United Nations

E/1995/25
E/C.13/1995/2


Economic and Social Council

 Distr. GENERAL
6 April 1995
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


Substantive session of 1995


      REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON NEW AND RENEWABLE SOURCES
         OF ENERGY AND ON ENERGY FOR DEVELOPMENT ON ITS
                        SPECIAL SESSION*

                      (6-17 February 1995)

    *   The present document is a mimeographed version of the report of the
Committee on New and Renewable Sources of Energy and on Energy for Development
on its special session.  The final report will be issued as Official Records
of the Economic and Social Council, 1995, Supplement No. 5 (E/1995/25).


                            CONTENTS

Chapter                                                               Page

 I.  MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
     COUNCIL ...........................................................3

II.  ENERGY FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT ......................................5

     A.  Recommendations of the Committee on New and Renewable Sources
         of Energy and on Energy for Development to the Commission on
         Sustainable Development .......................................5

     B.  Introduction ..................................................6

     C.  Energy for rural development ..................................6

     D.  Energy options ................................................10

     E.  Constraints to market penetration .............................18

     F.  A strategy for sustainable rural energy development ...........19

III. ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSION .......................................26

     A.  Opening and duration of the session ...........................26

     B.  Attendance ....................................................26

     C.  Election of officers ..........................................27

     D.  Agenda ........................................................27

     E.  Consideration of agenda items 2 to 5 ..........................27

     F.  Adoption of the report of the Committee on its special 
         session .......................................................28


                            Chapter I

           MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC
                       AND SOCIAL COUNCIL


    The Committee on New and Renewable Sources of Energy and on Energy for
Development was unable to complete the consideration of items 3 (Biomass for
energy) and 4 (Development of energy resources in developing countries) at
its special session and decided to consider them at its second session.  The
Committee therefore recommends to the Economic and Social Council the adoption
of the following draft decision, revising the provisional agenda for the
second session of the Committee, which was approved by the Council in
decision 1994/310:


     Report of the Committee on New and Renewable Sources of
     Energy and on Energy for Development on its special    
     session and provisional agenda and documentation for   
               the second session of the Committee

    The Economic and Social Council:

    (a) Takes note of the report of the Committee on New and Renewable
Sources of Energy and on Energy for Development on its special session;

    (b) Approves the revised provisional agenda for the second session of
the Committee set out below.


       PROVISIONAL AGENDA AND DOCUMENTATION FOR THE SECOND
       SESSION OF THE COMMITTEE ON NEW AND RENEWABLE      
       SOURCES OF ENERGY AND ON ENERGY FOR DEVELOPMENT    

1.  Election of officers.

2.  Adoption of the agenda and organization of work.

3.  Follow-up to the first and special sessions of the Committee.

    Documentation

    Report of the Secretary-General on the follow-up to the first and special
    sessions of the Committee

4.  Energy and sustainable development:

    (a) Renewable sources of energy, with special emphasis on biomass: 
        progress, policies and coordination;

    (b) Development of energy resources in developing countries;

        Documentation

        Report of the Secretary-General containing an update of energy
        exploration and development trends in developing countries

    (c) Energy and protection of the atmosphere.

        Documentation

        Report of the Secretary-General on energy and protection of the
        atmosphere

5.  Medium-term planning and coordination in energy.

6.  Other matters.

7.  Provisional agenda for the third session of the Committee.

8.  Adoption of the report of the Committee on its second session.



                           Chapter II

                  ENERGY FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT


        A.  Recommendations of the Committee on New and Renewable Sources
            of Energy and on Energy for Development to the Commission on
            Sustainable Development

1.  The Commission on Sustainable Development is requested to invite all
States, entities within the United Nations system, other intergovernmental
organizations and non-governmental organizations to consider, as appropriate,
the following actions, on a priority basis:

    (a) Not later than the year 2000, States that do not have national plans
of action on energy for sustainable agriculture and rural development should
review the energy situation in their rural areas and formulate as well as
launch the implementation of such plans, following the suggestions of the
Committee contained in the present report;

    (b) In such national plans of action, special attention should be given
to the sustainable development and efficient use of biomass as a source of
energy.  This implies, inter alia, promotion of the sustainable production of
biomass for fuel and electricity and promotion of energy efficiency at both
household and agro-industrial levels;

    (c) Before the year 2000, a global initiative should be launched by the
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank, the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) and other interested organizations with the support
of donor countries in order to facilitate the efforts of the developing
countries to develop and implement a massive effort to bring electric power to
the people in rural and isolated areas, based on successes already achieved in
renewable energy technologies, such as photovoltaic, wind and mini-hydro;

    (d) Before the year 2000, a global initiative should be launched by the
World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations (FAO), UNDP, the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) and other interested organizations, with the support of donor
countries, to set up a combined programme to achieve detailed mapping of the
potential of renewable energy sources, focusing on solar, wind and hydropower,
as well as land resources for biomass energy, in order to facilitate the
efforts of developing countries in those areas;

    (e) To promote capacity-building, and with the help of donor countries,
there should be established, on the initiative of the United Nations, a
network of centres of excellence for environmentally sound energy technologies
with a focus on energy and material efficiency improvement and on the
development and demonstration of renewable energy sources.  In order to
accomplish this, existing national centres may be enhanced or, where needed,
new centres of excellence created with the aim of achieving a regional role
for each of them;

    (f) To significantly advance energy for sustainable development and to
stimulate coordination in energy, the United Nations should study in-depth
ways and means of strengthening institutional arrangements within the United
Nations system, including the possible establishment of a dedicated
institution.


                        B.  Introduction

2.  The Committee welcomed the opportunity provided by the Economic and
Social Council in its decision 1994/309 to hold a special session in order to
provide advice on energy for rural development to the Commission on
Sustainable Development at its third session (11-28 April 1995).  The
Committee noted that the objectives of programme area K, (Rural energy
transition to enhance productivity) of chapter 14 (Promoting sustainable
agriculture and rural development) of Agenda 21 1/ were:

    (a) Not later than the year 2000, to initiate and encourage a process of
environmentally sound energy transition in rural communities, from
unsustainable energy sources to structured and diversified energy sources, by
making available alternative new and renewable sources of energy;

    (b) To increase the energy inputs available for rural household and
agro-industrial needs through planning and appropriate technology transfer and
development;

    (c) To implement self-reliant rural programmes favouring sustainable
development of renewable energy sources and improved energy efficiency.

3.  The Committee noted that adequate energy inputs were required for
raising standards of living and the productivity of human labour and for
income-generation in rural areas in developing countries.  To this end, rural
energy policies and technologies should promote a mix of cost-effective
options to improve the efficiency of energy consumption and the utilization of
fossil and renewable energy sources.

4.  During its deliberations, the Committee was keenly aware of the enormity
of the problem and the great effort already made by many countries for the
provision of energy to rural areas.  Such an effort, however, had to be
strengthened in the future.  The Committee's recommendations therefore focused
on the imperative for substantial action.  In order to initiate and encourage
the process called for in Agenda 21, the Committee concentrated on
recommendations for sustainable energy in the rural areas of developing
countries, including small island developing States, as appropriate.


                C.  Energy for rural development

             1.  Major problems of rural development

5.  Rural development is the process of improving the welfare of rural
peoples. This process has multiple facets, including social, economic and
cultural ones.  One of the more important of these is the raising of
agricultural productivity. In the developed countries, economic development
and industrialization were accompanied by enhanced agricultural productivity,
leading to increased supplies of food and agricultural commodities.  The
resulting release of agricultural labour led to migration from rural areas,
which provided the workers needed for the establishment and growth of the
manufacturing sector and associated service industries.

6.  These trends are also visible in a number of developing countries.  The
absolute value of agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) has been
increasing, while its share of national GDP has been declining.  During the
period 1970-1990, the value of agricultural output increased from $224 billion
to $521 billion (1990 United States dollars), while its share of GDP declined
from 24 per cent to 17 per cent.

7.  The population of the world is expected to increase from the current
5.7 billion to 8.5 billion by the year 2025.  In the developing world, the
population is expected to increase from 4.5 billion to 7 billion during the
same time period.  The rural population would remain constant at around 3
billion.  This means that about 90 per cent of the world's population growth
will occur in the developing countries.  Driven by the demand from a rapidly
expanding urban population and by the need to improve the standard of living
of rural people in developing countries, pressures for much higher
agricultural output for both food and other commodities will increase
substantially.

8.  The Committee noted with concern that per capita income and productivity
in the rural areas of the developing world remained low and that poverty was
rampant.  Income from agriculture was only $300 per capita.  Numerous and
often grave institutional shortcomings and the lack of basic infrastructure,
such as energy and water supplies, transport and communications, all
contributed to the problems faced by rural areas.


               2.  The importance of energy in solving problems of
                   rural development

9.  Although energy is not the only relevant factor for rural development,
it is one of the prerequisites for improved agricultural and rural industrial
productivity.  The availability of energy has been vitally important in
several successful efforts to improve productivity in agriculture.  In India
and other developing countries, it was found that modern energy in the form of
electric and diesel pumps - in combination with other essential conditions -
raised agricultural output by promoting innovation and making expansion of
irrigation possible.

10. Energy also has a vital role to play in meeting the basic needs of rural
households, such as lighting, and in improving the standard of living. 
Increased energy supplies can accelerate programmes related to water supply,
health care, education, entertainment and communications.  Through rural
development, energy can also reduce the migration of people from rural to
urban areas.


 3.  Present status and recent trends in rural energy conversion

11. Rural areas in the developing countries are, for the most part,
dependent on draught animal power and traditional fuels, such as fuelwood and
agricultural and animal wastes, for both household needs and their chief
source of income, subsistence agriculture.  Fuelwood use probably averages
less than one cubic metre a year per capita.  The efficiency of the conversion
of the chemical energy of such materials to heat often runs only a few
percentage points.  Generally, income level is the most important variable
governing the usage of these fuels.  In some rural contexts, however,
traditional fuels are garnered outside of market mechanisms.  In these
situations, their utilization is strongly influenced by the size of the
population.  Since population growth has been high in such regions, so too has
the growth in the use of such fuels.

12. The concentration on fuelwood in the energy conversion pattern of
developing countries has contributed to the progressive deforestation of rural
regions and a worsening of shortages of energy raw materials.  In addition,
considerable problems of air pollution from the unrestricted burning of such
materials have arisen.

13. More modern technologies also play an important role in the rural energy
usage of some developing countries.  Coal and lignite are burned for space
heating in the rural areas of many countries, liquefied petroleum gas and
kerosene are used for cooking and lighting, diesel oil for operating internal
combustion engines and coal and heavy fuel oil for industrial boiler and
furnace firing.  Coal, crude oil, residual fuel oil, and natural gas are
employed for firing boilers associated with steam turbine electricity-
generating plants when these are found in such areas.  Hydropower is also
available in many countries.

14. It is estimated that during the period 1970-1990, developing countries
provided electricity to an additional 1.25 billion people in both urban and
rural areas.  Despite this very considerable effort, out of about 4 billion
people in the developing world, nearly 2 billion, mostly in rural areas, are
still without electricity.  Most of the increase in people serviced with
electricity was brought about by extension of the electricity grid.  Recently,
however, a variety of modern renewable energy sources have been called upon to
contribute to rural energy supplies as well.  Although these represent a
rather small fraction of the total energy supply of the rural areas in
developing countries at present, they offer good opportunities for
considerable expansion of application and are discussed at length in section D
below.


      4.  Present pattern of energy services in rural areas

15. Energy in the countryside, like energy in cities, is used to provide two
broad classes of services - namely, as inputs into production processes and as
objects of direct consumption by households.  Thus, five broad classes of
end-users can be identified:  individual households, agriculture, trade and
industry, community services and transport.  The applications and conversion
technologies associated with the various groups are shown in table 1.

16. Research has shown that in Africa, Latin America and Asia, 80 per cent
of total rural energy consumption is absorbed by households (mainly for the
preparation of food); 15 per cent is used for agriculture, trade and
industries; and 5 per cent is consumed for transportation.


        Table 1.  Present rural energy needs and services

______________________________________________________________________________
                                                   Source/conversion
 Consumer group             Application            technology
______________________________________________________________________________

 Individual households      Cooking                Wood, organic wastes

                            Heating                Wood, organic wastes

                            Cooling                Kerosene/gas
                                                   refrigerators, generator
                                                   sets, electricity

                            Lighting               Candles, kerosene, gas,
                                                   batteries, sometimes
                                                   electricity

                            Radio/TV               Batteries, sometimes
                                                   generator sets, electricity

 Agriculture                Tilling/mechanization  Animal/human power/liquid
                                                   fuel

                            Irrigation             Animal/human power,
                                                   diesel- or electric pumps

 Trade and industry         Lighting               Kerosene, gas, generator
                                                   sets, electricity

                            Cooling                Kerosene/gas refrigerators,
                                                   electricity

                            Shaft power            Generator sets, human
                                                   power, sometimes
                                                   electricity

                            Process heat           Wood, biomass residues,
                                                   coal or bunker fuel

 Community services         Lighting               Kerosene, gas, generator
                                                   sets, electricity

                            Drinking water supply  Mechanical/electrical pumps

                            Telecommunication      Diesel generator sets,
                                                   electricity

 Transport                  Moving goods           Liquid fuel, animal power
                            and persons
______________________________________________________________________________


    Source:  Based on information provided by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fu"r
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, 1992.


      5.  Future patterns of energy services in rural areas

17. Looking to the future, if overall rural development is to proceed in the
developing countries, then final energy conversion in productive uses must
grow more rapidly than conversion in direct consumption by households.  It
should be emphasized that relative growth rates are being discussed here. 
Given the very low levels of per capita energy consumption in rural households
in the developing countries at present, the absolute rise in residential
energy consumption needs to be very rapid simply to satisfy basic human needs.
However, a concomitant condition - indeed, a virtual prerequisite - is that
the rate of increase of productive employment of energy be even more rapid. 
This condition is a practical necessity in order to support a rate of growth
of income adequate to provide the means to pay for the rapid expansion of
residential energy consumption.

18. Shifts in the composition of aggregate output, along with changes in the
relative magnitudes of the energy intensities associated with the various
productive sectors, will determine the overall energy intensity of the
production of goods and services in the developing countries over the next two
decades.  Developing countries need not accept long-run changes in product
composition simply for reasons of reducing the overall energy intensity of
aggregate production.  The energy intensities of the various productive
sectors are a different matter.  They can be reduced by investment in the
enhancement of the physical efficiency of energy conversion.  The latter can,
in turn, be promoted by judicious policy measures.  Such measures are outlined
in section F below.

19. However, not only will the pattern of energy end-use in developing
countries change in the future, but the type of energy source utilized will
also be transformed.  Thus, as income rises in the developing countries in the
future, there will be further substitution of fossil fuels for traditional
ones, and sustainable policies should lead to leap-frogging towards an
appropriate mix of fossil and renewable sources.  Appropriate farming
practices have to be applied to enhance and maintain high levels of
productivity in the long term and to avoid or reduce the very large direct and
indirect energy input historically used in developed countries for crop
production.


                       D.  Energy options

               1.  Energy and material efficiency

20. The potential contribution of improved efficiency in meeting growing
needs for energy services in a sustainable way in the rural areas of
developing countries can be substantial, especially at the point of end use,
by introducing new, efficient, low-polluting technologies and systems and by
upgrading existing, inefficient systems.

21. Coal and traditional fuels, such as fuelwood, charcoal, agro-waste and
dung, are burned directly as domestic fuel for cooking and space heating, as
well as for small-scale manufacturing processes carried out in rural areas. 
Inefficient technologies and low levels of technical and management skills
result in low efficiency of energy use (typically 5 per cent to 18 per cent
for cooking and water heating devices and stoves, depending on the fuel) and
heavy indoor and local air pollution.  Energy losses are high in utilization
of farm machinery, including pumps for irrigation.

22. With regard to successful modernization programmes, the 140 million
cookstoves project in China, as well as a similar programme in India already
covering 17 million stoves, which improved efficiency up to a factor of 2, is
worth noting.  Other relevant projects in developing countries, supported by
international institutions such as UNDP, FAO, GEF and the World Bank, aim at a
more efficient use of energy and energy-intensive materials and at the
recovery and recycling of materials through, for example the application of
energy-efficient building technologies and materials; the use of cassava waste
in biogas production; the recycling of paper, glass and other solid wastes;
the use of more efficient methods of charcoal production; the improvement and
tune-up of vehicles and agricultural machines; and the recovery of methane
from coal mines.

23. The challenge is to develop a strategy for facilitating and expediting
the transition to the use of efficient agro-technologies, as well as to an
appropriate mix of traditional, conventional and renewable sources of energy,
in rural communities and economic activities presenting a variety of
socio-economic settings.

24. The present dynamics of commercial energy consumption as represented by
the world-wide trend of energy intensity is not satisfactory.  In particular,
it is a matter of concern that the overall energy intensity in developing
countries taken as a whole continues to increase even beyond the peak values
reached in recent times by the more recently developed countries (see the
figure).  It is important to learn from past experiences and the opportunities
offered by technological progress.  Technological leapfrogging should be the
preferred option as it would avoid the use of obsolete technology and
encourage countries to adopt the best state-of-the-art technologies as part of
their development strategies.

25. A number of technologies for increasing energy efficiency are not only
available but also economically advantageous at today's energy prices.  The
priority is to accelerate the dissemination of these technologies by improving
information, enhancing education, promoting capacity-building, removing
regulatory, technical and legal barriers, facilitating credit, promoting the
market mechanism and, when necessary, adapting or developing technologies to
make them suitable to local conditions.

26. Technological improvements as well as demand side measures can apply to
all fields of utilization, including the domestic and service sectors,
industry, transportation, agriculture and power generation.  Policies oriented
to end-use, rather than the supply-oriented policies that prevail today, could
create opportunities for energy efficiency improvements.



   Commercial energy intensity (E/GNP ratio) in some countries
           and groups of countries:  historical trends

     (Kilograms of oil equivalent per 1,000 1975 US dollars)


                              GRAPH


     Source:  U. Colombo, "The role of environmentally sound technologies in
reducing greenhouse gas emissions", report prepared for the International
Symposium on Environmentally Sound Energy Technologies and Their Transfer to
Developing Countries and European Economies in Transition, Milan, Italy, 1991.



                         2.  Renewables

27. Renewable energy technologies can be applied in a variety of ways to
meet different types of final energy demand, as shown in table 2.


     Table 2.  Renewable energy technologies in rural areas

______________________________________________________________________________
Technology      Main applications       Local conditions     Energy form
______________________________________________________________________________

Biomass         Cooking, lighting       Steady supply of     Heat/electricity/
conversion      heating, transport,     organic waste and    liquid fuels
                power supplies          biomass products

Mini hydro      Decentralized power     Sufficient           Electricity/
                supplies, mechanical    continuous water     mechanical
                shaft power for         flow
                cutting, milling,
                pressing, etc.

Solar thermal   Water heating,          Regular solar        Heat/mechanical/
                cooking and drying      insolation           electricity
 
Photovoltaics   Decentralized power     Regular solar        Electricity
                supplies for            insolation
                pumping, lighting,
                telecommunication
                and cooling

Wind            Water pumping,          Regular wind         Mechanical/
                decentralized power     profile              electricity
                supplies

Geothermal      Greenhouse, heating,    Appropriate          Heat, electricity
                electricity supply      geological
                process heat            formations
______________________________________________________________________________

    Source:  Based on information provided by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fu"r
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, 1992.


28. Until now, the demand for rural electrification has generally been met
by the extension of the central grid or not at all.  Experience, however, has
shown the limitations of grid-based rural electrification programmes in
developing countries.  The provision of network electricity is often the most
costly form of energy supply in rural areas.  If its real costs were charged
to users, it would be unaffordable for most of them.  Therefore, an integrated
approach combining the provision of rural electrical services and economic
development is necessary.  It has been demonstrated that the present demand
for electricity can also be satisfied by a variety of other means, as
described below.

29. Experience gained from pilot and demonstration projects in several
developing countries shows that, in rural areas, renewable energy technologies
can constitute a technically reliable, economically viable and environmentally
friendly alternative.  Rural energy demand analyses show that a combination of
several energy technologies is often the best solution - for example,
photovoltaics for lighting, communication and water pumping purposes; biogas
for cooking, as well as solar cookers and coal, wood and charcoal burned in
energy-saving stoves; wind power for water-supply systems; diesel generator
sets for isolated village electrification; hydropower plants for electrical
and mechanical power supply.

30. Although there has been an increase in the development and utilization
of renewable sources of energy in some developing countries, on the whole the
rate of increase has been slow.

31. The utilization of renewable energy sources may have some environmental
impact but not comparable to that of fossil fuels.  The character and level of
the environmental impact will depend on the technologies used and, most
important, on the procedures and practices employed.  Generally, environmental
and health problems associated with the prudent use and design of modern
renewable energy technologies are much smaller than those associated with
conventional energy sources.  In particular, the use of most of the renewable
technologies that are currently recommended does not result in net greenhouse-
gas emissions, if adequate care is given to their deployment.

(a) Photovoltaic systems

32. Considerable progress has been made in the development and manufacture
of photovoltaic (PV) systems.  Cost reductions have been significant.  It is
widely expected that further technological development and mass production
could reduce costs even further, thereby making the systems cost-competitive
with other alternatives for wider applications.  In 1994 the total world PV
solar cell shipments were around 72 MW, 30 per cent of which was installed in
the developing countries.  Total PV solar cell shipments have quadrupled since
1985 and are currently valued at about $500 million a year.

33. Important PV-system configurations for rural electricity supply are
central-station village power supply systems; solar home systems; battery-
charging stations and portable solar lighting units.  The central-station
approach is more similar to the conventional option of setting up isolated
grids, fed by diesel-powered generators.  Thus, it also competes economically
with diesel-based systems and - depending on the specific site and condition
of use - can be cost-competitive, since the costs of electricity from small
diesel generator systems may range from $1 to $2 per kWh.  Solar home systems
provide only a basic electricity supply.  They do not compete with the classic
electrification options, but rather with lighting oil, kerosene, candles, dry-
cell batteries and car batteries.

34. The current market for PV is expected to increase dramatically if system
costs can be brought down to $5 per peak watt. 2/  The prospects of further
cost reductions, through technological research, are very promising.

35. Small domestic PV systems are now being used in some rural areas in
developing countries.  For example, 100,000 people in Indonesia are now served
by electricity through small systems totalling 700 kW in remote areas at an
average monthly cost of about $3.75 per household, approximately equivalent to
the previous outlay for kerosene, candles and batteries. 3/  A number of other
developing countries also have strong, if relatively small, programmes for the
supply of kits for television and lighting, in which private-sector
initiatives, including local manufacturing and assembly, have met with
encouraging results.  In many countries, such as Algeria, Brazil, China,
India, Morocco, the Philippines, Mexico, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe, PV use is
increasing, especially for telecommunications and street lighting, as well as
for domestic lighting and water pumping.  Village-level PV power plants of a
capacity in the range of 5-10 kW with their own distribution systems have been
installed in developing countries, notably Brazil, India, Indonesia and
Mexico.  In many instances these have proved successful in terms of operation
and maintenance at the village level, although there have been failures.

(b) Solar thermal energy conversion

36. Solar water-heating, solar drying and passive solar architecture are
mature and widespread technologies.  The market for solar water heaters is
largely commercial in many countries.  At least 3,000 MW (thermal) solar
collectors are installed world wide.  Solar drying is of significant
importance for post-harvest drying and thus reduction of serious losses of
agricultural and fish products.  Other interesting options are solar cooking,
sterilization, distillation, water desalination, refrigeration, solar process
heat and direct solar water pumping.

37. Solar thermal electricity systems are technology options which either
are not yet fully commercialized (parabolic dish, central receiver systems) or
are relatively cost-intensive technologies for rural and agricultural
development.  Parabolic trough systems have demonstrated their capability to
deliver power reliably to the grid.  Their electricity production costs at
present range from 13 to 20 United States cents per kWh.

(c) Wind energy

38. Wind energy can be used for electricity production, pumping and
mechanical power.  Large-scale electricity production (wind farms) has
received much attention and has achieved some notable success.  Globally
installed wind-turbine capacity reached nearly 4,000 MW in 1994.  That year,
the increase in global installation of wind turbines was of the order of 600
MW.  Among developing countries, Argentina, China, Egypt and India have
established some wind farm capacity and this is increasing.  In addition,
there are over 100,000 windmill battery chargers and nearly 1 million wind
pumps currently installed world wide, the latter serving mainly livestock and
village water supply.

39. The ultimate potential of wind energy on a global basis is considerably
higher than present world electricity production.  This energy source is,
however, site specific and intermittent.  Technological developments have
reduced costs by about 10 per cent a year during the past 15 years and
considerable expansion of capacity is expected in both developed and
developing countries.

(d) Biomass energy

40. In 1990, biomass accounted for at least 20 per cent of the total energy
consumed in developing countries, most of which is in rural areas - 20 per
cent in China, 33 per cent in Brazil and India, 50 per cent in Indonesia and
the Philippines and over 75 per cent in most African countries south of the
Sahara.  It is estimated that biomass consumption in developing countries in
1990 was equivalent to about 900 million tons of oil, for a total value of
$137 billion; this is 1.2 times the total oil consumed in the developing
countries the same year.  About 45 per cent of this biomass is wood (400
million tons of oil equivalent) which is used either directly or in the form
of charcoal, not always produced in a sustainable manner.  The rest is made up
of agricultural residues and animal wastes.  Biogas systems using other
biomass feeds, such as dung, have been introduced in some countries on a
massive and widespread scale but have had mixed results due to complex
sociocultural factors.  Biomass is also used to produce ethanol for
transportation fuel.  In Brazil, an extensive ethanol programme produced an
amount that corresponds to 4.5 million tons of oil equivalent from sugar cane
in 1992 at prices which would compete economically with crude oil priced at
$24 a barrel.  In some European countries, biomass accounts for 10 per cent to
15 per cent of primary energy consumption.

41. Research and development activities involving various aspects of biomass
production, conversion and energy use have increased over the past 10 years. 
Investigations of fast-growing species, soil-water species relationships,
harvesting techniques and equipment and conversion techniques (such as
gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction and carbonization) have taken place in
several countries, including some developing countries.  New developments in
ethanol production include the use of genetically engineered bacteria to
assimilate and ferment biomass.  A promising concept for the conversion of
biomass to electricity seems to be the biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine
plant.

42. According to some scenarios, sustainable biomass energy systems could be
the largest single contributor to global energy supply, providing from
17 per cent to 35 per cent of the total demand for primary energy in 2050. 
Such a development would not occur under "business as usual" conditions but
would derive from sustainability policies and technological advances with
regard to liquid, solid and gaseous fuel production from biomass.  Rural areas
should be viewed as both consumers and producers of sustainable energy.

43. Biomass production, conversion and utilization offer important
opportunities for rural employment, as exemplified by the 700,000 jobs created
by the Brazilian alcohol programme.  Biomass energy can serve as a basis for
local agro-industrial development, for rural energy services and for power to
the grid, as in the case of the sugar mills.  In industrialized countries, the
preservation of the social fabric of rural areas, where agricultural land set-
aside programmes are jeopardizing economic existence, could be enhanced by
replacing surplus agricultural production with energy crops.  Biomass energy
use can have a considerable impact on the local and global environment, such
as rehabilitation of degraded lands, production of organic fertilizers,
reduced emissions and treatment of wastes.  With proper inter-cropping and/or
multi-cropping techniques, biodiversity loss can be avoided.

44. In order to assess the viability of biomass energy systems, it is of the
utmost importance to review the constraints and barriers to their utilization.
Land availability for energy crops (forestry and agricultural) is a key point,
since competition with land for food production should be avoided.  Various
assessments have been made in this respect, considering population and food
production projections, yield trends, water availability and currently
available degraded land, which amounts to around 700 million hectares.  A
study of the area under cultivation in 91 countries has shown that the present
706 million hectares will increase to 1,059 million by the year 2025, which
represents only 40 per cent of the potential cropland.  Nevertheless, at the
regional level, Asia (without China) would have a deficit of 47 million
hectares, while Africa and Latin America would have, respectively, 75 per cent
and 77 per cent of their cropland still available.  Detailed studies are being
carried out in many countries, which will give a clearer picture of the
availability of land for energy crops.  Land and product ownership issues and
legislation must also be taken into account.

(e) Hydropower

45. In terms of energy output, large-scale hydro energy is second only to
biomass among renewable sources of energy.  The economic development potential
at current oil prices is estimated to be equivalent to present world
electricity consumption.  A great part of this potential is located in
developing countries.  In 1992 hydroelectric installed capacity represented
about 23 per cent of all generating plants world wide.  Small-scale hydropower
stations (under 10 MW) contributed approximately 4 per cent to that total
production in 1991.  The experience of China is an example of the widespread
use of mini hydropower plants.  As an efficient form of rural energy, small
and mini hydropower plants have been playing an important role in the process
of achieving rural electrification in China.  At the end of 1992, total
capacity in mini plants (under 20 kW) was 215 MW; they provided electric power
to 591,000 families living in rural areas.  Moreover, by the end of 1993,
there were 60,000 small and mini hydropower stations in operation with a total
capacity of over 17 GW, accounting for 10 per cent of China's total electric
generation.

46. A number of large-scale hydro developments in developing countries are
multipurpose:  for electricity generation, irrigation, flood control and
fishing.  As a result many rural areas in those countries have benefited from
such schemes.  The development of small-scale hydropower resources can spur
rural development, given their short gestation period, lower total capital
requirements, and use indigenous capabilities.  Small-scale hydropower
resources do not require the same large infrastructure for exploitation.  They
have a large potential but are little surveyed.

(f) Other renewable energy sources

47. There are other renewable sources, such as geothermal, tidal, ocean
thermal, wave energy and salinity gradient.  While geothermal resources have
been used in a number of countries - for example, China, El Salvador, India,
Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico and the Philippines, their potential for rural areas
is limited in the foreseeable future.  Similarly, tidal, ocean thermal,
salinity gradient and wave energy are expected to have hardly any practical
applications in the near future, especially in the rural areas.


                        3.  Fossil fuels

48. The share of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) in the rural energy
picture differs widely among developing countries because of a variety of
factors, including levels of development, land quality, density of population
and availability of indigenous energy resources.  Coal is widely used in
China, India and a number of other developing countries, as well as in
countries with economies in transition.  Natural gas is less widely used
although several developing countries have recently initiated programmes with
considerable investments in expanding natural gas distribution systems but
mainly for urban areas.  Oil products, such as kerosene, liquefied petroleum
gas and motor fuels, are used in households as well as in agriculture,
agro-industries and transportation.

49. Fossil fuels, especially coal and oil and more recently natural gas, are
widely used for electricity generation for both urban and rural areas. 
Isolated rural electrification plants are mostly based on diesel oil.

50. Economic development and increasing per capita incomes in rural areas
may be expected to be accompanied by substantial increases in the consumption
of fossil fuels not only in modernized agriculture and transportation but also
in households, especially if prices in real terms remain as low as in recent
years.

51. While efforts will have to be directed towards the application of more
efficient and environmentally sound technologies for the reduction of
pollution from such fuels at the exploration, production, transportation and
utilization stages, their increased utilization may well have positive
environmental benefits through slowing down some deforestation and
desertification.

52. By the year 2020, according to the scenario contained in the report of
the Secretary-General on changing global energy patterns (E/C.13/1994/2, table
4), the share of the developing countries in world-wide fossil fuel
consumption, which is currently estimated at 26 per cent, may reach 48 per
cent.  Most of this increase will be in urban areas, where most of the
population growth will occur, with consequent heavy demands on food and energy
supplies in the form of wood and charcoal from rural areas.  In order to avoid
even more serious and even catastrophic consequences for the rural environment
and productivity, substantial increases in the use of fossil fuels for rural
energy services will be unavoidable if modern renewable energy technologies
cannot make a major contribution to the rural energy mix.


                       4.  System aspects

53. Energy systems for rural areas should fulfil the criteria for reliable
and on-demand service for applications related to water supply, health
services, domestic use, education and communication services and small
industries, for example.  This often requires storage or back-up arrangements
and can thus have cost implications.  It also adds to the complexity of the
system as a whole and therefore local capability to manage these systems is
required.  Local availability of spare parts and components or easy access to
sources of supply of these items are important considerations in system
reliability.  Energy tariffs should be so designed as not to act as a
deterrent to introducing and maintaining these systems in rural areas.


              E.  Constraints to market penetration

54. The main constraints to market penetration of energy in rural areas are
in most cases the lack of purchasing power of the local population and/or the
lack of financial resources of the local community or government for
investments in infrastructure.  Another constraint is the lack of sustained
political commitment to, and support of, the process of enhanced productivity,
economic growth and social equity in rural areas.  This is often caused by a
lack of long-term national energy strategies with the objective of balanced
national economic and social development.  Where such strategies exist they
often ignore important local energy resources, such as biomass.

55. Limited national resources in many developing countries, especially as
regards finance and highly trained personnel, are often devoted to centralized
capital-intensive investment projects aiming at economies of scale and
characterized by extensive transportation facilities.  These efforts have
prevented the development of localized small energy supplies and decentralized
small energy systems.

56. Renewable sources of energy suffer in many cases because of the
following constraints:

    (a) The low world market price of fossil fuels in comparison with the
relatively high cost of renewable sources of energy;

    (b) The burden of the initial investment.  A decisive difference between
conventional and renewable energy systems is in the burden of the initial
investment.  It is well known that investments in conventional electricity and
fossil fuel production and supply are made either by Governments or by large
industrial enterprises and the user is only required to pay for the actual
energy consumed.  In the renewable energy sector, the user is often asked to
meet at least a part of the investment in the device, which also includes the
energy generation or conversion component.

    (c) The continuing and often built-in subsidy for conventional energy
supplies.  In almost no country in the world are farmers required to pay for
the full cost of energy supply.  Likewise kerosene is highly subsidized.  Such
subsidies are very often justifiable in the context of the need to assure
energy for essential purposes and for increasing agricultural production.  
Nevertheless, they place renewable energy systems in an unfavourable position
as far as the individual user is concerned;

    (d) Weakness of institutions for commercializing renewable energy
technologies.  In many countries, scientific, engineering, manufacturing and
financing capacities are non-existent or not adapted to their special needs. 
Private-sector initiatives are not encouraged enough.


     F.  A strategy for sustainable rural energy development

            1.  Development of national sustainable energy action programmes
                for agriculture and rural development

57. States Members of the United Nations are invited to develop and
implement an integrated national action programme for the development of and
transition to an energy system that allows socio-economic development to
fulfil basic human needs and improve the quality of life, takes care of
environmental concerns, guarantees security of supply and uses finite
resources sparingly, in the interest of present and future generations.  The
programme should be developed and implemented through a coordinated effort of
ministries, non-governmental organizations and private sector and other local
organizations.

58. The programme should be oriented to demand rather than supply.  In these
programmes, strategies to be followed to realize a sustainable energy future
should include the following elements:

    (a) Improving energy and material efficiency;

    (b) Developing local and indigenous energy resources, with an emphasis
on renewables;

    (c) Diversifying the mix of energy resources on which the national
energy system depends.

59. The programme should include a plan of action to fulfil the need for
energy services in rural areas.  It should describe actions to be taken to
create a reliable infrastructure for the development, exploration and expanded
use of energy options to fulfil the needs.  The plan of action should be
placed in the context of local needs and the level of socio-economic
development.  Special attention should be given to the role of women, both as
bearers of a large portion of the burden of underdevelopment at present and as
agents of change.

60. Initiatives that are needed, such as rural electrification, social
forestry and implementing renewable energy technologies, are only one piece of
a more complex puzzle to raise the level of development in rural areas. 
Therefore, strong coordination of activities in all sectors covering rural
energy is required, including energy, forestry, agriculture and rural
development.  It also implies that a long-term commitment is required to
achieve the successful development of rural energy projects.

61. The actions to be taken should be based on a detailed investigation,
mapping and assessment of indigenous energy resources, including hydropower,
wind and solar power, as well as evaluations of organic waste and land
resources for biomass energy production.  The assessments should include an
investigation and evaluation of the environmental impact of utilizing these
indigenous resources and the competition and conflict between alternative uses
of land.

62. Goals should be set for the contribution of the different options to
improve energy and material efficiency and to supply in a sustainable way the
energy services that are required for different points of time in the future
and in accordance with socio-economic development priorities.

63. In national programmes, attention should be also given to the creation
of an optimized mixture of incentives to stimulate the development of a
sustainable energy system, taking into account the following:

    (a) In many countries, the potential for implementing a sustainable
energy programme is limited severely by, for example, existing laws,
regulations and disincentives; this situation should be changed;

    (b) The greatest incentive to energy and material efficiency and to the
expansion of renewable energy supplies would simply be the removal of
subsidies for conventional sources of energy.  For example, subsidies in the
developing countries for electricity alone were estimated by the World Bank at
$100 billion a year. 4/  Direct and indirect permanent subsidies for
conventional sources of energy should be removed gradually.  However, if
social or other considerations do not permit the complete removal of such
subsidies, the new environmentally sound technologies should receive
corresponding financial support;

    (c) Although permanent subsidies promote inefficiency, the wise use of
temporary subsidies can help to promote research and development and to
introduce new and environmentally sound technologies by creating initial
markets;

    (d) An important incentive would be to encourage prices that reflect the
true costs of energy, in which factors that are now external to the pricing
structure (inter alia, environmental and social costs and benefits) are
internalized.  Steps should be taken to ensure that these externalities are
reflected in decision-making processes;

    (e) As an additional incentive to the expansion of renewable energies,
Governments should abolish import duties on renewable energy technologies as
far as possible.


        2.  Priority-setting in rural energy development

64. A new look at the priorities and criteria governing rural energy
development is needed.  To achieve a sustainable rural energy system, the
following areas should be considered for priority action, consistent with
local needs and resources and supported with appropriate policies:

    (a) Efficient conversion and use of energy.  Regardless of the energy
source, attention should be given to the efficient conversion and use of
energy carriers in households (cooking, lighting and other energy services);
agricultural mechanization (land preparation, harvesting, transport and soil
fertilization); irrigation (including efficiency of water use); and food
conservation and local manufacturing (process heat, cooling, drying);

    (b) Biomass for energy.  This should be viewed as an opportunity when
formulating rural energy strategies.  If managed properly, biomass fuels are
renewable and environmentally benign.  To assist with poverty alleviation and
rural development, this indigenous renewable resource should be given much
more attention.  In many developing countries, it is an important fuel for
urban areas and industry and a source of income for rural people.  The
importance of biomass to fulfil energy needs should be fully recognized; as a
consequence, biomass energy should be included in all energy statistics;

    (c) Rural electrification.  While expansion of conventional electricity
grids to serve rural areas will continue, a massive effort should be developed
to install small-scale decentralized, renewable energy systems to bring
electricity to the more than 2 billion people in the world who are now without
it.  Special attention should be given to the installation of solar home
systems based on the use of photovoltaic modules, also providing jobs and
economic development;

    (d) Use of solar thermal energy.  Many basic needs can be met by direct
use of solar radiation, inter alia, for hot water supply, cooking, crop
drying, water purification and water pumping.  These options should receive
more attention, because of their potential to save scarce fuels and their
competitiveness under certain conditions;

    (e) Exploration and application of fossil fuels.  For at least many
decades, fossil fuels will continue to play an essential role in rural
development.  Therefore, much attention should be given to the development and
implementation of efficient and environmentally sound technologies for the
exploration, production, transportation and utilization of fossil fuels in
rural areas.


        3.  Capacity-building in rural energy development

65. Human resources are the basic building blocks of a nation's resources
and of its capacity to carry out work in any specific substantive area.  The
development of a sustainable energy strategy should be implemented by
providing the energy economy with a cadre of professionals who understand and
can set policy and develop, design and implement energy programmes.  In order
to avoid the inefficient use and/or loss of specialized human resources,
appropriate socio-economic conditions should be created.

66. Capacity-building should, inter alia, result in the more effective
involvement of women in energy programmes and projects aimed at sustainable
development in rural areas.  Data collection and analyses are needed to permit
evaluation of projects and monitoring of the progress made as a result of
implementing rural energy development programmes.

67. Given the dispersed nature of usage, it is imperative that capabilities
of local manufacture and servicing of renewable energy programmes are
strengthened.

68. An important element in building up indigenous capacity should be the
creation, on the basis of national and regional initiatives, of centres of
excellence for environmentally sound energy technologies, especially in the
field of energy and material efficiency improvement and renewable energy, to
provide training, technology support and resource data appropriate to regional
needs.

69. Capacity-building also means creating public awareness about the gravity
of rural energy problems and the possibility of transforming these problems
into opportunities.  This requires, among other things, the availability at
all levels - village-level users, national Governments, lenders and United
Nations organizations - of more and better information about the potential for
meeting the basic need of rural communities for energy services, opportunities
for productivity enhancement through energy and material efficiency
improvement, the development of renewable energy sources and the production
and utilization of fossil fuels using environmentally sound technologies.


 4.  New directions in management and institutional arrangements

70. The world is witnessing expanding recourse to market mechanisms as
devices for approximating a socio-economically efficient allocation of funds. 
In this context, Governments should develop activities and arrangements to
ensure that such efficiency is achieved in practice.  This can be achieved
with advice from specialized institutions.  Sustainability indicators for
rural energy development should be progressively derived and integrated into
planning and management efforts.

71. One of the more important measures which Governments should adopt to
fulfil the energy needs of rural areas in a reliable, cost-effective and
sustainable way is to pay increased attention to the efficient management of
existing energy systems.  This is especially true as regards electricity
generation, distribution and consumption in rural areas.

72. Integrated resource planning and demand-side management, based on
strengthened data collection efforts, should also be used as important tools
to improve the utilization of energy.  They can help set priorities and lead
to least-cost mixes of implementing efficiency improvement, decentralized
renewables, and centralized energy supply options.

73. Energy service companies, as third party investors, can play an
important role in rural energy development.  They may intervene for
prefinancing the renewable energy equipment and/or the energy efficiency
measures.  In both cases, the energy consumers will continue to pay their old
energy bills until the investment costs are met.  Thereafter, the energy
service companies will adjust their rates to the maintenance and operating
costs only.  In several countries, such arrangements have been made at the
institutional level through public companies, thus enabling affordable monthly
payments by users.

74. Another example of institutional arrangements is the successful rural
cooperatives established in Bangladesh and Brazil, among other countries. 
Here, groups of current or prospective customers in isolated areas have
organized electricity supply arrangements with the aid of government
subsidized financing.  Similarly, initiatives in the private sector could be
encouraged.


          5.  New financial and investment arrangements

75. For development to take place in a significant way, capital investment
on a large scale is needed in all sectors.  The necessary levels of capital
can only be assessed through greater involvement of the private sector.  The
terms and conditions that will attract private capital to sustainable
development must be an ongoing policy concern, of Governments.

76. Multilateral financial institutions, such as the World Bank, GEF and the
regional development banks, are called upon to increase financing (especially
grants and credits) substantially for small-scale energy and energy efficiency
projects in the rural areas of the developing countries.

77. Small-scale energy consumers in the developing world, who stand to
benefit from small-scale renewable energy systems, should gain better access
to affordable financing.  The establishment of revolving funds for start-up
financing of the purchase of these systems could be a strong instrument to
solve this problem.

78. To initiate and encourage environmentally sound energy transition in
rural communities not later than the year 2000, developed countries should
increase their aid for investments in rural energy development in developing
countries.


6.  Accelerated development and implementation of new technologies
 
79. Governments, utilities, private companies and other institutions should
accelerate the development and demonstration of promising new and sustainable
energy technologies that are benign for rural development (see sects. C and D
above).  This includes investments in pilot projects whose aim would be to
demonstrate promising new technologies and thereby hasten their
commercialization.  Small-scale modular energy technologies, such as
photovoltaic solar energy conversion, and such technologies as modern biomass
electricity production have significant development potential.

80. Newly industrialized economies have the opportunity to "leapfrog" old
methods and unsustainable technologies directly to newer, more sustainable
approaches.  This could bring developing countries to the highest
technological performance and institutional arrangements.  It should be noted,
however, that in many cases, implementation of these new technologies will
require that they be adapted to the specific local conditions.


   7.  New international actions for rural energy development

81. The development and implementation of national sustainable energy
policies and programmes in developing countries and small island developing
economies should, on request, be supported by regional and international
initiatives.  Existing regional cooperative programmes, such as the African
Energy Programme of the African Development Bank and the energy programmes of
the Association of South-East Asian Nations, should be actively involved in
providing that support.

82. The Committee noted with appreciation the progress made in sustainable
energy development within the United Nations system.  It supported the idea
that UNDP and other organizations should work towards a joint international
programme to accelerate the development of promising new energy technologies
that could stimulate rural development.  Those organizations could also make
important contributions to "leapfrogging" by providing support for the
implementation of well-prepared, adequate and innovative energy demonstration
projects.

83. New programmes aiming at rural energy development, such as the UNDP
Initiative for Sustainable Energy and the FAO Bio-energy and Environment
Assistance Programme (BEAP), should, when implemented, be supported by donors
and financial institutions.

84. Important regional and international organizations active in the energy
field should be called upon to assist in the solution of energy problems in
rural areas.  Examples of these organizations are The African Petroleum
Producers Association, the Independent Petroleum Exporting Countries, the
International Energy Agency, l'Institut de l'Energie des pays fracophones, the
Latin American Energy Organization, the Organisation of Arab Petroleum
Exporting Countries and the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.

85. Steps should be taken to promote the implementation of bilateral,
multilateral and regional cooperation in the field of rural energy
development, such as energy charters, joint ventures and joint projects, among
industrialized countries and developing countries and among developing
countries.

86. Environmentally sound energy technologies should be rapidly and
effectively transferred to developing countries on favourable terms, including
concessional and preferential terms, in order to stimulate sustainable
agriculture and rural development.

87. The implementation of a standing proposal to establish a global network
of international centres of excellence in the field of environmentally sound
energy technologies should be encouraged.


            8.  Strengthening sustainable energy activities within the
                United Nations system

88. Energy activities within the United Nations system should be
strengthened and coordinated to accelerate rural energy development.  The
Committee noted with great concern that in the field of energy, there was no
practical coordination mechanism within the United Nations system at either
the planning or the implementation stage.  Many organizations had emphasized
the need for coordinated policies, strategies and projects aimed at the
sustainable development and supply of energy resources in rural, as well as
urban areas.  The Committee therefore made the following recommendations on
actions to be taken by the Secretary-General:

    (a) Coordinate the exchange of information and experience on research,
development and application of energy technologies;

    (b) Improve the exchange of information on energy activities within the
United Nations system and,in this connection, consider the possibility of
establishing a database on energy available to Member States;

    (c) Improve the coordination of capacity-building in energy activities
within the United Nations system and at the country level;

    (d) Improve the coordination of energy programmes within the United
Nations system at the stage of programme budget formulation;

    (e) Make full use of the regional commissions and appropriate
specialized agencies and programmes of the United Nations system in these
coordination efforts;

    (f) Strengthen the Division for Sustainable Development of the
Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United
Nations Secretariat and UNDP to improve the coordination of energy activities
within the United Nations system at the planning and implementation stage;

    (g) Study in-depth ways and means of strengthening institutional
arrangements within the United Nations system to significantly advance energy
for sustainable development, including the development of rural energy
resources.  In this study also, the possible establishment of a dedicated
institution should be investigated.  Such an institution might start with a
mandate in the coordination of activities to promote the improvement of energy
and material efficiency and the development and application of renewable
sources of energy.


                              Notes

    1/  Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by
the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and
corrigendum), resolution 1, annex II.

    2/  M. R. Bhagavan and others, Energy for Rural Development (London and
Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, Zed Books, 1992), p. 58.

    3/  See the report of the Secretary-General containing an update on new
and renewable sources of energy (E/C.13/1994/3), para. 17.

    4/  Energy Efficiency and Conservation in the Developing World, World
Bank Policy Paper (Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1993), p. 14.



                           Chapter III

                   ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSION


             A.  Opening and duration of the session

1.  The Committee on New and Renewable Sources of Energy and on Energy for
Development held a special session at United Nations Headquarters from 6 to
17 February 1995, in accordance with Economic and Social Council decision
1994/309.  By that decision, the Council decided that the Committee should
hold a session in February/March 1995 in order to provide advice on energy for
rural development to the Commission on Sustainable Development at its third
session, as provided for in Agenda 21. 1/  The Committee held nine meetings
(1st to 9th) and a number of informal meetings.

2.  The special session was opened by the Chairman, Mr. Mohamed M. Shawkat
(Egypt).

3.  At the 1st meeting, on 6 February, the Under-Secretary-General for
Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development made an introductory
statement.

4.  At the 8th meeting, on 13 February, the Director of the Division for
Sustainable Development of the Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable Development made a statement.


                         B.  Attendance

5.  The following experts members of the Committee were present: 
Mr. Marcelino K. Actouka, Mr. Messaoud Boumaour, Mr. Jose' L. Bozzo,
Mr. Bernard Devin, Mr. Paul-Georg Gutermuth, Mr. Wolfgang Hein,
Mr. Jose' Fernando Isaza, Mr. Virgil Musatescu, Mr. Valeri Nikov,
Mr. Giovanni C. Pinchera, Mr. Zoilo Rodas Rodas, Mr. E. V. R. Sastry,
Mr. Mohamed M. Shawkat, Mr. Wilhelmus C. Turkenburg, Mr. Dmitri B. Volfberg
and Mr. Zhang Guocheng.

6.  The following States Members of the United Nations were represented: 
Haiti and Ireland.

7.  The following United Nations bodies and programmes were represented: 
United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme and
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women.

8.  The following specialized agencies were represented:  Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Bank, World Meteorological
Organization and United Nations Industrial Development Organization.

9.  The International Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic
Cooperation and Development, an intergovernmental organization, was also
represented.

10. The following non-governmental organizations in consultative status with
the Economic and Social Council (Roster) were represented:  International
Solar Energy Society and Solar Cookers International.


                    C.  Election of officers

11. The officers, who had been elected by the Committee at its first session
remained (with the exception of Mr. Thomas B. Johansson (Sweden), who had
resigned):

    Chairman:  Mr. Mohamed M. Shawkat (Egypt)

    Vice-Chairmen:  Mr. Zhang Guocheng (China)
                    Mr. Zoilo Rodas Rodas (Paraguay)

    Rapporteur:  Mr. Virgil Musatescu (Romania)

12. At the 2nd meeting, on 6 February, the Committee elected, by
acclamation, Mr. Wilhelmus C. Turkenburg (Netherlands) Vice-Chairman.


                           D.  Agenda

13. At the 1st meeting, on 6 February, the Committee adopted the provisional
agenda for the special session contained in document E/C.13/1995/1 and Corr.1.

The agenda was as follows:

    1.  Adoption of the agenda and organization of work.

    2.  Energy for rural development.

    3.  Biomass for energy.

    4.  Development of energy resources in developing countries.

    5.  Energy coordination.

    6.  Adoption of the report of the Committee on its special session.

14. At the 2nd meeting, on 6 February, the Committee adopted its programme
of work contained in document E/C.13/1995/L.1.


            E.  Consideration of agenda items 2 to 5

                1.  Energy for rural development

15. The Committee considered agenda item 2 at the 2nd to 8th meetings, from
6 to 13 February.  It had before it a number of informal papers submitted by
individual members of the Committee.  The Secretariat made a number of
background papers available to the Committee.

16. Statements were made by Mr. Actouka, Mr. Boumaour, Mr. Bozzo, Mr. Devin,
Mr. Gutermuth, Mr. Hein, Mr. Isaza, Mr. Musatescu, Mr. Nikov, Mr. Pinchera,
Mr. Rodas Rodas, Mr. Sastry, Mr. Shawkat, Mr. Turkenburg, Mr. Volfberg and
Mr. Zhang.

17. Statements were made by the representatives of the United Nations
Development Programme and the International Research and Training Institute
for the Advancement of Women.

18. Statements were also made by the representatives of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the World Meteorological
Organization.

19. Statements were also made by representatives of the International Energy
Agency of the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development.

20. Statements were made by the observers for Solar Cookers International
and the International Solar Energy Society, non-governmental organizations in
consultative status with the Economic and Social Council (Roster).


                     2.  Biomass for energy

21. The Committee considered agenda item 3 at the 5th, 6th and 9th meetings,
on 8, 9 and 17 February.  Consideration of the item focused on the sustainable
use of biomass as a source of energy and income in rural areas.

22. Statements were made by Mr. Boumaour, Mr. Bozzo, Mr. Devin, Mr.
Gutermuth, Mr. Hein, Mr. Isaza, Mr. Pinchera, Mr. Turkenburg, Mr. Volfberg and
Mr. Zhang.

23. The representative of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations made a statement.


   3.  Development of energy resources in developing countries

24. The Committee considered agenda item 4 at the 9th meeting on
17 February.

25. The Chairman made a statement.


                     4.  Energy coordination

26. The Committee considered agenda item 5 at a number of informal meetings
in the context of energy for rural development and at the 9th meeting on
17 February.

27. The chairman made a statement.


                    F.  Adoption of the report of the Committee
                        on its special session

28. At the 9th meeting, on 17 February, the Committee adopted the report on
its special session (E/C.13/1995/L.2), as orally revised.


                              Notes

    1/  Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by
the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and
corrigendum), resolution 1, annex II.


                              -----

UNITED
NATIONS


                                                Distr.
                                                GENERAL

                                                E/1995/25/Corr.1
                                                E/C.13/1995/2/Corr.1
                                                12 June 1995
                                                
                                                ORIGINAL:  ENGLISH

Substantive session of 1995


 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON NEW AND RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
      AND ON ENERGY FOR DEVELOPMENT ON ITS SPECIAL SESSION

                      (6-17 February 1995)

                           Corrigendum


1.  Page 3, PROVISIONAL AGENDA AND DOCUMENTATION FOR THE SECOND SESSION OF
    THE COMMITTEE ON NEW AND RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY AND ON ENERGY
                         FOR DEVELOPMENT

    For the existing text substitute

1.  Election of officers.

2.  Adoption of the agenda and organization of work.

3.  Follow-up to the first and special sessions of the Committee.

    Documentation

    Report of the Secretary-General on the follow-up to the first and
    special sessions of the Committee

4.  Energy and sustainable development:

    (a) Development of energy resources in developing countries;

    Documentation

    Report of the Secretary-General on an update of energy exploration and
    development trends in developing countries

    (b) Renewable sources of energy with special emphasis on biomass: 
        progress and policies;

    Documentation

    Report of the Secretary-General on renewable sources of energy with
    special emphasis on biomass:  progress and policies

    (c) Efficient use of energy and materials:  progress and policies;*

*  The Committee wishes to be informed of the work of the Ad Hoc Inter-
sessional Working Group on Finance and the Ad Hoc Inter-sessional Working
Group on Sectoral Issues of the Commission on Sustainable Development.

    Documentation

    Report of the Secretary-General on the efficient use of energy and
    materials:  progress and policies

    (d) Energy and protection of the atmosphere.

    Documentation

    Report of the Secretary-General on energy and protection of the
    atmosphere

5.  Medium-term planning and coordination in energy.

    Documentation

    Report of the Secretary-General on energy activities of the United
    Nations system

6.  Other matters.

7.  Provisional agenda for the third session of the Committee.

8.  Adoption of the report of the Committee on its second session.

2.  Chapter III, sections E and F

    For the existing text substitute


            E.  Consideration of agenda items 2 to 5

                1.  Energy for rural development

15. The Committee considered agenda item 2 at the 2nd to 8th meetings, from
6 to 13 February.  It had before it a number of informal papers submitted by
individual members of the Committee.  The Secretariat made a number of
background papers available to the Committee.

16. Statements were made by Mr. Actouka, Mr. Boumaour, Mr. Bozzo, Mr. Devin,
Mr. Gutermuth, Mr. Hein, Mr. Isaza, Mr. Musatescu, Mr. Nikov, Mr. Pinchera,
Mr. Rodas Rodas, Mr. Sastry, Mr. Shawkat, Mr. Turkenburg, Mr. Volfberg and
Mr. Zhang.

17. The representative of the Department for Development Support and
Management Services made a statement.

18. Statements were made by the representatives of the United Nations
Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women.

19. Statements were also made by the representatives of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Bank and the
World Meteorological Organization.

20. Statements were also made by the representatives of the International
Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development.

21. Statements were made by the observers for Solar Cookers International
and the International Solar Energy Society, non-governmental organizations in
consultative status with the Economic and Social Council (Roster).

22. Statements were generally followed by discussions.


                     2.  Biomass for energy

23. The Committee considered agenda item 3 at the 5th, 6th and 9th meetings,
on 8, 9 and 17 February.  Consideration of the item focused on the sustainable
use of biomass as a source of energy and income in rural areas.

24. Statements were made by Mr. Boumaour, Mr. Bozzo, Mr. Devin,
Mr. Gutermuth, Mr. Hein, Mr. Isaza, Mr. Pinchera, Mr. Turkenburg, Mr. Volfberg
and Mr. Zhang.

25. The representative of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations made a statement.


   3.  Development of energy resources in developing countries

26. The Committee considered agenda item 4 at the 9th meeting, on
17 February.  It had before it the report of the Secretary-General on energy
exploration and development trends in developing countries (E/1994/75) and the
report of the Secretary-General (A/45/274-E/1990/73 and Corr.1), containing
the outline of a programme of action for the acceleration of energy
exploration and development in developing countries.  Because of time
constraints, the Committee was unable to complete its consideration of the
item.  It therefore decided to consider it at its second session, on the basis
of an updated report of the Secretary-General, which would also contain an
overview of renewable energy sources and environment aspects of the
exploration and development of fossil fuels.

27. The Chairman made a statement.


                     4.  Energy coordination

28. The Committee considered agenda item 5 at a number of informal meetings
in the context of energy for rural development and at the 9th meeting, on
17 February.  The Committee decided to continue its consideration of the
question at its second session, under an item entitled "Medium-term planning
and coordination in energy".

29. The Chairman made a statement.


                F.  Adoption of the report of the Committee on its
                    special session

30. At the 9th meeting, on 17 February, the Committee adopted the report on
its special session (E/C.13/1995/L.2), as orally revised.


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