EGM/VOCA/1996/1
                                                          19 December 1996





                                United Nations
                   Division for the Advancement of Women


                             Expert Group Meeting

                                      on

                             Vocational Training
                                     and
                         Lifelong Learning of Women


                      International Centre of the ILO
                                Turin (Italy)
                             2 - 6 December 1996

                                    REPORT










              United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women
         Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
                     2 United Nations Plaza, DC2-12th floor
                           New York, NY 10017, USA
                            Fax:  (212) 963-3463
                   Web location: http://www.un.org/dpcsd/daw
                             E-mail: daw@un.org




                                  CONTENTS


                                                                   Paragraphs

Introduction


I.   ORGANIZATION OF WORK

     A.  Attendance. . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
     B.  Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    10
     C.  Adoption of agenda and programme of work . . . . . . . . . .   11
     D.  Working groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
     E.  Opening statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20


II.  SUMMARY OF DEBATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21-38

     A.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-27
     B.  Changes in the context of the labour market.. . . . . . . . .  28-30
     C.  Impact of changes on the labour market . . . . . . . . . . .   31-33
     D.  New Frontiers, new challenges: skills for work . . . . . .     34-38


III. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      39-78

     A.  Investing in skills and competencies - closing the gender gap. 40-49
     B.  Employability and empowerment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50-57
     C.  Governance and accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58-61
     D.  Building partnership and alliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-67
     E.  Changing attitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68-71
     F.  Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    72-75
     G.  International level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76-78

Annexes                                                                 Page

I.    List of participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    24
II.   List of documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    27
III.  Programme of work  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      29



                             INTRODUCTION


1.    Significant gains have been made in improving access to, and quality of
the education of girls and women which is a basic and fundamental human right.
Women's education yields numerous benefits, including economic productivity,
decreased maternal and infant mortality, improved family health and nutrition,
delayed marriages and lower birth rates. Investing in education means
investment in health, the environment, labour force, and increases  women's
participation in public life.  Economic growth and prosperity as well as
sustainable  development are directly related to human resource development.
Education is the key to it.

2.    In most regions, the male-female gap in enrolment at the different
levels of education are now narrowing.  While literacy rates are rising in all
major regions of the world, the female-male literacy gap is not closing in
many countries.  Two thirds of the world's illiterate adults are women. 
Illiteracy remains highest among older women who never had the opportunity to
go to school.  Investment in general and basic education at the primary and
secondary levels is the first priority for public policy and the most
cost-effective use of public resources to improve human development.  Basic
education is the ground upon which further education and lifelong learning
builds and therefore the most important starting point.  Disparities persist
in access to primary education in some parts of Africa, in particular
sub-Saharan Africa, and in Central Asia.   However, in many other countries
the disparity in enrolment at second and third levels is now in favour of
females.  In Latin America and the Caribbean region and in developed countries
the male-female disparity in enrolment ratios has practically disappeared.  
Despite these improvements in access to education, the quality of education
that girls receive is a source of concern given the stereotyping and biases
that persist in teaching materials and in the delivery system.  

3.    Learning throughout life is a major  key to removing obstacles to
women's active participation in all spheres of public and private life.  Many
women acquire their knowledge in informal learning situations.  Lifelong
learning is the precondition for women's ability to understand and shape their
own lives and environment.  It  means empowerment and can be an end in itself,
but the benefits of lifelong learning go much further, strengthening women's
economic capacity and enabling them to participate in policy-making and
leadership.  Elderly women deserve special attention, because they need
continuous training possibilities to live a fulfilling, productive  and
healthy life.  

4.    Prior to Beijing, while  implementing the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies and preparing for the Fourth World Conference on Women, the
Commission on the Status of Women considered extensively education with an
emphasis on the eradication  of illiteracy, achievement of universal primary
education for girls, and removal of gender bias from education. An Expert
Group Meeting on Gender, Education and Training (1994) examined the rationale
for female education, obstacles to it, progress achieved at all levels of
formal schooling and the complementary role of non-formal education. The
recommendations were directed mainly of  measures that would eliminate the
gender gap in education and remove bias in school materials and teacher
training.  They focused on educational policies, access to schools and the
learning environment.  Attention was paid to girls and women in especially
difficult circumstances such as refugees.   

5.    The Platform for Action, adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women
in Beijing (1995) identified 'education and training of women' as one critical
area of  concern and defined six strategic objectives: to ensure equal access
to education; to eradicate illiteracy among women;  to improve women's access
to vocational training, science and technology and continuing education; to
develop non-discriminatory education and training; allocate sufficient
resources for and to monitor the implementation of educational reforms;
promote life-long education and training for girls and women. 

6.       The Commission on the Status of Women,  responsible together with
the  General Assembly and ECOSOC for overall policy-making and follow-up as
well as for coordinating the implementation and monitoring of the Beijing
Declaration and Platform for Action, established a multi- year programme for a
more focused and thematic approach.  The consideration of education and
training of women  in 1997 is part of this established calendar of the
Commission on the Status of Women.  To prepare the report to the Commission,
an Expert Group Meeting on Vocational Training  and Lifelong Learning of Women
was convened by the Division for the Advancement of Women at the International
Training Centre of the ILO in Turin (Italy), 2 - 6 December 1996. The focus
of the meeting was on areas in education that build on primary and secondary
education and are of relevance to the economic, social and political
empowerment of women: technical and vocational training, the transition from
school to the labour market, women's preparation for gainful employment,
lifelong learning as a tool for capacity building and empowerment of women. 

7.       This report of the Expert Group Meeting on Vocational Training and
Lifelong Learning of Women is concerned with education and training of women
as a means of increasing and improving opportunities for women in the world of
work, increasing their economic and social power and enabling them to fulfill
their potential in contributing to the development  of both, societies and
themselves.   

         


                         1.   ORGANIZATION OF WORK

                              A.   Attendance

8.       The Expert Group Meeting on Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning
of Women was held at the International Training Centre of the ILO, Turin
(Italy), from 2 to 6 December  1996.  It was organized by the United Nations
Division for the Advancement of Women/Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable Development (DAW/DPCSD) in cooperation with the International
Labour Office (ILO)  and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 

9.       The meeting was attended by 10 experts representing all regions and
12 observers:  six from the United Nations system and six from Governments,
intergovernmental organizations, non- governmental organizations and the
private sector (see annex I for list of participants).


                              B.   Documentation

10.      Documents issued for the Expert Group Meeting are listed in annex II.


                  C.   Adoption of the agenda and programme of work

11.      At its first plenary session on 2 December 1996, the Meeting adopted
the agenda and programme of work as contained in annex III.


                            D.   Election of Officers

12.      At the first plenary session, the Meeting elected the following
officers:  

         Chairperson:            Jill Miller (USA)

         Vice-Chairpersons:      Nabila Hamza (Tunisia)
                                 Christine Nathan (India)
         
         Rapporteur:             Ana Maria Lakomy (Brazil)





                             E.  Opening statements


13.       The meeting was opened by Ms. Jane Zhang, Special Advisor on Women
Worker's Questions (ILO)  on behalf of the Director of the United Nations
Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW).  She stated that the Commission
on the Status of Women would take up education and training at its next
session.  It was the  task of this Expert Group Meeting to assist the
Commission on the Status of Women in identifying key issues in education and
training and put  forward proposals for implementing the recommendations of
the Platform, particularly in relation to policy-making and effective
monitoring.  She underlined that education and training were a prerequisite
for the  successful implementation of many of the critical areas of concern. 
The meeting would focus on two issues that  build on primary and secondary
education and were relevant for the economic, social and political empowerment
of women.  The first was  technical and vocational training, which ensured the
transition from school to the labour market and women's preparation for
gainful employment, and the second, lifelong learning as a tool for capacity
building and empowerment of women in a long-term perspective.  

14.      In her opening statement, Ms. Maria Angelica Ducci, Chief, Training
Policies and Programme Development Branch (ILO) welcomed the participants and
expressed her organization's particular interest in the meeting.  She recalled
the importance of equality in  employment and treatment of women in the work
of  the International Labour Office (ILO).  Talking about recent changes in
the world of work due to globalization, technological advancement,
liberalization of markets and expansion of democracy and participation, it was
imperative to invest more in the competence and skills of the work force to
increase employability, always keeping in mind the goal of gender equality. 
 Training was not a one time event in life,  but a lifelong process.  
Therefore training systems should be designed to respond to the complexities
of the labour market and take into account new developments.  The dynamic
relationship between supply and demand needed to be reevaluated.  She
also remarked that training should be offered in close partnership between the
various actors, the state, enterprises, employers' and workers' organizations,
non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders.  

15.      Mr. Antonio Graziosi, Deputy Director of the Training Department of
the International Training Centre of the ILO welcomed all participants.  He
emphasized that the subject of the Expert Group Meeting was in line with the
approach taken by the ILO Training Centre in the last years, when it had
carried out an important number of vocational training courses for women from
all regions.  The Women in Development Programme had been established in 1989
and was responsible for the design and implementation of both specific women
training activities and gender training.   The Turin Centre was a large scale
training facility with 30 years of training expertise and experience, notably
in the field of training of trainers and management training.  In recent years
it had carried out an increasing volume of training activities for the United
Nations system in areas such as field cooperation, development management,
human rights, peace-keeping and humanitarian assistance.  

16.      Introducing the framework for the meeting, Ms. Maria Hartl, Social
Affairs Officer, United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW),
presented the results of the Fourth World Conference on Women in the field of
education and training and its follow-up.  She described the Beijing
Declaration and Platform for Action (1995) as the navigational guide towards
gender equality.  It identified critical areas of concern and recommended
action as unanimously adopted by the world community.  The Platform for
Action recognized 'education and training of women' as one of twelve critical
areas of  concern and  also recommended action for vocational training and
lifelong learning in many other critical areas of concern.  The various
recommendations in the Platform for Action could be grouped under (a) training
in specific areas of  science and technology, (b) training as an instrument
for eradicating poverty, (c) non-formal educational opportunities, (d)
training and education needs of specific target groups of women, (e)
information on the availability and benefits of  training, (f) incentives to
providers of training for women in non-traditional areas and (g) training for
women at decision-making level.  The  Platform for Action also made specific
reference to lifelong learning and various types of  training, in particular
human rights education and legal literacy, training in health, training for
the participation of women in public life,  and  training for sustainable
development.

17.      The speaker emphasized that at the Fourth World Conference on Women
and in subsequent decisions on the implementation of its Platform for Action,
the concept of  mainstreaming a gender perspective had become a cornerstone.  
With regard to education and training, gender analysis is a tool to further
analyse the issue and to bring about comprehensive, innovative proposals
for policy making that took into account the gender variable.  A gender
perspective needed to be applied  to human resource development for which
education was the basis. The link between the development of women's human
resources and women's  integration into the economy, their role in sustainable
development and political participation had  not been consistently
established.  

18.      Mr. Martin Godfrey, consultant to the meeting, presented a paper on
"Vocational training and lifelong learning of women - some labour market
considerations".   He asked how training could best be used to serve the
interests of women in the labour market and began by documenting the
comprehensive disadvantages that women faced.  He noted that the average level
of education of women and their participation in the labour force had
increased.  Globalization continued, accompanied by changes ineconomic
structure and technology.  These changes would not favour women workers per
se, but opened up interesting opportunities for changes in the division of
labour between women an men.  

19.      The consultant noted that the role of  vocational training in helping
women to seize these opportunities  depended partly on the  general context,
which was provided by current trends in thinking about reform of training. 
There was general dissatisfaction with the supply-driven model of training but
uncertainty about what to put in its place.  Reform of labour markets would
make training work  more smoothly, but market failures were likely to remain,
leading to a lower level of training than was socially desirable.  He
underlined that there was a need to improve government interventions in
training by reforming both systems and institutions.  In a rapidly changing
world, it was increasingly recognized that education and training for skill
development were of utmost importance.  As for training for women, there was a
need for a criterion for policy decisions and policy pressure.  The consultant
suggested the criterion of private pay-off to the trainee of each type of
training measurable in terms of cost-effectiveness, benefit/cost or indirect
indicators.   He stated that the main emphasis should be on high-quality
primary and lower secondary schooling and remedial education for adults in
developing countries, that privileged access to ineffective training was no
favour to anyone and that the private pay-off for employers from training and
promoting women needed to be increased. 

20.      All experts appointed by the United Nations presented their
background papers and case studies.  Observers from intergovernmental
organizations, the United Nations system, Governments and the private sector
also  had the opportunity to introduce their activities in the field of
training and education.     

                             I.   SUMMARY OF DEBATE

                                 A.  Introduction

21.   Society is undergoing today a transformation of unprecedented magnitude
and speed, affecting all spheres of economic and social life.  This
transformation has occurred in the context of the growing globalization of the
world economy.  Rapid technological change, particularly in the area of
information and communications, facilitates financial flows and an increasing
exchange of products and services, creating a highly competitive international
market.  This is further intensified by the deregulation of markets, the
progressive dismantling of trade barriers, multilateral trade agreements and
the formation of new trade groupings, the relocation of production and the
international flow of capital and labour.

22.   Knowledge, skills and competencies of all men and women have become the
cornerstone of personal growth and employability, enterprises' competitiveness
and society's economic and social sustainability.  In a competitive
environment, the comparative advantages of every individual, enterprise and
country will increasingly depend on the asset of intelligent workers, based on
knowledge, practical skills, innovation and technology.  Therefore, investment
in the education, training and development of human resources has become more
crucial than ever before.

23.   The world of work is changing dramatically.  Economic restructuring,
changes in production processes, work organization and job contents, and the
increasing requirements for flexibility from enterprises, are requiring more
and broader skills and making some occupational skills very quickly obsolete. 
The demand for skills is therefore increasing at a fast pace, both
quantitatively and qualitatively.

24.   As the quantity and quality of jobs available for men and women is being
threatened, employability has become the key in access to employment and
self-employment.  Given the constraints and unequal opportunities that women
face in the labour market, developing women's employability is particularly
important. Employability refers to the increased opportunity and capability
for constructing the productive skills and competencies that will allow women
to find, create, keep, enrich and change their jobs, and to obtain fair
personal, economic, social and professional rewards in return, on an equal
footing with men.  

25.   It is imperative that education, technical training and lifelong
learning  are considered as integral parts and a continuum.  The concept of
training and lifelong learning includes acquisition of knowledge and skills
gained in formal education as well as learning that occurs in informal ways
and traditional knowledge, that prepares women to take an active role in the
labour market and economic and social development of their countries.  A
holistic approach should be adopted ensuring that women enjoy equality 
throughout the process, in a new culture of learning involving individuals,
enterprises, organizations and society at large.  


26.   In the context of the changing world, the importance of science and
technology education and  information services should be given added
importance. In order to develop the skills required, women need to have full
access to vocational training and  further education at all levels of science
and technology. 

27.   Equalization of opportunities implies the empowerment of women to
broaden the participation and warrant the motivation, choices, involvement and
participation in all spheres of social and economic life, becoming a critical
mass in a position to influence the achievement of effective equality for all
women and the vision and direction of development.
      
              B.  Changes in the context of the labour market

28.   The world and its labour market are going through a period of extremely
rapid change affecting both the demand for labour and the conditions under
which it is supplied, with far reaching implications for training.  

29.   On the demand side, the trend towards a global economy, with diminished
national barriers to trade and investment (and to a lesser extent movement of
labour), continues.   The structure of national economies is changing in
response to this and to changes in comparative advantage.  Agriculture is
declining in relative importance in many economies, while the services sector
is growing everywhere, and export manufacturing is becoming increasingly
important in many developing countries.  More emphasis is being placed on
market forces, as governments deregulate their economies, try to reduce budget
deficits and tighten monetary policy, in the search for stabilisation and
structural adjustment.   Stabilization, reduction in public expenditure, and
restructuring of the economy are reflected in cuts in social services,
depressed labour markets and high unemployment rates.  The relative importance
of the private sector is tending to increase in developing and developed
countries, particularly in transitional economies.  The pace of technological
change has accelerated, particularly as it affects information.

30.   On the supply side, several important changes are in process. The
average educational level of women is rising, although there is still a large
group of illiterate women in the world.  Segregation by subject persists
within the educational and training system.  In many developing and developed
countries, girls achieve higher levels of general education than boys, but
their labour market participation does not reflect this trend.  Girls and
women are under-represented in  technical and scientific areas and remain
clustered in non-technical fields of work.  Female labour force participation
is increasing, but so is the number of female-headed households, and the
intra-household division of labour, crucial to the conditions under which
women supply their labour, is virtually unchanged.  Fertility rates are
declining in many countries, and women are living longer: as a result, there
is now a "sandwich generation" of women of prime working age, often having to
cope with the care of young children, on the one hand, and care of elderly
parents, on the other.  Women's attachment to the labour force is growing: 
they are becoming committed lifelong,  rather than intermittent, participants
in the labour market.  They are also more conscious of their rights and more
willing to organize in defence of them.

                  C.  Impact of changes on the labour market

31.   These changes are affecting the labour market in various ways.  Some of
these effects are ambiguous or negative.  The international division of labour
is based on the use of cheap and mostly unskilled female labour in developing
countries, and on international migration predominantly of women, both of
which may be preferred by participants to the available alternative but which
raise many problems.  Wages and working conditions of women in these
situations deserve attention. The use of labour is often being intensified,
with multiplication of tasks for the same pay.  Women's jobs are being
differentially destroyed, for example in the public sector, home industries
and agriculture.  Atypical and precarious forms of work, in which women are
over-represented, are increasing in importance as labour markets become more
flexible:  temporary, casual, part-time and often multiple jobs, homeworking,
subcontracting or "putting out", as well as self-employment.  The informal
sector is expanding, as the last resort of the desperate rather than as a
panacea for employment problems.  Unemployment, underemployment and
retrenchment are rising as labour markets become more depressed:  many
discouraged workers, most of them women,  are withdrawing from the labour
force, and older women who want to re-enter employment face almost insuperable
problems.

32.     Some women, though still a small number,  have entered previously
male-dominated occupations.  They  have breached "glass ceilings" and obtained
managerial positions, particularly in transitional economic sectors.  New
types of technologies, recruitment practices and jobs offer opportunities for
women, in line with their comparative advantage, in services, information
processing and others, which are there to be seized.  Employers are looking
for "employable" and flexible rather than narrowly skilled recruits.  The
importance of micro-enterprises and of female entrepreneurs is increasing.

33.   Despite efforts that have been made to promote women professionals, 
segregation remains an important and persistent characteristic of all
labour-markets, regardless of the level of female participation and economic
development. This segregation is due to the distribution of men and women in
education and training which is highly polarized. Discrimination in girls'
access to education and training persists in many areas owing to stereotyped
role models, inadequate and gender-biased teaching and educational materials
which reduce girls' options for future choices.  In practice the training
offered to girls and women is very limited in comparison with that available
to boys and men. In consideration of the prevailing unemployment situation men
are expected to have a greater need of skilled training to improve their
chances on the job market, demonstrating once again that women's wages are
considered as supplementary and as requiring no particular training to enhance
their skills.  Male predominance in many professions is maintained in a 
process of exclusion of and discrimination against women where the best
paid and most dynamic employment sectors are reserved for men.  An additional
obstacle is women's reticence to  enter sectors where men predominate and in
which working conditions and schedules are inconvenient. Girls are still
concentrated in a limited number of fields of study and training and are
deprived in many countries of basic education in mathematics, science and
technology which provide knowledge they could apply to improve their daily
lives and enhance their employment and career opportunities.


           D.  New Frontiers, new challenges: skills for work

34.     Technology is rapidly changing and has an impact at various levels. 
Many developing  countries  are trying to meet the challenge of
competitiveness based on skills and new technologies.  Upgrading skills is
necessary for this purpose. It is essential that women not only benefit from
technology, but also participate in the process from the design to the
application, monitoring and evaluation stages. Women also need to be better
prepared for the decision-making and leadership roles that they are assuming,
and to become familiar with new technologies.  The change in the pattern of
demand makes general education, and remedial education for adults, even more
important, while reinforcing the need for initial acquisition of broad rather
than narrow skills, followed by constant retraining and lifelong learning, 
including general education.  A system of skill development is needed which is
open, flexible, responsible to change, gender-sensitive, and catering also for
re-entrants to the workforce.  Entrepreneurial skills for small business need
to be further  developed and intensified.  A new approach needs to be taken
for training of women in informal employment and self-employment.   

35.   In most countries of the world, training systems are undergoing reform
geared to improve their relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, equity and
sustainability in responding to the new requirements of the world of work. 
The trend is  to redefine the role of the state and reduce its direct
involvement in training provision, while assigning increasing responsibilities
to the private sector, in particular enterprises and individuals.  Governments
are called upon to take up new functions in regulating the overall system, in
which diverse public and private actors would compete in an open market. 
While these changes open up new opportunities for lifelong learning for men
and women, they also bring up new risks, in particular for those groups and
sectors that remain at a disadvantage in access to a market-based training
system.  Privatization, decentralization, reduced public funding and increased
dominance of enterprises in training may hinder the possibilities for girls
and women to enhance their employability and career development through access
to good quality training.  

36.   Furthermore, training systems especially in developing countries, which
lack the necessary resources to adopt new technologies and approaches and the
capability to respond rapidly to labour market demand, continue to provide
training which in the final analysis may be irrelevant to the labour market or
for entrepreneurial development. Particular importance needs to be given to
the continuation of a process of investment in human capital through teaching
women new kinds of skills. The demands of changing work environments require
wider profiles of the teaching contents, a higher level of education, and an
emphasis on thinking skills.

37.   Alliances among the various partners at national and international level
(the state, the private sector, non- governmental organizations, women's
groups, trade unions, employers' federations, cooperatives, research and
higher educational institutions,  international agencies etc.) are needed to
bring these prospects for development of women's skills to reality.   The
private sector in particular will play an increasingly important part.  

38.   Whatever its role in the financing and provision of training, the state
has responsibility to promote equality between men and women, through
incentives, legislation, advocacy and other measures. This would include
ensuring that adequate value (in the sense of both status and earnings)  is
given to women's work.   International agencies will also play a useful role
in advocating gender equality in vocational training.  This is an area for
political action, with women's groups and workers' organizations, national and
international, exerting pressure to capitalize on the gains already made in
this area. There is need for the establishment and maintenance of effective
labour market information systems, that should not only  provide
gender-sensitive data,  qualitative as well as quantitative, but also guide
the development and delivery of  training programmes and assist  women in
choosing the types of training and jobs which best fit their needs.  Finally,
both national and international structures are needed to monitor and support
the implementation of education and training programmes for women.   


                  III.   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


39.   The Expert Group Meeting structured its conclusions into recommendations
under seven  headings: investing in skills and competencies, closing the
gender gap, employability and empowerment, governance and accountability,
building partnerships and alliances, changing attitudes,  and resources. 
While fully endorsing the recommendations contained in the Beijing Declaration
and Platform for Action, notably under strategic objective "B.3 Improve
women's access to vocational training, science and technology, and continuing
education", the meeting focussed on ways to enhance their implementation and
added recommendations that specify action in greater detail. 

     A.  Investing in skills and competencies - closing the gender gap

40.   The world of work requires a broad and evolving spectrum of skills and
competencies. Therefore, education, training and lifelong learning must be
integrally linked to enabling women, at any time in life, to gain access to
opportunities for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are
the basis of  technical competence, self-development, and to cope with the
demands arising from changes taking place in the environment.  At the same
time, measures have to be undertaken by governments, employers and unions to
enhance the value of women's work and female care-giving professions by
making women's contribution to economic development more visible, and by
establishing paths for promotion and better wages in sectors of predominantly
female employment.

41.   The problems of inequality cannot be solved by training alone.  In
developing countries, for instance, completion by all children of high-quality
primary and lower secondary schooling and the provision of remedial general
education to adults, while not being sufficient, would make a bigger
contribution to equalization than any policy measure affecting training alone.
More girls also need to be encouraged to enter technical and scientific
fields.  The meeting therefore fully endorses the Beijing Declaration and
Platform for Action, in particular the strategic objectives  "Ensure equal
access to education" (B.1), "Eradicate illiteracy among women" (B.4), 
"Eliminate discriminations against girls in education, skills development and
training" (L.4) , and urges their full implementation.  

42.   Lifelong learning requires that individuals acquire generic skills and
aptitudes, for example, 'learning to learn skills', that will enable them to
take responsibility for their development, motivate them to learn, to seek
opportunities for self-development and to be sensitive to changes taking place
in the environment and to the options available to respond to these changes.
Governments and other actors should provide opportunities and an enabling
environment for lifelong learning, and institute measures to ensure that women
have access to these opportunities.  

43.   To bridge the gender gap and increase access of girls and women to
science and technology education and to vocational training and lifelong
learning, action must be taken using a wide range of strategies and mixed
modalities. These should include the adoption of multiple delivery modalities
such as:

      ■     Formal and non-formal training provision;

      ■     Distance education and open learning approach, including the use
            of multimedia and new technologies; 

      ■     Training at the workplace;

      ■     Mentoring and role modelling;

      ■     Peer counselling;

      ■     Traditional and cultural methods of communication and information
            dissemination.
 
44.   Education and training should be diverse, flexible, creative and
innovative to ensure that women at all levels participate in learning
processes.  Educators need to work with training providers and various actors
to design appropriate curricula and methodologies.

      
45.   Vocational training systems should be more "girls and women friendly" so
that girls feel comfortable with all elements of the training. Efforts should
be made to remove stereotyping in information and guidance on vocational
options, suggested models, the training materials and curricula, the training
modalities and strategies, in line with the recommendations contained in the
Platform for Action under strategic objective "Develop non-discriminatory
education and training" (B.4).  

46.   The changes taking place in the work environment require training to be
not only for the acquisition of technical skills but also for the acquisition
of skills such as negotiating, communicating and working in teams. Providers
of training should take into account and utilize the ways in which women work,
learn and interact in a social and work environment.

47.   Training should facilitate the development of entrepreneurial skills,
desirable attitudes for entrepreneurship, and an entrepreneurial outlook.
Enterprises should take an active role by providing concrete examples,
hands-on practice and experiences, for example, through apprenticeship
schemes, internships, demonstrations and mentoring. This training should
enable women to respond to demands of the labour market and also to create
demand and stimulate changes in the labour market.

48.   Enterprises and training providers should train women to work in mixed
teams and to develop confidence and skills to deal with competition, 
situations of sexual harassment, stereotyping, horizontal and vertical
relationships, and the prevailing culture of the workplace. At the same time
it is necessary for both women and men to develop through training the
attitudes and skills to ensure mutual respect, co-operation and support in the
work environment.

49.   Growing numbers of women are in informal employment and self-employment
although some have previously worked in the formal sector.  An innovative
approach to training for women in these sectors needs to be developed through:


      ■    Provision of literacy training, as an indispensable prerequisite;

      ■    Appropriate and cost-effective delivery systems, involving
           non-governmental organizations, community-level institutions, trade
           unions and women's groups;

      ■    Efforts to attract women to enter such training schemes, through
           mass education and sensitization;

      ■    Training as part of a larger and coherent package for improving
           employment and income generation;

      ■    Training to include technology, vocational, entrepreneurial and
           management skills, quality control and market information;

      ■    Training linked to support services (such as child-care services
           and convenient timing and location);

      ■    Post-training support, such as credit, and help in finding
           suppliers and markets;


      ■    Realistic assessment of market demand to endure that training has a
           high pay-off;

      ■    Promotion of group mobilization to strengthen capacity for
           bargaining.


                    B.   Employability and empowerment

50.   The overriding concern of policy in this area is that women should be
equally involved in training programmes which offer a high personal pay-off to
those who participate in them, and which increase their social and economic
power. 

51.   Women should be provided by national statistical offices, women's
groups, training providers, employers, workers' organizations and research
institutions, with the labour market information (LMI) they need to identify
the training which will yield the highest pay-off, and to get the best
possible job.  This information is also needed by government policy-makers and
training providers.  A redesigned, relevant and up-to-date LMI system,
providing data disaggregated by sex, is needed and should also include the
following elements:

      ■    A regular household labour force survey, including individual
           records of earnings and other characteristics of adult household
           members;

      ■    Tracer studies of graduates of training programmes, preferably
           administered in a decentralized way by training providers;

      ■    Links between employers, workers and training institutions;

      ■    Monitoring of trends in the world economy as they affect the
           structure of the national economy and new opportunities for women
           workers.

52.   Special services need to be provided for women, before, during and after
training, which should include: 

      ■    Outreach;

      ■    Personal counselling;

      ■    Assessment and testing;

      ■    Career counselling and planning;

      ■    Pre-employment preparation;

      ■    Supportive services such as child care, transportation allowances,
           tuition assistance, equipment, tutoring, books and materials,
           emergency loan funds and clothes;

      ■    Referrals to relevant social services;

      ■    Job development and job placement services;

      ■    Occupational safety and health.


53.   As part of vocational and career guidance, all women should be given
information concerning non-traditional occupations including wages, working
conditions and training requirements.  Training for non-traditional
occupations for women should include physical conditioning and  prevocational
training that incorporates survival skills such as coping with sexual
harassment and isolation on the job.  Non-traditional  training  programmes
for women should include preparation of employers and workers to receive women
in the workplace.  

54.   All providers of training should offer post training support to ensure
that trainees find employment or promotion  and can make use of their newly
acquired skills.  Such support should  include job search assistance,
promotion, credit and market advice for self employment, on site services and
mobility assistance.  

55.    Women should participate in decision-making processes for education and
training. To participate effectively women should assume managerial and
leadership roles taking into account barriers that they face due to culture,
tradition and male dominated management systems.

56.   Women's groups should network and lobby at international and national
levels to increase the access of women to high quality education, science,
technology and vocational training, and to obtain better terms and conditions
of work in companies' polices and recruitment, training and promotion of
women.

57.   Women's groups and networks should strengthen their capacity to monitor
the impact of international trends, national policies, skills development 
programmes and prospect of upward occupational mobility for women.


C.  Governance and accountability

58.   The education, training and lifelong learning of women should be
mainstreamed in national human development plans and policies, equal
opportunity policies and industrial policies with an emphasis on employment
and employability of women. National machineries for the advancement of women
should urge policy-makers in Government and in the private sector to ensure
that all these policies are responsive to gender concerns, and that women and
their organizations participate in the policy-making processes. 

59.   Regulatory bodies such as National Training Authorities
and/or Boards should be used as mechanisms to facilitate and encourage
providers to articulate the competencies for employability that girls and
women are expected to acquire through programmes offered. This is especially
needed since a significant amount of training available to women takes place
through informal learning and in short non-formal courses. A description or
profile of competencies acquired would facilitate further training and
employability since it would place value on the skills that women bring to the
workplace. Governments should have an active role in:

      ■    Establishing or strengthening regulatory/co-ordinating bodies that
           include representation of various actors, in particular
           Governments, employers and workers;

      ■    Including in the terms of reference of these bodies:

           (a)   The formulation of national training policies and procedures;

           (b)   The establishment of criteria for quality assurance of
                 programmes; 

           (c)   The recognition/certification of competencies; 

           (d)   The determination of performance indicators to evaluate the
                 impact of training. 

60.   In so far as Governments are involved in delivery of training, they
should promote in their own programmes co-education, affirmative action and
high pay-off training for women  rather than specific training in traditional
low pay-off specializations . 

61.   Governments should influence the private sector to increase
the number of women that they recruit, train and promote by using measures
such as:  

      ■    Informal pressure;

      ■    Legislation;

      ■    Incentives such as vouchers or subsidies for high pay-off training
           for women;
 
      ■    Encouragement of the growth of representative workers'
           organizations in line with the Beijing Declaration and Platform for
           Action, strategic objective "Promote women's economic rights and
           independence, including access to employment, appropriate working
           conditions and control over economic resources" (F.1);

      ■    Bursaries and scholarships for girls that join science, technology
           education and vocational training programmes;

      ■    Differential fees and possibly total abolition of fees
           for girls who join science and technology education and vocational
           training programmes;

      ■    Other non-financial incentives, such as holiday employment in
           relevant industries, supportive facilities in training institutions
           and guaranteed employment upon graduation;

      ■    Free supply to women of resources for lifelong learning and support
           to community based skill centres.
    

                       D.  Building partnership and alliances

62.   The relevance, efficiency and effectiveness of training should be
enhanced through the establishment of alliances among these various partners,
including the public and private sectors, non- governmental organizations,
trade unions, organizations of employers and co-operatives. 

63.   The state has a major responsibility in promoting and facilitating such
alliances by developing the regulatory framework, the financing mechanisms,
incentive schemes and technical support. Governments should be ultimately
responsible for filling gaps in education and training provisions especially
for women in poverty, women in rural and depressed areas and women with
social, economic, cultural and physical constraints.

64.   Enterprises have a key role to play though collaboration with other
providers in: 

      ■    Identifying the new skills and competencies required for the
           workplace; 

      ■    Providing work experience and apprenticeships; 

      ■    Making available facilities and equipment;

      ■    Providing expertise for the delivery of training; 

      ■    Forming associations to aggregate resources and increase capacity
           for training, particularly for small-scale enterprises;

      ■    Strengthening links between universities and enterprises especially
           in the area of research and development.

65.   Employers and workers organizations also play a critical role in
alliances and should be actively involved in decision-making processes and the
provision of training at national and decentralized levels.  In this new
framework, women trainers should be encouraged to organize themselves in
associations, consultancies and firms in order to compete for the delivery of
training programmes.   

66.   Mechanisms encouraging networking of women's groups should be reinforced
to influence training policies.  Groups should share information on effective
policies, strengthen their capacity to advance the development of women and
monitor progress.


67.   A wealth of experience in education and training, including innovative
approaches to meet the needs of women exists world-wide. Examples of
excellence should be identified, evaluated, documented, mainstreamed and
shared at national, regional and international levels.  The experience gained
through innovative training matters and schemes, designed by women for
retraining of women should be analysed, adapted and used in training
programmes for both men and women.  

E.  Changing attitudes

68.   A major obstacle to equalization in the labour market is the division of
labour within the household.  Governments, the media, formal and non formal
educational institutions, and women's' groups should:

      ■    Promote the ratification and application of relevant
           ILO Conventions, especially Convention  No. 156 on 'Workers 
           with Family Responsibilities' and No. 175 on 'Part time work';  

      ■    Promote changes in socially accepted norms through education,
           information campaigns, the media and other forms of information
           dissemination to encourage a more equitable sharing of              
           responsibilities for work and family between men and women, in line
           with the strategic objective of the Platform for Action "Promote a
           balanced and non- stereotyped portrayal of women in the
           media" (J.2); 

      ■    Implement the recommendations contained in the Beijing
           Declaration and Platform for Action on the reform of the tax system
           and social security policies (para. 179(f)) and parental leave for
           both parents (para. 179(c)).  
      
69.   Programmes by non-governmental organizations aimed at gender
sensitization of government, employers, trainers, NGOs, workers'
organizations, the media, women and men should be continued, with particular
emphasis on the benefits to society as a whole, accruing from the education
and training of women.

70.   Campaigns by women's groups and the media for social-awareness
investment and consumption, so far usually confined to issues such as racism,
child labour and environmental damage should be extended to include companies'
policies on recruitment, training and promotion of women.

71.   The media has a significant role to play in the education and training 
of girls through advocacy and multimedia to: 


      ■    Raise awareness, remove stereotyping and biases
           against the participation of girls and women in vocational training
           and related careers;

      ■    Influence girls, through career guidance and counselling, to follow
           training programmes that enhance their competitiveness and
           employability;

      ■    Secure policy reforms and legislation that promote a greater role
           for women in science and technology education and vocational
           training and related careers;
    
      ■    Secure changes in labour laws, in particular that would avail
           supportive facilities for women in the workplaces.

    
                             F.   Resources

72.   Dwindling resources require that cost-effective strategies be employed
for education and training.  The strategic objective "Allocate sufficient
resources for and monitor the implementation of educational reforms" (B.5) ,
and "Eliminate discrimination against girls in education, skill's development
and training (L.4), in particular para. 279 (d) of the Beijing Platform for
Action  should be implemented.  The provision of incentives and measures for
reducing direct and opportunity costs of educating girls and women need to be
considered in the development and implementation of innovative financing
schemes for training programmes.

73.   No matter how training is financed, more resources should be allocated
to the equalization of training opportunities.  This can be justified by the
social benefits to be gained in terms of increased output, income and tax
revenue.  In the long run it could be regarded as a profitable investment.
  
74.   International donor agencies should make their loans and grants
conditional on equal training opportunities, including both mainstreaming and
special targeted  programmes.  In some cases, financial institutions,
development banks and donor agencies should support the implementation of
these recommendations by allocating resources for the education and training
of women.

75.   Special attention must be given to the provision, adaptation,
maintenance and up-grading  of the quality of equipment and facilities to meet
the training needs of women.  Necessary accommodation and hostel facilities
should be provided.  


                         G.  International level

76.   Organizations of the United Nations system, in particular the
International Labour Organization (ILO), United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO), United Nations Development Fund for Women
(UNIFEM), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and regional
organizations should assist countries in implementing these recommendations
by:




      ■    Identifying and analysing best practices and experiences;

      ■    Systematizing information and developing models that can be
           mainstreamed or used to catalyse the development of new programmes;

      ■    Disseminating these models and practices through different
           modalities, for example, through networking, the use of information
           technologies, databases, seminars and publications;

      ■    Strengthening national capacity through policy advice and technical
           cooperation. 

77.   Other non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations, including
those of employers and workers, should support these recommendations and
promote their application by their members, affiliates and related
organizations.  

78.   Links between national and international bodies must be established for
the effective monitoring of and reporting on progress made in the
implementation of these recommendations.  The United Nations Commission on the
Status of Women should monitor the recommendations of this report within the
framework of its review of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and
in line with Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) resolution 1996/6.





                                       ANNEXES

                           I.    LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

CONSULTANT

Martin GODFREY                              Ana Maria LAKOMY     

Consultant                                  Centre of Technological Education
401 East 34th Street                        at Párana (CEFET-PR)
Apartment South 15C                         Post Graduate Program
New York, NY 10016 - USA                    in Technology
Tel:  212-4470177                           Avenida 7 de Setembro, 3165
Fax:  212-4470177                           80230-901 Curitiba-PR-Brazil
E-mail: godfrey4@ix.netcom.com              Tel: 55-41-3224544, ext. 244
                                            Fax: 55-41-224-5170
                                            Email: lakomy@nupes.cefetpr.br
EXPERTS
                                            Jill MILLER
Ancilla ARMSTRONG                           Co-Executive Director
Coordinator                                 Women Work! 
Human Resource Development Unit             The National Network for Women's
Caribbean Development Bank                  Employment
P.O.Box 408, Wildey,                        1625 K Street Northwest, Suite 300
St. Michael, Barbados, W.I.                 Washington D.C. 20006 - U.S.A.
Tel:  246-4311600                           Tel: 202-467-6346
Fax:  246-4267269                           Fax: 202-467-5366
E-mail: armstl@caribank.org                 Email: ww@inssys.imssys.com
           
Nabila HAMZA                                Flora MINJA
Director                                    Researcher and Gender Coordinator
Ministry of Vocational Training             Vocational Education and
and Employment                              Training Authority
Tunisia                                     P.O. Box 2849
Tel:  216-1-79 49 15                        Dar es Salaam - Tanzania
Fax:  216-1-76 62 34                        Tel: 255-51-863-409 Ext.224
                                            Fax: 255-51-863-408

Swarna JAYAWEERA      
Coordinator                                 Christine NATHAN
Centre for Women's Research                 General Secretary
12 1/1 Ascot Avenue                         Indian Federation of Building and
Colombo 5 -  Sri Lanka                      Wood Workers
Tel:  94-1-50 21 53                         4th Floor, D'Mello Bhavan
Fax:  94-1-50 21 53                         P. D'mello Road, Carnac Bunder
                                            Mumbai 400 038 - India
                                            Tel: 0091-22-261-6077/261-8735 
                                            Fax: 009-22-261-6077
                                            Email: ind.ifbww@axcess.net.in

Paul M. NYAMBALA                            Jane ZHANG
Chief Project Officer                       Special Adviser on Women Workers' 
CAPA - Commonwealth Association of          Questions, ILO
Polytechnics in Africa                      CH-1211 Geneva 22 - Switzerland
c/o Kenya Polytechnic                       Tel: 41-22-7996930
P.O. Box 52428                              Fax: 41-22-7988685
Nairobi -  Kenya                            Email: Zhangy@ILO.Ch 
Tel:  254-2-338231/2  Ext. 226
Fax:  254-2-219689

Stefania SZCZURKOWSKA                       Qian TANG
Department of Vocational                    Chief
Education and Training                      Section for Technical and
Institute for Educational Research          Vocational Education

Górczewska 8                                Division for Secondary and
01-180 Warsaw -  Poland                     Vocational Education, UNESCO
Tel:  48-22-6321869                         7, Place de Fontenoy
Fax:  48 22-6321895                         F-75700 Paris - France
                                            Tel: 33-1-45680 831
OBSERVERS FROM THE                          Fax: 33-1-45685630
UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM                       Email: edtan@unesco.org

Daniela BERTINO                             Inez WIJNGAARDE      
Programme Manager                           Human Resources Development Branch
Women in Development                        Human Resource, Enterprise and
International Training Centre of the ILO    Private Sector
(on behalf of CINTERFOR)                    Development Division, UNIDO
Corso Unitů d'Italia 125                    P.O. Box 300
10127 Turin - Italy                         1400 Vienna - Austria
Tel:  39-11-6936521                         Tel: 43-1-21131 3810
Fax:  39-11-3121601                         Fax: 43-1-21131 6841
E-mail:  WID@itcilo.it                      Email: iwijngaarde@UNIDO.org

Maria-Angelica DUCCI                        OBSERVERS
Chief, Training Policies and Systems        Helga EBELING
Branch - ILO                                "Women in Education and Research"
CH-1211 Geneva 22 - Switzerland             Federal Ministry of Education,
Tel:  41-22-7996565                         Science, Research and Technology
Fax:  41 22-7988685                         Heinemannstr. 2
E-mail:  ducci@hq.ilo.ch                    D-53175 Bonn - Germany
                                            Tel: 49-228-572863
                                            Fax: 49-228-57096        
Lin Lean LIM                             Email: Helga.Ebeling@BMBF.Bund400.de
Employment and Training Department, ILO     
CH-1211 Geneva 22 - Switzerland             
Tel:  41-22-7997843                         
Fax:  41-22-7998685                         
E-mail: Lim@Ilo.org.                        

                                            MEETING ORGANIZERS
                                            
                                            Division for the Advacnement
Maria MAGNANI NOYA                          of women
Zontal International Via Botero 16          
Turin - Italy                               Maria HARTL 
Tel:  39-11-535658                          Social Affairs Officer
Fax:  39-11-534600                          Division for the Advancement of
                                            Women
Ranzie MENSAH                               Department for Policy Coordination
Baha'i International Community              and Sustainable Development 
Sant'Anselmo 44                             2 United Nations Plaza 
11100 Aosta -  Italy                        Room DC1-1238
Tel:  39-165-33902                          New York, NY 10017
                                            Tel: 212-963-3140
Lucy STEWARD                                Fax: 212-963-3463
Chief Programme Officer                     Email: hartl@un.org
Human Resource Development Division
Commonwealth Secretariat                    International Training Centre of 
London - United Kingdom                     the ILO
Tel:  44-171-7476277                        Antonio GRAZIOSI
Fax:  44-171-7476287                        Deputy Director
E-mail:100676.640@compuserve.com            Training Department
Tel. home:  44-171-2281811                  International Training Centre of
                                            the ILO
                                            Corso Unitá d'Italia 125
Ziga VODUSEK                                10127 Turin -  Italy
Senior Economist                            Tel: 39-11-6936111-6936672
Special Office in Europe                    Fax: 39-11-66388442
Inter-American Development Bank
66, Avenue d'Iéna                           Simonetta CAVAZZA
75116 Paris - France                        Programme Officer
Tel:  33-1-4069 3100/3110                   Women in Development
Fax:  33-1-40693120                         International Training Centre of
E-mail:  ZIGAV@IADB.ORG                     the ILO
                                            Corso Unitá d'Italia 125
                                            10127 Turin -  Italy
Uta WERNER                                  Tel: 39-11-6936520/6936521
SZ-4 Frauenförderung                        Fax: 39-11-3121601
Volkswagen AG                               Email: WID@itcilo.it
Brieffach 1867/0
38436 Wolfsburg - Germany                   Arnfinn JORGENSEN-DAHL
Tel:  49-5361-973029/92660                  Principal Programme Development
Fax:  49-5361-926892                        Officer
E-mail:  devw1mv8@ibmmail.com               UN Staff College Project
                                            International Training Centre of 
                                            the ILO
                                            Corso Unitá d'Italia 125
                                            10127 Turin -  Italy
                                            Tel: 39-11-6936111
                                            Fax: 39-11-6638842


                            II.   LIST OF DOCUMENTS


Information Papers

ECM/VOCA/1996/INF.1         Programme of Work

ECM/VOCA/1996/INF.2         List of Documents
                      
ECM/VOCA/1996/INF.3         List of Participants

ECM/VOCA/1996/INF.4         Information Note for Participants


Working Papers

ECM/VOCA/1996/WP.1          Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning of
                            Women:
                            Some Labour-market considerations.
                            Prepared by Martin Godfrey, Consultant

ECM/VOCA/1996/WP.2          Education and Training: The Results of the Fourth
                            World Conference on Women and its follow-up
                            Prepared by the United Nations Division for the
                            Advancement of Women

ECM/VOCA/1996/WP.3          The Latin American Regional Programme to promote
                            women's participation in technical and vocational
                            training
                            Prepared by Daniela Bertino, Women in
                            Development Programme, International Training
                            Centre of the ILO

ECM/VOCA/1996/EP.1          Promoting vocational training and lifelong
                            learning forwomen in the Commonwealth Caribbean: 
                            A discussion paper    
                            Paper prepared by L. Ancilla Armstrong, Barbados

ECM/VOCA/1996/EP.2          Vocational training and lifelong learning of women
                            in Sri Lanka 
                            Paper prepared by Swarna Jayaweera, Sri Lanka

ECM/VOCA/1996/EP.3          Vocational training and lifelong learning of women
                            in Poland 
                            Paper prepared by Stefania Szczurkowska, Poland


ECM/VOCA/1996/EP.4          Education and training programmes for women in the
                            United States 
                            Paper prepared by Jill Miller, USA

ECM/VOCA/1996/EP.5          The equal access and participation for all in
                            technological education: A gender perspective
                            Paper prepared by Ana Maria Lakomy, Brazil

ECM/VOCA/1996/EP.6          A review of experiences and situations in 
                            Commonwealth Africa, with a special focus on, and
                            suggestions of possible intervention strategies
                            for improving women's access to science,technology
                            and vocational training   
                            Paper prepared by Paul M. Nyambala, Kenya

ECM/VOCA/1996/EP.7          The role of education and training in the
                            professional desegregation of women
                            Paper prepared by Nabila Hamza, Tunisia

ECM/VOCA/1996/EP.8          Indian women workers in the formal (construction
                            and the informal sector (forest and tribal women)
                            Paper prepared by Christine Nathan, India

ECM/VOCA/1996/EP.9          Vocational training and lifelong learning of women
                            - The case of Tanzania  
                            Paper prepared by Flora Minja, Tanzania

ECM/VOCA/1996/OP.1          Promotion of the equal access of girls and women
                            to technical and vocational Education-UNESCO's 
                            activities in recent years
                            Paper prepared by the Section for Technical and 
                            Vocational Education, UNESCO

ECM/VOCA/1996/OP.2          Women and Industrial Human Resources Development
                            Paper prepared by Inez Wijngaarde, Human Resources
                            Development Branch/Integration of Women in 
                            Industrial Development Unit,  UNIDO

ECM/VOCA/1996/OP.3          Vocational training and lifelong learning of
                            women:
                            Situation and recent developments in Germany
                            Paper prepared by  Helga Ebeling, Women in
                            Education and Research, Federal Ministry of
                            Education, Science, Research and Technology, 
                            Germany
III.    PROGRAMME OF WORK


Monday, 2 December 1996

Morning session

1.   Opening and Introduction    

     - Jane Zhang (Special Advisor on Women's Workers Questions, ILO, on
       behalf of the Director, DAW)
     - Maria-Angelica Ducci (Chief, Training Policies and Programme,
       Development Bank Branch, ILO)
     - Antonio Graziosi  (Deputy Director, Training Department, 
       ILO Turin Centre)

2.   Election of Chairperson and  Rapporteur

3.   Presentation of DAW and consultant's background papers and discussion

     - Maria Hartl  (Social Affairs Officer, DAW)
       "Results of the Fourth World Conference on Women in the area of
       education and training" 

     - Martin Godfrey  (Consultant)
       "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning of Women: Some
       Labour-Market Considerations"

Afternoon session

4.   Presentation of experts' papers on Vocational Training and Lifelong
Learning of Women

     - Daniela Bertino  (ILO Turin Centre,  on behalf of CINTERFOR)
     - Ana Maria Lakomy (Brazil)
     - Ancilla Armstrong (Barbados)
     - Jill Miller (USA)
     - Stefania Szczurkowska (Poland)

Tuesday, 3 December 1996

Morning session

5.   Presentation of experts' papers on Vocational Training and Lifelong
Learning of Women:

     - Paul M. Nyambala  (Kenya)
     - Flora Minja  (Tanzania)
     - Nabila Hamza  (Tunisia)
     - Christine Nathan  (India)
     - Swarna Jayaweera  (Sri Lanka)


Afternoon session

6.   Presentations by observer-experts:
     - Lin Lean Lim  (ILO)
     - Inez Wijngaarde  (UNIDO)
     - Qian Tang (UNESCO)
     - Uta Werner (Volkswagen, Germany)
     - Ziga Vodusek (Inter-American Development Bank)
     - Lucy Steward (Commonwealth Secretariat)
     - Helga Ebeling (Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and
       Technology, Germany)

7.   General debate and identification of major issues for working groups

Wednesday, 4 December 1996                  

8.   Discussion and elaboration of recommendations

Morning session

     - Working groups:  1.   The external context of the labour market
                        2.   Policies for vocational training

Afternoon session

     - Working groups continued
     - Reports from the working groups and general debate

Thursday, 5 December 1996

Morning session

     - Working groups on the draft report and recommendations

Afternoon session

     - Working groups continue

Friday, 6 December 1996

Morning session

     - Discussion of report in plenary

Afternoon session

9.   Adoption of final report and recommendations - Closing

    	

 


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