United Nations

E/CN.9/1996/6


Economic and Social Council

 Distr. GENERAL
2 January 1996
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


Commission on Population and Development
Twenty-ninth session
26 February-1 March 1996
Item 4 of the provisional agenda*

  FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS TO THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
 CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT:  REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS
                     AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

    Flow of financial resources in international assistance
                         for population

Report of the Secretary-General


                             SUMMARY

     The present report is in accordance with a provision in the new
terms of reference of the Commission on Population and Development
and its topic-oriented and prioritized multi-year work programme,
which were endorsed by the Economic and Social Council in its
resolution 1995/55, calling upon the Commission to review on a
regular basis the flow of financial resources for assisting in the
implementation of the Programme of Action of the International
Conference on Population and Development and prepare a report
thereon.  The report is also in response to General Assembly
resolution 49/128 (para. 18), in which the Secretary-General is
requested "to prepare periodic reports for the substantive sessions
of the Economic and Social Council on the flow of financial resources
for assisting in the implementation of the Programme of Action".

     Since the Conference, the international donor community has
shown its commitment to achieving the goals and objectives of the
Programme of Action of the Conference, and significant progress has
been made in implementing it.  As a consequence, there is some
evidence of an increasing flow of resources in the form of external
assistance.  Many national Governments are formulating recast and
updated population and development policies in line with the goals
and objectives of the Programme of Action. The information gathered
for this report indicates that several developing countries, despite
unfavourable economic circumstances, have increased domestic
resources or have manifested an increased desire to mobilize
resources for population activities.  More systematic data on
domestic resources, however, need to be collected.

*E/CN.9/1996/1.
========================================================================

                            CONTENTS


                   Paragraphs   Page


INTRODUCTION   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          1 - 8

  I. FLOW OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES PRIOR TO THE
     INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND
     DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           9 -14

     A.Trends in bilateral assistance  . . . . . .               9
     B.Trends in multilateral grant assistance . .           10-11
     C.Trends in multilateral loan assistance  . .              12
     D.Trends in private assistance  . . . . . . .              13
     E.Expenditures by geographical region . . . .              14

 II. POST-CONFERENCE INITIATIVES ON RESOURCE
     MOBILIZATION  . . . . . . . . . .                        15-52

     A.The population component of the Programme of Action    15-20
     B.Related social sectors in the Programme of Action         21
     C.International initiatives on the flow of resources      23-46
     D.National initiatives on the flow of domestic resources  47-52

III. ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR
     POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT  . . . . . . . . .             53-58

IV.  ISSUES CONCERNING THE GATHERING OF RESOURCE
     INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             59-62

 V.  CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             63-65


                             Tables

No.

 1.  Official development assistance (ODA) and share of population
     assistance for major donor countries, 1993  .

 2.  Trends in population assistance, by source of funding, 1990-1993

======================================================================

                          INTRODUCTION

1. In the new terms of reference of the Commission on Population and
Development, which were endorsed by the Economic and Social Council
in its resolution 1995/55, the Commission is called upon to review
on a regular basis the flow of financial resources and the funding
mechanisms needed to achieve the goals and objectives of the
Programme of Action and to prepare an annual report thereon as part
of its topic-oriented and prioritized multi-year work programme.  The
General Assembly, in its resolution 49/128 (para. 18), requests the
Secretary-General "to prepare periodic reports for the substantive
sessions of the Economic and Social Council on the flow of financial
resources for assisting in the implementation of the Programme of
Action and to promote the exchange of information on the requirements
for international assistance among the members of the donor
community".  The present report is in response to those mandates.

2. The Commission on Population and Development requested the United
Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to coordinate the preparation of the
present report, taking into account the contributions of States
Members, relevant organizations of the United Nations system, and
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations.   Since 1986,
UNFPA, on behalf of the Secretary-General, has prepared biennial
reports for the Population Commission on the monitoring of
multilateral population assistance.  Those reports have provided
information on resources made available for population activities by
various agencies and organizations of the United Nations.  The last
such report was presented to the Commission at its twenty-eighth
session.

3. The present report is the first annual report on the flow of
financial resources for the implementation of the Programme of Action
of the International Conference on Population and Development.  The
report is divided into an introduction and five sections.  Section
I contains information on trends in the flow of resources through
1993 and serves as a benchmark against which changes in magnitude,
emphasis and focus since the Conference can be measured, at present
and in subsequent years.  In section II, details of post-Conference
initiatives concerning  resource mobilization are documented.
Section III deals with ongoing research and projects that will help
in further assessments and refinements of the resources required for
the population components contained in the Programme of Action.
Section IV raises some important issues in resource mobilization.
Section V gives the conclusions of the report.


   I.   FLOW OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES PRIOR TO THE INTERNATIONAL
           CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT 1/

4. Trends in the flow of international resources up to 1992 were
outlined in the report on the monitoring of multilateral population
assistance, which  was presented to the Commission on Population and
Development at its twenty-eighth session (E/CN.9/1995/3) showed
trends in the flow of international resources up to 1992.  The
information contained in this section is primarily on flow of
international resources through 1993.  Many of the responses to the
annual questionnaires for 1994 concerning resources made available
by bilateral and multilateral entities have not yet been received by
UNFPA.  However, those data received after the preparation of the
present report, after compilation and analysis, will be made
available to the Commission at its current session.

5. Table 1 shows the position of major donor countries in 1993 with
regard to official development assistance (ODA) and that part of ODA
specifically provided for assisting population activities.  Overall,
ODA amounted to 0.3 per cent of the gross national product (GNP) of
the major donor countries, ranging from about 1.0 per cent of GNP in
Denmark, Norway and Sweden, to less than 0.2 per cent for the United
States of America.  The Programme of Action (para. 14.11) refers to
the agreed target of devoting 0.7 per cent of GNP for total ODA and
calls for increasing the share of funding for population and
development programmes commensurate with the scope and scale of
activities required to achieve the objectives and goals of the
Programme of Action.  In 1993, four countries--Denmark, Norway,
Sweden and the Netherlands--met or exceeded the recommended level of
ODA of 0.7 per cent of GNP.

6. Table 1 also shows population assistance in primary funds, 2/.
The total amount from bilateral sources was $777 million, with the
United States by far the largest donor in absolute terms ($367
million). providing almost half of all bilateral assistance for
population.

7. The share of ODA earmarked for population activities in 1993 was,
however, only 1.4 per cent of the total, and the share of several
major donors in fact fell well below 1 per cent.  It is worth noting
the positive approach to population assistance of countries such as
Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the United States, which devoted
more than 2 per cent of their ODA to the population sector.  Of the
major donor countries, however, only Norway (4.22 per cent) surpassed
the often cited target of 4 per cent of ODA for the population
sector.

8. The overall trends in external population assistance by source of
funding, including loan commitments from the World Bank, for
1990-1993, are summarized in table 2; data for 1994 are not yet
available.  Resources channelled through UNFPA are not included in
the table in order to avoid double-counting, since the reporting of
bilateral flows of population assistance generally includes funds
given to UNFPA.  The table shows that overall international
assistance to the population field increased during the period, from
$972 million in 1990 to $1,310 million in 1993, an increase of almost
35 per cent.

               A.  Trends in bilateral assistance

9. Of total international population assistance in 1990, $669 million
came from bilateral sources; in 1993 the amount had increased to
about $777 million.  This is an increase of about 16 per cent, but
in terms of constant dollars, it represents an increase of only about
9 per cent. In 1990, the share of total population assistance from
bilateral sources was 69 per cent, but this share decreased to 59 per
cent in 1993.

           B.  Trends in multilateral grant assistance

10. Multilateral population assistance is provided by those United
Nations agencies and organizations that carry out population-related
programmes.  For many of those organizations, funds committed to
population activities come primarily from UNFPA and, to a lesser
extent, from their own regular budgets and from other funding
sources.  UNFPA is the most important source of multilateral
population assistance, both because it is the major source of
population funding for other multilateral organizations within the
United Nations system and because of the large number of activities
it supports directly through national population programmes.  In
1993, about 80 per cent of all multilateral population grant
assistance was channelled through UNFPA.  Over the period 1990-1995,
the annual income of UNFPA increased from $212 million to $306
million.

11. In 1990, the United Nations system, excluding UNFPA, provided $86
million, or 9 per cent, of the total amount of assistance for
population.  By 1993, multilateral funds from the United Nations
system, excluding UNFPA, amounted to $66 million, contributing about
5 per cent of total external population resources.  The organizations
and agencies reporting financial flows for population activities
include the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy
Analysis of the United Nations Secretariat, the United Nations
Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World
Health Organization (WHO) and the regional commissions. 3/

           C.  Trends in multilateral loan assistance

12. The World Bank and, increasingly, the regional development banks
are other major multilateral sources of population assistance through
their disbursement of loans and credits.  The World Bank assistance
for population is treated separately because its assistance is in the
form of loans rather than grants.  Moreover, there may be a large and
highly variable gap between the World Bank loan commitments and
actual expenditures.  Also, figures from the World Bank are
multi-year commitments, recorded in the year in which they are
approved but actually pertaining to the full term of the agreement.
World Bank loans in 1990 amounted to $169 million, or 17 per cent,
of total population assistance.  The World Bank made available
approximately $344 million for population assistance in 1993, the
second largest amount the Bank has earmarked for population
assistance since 1984.  Of the total amount, $195 million was
disbursed in the form of international development assistance (IDA)
loans, made at concessionary rates, and $145 million as loans from
the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD),
made at prevailing rates.

                D.  Trends in private assistance

13. As table 2 shows, private sources of population assistance, such
as benevolent foundations, provided $48 million in 1990, about 5 per
cent of total assistance.  By 1993, the amount contributed by private
sources had increased considerably, to $124 million (or 9 per cent
of the total).

           E.  Expenditures by geographical region 4/

14. During the period 1990-1993, international population
expenditures for sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America and the
Caribbean, increased while those for Asia and the Pacific declined.
In 1990, Asia and Pacific received about 35 per cent of total
population expenditures, which declined to 27 per cent by 1993.  The
share for sub-Saharan Africa, which received about 25 per cent of
total expenditures in 1990, increased to 27 per cent in 1993.
Similarly, the share of total expenditures for Latin America and the
Caribbean grew from 15 per cent in 1990 to 18 per cent in 1993.
Interregional programmes also increased as a proportion of total
expenditures, from about 16 per cent in 1990 to 18 per cent in 1993.
There was no noticeable change in population expenditures for Western
Asia, Northern Africa or Europe.


   II.   POST-CONFERENCE INITIATIVES ON RESOURCE MOBILIZATION


     A.  The population component of the Programme of Action

15.The International Conference on Population and Development was the
first United Nations international conference to spell out a schedule
of resource mobilization to achieve a specific set of development
objectives.  This costing out of resource requirements stemmed from
the operational character of the Programme of Action.  The population
components contained in the Programme of Action consist of four
elements, namely:  family planning information and services; other
reproductive health services; programmes for the prevention of
sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency
virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrom (HIV/AIDS); and basic
research, data collection and analysis.  The estimated cost of these
measures is $17 billion a year by 2000, increasing to $21.7 billion
in 2015 (in constant 1994 dollars).  Of the estimated total, the
Programme of Action suggests that, globally, approximately two thirds
of the needed resources in developing countries will have to come
from  domestic sources in the future.  Therefore, it is tentatively
estimated that one third of the projected costs will have to come
from external sources:  $5.7 billion in the year 2000, increasing
to $7.2 billion by 2015.

16. However, the Programme of Action explicitly acknowledges that not
all countries will be able to bear two thirds of the estimated costs
of their own national programmes.  Many countries in Africa,
especially sub-Saharan Africa, will require special assistance
programmes for implementing the population measures of the
Conference.  In situations where the constraints on domestic
resources are most severe, owing to weak economic performance,
inadequate infrastructures, the adverse impacts of structural
adjustment programmes and a shortage of trained personnel, it is
expected that more external population assistance will be required.

17. A substantial proportion of the resources for many national
programmes in Asia is expected to be mobilized from within the
countries themselves, especially those in Eastern Asia and some of
the countries in South-eastern Asia.  However, certain countries
within the region and within the subregion of Southern Asia will
continue to require significant external assistance.

18. The Latin America and the Caribbean programmes will likely
require less than one third of the estimated financial resources
needed from external assistance.  This is due to more developed
governmental programmes and the substantial role of the private
sector and of non-governmental organizations in many countries of the
region.

19.  Northern Africa and Western Asia include countries with diverse
social, economic and programme conditions.  As in Asia, the
proportion of external assistance needed to finance the population
components in the Programme of Action will vary from country to
country.

20.Countries with economies in transition will have significant but
temporary needs for technical assistance to facilitate the
transformation of their population and reproductive health programmes
in order to provide quality family planning information and services.

      B.  Related social sectors in the Programme of Action

21.In order to support other socio-economic development programmes
contained in the Programme of Action, countries will require
financial assistance beyond what has been described for population
measures.  For example, the Programme of Action calls for the
empowerment of women and recognizes the role of education n achieving
it.  Therefore, resources for basic education will have to be
increased substantially.  Similarly, ■health for all■ cannot be
achieved if drinking water and sanitary conditions are not improved.
Achieving these goals will require that resource allocations be
increased from current levels.  The increases will have to be
obtained by mobilizing both domestic and international resources and
by involving all relevant international and national organizations.

22. The Programme of Action of the Conference took note of the
initiative to mobilize resources to give all people access to basic
social services, known as the 20/20 initiative.  The Programme of
Action of the World Summit for Social Development had invited
interested developed and developing country partners to undertake
mutual commitments concerning ODA and national budget levels for
basic social programmes.  Consultations among United Nations
organizations over the past year have further refined the concepts
involved.  The Government of Norway will sponsor an international
meeting in April 1996 to discuss putting into operation such
agreements among interested countries.

     C.  International initiatives on the flow of resources

23. Since the International Conference on Population and Development,
a number of initiatives at the international level have focused on
the question of increasing the flow of resources for the
implementation of the Programme of Action.  As described below, those
initiatives represent important steps for exchanging information on
resource requirements.


       1.  Meeting of the Development Assistance Committee

24. In November 1994, immediately after the Conference, a meeting was
organized by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).  At
that meeting, the Executive Director of UNFPA, highlighting the
success of the Conference, called upon the international community
to shoulder the burden of mobilizing the external resources needed
to institutionalize reproductive health, including family planning
and sexual health, and population programmes, as outlined in the
Programme of Action.

At that meeting, several OECD members urged the importance of moving
ahead rapidly with the implementation of the Programme of Action.
It was agreed that it would be useful to explore further the
operational aspects of implementing the Programme of Action.

                    2.  Consultation meeting

25. In resolution 49/128, the General Assembly requested the
Secretary-General to consult with various bodies of the United
Nations system, as well as with international financial institutions
and various bilateral aid organizations and agencies, with a view to
promoting an exchange of information among them on the requirements
for international assistance, reviewing the specific needs of
countries, and maximizing the availability and effectiveness of
resources.  At the request of the Secretary-General, the Executive
Director of UNFPA convened in January 1995 a consultation meeting on
the mobilization of resources for the implementation of the Programme
of Action.  Representatives from various multilateral and bilateral
donor agencies, as well as the World Bank and several regional
financial institutions participated in the consultation.

26. The participants discussed the usefulness of high-level meetings
in the mobilization of resources.  They suggested using existing
mechanisms at the country level, such as the resident coordinator
system, the World Bank consultative groups, and the round tables of
the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to mobilize
country-specific resources.  It was agreed that global consultations
on the topic needed to be convened periodically, preferably at the
time of the annual sessions of the Commission on Population and
Development.


             3.  Donor workshop on the implementation of 
                      reproductive health programmes

27. A workshop on the implementation of reproductive health
programmes, co-sponsored by the British Overseas Development
Administration (ODA) and the United States Agency for International
Development (USAID), was held in New York from 12 to 14 June 1995.
As a specific outcome of the November 1994 DAC meeting, the workshop
sought to promote a better understanding of the strategies that would
most effectively contribute to improving reproductive health and
advancing the Programme of Action.  It was observed that a number of
donors were being called upon to expand their reproductive health
activities at a time of resource constraints.  It was stressed that
an important message for the donor community was that, in any given
country, each of the key elements--family planning, prevention of
sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, and Safe Motherhood--should
be guaranteed support by at least one donor or the Government.  The
workshop urged all Governments and donors to consider the need to
invest in young people and to engage in a dialogue and to coordinate
their efforts.

                    4.  Bilateral initiatives

28.  One of the most encouraging signs of increased commitment for
funding population programmes in developing countries since the
Conference has been the growing number of donor countries that have
pledged to increase their support.  Leading up to the Conference and
at the Conference itself, a number of donors, including several major
donor countries, pledged to increase the level of population
assistance they provide very significantly over the next several
years.

29.  On the eve of the Conference, the Government of Japan announced
a Global Issue Initiative on Population and AIDS.  Under that
initiative, Japan indicated its intention to provide $3 billion over
a seven-year period (1994-2000) to address global population problems
and the spread of HIV/AIDS.  Of the total amount, $1 billion is
expected to be utilized for core population and family planning
activities.

30. The Government of Germany has stated its intention to spend
approximately $2.1 billion over the next six years (1995-2000) on
population programmes.  Germany has a dual strategy of population
assistance, giving first priority to family planning services and
second priority to health education, HIV/AIDS and women■s empowerment
activities that have an impact on reproductive behaviour.  At the
Conference, Germany had announced that it would increase its support
for family planning activities from $93 million in 1994 to $127
million in 1995.  Roughly two thirds of the German aid for population
currently goes through bilateral channels, while one third is
channelled through multilateral organizations and international non-
governmental organizations.  The increase in the 1995 amount over the
1994 amount includes further commitments by the Government for the
Programme of Action.

31. In July 1995, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland pledged to increase aid for population and reproductive
health by approximately 65 per cent, for a total of about $160
million over two years.  British ODA takes a broad reproductive
health approach to population assistance while maintaining a special
focus on family planning.

32.The European Commission of the European Union has announced plans
to increase population assistance "more than tenfold by the year
2000".  The European Commission has set a policy target of
approximately $400 million annually on programming in the area of
population by the year 2000.  The European Union is expected to give
special emphasis in its population assistance to sub-Saharan Africa.
One modality being used by the European Union is to contribute part
of its assistance to developing countries through UNFPA country
programmes, as has been done in Egypt and the Syrian Arab Republic.

33. In October 1995, the Government of Denmark announced its
intention to set up a special fund of DKr 35 million (approximately
$6.3 million) to be administered by UNFPA for population programmes
for Africa.  Noting the severity of the population problems in
Africa, the Government of Denmark has specified that the fund should
be utilized for the implementation of the Programme of Action in
Africa.  In addition, the Government has also made known its
intention to make a special supplemental contribution of DKr 12
million (approximately $2.2 million) to UNFPA in 1995.  The
additional contribution will be earmarked for social science issues
in connection with sexual and reproductive health, including research
on male behaviour and increased male involvement in sexual
reproductive health programmes.

34. In August 1995, the Government of Belgium announced its intention
to set up a trust fund of BF 20 million (approximately $700,000), in
addition to its regular contribution to UNFPA in 1995.  The trust
fund is a multi-bilateral facility to be administered by UNFPA for
special programmes in Nigeria and Uganda and for interregional
research activities.

35. The Government of Australia has announced a four-year initiative
through 1998 of $130 million to assist population and family planning
programmes in developing countries.  This represents a 47 per cent
increase over the level of population assistance from Australia in
the previous four-year period.

36. The Parliament of the Netherlands has recently urged the
Government of the Netherlands to increase population funding to reach
the target of 4 per cent of the overseas development budget by the
year 1998.  This would bring the level of funding for international
population assistance from the Netherlands from about $50 million at
present to about $125 million by the year 1998, which would represent
an increase of 150 per cent.

37. The Government of Switzerland has recently indicated its
intention to make an additional contribution to UNFPA for developing
country activities specifically aimed at the implementation of the
Programme of Action.  The specifics of the contribution, which will
amount to over $2 million, are currently under discussion.

                  5.  Multilateral initiatives

38. Funding to UNFPA has increased since the International Conference
on Population and Development.  Addressing the concluding session of
the Pledging Conference in November 1995, the Executive Director of
UNFPA informed the delegates that the general resources of UNFPA in
1995 were being projected at about $306 million.  This is a 16 per
cent increase over the resources in 1994 and the highest income level
ever achieved by UNFPA, made possible through the generous support
of over 90 donors, particularly Japan, the Netherlands, the United
States, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland, Finland and Switzerland.  The UNFPA
income target for 1996, as contained in the work plan approved by the
Executive Board, is $325 million.

39.  In addition to voluntary contributions to finance its regular
programme, the Fund also receives funding for earmarked projects that
are managed by UNFPA as multi-bilateral resources.  In 1994, $11.3
million in additional resources were generated through
multi-bilateral and other related arrangements.  A notable new donor
in this regard is Spain, which has indicated its intention of
contributing $1 million annually over the next several years.

40. The World Bank has indicated that it would increase resources for
population and development in the future.  In addition to greatly
expanding the levels of its financial assistance in education and
environmental programmes that directly and indirectly advance the
objectives of the Programme of Action, the Bank has in recent years
also increased its participation in population, health and nutrition
programmes that directly address reproductive and primary health
issues contained in the Programme of Action.  World Bank lending on
population activities is expected to increase from about $200 million
to $500 million a year in the coming years.

41. The regional banks have also shown increased interest in funding
population projects.  In 1994 the Asian Development Bank in 1994
began financing population and family planning activities for the
first time by providing highly concessionary loans to Bangladesh,
Pakistan, the Marshall Islands and Papua New Guinea.  The Asian
Development Bank stated at the Conference that the new population
policy adopted by the Bank in July 1994 promoted a gender- sensitive
human resource development framework to assist family planning,
health, education and nutrition and to promote fertility decline.

42. The President of the African Development Bank informed the
Conference about its policy paper of the Bank on population issued
in 1992, and its guidelines for the implementation of the policy,
published in July 1994.  He also mentioned that the Bank was planning
to earmark 30-60 per cent of its resources for agriculture and the
social sectors and that many of the health projects it had approved
contained reproductive health components.

        6.  Initiatives of non-governmental organizations

43. Sixty parliamentarians, representing 30 countries, met in
Brussels in May 1995 to solidify support for the goals of the
Programme of Action.  The European Parliamentary Forum for Action was
organized by the British All-Parliamentary Group on Population,
Development and Reproductive Health and the European Parliament
Working Group on Population, Sustainable Development and Reproductive
Health.  The Forum adopted a declaration calling upon European
parliamentarians and Governments to support the goals of Programme
of Action, particularly those for resource mobilization.  It called
for an increase in official development assistance to 0.7 per cent
of GNP and the earmarking of 4 per cent of ODA to population-related
programmes.

44. An international meeting of the foreign aid committees of
developed countries, organized by the Parliamentarians for Global
Action, was held at the United States Congress on 18 October 1995.
The objectives of the Programme of Action and the need for greater
international resource mobilization for its successful implementation
were highlighted.  The meeting called upon parliamentarians to
encourage, support and approve budgetary provisions to increase
financial resources for development assistance, especially for
population and poverty alleviation initiatives and for the
empowerment of women, and to enact legislation in support of such
provisions.  In particular, they pledged to strive to reach the
target of providing 0.7 per cent of GNP for development assistance
and of targeting 4 per cent of that assistance for funding population
initiatives.

45. The Wellcome Trust, one of the largest charitable funds, recently
announced its intention to begin funding activities in the area of
population.  Up to the present time, most of its programmes have
focused on medical research.  A new programme of the Trust will spend
about $15 million a year for five years on population-related
research and pilot studies.

  46. Under the sponsorship of the Rockefeller Foundation and UNFPA,
42 representatives of interested organizations from many donor
countries in Dublin from 3 to 7 October 1995 to discuss strategies
for increasing European commitment to enhanced reproductive health
choices in developing countries.  They identified major themes
emerging from the International Conference, shared experiences from
their own countries and made plans for follow-up activities.  The
meeting drafted the Dublin Declaration, calling for increased foreign
aid for population and reproductive health activities in developing
countries.

   D.  National initiatives on the flow of domestic resources

47. There is evidence that many of the developing countries around
the world have already or are about to take steps to formulate
national plans of action, as called for in the Programme of Action.
Many countries have taken measures to disseminate widely the results
of the Conference and have carried out advocacy efforts to promote
understanding of the changes brought about by the Conference
approach.  In several countries reviews have been undertaken to
adjust programmes so that they would reflect the new orientation.
In the area of reproductive health, including family planning and
sexual health, for example, countries have started to develop
comprehensive and integrated systems that offer a full range of
services, building on existing primary health-care networks.

48. Since only a little more than one year has passed since the
Conference, a full evaluation of responses in terms of the flow of
domestic resources is somewhat premature.  The paragraphs below,
therefore, give merely a sketch of changes in resource priorities
occurring in specific countries in the developing world towards the
implementation of the Programme of Action.

49. Bangladesh has devised plans and policies that go beyond family
planning programmes. In those plans, serious attention has been
devoted to education, health and the empowerment of women.
Consequently, resource allocation in the social sector has increased
from about 15 per cent of total annual development resources in
1990-1991 to 27 per cent in 1994-1995.

50. The Government of Pakistan announced that it had increased its
national budget for population activities by 30 per cent.  In the
Philippines, the Government has recently earmarked higher resources
for its national commission on population.  The Government of
Namibia, in its first national development plan for the period
1996-2000, has earmarked more than 10 million rand for population and
development activities.

51. The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has adjusted its
National Reproductive Health and Family Planning Programme to reflect
the recommendations of the Programme of Action.  The Ministry of
Health and Medical Education has already obtained an additional $2.35
million for the next fiscal year and has requested a further increase
of as much as $3 million for the same budget.  The Government,
simultaneously, has established a committee to follow up on the
implementation of the Programme of Action.

52. There are several other instances of post-Conference policy
changes that will have an impact on the flow of national resources,
although in most cases precise financial amounts are not yet
available.  Several countries have organized workshops on ways of
implementing the Programme of Action.  Such workshops will likely be
followed by the formulation of national population programmes that
will include details on the resources required for implementing the
Programme of Action.  Several Governments have also taken steps to
modify their development plans to incorporate elements of the
Programme of Action.  Some have formed task forces to review and
strengthen their respective national population policies in line with
the Programme of Action, and those are expected to lead to the
formulation of national programmes of action.  Such activities will,
in all likelihood, lead to an increase in resources either from
domestic sources or, in cases of extreme economic hardship, to
renewed requests for external assistance.


          III.  ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR
                   POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

 53. The Programme of Action (para. 16.28) specifically calls upon
the international community to review on a regular basis the specific
needs of countries in the field of population and development.  The
resource estimates provided in the Programme of Action were
undertaken at the global and subregional levels.  The magnitude of
the resources needed and their rates of increase vary substantially
between and within different subregions.  Efforts are under way to
refine those estimates at the country level.  The efforts are
summarized below.

54. UNFPA, in collaboration with other international agencies,
periodically undertakes programme review and strategy development
missions to assess the needs and priorities of countries in matters
concerning population.  Reports on the missions can serve as an
additional mechanism to assess the specific programme and resource
requirement needs of developing countries in the field of population
and development.  Efforts are well under way to make future missions
reflect the goals set out in the Programme of Action, including those
related to monitoring the flow of relevant resources.

55. Another growing source of information on resource requirements
is the internationally supported Global Initiative on Contraceptive
Requirements and Logistic Management Needs in Developing Countries,
which is administered by UNFPA.  The programme undertakes country
studies to assess contraceptive requirements and logistic management
needs.  The studies provide details on costs for contraceptives and
logistics management for a 10-year period.  A total of 12 studies
have been undertaken to date, in all regions of the world; 11 have
been successfully completed and the results published.  Three more
country studies are currently being initiated.

56. More recently, UNFPA has completed country profiles for countries
in sub-Saharan Africa and is at present preparing similar country
profiles for all other developing countries.  The profiles include
data on the national position on key social and economic indicators,
initial estimates of resource requirements for the national
population and development programmes and a summary of relevant
national population policies.  The draft profiles for Asia have been
distributed to field offices and to the managers and policy makers
of national programmes for comments.  Priority is being given to the
rapid completion and dissemination of the profiles for the Central
Asian republics and Kazakstan.  A global set of country profiles will
be completed, reviewed and widely disseminated during 1996.

57. Universities and research institutions are also involved in the
assessment of resource requirements for health and family planning
services in the developing countries.  For example, Family Health
International and the University of North Carolina (United States)
are currently involved in a pilot project to complete an expenditure
matrix for family planning with the idea of developing a standard
methodology for estimating national family planning expenditures.
As part of a pilot study on key indicators for monitoring
reproductive health programmes, UNFPA has also collected test data
for developing an appropriate methodology for collecting information
on the flow of national resources.  Princeton University, with
support from the Rockefeller Foundation, is undertaking an analysis
of the scale of unmet needs for family planning services, and of
possible approaches for successfully meeting those needs.

58. The Rockefeller Foundation is actively engaged in a programme of
focused research funding, called "the mobilization of resources to
launch a second contraceptive revolution".  This programme aims at
a detailed understanding of the cost structure of providing family
planning services and other primary health-care services to the
population of the developing world and thus at providing an important
set of data for properly estimating international resource
mobilization needs.


   IV.  ISSUES REGARDING THE GATHERING OF RESOURCE INFORMATION


59. The mobilization of resources to implement the Programme of
Action will have to be fully monitored.  An action-oriented mechanism
should be developed to coordinate the work of the multilateral
agencies and others.  UNFPA has currently in place a system to
monitor the amount of international assistance for programmes dealing
with population and development.  This system will be further refined
and improved, where necessary, to render the monitoring of the amount
of international financial assistance for programmes dealing with
population and development more accurate, as agreed to in the Second
Committee of the General Assembly in December 1995.

60. Data on the flows of domestic resources for population and
development programmes are currently not available on a regular
basis, as mentioned above.  The development of a system for
monitoring and assessing the mobilization of domestic resources is
desirable for obtaining a complete picture of the flow of global
resources in the area of population and development.  Such a data
system, if available, would complement parallel efforts to obtain
better estimates for resource requirements at national levels and
eventually lead to closer collaboration between donor agencies in
meeting the needs of individual countries.  A complete picture of the
flow of resources would also facilitate the monitoring of the
implementation of paragraph 7 of General Assembly resolution 49/128,
in which all countries are urged to consider their current spending
priorities with a view to making additional contributions for the
implementation of the Programme of Action.  The views of the
Commission on Population and Development will be important for future
development of such a system.

61. Classification of population activities by various donors poses
another problem in the proper assessment of financial resources.
Although efforts are under way to improve and coordinate various
classification systems in use, in line with the population components
of the Programme of Action, concerns about standard definitions for
reporting the flow of resources for reproductive health, including
family planning and sexual health, as detailed in the Programme of
Action, have not yet been fully resolved.  Such issues need to be
addressed before a coordinated assessment of the flows of
international and domestic resources can be accomplished.

62. In addition, more needs to be done to coordinate information
gathered on the resource requirements of individual countries for the
implementation of the recommendations of the Programme of Action.
Both bilateral and multilateral donor agencies often undertake
identification and appraisal missions to developing countries.  Even
though those missions often focus on specific elements of the
population components of the Programme of Action, their assessments
of current and future resource needs for development may still be
helpful in the assessment of country-specific needs in the population
field.  Greater coordination in compiling such information into a
global database would facilitate international efforts to monitor the
implementation of the Programme of Action.


                         V.  CONCLUSIONS


63. Developments in the implementation of the Programme of Action
have taken three distinct forms.  First, the international donor
community has shown commitment to the Programme of Action, and
significant progress has been made in implementing it.  Secondly,
there is some evidence of an increasing flow of resources in the form
of external assistance for population activities.  Lastly, national
Governments, which are the most important actors, are formulating
recast and updated population and development policies in line with
the goals of the Programme of Action.  The information gathered for
the present report indicates that several developing countries have,
despite unfavourable economic circumstances, increased domestic
resources or have manifested an increased desire to mobilize
resources for population activities.  Until more systematic data on
the flow of domestic resources are collected, however, the question
of resource mobilization within the developing countries will remain
fragmentary and incomplete.

64. The progress being made in implementing the Programme of Action
is evident on several fronts.  From high-level consultations on
resource mobilization to the creation of the Inter-Agency Task Force
on putting the Programme of Action into operation, to technical
backstopping for national Governments, a coalition of partners from
multilateral organizations, national Governments and non-governmental
organizations is in the process of formation, committed to
successfully achieving the goals and objectives of the Programme of
Action.

65. Despite these encouraging developments, however, the successful
implementation of the Programme of Action is dependent upon resource
mobilization.  Additional resources are urgently required in order
better to identify and satisfy unmet needs in issues related to
population and development, such as reproductive health care,
including family planning and sexual health information and services,
and to keep pace with growing demands and improve the scope and
quality of programmes.  Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Asia and least
developed countries everywhere will need a much larger share of the
resources from the international community.  Although several donor
countries have shown early and laudable commitments through
announcements of increased funds for population activities, official
development assistance has tended to stagnate in recent years and,
with a few exceptions, little movement towards the target of 4 per
cent of ODA for the area of population and development can be
reported.  In general, donors still need to review their development
assistance policies and to increase resources for global population
activities accordingly.

                              Notes

    1/This section of the report relies heavily on published and
unpublished data from the Global Population Assistance reports of
UNFPA.

    2/The term "primary funds" refers to funds provided by primary
donors for population assistance in the year shown.

    3/Note that most of the multilateral assistance provided by the
United Nations system, other than that provided by UNFPA, is used for
interregional activities.

    4/In this sction, annual expenditures, not commitments, are used.
Primary funds discussed above, are commitments.  The difference
between primary funds and final expenditures in any given year is
often large.  This may be owing to delays caused when the primary
donor gives funds to an intermediate donor or when different
definitions of population assistance and fiscal years are used.
World Bank loans are not included because they tend to be distributed
over a number of years.


Table 1.  Total official development assistance (ODA) and share of
population assistance for major donor countries, 1993



 Donor      Total ODA     ODA as      Population       Population
            (millions)   percentage    assistance     assistance as
             of dollars  of GNP       (millions of    percentage of
                                        dollars)           ODA


Norway         1 014         1.01           42.9           4.22

United States  9 721         0.15          366.6           3.77

Finland          355         0.46            8.8           2.47

Denmark        1 340         1.03           29.5           2.19

Sweden         1 769         0.98           37.0           2.09

United         2 908         0.31           47.2           1.62
Kingdom of
Great Britain

Luxembourg        50         0.36            0.8           1.58

Netherlands    2 525         0.82           37.5           1.48

Canada         2 373         0.45           24.7           1.04

Switzerland      793         0.33            6.2           0.77

New Zealand       98         0.25            0.8           0.77

Japan         11 259         0.27           83.2           0.73

Germany        6 954         0.37           50.7           0.73

Australia        953         0.35            6.4           0.67

Italy          3 043         0.31           17.6           0.58

Belgium          808         0.39            2.3           0.28

France         7 915         0.63           13.4           0.17

Austria          544         0.30            0.8           0.15

Spain          1 213         0.25            0.6           0.05

Total         55 633         0.30          777.0           1.40


Source:  Global Population Assistance Report, 1993 (New York, United
Nations   Population Fund, 1994).

======================================================================

Table 2.  Trends in population assistance, by source of funding,
1990-1993
                      (Millions of dollars)

                       1990     1991      1992      1993

Bilateral               669       774      766       777


Multilateral             86       102        54       66

Private                  48        76       106      124

World Bank               169       354      107      344

Total                    972     1 306     1,033   1 310

     Source:  UNFPA Global Population Assistance Report, 1993 (New
York, 1994).

     Note:   Details and percentages do not necessarily add to
totals, because of rounding.                    

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