E/CN.9/1999/1. * 98-40271 (E) 020299 United Nations E/CN.9/1999/3 Economic and Social Council Distr.: General 22 December 1998 Original: English Commission on Population and Development Thirty-second session 22–24 March 1999 Item 3 of the provisional agenda* Follow-up actions to the recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development Report of the Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Task Force on Basic Social Services for All Report of the Secretary-General Summary The Commission on Population and Development, in its resolution 1997/1, took note with interest of the holding of a technical symposium of experts on international migration under the auspices of the Working Group on International Migration of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Task Force on Basic Social Services for All and requested the Chairperson of that Task Force to report back to the Commission at its thirty-second session in 1999. The present report responds to that request. It summarizes the deliberations that took place during the Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development, which was held in The Hague, the Netherlands, from 29 June to 3 July 1998. E/CN.9/1999/3 2 Contents Paragraphs Page Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–3 3 I. The dimensions of international migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3 II. International migration and development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–6 4 III. Analysis of factors generating international migration   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–11 4 IV. Addressing the employment of migrants in an irregular situation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–13 6 V. Improving the position of immigrants and foreign residents in receiving countries: social and cultural issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7 VI. Releasing the development potential of return migrants  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7 VII. Responding to the arrival of asylum-seekers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16–17 8 VIII. Panel session on future policy directions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18–19 8 IX. Dissemination of the results of the Technical Symposium  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 9 Annex List of documents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 E/CN.9/1999/3 3 Introduction 1. The Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development was held in The Hague, the Netherlands, from 29 June to 3 July 1998. It was organized by the United Nations Working Group on International Migration of the Administrative  Committee  on  Coordination  (ACC)  Task Force on Basic Social Services for All as part of the follow-up activities  for  the  implementation  of the  recommendations adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994), the World Summit for Social Development  (Copenhagen,  1995)  and  the  Fourth  World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995). The Government of the Netherlands hosted the Symposium, which was held at the Ministry   of   Foreign   Affairs   of   the   Netherlands.   The Governments   of  Austria,   Norway  and  the   Netherlands provided financial support. The Symposium was attended by 49 invited experts from 33 countries; representatives of the organizations   and  agencies   organizing  the   Symposium, namely  the  United  Nations  Secretariat  (the  Population Division, the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and the   Economic   Commission  for   Latin  America   and  the Caribbean  (ECLAC)),  the  United  Nations  Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Office of  the  United  Nations  High  Commissioner  for  Refugees (UNHCR), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the   International   Labour   Organization   (ILO)   and   the International Organization for Migration (IOM); representatives  of  other  intergovernmental  organizations; representatives   of   the   host   country,   the   Netherlands; representatives  of  non-governmental  organizations;  and scholars  from  universities  and  research  institutes  in  the Netherlands and other countries. The Symposium was chaired by  Dirk  van  de  Kaa  (Netherlands)  and  Stephen  Castles (Australia) served as Rapporteur. High-level representatives of the organizing agencies addressed the opening session, which was highlighted by a keynote address delivered by a senior official of the Netherlands Government. 2. The  Symposium  examined  salient  policy  issues  on international migration and development; considered ways of  improving  knowledge  on  the  causes  of migration;  and assessed the effectiveness of migration policies and related measures at the country level. With respect to migration for employment, the Symposium discussed the problems arising from the irregular employment of international migrants and provided insights about the effectiveness of measures taken by countries of origin to protect their migrant workers abroad. The social and cultural situation of long-term migrants in a variety of contexts was analysed and measures to prevent their marginalization were assessed. Recognizing the importance of return migration, the Symposium examined its implications for the development of countries of origin and the problems posed  by  large  and  unexpected  return  flows.  Lastly,  the Symposium devoted particular attention to forced migration and the changing responses to it in the various world regions. By covering such a variety of issues and paying particular attention   to   the   assessment   of   migration   policy,   the Symposium made a significant contribution to the review and appraisal  process   of  the   Programme   of  Action  of  the International Conference on Population and Development.1 A  total  of  30  substantive  papers  were  presented  to  the Symposium,  including  various  country  case  studies.  The annex  to  the  present  report  provides  a  list  of  the  papers presented. By undertaking a thorough examination of salient policy   issues,   the   Symposium   sought   to   advance   the knowledge  required  for  a  better  management  of  orderly migration in ways that would prove beneficial to both sending and receiving countries. 3. The Symposium underscored the fact that international migration   posed   major   challenges   to   the   international community, challenges made all the more daunting by the pervasiveness    of    negative    public    perceptions    about international migration and the generally limited recognition of the significant contributions made by migrants to the host societies.     A     factor     that     contributed     to     common misapprehensions  about  international  migration  was  the deficiency of international migration data. I.  The dimensions of international migration 4. The most recent worldwide estimates of the number of international migrants, dating from 1990, indicated that there were   120   million   international   migrants   at   that   time, accounting for about 2 per cent of the world’s population. Between 1965 and 1990, the number of international migrants had grown at a moderate rate of 1.9 per cent a year, although the  pace  of  growth  increased  between  1985  and  1990. Overall, international migrants accounted for 4.5 per cent of the population of developed countries in 1990, compared with a  relatively stable  1.6  per  cent  for  developing  countries. However,  international  migrants  tended  to  be  unevenly concentrated in certain countries and subregions. A number of developed countries, including Germany and the United States  of  America,  had  been  receiving  large  numbers  of migrants since 1985. In the developing world, in addition to the flows of refugees in Africa and Asia, significant numbers of migrant workers had been converging on the oil-producing countries of Western Asia since 1985, and Japan and the E/CN.9/1999/3 4 newly industrialized countries of the Pacific Rim became unilaterally taken measures to tighten its borders and reduce important magnets for labour migration. Furthermore, the undocumented  migration,  although  it  still  favoured  the disintegration of nation States during the aftermath of the cold admission   of   migrants   with   needed   skills.   Regional war resulted in substantial population movements among the cooperation on the management of international migration newly independent States and these movements were also was  considered  to  have  serious  limitations  when,  as  in directed    to    third    countries.    Female    participation    in Southern Africa, countries with 40-fold income differentials international migration, while it did not increase markedly in had a common border. percentage terms at the global level (the proportion rose from 47 to 48 per cent of all migrants between 1965 and 1990), became more evident in some regions and in certain types of flows. II.  International migration and development 5. The examination of the interrelations of international migration  and  development  suggested  that  the  stage  of development   in   which   countries   found   themselves,   by determining the degree of their articulation with the world economy,  had  a  significant  influence  on  the  international migration that they experienced. The globalization of capital and trade flows as well as the emergence of regional economic cooperation mechanisms was already having an impact on migration. Moreover, there was evidence that when regional trading  blocs   included  countries   at  different  stages   of development, economic integration was likely to stimulate migration.  Thus,  in  the  case  of the  North  American  Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, Mexico and the United States, migration flows from Mexico to the United States were well established and had not abated since the Agreement  was ratified. Furthermore, even assuming that Mexico’s economy would grow at a robust pace, migration was  expected to continue at moderate levels until at least 2030.  Consequently,  it  was  considered  important  to  seek bilateral solutions to the problems such migration raised and to find ways of accommodating it. In Southern Africa, the Republic of South Africa had long been the main magnet of migration in the region, although the problems facing the country in the post-apartheid era were reducing its capacity to absorb migrant labour. The reduction in legally sanctioned labour  migration  to  South  Africa  was  having  deleterious effects   on   the   development   prospects   of  neighbouring countries,  many  of  which  depended  on  the  remittances generated by labour migration. Economic cooperation among countries in the region was being pursued through various intergovernmental organizations such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC). SADC had also attempted to  coordinate  efforts  for  the  management  of  international migration  but  with  little  success  so  far.  South  Africa  had 6. The  Symposium examined the extent to which such factors  as  poverty and  environmental  degradation  caused South-to-North migration. An econometric analysis relating, inter alia, income levels and deforestation in countries of origin  to  their  rates  of emigration  to  developed  countries showed  that  low  income  levels  reduced  emigration  while incomes beyond a certain threshold increased emigration. In addition, growing levels of deforestation tended to increase emigration. These findings and a review of those from other studies   indicated   that   the   links   between   poverty   or environmental degradation and international migration were complex. Because of the high costs involved in international migration, poverty generally reduced the capacity to migrate unless  other  factors  forced  people  to  engage  in  “survival migration”. Environmental degradation was mainly expected to have an indirect effect on migration by affecting economic conditions which in turn could stimulate departure. However, environmental crises could be the direct cause of population movements,  most  of  which  tended  to  occur  within  State borders. III.  Analysis of factors generating international migration 7. It   was   noted   that   the   analysis   of  the   causes   of international migration was hampered by the lack of adequate data. The Symposium took note of the specialized migration surveys  carried  out  by  the  Netherlands  Interdisciplinary Demographic  Institute  (NIDI)  under  the  auspices  of  the European Union (EU) to gather the data needed to assess both the   proximate   and   the   root   causes   of  migration   from developing  to  developed  countries.  The  surveys,  which covered both countries of origin and countries of destination, gathered   comparable   information  on  both  international migrants and persons in the countries of origin who did not migrate,  thus  providing  the  ideal  reference  group  for  the analysis of the causes of migration. They also made an effort to  gather  information  at  the  individual,  household  and community levels,  thus  allowing  the  analysis  of  both  the micro-  and  macrolevel  factors  leading  to  migration.  The surveys  were  carried  out  on  statistically  representative samples so that their results would have the generality that E/CN.9/1999/3 5 many other studies lacked. The survey results were expected Asian countries of origin had adopted a series of measures to to be available for analysis by the end of 1998. protect female migrants. However, their  enforcement was 8. Remittances    were    recognized    as    an    important mechanism  through  which  international  migration  could influence development. The Symposium reviewed the high levels of remittances received by the main countries of origin and  took  note  of  efforts  made  to  incorporate  the  use  of remittances into a revised economic theory of migration (the “new economics of labour migration”) according to which migration was seen as a means by which households could diversify  risk  and  gain  access  to  the  capital  needed  for productive  investment  in  contexts  where  local  financial institutions could not make capital available at reasonable cost. From this perspective, remittances were expected to play a key role in improving the productive capacity of households 10.     Having noted that economic globalization had important with members abroad. To test this hypothesis, information on implications for the international movement of workers, the the  allocation  of the  full  income  received  by households, Symposium focused on developments regarding the migration whether from migrants or not, was necessary. The Symposium of  highly  skilled  personnel.  Such  migration,  which  had noted that studies relative to communities with the requisite become a major element of contemporary flows, took many data had corroborated that remittances had a positive effect forms, including the movement of professional transients, on the allocation of household income to productive activities; business  transfers  and  the  permanent  migration  of highly that is to say, remittances were indeed being used to enhance skilled persons. However, the data on the issue were poor, productive capacity and could therefore have a positive effect inconsistent and seldom differentiated by sex. Yet there was on the economic development of the communities of origin. evidence  that  both  developed  countries  and  the  newly However, the possibility that the economic environment that industrializing economies of the developing world had been encouraged  out-migration  might  also  tend  to  limit  the taking special measures to attract workers with needed skills. potential of remittances to stimulate development could not Nevertheless,  there  were  still  many  instances  in  which be discarded. Poor market infrastructure and lack of credit     receiving   countries   set   barriers   to   the   recognition   of facilities made it difficult to realize the development potential     qualifications   obtained   abroad,   thus   preventing   skilled of remittances. The Symposium noted that, by dealing with migrants from practising the occupations for which they were such  constraints,  countries  of  origin  could  increase  the best   suited.   There   was   also   growing   concern   among potential positive contributions of remittances to broad-based developing countries about the loss of skilled personnel vital income growth. for  their  development.  Because  skilled  persons  tended  to 9. The   high   levels   of   participation   of   women   in international migration since at least 1960 were underscored by   the   Symposium.   Growing   opportunities   to   secure employment abroad had been responsible for increasing the visibility  of  female  migrant  workers,  especially  in  Asia. Although  the   rising  participation  of  women  in  labour migration implied that they had the opportunity of earning 11.     The   Symposium   noted   that   the   free   temporary better  salaries  abroad,  it  remained  true  that  most  female movement of persons as service providers had been formally migrant  workers  tended  to  be  concentrated  in  low  status accepted under the General Agreement on Trade in Services occupations that provided minimal or no prospects of socio- (GATS)  and that labour-abundant countries might consider economic  mobility  in  the  receiving  State.  Furthermore, developing  their  human  resources  so  as  to  enhance  their women working in certain occupations, such as domestic and service  providing  capabilities  and  thus  reduce  migration entertainment  services,   were   particularly  vulnerable   to pressures. In addition, developing countries might consider exploitation  and  harassment.  In  Asia,  a  complex  set  of     cooperative  arrangements  among  themselves  to  develop institutions  had  developed  to  organize  and  manage  the service  packages  that  could  strengthen  their  position  in migration of workers, including female workers. Aware of the bidding for international contracts. risks faced by women migrating on their own to work abroad, difficult  and  violations  continued  to  occur.  In  developed regions,  the  migration  of women  had  taken  place,  mostly under family reunification but this did not mean that migrant women were devoid of economic motivations for migration. In fact, the labour force participation of female migrants in developing countries was usually moderate to high despite the fact that, in certain countries, women who had been admitted as dependants did not automatically have the right to work. The risks involved in international migration notwithstanding, the Symposium considered that the migration experience had the potential of enhancing the status of female migrants and contributing to their empowerment. migrate to countries with flourishing economies, developing countries  with  stagnant  economies  had  difficulty  in  both attracting  and  retaining  skilled  personnel.  International collaboration was judged necessary to ensure that developing countries were not deprived of the skills needed to sustain development. 2 E/CN.9/1999/3 6 IV.  Addressing the employment of migrants in an irregular situation 12.     Noting that many countries had been experiencing a growing informalization of their economy, the Symposium focused  attention  on  the  interrelations  between  irregular employment   (that   is   to   say,   employment   violating   the standards   set   by   labour    laws   and   regulations)    and international  migration.  The  cases  of  five  countries  — Germany,  Hungary,  Italy,  South  Africa  and  Venezuela  — were  considered.  Although  irregular  employment  could involve national workers, foreigners had a higher propensity to take up such work because of their weak legal position and social vulnerability. Both irregular migration and the irregular employment of migrants resulted from the conflict between a real demand for unskilled workers and restrictive migration policies that banned or hindered their admission. In countries with  economies  in  transition,  the  political  and  economic transformation that they were undergoing also contributed to the increase of irregular migration. Governments’ attempts at using further regulation to reduce irregular employment had often  failed  and  increased  the  vulnerability  of  migrants. Despite the fact that migrants taking up irregular employment were  contributing  to  the  economic  prosperity of  the  host society, public perceptions about irregular migration were often extremely negative and were fuelling xenophobic or racist reactions. By continuing to target irregular migrants as if they were the sole source of the problem, Governments might be exacerbating the problem. To be effective, policies to combat irregular migration should take a holistic approach based on a better understanding of the economic role of the informal  sector,  the  need  for  unskilled  labour,  and  the interests  of  employers  engaged  in  hiring  workers  under irregular conditions. Further preconditions for more effective policy formulation included improved monitoring of irregular movements and irregular employment, and more information on the employment and social situation of irregular migrants. 13.     Given  the  continued  significance  of  migration  for employment, the Symposium examined the effectiveness of the   special   institutions   and   procedures   that   had   been established by a number of countries of origin to protect the basic  rights  of  their  workers  employed  abroad.  The  case studies considered focused on Bangladesh, Mexico, Morocco and the Philippines. The need for protection arose because of different circumstances in diverse settings. In some cases it was necessary because of the weak labour institutions in the countries of destination, while in others it stemmed from the irregular status of migrants in the country of employment. Exploitation  of  migrants  when  in  the  hands  of  labour recruiters  and  other  intermediaries  was  also  a  common problem requiring  State  intervention.  Countries  of origin varied  in  the  extent  to  which  Governments  had  adopted proactive policies for the protection of migrant workers. In the Philippines, where institutional arrangements to organize and  control the recruitment of migrant workers were well developed, an assessment of their efficiency as perceived by policy  makers,  non-governmental  organizations  and  the migrant   workers   themselves   was   carried   out.   Though preliminary and still subject to methodological improvement, the study revealed that there was considerable satisfaction with the institutions and policies in place. In other countries where such institutions were either lacking or less developed, similar assessments did not seem possible. Furthermore, it was pointed out that countries of origin were often in a weak position to protect their migrants abroad, since the authorities in  countries  of  destination  generally  had  the  power  to establish conditions of work and, in case of violations, might not  have  the  will  or  the  means  to  protect  the  migrants involved. Countries that considered the export of labour a vital part of their economic strategies often lacked the market power or the political will to demand effective protection of their citizens as a condition for deployment. Employers keen on minimizing costs as well as recruitment agents and labour brokers required close supervision to prevent their abuse of power  and  the  consequent  mistreatment  of migrants.  The Symposium considered that the best framework within which to ensure the effective protection of migrant workers was a partnership between the Governments of countries of origin and those of countries of employment, since their common interest  ought  to  be  the  equitable  treatment  of  migrant workers.  Countries  of  employment,  in  particular,  had  an interest in preventing the exploitation of foreigners which was often  at  the root of their  unfair  competition with national workers and which might lead to the polarization of the host society. Ensuring the protection of the rights of migrants was considered a key precondition for migration to be mutually beneficial. In achieving that goal, heed had to be paid to the standards   set   by   existing   international   human   rights instruments and ILO conventions on the rights and treatment of  migrant workers. The Symposium stressed that, where actively pursued, policies by countries of origin did have a positive  effect  on  the  protection  of  migrants  abroad  and contributed to making migration more orderly. V.  Improving the position of immigrants and foreign residents in receiving countries: social and cultural issues E/CN.9/1999/3 7 14.     Aware  that,  because  of  the  increasing  number  of     to the impact of return migration by considering the cases of international migrants and the diversification of migration Jamaica, Jordan, the State of Kerala in India, Senegal and flows, more countries were hosting sizeable populations of     Turkey. Ideally, return migration should occur on a voluntary long-term foreign residents, the Symposium decided to focus basis. However, there were many circumstances in which on  the  issues  raised  by  their  status  in  the  host  society. return was less than voluntary, particularly when changed Particular attention was given to the economic integration,     conditions  in  the  country  of  employment,  such  as  those social mobility, educational opportunities and cultural identity     resulting  from  a  recession,  political  instability  or  war, of resident foreigners, immigrants and their children. The produced a large outflow of return migrants. Not only did the studies  considered  focused  on  Australia,  Canada  and  the conditions  of return  vary,  but  so  did  the  impact  of return United States; France, Germany and the Netherlands; Japan; migration on the countries of origin: In some cases, returning and Malaysia. The main issue addressed was how to prevent migrants appeared to have made almost no contribution to the economic, social and cultural marginalization of resident development;  in  others,  positive  effects  appeared  to  have foreigners, especially when such marginalization was linked occurred. Because countries had generally not taken explicit to ethnicity or race. Experience had proved that, whatever the measures   to   facilitate   the   reinsertion   of  returnees,   an original intentions of migrants, employers and Governments, assessment of policy interventions could not be carried out. migration often led to the settlement of some proportion of     It  was  suggested  that  the  provision  of  counselling  and all the international migrants admitted by receiving countries.     information,  as  well  as  assistance  in  obtaining  access  to Therefore, migration policies should take this outcome into credit, was a factor conducive to a successful reinsertion and account, especially because the short-term ad hoc measures to the maximization of the positive effects of return migration. that  had  been  common  in  many countries  were  failing  to However,  equity  considerations  (vis-à-vis  non-migrants) prevent marginalization. A comprehensive long-term strategy     often precluded the establishment of special credit schemes was needed to ensure the socio-economic integration of long- for returning migrants. It was noted that returnees were more term foreign residents, mainly in regard to their position in likely to  prepare  and  plan  for  their  return  if  advised  and the labour market, their access to educational opportunities, supported by governmental agencies and non-governmental and their prospects of social mobility. It was also necessary     organizations. Maintenance of social networks in the country to recognize and respect the desire of foreigners to maintain of  origin  appeared  to  be  crucial  to  ensuring  a  successful their   linguistic,   cultural   and   religious   practices.   The reintegration.  Cooperation  between  the  Governments  of experience of countries of immigration provided evidence countries of origin and those of countries of destination, with regarding  which  policies  were  most  likely to  bring  about the   assistance   of   international   organizations   and   non- satisfactory results, although it was recognized that policies governmental  organizations,  was  considered  a  means  of and practices needed to be adapted to each context. Public developing better strategies to facilitate return and ensure a information and education aimed at increasing the public’s beneficial reintegration process, especially in cases where tolerance were considered crucial, since even the best policies large numbers of migrants returned simultaneously. could   not   succeed   where   there   was   a   lack   of  public understanding and support for them. The Symposium warned that the lack of appropriate social and cultural policies having broad-based public support could lead to social tensions by making the local population feel threatened and the foreigners feel insecure and excluded. VI.  Releasing the development potential of return migrants 15.     Despite the tendency of some migrants to settle abroad, many others had returned to their countries of origin; but, although return migration was recognized as an important process, there was limited information on its magnitude and public authorities did not attach sufficient importance to the conditions of return. The Symposium aimed to call attention E/CN.9/1999/3 8 VII.  Responding to the arrival of asylum-seekers 16.     Recognizing   the   growing   importance   of   forced migration and, particularly, the issues raised by the rising numbers of persons in need of protection who did not qualify as   refugees,   the   Symposium   considered   the   changing responses to the arrival of asylum-seekers in different regions of the world. It was recognized that people were generally impelled to migrate by a complex mix of factors, which might include individual persecution as well as economic needs, family ties, environmental problems and other considerations. One of the key problems confronting the institution of asylum was considered to be the very real difficulty in deciding in the case  of each  particular  asylum-seeker  whether  individual persecution  was   the   major   cause   of  flight.   Developed countries  faced  with  rising  costs  from  the  processing  of asylum claims were reluctant to continue supporting refugees abroad. Developing countries, in turn, were becoming less generous in admitting and protecting refugees and asylum- seekers. In order to safeguard the institution of asylum, it seemed  essential  to  ensure  compliance  with  basic  human rights norms and to safeguard fundamental principles such as the right to asylum in the event of individual persecution and the principle of non-refoulement. To address the new situation,  it  seemed  necessary  to  search  for  a  range  of measures that responded to the diversity of protection needs, including the use of flexible responses such as the granting of temporary protection. It was also crucial to make return feasible, both for asylum-seekers whose claims for asylum had been rejected and for those whose period of temporary protection had ended. To achieve this end, receiving countries needed  to  engage  countries  of  origin  in  a  constructive dialogue with a view to negotiating practical solutions. It was noted  that  a  number  of  receiving  countries  had  already concluded readmission agreements with selected countries of   origin.   In   implementing   return   movements,   it   was important for the authorities of receiving countries to ensure the legality and legitimacy of their return practices. 17.     In developed countries, asylum procedures had become the  operational  mechanism  for  resolving  the  dilemma  of migration control versus refugee protection. The rising costs of processing asylum claims had compromised the availability of funds to support refugees in poorer countries. To reduce those costs, receiving countries were adopting increasingly stringent  non-admission  policies  that  had  the  potential  of preventing  bona  fide  refugees  from  seeking  asylum.  In developing countries, not only was there a growing reluctance to  admit  refugees  but,  in  addition,  the  physical  security, dignity and material safety of those admitted could not always be guaranteed. In Africa, the economic hardships that many countries were undergoing had reduced their willingness to share scarce resources with others. The continued availability of asylum options depended not only on burden-sharing but also on a new understanding of the security concerns of the countries   involved.   In  both  developed  and  developing countries,  public  support  for  refugee  and  asylum-seeker protection   had   been   eroding.   It   was   important   for Governments to change public perceptions. Public education plus effective and well-managed refugee and asylum-seeker programmes seemed essential to restore public confidence. VIII. Panel session on future policy directions 18.     The Symposium concluded with a panel discussion that highlighted the main findings and policy implications of the debates. The importance of international cooperation based on  an  appropriate  balance  of the  concerns  of the  various parties  was  stressed.  The  international  harmonization  of migration and asylum policies seemed a long-term goal which was most likely to be reached at the regional level. Attention was drawn to the gulf between formal rights and the actual treatment of migrants. The need to create conditions favouring the full participation of migrants in society was underscored. Despite globalization, States still had considerable power to control   international   migration.   However,   ill-conceived control  mechanisms  or  disproportionate  focus  on  control might be contributing to the rise in irregular migration. It was stressed that nobody wanted to be an illegal migrant. The challenge was to create conditions that made this unnecessary. 19.     The Symposium helped to highlight the need for better collection   and   analysis   of  data   on   various   aspects   of international migration. Lack of reliable information often led to the perpetuation of myths about migration that were a weak basis  for  policy  formulation.  International  migration  had clearly become  a  major  concern  in  domestic  and  foreign policy.  A  better  understanding  of  its  complexities  and dynamics was needed to maximize the benefits of migration for all concerned. E/CN.9/1999/3 9 IX. Dissemination of the results of the Technical Symposium 20.     A  detailed  report  of  the  deliberations  taking  place during the Symposium was published as part of the activities of the Working Group on Migration of the ACC Task Force on  Basic  Social  Services  for  All.  It  has  been  distributed among both government officials and interested scholars. In addition, the unedited papers presented at the Symposium have been collected in a bound volume that is available upon request. Selected papers were accepted for publication in a special issue of the journal International Migration, where they will appear in revised form in 1999. Notes Report of the International Conference on Population and 1 Development, Cairo, 5–13 September 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.95.XIII.18), chap. I, resolution 1, annex. See Legal Agreements Embodying the Results of the 2 Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994 (GATT secretariat publication, Sales No. GATT/1994–7). E/CN.9/1999/3 10 Annex List of documents Session 2.    The dimensions of international migration 1. International migration levels, trends and what existing data systems reveal Session 3.    International migration and development 1. Poverty and environmental degradation as root causes of international migration: a critical assessment 2. Regional economic integration and international migration: the case of NAFTA 3. Sub-Saharan Africa: is regional integration a relevant factor affecting the changes taking place in international migration? Session 4.    Analysis of factors generating international migration 1. A multi-country approach to studying the determinants of migration 2. The new economics of labour migration and the role of remittances in the migration process 3. The processes generating the migration of women 4. The need to import skilled personnel: factors favouring and hindering its international mobility Session 5.    Addressing the employment of migrants in an irregular situation 1. The case of Hungary 2. The case of Germany 3. The case of Italy 4. The case of South Africa 5. The case of Venezuela Session 6.    Enhancing the capabilities of emigration countries to protect men and women destined for low-skilled employment 1. The case of the Philippines 2. The case of Bangladesh 3. The case of Morocco 4. The case of Mexico E/CN.9/1999/3 11 Session 7.    Improving the position of immigrants and foreign residents in receiving countries: social and cultural issues 1. The case of traditional settlement countries: Australia, Canada and the United States of America 2. The case of long-standing receiving countries in Europe: France, Germany and the Netherlands 3. The case of a new receiving country in the developed world: Japan 4. The case of a new receiving country in the developing world: Malaysia Session 8.    Releasing the development potential of return migrants 1. The case of Jordan 2. The case of Senegal 3. The case of Jamaica 4. The case of Kerala, India 5. The case of Turkey Session 9.    Responding to the arrival of asylum-seekers 1. Migrants and asylum-seekers: comparative policy responses 2. Control versus protection in asylum procedures 3. Unsuccessful asylum-seekers: the problem of return 4. The  end  of  asylum?  The  changing  nature  of  refugee  policies  in  Africa  and  other developing regions