United Nations

E/CN.9/1994/3


Economic and Social Council

 Distr. GENERAL
26 January 1994
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


POPULATION COMMISSION
Twenty-seventh session
28-31 March 1994
Item 4 (a) of the provisional agenda*

PROGRAMME QUESTIONS:  PROGRAMME PERFORMANCE AND IMPLEMENTATION

     Progress of work in the field of population, 1991-1993:
     Department for Economic and Social Information and     
                         Policy Analysis

                 Report of the Secretary-General

                             SUMMARY

       The present report reviews the progress of the Department
for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis in
implementing its programme of work in the field of population
during the period 1991-1993.  It covers the activities of the
Department in subprogrammes dealing with analysis of demographic
variables at the world level; world population projections;
population policy and socio-economic development; monitoring,
review and appraisal, coordination and dissemination of population
information; and technical cooperation in population.  Other
continuing activities of the Department are also described.
--------------
     *    E/CN.9/1994/1.
94-04398 (E)   170294                                             

                                     CONTENTS

                                                      
                                                 Paragraphs  Page


INTRODUCTION ....................................  1 - 7       5

  I.  WORLD DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS ...............   8 - 27      6

      A.  Levels and trends of mortality .......     8         6

      B.  Reproductive behaviour and child survival 9 - 10      6

      C.  Differentials in child survival by sex ...  11        7

      D.  Internal migration ...................... 12 - 13      7

      E.  International migration ................. 14 - 17      8

      F.  Status of women and fertility ........... 18 - 21      8

      G.  Trends in reproductive behaviour ........ 22 - 24      9

      H.  Dynamics of contraceptive use ........... 25 - 27     10

 II.  WORLD POPULATION PROJECTIONS ................ 28 - 48     10

      A.  Global population estimates and projections:  1990,
          1992 and 1994 revisions ................. 28 - 36     10

      B.  Urban, rural and city population estimates and
          projections:  1990 and 1992 revisions ... 37 - 42     13

      C.  Preparing migration data for subnational
          population projections ..................   43       14

      D.  Long-range population projections until the
          year 2150 ................................. 44       15

      E.  Sex and age distribution of urban and rural 
          areas .................................     45       15

      F.  Demographic impact of AIDS in Africa ..     46       15

      G.  Subcommittee on Demographic Estimates and
          Projections .............................  47 - 48     16

III.  POPULATION POLICY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC 
      DEVELOPMENT .................................. 49 - 64     16

      A.  Comparative study of new population policy issues
          at the global level ...................... 49 - 50     16

      B.  National population policies ............. 51 - 52     17

                            
      C.  Population policy data bank .............  53 - 54     17

      D.  Manual on projection methods for integrating
          population variables to development 
          planning ...............................     55        17

      E.  Reports on experiences of integrated population and
          development planning ...................     56       17

      F.  International Symposium on Population and
          Development Planning  ..................     57       18

      G.  Assessing the demographic consequences of major
          development projects ...................     58       18

      H.  Population aspects of ageing:  economic and social
          consequences ...........................     59       18

      I.  International Conference on Ageing Populations in
          the Context of the Family ..............     60       18

      J.  United Nations Round Table on the Ageing of Asian
          Populations ............................     61       18

      K.  Database on population, resources, the environment
          and development ........................     62       19

      L.  Government views on population and environment
          relationships ..........................     63       19

      M.  Population and the environment:  setting the
          research agenda ........................     64       19

 IV.  MONITORING, REVIEW AND APPRAISAL, COORDINATION AND
      DISSEMINATION OF POPULATION INFORMATION ....  65 - 74     19

      A.  Monitoring of population trends and 
          policies ...............................  65 - 67     19

      B.  Review and appraisal of the World Population Plan
          of Action ..............................     68       20

      C.  Coordination and dissemination of population
          information ............................  69 - 74     20

  V.  TECHNICAL COOPERATION ......................  75 - 86     22

      A.  Technical cooperation ..................  75 - 76     22

      B.  Population policy and development 
          planning  ............................... 77 - 78     22 
                           
      C.  Training   .............................  79 - 80     22

      D.  Data analysis ..........................  81 - 82     23

      E.  New dimension ..........................  83 - 86     23

 VI.  INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION 
      AND DEVELOPMENT  ...........................  87 - 100    24

      A.  Expert group meetings ..................  88 - 91     24

      B.  Regional conferences ...................  92 - 93     25

      C.  Main documents for the Conference ......  94 - 96     25

      D.  Inter-agency coordination ..............  97 - 98     26

      E.  Other meetings and round tables ........  99 - 100    26

Annex.  PUBLICATIONS AND OTHER MATERIAL ISSUED IN 1991-1993 BY THE
        POPULATION DIVISION, AND THE SOFTWARE AND DATABASES       
        MAINTAINED
        BY IT .....................................   28


                          INTRODUCTION


1.   As part of the second phase of the restructuring of the United
Nations Secretariat, initiated by the Secretary-General in his note
of 3 December 1992 (A/47/753), particularly in the economic and
social sectors, three new Departments were established in New York
in February 1993.  One of those Departments was the Department for
Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis which absorbed
some of the responsibilities of the former Department for
International Economic and Social Affairs and the former Department
of Technical Cooperation for Development.  It acts as the focal
point for economic and social analysis and information in respect
of population and statistics and provides substantive support to
the pertinent intergovernmental machinery, including the Population
Commission and the Statistical Commission.  Those functions include
research and policy analysis and the execution of technical
cooperation activities in the areas of statistics and population.

2.   At its twenty-sixth session, the Population Commission
reviewed the progress of work for 1989-1990 and the programme of
work for 1992-1993.

3.   The present report deals with the research and technical work
and information activities carried out in the field of population
during the period 1991-1993 by the Population Division, which was
part of the former Department of International Economic and Social
Affairs, was later part of the former Department for Economic and
Social Development and is now part of the Department for Economic
and Social Information and Policy Analysis.  It also includes the
technical cooperation activities undertaken in that field by the
former Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.  The
activities are grouped according to the subprogrammes of the
programme budget for 1990-1991 and 1992-1993.

4.   Since the twenty-seventh session of the Population Commission
was postponed from 1993 to 1994, the present report covers part of
the work programme for the biennium 1990-1991, as well as the work
undertaken in the context of the work programme for the biennium
1992-1993, both of which were endorsed by the Commission at its
twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth sessions.

5.   During the period 1991-1993, the Population Division made
every effort to implement the programme of work adopted by the
Commission and endorsed by the Economic and Social Council and the
General Assembly.  The work programme for 1992-1993 was formulated
and implemented within the basic framework set forth in the
medium-term plan for the period 1992-1997, taking into account the
recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action (1974) 1/
and the International Conference on Population (1984). 2/  Part of
the programme period has, however, been affected, to some extent,
by the additional responsibilities that have been placed on the
Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis
for providing substantive support to the International Conference
on Population and Development, which will be held at Cairo in
September 1994.  To the extent possible, this has been achieved by
integrating the regular research activities of the Department with
the added substantive reporting requirements of the Conference.

6.   Some delays in the implementation of certain projects have,
however, occurred as a consequence, and some projects that were
expected to be completed by the end of the biennium 1992-1993 have,
therefore, to be carried over into 1994.  Those activities have
been integrated into the approved programme covered by the
1994-1995 programme budget, so as to achieve completion of the
1994-1995 programme by the end of that biennium.

7.   The Department continued to collaborate closely with the
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).  The financial assistance
of UNFPA made it possible to expand the scope and character of the
projects undertaken by the Department and to improve the
substantive aspects of several of them.  In addition, the
Department maintained close and effective collaboration with UNFPA
on substantive activities in connection with the preparations for
the International Conference on Population and Development. 
However, only the substantive aspects of the Conference
preparations are briefly dealt with in the present report.  A
more detailed report will be submitted to the Preparatory Committee
for the Conference at its third session, which will take place
immediately following the twenty-seventh session of the Commission.


                 I.  WORLD DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

               A.  Levels and trends of mortality

8.   A study on the impact of mortality change since the 1960s was
completed and the results were published in the report entitled
Child Mortality Since the 1960s:  A Database for Developing
Countries.*  The report presents, on a comparative basis, all
estimates of infant and child mortality available for the
developing countries during the period from 1960 to the late 1980s.

It thus provides an essential tool for policy makers, programme
planners and researchers to assess levels and trends of mortality
in childhood and monitor progress towards mortality reduction.  The
study, which was partially funded by the United Nations Children's
Fund (UNICEF), is especially valuable in the light of the goals for
the reduction of mortality among infants and children under five
set by the Plan of Action adopted at the World Summit for Children
held in New York in September 1990.  Estimates obtained on the
basis of the data presented in the report have been used in the
preparation of the report World Population Monitoring, 1993 and for
the fourth quinquennial review and appraisal of the World
Population Plan of Action.


          B.  Reproductive behaviour and child survival

9.   A study on the effects that changes in reproductive behaviour
have on child survival has been completed and the final report is
being edited for publication under the title The Health Rationale
for Family Planning:  Timing of Births and Child Survival.  The
study was carried out with the financial assistance of 
________________________

     *    Identifiers of publications cited in the present report
are given in the annex to it.

UNFPA. By using the latest information on fertility patterns and
child survivorship gathered by the Demographic and Health Surveys
(DHS) programme, the report documents the consistency of certain
relations between reproductive behaviour and child survivorship. 
Its main findings are that children born to very young mothers
(those in their teenage years) and children born shortly after the
birth of a previous child are at greater risks of dying. 
Consequently, the use of family planning to increase birth
intervals and thus achieve a better spacing of children will help
reduce mortality in childhood.  These findings corroborate those
made earlier on the basis of World Fertility Survey (WFS) data.

10.  Three country case-studies on Ecuador, Indonesia and Zimbabwe
were initiated, with the financial assistance of UNFPA, to study
the effect of improved child survival on fertility.  These
case-studies employed individual level data of mothers and children
and the characteristics of their communities.  The analysis focused
on examining how the availability of and contact with community
health and family-planning services mediate the relationship
between child survival and fertility.  The country reports are now
being revised and edited in the Population Division and will be
consolidated into one report, with an overview showing the common
findings and generalization.  The report will be published in late
1994.


                  C.  Differentials in child survival by sex

11.  A study on excess female child mortality is being carried out
with the financial assistance of UNFPA.  The aim of the study is to
produce estimates of child mortality by sex for as many countries
as possible so as to document variations in sex differentials in
child mortality by level of development and socio-cultural setting. 
In addition, the various processes leading to the sex differentials
detected will be discussed, especially with regard to settings in
which excess female child mortality prevails.  A report on this
study is expected to be completed in late 1995.


                            D.  Internal migration

12.  An Expert Group Meeting on the Feminization of Internal
Migration was held at Aguascalientes, Mexico, from 22 to 25 October
1991.  The Meeting was convened in collaboration with the National
Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information of Mexico and
with the financial assistance of UNFPA.  Participants in the
Meeting included 20 invited experts from the various world regions,
representatives of international organizations and a number of
local observers.  The purpose of the Meeting was to document the
extent of internal female migration in the developing countries and
its impact on the status of women.  Thus, the 19 papers presented
at the Meeting discussed the problems involved in measuring the
internal migration of women, the extent and relevance of the
different types of female migration, the characteristics of female
migrants, the processes leading to female migration, the
socio-economic consequences of migration for women and their
families, and the relevance of female migration for development. 
The proceedings of the Meeting, which included the revised
versions of most of the papers presented at the Meeting, the report
of the deliberations, the recommendations of the Meeting and an
overview of current knowledge regarding the internal migration of
women, have been published in a volume entitled Internal Migration
of Women in Developing Countries.

13.  A report on methods of measuring internal migration was not
published because extrabudgetary funding could not be secured for
this activity.

                          E.  International migration

14.  Although extrabudgetary funding to conduct a study on refugees
and displaced persons was not obtained, a special chapter on
refugee movements was prepared for the report World Population
Monitoring, 1993.  The chapter documents trends in refugee
movements since 1985, together with the evolving policy responses
to those movements.

15.  The data bank on international migration has continued to be
updated and expanded.  Diskettes containing updated versions of the
data on international migrant stocks have been reissued for three
developing regions, namely, Africa, Asia and Latin America.  A
short manual describing the database has been prepared for each
region.  In addition, a data set containing information on
changes in the stock of international migrants for all countries in
the world is being made available on diskette.

16.  An article entitled "Europe without internal frontiers and
international migration" has been prepared for publication in a
forthcoming issue of the Population Bulletin of the United Nations. 
It documents the process by which freedom of movement of workers
has been established in the European Community and assesses whether
such freedom of movement has had a significant effect in increasing
intra-community migration.

17.  The proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on International
Migration Policies and the Status of Female Migrants, which was
held at San Miniato, Italy, in March 1990, are being edited for
publication.

                       F.  Status of women and fertility

18.  Besides being identified as a development priority, women's
education is widely acknowledged as a crucial determinant of
fertility behaviour.  In view of this, the nature and strength of
the association between education and fertility has been a
recurrent theme of fertility analysis at the United Nations.  A
previous United Nations study on female education and fertility,
based on WFS data, compiled extensive empirical evidence on the
role of education on fertility reduction.  It became evident that
the association was far more complex than assumed in the past,
since it has been established to be contingent upon level of
development, social structure and cultural milieu. 
In order to re-examine this complex relationship, two research
activities were undertaken: (a) country case-studies to analyse in
greater detail the relationship between the status of women,
measured by level of education, and fertility in a specified
socio-cultural setting; and (b) a comparative study of changing
relationships between women's education and fertility.  Three
separate case-studies pertaining to India, Mexico and Pakistan have
been published under the following titles:  (a) Women's Education
and Fertility Behaviour: A Case-study of Rural Maharashtra, India,
(b) Women's Status and Fertility in Pakistan: Recent Evidence, and
(c) Fertility Transition and Women's Life Course in Mexico.

19.  The availability of a new round of data from Demographic and
Health Surveys from 26 countries has provided a unique opportunity
to re-examine the education-fertility relationship from a
cross-national perspective.  The major work on the report of this
comparative study has been completed and is now being finalized
for publication in 1994 under the title Women's Education and
Fertility Behaviour:  Recent Evidence from the Demographic and
Health Surveys.  The results of this comparative analysis show
interesting variations in the education-fertility relationship
among the regions of the world.

20.  To further the understanding of the groups of women of special
concern, as identified in the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies
for the Advancement of Women, a comparative study, entitled Living
Arrangements of Women and Their Children in the Third World:  A
Demographic Study, had been completed and is now in the final stage
of editing.

21.  A staff member of the Population Division has been designated
as the focal point on women's issues in the Department.  She has
been regularly attending  and providing background information to
the meetings of the Ad Hoc Inter-agency Advisory Committee on the
Fourth World Conference on Women, the United Nations Development
Fund for Women and the Working Group on Women's Health of the
New York NGO Committee on the Status of Women.


                     G.  Trends in reproductive behaviour

22.  In the area of fertility analysis, Patterns of Fertility in
Low-fertility Settings was published in 1992.  This publication
constitutes the most recent United Nations analysis of fertility
levels and trends in countries that have achieved fertility
transition and are currently considered, by world standards,
low-fertility countries.  It provides an overall assessment of
fertility levels and trends in low-fertility countries for the
period 1965-1989 or to the most recent year for which pertinent
data are available.  Reproductive behaviour in this study is
examined not only in terms of fertility rates (mainly period rates
but of cohort rates wherever data were available), but also in
terms of total number of births.  Various other aspects of
fertility, including population replacement, adolescent fertility,
birth order and illegitimacy, are also examined.  All the
low-fertility countries included in this analysis experienced
a total fertility rate of about 2.1 or fewer in 1988-1989; this
rate is approximately the average number of births required in a
developed country to ensure population replacement.

23.  A study of the family-planning process was initiated during
the biennium 1992-1993, with the financial assistance of UNFPA. 
This is a study in the emerging area of fertility analysis that
aims to develop a new methodology to measure the impact of
family-planning programmes through the study of the family-building
process which examines in some detail the nature of parity-specific
fertility behaviour.  It is a comparative study involving 15
countries representing various regions of the world which have both
DHS and WFS data.

24.  A computerized database for monitoring and analysis of family
planning and fertility has been established and is being updated
with the latest available data from national and other sources.


                       H.  Dynamics of contraceptive use

25.  An updated and modified version of Levels and Trends of
Contraceptive Use as Assessed in 1988, which was published in 1989,
is the Pattern of Contraceptive Use.  It presents information about
contraceptive use, by type of methods, for all countries with
available information.  It also presents regional and global
average levels of contraceptive use and trends in levels of
use, and estimates of the extent of availability of modern
contraceptives in the developing countries.  Estimates of married
women of reproductive ages that are basic to family-planning
programmes in conjunction with estimates of women that need to
practise contraception in order to bring fertility to a desirable
level are a special feature of the 1993 report.  The report is now
being finalized for publication in early 1994.  A wall chart on
contraceptive use will also be published.

26.  A set of eight contraceptive-use data diskettes containing a
variety of statistics pertaining to contraceptive knowledge and use
for various countries and dates has been compiled or tabulated,
mostly in the Population Division from nationally representative
sample survey data.  A user's manual accompanying the diskettes was
published in 1992.

27.  A considerable number of requests for fertility and
contraceptive-use data have been received from United Nations
organizations, research institutions and individual scholars.


                       II.  WORLD POPULATION PROJECTIONS

                 A.  Global population estimates and projections:
                     1990, 1992 and 1994 revisions           

                             1.  The 1990 revision

28.  The report World Population Prospects:  1990 was issued during
the second quarter of 1991.  This was the last major publication
that reported on the results of the 1990 revision exercise.  It
followed up on two earlier publications that had been issued during
1990, and reported on during the twenty-sixth session of the
Population Commission.

29.  The Population Division made the results of the 1990 revision
available on magnetic tape, on diskette for IBM-PC compatible
microcomputers and for, the first time, on diskette for Apple
Macintosh microcomputers.  The database Demographic Indicators,
1990 contains selected demographic indicators for countries,
regions and major areas from the medium-, high- and low-fertility
variants.  The database Sex and Age, 1990 provides populations by
sex and age for the medium-fertility variant projections.


                             2.  The 1992 revision

30.  The 1992 revision was completed in June 1992 and the major
results announced at a press conference given by the
Under-Secretary-General of the then Department of Economic and
Social Development.  At that time, the results of the 1992 revision
were made available, through advance copies of the annex tables,
throughout the United Nations system and among major
non-governmental users.

31.  The 1992 revision accommodated a number of events.  The
Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic
united to form one sovereign State, as did Democratic Yemen and
Yemen.  Population estimates and projections were prepared for
those new unified countries.  The Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics separated into 15 individual countries.  Population
estimates and projections by sex and age were prepared for Estonia,
Latvia and Lithuania, and for a major area named "USSR (former)",
which comprised the other 12 former republics.  For each of those
12 republics, current estimates of population size and projections
until 1995, and major demographic indicators were prepared. 
Estimates and projections of international migration were heavily
revised for an unusually large number of countries, in order to
accommodate the new and extensive migratory and refugee movements,
including those related to the Persian Gulf war.  The potential
demographic impact of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome
(AIDS) was also figured in for what was then the 15 highest
prevalence countries in the world, all in Africa.  The Population
Division also lowered its "big country" criterion for the sex and
age-specific projections to include countries with a minimum
population of 200,000 or more persons in 1990 (the marker was
300,000 persons in the previous revisions); population figures
by sex and age were available for six additional countries owing to
that change.

32.  All programmed outputs from the 1992 revision have now been
published.  The United Nations wall chart World Population, 1992
was issued in August 1992.  For countries, regions and major areas,
the wall chart presents estimated and projected populations for
1992, 2000 and 2025; crude birth and death rates, annual population
growth rate, total fertility rate, life expectancy at birth and
infant mortality rate for 1985-1990; percentage of the population
in 1990 in age groups 0-14 and 65 or over; median age of the
population in 1990; and percentage of the population in 1990 living
in urban areas.  The publication entitled The Sex and Age
Distribution of the World Populations:  The 1992 Revision was
issued in March 1993.  It provides estimated and projected
populations (medium-, high- and low-fertility variants) for the
period 1950-2025, by sex and age, for countries, major areas and
regions.

33.  The major report of this exercise, World Population Prospects:
The 1992 Revision, was issued in August 1993.  The comprehensive
set of annex tables, showing detailed demographic estimates and
projections for each country, region and major area, was revised
for the 1992 revision in order both to provide additional,
previously unpublished data and to improve readability.  Along with
those tables, the publication provides an in-depth analysis of the
world demographic situation and future and of technical issues
involved in such an imposing undertaking of global population
projections.  Analytical chapters cover, inter alia, the current
demographic situation and future change; demographic estimates for
the newly independent States of the former USSR; the demographic
impact of AIDS in 15 African countries; a detailed study of
differences in country estimates and projections between the 1992
revision and the 1990 revision; a study of the differences among
United Nations demographic estimates and projections at the time of
the World Population Conference at Bucharest in 1974 (the 1973
assessment), the International Conference on Population at Mexico
City in 1984 (the 1984 assessment), and the upcoming 1994 United
Nations Conference on Population and Development (the current 1992
revision); a compilation of the sources of data and demographic
methods used for preparing the base-line figures for population,
mortality, fertility and international migration for each country;
and the methodology of the United Nations 1992 revision.

34.  The database World Population Prospects, 1950-2025 (The 1992
Revision), which became available in September 1992, is also
available on magnetic tape.  It contains populations by sex and age
for the medium-, high-, low- and constant-fertility variants
(including data in single years of age for ages 5-24) and data on
28 selected demographic indicators.  Revised and enhanced versions
of the database were also prepared for IBM-compatible and Apple
Macintosh microcomputers and issued in October 1992.  The database
Demographic Indicators, 1950-2025 (The 1992 Revision), which was
issued in October 1992, provides selected demographic indicators
for countries, regions and major areas of the world.  Estimates are
presented quinquennially for the period 1950-1990 and the medium-,
high- and low-fertility variant projections are presented through
2025.  Thirteen demographic indicators are given:  total and female
populations; population density; female population aged 15-49;
population aged 65 or over; average annual rate of population
growth; crude birth and death rates; total fertility rate; life
expectancies at birth for males, females and both sexes combined;
and infant mortality rate.  The database Sex and Age, 1950-2025
(The 1992 Revision), which became available in September 1992,
provides population by sex and age for countries, regions and major
areas.  Estimates are presented quinquennially for the period
1950-1990 and the medium-variant projections are provided through
2025.

35.  In addition to the above databases, which were programmed into
the work programme for 1992-1993, three non-programmed additional
databases for IBM-compatible and Apple Macintosh microcomputers
were issued in October 1992.  The database Interpolated National
Populations, 1950-2025 (The 1992 Revision) furnishes annual
estimates and projections of the total population of countries,
regions and major areas for the period 1950-2025.  The database
provides information for all countries, including those with a
population size of under 200,000 persons in 1990.  The database
Interpolated National Populations by Sex and Age, 1950-2025 (The
1992 Revision) provides annual estimates of populations by sex and
age for countries, regions and major areas for the period
1950-2025.  With the 1992 revision, the Population Division made
available for the first time its national estimates of age
structure of fertility.  The database Age Patterns of Fertility,
1990-1995 (The 1992 Revision) provides estimates of births and
fertility rates, by age of mother, for all countries (with a
population size of at least 200,000 persons in 1990), regions and
major areas for the period 1990-1995.  Data are provided in both
ASCII and spreadsheet formats.


                             3.  The 1994 revision

36.  The 1994 revision of global population estimates and
projections is currently in preparation.  The 1994 revision will be
characterized by, among other things, an extension of the
projection horizon to the year 2050, incorporation of countries
that have become newly independent since the 1992 revision, and the
reduction of the "big-country" criterion for undertaking
cohort-component projections by sex and age from 200,000 persons in
1990 to 150,000 persons.  As a result of these latter two
circumstances, the 1994 revision will incorporate cohort-component
projections by sex and age for 25 additional countries.


                  B.  Urban, rural and city population estimates
                      and projections:  1990 and 1992 revisions

                             1.  The 1990 revision

37.  World Urbanization Prospects, 1990, which was in press at the
time of the twenty-sixth session of the Population Commission, was
issued during the first quarter of 1991.  The report included
population estimates and projections of the urban and rural
populations for all countries and areas of the world;  population
estimates and projections of the 276 urban agglomerations of
population size of 1 million or more around 1990; and current
population estimates of capital cities of all countries.  Along
with a detailed set of country-specific tables, the publication
contained an overview study of urban and rural population growth
and a compendium of sources of data for the urban, rural and city
figures.  The special subject for the 1990 revision was growth of
the world's mega-cities.

38.  The results of the 1990 revision of urban, rural and city
population estimates and projections were also distributed on
microcomputer diskettes, for IBM-compatible and Apple Macintosh
microcomputers.  The database Urban and Rural Areas, 1990 contains
selected indicators of population size and growth for countries,
regions and major areas of the world.  The database Urban
Agglomerations, 1990 provides indicators of population size and
growth of all urban agglomerations having a population size of 1
million or more around 1990.


                             2.  The 1992 revision

39.  The 1992 revision of population estimates and projections of
urban and rural populations, including large urban agglomerations,
was completed in October 1992.  The results of the 1992 revision
were made available, through advance copies of the annex tables,
throughout the United Nations system and among major
non-governmental users.  Population estimates were provided for
urban and rural areas for all countries, regions and major areas
for the period 1950-2025.  Population estimates and projections
were compiled for 378 urban agglomerations of 750,000 or more
persons around 1990.  This revision, hence, provided the most
extensive list to date of city population estimates and
projections (the 1990 revision provided estimates and projections
for cities of 1 million or more, and the 1988 revision provided
data for cities of 2 million or more).  Population estimates for
urban agglomerations were provided for the period 1950-1990.  As
recommended by the Population Commission at its twenty-sixth
session, the projection horizon for city projections was
extended to 2010 (from 2000 for the 1990 revision).

40.  All programmed outputs from the 1992 revision have now been
published.  The United Nations wall chart Urban Agglomeration, 1992
was issued in November 1992.  The wall chart provides population
data for all urban agglomerations of 1 million or more persons in
1992.  For each urban agglomeration, the chart exhibits estimated
population and projected population sizes in 1992 and 2010; their
population growth rates for 1985-1990 and 2005-2010, and the
percentage of national and urban population residing in that
agglomeration in 1992.

41.  The major report of this exercise, World Urbanization
Prospects:  The 1992 Revision, was issued in October 1993.  The
report included population estimates and projections of the urban
and rural populations for all countries and areas of the world;
population estimates and projections of all urban agglomerations
of population size of 1 million or more around 1990 (computerized
databases, see para. 42 below, offered data for all agglomerations
of population size 750,000 or more); and current population
estimates of capital cities of all countries.  Along with a
detailed set of country-specific tables, the publication contained
an overview study of urban and rural population growth; a study of
the growth of large urban agglomerations; and a compendium of
sources of data for the urban, rural and city figures.  The special
subject for the 1992 revision was urban structure and hierarchy.

42.  The results of the 1992 revision of urban, rural and city
population estimates and projections were also distributed on
microcomputer diskettes, for IBM-compatible and Apple Macintosh
microcomputers.  The database Urban and Rural Places, 1950-2025
(The 1992 Revision) contains, for each country, region and
major area, estimates and projections of total, urban and rural
populations; percentage of population living in urban areas; rate
of growth of urban and rural populations; population of urban
agglomerations (with at least 750,000 persons in 1990) and their
rate of population growth; and percentage of the national and urban
population living in the urban agglomeration.  Data cover the
period 1950-2025 for urban and rural areas, and 1950-2010 for urban
agglomerations.  Data are provided in both ASCII and spreadsheet
formats.


        C.  Preparing migration data for subnational population
            projections

43.  The manual entitled Preparing Migration Data for Subnational
Population Projections was completed and published during the first
quarter of 1992.  The publication provides a brief review of the
various types of data that can be used for estimating migration for
a base period; describes, with numerical examples, the estimation
of the volume of interregional migration from available data,
covering the variety of methods that can be used depending on
the form of available data; discusses alternative methods for
determining the age and sex composition of migration streams,
including model age schedules and how they can be used when age
data are not available or need to be adjusted; discusses
different approaches for projecting base migration rates into the
future and the conversion of gross migration data into net
migration data; and finally, describes desired questions and
tabulation plans for censuses and surveys which would facilitate
the preparation of subnational projections.


             D.  Long-range population projections until the year
                 2150

44.  During the first quarter of 1992, the Population Division
issued a publication entitled Long-range World Population
Projections:  Two Centuries of Population Growth, 1950-2150.  These
supplementary world population projections extended the regular
series of biennial United Nations population estimates and
projections into the long term, to 2150.  Seven fertility
extensions were prepared, each extension differing according to the
assumed future trend of fertility.  The publication updated the
long-range population projections last published in 1982.


               E.  Sex and age distribution of urban and rural
                   areas

45.  In December 1993, the Population Division issued a working
paper entitled "Urban and rural areas by sex and age:  the 1992
revision".  It was a non-programmed, additional output,
supplementing, and fully consistent with, the United Nations
estimates and projections of urban and rural populations
appearing in the publication World Urbanization Prospects:  The
1992 Revision.  The volume presents the sex and age distribution of
urban and rural areas for countries, regions and major areas of the
world.  Such information had last been published in 1982 in a
United Nations working paper.  Population data are provided for
1990, 1995, 2000 and 2025.  Estimates and projections are based on
national census or survey data that have been evaluated and,
whenever necessary, adjusted for deficiencies and inconsistencies.


                   F.  Demographic impact of AIDS in Africa

46.  Currently in press is the Population Division's publication
entitled AIDS and the Demography of Africa.  The 1992 revision of
the United Nations world population estimates and projections
incorporates the potential demographic impact of AIDS into the
estimates and projections for countries whose HIV seroprevalence
was estimated to surpass 1 per cent for the adult population in
1990.  As a result, AIDS was incorporated into the projections for
15 countries of Africa.  The publication focuses on the projected
demographic impact of AIDS  for those sub-Saharan countries,
expanding on an analysis made in chapter III of World Population
Prospects:  The 1992 Revision.  The publication also reviews
the epidemiology of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and considers its likely
social and economic impacts in sub-Saharan Africa.


             G.  Subcommittee on Demographic Estimates and
                 Projections

47.  The Consultative Committee on Programme and Operational
Questions of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC),
during its 1992 sessions, decided that the Ad Hoc Inter-agency
Working Group on Demographic Estimates and Projections should be
upgraded to a subcommittee and report through the Subcommittee on
Statistical Activities.  The next session of the Subcommittee on
Demographic Estimates and Projections will be convened at United
Nations Headquarters from 28 to 30 June 1993.  Planning is
currently in progress.

48.  The seventeenth session of the Ad Hoc Inter-agency Working
Group on Demographic Estimates and Projections was held at the
headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO) from 23 to 25 June 1992 to discuss the continuing
collaboration in demographic and sectoral estimates and projections
in the United Nations system.  The Working Group successfully
worked out a schedule of coordination for the 1992 and 1994 rounds
of demographic and sectoral estimates and projections undertaken by
the Population Division, the regional commissions, the
International Labour Organisation, FAO and the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.  Arrangements
were made for the timely provision of the results of those
estimates and projections to other United Nations agencies, units
and organizations participating in the Working Group and requiring
those estimates and projections for their work.  They include, in
particular, UNICEF, UNFPA, the United Nations Environment
Programme, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements
(Habitat), the World Health Organization and the World Bank.  The
report of the Working Group (ACC/1992/20, 24 September 1992) has
been submitted to ACC.



                  III.  POPULATION POLICY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC
                                  DEVELOPMENT

                    A.  Comparative study of new population
                        policy issues at the global level

49.  In 1989, a project was initiated, focusing on the preparation
of a database for the world's 100 largest agglomerations.  The
database, which is available on diskette, was completed in
mid-1993, with the financial assistance of UNFPA.  The accompanying
volume, World City Profiles, containing profiles of more than
100 of the world's largest urban agglomerations, has been submitted
for publication.

50.  During 1991-1993, research concerning policy issues resulting
from rapid population growth of the largest urban agglomerations
continued.  The aim of the research is to investigate from a broad
and comparative perspective the formulation, implementation and
evaluation of population policies and plans of cities that are
projected to have populations of at least 8 million by the year
2000.  A report, entitled Population Growth and Policies in
Mega-cities, was issued in 1993 for Sþo Paulo.  Other reports are
being prepared on the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires.


                       B.  National population policies

51.  At the beginning of 1990, a project on the status of women and
population policies was initiated, with a focus on policies
relating to female reproductive health.  As part of the project,
which was funded by UNFPA, the United Nations Nuptiality Chart,
1991 was issued.  The main output of the project was a three-
volume publication entitled Abortion Policies:  A Global Review,
which analyses the evolution of abortion law and practice in 190
countries.  Volume I of the publication, covering Afghanistan to
France, was issued in 1992; volume II, covering Gabon to Norway,
was issued in 1993; and volume III, covering Oman to Zimbabwe, is
scheduled to be published in early 1994.

52.  In the series Case Studies in Population Policy, an additional
national case-study focusing on the formulation, implementation and
evaluation of population policies in Argentina was issued in 1992.


                        C.  Population policy data bank

53.  The population policy data bank has been expanded and
strengthened.  In 1992, the third edition of the population policy
database Global Population Policy Data Base, 1991 (GRIPP:1991) was
issued.  In addition, a companion volume, Population Policy
Diskette Documentation, 1991, was published, explaining the use of
a computer diskette containing the policy data.  The fourth edition
of the population policy database, Global Population Policy Data
Base, 1993 (GRIPP:1993) and Global Population Policy Diskette
Documentation, 1993 is being finalized for publication in 1994.

54.  Replies to the Seventh United Nations Population Inquiry among
Governments, which was sent to Governments for completion in
October 1992, are now being analysed and the results will be
published in 1994.  The inquiries have provided invaluable
information on national population policies.


            D.  Manual on projection methods for integrating
                population variables into development planning    
          

55.  The third module on techniques for preparing projections of
household and other income, household consumption and savings and
government consumption and investment of the manual entitled
Projection Methods for Integrating Population Variables into
Development Planning has been published.  The population and
development methods presented in the three modules of the manual
have also been made available in microcomputer software PDPM/PC
1.0, with the accompanying user's guide.


            E.  Reports on experiences of integrated
                population and development planning

56.  Three reports documenting the experiences in integrating
population and development planning in three countries, namely,
Thailand, Turkey and India, have been published.

        F.  International Symposium on Population and Development
            Planning

57.  The proceedings of the United Nations International Symposium
on Population and Development Planning, held at Riga, Latvian
Soviet Socialist Republic, in 1989, have been published.  The
Symposium was organized by the Population Division, in
collaboration with the Latvian State University and the Moscow
State University.


           G.  Assessing the demographic consequences
               of major development projects     

58.  Work under the project entitled "Assessing the demographic
consequences of major development projects", which was undertaken
with the financial assistance of UNFPA, was completed.  An overview
report on three case-studies (Costa Rica, India and Morocco) will
soon be available as a working paper.


        H.  Population aspects of ageing:  economic and social
            consequences

59.  The Population Division has completed a study, undertaken with
the assistance of UNPFA, of the demographic and socio-economic
consequences of demographic ageing in selected developing
countries.  Two separate case-studies on Argentina and the State of
Kerala, India, have been published.


                I.  International Conference on Ageing Populations
                    in the Context of the Family              

60.  A volume containing the proceedings of the International
Conference on Ageing Populations in the Context of the Family, held
at Kitakyushu, Japan, in 1990, has been completed and is now in
press.  The Conference was organized by the Population Division and
the Municipal Government of Kitakyushu, in collaboration with the
Japan Aging Research Centre, the Centre for Social Development and
Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations Office at Vienna and
the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat).


         J.  United Nations Round Table on the Ageing of Asian
             Populations

61.  The Round Table on the Ageing of Asian Populations was held at
Bangkok from 4 to 6 May 1992.  It was organized by the Population
Division, in collaboration with the Economic and Social Commission
for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and San Diego State University,
with the financial assistance of UNFPA.  The proceedings of the
Round Table have been submitted for publication.  The report
of the Round Table was also presented to the San Diego
International Conference on Ageing, held at San Diego, California,
on 18 and 19 September 1992, which was organized by San Diego State
University.


                      K.  Database on population, resources,
                          the environment and development

62.  The Population Division has completed version 2.0 of the IBM
personal computer and IBM-compatible microcomputer database for
population and research known as PRED BANK.  PRED BANK 2.0 focuses
on the interrelations between population pressure and land use in
rural areas.  It has been designed as a POPMAP application, an
information system for microcomputers that combines database,
spreadsheet and geographical mapping facilities.  PRED BANK 2.0
contains national data on approximately 70 relevant variables for
the period 1961-1989 for 116 developing countries.  It is currently
available as files readable by LOTUS 1-2-3, PFS Professional File,
Reflex and Systat.  With the database is an online user's guide
containing data sources and country-specific notes.  The database
will eventually be a part of a report on national trends in
population pressure, land use and environment, which is currently
being finalized.  Applications at the subnational level are also
being developed.


         L.  Government views on population and environment
             relationships

63.  In order to assist both researchers and policy makers and in
view of the forthcoming International Conference on Population and
Development, the Population Division is currently preparing a
report on government views on the relationships between population
and the environment within the context of development.  Government
perceptions have been compiled from national reports to and
statements at the global and regional conferences on population
and/or environment, as well as a standpoint of international and
national strategies and action plans adopted with respect to
specific environmental issues (e.g., desertification, freshwater
resources and atmospheric pollution).


         M.  Population and the environment:  setting the research
             agenda

64.  The Population Division, with the financial assistance of
UNFPA, carried out a six-month project aimed at investigating the
current state of knowledge of the relationships between population
and the environment in developing countries.  A report which
includes a bibliography, a literature survey of current research
and a proposed research agenda is now being finalized.


                IV.  MONITORING, REVIEW AND APPRAISAL, COORDINATION
                     AND DISSEMINATION OF POPULATION INFORMATION

                 A.  Monitoring of population trends and policies

65.  The seventh round of the monitoring of population trends and
policies was completed in 1991 and the report World Population
Monitoring, 1991 has been published.  A concise version for the
more general reader, entitled Concise Report on the World
Population Situation in 1991, with a special emphasis on age
structure, has also been published.

66.  Work on the eighth round was carried out during 1992-1993 and
a draft of the full report has been prepared and is available for
review by the Population Commission in working paper ESA/P/WP.121. 
Special emphasis has been placed on levels and trends in refugee
populations in part one of the report.  Part two presents trends in
and governmental policies on population growth, fertility,
mortality, population distribution and international migration. 
Part three examines the linkages between population and the
environment with regard to land, forests and water.

67.  A concise version of the report is also before the Commission
in document E/CN.9/1994/2.


          B.  Review and appraisal of the World Population Plan 
              of Action

68.  The fourth quinquennial review and appraisal of progress made
towards achieving the goals and recommendations of the World
Population Plan of Action has been completed with the cooperation
of UNFPA, the regional commissions and other bodies of the United
Nations system, as well as several intergovernmental and
non-governmental organizations.  A report has been prepared and
is being submitted to the Preparatory Committee for the
International Conference on Population and Development at its third
session.  The report will also be a major document for the
Conference in 1994.


           C.  Coordination and dissemination of population
               information

                      1.  Population Information Network

69.  In accordance with Economic and Social Council resolution
1979/33, the global Population Information Network (POPIN) was
formally established in 1979 as a decentralized network for the
coordination of regional, national and non-governmental population
information activities.  With UNFPA funding and the establishment
of a Coordinating Unit within the Population Division
of the then Department of International Economic and Social
Affairs, the Network became operational in 1981 under the
leadership of a Coordinator and with the guidance of an Advisory
Committee.

70.  Until 1984, valuable reports and technical publications were
produced and a much-needed forum was provided by the global POPIN
Coordinating Unit for exchange of experiences among developed and
developing countries in identifying and meeting population
information needs.  Also during that period, important
institutional and infrastructural developments took place under the
direct stimulus of the Coordinating Unit.  However, the period
1985-1992 was one of comparative stagnation for global POPIN since
it was without a Coordinator and had severely limited
extrabudgetary funding.  Nevertheless, the following activities
were carried out during the period under review:  convening of the
fifth session of the Advisory Committee, at Geneva in September
1992; participation in the Asia-Pacific POPIN Consultative Workshop
held at Bali, Indonesia, from 16 to 22 August 1992; participation
in setting up and servicing the Asia-Pacific POPIN exhibits of
information resources at the Fourth Asian-Pacific Population
Conference, at Bali, Indonesia, 19-27 August 1992; organization and
servicing of the meeting of the Working Group on the Management
of the POPIN Thesaurus, which was convened in New York from 9 to
11 September 1992 by the Committee for International Cooperation in
National Research in Demography for the purpose of reviewing the
final draft of the third edition of the POPIN Thesaurus.

71.  Following the recommendations of the POPIN Advisory Committee
at its meeting at Geneva in September 1991, a revised project
proposal for funding of the project was prepared and submitted to
UNFPA.  Subsequently, in August 1992, UNFPA approved a budget for
two years which included provision for a highly technical and
specialized post of Coordinator who would be in charge of the
global POPIN Coordinating Unit within the Population Division.  A
Coordinator was appointed on 1 October 1993.  A consultant was also
commissioned to examine and clarify the relationships among POPIN
member institutions at the global, regional and national levels,
and to prepare a report and recommendations thereon, with special
emphasis on how global POPIN, in its revitalized role, can most
effectively serve the needs of population information end-users.

72.  As part of its efforts to improve the flow of population
information, the reinstated global POPIN Coordinating Unit has
established telecommunications with the regional commissions and
other population institutions world wide, and an electronic POPIN
Gopher on the Internet, in collaboration with the regional
Population Information Networks and the United Nations Development
Programme.  The population information resources included in the
POPIN Gopher are:  electronic journals and newsletters; software;
news summaries and press releases; directories; and documentation
for the 1994 International Conference on Population and
Development.

73.  Global POPIN was also represented at the Seminar on Taking
Advantage of New Information and Communication Technology held at
Santiago, Chile, in November 1993.  The Seminar was organized by
the Latin American and the Caribbean POPIN, in collaboration with
the Latin American Demographic Centre, the Latin American Programme
of Population Activities and the International Organization for
Migration.  The contribution of global POPIN to the seminar
included a demonstration of the POPIN Gopher and participation in
a forum about the use of telecommunications to facilitate access to
population information in Latin America and other regions.


               2.  Publication and dissemination of research
                   studies

74.  The Population Division continues to publish the results of
its research studies in a variety of formats to meet the needs of
different audiences.  They are widely disseminated to Governments,
national and international organizations, research and educational
institutions, individuals engaged in social and economic planning,
research and training, and to the general public.  It also
continues to develop and maintain databases and software, which are
made available on magnetic tape and/or diskette(s).  A list of the
Population Division's publications and other material issued since
the twenty-sixth session of the Population Commission, as well as
its databases and software, is given in the annex to the present
report.
                            
                           V.  TECHNICAL COOPERATION

                               A.  Technical cooperation

75.  During the period under review, technical assistance has been
provided annually to population projects in more than 50 developing
countries in Africa, Asia, West Asia, Latin America and Europe in
population training; analysis of and research on socio-economic and
demographic data from population censuses and surveys; population
policy; and population and development.  There was a concentration
of technical cooperation in African countries where more than
60 per cent of the population projects were located.  In
particular, emphasis on technical cooperation in sub-Saharan Africa
continued throughout the period.

76.  During the period, 108 projects in the field of population
were executed in 1991, 112 in 1992 and 90 in 1993, with deliveries
of $11 million, $7.6 million and $6.5 million respectively.  In
addition, 135 project-related or direct technical advisory missions
to 105 countries were undertaken.


                  B.  Population policy and development planning

77.  There was greater demand from developing countries for
technical cooperation in the formulation and implementation of
population policies and strengthening of national capabilities for
population and development programmes.  As a result, in 1992-1993,
approximately 44 per cent of the projects were in population policy
and population and development; 27 per cent in population training
and 23 per cent in demographic analysis.
 
78.  Technical assistance in population policy and development
planning was provided to more than 30 country projects in
strengthening national capabilities in the field of population and
development; improving the knowledge of the interaction between
population and development factors; formulating and implementing
population policies; and integrating population variables into
social and economic development planning.


                    C.  Training

79.  In the area of population training, more than 5,000 nationals
of developing countries participated in long- and short-term
training programmes sponsored under projects executed by the
Department.  However, since 1992 the interregional training
programmes in the Russian Federation, Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland
have been discontinued.  A large number of university-based
programmes, both undergraduate and, increasingly, graduate-level,
continued and grew in maturity and independence during the period. 
Under their aegis numerous other activities of direct service to
the countries concerned were engaged in, including advisory
services to Governments and non-governmental organizations;
policy-oriented student and staff research, and its dissemination;
and short-term intensive training programmes of many kinds.

80.  Joint training and research activities were also undertaken to
enhance government capacity for microcomputer analysis of the 1990
round of population censuses.  In cooperation with the
International Statistical Programs Centre of the United States
Bureau of the Census, a four-month training programme in
demographic data analysis, dissemination and utilization was
organized for 18 trainees in 1992 and 1993, most of whom came from
United Nations-executed country projects.  Through a consultancy
with United States Bureau of the Census demographers, a manual on
methods of microcomputer analysis of demographic data was prepared.


                               D.  Data analysis

81.  In cooperation with the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA),
two workshops were organized in Ghana in 1991 and 1992 to train
anglophone African demographers and planners in the use of
microcomputers for analysis of census data and preparation of
population projections.  In addition, in 1991 and 1992, two
training workshops were organized in Montreal and Ouagadougou
for participants of francophone African countries in the analysis
and utilization of census data and on the use of REDATAM and PopMap
respectively.  This effort represented a transfer of technology
from the University of Montreal and from Latin America (REDATAM was
developed by the Latin American Demographic Centre) to Africa.  The
User's Manual of REDATAM is being translated into French for
distribution to francophone countries.

82.  Extensive use was made of local consultants and national
experts in demographic analysis of census data in many countries. 
In addition, the need for analysis of census data and dissemination
of results to users has been well established in many developing
countries which have incorporated such programmes into the 1990
population census design.


                         E.  New dimension

83.  In Latin America, technical cooperation in population reached
a new dimension.  Through the by-products and skills developed
under a Department-executed socio-economic-demographic database
project in Honduras, the Department successfully established a $1
million Trust Fund project from AT&T to provide cartographic,
population and socio-economic data inputs for developing a
telecommunications network in Honduran municipalities.

84.  In 1991-1992, two Eastern European countries were assisted in
developing teaching and research projects in population, at the
Mongolian National University and the University of Tirana in
Albania, respectively.  The former became operational in 1992, and
through the technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC)
modality, China admitted groups of Mongolians to train as teachers. 
Similar training has been supported by China for the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea.  In Albania, enough research capacity
and infrastructure has been built up to conduct a regional
conference on one of the most pressing problems of Eastern Europe
in 1993.

85.  The new arrangements of UNFPA for technical support services
(TSS) to national population programmes through the use of
technical country support teams of experts based in the regions
became effective in 1992.

86.  Since then, the number of projects executed by the Population
Division has decreased from 112 in 1992 to 90 in 1993, a decline of
20 per cent over the period, owing to the expected increase of
national responsibility.  In the next two years there may be very
few or no country population projects entirely executed by the
Population Division.  However, the five population specialists
to be provided to the Population Division by UNFPA under the TSS
arrangements will provide substantive support to the eight country
support teams so that the TSS system can achieve the highest
quality of technical support to country population programmes.


            VI.  INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND
                 DEVELOPMENT

87.  The Population Division of the Department for Economic and
Social Information and Policy Analysis, in consultation with UNFPA,
is responsible for coordinating the substantive aspects of the
preparations for the Conference to be held at Cairo in 1994,
including the convening of the six expert group meetings, the
review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action and
the formulation of draft recommendations for the Conference.  Those
substantive preparatory activities are briefly described below. 
Other aspects of the Conference preparations will be dealt with in
a more detailed report of the Secretary-General of the Conference
on the state of preparations for the Conference (A/CONF.171/PC/4),
which will be discussed by the Preparatory Committee for the
Conference at its third session, immediately following the
twenty-seventh session of the Population Commission.


                             A.  Expert group meetings

88.  In preparation for the Conference and in order to provide the
required technical input for consideration by the Conference, six
expert group meetings were organized by the Population Division, in
consultation with UNFPA, covering the six clusters of issues
identified by the Economic and Social Council as those requiring
the greatest attention during the forthcoming decade.

89.  The first Expert Group Meeting, on population, environment and
development, was held at United Nations Headquarters from 20 to 24
January 1992.  The second, on population policies and programmes,
was hosted by the Government of Egypt in Cairo, from 12 to 16 April
1992.  The third, on population and women, was hosted by the
Government of Botswana in Gaborone, from 22 to 26 June 1992, and
financed by a contribution from the Government of the Netherlands. 
The fourth, on family planning, health and family well-being, was
hosted by the Government of India in Bangalore, from 26 to 29
October 1992.  The fifth, on population growth and demographic
structure, was hosted by the Government of France in Paris, from 16
to 20 November 1992.  The sixth, on population distribution and
migration, was hosted by the Government of Bolivia in Santa Cruz,
from 18 to 23 January 1993.

90.  Each Expert Group included 15 experts, invited in their
personal capacities, along with representatives of relevant units,
bodies and organizations of the United Nations system and selected
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations.  Efforts were
made to have a full range of relevant scientific disciplines and
geographical regions represented.  The standard documentation for
each Expert Group Meeting included a substantive background paper
prepared by the Population Division in consultation with UNFPA,
technical papers prepared by each of the experts and technical
contributions provided by the participating regional commissions,
specialized agencies and other organizations and bodies of the
United Nations system, as well as intergovernmental and
non-governmental organizations.  The recommendations of
each Meeting were submitted to the Preparatory Committee for the
Conference at its second session in May 1993 (E/CONF.84/PC/4 to
E/CONF.84/PC/9), together with a synthesis of the Expert Group
Meetings (E/CONF.84/PC/12) that provided a brief description of
their organizational aspects, their recommendations and an
overview of issues of overriding importance that were examined at
more than one Meeting.  The recommendations and the synthesis have
also been featured in the Population Bulletin of the United
Nations, No. 34-35.

91.  The proceedings of each Expert Group have been prepared for
publication.  The proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on
Population Policies and Programmes were published in April 1993;
the others will follow in due course.


                             B.  Regional conferences

92.  The Population Division participated in the regional meetings
or conferences convened by the regional commissions in response to
Economic and Social Council resolution 1991/93.  The Fourth Asian
and Pacific Population Conference, organized by ESCAP in
cooperation with UNFPA, was hosted by the Government of Indonesia
at Denpasar from 19 to 27 August 1992.  The Third African
Population Conference, organized by ECA, in cooperation with the
Organization of African Unity and UNFPA, was hosted by the
Government of Senegal at Dakar from 7 to 12 December 1992.  The
European Population Conference, held at Geneva from 23 to 26 March
1993, was organized by the Economic Commission for Europe, in
cooperation with the Council of Europe and UNFPA.  The Arab
Population Conference, organized by the Economic and Social
Commission for Western Asia, was hosted by the Government of Jordan
at Amman from 4 to 8 April 1993.  The Latin American and Caribbean
Regional Conference on Population and Development, organized by the
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and
co-sponsored by UNFPA, was hosted by the Government of Mexico at
Mexico City from 29 April to 4 May 1993.

93.  Three of the regional conferences adopted a declaration; one,
a set of recommendations; and the other, a consensus statement on
population and development.  These were made available to the
Preparatory Committee for the Conference at its second session in
May 1993, in the languages of submission only (E/CONF.84/PC/13 to
E/CONF.84/PC/17).  A report synthesizing the results of those
regional and subregional conferences and meetings (A/CONF.171/PC/7)
will be available to the Preparatory Committee for the Conference
at its third session in April 1994.


                       C.  Main documents for the Conference

94.  In its role as the substantive arm of the Conference, the
Population Division, in consultation with UNFPA, is responsible for
the preparation of the principal documents of the Conference -
namely, the first draft of the negotiating document (provisionally
called the Cairo programme of action on population, sustained
economic growth and sustainable development) and the fourth review
and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action.

95.  A conceptual framework of the draft recommendations of the
Conference was prepared for discussion by the Preparatory Committee
for the Conference at its second session in May 1993.  The
decisions taken by the Preparatory Committee on that conceptual
framework directed and guided the secretariat of the Conference
in the preparation of an annotated outline, which was discussed by
the General Assembly at its forty-eighth session.  The views
expressed by delegations and groups of delegations on the annotated
outline guided the Conference secretariat in the preparation of the
draft final document of the Conference, which will be reviewed by
the Preparatory Committee for the Conference at its third session
in 1994.  A group of eminent persons met in New York on 8 and 9
December 1993 to review and comment on an earlier draft of the
document.  The Rockefeller Foundation hosted the meeting.

96.  The review and appraisal of the Plan of Action is discussed in
chapter IV, section B, of the present report.


                           D.  Inter-agency coordination

97.  Within the framework of ACC, the mechanism through which
system-wide coordination is pursued in the United Nations, an Ad
Hoc Task Force for the Conference has been established.  The Task
Force had its first formal meeting in July 1992, devoting
particular attention to the draft outline for the fourth review and
appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action, which will be a
major document of the Conference and one that, by its very nature,
will place heavy demands on system-wide coordination.  The Task
Force met again at Geneva in July 1993.

98.  The former Department of Economic and Social Development
organized a meeting of United Nations autonomous research
institutes to discuss and coordinate the collective contribution
that those institutes could make to the Conference.  The meeting
took place at United Nations Headquarters on 2 October 1992, under
the chairmanship of the Rector of the United Nations University.


                        E.  Other meetings and round tables

99.  Recognizing the importance of the Conference to the world
community of population specialists, the International Union for
the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) devoted one full day of
its twenty-fourth General Conference (held at Montreal from 26
August to 2 September 1993) to extensive discussions of the results
of the substantive preparations that had been undertaken.  Most
of the debate was devoted to an analysis of the results of the
United Nations expert group meetings organized by the Population
Division, in consultation with UNFPA, as part of the preparatory
process for the Conference.  The discussions provided an
opportunity for IUSSP members to interact with the secretariat of
the Conference and to make known the expectations and priorities of
the demographic community in relation to the outcome of the
Conference.

100. The Population Division participated in other meetings and
round tables related to the Conference, including the Round Table
on Women's Perspectives on Family Planning, Reproductive Health and
Reproductive Rights, Ottawa, 26-27 August 1993; the Round Table on
Population Policies, Programmes and HIV/AIDS, Berlin, 28
September-1 October 1993; the Round Table on Population and
Development Strategies, Bangkok, 17-19 November 1993; the Round
Table on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development in the
Post-UNCED Period, Geneva, 24-26 November 1993; and the Meeting of
Eminent Persons in Population and Development, Tokyo, 26-28 January
1994.


                                       Notes

     1/   Report of the United Nations World Population Conference,
1974, Bucharest, 19-30 August 1974 (United Nations publication,
Sales No. E.74.XIII.3), chap. I.

     2/   See Report of the International Conference on Population,
1984, Mexico City, 6-14 August 1984 (United Nations publication,
Sales No. E.84.XIII.8 and corrigenda).


                                       Annex

             PUBLICATIONS AND OTHER MATERIAL ISSUED IN 1991-1993 
                         BY THE POPULATION DIVISION, 
                AND THE SOFTWARE AND DATABASES MAINTAINED BY IT

                               Research studies

World Population Prospects, 1990.  Sales No. E.91.XIII.4.

World Population Prospects:  The 1992 Revision.  Sales No.
E.93.XIII.7.

World Urbanization Prospects, 1990.  Sales No. E.91.XIII.11.

World Urbanization Prospects:  The 1992 Revision.  Sales No.
E.93.XIII.11.

The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations:  The 1992
Revision.  Sales No. E.93.XIII.3.

Long-range World Population Projections:  Two Centuries of
Population Growth, 1950-2150.  Sales No. E.92.XIII.3.

World Population Monitoring, 1991.  Sales No. E.92.XIII.2.

Concise Report on the World Population Situation in 1991.  Sales
No. E.91.XIII.17.

Abortion Policies:  A Global Review, vol. I, Afghanistan to France.
Sales No. E.92.XIII.8; vol. II, Gabon to Norway.  Sales No.
E.94.XIII.2.

Child Mortality in Developing Countries:  Socio-economic
Differentials, Trends and Implications.  Sales No. E.91.XIII.13.

Child Mortality Since the 1960s:  A Database for Developing
Countries.  Sales No. E.92.XIII.10.

Patterns of Fertility in Low-fertility Settings.  Sales No.
E.92.XIII.11.

Population Growth and Policies in Mega-cities:  Mexico City.  Sales
No. E.91.XIII.3; Sþo Paulo.  Sales No. E.93.XIII.9.

Economic and Social Aspects of Population Ageing in Argentina. 
ST/ESA/SER.113; in Kerala, India.  ST/ESA/SER.R/119.

Integrating Development and Population Planning in India. 
ST/ESA/SER.R/114; in Thailand.  ST/ESA/SER.R/110; in Turkey. 
ST/ESA/SER.R/112.

Women's Education and Fertility Behaviour:  A Case-study of Rural
Maharashtra, India.  Sales No. E.93.XIII.12.

Women's Status and Fertility in Pakistan:  Recent Evidence.  Sales
No. E.94.XIII.6.

Fertility Transition and Women's Life Course in Mexico.  Sales No.
E.94.XIII.5.


                  Technical manuals on methodology of demographic
                             analysis and projections

World Contraceptive-use Data Diskettes, 1991:  User's Manual. 
ST/ESA/SER.R/120.

PDPM/PC:  Population and Development Projection Methods for
Microcomputers:  A User's Guide.  ST/ESA/SER.R/123.

Projection Methods for Integrating Population Variables into
Development Planning.  Module Three:  Techniques for Preparing
Projections of House and Other Incomes, Household Consumption and
Savings and Government Consumption and Investment.
ST/ESA/SER.R/90/Add.2.

Preparing Migration Data for Subnational Population Projections. 
Sales No. E.92.XIII.6.


           Proceedings of expert group meetings, seminars and
                                   workshops

Population Policies and Programmes:  Proceedings of the United
Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes,
Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992.  Sales No. E.93.XIII.5.

Population and Development Planning:  Proceedings of the United
Nations International Symposium on Population and Development
Planning, Riga, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, 4-8 December
1989.  ST/ESA/SER.R/116.

International Transmission of Population Policy Experience: 
Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on the International
Transmission of Population Policy Experience, New York, 27-30 June
1988.  Sales No. E.91.XIII.10.

The AIDS Epidemic and Its Demographic Consequences.  Sales No.
E.91.XIII.5.

Measuring the Dynamics of Contraceptive Use:  Proceedings of the
United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Measuring the Dynamics of
Contraceptive Use, New York, 5-7 December 1988.  Sales No.
E.91.XIII.7.

Ageing and Urbanization:  Proceedings of the United Nations
International Conference on Ageing Populations in the Context of
Urbanization, Sendai (Japan), 12-16 September 1988.   Sales No.
E.91.XIII.12.

Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries: 
Proceedings of the United Nations/Institut national d'‚tudes
d‚mographiques (INED) Expert Group Meeting on Consequences of Rapid
Population Growth, New York, 23-26 August 1988 (published on behalf
of the United Nations by Taylor & Francis).

Internal Migration of Women in Developing Countries:  Proceedings
of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on the Feminization of
Internal Migration, Aguascalientes, Mexico, 22-25 October 1991. 
Sales No. E.94.XIII.3.

                                    Wall charts

World Population, 1992.  Sales No. E.92.XIII.12.

Urban Agglomeration, 1992.  Sales No. E.93.XIII.2.

United Nations Nuptiality Chart, 1991.  Sales No. E.92.XIII.5.


                                    Periodicals

Population Bulletin of the United Nations

     No. 30.  Sales No. E.91.XIII.2.  Articles on:  the use of new
model life-tables at very low mortality in population projections
(Ansley Coale and Guang Guo); old-age mortality patterns in
low-mortality countries:  an evaluation of population and death
data at advanced ages, 1950 to the present (Gretchen A. Condran,
Christine L. Himes and Samuel H. Preston); the demography
of disability (Yeung-chung Yu); applications of the
Heligman/Pollard model mortality schedule (Andrei Rogers and Kathy
Gard); measurement and analysis of cohort-size variations (Shiro
Horiuchi).

     No. 31/32.  Sales No. E.91.XIII.18.  Articles include:  age
misreporting and its effects on adult mortality estimates in Latin
America (Aimee R. Dechter and Samuel H. Preston); South-to-North
migration since 1960:  the view from the North (Hania Zlotnik);
assessing the effects of mortality reduction on population ageing
(Shiro Horiuchi); relationships between population and
environment in rural areas of developing countries (United Nations
Secretariat); historical population estimates for Egypt:  a
critical review (M. A. El-Badry); international cooperation in the
area of population (C. Stephen Baldwin).

     No. 33.  Sales No. E.92.XIII.4.  Articles include:  fertility
patterns and child survival - a comparative analysis (John
Hobcraft); sensitivity of aggregate period life expectancy to
different averaging procedures (Wolfgang Lutz and Sergei Scherbov);
estimation of adult mortality from paternal orphanhood - a
reassessment and a new approach (Ian M. Timaeus); some aspects of
the social context of HIV and its effects on women, children and
families (Alberto Palloni and Yean Ju Lee).

     No. 34/35.  Sales No. E.93.XIII.10.  A special issue featuring
the recommendations of the six expert group meetings convened as
part of the preparations for the 1994 International Conference on
Population and Development.

Population Newsletter

     Issued biannually to provide a wide readership information on
the programme activities of the Population Division; action taken
by legislative bodies with competence in the population field; and
meetings on population and related issues organized by the
Population Division and other United Nations organizations; recent
and forthcoming publications of the Population Division.


                              Databases and software

World Population Prospects, 1950-2025 (The 1992 Revision)

Demographic Indicators, 1950-2025 (The 1992 Revision)

Sex and Age, 1950-2025 (The 1992 Revision)

Interpolated National Populations, 1950-2025 (The 1992 Revision)

Interpolated National Populations by Sex and Age:  1950-2025 (The
1992 Revision)

Urban and Rural Places, 1950-2025 (The 1992 Revision)

GRIPP:1991 (Global Review and Inventory of Population Policies: 
1991)

PRED BANK:  Population, Resources, the Environment and Development

International Migrant Stock:  Latin America and the Caribbean

International Migrant Stock:  Africa

International Migrant Stock:  Asia

Trends in Total Migrant Stock

World Contraceptive-use Data Diskettes

PDPM/PC:  Population and Development Projection Methods for
Microcomputers

     The above-listed databases and software are in addition to (a)
MORTPAK and MORTPAK-LITE 3.0:  The United Nations Software Packages
for Mortality Measurement; and (b)  QFIVE:  Microcomputer Program
for Child Mortality Estimation, which have been reported to the
Population Commission at its twenty-sixth session.                        

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Date last updated: 26 January 2001 by esa@un.org
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