 1996 from the
                                         Permanent Representative of the
                                         Netherlands to the United Nations
                                         addressed to the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/36             3            Letter dated 19 April 1996 from the
                                         Minister of Environment of Norway
                                         addressed to the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/37             8            Proposals for the medium-term plan
                                         for the period 1998-2001:  note by
                                         the Secretary-General

E/CN.17/1996/L.1            3            Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Demographic dynamics and
                                         sustainability"

E/CN.17/1996/L.2            3            Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Combating poverty"

E/CN.17/1996/L.3           11            Draft report of the Commission on its
                                         fourth session

E/CN.17/1996/L.4           10            Draft provisional agenda for the
                                         fifth session of the Commission

E/CN.17/1996/L.5            8            Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Matters related to the
                                         inter-sessional work of the
                                         Commission"

E/CN.17/1996/L.6            3            Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Information provided by Governments
                                         and organizations"

E/CN.17/1996/L.7            5 (c)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Major groups"

E/CN.17/1996/L.8            5 (b)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "International institutional
                                         arrangements"

E/CN.17/1996/L.9            5 (a)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Promoting education, public
                                         awareness and training"

E/CN.17/1996/L.10           5 (a)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "National mechanisms and
                                         international cooperation for
                                         capacity-building in developing
                                         countries"

E/CN.17/1996/L.11           5 (b)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Integrating environment and
                                         development in decision-making"

E/CN.17/1996/L.12           5 (b)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Information for decision-making"

E/CN.17/1996/L.13           5 (b)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "International legal instruments and
                                         mechanisms"

E/CN.17/1996/L.14           5 (a)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Transfer of environmentally sound
                                         technologies, cooperation and
                                         capacity-building"

E/CN.17/1996/L.15           3            Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Trade, environment and sustainable
                                         development"

E/CN.17/1996/L.16           3            Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Changing production and consumption
                                         patterns"

E/CN.17/1996/L.17           7            Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Review of the implementation of the
                                         Programme of Action for the
                                         Sustainable Development of Small
                                         Island Developing States"

E/CN.17/1996/L.18           4            Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Financial resources and mechanisms"

E/CN.17/1996/L.19           6 (a)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Institutional arrangements for the
                                         implementation of the Global
                                         Programme of Action for the
                                         Protection of the Marine Environment
                                         from Land-based Activities"

E/CN.17/1996/L.20           6 (a)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "International cooperation and
                                         coordination"

E/CN.17/1996/L.21           6 (a)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Protection of the atmosphere and
                                         protection of the oceans and all
                                         kinds of seas"

E/CN.17/1996/L.22           6 (a)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Implementation of international
                                         fishery instruments"

E/CN.17/1996/L.23           6 (a)        Draft decision submitted by the
                                         Chairman of the Commission entitled
                                         "Protection of the oceans, all kinds
                                         of seas, including enclosed and
                                         semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas
                                         and the protection, rational use and
                                         development of their living
                                         resources"



                                   Annex III

              PROGRAMME BUDGET IMPLICATIONS OF DRAFT DECISION I*

                     (*  See chapter I, section B, above.)


1.   Under the terms of the draft decision contained in the report of the
Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests, the Commission would recommend that
the Economic and Social Council approve the request of the Panel to hold its
third session at Geneva from 9 to 20 September 1996 and its fourth session in
New York for a period of two weeks in 1997.  It would also approve the Panel's
request that provision be made so that the two in-sessional working groups it
intends to establish during its third and fourth sessions can meet
simultaneously.

2.   It will be recalled that the calendar of conferences and meetings
approved by the General Assembly for the biennium 1996-1997 provides for
10 days (or 20 meetings) for the third session and 5 days (or 10 meetings) for
the fourth session.  In accordance with General Assembly resolutions 40/243,
49/221 A and 50/206, both sessions would be held in New York, the headquarters
of the Commission and the Panel.

3.   Should the Commission adopt the draft decision, the programme budget
implications would be as follows:

     (a) In respect of the third session of the Panel:  a change of venue
from New York to Geneva (which would entail an exception to General Assembly
resolutions 40/243, 49/221 A and 50/206) and the holding of 20 additional
meetings to accommodate the two working groups.  The full cost of the
conference services associated with these arrangements is estimated at
$144,900.  However, actual costs should be somewhat lower owing to the
availability of established capacity at Geneva.  Related additional
substantive servicing costs for the third session are estimated at
approximately $40,000.

     (b) In respect of the fourth session, 30 additional meetings for the
Panel and its two working groups in New York, the full cost of which is
estimated at $210,200.

‰   As regards the implications for the third session, the attention of the
Commission is drawn to section V of the report of the Panel, which contains a
statement by the representative of Switzerland at the second session of the
Panel regarding the financial contribution that the Government of Switzerland
would make to cover the additional costs resulting from both the change of
venue and the additional meetings of the working groups for the third session
in Geneva.  Following consultations between the Secretariat and the Government
of Switzerland, it has been ascertained that the Government of Switzerland
will be prepared to contribute up to $130,000.  Under the circumstances and
bearing in mind the confirmation of the availability of voluntary
contributions to meet the substantive servicing costs, it has been determined
that there would be no regular budget implications arising from the proposed
arrangement for the third session.

5.   As regards the additional amount of $210,200 that would be required for
the extension of the fourth session of the Panel in New York, it should be
recalled that in adopting the programme budget for the biennium 1996-1997, the
General Assembly decided that savings of $103.9 million were to be achieved in
the programme budget during the biennium.  Under the circumstances, it is not
possible at the present stage to modify the calendar of conferences.  The
possibility of accommodating within existing budgetary provisions additional
meetings for the fourth session of the Panel will be reviewed at the
fifty-first session of the General Assembly.


                              -----

 


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Date last posted: 3 December 1999 10:25:35
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