United Nations

E/CN.9/1994/9 - E/1994/28


Economic and Social Council

 

 


Population Commission
             Report on the twenty-seventh session
                     (28-31 March 1994)

                Economic and Social Council
                  Official Records, 1994
                     Supplement No.8

                        E/1994/28
                      E/CN.9/1994/9
                  Population Commission

             Report on the twenty-seventh session
                    (28-31 March 1994)


                Economic and Social Council
                  Official Records, 1994
                     Supplement No.8

              United Nations ž New York, 1994


                            NOTE

Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters
combined with figures. 

                       ISSN 0251-7760

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                           SUMMARY


     At its twenty-seventh session, the Population Commission (a)
reviewed the action taken by the United Nations to implement the
recommendations of the World Population Conference, 1974, (b)
reviewed programme implementation and the proposed programme of
work for the biennium 1994-1995 and (c) considered the follow-up to
the recommendations of the International Conference on Population,
1984.

     The Commission held a general debate, during which members
exchanged views and national experiences in the area of population.
Information was exchanged related to demographic trends, population
policies and programmes, the integration of population and
development, and international cooperation and assistance.  The
general debate provided a useful context for a further review of
current trends and policies at the regional and global levels, with
a special discussion on refugees.  The Commission did not recommend
any action on that issue.  The Commission was also informed that
the draft report of the Secretary- General on the fourth review and
appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action (A/CONF.171/PC/3)
had been completed and would be discussed by the Preparatory
Committee for the International Conference on Population and
Development at its third session.

     The Commission reviewed programme implementation and the
programme of work for the biennium 1994-1995, which had been
reviewed by the Committee for Programme and Coordination, the
Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions and
the Fifth Committee, and endorsed by the General Assembly in its
resolution 48/228 A.  It recommended that the Economic and Social
Council adopt a draft resolution concerning the regular programme
of work to be carried out during the biennium 1994-1995 by the
Population Division of the Department for Economic and Social
Information and Policy Analysis. 

     The Commission considered the follow-up to the recommendations
of the International Conference on Population, 1984.  It reviewed
the activities of the United Nations in the field of population,
the monitoring of multilateral population assistance and the work
of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in
implementing the World Population Plan of Action.  As in previous
sessions, the focus was on the coordination of population
activities.  The Commission did not recommend any action on the
issue.

                           CONTENTS

Chapter                                                       
                                                  Paragraphs  Page

  I.  MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC 
      AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OR BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION   1 - 2     1

      A.  Draft resolution ........................    1         1

      B.  Draft decision ..........................    2         3

 II.  ACTION BY THE UNITED NATIONS TO IMPLEMENT 
      THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE WORLD POPULATION 
      CONFERENCE, 1974.............................    3 - 22    5

      A.  General debate on national experience in
          population matters.......................    4 - 13    5

      B.  Monitoring of population trends and 
          policies, with special emphasis on                      
          refugees.................................    14 - 21   6

      C.  Review and appraisal of progress made 
          towards the implementation of the World
          Population Plan of Action ..................  22       8

III.  PROGRAMME QUESTIONS ............................  23-110   9

      A.  Programme performance and implementation .....29-79   10

      B.  Proposed programme of work for the biennium
          1994-1995 ....................................80-95   18

      C.  Activities of the regional commissions .......96-107  20

      D.  Action taken by the Commission ..............108-110  22

 IV.  FOLLOW-UP TO THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 
      INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION, 1984 ... 111-146  27

      A.  Activities of the United Nations 
          Population Fund .........................    112-116  27

      B.  Monitoring of multilateral population 
          assistance..............................     117-123  28

      C.  Activities of the United Nations system 
          in the field of population ...............  124-139   29

      D.  Work of intergovernmental and non-
          governmental organizations in the 
          implementation of the World Population 
          Plan of Action...........................   140-146   32

  V.  PROVISIONAL AGENDA FOR THE TWENTY-EIGHTH SESSION
      OF THE COMMISSION...............................147-150   34

 VI.  ADOPTION OF THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON 
      ITS TWENTY-SEVENTH SESSION......................151       35

VII.  ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSION .................   152-159   36

      A.  Opening and duration of the session .....   152-154   36

      B.  Attendance ..............................   155       36

      C.  Election of officers ....................   156       36

      D.  Agenda .....................................157-158   36

      E.  Consultation with non-governmental 
          organizations ..............................159       37

                               Annexes

  I.  ATTENDANCE ........................................       38

 II.  LIST OF DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE COMMISSION AT ITS 
      TWENTY-SEVENTH  SESSION............................       40



                             Chapter I

      MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
                          OR BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION


                             A.  Draft resolution


1.   The Population Commission recommends to the Economic and
Social Council the adoption of the following draft resolution:


           Work programme in the field of population

     The Economic and Social Council,

     Recalling General Assembly resolutions 3344 (XXIX) and 3345
(XXIX) of 17 December 1974, concerning the recommendations of the
United Nations World Population Conference, and 39/228 of 18
December 1984 on the International Conference on Population,

     Recalling also General Assembly resolutions S-18/3 of 1 May
1990, containing the Declaration on International Economic
Cooperation, in particular the Revitalization of Economic Growth
and Development of the Developing Countries, and 45/199 of 21
December 1990 on the International Development Strategy for the
Fourth United Nations Development Decade, as well as 48/181 of 21
December 1993 on the integration of the economies in transition
into the world economy,

     Recalling further its resolutions 1981/28 of 6 May 1981 on the
strengthening of actions concerned with the fulfilment of the World
Population Plan of Action, 1985/4 on the implications of the
recommendations of the International Conference on Population and
1985/6 on the status and role of women and population, both of 28
May 1985, 1986/7 of 21 May 1986 on population questions, 1989/89 on
the population situation in the least developed countries, 1989/90
on incorporating population factors in the International
Development Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development
Decade, 1989/92 on strengthening actions concerned with the
fulfilment of the World Population Plan of Action and 1989/94 on
United Nations support for African countries in the field of
population, all of 26 July 1989, and 1991/92 of 26 July 1991 on the
work programme in the field of population,

     Stressing the relationship between population and development
as stated in General Assembly resolution 45/216 of 21 December
1990, namely the supportive role of the work programmes of the
United Nations system in the field of population and in the
attainment of the goals and objectives set out in the Declaration
on International Economic Cooperation, in particular the
Revitalization of Economic Growth and Development of the Developing
Countries, taking into consideration the specific needs of
developing countries, as well as the International Development
Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development Decade,

     Recalling the report of the International Conference on
Population, in which it was reaffirmed that the principles and
objectives of the World Population Plan of Action remained fully
valid, 

     Recalling also the recommendations of the five regional
population conferences that were convened as part of the
preparations for the International Conference on Population and
Development,

     Bearing in mind recommendations that may emanate from the
International Conference on Population and Development,

     Reaffirming the important role of the Population Commission as
the advisory body of the Economic and Social Council on population
matters,

     Taking note of the report of the Population Commission on its
twenty- seventh session  and the views expressed therein on the
progress of work in the field of population and the proposed work
programme,

     1.   Notes with satisfaction the progress made in implementing
the work programme for the period 1991-1993 and the medium-term
plan for the period  1992-1997;
     
     2.   Requests the Secretary-General:

     (a)  To continue to give high priority to the monitoring of
          world population trends and policies;

     (b)  To continue work on the following:

     (i)  Biennial revisions of estimates and projections of
          national, urban, rural and city populations, including
          demographic indicators and age structure;

    (ii)  Studies on the interrelationships between population and
          development;

   (iii)  Studies on the interrelationship between the status and
          role of women and population;

    (iv)  Comparative analysis of population policies;

     (v)  Analysis of mortality;

    (vi)  Studies on family formation reproductive behaviour and
          family planning and also on their demographic impact;

   (vii)  Studies to measure and understand changes in population
          distribution, including internal migration, urbanization
          and displaced persons;

  (viii)  Studies on levels, trends, policies, determinants and
          consequences of international migration, including
          refugee-related issues;

    (ix)  Dissemination of population information and further
          strengthening of the Population Information Network at
          the national, regional and global levels;

     (x)  Provision of technical cooperation support in response to
          requests from developing countries and economies in
          transition;

     (c)  To continue to work closely with Member States,
organizations of the United Nations system, other intergovernmental
organizations and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate,
in the implementation of programmes;

     (d)  To further improve communication and coordination among
the Population Division of the Department for Economic and Social
Information and Policy Analysis of the Secretariat, the regional
commissions and Governments, particularly in order to prepare the
most accurate population estimates and projections possible, an
activity in which the Population Division should continue to play
a leading role;

     (e)  To give high priority to strengthening multilateral
technical cooperation programmes in the field of population,
including the utilization of technical cooperation in and among
developing countries, as necessary;

     3.   Requests the Secretary-General of the International
Conference on Population and Development to continue to make full
use of the existing resources of all units of the United Nations
system concerned, in particular the Department for Economic and
Social Information and Policy Analysis of the Secretariat and the
United Nations Population Fund;

     4.   Re-emphasizes the importance of maintaining the scope,
effectiveness and efficiency of the global population programme and
of continuing to strengthen coordination and collaboration among
the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy
Analysis of the Secretariat, the regional commissions, the United
Nations Population Fund, the World Bank, and other organizations
and bodies of the United Nations system in the planning and
execution of their population programmes, as well as the need for
organizations of the United Nations system to strengthen
coordination and collaboration with Member States, other
intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental and national
organizations, as appropriate.


          B.  Draft decision

2.   The Population Commission also recommends to the Economic and
Social Council the adoption of the following draft decision:


     Provisional agenda and documentation for the twenty-eighth
session of the Population Commission

     The Economic and Social Council approves the provisional
agenda and documentation for the twenty-eighth session of the
Population Commission set out below:

     1.   Election of officers.

     2.   Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters.

     3.   Review of population trends, policies and programmes:

          (a)  General debate on national experience in population
               matters;

          (b)  Monitoring of world population trends and policies;

          (c)  Monitoring of multilateral population assistance.

          Documentation

          Concise report of the Secretary-General on the monitoring
of world population trends and policies:  addendum (Council
decision 87 (LVIII))

          Report of the Secretary-General on the monitoring of
multilateral population assistance:  addendum

          Report of the Executive Director of the United Nations
Population Fund on the activities of the Fund

     4.   International Conference on Population and Development: 
follow-up action to be taken by the United Nations:

          (a)  Consideration of the recommendations of the
International Conference on Population and Development;

          (b)  Implications of the recommendations of the
International Conference on Population and Development for the work
programme on population.

          Documentation

          Report of the Secretary-General on a review of the
implications of the recommendations of the International
Conference on Population and Development for the work programme on
population 

     5.   Programme questions:

          (a)  Programme performance and implementation;

          (b)  Proposed programme of work for the biennium
               1996-1997.

          Documentation

          Report of the Secretary-General on the progress of work
in the field of population, 1994-1995

          Note by the Secretary-General on the proposed programme
of work in the field of population for the biennium 1996-1997

     6.   Provisional agenda for the twenty-ninth session of the
Commission.

     7.   Adoption of the report of the Commission on its
twenty-eighth session.




                            Chapter II

         ACTION BY THE UNITED NATIONS TO IMPLEMENT THE            
   RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE WORLD POPULATION CONFERENCE, 1974


3.   The Population Commission considered item 3 of its agenda at
its 452nd to 454th meetings, on 28 and 29 March 1994.  It had
before it the concise report of the Secretary-General on the
monitoring of world population trends and policies, with special
emphasis on refugees (E/CN.9/1994/2).


          A.  General debate on national experience in population
matters

4.   In the general debate on national experience in population
matters, several delegations reported on the demographic situation
in their respective countries and provided information on recent
demographic trends, population policies and programmes, the
integration of population and development, and international
cooperation and assistance.  The general debate provided an
opportunity to highlight the population issues that required
special international attention.

5.   Several delegations reported that their countries were
carrying out activities in the field of population, including
population research, the provision of technical support for
population activities and the funding of population programmes
through bilateral or multilateral cooperation.  A number of
delegations noted their active involvement in the preparations for
the International Conference on Population and Development.  The
need to promote population research and the exchange of data was
emphasized.  Some delegations also stressed the need to enhance
public awareness about population issues through special
educational activities.  It was acknowledged that the effective
formulation of population policy required accurate information and
a number of delegations commended the work of the Population
Division in producing comparable estimates of population
indicators, evaluating their quality and making them available to
a wide public.

6.   Most delegations reaffirmed their support for the provision of
family planning services that would ensure reproductive choice. 
They emphasized the need to expand access to a wide range of
contraceptive methods, to provide information and make greater use
of education campaigns, and to ensure that family planning services
also encompassed reproductive health.  Some delegations stressed
that abortion should not be used as a method of family planning. 
The importance of reducing the number of pregnancies among teenage
women was also underscored.

7.   One representative noted that the reduction of population
growth in her country was seen as an important factor that would
accelerate socio-economic development and improve people's standard
of living.  She reviewed the progress made in the implementation of
her country's family planning programme and its contribution to the
stabilization of the world population.  Economic development, the
improvement of women's status and the promotion of social welfare
services were major factors that led to reduction of the birth
rate.

8.   Improvements in the status of women were considered essential
by most delegations.  The need to provide women with equal access
to education and employment was stressed.  It was noted that as
women acquired greater control over their own lives, they were more
likely to choose responsibly the number and spacing of their
children.  It was suggested that society should strive to increase
the solidarity between the sexes so that men and women would share
equally their parental responsibilities.

9.   Given the continued decline in fertility in many world
regions, the medium- and long-term consequences of population
ageing were singled out as a matter of concern for a growing number
of countries.  In some countries, population ageing was already
straining social security systems.  To improve the situation of the
aged, it was judged necessary to strengthen the solidarity between
generations, both at the level of society at large and within the
family.

10.  Several delegations stressed that greater efforts were needed
in order to combat preventable diseases, reduce morbidity and
prevent premature mortality.  The growing impact of the acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic was a major source of
concern and it was acknowledged that more research was necessary to
improve the understanding of the epidemiology of the disease.

11.  A number of delegations considered that the magnitude and
implications of population movements both within and between
countries were a source of concern. The impact of migration on
population distribution, especially on urbanization, was identified
as an issue of continued policy relevance, particularly for
developing countries.  The need to adopt an integrated approach in
the formulation of population policies was stressed and it was
noted that rural development should be part of a balanced
development strategy.

12.  The delegations of several central and eastern European
countries, including the successor States of the former Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), described the important
demographic changes that had taken place in their countries after
the major political developments that had occurred since 1989.  As
a result of economic stringencies, declining standards of living
and growing uncertainty about the future, people in those countries
were postponing marriage, child-bearing and even divorce. 
Fertility had declined sharply in several of the economies in
transition and there was growing evidence that mortality was
rising, particularly among men and children.  Because access to
effective contraceptive methods was limited in some of those
countries, the number of induced abortions was high and that was a
source of concern.  Although policies to improve health care and
access to family planning methods were being formulated, assistance
and international cooperation were needed for such policies to be
successful.

13.  Another important change that the economies in transition were
undergoing was related to both internal and international
migration.  Several countries that formerly had been primarily
countries of origin had become receiving countries for various
types of migrants, including asylum-seekers, refugees, returning
citizens and migrant workers.  Short-term migration between
neighbouring countries was increasing.  Some delegations noted that
although their countries were willing to grant asylum to people in
need of protection, they needed the assistance of the international
community in order to ensure the continued well-being of the people
concerned.


              B.  Monitoring of population trends and policies,
                  with special emphasis on refugees

14.  The Commission expressed general satisfaction with the concise
report on the monitoring of world population trends and policies,
with special emphasis on refugees (E/CN.9/1990/2) and welcomed, in
particular, the inclusion of the special topic on refugees, which
was of major relevance for the international community.  The full
report, entitled World Population Monitoring, 1993,  was available
to the delegations as a background document (ESA/P/WP.121).  Many
delegations expressed their appreciation of the role of the
Population Division in compiling and evaluating data and monitoring
population levels and trends.  The need for timely and accurate
information on population levels and trends was underscored.

15.  However, several delegations noted that important recent
developments regarding the movement of refugees were not reflected
in the concise report, although some were mentioned in the full
report.  Examples were the flows of refugees occurring within the
successor States of the former Yugoslavia and refugee flows
directed to other central and eastern European countries, including
the Russian Federation.  In most instances, those flows were said
to have been caused by ethnic conflict.  It was considered
important to strengthen the analysis of the causes leading to
world-wide refugee flows, especially in view of the need for the
international community to address the root causes of forced
population movements.

16.  A number of delegations recognized that it was difficult to
ensure that a comprehensive treatment of refugee movements world
wide would be perfectly up to date, especially given the volatility
of many situations.  Furthermore, it was acknowledged that the main
sources of information on refugee flows were reports by the Office
of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and
that not all forced migrants were necessarily recognized as
refugees.  Some delegations mentioned the efforts made by their
Governments to streamline the consideration of asylum applications
and ensure that only those persons granted asylum would stay. 
International cooperation and international agreements were seen as
necessary to ensure an effective control of international migration
flows.

17.  The need to improve the availability, reliability and
comparability of data on international migration flows and on the
various types of international migrants was stressed.  It was
suggested that the United Nations provide assistance to interested
countries in improving statistics on international migration,
including assistance in formulating definitions of different types
of migrants, collecting statistics on legal migration and
estimating unauthorized or illegal migration.  It was judged
important that migration statistics distinguish between the
migration of foreigners and that of citizens, since in some
countries citizens constituted the majority of the migrant inflows.

18.  Regarding international migration policies, one representative
noted that the concise report did not properly reflect the
conditions under which a passport allowing emigration from his
country could be obtained.  Representatives of other central and
eastern European countries noted important policy changes that had
recently occurred, particularly with respect to the treatment of
refugees and asylum-seekers.  Representatives of other countries
stressed the importance of ensuring that legal migrants were not
subject to discrimination, that their integration was fostered and
that xenophobia was combated.  Family reunification was considered
an important right, but it was subject to restrictions in some
countries.

19.  Some delegations suggested that in presenting or discussing
future population trends, several alternative scenarios should be
provided in order to avoid misunderstandings about the meaning of
projections.  Given the recency of certain changes in population
trends, it was suggested that the medium variant of the projections
might not represent the most likely path for certain regions.  For
instance, the sharp fertility declines registered recently in
several central and eastern European countries, including the
Russian Federation, would only be taken into account in the next
revision of the projections.  Similarly, there were a number of
countries that had experienced mortality increases in recent years,
a development that was not yet reflected in the concise report. 
Representatives suggested that more attention had to be given to
the particular situation of central and eastern European countries,
where worsening economic conditions, a deterioration of the health
infrastructure, poor quality of medical services and growing
occupational hazards had led to rising mortality rates.  In
developing countries, the growing AIDS pandemic was one of the
factors that contributed to increasing mortality levels.  The need
to undertake an in-depth study of adult mortality in both developed
and developing countries was noted, as well as the need to better
understand the mechanisms leading to mortality decline even under
deteriorating economic conditions.

20.  Several representatives called for a more comprehensive
treatment of the demographic situation of the economies in
transition, especially in view of their need to formulate policies
to cope with the changes taking place.  A major concern was the
widespread use of induced abortion prompted by the lack of access
to effective contraceptive methods.  Although policies to increase
the availability of contraceptives were being formulated,
international assistance was needed to ensure adequate reproductive
choice.

21.  Several delegations noted that declining fertility trends were
noticeable in all major developing regions and that the information
on contraceptive use presented in the report was very useful in
assessing the unmet need that still existed in many countries of
the world.  Such data could be and were used by donor Governments
to target their population assistance.  The results of the Seventh
Population Inquiry among Governments were also useful in that
regard.


                C.  Review and appraisal of progress made towards
                    the implementation of the World Population
                    Plan of Action

22.  At the 453rd meeting, on 28 March 1994, the Commission was
informed that the report of the Secretary-General on the fourth
review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action
(A/CONF.171/PC/3) was before it for information, but that
discussion and action on that document would take place at the
third session of the Preparatory Committee for the International
Conference on Population and Development.


                            Chapter III

                         PROGRAMME QUESTIONS


23.  The Population Commission considered item 4 of its agenda at
its 454th, 455th and 458th meetings, on 29 and 31 March 1994.  It
had before it the following documents:

     (a)  Report of the Secretary-General on the progress of work
in the field of population, 1991-1993:  Department for Economic and
Social Information and Policy Analysis (E/CN.9/1994/3);

     (b)  Note by the Secretary-General on the programme of work in
population for the biennium 1994-1995 (E/CN.9/1994/4).

24.  The report of the Ad Hoc Inter-agency Working Group on
Demographic Estimates and Projections of the Administrative
Committee on Coordination (ACC) (ACC/1992/20) was made available to
the Commission.

25.  Before its general debate on programme questions, the
Commission was informed about the restructuring of the United
Nations in the economic and social sectors.  Technical cooperation
activities in the field of population, previously the
responsibility of the former Department of Technical Cooperation
for Development, had been incorporated into the work programme of
the Population Division of the Department for Economic and Social
Information and Policy Analysis, formerly the Department of
International Economic and Social Affairs, of the United Nations
Secretariat.

26.  The Commission was also informed about the substantive
preparations for the International Conference on Population and
Development carried out by the Population Division during the
period 1991-1993.  Detailed reports on those activities had been
submitted to the Preparatory Committee for the Conference for
discussion and action at its second and third sessions.

27.  Many delegates praised the high quality of work of the
Population Division.  The publications and other materials produced
by the Division were considered exemplary and were reported to be
widely utilized throughout the world by Governments, universities,
research centres and intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations.

28.  The Commission stressed the importance of maintaining the
scientific objectivity and independence of the Population Division.

The Commission believed that it was vital to maintain the highest
scientific standards in reviewing and appraising demographic levels
and trends and population policies and programmes.  To that effect
and in the context of the numerous population challenges lying
ahead in every country, the Commission recommended that the
Population Division be strengthened.


            A.  Programme performance and implementation

           1.  Analysis of demographic variables at the world level

29.  The Commission noted with satisfaction the publication of the
report entitled Child Mortality Since the 1960s:  A Database for
Developing Countries  and its use in the monitoring of mortality in
childhood.  Its timeliness was commended, particularly because the
data it contained would prove useful in assessing progress towards
achieving the goals for the reduction of infant and under-five
mortality adopted at the World Summit for Children in 1990.

30.  The Commission took note of the completion of the study
analysing the effects of reproductive behaviour on child survival. 
The results, to be published under the title The Health Rationale
for Family Planning:  Timing of Births and Child Survival, were
found to have special policy relevance since they showed that even
in the presence of other health interventions, the use of family
planning to prevent child-bearing among teenagers and to increase
the interval between consecutive births could significantly reduce
child mortality.

31.  The Commission noted with interest the publication of the
proceedings of the Expert Meeting on the Feminization of Internal
Migration under the title Internal Migration of Women in Developing
Countries.   The Meeting, which had taken place at Aguascalientes,
Mexico, in October 1991, was recognized as having made a major
contribution to the understanding of internal migration in general
and of the role of women in the migration process in particular. 
Women were said to constitute about half of all internal migrants,
and their growing participation in internal migration had been
closely associated with the expansion of employment opportunities
in a number of developing countries.  The Commission took note of
the recommendations to improve the prospects of migrant women
included in the proceedings of the Meeting.

32.  In the area of international migration, the Commission was
informed of the continued updating of the data bank on
international migration, its further computerization and its use in
the monitoring of international migration trends.  Although the
study on forced migration proposed to the Commission at its
twenty-sixth session could not be carried out because of lack of
funds, the Commission was pleased to note that an analysis of the
refugee situation had been selected as the special topic included
in World Population Monitoring, 1993. 3/  The Commission
acknowledged the forthcoming publication of the proceedings of the
Expert Group Meeting on International Migration Policies and the
Status of Female Migrants and the publication of a paper entitled
"Europe without internal frontiers and international migration" in
a forthcoming issue of the Population Bulletin of the United
Nations.

33.  The Commission was informed that work on the substantive
preparations for the International Conference on Population and
Development had included the organization of the Expert Group
Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration which was held at
Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in January 1993.  The report of the
Secretary-General of the Conference on the Recommendations of the
Expert Group Meeting (E/CONF.84/PC/9) had been presented to the
Preparatory Committee for the Conference at its second session,
held in 1993.

34.  The Commission was pleased to learn that several projects in
the area of fertility had been completed during the period
1991-1993.  Three case-studies on the association of women's status
and fertility had been published, namely,  Women's Education and
Fertility Behaviour:  A Case-study of Rural Maharashtra, India; 
Fertility Transition and Women's Life Course in Mexico;  and
Women's Status and Fertility in Pakistan:  Recent Evidence.   In
addition, a global comparative study on low fertility entitled
Patterns of Fertility in Low-fertility Settings,  had been
published.

35.  The Commission was informed that research on the status of
women was being further expanded by a comparative analysis of 26
countries which would be published under the title Women's
Education and Fertility Behaviour:  Recent Evidence from the
Demographic and Health Surveys.  The study reviewed recent trends
in women's educational status in developing countries and updated
existing evidence on the direct and indirect linkages between
education and reproductive behaviour, marriage and desired family
size.

36.  Work on the status of women was also being approached through
a comprehensive household study.  The report, entitled Living
Arrangements of Women and their Children in the Third World:  A
Demographic Study, was to be published in 1994.

37.  The Commission was pleased to learn about the new computerized
databases on fertility and family planning and strongly endorsed
continuation of the recent practice of disseminating information on
those topics in multiple formats, including wall charts and
diskettes as well as analytic reports.

38.  The Commission was informed that in the area of family
planning and its demographic impact, a study on levels and trends
of contraceptive use would be completed in 1994.  In addition, a
wall chart on the levels of contraceptive use and types of method
was planned for release before the 1994 Conference.  An article
summarizing recent levels and trends in contraceptive practice
would also appear in a forthcoming issue of the Population Bulletin
of the United Nations.

39.  The Commission was pleased to note that information about
contraceptive knowledge and use had also been made available in
machine-readable form.  A set of eight contraceptive-use data
diskettes entitled World Contraceptive-Use Data
Diskettes with an accompanying user's manual (ST/ESA/SER.R/120) had
been issued in 1992.  The contraceptive-use data bank was being
updated continuously within the Population Division.

40.  The Commission was informed that a study analysing the effects
of improved child survival on fertility had been completed.  The
study, which included three country case-studies, on Ecuador, West
Timor island, Indonesia and Zimbabwe, would be published under the
title Child Survival, Health and Family Planning Programmes and
Fertility. 

41.  The Commission was informed that work on the substantive
preparations for the International Conference on Population and
Development had included the organization of the Expert Group
Meeting on Population and Women, held at Gaborone, Botswana, in
June 1992, and of the Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning,
Health and Family Well-being, held at Bangalore, India, in October
1992.  Reports on those two meetings (E/CONF.84/PC/6 and 7) had
been presented to the Preparatory Committee for the Conference at
its second session, held in May 1993.


           2.  World population projections

42.  The Commission expressed satisfaction with the completion of
the 1992 revision of the thirteenth round of global estimates and
projections of population and with the timely publication of the
results in World Population Prospects:  The 1992 Revision,  The Sex
and Age Distribution of the World Populations:  The 1992 Revision, 
and the wall chart World Population, 1992.   The Commission noted
with pleasure the analytical comparison of the results of United
Nations population projections over the past 20 years.

43.  The Commission noted with appreciation the improvements in the
new revision - particularly the incorporation of the effects of
AIDS into the projections - and the additions and changes in the
list of countries for which detailed projections had been
performed.  The Commission was informed that the 1994 revision was
under way and would include cohort-component projections by sex and
age for 26 additional countries.

44.  The Commission was pleased to note that the 1992 revision of
the global estimates and projections of urban and rural populations
had been completed on time, and the results published in World
Urbanization Prospects:  The 1992 Revision. 

45.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that in the estimates
and projections of urban agglomerations, the time-horizon had been
extended to 2010 and the minimum size lowered to 750,000.  The
Commission noted the publication of the wall chart Urban
Agglomerations, 1992. 

46.  The Commission expressed its appreciation for the timeliness
of the 1992 revisions and the variety of forms in which they had
been disseminated to users, including monographs, wall charts,
specialized data sheets, articles, detailed publications, and
machine-readable form. 

47.  The Commission took note of the publication in 1992 of
Preparing Migration Data for Subnational Population Projections. 

48.  The Commission noted with satisfaction the publication in 1992
of Long-range World Population Projections:  Two Centuries of
Population Growth, 1950-2150. 

49.  The Commission was informed that the seventeenth session of
the Subcommittee on Demographic Estimates and Projections of the
Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) had been held in
Rome in June 1992.  The Commission was pleased to note that the
Population Division, at the request of the ACC Subcommittee, had
issued a working paper entitled "Urban and rural areas by sex and
age:  the 1992 revision" (ESA/P/WP.120).  

50.  The Commission expressed its appreciation for the extensive
work done to incorporate the effects of AIDS into demographic
estimates and projections and was pleased to note the forthcoming
publication of AIDS and the Demography of Africa. 


           3.  Population policy and socio-economic development

51.  The Commission was pleased to be informed that a project on
the status of women and population policies had been completed
during the period.  As part of the project, the United Nations
Nuptiality Chart, 1991  had been issued.  The major output of the
project had been a publication entitled Abortion Policies:  A
Global Review,  which would analyse the evolution of abortion law
and practice in 190 countries.  In addition, a wall chart
summarizing some of the key information from the three volumes had
been published.  

52.  The Commission was informed that a case-study focusing on the
formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policies
in Argentina had been issued in 1992.   This was the last
case-study in the series issued under the general title
Case-Studies in Population Policy. 
53.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that a project on the
world's largest urban agglomerations had been completed during the
period.  The project's major output, a volume containing profiles
that focused on the demographic characteristics, economy,
infrastructure, social services, and population policies of more
than 100 of the world's largest cities from all world regions, had
been submitted for publication.  As part of the project, a database
on the world's largest agglomerations had also been completed and
was available on diskette.

54.  The Commission was informed that as part of the ongoing work
programme of the Population Division, research on policy issues in
the world's mega-cities was continuing, with the publication of a
case-study on population growth and policies in Sžo Paulo,  the
thirteenth publication in the mega-cities series. 

55.  One of the major activities in population policy during the
biennium 1992-1993 was the Expert Group Meeting on Population
Policies and Programmes, which had been held at Cairo in April
1992.  The Commission noted with appreciation the publication of
the proceedings of the Meeting, entitled Population Policies and
Programmes:  Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting
on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April
1992. 

56.  The Commission was informed that analysis of the results of
the Seventh Population Inquiry among Governments, which was to have
been completed during the biennium 1992-1993, had been postponed
until 1994 because the replies from many Governments had been
received only recently.  The Commission was pleased to be informed
that, overall, the quality of the replies had been excellent, with
rich and useful information on new and emerging population policy
issues, such as policies in response to the human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic.

57.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that the population
policy data bank had been expanded.  In 1992, the third edition of
the population policy database Global Population Policy Database,
1991 (ST/ESA/SER.R/118) and of Global Policy Diskette Documentation
(1991) (ST/ESA/SER.R/117) had been issued.  However, the fourth
edition, which was due to be issued in 1993, had been postponed
until 1994 in order to incorporate recently received replies to the
Seventh Population Inquiry. 

58.  Regarding work relating population to development issues, the
Commission noted with satisfaction that the manual Projection
Methods for Integrating Population Variables into Development
Planning, vol. I, Methods for Comprehensive Planning, Module Three:

Techniques for Preparing Projections of Household and Other
Incomes, Household Consumption and Savings and Government
Consumption and Investment (ST/ESA/SER.R/90/Add.2) had been
published and that all population and development methods presented
in the three modules of the manual had been made available in the
form of a microcomputer software program called Population and
Development Projection Methods for Personal or Microcomputer
(PDPM/PC), version 1.0, and a user's guide entitled Population and
Development Projection Methods for Microcomputers:  A User's Guide
(ST/ESA/SER.R/123).

59.  The Commission was informed that reports had been published
documenting the experiences of integrated development and
population planning in three countries:  Thailand
(ST/ESA/SER.R/110), Turkey (ST/ESA/SER.R/112) and India
(ST/ESA/SER.R/114).

60.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that the proceedings of
the United Nations International Symposium on Population and
Development Planning, organized in 1989 in Riga by the Population
Division, in collaboration with the Latvian State University and
the Moscow State University, had been published.  The publication
was entitled Population and Development Planning:  Proceedings of
the United Nations International Symposium on Population and
Development Planning, Riga, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, 4-8
December 1989. 

61.  The Commission noted that work under the project aimed at
assessing the demographic consequences of major development
projects had been completed and that an overview report on three
case-studies (Costa Rica, India and Morocco) would be issued as a
working paper.

62.  The Commission was informed that work under the project on the
economic and social aspects of population ageing in selected
developing countries had been completed and that two case-studies
had been published, one focusing on Argentina (ST/ESA/SER.R/113)
and the other on India (State of Kerala) (ST/ESA/SER.R/119).

63.  The Commission was pleased to learn that the proceedings of
the International Conference on Ageing Populations in the Context
of the Family, which had been organized in 1990 by the Population
Division and the municipal Government of Kitakyžshž, Japan, in
collaboration with the Japan Ageing Research Centre, the former
Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the
United Nations Office at Vienna, and the United Nations Centre for
Human Settlements (Habitat), had been submitted for publication.

64.  The Commission was informed that the Population Division, in
collaboration with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and
the Pacific (ESCAP) and San Diego State University, had organized
a Round Table on the Ageing of Asian Populations which met in
Bangkok in 1992.  The proceedings of the Round Table had been
submitted for publication.   
65.  The Commission was informed that work on the substantive
preparations for the International Conference on Population and
Development had included the organization of two expert group
meetings.  The first, the Expert Group Meeting on Population,
Environment and Development, had been convened in New York in
January 1992.  A report on the meeting (E/CONF.84/PC/4) had been
presented to the Preparatory Committee for the Conference at its
second session, held in May 1993, and proceedings of the meeting
had been submitted for publication.   The second, the Expert Group
Meeting on Population Growth and Demographic Structure, had been
convened in Paris in November 1992.  A report on the meeting
(E/CONF.84/PC/8) had also been presented to the Preparatory
Committee for the Conference at its second session, held in May
1993.


           4.  Monitoring, review and appraisal, coordination
               and dissemination of population information

66.  The monitoring of world population trends and policies and the
review and appraisal of progress made towards the implementation of
the World Population Plan of Action are discussed in chapter II.

67.  The Commission was pleased to learn that in spite of the
additional responsibilities the Population Division had taken on in
terms of substantive preparations for the International Conference
on Population and Development, it had maintained a high level of
output in its overall dissemination programme.  During the period
1991-1993, 33 research studies, technical manuals, proceedings of
expert group meetings and seminars and wall charts had been issued,
in addition to six issues of the Population Bulletin of the United
Nations and the Population Newsletter.  In response to an
increasing demand for information in computer-readable form, 14 new
databases and software products had been produced.  The Commission
was informed that the demand for publications remained strong and
that efforts to improve dissemination were continuing.  

68.  The Population Commission was informed that since its
twenty-sixth session, the activities of the global Population
Information Network (POPIN) had included the convening of the fifth
POPIN Advisory Committee Meeting at Geneva in September 1992 and
participation in POPIN exhibits at the Fourth Asian and Pacific
Conference at Bali, Indonesia, in August 1992 and in the Working
Group on the Management of the POPIN Thesaurus, which had been
convened in New York in September 1992 by the Committee for
International Cooperation in National Research in Demography
(CICRED).  The Commission was pleased to note the publication of
the third edition of the POPIN Thesaurus in English, French and
Spanish under the auspices of CICRED.

69.  The Commission was pleased to learn that the United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA) had provided funding for POPIN and that a
global POPIN Coordinator had been appointed on 1 October 1993.  As
one of its first activities, the reactivated global POPIN
Coordinating Unit, along with the regional Population Information
Networks and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), had
established an electronic population information service on the
Internet.  The service, known as the POPIN Gopher, included
population resources such as journals and newsletters, software,
statistical tables, bibliographic and demographic databases, news
summaries, press releases and documentation of the International
Conference on Population and Development and of the twenty-seventh
session of the Population Commission.


           5.  Technical cooperation in population

70.  The Population Commission was informed of the technical
assistance provided to 50 countries in the areas of population
training, analysis of demographic and  socio-economic data,
population policy, and population and development.  Formulation of
population policies and strengthening of national capacities had
been given special emphasis.

71.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that joint short-term
training and research with member States, institutions and the
regional commissions in demographic data analysis, dissemination
and utilization had been undertaken, with the aim of improving
national capacities for microcomputer analysis of the 1990 round of
population censuses.

72.  The Population Commission was also informed of the new system
of technical support services to population programmes in
developing countries.  Under the new arrangement, provision of
technical advice and back-stopping of projects at the country level
had been decentralized to eight country support teams based in the
major developing regions.  The new system would utilize national
and regional capabilities to bring technical cooperation closer to
the countries concerned.


           6.  Demographic and social statistics

73.  The Population Commission was informed that in the 1990 census
round, 206 countries or areas had taken their population and/or
housing censuses during the period 1985-1994.  The Statistical
Division of the Department for Economic and Social Information and
Policy Analysis of the United Nations Secretariat was currently
engaged in preparations for the 2000 World Population and Housing
Census Programme.  In order to support countries in conducting
population and housing censuses, work on a new series of population
and housing censuses handbooks was being continued.  Two parts of
the handbook series, one dealing with planning, organization and
administration of population and housing censuses  and the other
dealing with selected demographic and social characteristics,  had
been published.  Two other parts, dealing with economic
characteristics and migration characteristics, would be issued
during the biennium 1994-1995.

74.  Work on vital statistics and civil registration had included
the implementation in developing countries of the International
Programme for Accelerating the Improvement of Vital Statistics and
Civil Registration Systems.  As part of the Programme, three
workshops had been held - in Buenos Aires, Damascus, and Beijing. 
Participants in the workshops had underscored the need for a
national master plan for the improvement of the systems and
emphasized that countries themselves needed to make a commitment to
accelerating improvement and to rely largely on their own resources
in implementing reforms. 

75.  In the field of social statistics, significant progress had
been made on methodology and data collection relating to persons
with disabilities.  The data would be useful in the monitoring of
disability at the community level.  

76.  The Commission was pleased to learn that an updated issue of
The World's Women, 1970-1990:  Trends and Statistics,  would be
completed in 1995, in time for the Fourth World Conference on
Women.

77.  The Commission was informed that the publication of the annual
Demographic Yearbook and of the quarterly Population and Vital
Statistics Report was continuing on a regular basis.  A special
issue of the Yearbook dedicated to population ageing and the
situation of elderly persons had been completed and was expected to
be released shortly.  In observance of the International Year of
the Family, the Statistical Division had produced a statistical
chart on world families, with the cooperation of the secretariat of
the International Year of the Family.

78.  The Statistical Division had also completed a project, with
funding from UNFPA, to develop the Demographic and Social
Statistics Database in a microcomputer-based system.  When fully
developed, the Database would make available all demographic and
related statistics disseminated through the United Nations
Demographic Yearbook since 1948 for 220 countries and areas in the
world.

79.  In the area of technical cooperation, the success of the 1990
World Population and Housing Census Programme had largely been due
to technical cooperation activities undertaken by the Statistical
Division, the regional commissions and others, with the financial
support of UNFPA.  The Statistical Division had executed more than
100 country projects each year during the period 1991-1993. 


           B.  Proposed programme of work for the biennium        
               1994-1995

         1.  Analysis of demographic variables at the world
level

80.  The Commission was informed that a study on differentials in
child survival by sex had been initiated and was expected to be
completed during the biennium 1994-1995.  The need for reliable
sex-specific estimates of infant and under-five mortality was
stressed as was the policy relevance of a better understanding of
the processes leading to higher female than male mortality in
childhood in certain contexts.

81.  With respect to international migration, the Commission
endorsed the preparation of a report on levels and trends of
international migration that would draw on the data contained in
the international migration data bank, whose updating and
computerization would continue.

82.  The Commission noted that for the biennium 1994-1995, work had
begun on a study of the family-building process.  The study would
examine changes in the timing of marriage, parity progression
ratios and birth intervals in selected developing countries.  It
would consider the role of family planning as a factor influencing
not only fertility levels but also the timing of births -
particularly the occurrence of closely spaced births.  In addition,
a detailed study on the determinants of contraceptive use and an
analysis of fertility in high-fertility countries would be
undertaken.  The Commission suggested that greater attention should
be paid to consensual and temporary marital unions as a topic of
study and as a factor influencing other demographic and social
phenomena, including contraceptive practice.


         2.  World population projections

83.  Recognizing the great demand for recurrent updating of the
global estimates and projections of populations, the Population
Commission recommended that the preparation of estimates and
projections of population by country, urban and rural populations,
and urban agglomerations continue.

84.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that the 1994 revision
of the global population estimates and projections was currently in
preparation, that the projection horizon had been extended to the
year 2050, and that the 1994 revision would provide age and sex
distributions and demographic indicators for countries with 150,000
or more inhabitants, and for the numerous newly independent States.

85.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that in the 1994
revision, the projection horizon would be the year 2015 for urban
agglomerations and the year 2025 for urban and rural populations.

86.  The Commission noted that the next session of the ACC
Subcommittee on Demographic Estimates and Projections would be held
in June 1994 in New York and reiterated its support for the
coordination activities of the Population Division, the regional
commissions and the specialized agencies in the area of population
and sectoral estimates and projections.


         3.  Population policy and socio-economic development

87.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that a major activity
in the area of population policy would be a new and expanded
three-volume edition of World Population Policies.   It would
contain an in-depth analysis of population policies, particularly
in terms of sustainable development, and greater emphasis on a
number of new and emerging areas of population policy, such as
women's reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, refugees and asylum-seekers,
environmental issues, and urban management.

88.  The Commission was informed that a major activity during the
1994-1995 biennium would be a project on international migration
policies.  It would entail preparing an analytical survey report on
emerging policy issues at the forefront of governmental concern and
systematically collecting information on governmental policies
concerning the flow of immigrants, emigrants, migrant workers,
dependants of migrant workers, refugees, asylum-seekers, and
undocumented migrants.  International migration policies would be
summarized and presented in a wall chart.

89.  The Commission was pleased to note that the population policy
database Global Population Policy Database, 1995 and of Global
Policy Diskette Documentation, 1995, both fifth editions, were
scheduled to be finalized by the end of the biennium.

90.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that intermediate
activities in the biennium would include two additional
case-studies in the Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities
series, as well as a study on AIDS policies.   
91.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that work on the
relationships among population, resources, the environment and
development had been given high priority.  A report on a project
funded by UNFPA aimed at investigating the current state of
knowledge regarding the relationships between population and the
environment in developing countries would be presented to the
International Conference on Population and Development and the
Commission on Sustainable Development.  The Commission recommended
that the report be widely circulated among policy makers,
scientists and the public.


         4.  Monitoring, review and appraisal, coordination
             and dissemination of population information

92.  The monitoring of world population trends and policies and the
review and appraisal of progress made towards the implementation of
the World Population Plan of Action are discussed in chapter II.

93.  With respect to activities in the area of dissemination of
population information, the Population Commission was informed that
the Population Division would continue to issue all its recurrent
and non-recurrent publications, continue to increase output in
computer-readable form and continue its efforts to disseminate more
widely and effectively the results of its research activities.

94.  Concerning global POPIN, the Commission was pleased to learn
that the POPIN Gopher would be expanded to include additional
population resources.  The global POPIN Coordinating Unit would
also, in collaboration with UNFPA, set up an electronic library at
Cairo for the International Conference on Population and
Development.  During the biennium 1994-1995 POPIN would establish
closer working relationships with the regional POPIN programmes.


         5.  Technical cooperation in population

95.  The Commission was informed that during the biennium
1994-1995, the number of country projects entirely executed by the
Population Division would decrease as a result of decentralization.

However, the five population specialists to be provided to the
Population Division by UNFPA would provide substantive support to
the eight country support teams.  The Commission was informed that
the new arrangements for technical support services would continue
to emphasize the importance of population training.



           C.  Activities of the regional commissions

         1.  Economic Commission for Africa

96.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that the convening of
the Third African Population Conference in 1992 represented a major
development in Africa.  The Dakar/Ngor Declaration on Population,
Family and Sustainable Development (E/CONF.84/PC/13, annex, annex
II), adopted by the Conference, was considered to be the most
advanced collective position of the African Governments on
population issues.  For the first time, quantitative objectives had
been set that constituted landmarks for the individual and
collective efforts of African countries to implement population
policies.  The Commission was informed that the Dakar/Ngor
Declaration made provisions for the establishment of a follow-up
Committee of member States to ensure its proper implementation.

97.  The Commission noted that although the collection and analysis
of demographic data remained a primary concern, the population
subprogramme of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) was giving
higher priority to the consideration of issues relating population
to development, including poverty alleviation, human settlements,
environment, and the empowerment of women.  In addition, ECA
planned to establish a unit charged with monitoring and documenting
the interrelationships among population, development and health,
including the impact of AIDS.


         2.  Economic Commission for Europe

98.  The Commission was informed that the population programme of
the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) for the period 1992-1995
included four major projects:  (a) East-West international
migration; (b) economic and social conditions of elderly
populations; (c) fertility and family surveys and studies; and (d)
population-related policies.

99.  The project on international migration comprised the
publication of a "rapid information system" designed to provide
timely information on flows of refugees, asylum-seekers and regular
migrants; a study of international migration policies in ECE member
States; and country studies on the determinants and consequences of
emigration from Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine.

100. With respect to elderly populations, ECE was gathering a set
of comparable census samples from the 1990 round of censuses that
would be used to prepare country monographs and cross-country
comparative studies on the social and economic conditions of the
elderly.

101. The project on fertility and family surveys and studies
represented a collaborative effort to compile comparable sample
survey information for 20 countries and to carry out studies on
trends in union formation and dissolution, reproduction, work, and
education and their interactions.  Eight countries had completed
fieldwork, and another eight would carry out surveys during the
period 1994-1995, while the rest, mostly in eastern Europe, were
still seeking funding.

102. The project on population policies had involved the gathering
of detailed information on policies relating to fertility and the
family, international migration and foreigners, and population
ageing and the status of the elderly for about 25 ECE countries. 
That information would allow the preparation of two volumes of
essays analysing policies, providing funding could be secured.


         3.  Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean

103. The Commission noted that the Latin American Demographic
Centre (Centro Latinoamericano de Demograf”a (CELADE)), the
specialized population unit of the Economic Commission for Latin
America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), had carried out activities in
all the priority areas identified by the Economic and Social
Council.  The activities of CELADE were coordinated with those of
other units and organizations of the United Nations system.  In
particular, CELADE had carried out an analysis of the 1990 round of
censuses that had permitted the updating of population estimates
and projections for the region; CELADE had collaborated with the
Inter-American Development Bank in a project to take account of
population variables in designing investment programmes in the
region; the Redatam computer package permitting the analysis of
geographically disaggregated data had been extended to cover more
than 30 countries in the region; and courses on population and
development had been offered under the Global Programme of Training
in Population and Development funded by UNFPA.

104. The Commission was pleased to note that CELADE had carried out
various activities in preparation for the International Conference
on Population and Development, including the preparation of a
report entitled Population, Equity and Changing Productive Patterns
that was discussed at the Latin American and Caribbean Regional
Conference on Population and Development held in Mexico City in
April and May 1993.  Aside from adopting a set of recommendations
that fed into the preparatory process for the International
Conference on Population and Development, the Latin American and
Caribbean Regional Conference had requested that a draft Regional
Plan of Action be drafted by ECLAC in collaboration with UNFPA. 
The draft had been discussed during four subregional meetings held
in 1993 and transmitted to ECLAC at its twenty-fifth session by a
High-Level Meeting of Governmental Experts of the Latin American
and Caribbean countries held in March 1994.  The Commission was
informed that after formal adoption by ECLAC, the draft Regional
Plan of Action would be revised in light of the results of the
International Conference on Population and Development and would
become operational in 1995.


         4.  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
             Pacific

105. The Commission was informed that the Economic and Social
Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) had organized the
Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference in Denpasar,
Indonesia, from 19 to 27 August 1992, and had adopted the Bali
Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development (see document
E/CONF.84/PC/14, annex).  For this purpose, three pre-Conference
seminars had been organized on:  (a) population, environment and
sustainable development (May 1991); (b) migration and urbanization
in Asia and the Pacific (January 1992); and (c) planning and
implementation of effective family planning/family health and
welfare programmes (March 1992).

106. During the period under review, ESCAP had continued to conduct
collaborative research on such topics as population and environment
dynamics; rural-urban migration and urbanization; the role and
status of women in relation to development; and the consequences of
population change in Asia.  In the area of technical assistance,
ESCAP had tried various approaches to improving the technical
skills and knowledge of Government officials and other
professionals working in the field of population.  Because of the
importance of population information, ESCAP continued to promote
new and better techniques for handling, sharing and disseminating
population information, especially through the Asia-Pacific
Population Information Network (ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN).  Other means
of disseminating population information included the publication of
Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Population Headliners, and the
Asian Population Studies Series, and the organization of various
meetings and workshops.


         5.  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

107. The representative of the Economic and Social Commission for
Western Asia (ESCWA) informed the Commission that the population
activities of ESCWA encompassed three major activities:  (a)
preparation of population estimates and projections; (b) analysis
of the social, economic and political aspects of international
migration flows in the region; and (c) analysis and promotion of
population-related policies, including integrating population
variables into development planning.  International migration was
of major importance for the region, involving all types of migrants
and having various implications for development.  However, funds to
conduct in-depth research in that area had not been forthcoming.


           D.  Action taken by the Commission

          Work programme in the field of population

108. At the 456th meeting, on 30 March, the Commission had before
it a draft resolution (E/CN.9/1994/L.4) entitled "Work programme in
the field of population" sponsored by Germany, Japan, the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States
of America.  The draft resolution read as follows:


        Work programme in the field of population

     The Economic and Social Council,

     Recalling General Assembly resolutions 3344 (XXIX) and 3345
(XXIX) of 17 December 1974, concerning the recommendations of the
United Nations World Population Conference, and 39/228 of 18
December 1984 on the International Conference on Population,

     Recalling also General Assembly resolution S-18/3 of 1 May
1990, containing the Declaration on International Economic
Cooperation, in particular the Revitalization of Economic Growth
and Development of the Developing Countries, as well as Assembly
resolution 45/199 of 21 December 1990 on the International
Development Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development
Decade,

     Recalling further its resolutions 1981/28 of 6 May 1981 on the
strengthening of actions concerned with the fulfilment of the World
Population Plan of Action, 1985/4 on the implications of the
recommendations of the International Conference on Population and
1985/6 on the status and role of women and population, both of 28
May 1985, 1986/7 of 21 May 1986 on population questions, 1989/89 on
the population situation in the least developed countries, 1989/90
on incorporating population factors in the International
Development Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development
Decade, 1989/92 on strengthening actions concerned with the
fulfilment of the World Population Plan of Action and 1989/94 on
United Nations support for African countries in the field of
population, all of 26 July 1989, and 1991/92 of 26 July 1991 on the
work programme in the field of population,

     Stressing the relationship between population and development
as stated in General Assembly resolution 45/216 of 21 December
1990, namely the supportive role of the work programmes of the
United Nations system in the field of population in the attainment
of the goals and objectives set out in the Declaration on
International Economic Cooperation, in particular the
Revitalization of Economic Growth and Development of the Developing
Countries, and in the International Development Strategy for the
Third United Nations Development Decade,  and taking into
consideration the specific needs of developing countries, as well
as the International Development Strategy for the Fourth United
Nations Development Decade and the pursuit of goals of economic
cooperation,

     Recalling the report of the International Conference on
Population, in which it was reaffirmed that the principles and
objectives of the World Population Plan of Action remained fully
valid, 

     Reaffirming the important role of the Population Commission as
the advisory body of the Economic and Social Council on population
matters,

     Bearing in mind recommendations that may emanate from the
International Conference on Population and Development,

     Taking note of the report of the Population Commission on its
twenty-seventh session  and the views expressed therein on the
progress of work in the field of population and the proposed work
programme,

     1.   Notes with satisfaction the progress made in implementing
the work programme for the period 1991-1993 and the medium-term
plan for the period 1992-1997;

     2.   Requests the Secretary-General:

     (a)  To continue to give high priority to the monitoring of
world population trends and policies;

     (b)  To continue work on the following:

     (i)  Biennial revisions of estimates and projections of
national, urban, rural and city populations, including demographic
indicators and age structure;

    (ii)  Studies on the interrelationships between population and
development;

   (iii)  Studies on the interrelationship between the status and
role of women and population;

    (iv)  Comparative analysis of population policies;

     (v)  Analysis of mortality, with special attention to adult
mortality;

    (vi)  Studies on reproductive behaviour and on family planning
and its demographic impact;

   (vii)  Studies to measure and understand changes in population
distribution, especially internal migration and urbanization;

  (viii)  Studies on levels, trends and policies in international
migration;

    (ix)  Dissemination of population information and further
strengthening of the Population Information Network at the regional
and global levels;

     (x)  Provision of technical cooperation support as requested
and as resources permit;

     (c)  To continue coordination of the substantive preparatory
work for the International Conference on Population and
Development;

     (d)  To continue to review and appraise the actions resulting
from the United Nations international population conferences of
1974, 1984 and 1994;

     (e)  To continue to work closely with Member States,
organizations of the United Nations system, other intergovernmental
organizations and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate,
in the implementation of programmes;

     (f)  To further improve communication and coordination among
the Population Division of the Department for Economic and Social
Information and Policy Analysis of the Secretariat, the regional
commissions and Governments, particularly in order to prepare the
most accurate population estimates and projections possible, an
activity in which the Population Division should continue to play
a leading role;

     (g)  To give high priority to strengthening multilateral
technical cooperation programmes in the field of population,
including the utilization of technical cooperation in and among
developing countries, as necessary;

     3.   Re-emphasizes the importance of maintaining the scope,
effectiveness and efficiency of the global population programme and
of continuing to strengthen coordination and collaboration among
the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy
Analysis of the Secretariat, the regional commissions, the United
Nations Population Fund, the World Bank, and other organizations
and bodies of the United Nations system in the planning and
execution of their population programmes, as well as the need for
organizations of the United Nations system to strengthen
coordination and collaboration with Member States, other
intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental and national
organizations, as appropriate.

109. At the 458th meeting, on 31 March, the Secretary of the
Commission informed the Commission that the draft resolution
contained no programme budget implications.

110. At the same meeting, the Vice-Chairman of the Commission
(Jamaica) read out the following revisions to the draft resolution,
which had been agreed to during informal consultations:

     (a)  In preambular paragraph 2, after the words "Developing
Countries", the paragraph should read as follows:  "and 45/199 of
21 December 1990 on the International Development Strategy for the
Fourth United Nations Development Decade, as well as 48/181 of 21
December 1993 on the integration of the economies in transition
into the world economy";

     (b)  In preambular paragraph 4, after the words "field of
population", the paragraph should read as follows:  "taking into
consideration the specific needs of developing countries, and in
the attainment of the goals and objectives set out in the
Declaration on International Economic Cooperation, in particular
the Revitalization of Economic Growth and Development of the
Developing Countries, as well as the International Development
Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development Decade";

     (c)  A new preambular paragraph, 5 bis, should be inserted, to
read as follows:  "Recalling also the recommendations of the five
regional population conferences that were convened as part of the
preparations for the International Conference on Population and
Development"; 

     (d)  Preambular paragraph 6, which began with "Reaffirming"
should be placed after preambular paragraph 7, which began with
"Bearing in mind";

     (e)  In operative paragraph 2 (b) (v), the words "with special
attention to adult mortality" should be deleted;

    (f)  Operative paragraph 2 (b) (vi) should read "Studies on
family formation, reproductive behaviour and family planning and
also on their demographic impact";

     (g)  Operative paragraph 2 (b) (vii), after the word
"distribution", should read "including internal migration,
urbanization and displaced persons";

     (h)  Operative paragraph 2 (b) (viii) should read "Studies on
levels, trends, policies, determinants and consequences of
international migration, including refugee-related issues";

     (i)  In operative paragraph 2 (b) (ix), the word "national"
should be inserted after the words "at the";

     (j)  Operative paragraph 2 (b) (x), after the words
"cooperation support", should read "in response to requests from
developing countries and economies in transition";

     (k)  In operative paragraph 2, subparagraphs (c) and (d)
should be deleted and subparagraphs (e), (f) and (g) should become
subparagraphs (c), (d) and (e), respectively;

     (l)  A new operative paragraph 3 should be added, to read as
follows:  "Requests the Secretary-General of the International
Conference on Population and Development to continue to make full
use of the existing resources of all units of the United Nations
system concerned, in particular the Department for Economic and
Social Information and Policy Analysis of the Secretariat and the
United Nations Population Fund".


                            Chapter IV

       FOLLOW-UP TO THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
                    CONFERENCE ON POPULATION, 1984


111. The Population Commission considered item 5 of its agenda at
its 456th and 457th meetings, on 30 March 1994.  It had before it
the following documents: 

     (a)  Concise report of the Secretary-General on the monitoring
of world population trends and policies, with special emphasis on
refugees (E/CN.9/1994/2);

     (b)   Report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the
United Nations system in the field of population (E/CN.9/1994/5);

     (c)  Report of the Secretary-General on the monitoring of
multilateral population assistance (E/CN.9/1994/6);

     (d)  Report of the Secretary-General on the work of
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in the
implementation of the World Population Plan of Action
(E/CN.9/1994/7);

     (e)  Report of the Executive Director of the United Nations
Population Fund on the activities of the Fund (E/CN.9/1994/8).


           A.  Activities of the United Nations Population Fund

112. The representative of the United Nations Population Fund
introduced the report of the Executive Director of UNFPA on the
Fund's activities (E/CN.9/1994/8).  The programme review and
strategy development (PRSD) exercise had developed significantly,
in both quantity and quality, since its introduction in 1989.  In
the past four years, 68 missions had been undertaken:  29 to
Africa; 12 to Arab States and Europe; 15 to Asia and the Pacific;
and 12 to Latin America and the Caribbean.  Recognizing that
systematic, timely and efficient monitoring and evaluation were
indispensable to ensure that population programmes had produced
effective results, UNFPA continued evaluation exercises during the
period 1991-1993.  Several major thematic evaluations were
conducted of activities such as information, education and
communication (IEC) in support of family planning service delivery;
income-generating projects to empower women and change reproductive
behaviour; improving the quality of family planning services; and
local production of contraceptives.

113. The Commission was informed that the Fund had made major
advances in successor support-cost arrangements, as approved by the
Governing Council in its decision of June 1991 related to the
provision of high-quality technical assistance.  The Fund's
principal mechanism to provide technical assistance at the country
level was the country support team (CST).  Eight were in operation:

three in sub-Saharan Africa; three in Asia and the Pacific; and one
in the Arab States and Europe, and one in Latin America and the
Caribbean.  The Fund had also continued to promote coordination and
collaboration in population planning and programmes.  As Chair of
the Joint Consultative Group on Policy (JCGP) during 1992, UNFPA
had advanced several coordination activities through various
working groups.  The global initiative on contraceptive
requirements and logistics, spearheaded by UNFPA, had involved
bilateral and multilateral collaboration for in-depth studies in
seven countries and others were in the pipeline.

114. The financial position of UNFPA had improved in 1992, with
income increasing by 6.3 per cent over 1991 to $238 million.  Total
expenditures in 1992 had been $193.6 million.  As of January 1994,
the total number of authorized budget posts was 837, comprising 180
Professional and 657 General Service staff.  UNFPA had increased
the proportion of women staff members in the Professional category
to 44 per cent, one of the highest percentages among United Nations
agencies and organizations.

115. The Commission noted that during the period 1991-1993, UNFPA
had supported numerous activities to strengthen and expand family
planning services, especially in rural and remote areas.  In
sub-Saharan Africa, 29 out of 41 countries had reported significant
progress in expanding their family planning networks.  The Fund had
been promoting a wider reproductive health perspective, emphasizing
the reduction of the number of abortions and adolescent
pregnancies; increasing contraceptive prevalence and effective
counselling; and widening the choice of contraceptive methods.  The
Fund had supported many IEC activities that were instrumental in
generating political and public support for population activities
and in increasing acceptance of family planning services.  IEC
activities had included development of national population IEC
strategies; incorporating population and family life education into
school curricula and out-of-school programmes; and peer education
and youth-to-youth counselling on adolescent reproductive health.

116. Delegates commended the work and programmes of UNFPA,
mentioning in particular the emphasis on improving programme
effectiveness and on gender concerns.  It was noted that there was
a need for effective follow-up to programme evaluations, a
continuing need to strengthen institutional capacity within
developing countries to implement programmes and, despite recent
progress, still a great need to meet the basic demand for family
planning and reproductive health services.  In order to prevent
gaps as well as overlap in programmes, there was a need for
coordination among the agencies and other groups supporting
population activities, and note was taken of UNFPA's leading role
in that regard.  UNFPA was urged to continue to stress the use of
national experts in executing programmes in developing countries. 
The number of such experts was increasing, even though there
remained a pressing need to train more population specialists.   


           B.  Monitoring of multilateral population assistance

117. The Commission was informed that the report on the monitoring
of multilateral population assistance (E/CN.9/1994/6) had been
prepared in response to a recommendation of the International
Conference on Population held at Mexico City in 1984, in which the
Secretary-General was requested to undertake the monitoring of
multilateral population programmes of the United Nations system. 
The report covered substantive and operational aspects of
multilateral population assistance within the United Nations
system. 
118. The United Nations system had continued to strengthen the
substantive content of its programmes and had increased the volume
of financial assistance directed to developing countries.  For the
United Nations system as a whole, assistance to population
programmes had increased from $181 million in 1987 to $253 million
in 1992.  UNFPA funds had accounted for 81 per cent of those
resources.

119. Family planning integrated with reproductive health and
carried out through the primary health-care system continued to
absorb most of the multilateral resources for population.  IEC
efforts in support of family planning had also received
considerable assistance.  In the past two years, the allocations
for basic data collection and analysis had decreased.

120. There had been a continued emphasis on support for programmes
and projects designed to improve the status and living conditions
of women.  Women's concerns had increasingly been mainstreamed into
all substantive areas of population assistance.  At the same time,
projects to improve the status of women, such as education for
girls, leadership training, literacy programmes and projects
designed to increase the income of women and their families, were
being supported by multilateral agencies.

121. The past two years had seen continued support for population
programmes in Africa, where reproductive health and family planning
needs were a major concern and where population growth rates were
currently the highest in the world.  About one third of UNFPA
resources for Africa were devoted to maternal and child health and
family planning (MCH/FP) programmes.  Trends in multilateral
assistance in Africa had shown that the earlier emphasis on basic
data collection and policy formulation was giving way to
operational population-programme activities, particularly in
MCH/FP.

122. The 1990s were considered to be critical:  Actions in
population taken in that decade would play a large part in
determining individual welfare and even survival as well as the
size and composition of populations well into the twenty-first
century.  It had become increasingly apparent that current
multilateral resources for population and development were
inadequate to meet the challenges of the decade.

123. In response to a query from delegates, the UNFPA
representative clarified the fact that a decline in UNFPA-funded
projects executed by the specialized agencies had been due to the
recommendation contained in General Assembly resolutions 44/211 and
47/199 that every effort should be made to promote the national
execution of population projects.  The Commission's attention was
drawn to the pressing population problems and need for technical
assistance in parts of Europe, particularly in the countries in
transition.  The representative of UNFPA noted that UNFPA did
support both country and regional projects in Europe, even though
the region contained no countries currently designated for priority
assistance.


           C.  Activities of the United Nations system
               in the field of population

124. The report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the
United Nations system in the field of population (E/CN.9/1994/5)
presented an overview of the activities of the units and
organizations of the United Nations system that had carried out
population activities during the early 1990s.  That report
presented information on recent changes in policies, mandates,
objectives, organizational structure and planning, and programming
and budgeting procedures, as well as on resources, coordinating
mechanisms and the proportion of resources devoted to population
activities during the period 1992-1993.



         1.  Office of the United Nations High
             Commissioner for Refugees

125. The representative of the Office of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) informed the Commission that his
organization, having been mandated to provide refugees with
international protection and assistance, considered the collection
and maintenance of refugee statistics to be an important element of
its work.  The Commission noted with satisfaction that UNHCR had
recently established a statistical entity within the Office and had
published The State of the World's Refugees:  The Challenge of
Protection,  which included detailed statistics on refugees and
asylum-seekers.

126. The representative of UNHCR underscored the difficulties
involved in the collection and measurement of refugee statistics. 
Differences in national policies, which were subject to constant
changes, also affected these data, making it extremely difficult to
make international comparisons.  The Commission was informed that
UNHCR had taken the initiative to improve the quality of data by
developing guidelines that set out practical and technical
procedures for the registration of refugees in the field.


         2.  International Labour Organization

127. The International Labour Organization (ILO) prepared a written
statement, which was made available to the Population Commission.


         3.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations


128. The representative of the Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations (FAO) reported that the Organization's programme
was undergoing a period of transition, moving away from a focus on
project execution towards one of technical support to the UNFPA
country support teams (CSTs) in the framework of the technical
support services (TSS) system.  The changes were also taking place
in the substantive area, since there was an increasing effort at
diversification in the direction of FAO's main areas of concern
(agricultural production and food security within a sustainable
development framework).

129. There were two major forces at work in the transition process.
The first was the implementation of the TSS system.  The second was
driven by the renewal process that FAO was going through and its
current restructuring.  This had resulted in a greater commitment
to the field of population and its interrelationships with
agriculture and rural development, as witnessed by the decision to
establish a new Population Programme Service.

130. The objective of this new Service was to ensure that
population issues were taken into account in FAO's activities in
order to achieve more effectively its objectives.  This implied
identifying and analysing the implications of the population
factors relevant to agricultural, fisheries and forestry issues.



           4.  United Nations Educational, Scientific
               and Cultural Organization

131. The representative of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) informed the
Commission that in the field of population a major area of concern
for UNESCO had been population information, education and
communication programmes.  Population education was a rapidly
expanding field and in recent years close to a 100 countries had
developed population education programmes in the formal and
non-formal education system.

132. UNESCO and UNFPA had jointly organized the First International
Congress on Population Education and Development (ICPED), held in
Istanbul, in April 1993, which had adopted the Istanbul Declaration
on the role of population education in human development and had
also approved an Action Framework for Population Education.

133. The Commission was informed that a new UNESCO
interdisciplinary and inter-agency cooperation project, entitled
"Environment and population education and information for human
development", sought a new approach to education, training and
information activities designed to deal with the interwoven issues
of population, environment and sustainable development in a manner
that was both integrated and based on sound scientific knowledge. 


134. Research and training activities were carried out in selected
countries from all major regions on sociocultural factors affecting
fertility change; changes in family and household patterns and
gender roles; sociocultural aspects of international migration; and
the role of women as agents of social change. 
135. The long-term effect of population programmes depended on
whether steps were taken to improve the status of women.  UNESCO
continued to expand its activities concerning various aspects of
women's empowerment including women's and girls' education at all
levels, training for economic self-reliance and the protection and
enhancement of women's legal, social and human rights.


           5.  World Health Organization

136. The representative of the World Health Organization (WHO)
informed the Commission that the "Health for all" strategy had led
to a worldwide recognition of the role of health in development. 
The Commission was informed that the visible aspect of WHO's
activities was their impact on the reduction of morbidity and
mortality.  In spite of the increase in many "poverty diseases",
overall mortality and infant and child mortality continued to
decrease globally.  

137. The Commission was informed that WHO had continued its efforts
to strengthen national health infrastructures to deal more
effectively with resurging public health problems, such as malaria,
AIDS and drug abuse.   

138. Countries were encouraged to include in their health
strategies specific equity targets to improve the health of
disadvantaged groups with disproportionately high rates of
mortality, such as women, the rural poor and
the inhabitants of urban slums.  

 139. Through the "Health for all" strategy, and the development of
district health systems, WHO had been an early advocate for
decentralization, community involvement, and integration of health
in the process of development.  Following the principle of equity,
WHO had been voicing the needs of women, children and adolescents
to prepare for a better future and had helped in building
international support for such vulnerable groups.


           D.  Work of intergovernmental and non-governmental
               organizations in the implementation of the
               World Population Plan of Action

140. The results of the fourth survey of activities carried out by
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in the field
of population were presented in the report of the Secretary-General
on the work of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations
in the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action
(E/CN.9/1994/7).  The survey focused on activities carried out
during the biennium 1990-1991, with some preliminary information on
resources for 1992, based on the replies received from 8
intergovernmental and 104 non-governmental organizations.  The
report provided information on various characteristics of the
organizations, including the location of their headquarters, the
nature of their activities, their links with the United Nations
system, and their human and financial resources, as well as their
involvement in the implementation of the recommendations relative
to each of the various sectors and functions covered in the World
Population Plan of Action.

141. The Population Commission noted the importance of the fourth
survey of population activities.  However, several delegates
mentioned that their organizations suffered from survey fatigue as
a reaction to increased demands made upon them to respond to
questionnaires.  It was suggested that ways should be investigated
to reduce such paperwork. 

142. The representative of the International Union for the
Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), a global association of
2,000 individual population scientists, reported that over the last
50 years the organization had contributed significantly to a
growing body of knowledge on the interrelationships between
demographic behaviour and development processes.  IUSSP, through
its general conferences held at different locations every four
years, its regional conferences, its scientific meetings, its
newsletter, its books and the journals that it partially supported,
had played a major role in establishing the determinants and
consequences of changing population growth and structure, as a
field of study.

143. In this work, IUSSP had relied on a solid body of material in
the area of information-gathering and analysis carried out at the
international level by the Population Division of the United
Nations Secretariat.  It was important to IUSSP's mission that such
information be collected and presented according to the highest
standards possible.  IUSSP joined others in its praise of the work
of the Population Division and suggested that its role be widened
to allow more internationally comparative work.  It was declared
that it was in everyone's interest to extend and deepen the
technical capacity of the Population Division of the United Nations
Secretariat.

144. IUSSP expressed its commitment to continuing its scientific
programme through its scientific committees.  The next General
Conference would be held in 1997.  The continuing strong support of
UNFPA was essential to the mission of IUSSP.  
 
145. The representative of the Population Council reported that the
Council planned to emphasize three main policy routes to reduce
population growth rates: (a) high-quality family planning services
to help satisfy the unmet need for fertility regulation and reduce
unplanned and unwanted pregnancies; (b) affirmative social and
economic measures to improve girls' and women's educational and
economic opportunities; and (c) promotion of later age at marriage
and longer spacing between births to reduce pressures on women for
early marriage and motherhood.  Additional Council priorities
included:  (d) commitment to incorporation of relevant reproductive
health services as constituting part of improving the quality of
care of family planning services, including detection and treatment
of sexually transmitted diseases and prevention of unsafe abortion;
(e) expansion of contraceptive choices and access to family
planning services; (f) development of new contraceptive methods for
people with special unmet needs, such as adolescents,
breast-feeding mothers, unmarried women, women at risk for sexually
transmitted diseases, older women, and men; (g) research efforts on
gender and the family; (h) research on the relationships among
population, environment, and development from the perspective of
resource disparities; and (i) expansion of the Council's public
information outreach efforts to bring the results of its research
to the attention of policy makers and programme managers, as well
as influential journalists and media around the world.

146. The representative of Population Communications-International
informed the Commission about its work with mass communications
media in promoting social change, in particular through improving
knowledge about the links among population, environmental
degradation, poverty and gender issues.  She also noted the long
and rewarding collaboration between non-governmental organizations
and the United Nations in the field of population and looked
forward to her organization's future participation in the work of
the Population Commission.


                             Chapter V

          PROVISIONAL AGENDA FOR THE TWENTY-EIGHTH SESSION
                          OF THE COMMISSION


147. The Commission considered item 6 of its agenda at its 458th
meeting, on 31 March 1994.  It had before it a note by the
Secretariat containing the draft provisional agenda for the
twenty-eighth session together with a list of requested
documentation (E/CN.9/1994/L.3/Rev.1). 

148. At the same meeting a statement was made by the representative
of Pakistan who indicated that her delegation would go along with
the proposed item 4 of the provisional agenda on the understanding
that it should not prejudge the outcome of the International
Conference on Population and Development.

149. At the same meeting, statements were also made by the
representatives of Colombia and the Russian Federation, as well as
by the observers for Egypt and the Holy See.

150. At the same meeting, the Commission approved the draft
provisional agenda for its twenty-eighth session, as amended during
the discussion (see chap. I, sect. B, draft decision).


                             Chapter VI

               ADOPTION OF THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSION
                       ON ITS TWENTY-SEVENTH SESSION


151. At the 458th and 459th meetings, on 31 March 1994, the
Commission adopted the draft report on its twenty-seventh session
(E/CN.9/1994/L.5 and Add.1 and 2 and the paper containing an
informal version of the draft report with the continuation of
chaps. III and IV), as revised during the discussion.


                             Chapter VII

                      ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSION


           A.  Opening and duration of the session

152. The Population Commission held its twenty-seventh session at
United Nations Headquarters from 28 to 31 March 1994.  The
Commission held 8 meetings (452nd to 459th meetings) and 1 informal
meeting. 

153. The session was opened by the Director of the Population
Division.

154. Introductory statements were made by the Under-Secretary-
General for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis,
the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund and
the Director of the Population Division. 

           B.  Attendance

155. The session was attended by 24 States members of the
Commission.  Observers for other States Members of the United
Nations and for two non-member States also attended. 
Representatives of specialized agencies and non-governmental
organizations also attended.  A list of participants is given in
annex I to the present report.


           C.  Election of officers

156. At the 452nd and 453rd meetings, on 28 March 1994, the
Commission elected the following officers by acclamation:

     Chairman:  Shigemi Kono (Japan)

     Vice-Chairmen:  Pauline Knight (Jamaica)
                     Andr s Klinger (Hungary)
                     Jenny Gierveld (Netherlands)
                     Ahmed Yousif Mohamed (Sudan)

     Rapporteur:  Jenny Gierveld (Netherlands)


           D.  Agenda

157. At the 452nd meeting, on 28 March 1994, the Commission adopted
the provisional agenda contained in document E/CN.9/1994/1.  The
agenda was as follows:

     1.   Election of officers.

     2.   Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters.

     3.   Action by the United Nations to implement the
recommendations of the World Population Conference, 1974:

          (a)  General debate on national experience in population
matters;

          (b)  Monitoring of population trends and policies, with
special emphasis on refugees;

          (c)  Review and appraisal of progress made towards the
implementation of the World Population Plan of Action.

     4.   Programme questions:

          (a)  Programme performance and implementation;

          (b)  Proposed programme of work for the biennium
               1994-1995.

     5.   Follow-up to the recommendations of the International
          Conference on Population, 1984.

     6.   Provisional agenda for the twenty-eighth session of the
          Commission.

     7.   Adoption of the report of the Commission on its
          twenty-seventh session.

158. At the same meeting, the Commission approved the organization
of the work for the session (E/CN.9/1994/L.1).


           E.  Consultation with non-governmental organizations

159. In accordance with rule 76 of the rules of procedure of the
functional commissions of the Economic and Social Council,
representatives of the following non-governmental organizations in
consultative status with the Council made statements in connection
with agenda item 5 (Follow-up to the recommendations of the
International Conference on Population, 1984):

     Category II:  International Union for the Scientific Study of
                   Population 

        The Population Council

     Roster:  Population Communications-International


                              Annex I

                             ATTENDANCE


                              Members

Bangladesh:  Reaz Rahman, Jamil Majid, Mahbub Kabir, M. Fazlul
             Karim

Belgium:  Gnther Sleeuwagen

Cameroon:  Moussa Aliou 

Canada:  Jeannine Perreault, Alain Tellier

China:  Peng Yu, Zhao Zhipei, Zhang Yang, Zhang Xiaoan, Li Zheng

Colombia:  Luis Fernando Jaramillo, Hernando Clavijo

France:  Jacques Veron, Laurent Contini, Lionel de Boisdeffre

Germany:  Charlotte Hoehn, Ulrike Metzger

Honduras:  Nelson Valenzuela Soto, Marco Antonio Suazo Fernandez,
           Jorge Flores

Hungary:  Andr s Klinger, Andr s Lakatos

India:  Nalin Surie

Jamaica:  Pauline Knight

Japan:  Shigemi Kono, Matsushiro Horiguchi, Ryoichi Horie, Michio
        Ozaki

Madagascar:  No‰l Rakotondramboa, Reine Raoelina

Mexico:  Gerardo Lozano, Patricia A. Belmar Bustamante

Netherlands:  Jenny Gierveld, Antonie de Jong

Nicaragua:  Erich C. Vilchez Asher, Josefina Vannini, Myrna Pe¤a

Pakistan:  Jamsheed K. A. Marker, Tehmina Janjua

Poland:  Jerzy Holzer

Russian Federation:  E. V. Mikhailov, E. V. Kudryavtsev, Y. N.
                     Isakov, A. A. Pankin

Sudan:  Saddig Nassir Osman, Ahmed Yousif Mohamed

Tunisia:  Ghazi Jomaa

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland:  
    D. L. Pearce, Ann Grant, Robin A. Barnett

United States of America:  Faith Mitchell, Victor Marrero, Richard
    Cornelius, Judith Banister, David Michael Cohen

States Members of the United Nations represented by observers

     Angola, Argentina, Benin, Egypt, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Iran
(Islamic Republic of), Lesotho, Maldives, Nigeria, Norway,
Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Viet Nam, Zambia,
Zimbabwe


          Non-member States represented by observers

          Holy See, Switzerland


          United Nations Secretariat

     Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy
Analysis,  Economic Commission for Africa, Economic Commission for
Europe, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean,
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Economic
and Social Commission for Western Asia 


          United Nations bodies

     United Nations Population Fund, World Food Programme, Office
of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees


          Specialized agencies

     International Labour Organization, Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Health Organization


          Intergovernmental organizations

          League of Arab States


          Non-governmental organizations

     Category I:  International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

     Category II:  International Union for the Scientific Study of
                   Population
                   The Population Council
                   World Union of Catholic Women's Organizations

     Roster:  Population Communications-International



                               Annex II

               LIST OF DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE COMMISSION
                    AT ITS TWENTY-SEVENTH SESSION


Document number          Agenda item       Title or description

E/CN.9/1994/1                2             Provisional agenda

E/CN.9/1994/2                3 (b)         Concise report on the
                                           monitoring of
                                           world population trends
                                           and policies,
                                           with special emphasis on
                                           refugees: 
                                           report of the
                                           Secretary-General

E/CN.9/1994/3                4 (a)         Progress of work in the
                                           field of population,   
                                           1991-1993: Department
                                           for Economic and Social
                                           Information and Policy 
                                           Analysis: report of the
                                           Secretary-General

E/CN.9/1994/4                4 (b)         Programme of work in
                                           population for the     
                                           biennium 1994-1995: 
                                           note by the            
                                           Secretary-General

E/CN.9/1994/5                5             Activities of the United
                                           Nations system in the  
                                           field of population: 
                                           report of the 
                                           Secretary-General

E/CN.9/1994/6                5             Monitoring of          
                                           multilateral population
                                           assistance:  report of
                                           the Secretary-General

E/CN.9/1994/7                5             Work of inter-         
                                           governmental and
                                           non-governmental
                                           organizations in the
                                           implementation of the
                                           World Population Plan of
                                           Action:  report of
                                           the Secretary-General

E/CN.9/1994/8                5             Activities of the United
                                           Nations Population Fund:

                                           report of the Executive 
                                           Director of the United
                                           Nations Population Fund

E/CN.9/1994/L.1              2             Organization of the work
                                           of the session:  note by

                                           the Secretariat

E/CN.9/1994/L.2              2             Status of documentation
                                           for the session:  note 
                                           by the Secretariat

E/CN.9/1994/L.3/Rev.1        6             Provisional agenda for
                                           the twenty-eighth      
                                           session of the
                                           Commission:  note by the
                                           Secretariat

E/CN.9/1994/L.4             4              Germany, Japan, United
                                           Kingdom of Great Britain

                                           and Northern Ireland
                                           and United States of
                                           America:  draft
                                           resolution

E/CN.9/1994/L.5 and         7              Draft report of the
                                           Commission on Add.1 and 
                                           2 its twenty-seventh 
                                           session 

ESA/P/WP.121                               Draft:  World Population
                                           Monitoring, 1993                       

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