99-00782 (E) 180299 *  E/CN.9/1999/1. United Nations E/CN.9/1999/6 Economic and Social Council Distr.: General 13 January 1999 Original: English Commission on Population and Development Thirty-second session 22–24 March 1999 Item 6 of the provisional agenda* Programme implementation and future programme of work of the Secretariat in the field of population Programme implementation and progress of work in the field of population in 1998: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Report of the Secretary-General Summary The present report reviews the progress achieved by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat in implementing its programme of work in the field of population in 1998. It covers the activities of the Population Division dealing with the analysis of demographic variables at the world level; world population projections; population policy and socio-economic development; monitoring, review and appraisal, coordination and dissemination of population information; and technical cooperation in population. Other continuing activities of the Population Division are also described. E/CN.9/1999/6 2 Contents Paragraphs Page Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–3 3 I. Analysis of demographic variables at world level   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–13 3 A. Fertility and family planning   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–9 3 B. Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4 C. International migration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–13 4 II. World population projections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–24 5 A. World population estimates and projections: the 1998 and 2000 Revisions  . . 14–19 5 B. Urban, rural and city population estimates and projections: the 1998 and 2000 Revisions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5 C. Technical Meeting on the Demographic Impact of HIV/AIDS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21–23 6 D. Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Subcommittee on Demographic Estimates and Projections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6 III. Population policy and socio-economic development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–37 6 A. Population policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–30 6 B. Population and development   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–37 7 IV. Monitoring, review and appraisal, coordination and dissemination of population information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38–49 8 A. Monitoring of population trends and policies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38–41 8 B. Review and appraisal of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–43 8 C. Population information and publication and dissemination of research studies 44–49 9 V. Technical cooperation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50–51 10 Annex Publications, expert group meetings and other materials prepared or organized by the Population Division, 1998  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 E/CN.9/1999/6 3 Introduction 1. Population activities in the United Nations Secretariat are centred in the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs. As described in the Secretary- General’s bulletin on the organization of the Department of Economic  and  Social  Affairs  (ST/SGB/1997/9),  the  core functions of the Division are as follows: (a) Providing accurate and timely data, information and analyses of population trends and policies; and identifying new and emerging issues, and initiating studies thereof, in support of the Commission on Population and Development, the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly, other    intergovernmental   bodies   and   the   international community; (b) Serving    as    substantive    secretariat    to    the Commission on Population and Development, including the monitoring and review and appraisal of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development;1 (c) Promoting coordination among United Nations entities in the field of population; (d) Preparing the official United Nations population estimates and projections, which serve as the standard figures on population for use throughout the United Nations system; (e) Taking   the   lead   in   the   development   and maintenance of population information systems and networks; (f) Providing advisoryservices to assist Governments in improving their institutional and technical capabilities for the analysis of population data and related information, the formulation of national policies and the implementation and evaluation of programmes; (g) Preparing reports of the Secretary-General to the Commission on Population and Development, the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly; (h) Preparing  analytical  reports,  in-depth  studies, background  papers,  briefing  notes  and  talking  points  on population-related issues before the international community for the Secretary-General and his senior officials; (i) Maintaining  contacts  with  non-governmental organizations and academic institutions throughout the world; organizing   working   groups,   meetings   of   experts,   and symposia on population issues; and participating in seminars and  professional  meetings  relating  to  the  mandate  of  the Division. 2. The present report deals with the research and technical cooperation work and information activities carried out by the Population Division during 1998. The work programme for the biennium 1998–1999 was formulated and implemented within the basic framework set forth in the medium-term plan for    the   period   1998–2001,   taking   into   account   the recommendations   of   the   International   Conference   on Population   and   Development   1994   and   other   relevant international conferences. 3. The   Population   Division   of   the   Department   of Economic and Social Affairs continued to collaborate closely with agencies, programmes and other bodies of the United Nations system in the implementation of the work programme and  in  connection  with  the  follow-up  activities  to  the International Conference on Population and Development. In addition, the Division maintained close collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in carrying out technical assistance activities within the technical support services/country support team (TSS/CST) system. I.  Analysis of demographic variables at world level A.  Fertility and family planning 4. A wall chart entitled World Contraceptive Use, 1998,2 which shows the most recent data on levels of contraceptive use among currently married couples, has been issued. The wall chart presents data separately for all countries and by regions, more and less developed areas and for the world as a  whole.  Where  data  for  more  than  one  point  in  time  are available for a country, trend information is included. The chart also includes a classification by type of contraceptive method used. 5. The wall chart highlights results from the report entitled Levels  and  Trends  of  Contraceptive  Use  as  Assessed  in 1998.  The information on contraceptive use presented in that3 report  is  based  primarily on  data  obtained  from  national sample surveys. Over the past few years, data coverage on contraceptive prevalence has improved remarkably in the developing  world,  especially  in  Africa.  As  a  result,  the number of countries covered in this study has increased to 142, covering up to 92 per cent of the population of the world. 6. The  report  shows  that  the  level  of  current  use  of contraception in countries of the developed regions is 70 per cent of currently married women compared with 55 per cent in  the  less  developed  regions.  Among  the  less  developed regions, the average level of current use of contraception is 60  per cent in Asia, 66 per cent in Latin America and the Caribbean and about 20 per cent in Africa. Eastern Asia has E/CN.9/1999/6 4 the highest regional level of contraceptive use in the world — adult mortality on the basis of indirect information or deficient 83 per cent; that level is strongly influenced by prevalence data. Detailed examples are provided of the application of in  China, estimated at 83.4 per cent in 1992. In the more each method together with a discussion of the strengths and developed regions, current use of contraception varies within limitations of its use. Given the paucity of adequate data for a narrow range, from 69 to 78 per cent. the estimation of adult mortality in developing countries, the 7. Among  the  countries  in  the  less  developed  regions, contraceptive prevalence ranged from 1–2 per cent to over 80 per cent of currently married couples. Among the most populous developing countries, prevalence is above 75 per cent  in  Brazil  and  China,  between  40  and  55  per  cent  in Bangladesh, India and Indonesia, and below 20 per cent in Nigeria and Pakistan. In most developed countries, however, contraceptive prevalence ranges between 70 and 80 per cent of currently married women. 8. Contraceptive prevalence has increased substantially over the past 10–15 years — by at least 10–20 percentage points in a large number of developing countries. Between 1988 and 1998, prevalence rose from 27 to 39 per cent in Kenya, from 32 to 49 per cent in Bangladesh and from 36 to 46  per  cent  in  the  Philippines.  Even  in  some  of the  least developed countries, the level of use has recently doubled or tripled.   For   example,   since   1988–1991,   contraceptive prevalence has increased from 12 to 24 per cent in Togo, from 2 to 15 per cent in Uganda and from 4 to 8 per cent in the Niger. 9. Sterilization, especially female sterilization, is the most prevalent method of family planning in the world. With 19 per cent of currently married women and 4 per cent of currently married men sterilized, this method accounts for two fifths of world  contraceptive use. Sterilization is widely used as a method of contraception in much of Asia, Latin America and the  Caribbean,  Northern  Europe,  Northern  America,  and Australia and New Zealand. The next most prevalent method is the intrauterine device (IUD), which is used by 13 per cent of currently married women, followed by the pill, used by 8 per cent. While the pill is more common in more developed regions,  the  IUD  is  more  frequently  used  in  developing countries. Condoms, rhythm and withdrawal are used by 3–4 per cent of currently married women. Those three methods are  more  widely used  in  the  developed  countries  than  in developing countries. In a majority of countries, the rise in overall contraceptive prevalence has been mainly due to an increase in modern methods. B.  Mortality 10.     A  manual  on  the  estimation  of adult  mortality is  in preparation.    The    manual    describes    the    theoretical underpinnings of each of the methods available to estimate manual  is  expected  to  fill  an  important  gap  by  making accessible   to   analysts   information   on   methodological developments   discussions  of  which  have  hitherto  been scattered in the literature and on methodologies that have only recently been developed. C.  International migration 11.     The Population Division played an active role in the organization of the Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development which was held in The Hague, the  Netherlands,  from  29  June  to  3  July  1998.  A  paper entitled  “International  migration  levels  and  trends:  what existing data can tell us” was prepared for presentation at the Symposium and will be published in a special issue of the journal International Migration that will be devoted to the Symposium.  A  revised  version  of  the  paper  has  been published  in  the  journal  Population  and  Development Review.   Preparation  of  the   Symposium  involved  close collaboration with the international organizations, agencies and United Nations bodies that are members of the Working Group  on  International  Migration  of  the  Administrative Committee  on  Coordination  (ACC)  Task  Force  on  Basic Social  Services  for  All.  The  report  of  the  Symposium’s deliberations (E/CN.9/1999/3) was issued in February 1999. 12.     Another   important   development   in   the   area   of international migration was the publication of Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration: Revision 1.   The Population Division collaborated with the4 United  Nations  Statistics  Division,  in  the  Department  of Economic and Social Affairs, and the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) in the preparation of those recommendations. 13.     Lastly, the database on South-to-North migration has been updated to cover the period 1965–1995. In addition, a database on East-to-West migration is in preparation. II.  World population projections A.  World population estimates and projections: the 1998 and 2000 Revisions E/CN.9/1999/6 5 14. Work has been completed on the 1998 Revision of the Eastern Asia (except Mongolia). The rapid fertility transition world population estimates and projections. The results were in South-eastern Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean officially announced in October 1998. There is one series of brings an increasing number of developing countries close demographic estimates for the period 1950–1995, and four to that threshold: currently the TFR is below 3 (but higher projection variants for the period 1995–2050. For the first than 2.1) and decreasing in 34 countries with a combined time,  the  sex  and  age  distribution  of  the  population  is population of 930 million people. provided up to age 100. The number of countries for which the   demographic  impact  of  acquired  immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is explicitly incorporated was increased from 28 in the 1996 Revision to 34 in the 1998 Revision. 15. The  results  of the  1998  Revision  will  be  published persons (those aged 60 years or over). Overall in the world, during 1999 as a three-volume set entitled World Population there are still three times as many children (30 per cent of the Prospects:   The   1998   Revision,   comprising   Volume   I, world population) as older persons (10 per cent of the world Comprehensive   Tables;   Volume   II,   The   Sex   and   Age population).  However,  in  the  more  developed  regions,  in Distribution  of  the  World  Populations;  and  Volume  III, 1998, the number of older persons exceeded that of children Analysis. The results are also made available in a wall chart for  the first time. The population aged 80 years or over is and in a series of databases. The findings were announced projected to increase almost sixfold to reach 370 million in through press releases and a media briefing packet. 2050. 16. At  mid-1998,  world  population  stood  at  5.9  billion persons,  with  80  per  cent  residing  in  the  less  developed regions. The world population is growing at a rate of 1.3 per cent per year, which is significantly less than the peak growth rate of 2.0 per cent in 1965–1970, and less than the rate of 1.5 per cent in 1990–1995. The annual population increment also declined from its peak of 86 million in 1985–1990 to the current  78  million.  In  the  mid-twenty-first  century,  world population will be in the range of 7.3 billion to 10.7 billion, depending  on  the  assumed  future  fertility  trends.  In  the medium-fertility variant, the world population reaches 8.9 billion in 2050. 17. The 1998 Revision shows a devastating toll from AIDS with  respect  to  mortality  and  population  loss.  In  the  29 African countries in which the impact of AIDS was studied, life expectancy at birth is projected to decrease to 47 years in 1995–2000, whereas it would have been expected to reach 54 years in the absence of the AIDS epidemic. There is thus a loss of seven years. In the nine hardest-hit countries, with an adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence of 10 per cent or more, the average life expectancy at birth is projected to be 10 years less than it would have been in the absence of AIDS. 18. In all countries of the more developed regions, fertility is significantly below the level necessary for the replacement of  generations (total fertility rate (TFR)  of approximately 2.1).  In  20 of the more developed countries, the TFR has stayed at below-replacement level for at least two decades. In the 1980s and 1990s, fertility has decreased to levels below replacement  in  several  countries  from the  less  developed regions, including all countries in the populous region of 19. As a result of the combined effects of the decrease in fertility and the increase in life expectancy, the population of the world is becoming older, with a diminishing proportion of  children (those under  age 15)  and an increase of older B.  Urban, rural and city population estimates and projections: the 1998 and 2000 Revisions 20. Work  is  in progress on the  1998 Revision  of urban, rural and city population estimates and projections. The wall charts    Urban    and    Rural    Areas,    1998,    and    Urban Agglomerations, 1998 are expected to be issued in 1999. The results of the 1998 Revision will also be made available on diskettes for IBM-compatible computers. The report entitled World Urbanization Prospect: The 1998 Revision will also be available in 1999. C.  Technical Meeting on the Demographic Impact of HIV/AIDS 21. The Population Division, in cooperation with the Joint United   Nations   Programme   on   HIV/AIDS   (UNAIDS), convened a Technical Meeting on the Demographic Impact of  HIV/AIDS  on  10  November  1998  at  United  Nations Headquarters,  New  York.  AIDS  has  become  one  of  the biggest challenges to development for the coming decades. In many countries, AIDS has erased decades of progress in reducing  child  mortality  and  increasing  life  expectancy. Participating in the Meeting were representatives of United Nations organizations and prominent international experts from around the world. The report of the Meeting, which includes the background paper entitled “AIDS, mortality and E/CN.9/1999/6 6 population change” prepared by the Population Division, is available as a printed document and on the Internet. 22. The Technical Meeting had two main purposes. One purpose  was to review the results, methodology, data and assumptions   concerning   the   levels   and   trends   of   HIV infections and their demographic impact. The second purpose was to review existing knowledge on factors related to the epidemiology and demography of HIV/AIDS and to make recommendations on methodological issues, approaches to sharing information and future research needs in order  to improve future estimates and projections. 23. The participants agreed on a number of recommendations for future action. For example, the experts agreed that, even though the data are uncertain, it is important to continue the effort to make national estimates of HIV/AIDS and its demographic impact, since such information is vital in helping decision makers to understand the magnitude of the AIDS   problem   and   in   supporting   efforts   to   improve prevention and care programmes. D.  Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Subcommittee on Demographic Estimates and Projections 24. The twentieth session of the ACC Subcommittee on Demographic Estimates and Projections was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 23 to 25 June 1998 (see  ACC/1998/16).  At  that  session,  the  Subcommittee successfully   arranged   a   schedule   for   coordination   and dissemination of the 1998 rounds of consistent demographic and  sectoral  estimates  and  projections,  which  had  been undertaken by the Population Division in collaboration with the  regional commissions (for demographic estimates and projections), the International Labour Organization (ILO) (for labour-force   estimates   and   projections),   the   Food   and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (for agriculture population estimates and projections) the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (for literacy estimates and projections) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (for mortality parameters for demographic estimates and projections). The Subcommittee    also    discussed    arrangements    for    the coordination of the 2000 rounds of estimates and projections. III.  Population policy and socio- economic development A.  Population policies 25. One of the major activities of the work programme in 1998 was data processing and analysis of the United Nations Eighth    Population    Inquiry    Among    Governments    on Population   and   Development.   In   addition   to   the   core questions, the Eighth Inquiry contains a number of questions to assess the extent to which the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development1 has   been   translated   into   population   policies.   While   a preliminary report has been completed, additional completed questionnaires from countries are being sought. 26. In the area of abortion policies, a wall chart entitled World   Abortion   Policies,  1999,  and  the  corresponding publication  entitled  Abortion  Policies:  An  International Overview have been prepared. The publication contains a review of recent changes in the abortion laws and policies of the developed and developing countries. The wall chart and publication update an earlier study carried out in 1994. 27. The report finds that nearly all countries (97 per cent) have policies that permit legal abortions to be performed to save  the  woman’s  life.  The  proportions  of countries  with policies that permit legal abortion for other reasons vary: 63 per  cent  permit  legal  abortion  to  preserve  the  woman’s physical health; 51 per cent to preserve the woman’s mental health; 43 per cent for rape or incest; 42 per cent when there is a possibility of foetal impairment; 31 per cent for economic or social reasons; and 25 per cent upon request. 28. During 1998, a volume entitled National Population Policies was revised and completed. The volume consists of a consolidated overview of trends in population policies for 190  countries.  The  volume  includes  data  sheets  showing trends in national population policies from 1976 to 1996 for each of the 190 countries, as well as an overview chapter describing and analysing trends in population policy at the regional and global levels. 29. The  study  shows  that  in  the  past  two  decades,  the number of countries that consider both their rate of population growth and their fertility rates to be too high has increased significantly.   A   large   majority  of  these   countries   have established policies aimed at lowering their fertility rates. A particular  concern  has  been  expressed  by  Governments regarding the level of fertility among adolescents and many Governments have adopted policies to address this issue. Despite  the  considerable  progress  that  has  been  made  in combating   morbidity   and   mortality,   the   percentage   of countries   that   consider   their   level   of   mortality   to   be unacceptable  has  decreased  very  little.  In  the  developing countries, infant and child survival and maternal mortality are E/CN.9/1999/6 7 the principal concerns. Government concerns over the level publication. The report grew out of the participation of the and  consequences  of immigration  have  greatly increased, Population   Division   in   activities   aimed   at   ensuring   a particularly  in   the   developed   world.   Also,   population coordinated and system-wide implementation of the goals and distribution has consistently been the area of most concern commitments  adopted  by  the  recent  global  conferences, to Governments, especially in the developing countries. including the International Conference on Population and 30.     The  sixth  edition  of  the  population  policy database Global Population Policy Database, 1997 (GRIPP:1998),5 was completed in 1998, along with an accompanying diskette and  diskette  documentation.  In  addition,  a  computerized database on population policies is currently being designed and  programmed  to  enable  user  interfaces  for  data  entry, information search and tabulation. B.  Population and development 31.     In the area of population ageing and its consequences, a wall chart on world population ageing has been prepared for release in 1999, to coincide with the International Year of Older Persons. The chart features new statistical data on ageing   and   older   persons   from   the   1998   Revision   of population estimates and projections, including previously unpublished estimates of life expectancy at age 60. The chart also includes selected information from other United Nations and  outside sources regarding marital status, labour force participation of older persons and statutory retirement ages. Many of the statistics are provided separately for women and men. 32.     Based  on  estimated  mortality  rates  for  the  period 1995–2000, those who survive to age 60 can expect to live 18 more years — 20 years for women and 17 years for men. For  both sexes combined, there is a three-year gap in life expectancy at age 60 between the more developed and the less developed   regions.   In   absolute   terms,   this   three-year difference is considerably smaller  than the corresponding difference in life expectancy at birth between more and less developed regions, which amounts to nearly 12 years. 33.     There  is  a  very  large  difference  in  marital  status between older men and women. On average, 21 per cent of men aged 60 years or over are not married (including those who are widowed, separated or never married), while 57 per cent  of  older  women  have  no  spouse.  This  difference  is attributable mainly to the combined effects of the fact that women live longer than men, and of the circumstance that wives are typically younger than their husbands. Both factors contribute to women’s greater likelihood of outliving their spouses. 34.     A report entitled Charting the Progress of Populations has been issued as a working paper and will be revised for Development. In 1997, the Population Division issued a wall chart entitled Basic Social Services for All (ST/ESA/SER.A/160) as a contribution to the work of the system-wide ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All. The chart brought together key quantitative indicators relevant  to  the  goals  adopted  at  the  recent  conferences. Recognizing  the  desirability of an  accessible  and  concise analytic  summary of  these  key indicators,  the  Population Division prepared the new report featuring graphical and tabular  summaries  for  12  key  socio-economic  indicators related  to  the  goals  of  the  conferences.  The  Population Division received active assistance from other United Nations offices and specialized agencies in preparing the report. 35.     In  most  areas  covered  by the  indicators,  significant progress has been made in many regions in recent decades. The growth rate of the world’s population is estimated to have peaked in the 1960s, and has declined significantly since then. Important advances have been made in making accessible the means to combat the most common diseases of childhood, and an increasing number of children are routinely immunized against major disease. Improvements in life expectancy at birth  in  the  past  half  century,  for  both  developing  and developed  countries,  represent  a  remarkable  social  and demographic  achievement.  In  the  area  of  education,  the absolute number of illiterate adults in the world has, since the early  1990s,  begun  to  decline.  Access  to  safe  water  and sanitation facilities significantly increased during the 1980s. 36.     At the same time, progress has been quite uneven across the world’s region. The indicators show substantial variations between  regions  and  countries  in  respect  of  their  past achievements. Some countries have already surpassed most of  the  conference  goals,  while  others  have  yet  to  make significant progress. Some countries or regions perform very well in one area but poorly in others. In general, most African countries are currently far from reaching goals identified at the recent United Nations conferences. Asian and Oceanic countries fare better, but tend to have larger intraregional variations than other major regions. Also in Asia and Oceania, progress is not consistent across different indicators. In these countries, progress in some areas such as access to health services  has  been  substantial  but  is  lagging  for  others including access to sanitation and child malnutrition. Among the less developed regions, the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are the closest to achieving the conference E/CN.9/1999/6 8 goals for most of the 12 indicators. Their achievements in the per cent and the number of megacities of 10 million persons field of education are particularly noteworthy. or more has increased manyfold from 5 to 18. The number of 37.     Work is ongoing on the scheduled revision of the data bank    on    Population,    Resources,    Environment    and Development (PRED Bank). The new version will have a global coverage, and will include selected indicators from the 1998 Revision of the population estimates and projections and other Population Division data, as well as economic, social and  environmental  indicators  from  other  United  Nations offices and other international organizations. IV.  Monitoring, review and appraisal, coordination and dissemination of population information A.  Monitoring of population trends and policies 38.     During 1998, the Population Division completed the fourth   of  the   annual  edition  of  the   World   Population Monitoring Report. The 1999 edition focuses on population growth,  structure  and  distribution,  as  endorsed  by  the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 1995/55 of 28 July 1995. Also as endorsed by the Council in that resolution, the   full   report   (ESA/WP/147)   is   accompanied   by   a summarized concise report (E/CN.9/1999/2). 39.     The report covers such topics as population growth and     42.     The Population Division was responsible for preparing its    components;   changing   population   age   structures; the review and appraisal of the progress made in achieving population distribution; urbanization and internal migration; the goals and objectives of the Programme of Action of the and  the  interrelationship  of population  growth,  economic International Conference on Population and Development. growth, poverty, food provision and the environment. The The  results of the first quinquennial review and appraisal report also reviews the population policies that Governments were presented in two documents: the full report, which is have adopted in response to their concerns about national distributed  as  a  working  paper  (ESA/P/WP.148),  and  a aspects  of  population  and  development.  In  light  of  the summary of the results, which is presented as a concise report comments   made   at   the   thirty-second   session   of   the for  consideration  by  the  Commission  on  Population  and Commission on Population and Development and by scholars Development (E/CN.9/1999/PC/2). The reports provide an elsewhere, both the full report and the concise report will be overall assessment of the implementation of the Programme revised and published. of Action, particularly as regards population growth, structure 40.     The report highlights the striking demographic changes that have taken place during the quarter-century since the 1974  World  Population  Conference  in  Bucharest.  World population size has increased from 4 billion persons then to nearly 6 billion today. At the same time, the world population growth  rate  has  fallen  from  about  2  per  cent  per  year  in 1970–1975  to  1.3  per  cent  today,  the  average  number  of children has fallen from 4.5 to 2.7 and life expectancy at birth has  risen  from  56  to  65  years.  The  share  of  the  world’s population living in urban areas has increased from 36 to 47 persons who have moved to another country has risen to over 125  million. The report shows that, although in  1998  the demographic transition has occurred or is occurring in nearly every country, the timing and pace of the transition vary; and in some regions and countries, steps backward are occurring. For  example, AIDS and other  emerging diseases in some countries, and economic and political dislocations in others, have reversed past progress in improving health and reducing mortality. 41.     The report concludes with a review of latest findings concerning the interrelationship of population growth and economic    growth,    poverty,    food    provision    and    the environment. The report finds that poverty reduction, food provision  and  environmental  maintenance  are  integrally linked with demographic, economic and political change. As a result, population policies are an important element of the policy-making  components  needed  to  advance  social  and economic development, eliminate poverty and foster long-run environmental stewardship. B.  Review and appraisal of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and distribution; reproductive rights and reproductive health; health     and     mortality;     international     migration     and development;  and,   as   prepared  by  the   United  Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), issues on population programmes and  resources. The results will be discussed at the thirty- second session of the Commission acting as the preparatory committee for the special session of the General Assembly for  the review and appraisal of the implementation of the Programme  of  Action  of  the  International  Conference  on Population and Development. E/CN.9/1999/6 9 43.     Among the outcomes of the review and appraisal is the capacity-building   and   creation   of   developing   country conclusion  that progress has been achieved, but has been institution Web sites for the dissemination of local population uneven, and that a great deal remains to be done. The report “publications”. During the past year, Internet Web sites were emphasizes   that   government   leadership,   priorities   and created in Benin, Egypt, Kenya, Latvia, Poland, Malaysia, commitment   are   the   critical   variables   for   successful Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. Home pages were also implementation of the Programme of Action. The concise created for POPIN Europe, which is hosted by the Economic version   of   this   report,   along   with   the   report   of   the Commission for Europe (ECE), Population Activities Unit, international forum on the operational review and appraisal and for each of the 177 family planning associations that are of  the implementation of the Programme of Action of the affiliated    with    the    International    Planned    Parenthood International  Conference on Population and Development Federation (IPPF). (E/CN.9/1999/PC/3), provides input into the report of the Secretary-General  for  the  special  session  of  the  General Assembly,   containing   draft   measures   for   the   further implementation of the Programme of Action (E/CN.9/1999/PC/4). C.  Population information and publication and dissemination of research studies 44.     The Population Division continues to publish the results of its research studies in a variety of formats so as to meet the needs  of  different  audiences.  Those  results  are  widely disseminated  to  Governments;  national  and  international organizations;    research    and    educational    institutions; individuals   engaged   in   social   and   economic   planning, research and training; and the general public. It also continues to develop and maintain databases and software, which are made available on magnetic tape and/or diskette(s). During 1998, the Population Division prepared an updated catalogue of  its  publications,  covering  the  period  1996  to  1998.  In addition, a list of the Population Division’s publications and other  material issued in 1998 is given in the annex to the present report. 45.     The  Population  Division  continues  to  receive  and respond  to  numerous  requests  for  population  information from United Nations organizations, research institutions and individual scholars. It also provides background information to and participates regularly in international conferences and meetings   of   the   inter-agency   groups   and   professional societies.  Information  from  the  Population  Division  has appeared prominently in a number of publications and reports of other United Nations bodies and international conferences and meetings. 46.     In    1998,   the   Population   Division’s   Population Information Network (POPIN) project, funded by UNFPA, continued to promote use of the Internet and compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM)  to  increase  the  worldwide availability  and   accessibility  of  substantive   population information.  POPIN  focuses  in  particular  on  information 47.     Documentation is now available on the Internet Web sites of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC); the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP); and the ECE Population Activities Unit. Documentation is also expected to be made available  on  the  Web  sites  of  the  Economic  and  Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) and the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). 48.     The Population Division through POPIN also uses the Internet as “workplace in cyberspace” interregional initiatives such as the Worldwide Directory of Population Institutions. For  countries  and  regions  where  the  Internet  is  not  yet available or not readily accessible, a CD-ROM version of the POPIN Web site and the Worldwide Directory of Population Institutions was included on a CD-ROM published in March and  again in December  1998. Another joint initiative, the Dictionary   of   Demographic   and   Reproductive   Health Terminology,   was   launched   in   November   1998   as   a cooperative  venture  with  the  regional  commissions,  the Population    Division    and    various    non-governmental organizations.   The   Dictionary   consists   of   population terminology and definitions in English, French and Spanish from the User’s Guide to POPLINE Keywords. POPLINE is the  world’s  largest  bibliographic  database  of  population literature,   consisting   of   over   200,000   documents   and abstracts. 49.     In the area of capacity-building, a workshop on Internet training for members of the Latin American POPIN, la Red de  Información sobre Población para América Latina y el Caribe  (IPALCA),  was  organized  by the  ECLAC,  Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía (CELADE). The Workshop, which was co-sponsored by the Population Division, resulted in the creation of 12 new multi-page Web sites for population institutions in the ECLAC region placed on the server of the University of Costa Rica. V.  Technical cooperation E/CN.9/1999/6 10 50.     The Population Division provided technical assistance Notes services   during   1998   in   the   areas   of   population   and development  training;  analysis   and  research  on  socio- economic and demographic data obtained from population censuses, surveys and vital registration systems; population policy; and population and development. 51.     The Interregional Adviser in Population and the two TSS   specialists   carried  out  various   country  assistance missions during 1998, including missions to (a) Turkey, to assist the Haceteppe Institute of Population Studies review and update its population and development curriculum at all levels; (b) Belize, to assist in the preparation and discussion of a population policy draft document; (c) Honduras, to assist the  Universidad  Nacional  Autónoma  de  Honduras  in  the preparation  of  a  Master’s  degree  programme  in  social demography, Honduras; and (d) Honduras, to assist in the preparation   of  the   mid-term   review   of  the   population programme of Honduras. In addition, substantive support was provided to the eight country support teams and to national projects,  and  two  papers  were  produced  in  the  areas  of reproductive health and mortality. See Report of the International Conference on Population 1 and Development, Cairo, 5–13 September 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.95.XIII.18), chap. I, resolution 1, annex. Population Studies, No. 175 (United Nations publication, 2 Sales No. E.99.XIII.4). United Nations, forthcoming. 3 Statistical Papers, No. 58, Rev.1 (United Nations 4 publication, Sales No. E.98.XVII.14). United Nations publication, Sales No. E.98.XIII.11. 5 E/CN.9/1999/6 11 Annex Publications, expert group meetings and other materials prepared or organized by the Population Division, 1998 Research studies Adolescent   reproductive   behaviour:   regional   variations   and   global   perspectives. ESA/P/WP.144. Charting the progress of populations. ESA/P/WP.149. Health and Mortality: A Concise Report. ST/ESA/SER.A/172. Sales No. E.99.XIII.2. Population Distribution and Migration. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 18–22 January 1993. ST/ESA/SER.R/133. Sales No. E.98.XIII.12. Population    Policy    Diskette    Documentation, 1997.    ST/ESA/SER.R/150.    Sales No. E.98.XIII.10. Review  and appraisal of the progress made in achieving the goals and objectives of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development. ESA/P/WP.148. The State matters: immigration control in developed countries. ESA/P/WP.146. Too Young to Die: Genes or Gender? ST/ESA/SER.A/155. Sales No. E.98.XIII.13. World   Population   Monitoring   1997:   International   Migration   and   Development. ST/ESA/SER.A/169. Sales No. E.98.XIII.4. World Population Projections to 2150. ST/ESA/SER.A/173. Sales No. E.98.XIII.14. World    Population    Prospects:    The    1996    Revision.    ST/ESA/SER.A/167.    Sales No. E.98.XIII.5. World  Population  Prospects:  The  1998  Revision,  Volume  I:  Comprehensive  Tables. ST/ESA/SER.A/177. ESA/P/WP.150. World    Urbanization    Prospects:    The    1996    Revision.    ST/ESA/SER.A/170.    Sales No. E.98.XIII.6. Expert group meetings Technical meeting on the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS (New York, 10  November 1998). Wall charts World Contraceptive Use, 1998. ST/ESA/SER.A/175. Sales No. E.99.XIII.4. World Population, 1998. ST/ESA/SER.A/176. Sales No. E.99.XIII.6. World Abortion Policies, 1999. ST/ESA/SER.A/178. Sales No. E.99.XIII.5. E/CN.9/1999/6 12 Databases Global Population Policy Database, 1997. ST/ESA/SER.R/149. Sales No. E.98.XIII.11. World Population, 1950–2050 (The 1998 Revision). Annual Populations, 1950–2050 (The 1998 Revision). Demographic Indicators, 1950–2050 (The 1998 Revision). Sex and Age Quinquennial, 1950–2050 (The 1998 Revision). Sex and Age Annual, 1950–2050 (The 1998 Revision). Age Patterns of Fertility, 1995–2050 (The 1998 Revision). Periodicals Population Newsletter, Nos. 65 and 66. The Newsletter is issued biannually to provide, to a wide readership, information on the programme activities of the Population Division; on action taken by legislative bodies with competence in the population field; and on meetings on population and related issues organized by the Population Division and other United Nations organizations, as well as on recent and forthcoming publications of the Population Division.