The present report reviews the progress achieved by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat in implementing its programme of work in the field of population in 1997. It covers the activities of the Population Division in the subprogrammes dealing with the analysis of demographic variables at the world level; world population projections; population policy and socio-economic development; monitoring, review and appraisal, coordination and dissemination of population information; and technical cooperation in population. Other continuing activities of the Population Division are also described.
|II. Analysis of demographic variables at the world level||6-17|
|III. World population projections||18-28|
|IV. Population policy and socio-economic development||28-38|
|V. Monitoring, review and appraisal, coordination and dissemination of population information||
|VI. Technical cooperation||50-52|
|Publications, expert group meetings and other materials prepared by the Population Division, 1997|
(a) Providing accurate and timely data, information and analyses of population trends and policies; identifying new and emerging issues, and initiating studies thereof, in support of the Commission on Population and Development, the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly, other intergovernmental bodies and the international community;
2. The present report deals with the research and technical cooperation work and information activities carried out by the Population Division during 1997. The activities are grouped according to the subprogrammes of the programme budget for the biennium 1996-1997.
3. The Population Division has made every effort to implement the programme of work adopted by the Commission on Population and Development and endorsed by the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly. The work programme for the biennium 1996-1997 was formulated and implemented within the basic framework set forth in the medium-term plan for the period 1992-1997, taking into account the recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and other relevant international conferences.
4. Delays in the implementation of programmed outputs continued during 1997 as a consequence of the measures taken by the Secretary-General in response to the financial situation of the Organization.
5. The Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs continued to collaborate closely with agencies, programmes and other bodies of the United Nations system in the implementation of the work programme and in connection with the follow-up activities to the International Conference on Population and Development. In addition, the Division maintained close collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in carrying out technical assistance activities within the technical support services/country support team system.
II. Analysis of demographic variables at the world level
A. Fertility and family planning
6. During 1997, work was completed on the study entitled "Evolving patterns of fertility behaviour in developing countries", which examines levels and trends in fertility as indicated by most recent data made available from censuses and surveys undertaken in developing countries. Data gathered for the study are also used to update two computerized databases for the monitoring and analysis of fertility and family planning situations.
7. The findings of the study show that during the period under review -- from about 1970 to about 1990 -- all but a very few developing countries experienced an overall decline in fertility. However, the timing of the onset, and the pace and pattern of decline varied. With regard to the pattern of fertility, it is observed that age-specific fertility rates declined at all ages in nearly all the developing countries reviewed in the study. For countries that have reached a low level of fertility, a new pattern of fertility, similar to the one observed in the West, is emerging, in that childbearing appears to be concentrated in the central age groups of reproductive span.
8. A wall chart has been issued, entitled "World fertility patterns 1997", covering 167 countries and areas and 90 per cent of the population of the world. The wall chart depicts in a vivid manner the levels and trends of fertility in terms of total fertility rate, annual percentage change in the level of fertility and age-specific fertility rates. In addition, the wall chart displays patterns of fertility and changes therein in the form of graphs for all the subregions of the world. A global map exhibiting the levels of fertility in respective countries of the world is also displayed on the wall chart.
9. A recently issued study, entitled "Family building and family planning evaluation", uses a new approach to the analysis of fertility behaviour and the impact of family planning programmes on fertility. The methodology developed in the study was used to analyse fertility experience in 15 selected developing countries, representing various regions of the world. Results of the study show that as of the late 1980s, contraceptive use reduced total fertility rates in the 15 countries by between 0.8 and 4.8 children.
10. The Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat organized an expert group meeting on below- replacement fertility at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 4 to 6 November 1997. The purpose of the meeting was to get the view of experts on how fertility levels may evolve in countries which are already exhibiting fertility below replacement. Will they remain below replacement? Will fertility rise back towards or ever reach replacement? The experts examined recent fertility trends in those countries, determinants of below-replacement fertility, future expectations for fertility, consequences of sustained below-replacement fertility, and policy and programme options. The Population Division prepared two of the background papers for the expert group meeting, one on recent fertility trends in countries with below-replacement fertility and one on future expectations for fertility levels in those countries.
11. A major activity of the Population Division in the area of mortality was the organization of a symposium on health and mortality in collaboration with the Government of Belgium, the municipal government of Flanders and the Population and Family Study Centre. The symposium, which took place at Brussels from 19 to 22 November 1997, addressed a variety of issues related to the health status and mortality risks of the adult population in developed and developing countries, as well as in countries with economies in transition. The topics discussed included the varying experiences of world regions regarding mortality, epidemiological and health transitions; the problems faced in measuring mortality levels and mortality by cause of death, particularly in developing countries; the various approaches to the measurement of health status and their limitations; the health and mortality situation in developed countries, countries with economies in transition and developing countries; and the relevance of risk factors underlying major causes of death for the formulation of health interventions.
12. Also in the area of adult mortality, the Population Division is undertaking a review of the state of current methodology to estimate adult mortality in countries with incomplete or deficient data. A preliminary review has been completed, which indicates that advances in indirect methods for the estimation of adult mortality are unlikely to yield, by themselves, a better set of estimates on the mortality of persons over age 10. It is essential to improve the availability and quality of the basic data if reliable estimates of adult mortality are to be obtained for the majority of developing countries.
13. Continuing the systematic compilation and analysis of data allowing the estimation of mortality in childhood, databases containing both the basic data available and the estimates derived from them have been compiled for the three developing regions: Africa, Asia and Latin America. The data set for each region is issued under the Child Mortality Database. That Database complements and expands the coverage attained in the series entitled Child Mortality by Sex. In preparing both Databases (the one referring to estimates by sex and that for both sexes combined), all the data available for each country have been included, together with appropriate references to their source and character. In addition, for each country the database contains the estimates derived from the data sets available, presented both in numerical terms and in graphs allowing an assessment of their overall consistency. Those Databases have been used as the basis for the preparation of the chapter entitled "Child mortality" of the 1998 World Population Monitoring Report.
C. International migration
14. Two reports analysing specific aspects of international migration levels and trends are nearing completion. The first, entitled "Trends in the migrant stock", will include a detailed analysis of the estimates of trends in the migrant stock derived from information on the foreign-born and the foreign population enumerated by censuses. It will have a global and regional focus since the estimates obtained are more robust at the regional level than at the level of specific countries.
15. The second report, entitled "International migration in Asia", will include an analysis of levels and trends of various types of international migrants in the region. In particular, it will document the changing trends in the flows of migrant workers between Asian countries, as well as recent developments regarding the increasing levels of undocumented migration directed to the newly industrializing countries of Eastern and South-eastern Asia. Attention is also being given to the analysis of trends in the number of refugees in the region and of changes in their distribution by country of origin.
16. As a complement to the analysis of labour migration flows in Asia, a database including all the information available on such flows has been prepared. Issued under the title Labour Flows from Asian Countries, it compiles the statistics generated by countries of origin as a by-product of the control of worker migration.
D. Internal migration
17. An in-depth analysis of country-level estimates of rural-urban migration and estimates of the components of urban growth derived from intercensal comparisons is being completed, and will be issued under the title "The components of urban growth in developing countries". That report builds upon the general overviews of the estimates available that were prepared in previous years, and discusses changing trends in rural-urban migration since 1960 at the country and subregional levels.
III. World population projections
A. World population estimates and projections: the 1996 and 1998 revisions
18. Completion of the 1996 revision of world population estimates and projections was announced to the Commission at its thirtieth session. At that time the annex tables, the wall chart World Population 19962 and a computer database on diskettes had been published. Since then, the report The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Population: The 1996 Revision3 has been published. The final report, World Population Prospects: The 1996 Revision has been sent for editing.
19. The 1996 Revision contains an extensive analysis of recent demographic trends, with specific chapters dealing with population size and growth; fertility; mortality; international migration; the demographic impact of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 28 countries; a detailed comparison between the results of the 1994 revision and the results of the 1996 Revision; methodology; sources of data and demographic methods.
20. The Population Division has recently completed the updating of its long-range population projections. The report presents population projections for the world until the year 2150, based on the 1996 Revision. There are seven projection scenarios in those long-range projections: the medium, high, low and constant fertility variants extend until 2150 the corresponding assumptions of the 1996 Revision, while the high-medium, low-medium and instant replacement fertility scenarios are additional projections prepared to give a more detailed range of possible future courses of population growth. The projections are prepared for 8 large geographical groupings: Africa, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America, Oceania, China, India, and Asia excluding China and India. The previous set of long-range projections were based on the 1990 revision. The new long-range projections incorporate the extensive new demographic information which has become available between the 1990 revision and the 1996 Revision.
21. Work is currently proceeding on the 1998 revision of the world population estimates and projections. As in the previous revision, the 1998 revision will present a century of demographic estimates and projections, incorporating an estimation period extending from 1950 to 1995 and four projection variants to the year 2050. A planned innovation for the 1998 revision will be an extension of age detail from an upper age limit of 80 years to a new upper limit of 100 years.
22. The above-mentioned innovation was discussed at an expert group meeting on projecting old-age mortality and its consequences held in 1996. In order to make that change, extensive work has been done on the existing life-tables and projection programme. The underlying life-tables have been extended to a level of life expectancy of 87.5 years for males and 92.5 years for females.
B. Urban, rural and city population estimates and projections: the 1996 and 1998 revisions
23. Preliminary results of the 1996 revision of urban, rural and city population estimates and projections were announced at the time of the thirtieth session of the Commission. The final results were published as annex tables and were also issued as databases in May 1997. The wall charts Urban Agglomerations, 19964 and Urban and Rural Areas, 19965 have been published. The report World Urbanization Prospects: The 1996 Revision has been issued as a working paper prior to its formal publication.
24. The report will provide an extensive analysis of the prospects of urbanization and city growth in the world; a description of the methodology used; and sources of data. Some of the major results emerging from the report are detailed below.
25. At mid-1996, 46 per cent of the world population were urban dwellers. Between 1990 and 1995, 59 million persons were added annually to the world urban population. About 80 per cent of the new urban dwellers were located in the less developed regions. According to those results, half of the world population will be living in urban areas by 2006. The world urban population grew at a rate of 2.4 per cent per annum between 1990 and 1995, a slower pace of urbanization than previously exhibited. Over three fifths of the world population will be urban by 2030, five years later than previously anticipated.
26. Tokyo is the largest urban agglomeration in the world, with 27.2 million residents in 1996, more than one and half times as large as the world's second agglomeration, Mexico City, with 16.9 million. It is followed by Sao Paulo (16.8 million), New York (16.4 million) and Bombay (15.7 million). The rest of the 16 mega-cities in 1996, which are defined as urban agglomerations with 10 million or more, includes Shanghai (13.7 million), Los Angeles (12.6 million), Calcutta (12.1 million), Buenos Aires (11.9 million), Seoul (11.8 million), Beijing (11.4 million), Lagos (10.9 million), Osaka (10.6 million), Delhi (10.3 million), Rio de Janeiro (10.3 million) and Karachi (10.1 million).
27. Planning for the 1998 revision of urban, rural and city population estimates and projections has begun. As discussed at the nineteenth session of the ACC Subcommittee on Demographic Estimates and Projections, there will be initial consultations with the regional commissions concerning data availability.
IV. Population policy and socio-economic development
A. Population policies
28. One of the major activities of the work programme in 1997 was the preparation of the questionnaire for the United Nations Eighth Population Inquiry Among Governments. With input from the regional commissions and a number of United Nations specialized agencies, a new questionnaire was drafted, which will be a crucial input to the review and appraisal process to be undertaken in 1999. In addition to a number of core questions from previous United Nations inquiries, the Eighth Inquiry contains a number of questions which will attempt to assess to what extent the Cairo consensus on women's reproductive health and rights has been translated into population policies.
29. In 1997, the study entitled "International migration policies" was revised and expanded and submitted for publication. The study aims at contributing to a better understanding of migratory problems and responses, by offering a comparative overview of policies in regard to migration for permanent settlement; labour migration; refugee and asylum seekers, and undocumented migration. In addition, it examines such issues as family reunification; nationality and citizenship; and policies in regard to economic, social, political and cultural integration of immigrants. The publication is expected to provide an important technical reference for the technical symposium on international migration being organized by the Working Group on International Migration of the ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services of All, and for future discussions of international migration in the General Assembly.
30. During 1997, the volume entitled World Population Policies was completed. The publication consists of a consolidated one-volume overview of trends in population policies for 190 countries. The volume includes data sheets showing trends in national population policies from 1976 to 1996 for each of the 190 countries, as well as an overview chapter, describing and analysing trends in population policy at the regional and global levels.
31. The sixth edition of the population policy database Global Population Policy Database, 1997 (GRIPP:1997) is due to be completed in the first quarter of 1998.
32. In addition, a database on population policies is currently being developed with the aim of providing access to information to a wider range of users, as well as facilitating cross-country and time-series analysis. It will integrate all data collected by the Population Policy Section that are currently available in computer format. The database is being developed using Microsoft Access, and will include a powerful and user-friendly search tool. A comprehensive description of the information contained in the database is also being prepared.
33. Based on material contained in the population policy data bank, briefing notes for the Secretary-General were prepared on population issues in 31 countries (Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, China, the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Haiti, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Malawi, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden, the United Republic of Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe).
B. Population and development
34. The Working Group on Projecting Old-Age Mortality and Its Consequences was convened by the Population Division in December 1996. Two reports based on its discussions were issued in 1997: "Projecting old-age mortality and its consequences" and "Future directions in research on the demography of ageing". In the light of the topics identified in those reports as needing further research at the international level, the Population Division has begun preparation of an updated demographic overview of population age-structures and population ageing.
35. The "Wall chart on basic social services for all", which was released during the Commission's thirtieth session in 1997, has been very well received. The Division made special efforts during 1997 to distribute the Chart, working with the Department of Public Information as well as with the agencies, programmes and funds that are members of the ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All. An Internet version of the Chart was developed during 1997.
36. Two outputs connected with the data bank on Population, Resources, Environment and Development (PRED Bank) were issued in their final form during 1997: "User's Guide to the Population, Resources, Environment and Development Data Base (PRED Bank, Version 2.1)" and "National trends in population, resources, environment and development: country profiles". Work on the PRED Bank was one of the areas affected by the funding crisis in the United Nations Secretariat. Planning work has, however, begun for the next version of the data bank, which is included in the programme of work for the 1998-1999 biennium.
37. The report "Government views on population and the environment" has been issued. The report reviews official governmental statements, national reports and the draft and final documents adopted at major intergovernmental conferences dealing with population, environment and development issues from the early 1970s through the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994. The review found that by the time of the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, Governments expressing concern with population-and-environment imbalances included a substantial majority of the population of both developed and developing countries. The study had previously been issued in working paper form.
38. Ongoing work in the area of population and poverty has been reoriented and broadened to include a review of recent work relating economic and demographic trends. That work will be relevant to the theme of the World Population Monitoring Report for 1999, which will include attention to the interrelationships between demographic and economic trends, including poverty.
V. Monitoring, review and appraisal, coordination and dissemination of population information
A. Monitoring of population trends and policies
39. At its thirty-first session, the Commission on Population and Development will have before it a concise report on world population monitoring, focusing on health and mortality, with special emphasis on the linkages between health and development and on gender and age (E/CN.9/1998/2). This is the third annual report on a special theme derived from the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, as proposed by the Commission at its twenty-eighth session.
40. The above-mentioned theme corresponds to the issues addressed in chapter VIII of the Programme of Action, together with relevant aspects of chapters IV, V, VI and XII.
41. The preparation of an expanded version of the report has also been completed, and the draft will be made available to the Commission as a working paper. The report provides recent information on selected aspects of health and mortality, including levels and trends of mortality, child survival and health, women's health and safe motherhood, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS, primary health care, mortality and health policies, and issues related to health and development.
42. The report also contains a set of annex tables providing indicators of the current demographic situation in major areas and regions, as well as data on population size and growth, population distribution, and fertility and mortality levels in countries, major areas and regions.
B. Population Information Network
43. During the past year, the Population Division's Population Information Network (POPIN) project promoted the use of new information and communication technologies to extend access to and use of population information worldwide. Emphasis was placed on building capacities within developing country institutions and within the United Nations regional commissions.
44. POPIN's capacity-building efforts were undertaken in collaboration with the United Nations agencies, the regional commissions and non-governmental population organizations, and included sponsoring the creation of Internet World Wide Web sites and training in use of the Internet as a medium for the dissemination of locally produced population information and data. During 1997, POPIN sponsored the establishment of Web sites at the Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia in Chile, and in Costa Rica, Peru and Argentina. In Africa, global POPIN sponsored the creation of population Web sites in Ethiopia, Egypt, Ghana and Kenya. In Asia and the Pacific, the global POPIN Coordinating Unit provided technical assistance toward the establishment of a Web site for the Population Division of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), and global POPIN and ESCAP jointly provided training towards the creation of Web sites in China, Thailand, India, Fiji, Korea and Indonesia. Global POPIN also continues to provide technical assistance towards the development of Web sites by the UNFPA country support teams in the Asia and Pacific region. In Europe, global POPIN and the Economic Commission for Europe Population Activities Unit sponsored the development of Web sites in Hungary, Latvia and Poland. POPIN also undertook the production of the Internet-accessible Worldwide Directory of Population Institutions. The Directory is searchable by institutional name, geographical location (region, subregion, country) and type of institution.
45. For countries and regions where the Internet is not yet available or readily accessible, the global POPIN Coordinating Unit and the United Nations Development Programme Division of Administrative and Information Services collaborated on the production of a CD-ROM version of the POPIN World Wide Web site. Two limited editions of the CD-ROM were produced. The first was prepared for the Asia and Pacific POPIN Internet Technical Workshop, held at Bangkok in November 1996; a second edition of the CD-ROM was prepared in October 1997 for display and use in the POPIN exhibit of an International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) meeting at Beijing.
46. The global POPIN Coordinating Unit also organized an exhibit of population software and information technologies at the above-mentioned IUSSP meeting held at Beijing in October 1997. The exhibit was a joint effort of global POPIN, the China Population Information and Research Centre, the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and UNFPA.
47. During 1997, the 1993-1997 work programme of the global POPIN Coordinating Unit was evaluated by an independent Consultant. The evaluation can be summarized by the report's final conclusion, which stated that the positive nature of the evaluation reflected the view of the Consultant that POPIN was breaking new ground in international information systems territory. The evaluation report was among the subjects of a meeting of the POPIN Coordinating Committee from 1 to 5 December 1997 in New York.
C. Publication and dissemination of research studies
48. The Population Division continues to publish the results of its research studies in a variety of formats to meet the needs of different audiences. They are widely disseminated to Governments; national and international organizations; research and educational institutions; individuals engaged in social and economic planning, research and training; and the general public. It also continues to develop and maintain databases and software, which are made available on magnetic tape and/or diskette(s). A list of the Population Division's publications and other material issued in 1997 is given in the annex to the present report.
49. The Population Division continues to receive and respond to numerous requests for population information from United Nations organizations, research institutions and individual scholars. It also provides background information to and participates regularly in international conferences and meetings of the inter-agency groups and professional societies. Information from the Population Division has appeared prominently in a number of publications and reports of other United Nations bodies and international conferences and meetings.
VI. Technical cooperation
50. The Population Division provided technical assistance services to 12 projects during 1997 in the areas of population and development training; institutionalizing analysis and research on socio-economic and demographic data obtained from population censuses, surveys and vital registration systems; population policy; and population and development. Such projects have been implemented in 10 developing countries in Africa, Western Asia and countries with economies in transition.
51. During 1997, technical support services specialists in the areas of population data analysis and research, population policies and development strategies, and training for population and development provided substantive support to the eight country support teams and to national projects. The specialists published six state-of-the-art papers in the areas of population and development training, linkages between population and education, and recent findings in population analysis and research. In addition, the specialists participated in various technical meetings, such as a thematic workshop on indicators (New York, 10-14 February 1997), the annual meeting of the Population Association of America (Washington, D.C., 26-29 March 1997) and the Twenty-Third General Population Conference of IUSSP (Beijing, 11-18 October 1997), where specialists presented papers on population and development curricula, and promoting family planning and fertility decline in Africa.
52. Furthermore, the technical support services specialists of the Population Division carried out various missions during 1997. A specialist visited the Sudan to develop a project document for the Population Studies Centre at Gezira University (29 April-9 May 1997) and to update the curriculum of the Programme in Population and Development to reflect the ICPD Programme of Action paradigms. A mission to Egypt (June 1979) reviewed the project design and assessed research outputs from a project implemented by the League of Arab States. A mission to Rwanda (10-24 July 1997) provided assistance in the analysis of the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey. A mission to Nicaragua took place (26 October-2 November 1997) to conduct a seminar for the Master Programme on Sexual and Reproductive Health (School of Medicine of the National University of Nicaragua) on the contribution of the ICPD Programme of Action to the subject of sexual and reproductive health. A specialist visited Pennsylvania State University to discuss the population activities of the United Nations (13 November 1997). A specialist visited the country support team at Addis Ababa and participated in the Tenth Anniversary Workshop of Addis Ababa University's Demographic Training and Research Centre, where he also served as a resource person. Finally, a mission to Yemen (December 1977) reviewed the lessons learned from two recent projects.
1 See Report of the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.95.XIII.18).
2 United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.XIII.14.
3 United Nations publication, Sales No. E.97.XIII.1.
4 United Nations publication, Sales No. E.97.XIII.2.
5 United Nations publication, Sales No. E.97.XIII.3.
Publications, expert group meetings and other materials prepared by the Population Division, 1997
User's guide to the Population, Resources, Environment and Development Data Bank (PRED Bank, version 2.1). ST/ESA/SER.A/168.
International Migration and Development: The Concise Report. ST/ESA/SER.A/164. United Nations publication, Sales No. E.97.XIII.4.
International migration policies. ST/ESA/SER.A/161.
Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health: A Concise Report (Reprint). ST/ESA/SER.A/157. United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.XIII.11.
World Population Monitoring 1996: Selected aspects of reproductive rights and reproductive health. ST/ESA/SER.A/156.
Family-building and family planning evaluation. ST/ESA/SER.R/148.
Government views on the relationships between population and environment. ST/ESA/SER.R/147.
"Projecting old-age mortality and its consequences", report of the Working Group meeting held in New York from 3 to 5 December 1996. Working paper. ESA/P/WP.136.
National trends in population resources, environment and development: country profiles. Working paper. ESA/P/WP.134.
World population monitoring, 1997: issues of international migration and development: selected aspects. Working paper. ESA/P/WP.132.
Too young to die: genes or gender? Working paper. ESA/P/WP.126.
World urbanization prospects: the 1996 revision. Working paper.
Evolving patterns of fertility in developing countries. Working paper.
World population monitoring, 1998: health and mortality. Working paper.
Future directions in research on the demography of ageing. Working paper.
Expert group meetings
Expert group meeting on below-replacement fertility (New York, 4-6 November 1997).
Symposium on health and mortality (Brussels, 19-22 November 1997).
POPIN Coordinating Committee meeting (New York, 1-5 December 1997).
Basic social services for all, 1997. ST/ESA/SER.A/160.
Urban Agglomerations, 1996. ST/ESA/SER.A/163. United Nations publication, Sales No. E.97.XIII.2.
World Fertility Patterns, 1997. ST/ESA/SER.A/165.
Urban and Rural Areas, 1996. ST/ESA/SER.A/166. United Nations publication, Sales No. E.97.XIII.3.
Child Mortality Database.
Child Mortality by Sex.
Database on Fertility Levels.
Database on Contraceptive Use.
Population, Resources, Environment and Development Data Bank (PRED Bank, version 2.1).
Databases on urban and rural areas and on urban agglomerations.
Population Newsletter, Nos. 63 and 64. The Newsletter is issued biannually to provide a wide readership with information on the programme activities of the Population Division; action taken by legislative bodies with competence in the population field; and meetings on population and related issues organized by the Population Division and other United Nations bodies, as well as recent and forthcoming publications of the Population Division.
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