United Nations

E/1997/27 CSW


Commission on the Status of Women

 Distr. GENERAL




E/1997/27 CSW - Report of the forty-first session

                                 Chapter II

               FOLLOW-UP TO THE FOURTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN


1.   The Commission considered item 3 of its agenda at its 1st to 12th and
14th to 16th meetings, from 10 to 14, 17, 20 and 21 March 1997.  It had
before it the following documents:

     (a)  Report of the Secretary-General on progress achieved in the
follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and in mainstreaming a
gender perspective within the United Nations system (E/CN.6/1997/2);

     (b)  Report of the Secretary-General on thematic issues before the
Commission on the Status of Women (E/CN.6/1997/3);

     (c)  Note by the Secretary-General on agreed conclusions 1996/1
adopted by the Economic and Social Council at its 1996 coordination segment
on coordination of the United Nations system activities for poverty
eradication (E/CN.6/1997/6);

     (d)  Report of the Secretary-General on improvement of the status of
women in the Secretariat (E/CN.6/1997/7);

     (e)  Note by the Secretary-General on implementation of General
Assembly resolution 50/166 on the role of the United Nations Development
Fund for Women in eliminating violence against women (E/CN.6/1997/8);

     (f)  Note by the Secretary-General transmitting the results of the
sixteenth session of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
against Women (E/CN.6/1997/CRP.1);

     (g)  Note by the Secretary-General on the proposed programme of work
of the Division for the Advancement of Women of the United Nations
Secretariat for the biennium 1998-1999 (E/CN.6/1997/CRP.2).

2.   At the 1st meeting, on 10 March, the Commission heard an introductory
statement by the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women.

3.   At the same meeting, the Under-Secretary-General for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development made a statement.

4.   The observer for the United Republic of Tanzania made a statement on
behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
Group of 77 and China.

5.   At the 2nd meeting, on 10 March, statements were made by the
representatives of the United States of America, Namibia (on behalf of the
States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Southern
African Development Community), Chile, the Dominican Republic, the Republic
of Korea, Ghana, Paraguay, Indonesia, Brazil, China, the Russian
Federation, Ecuador and Poland and the observer for the Netherlands (on
behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
European Union, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway),
Argentina, Malta, Israel, Spain and Kyrgyzstan.

6.   At the same meeting, statements were made by the representative of the
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (on behalf of the
regional commissions) and the representative of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Human Rights.

7.   Statements were also made by the observers for the International
Federation of University Women and the International Council of Women,
non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the Economic and
Social Council.

8.   At the 11th meeting, on 17 March, statements were made by the
representatives of Japan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, India, the
Philippines, Peru, Tunisia, Kenya, Slovakia, Malaysia, Morocco, Costa Rica,
Mali, Congo and Guinea and the observers for Bangladesh, the Syrian Arab
Republic, Antigua and Barbuda (on behalf of the States Members of the
United Nations that are members of the Caribbean Community), Co^te
d'Ivoire, Canada, Nigeria, Algeria, Liechtenstein, Bahrain and Cuba.

9.   The observer for Palestine also made a statement.

10.  Statements were made by the Executive Director of the United Nations
Population Fund and the Director of the United Nations Development Fund for
Women.

11.  The Chairperson of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
against Women also made a statement.

12.  The observer for the International Federation of Red Cross and Red
Crescent Societies, an intergovernmental organization, made a statement.

13.  At the 12th meeting, on 17 March, statements were made by the
representatives of the International Research and Training Institute for
the Advancement of Women and the United Nations Children's Fund.

14.  The representative of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations also made a statement.

15.  Statements were made by the observers for two caucuses of
non-governmental organizations and by observers for the following
non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the Economic and
Social Council:  International Federation of Business and Professional
Women, International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Soroptimist
International and World Islamic Call Society.

Implementation of strategic objectives and action in the critical area of
concern:  women and the environment (agenda item 3 (c) (i))

16.  At its 3rd meeting, on 11 March, the Commission held a panel
discussion on women and the environment and heard presentations by the
following experts:  Christina Amoako-Nuama, Minister for Environment,
Science and Technology, Ghana; Sirpa Peitika"inen, Economist and former
Minister of Environment, Finland; Nitin Desai, Under-Secretary-General for
Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development; Khawar Mumtaz,
Coordinator, Shirkat Gah - Women's Resource Centre; Rachel Kyte, World
Conservation Union.

17.  At the same meeting, the Commission held a dialogue among Governments,
in which the following delegations participated:  Ecuador, Israel,
Argentina, Costa Rica, Zambia, Dominican Republic, Mexico, United States of
America, Chile, China, Ghana, Spain and Malaysia.

18.  The observer for Women's Environment and Development Organization, a
non-governmental organization in consultative status with the Economic and
Social Council, and two observers for an environment caucus of
non-governmental organizations also spoke.

19.  The panellists responded to points raised.

20.  At the 4th meeting, on 11 March, the Commission held a dialogue among
Governments, in which the following delegations participated:  Turkey, New
Zealand, Viet Nam, Finland, Japan, Canada, United States of America,
Zimbabwe, Republic of Korea, Argentina, Costa Rica, Sweden, Portugal,
France, Mali, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kyrgyzstan, United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland, Poland, Namibia, Brazil, Mexico, Zambia,
Ecuador, Kenya, Tunisia, Bahamas and Indonesia.

Moderator's summary of the panel discussion and dialogue on women and the
environment

21.  The Beijing Platform for Action stressed that sustainable development
would be an elusive goal unless women's contribution to environmental
management was recognized and supported.  It called upon Governments and
all other actors to promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a
gender perspective in all policies and programmes and to ensure the
necessary political and economic empowerment of women to enable them to
participate fully along with men in environmental protection and
conservation of natural resources.

     Mainstreaming a gender perspective in policies and programmes for
     sustainable development and in the implementation of Agenda 21

22.  A holistic approach to sustainable development was crucial. 
Sustainable development could not be achieved without solving environmental
problems, and environmental problems needed to be dealt with in the context
of wider issues of human rights, gender and social equality, fair
distribution of resources and empowerment of people.

23.  Agreements reached at the recent United Nations conferences and
summits represented an evolving understanding of the links between gender,
environment, population, and economic and social development.  A
cross-sectoral approach was critical for addressing crucial
interrelationships for achieving sustainable development.  A further
challenge was to infuse the development agenda with a human rights
perspective.

24.  The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development had
represented a breakthrough in environmental awareness, including the
drawing of attention to the important role women play in sustainable
development.  The subject of the inclusion of women as a major group in
Agenda 21 needed, however, to be revisited in the light of subsequent
international agreements.  The concept of women as a special group had been
rejected at Vienna, Cairo and Beijing in favour of mainstreaming a gender
perspective into all aspects of development.  The series of global United
Nations conferences following the Rio Conference had reflected this
important shift away from women as a special group to women as key actors
in all sectors of sustainable development.  

25.  The special session of the General Assembly to review the
implementation of Agenda 21 should take the results of other conferences
fully into account and should employ a gender perspective in assessing the
implementation of Agenda 21 in all sectors.

26.  The importance of integrating a gender perspective in all policies and
programmes was emphasized, including creating awareness of the impact of
various policy measures and programmes for sustainable development on women
as well as men.

27.  The focus on women's empowerment and participation in decision-making
for sustainable development should not divert attention from the importance
of shared responsibility of both women and men, and the inclusion of women
in decision-making should not be seen as a sufficient response to the need
for mainstreaming a gender perspective in policies and programmes. 

28.  The importance of capacity-building, both internationally and
nationally, for gender mainstreaming in sustainable development was noted. 
In this connection, training and advocacy campaigns were cited as effective
tools for improving both gender and environmental awareness.  Gender
sensitivity training should be introduced across all the agencies working
in planning for sustainable development. 

29.  Legislation at the national level should be brought into conformity
with international commitments and treaty obligations, including, for
example, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women.

30.  Resources for gender mainstreaming were too often taken from the
limited funds available to women's ministries or offices.  Part of
mainstreaming would be to ensure that resources for bringing women into
sustainable development were allocated from the budgets of other sectors
and to ensure that these resources helped to integrate women-targeted
projects into wider efforts for sustainable development.

     Women's participation in decision-making for sustainable development

31.  The relationship between women and the environment should be
considered in the light of the shift in focus from women as either victims
or preservers of the environment, to empowerment of women both economically
and politically.  In view of the fact that women are not a homogeneous
group, such factors as age, socio-economic status and race should also be
taken into account.  

32.  The participation of civil society, women and men had proved to be
essential for sustainable development.  The reliance on top-down structures
and decision-making and the creation of mega-structures often prevented
participation by local communities and other actors in civil society in
averting negative environmental impacts.  Notwithstanding the cautioning
that merely increasing the number of women in decision-making had not
necessarily led to gender mainstreaming and better policies for sustainable
development, evidence was noted that the participation of women and women's
groups at the community level had a positive impact.  The creation of a
critical mass of women decision makers had proved to be an effective
strategy for bringing about change in organizational cultures and policies. 
Structures and approaches that promoted efficient cooperation between the
public and private sectors and between women and men in partnership had
also been successful. 

33.  One of the ways to increase women's participation in decision-making
for sustainable development was to provide women with access to education
and training in science and technology. 

34.  The importance of alliance-building and networking among those women
who were in decision-making positions was stressed.

35.  Women at the local level often had specialized knowledge, traditions
and interests that made them efficient managers of natural resources. 
However, this did not automatically put them in a position to take critical
decisions, given their often subordinate position in the household and the
community.  Their input into decisions on community resource management
needed to be ensured through formal arrangements.  Particular attention
should be given to women in the agricultural sector where access to
training, land and productive resources would facilitate their
participation in decision-making for sustainable development.

     Assessing the relationship between women and the environment and the
     impact of environmental factors on women

36.  In identifying or developing technological solutions for environmental
problems, it was considered essential to ensure that those solutions
reflected the needs and interests of both men and women and that they were
compatible with indigenous knowledge and local realities.  Technologies
that were inexpensive, easy to install and to operate, and consistent with
the needs of communities, including women, had been highly successful. 
Solar energy was an example of a technology in whose development women
could play a pioneering role.  Transfer of technology should promote
capacity-building for both women and men and include training for both
groups.

37.  It was suggested that all development policies and programmes should
include a gender impact assessment along with an environmental impact
assessment.  It was considered important to assess in a gender-sensitive
way  the impact of globalization processes, privatization and
liberalization of trade, industrialization and export-oriented production
in relation to environmental concerns.  The impact of international and
regional trade agreements on women should be examined as well.

38.  The pressing need for research on the impact of environmental
degradation on women's health, including breast cancer and other cancers in
females was pointed out.  

39.  Information on technologies and pollutants should be made widely
available, especially to women, so as to assist in the prevention of
environmental damage.  
40.  The economic recovery and structural adjustment programmes of the last
decade had necessitated the removal of subsidies on some products, like
liquefied petroleum gas, with definite links to environmental degradation. 
Concern was expressed about the export of banned pesticides from developed
to developing countries and the environmental impact on women and men. 

41.  The lack of gender-disaggregated data, indicators (both qualitative
and quantitative) and research on gender impacts of environmental policies
and programmes was noted.  Efforts were needed to collect and improve data
disaggregated by sex so as to better understand the impact of environmental
policies and programmes on women.  The lack of such data should not,
however, be used as a reason to postpone mainstreaming of a gender
perspective into policies and programmes at all levels.

42.  The significant link between water resources and agriculture,
forestry, and urban development was emphasized.  The decline of water
quality and the increased demand for clean water were noted.  Local
communities, especially women, should be given a more prominent role in
water resource planning, development and management.

Implementation of strategic objectives and action in the critical area of
concern:  women in power and decision-making (agenda item 3 (c) (ii))

43.  At the 5th meeting, on 12 March, the Chairperson made a statement.

44.  At the same meeting, the Commission held a panel discussion on women
in power and decision-making and heard presentations by the following
experts:  Billie Miller, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign
Affairs, Tourism and International Transport, Barbados; Zofia Kuratowska,
Deputy Speaker, Senate of Poland; Paloma Dura'n y Lalaguna, Professor of
Law in the Faculty of Juridical Sciences, Universidad Jaime I, Spain;
Eugenia Piza Lopez, Policy and Advocacy Manager, International Alert; Faiza
Kefi, Member of the National Assembly of Tunisia and President of the
Inter-Parliamentary Union Coordinating Committee of Women Parliamentarians.

45.  Also at the same meeting, the Commission held a dialogue among
Governments, in which the following delegations participated:  India,
Austria, Ghana, Tunisia, Paraguay, Israel, United States of America, Congo,
Mexico, Slovakia, Norway and Chile.

46.  The representative of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization also spoke.

47.  The observers for four caucuses of non-governmental organizations
spoke.  The observer for the Inter-Parliamentary Union, a non-governmental
organization in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council,
also spoke.

48.  The panellists responded to points raised.

49.  At the 7th meeting, on 13 March, the Chairperson made a statement.

50.  At the same meeting, the Commission held a dialogue among Governments,
in which the following delegations participated:  Namibia, Costa Rica,
Ecuador, Finland, Turkey, Philippines, Argentina, Togo, Italy, China, Mali,
Dominican Republic, Japan, Russian Federation, Germany, Brazil, France,
Republic of Korea, Mexico, Kyrgyzstan, Indonesia, Netherlands, Malaysia,
Guinea, New Zealand, Australia, Cuba, Canada, Syrian Arab Republic, Israel,
Lebanon, Islamic Republic of Iran, Sweden and United States of America.

51.  The observer for Palestine also spoke.

52.  The panellists responded to points raised.

Moderator's summary of the panel discussion and dialogue on women in power
and decision-making

53.  The Beijing Platform for Action emphasized that a comprehensive,
broad-based approach to women's empowerment was essential if women were to
fully participate and be represented in decision-making at all levels in
political, economic and social life.  Women's political participation and
representation were inextricably linked to wider issues of economic
empowerment; education and training; human rights; social attitudes;
values; and social support systems. Achieving the goal of equal
participation of women and men in decision-making would provide the balance
that was needed in order to strengthen democracy and promote its proper
functioning.

     Ways and means for promoting women's participation and equal
     representation in power and decision-making

54.  The absence of women as key decision makers in the political process
continued to be an issue of critical concern in developed and developing
countries.  The unequal representation of women in decision-making was
depriving countries of talent and wisdom, as well as diverse styles of
decision-making.  The persistent absence of women in preventive diplomacy
and peace negotiations was of particular concern.  Barriers to women's
participation included stereotypes, tradition and competition in political
parties and with the "old boys' network".  It was noted that the political
will for more women to function in politics was often lacking.  The
particular situation of women in countries and regions undergoing
transition and consolidating democracy was highlighted.

55.  Poverty, lack of access to basic resources, lack of access to
political party lists, low salaries and discrimination in the workplace
were noted as root causes of women's under-representation in political
decision-making.  If women had to be concerned with survival, there was
little time left for assuming positions of leadership and political power. 
Recognition of women's unpaid work, and the sharing of family and household
responsibilities, along with training in non-traditional skills, were
mentioned as prerequisites for women worldwide to participate actively in
power and political decision-making. 

56.  Ways and means of promoting increased participation by women in
political decision-making and conflict resolution, and of achieving a
gender balance in decision-making bodies at all levels, were discussed. 
Quotas and targets in legislatures and political parties were suggested as
necessary to accelerate the equal representation of women in politics. 
Some noted, however, the controversial nature of quotas and stressed that
they should be used only as a temporary solution.  Some considered that
women should still enter into power strictly on the basis of competition.

57.  Electoral reform, specifically the adoption of proportional
representation in place of plurality systems, was a possible means for
increasing the percentage of women in parliaments.  One approach suggested
that there should be no less than 30-40 per cent and no more than 60-70
per cent of either sex in decision-making positions.  Rosters of qualified
women, as well as the setting of targets and ranking of candidates on party
lists, were also cited as means for increasing women's participation. 
Further research was needed on electoral systems and ways and means of
reforming the practice of political parties from a gender perspective.

58.  Attention was drawn to the general recommendation prepared by the
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on articles 7
and 8 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women, concerning women's role in public life, and to the
importance of the Convention in strengthening women's rights overall.

59.  Women's right to vote was considered to be a fundamental human right
that women should exercise universally.  Women's votes were increasingly
serving as a means of influencing political activity and shaping political
value systems, including approaches to peace-building and peacemaking, but
much remained to be done in this area.  Voter registration and education
campaigns were cited as tools for increasing voting by women.

60.  Women's participation in preventive diplomacy and negotiations at the
peace table were considered essential to achieving peace and development
and for diverting military expenditures for peaceful purposes.  It was
suggested that decision-making processes, involving both women and men,
including in situations of intrastate conflict, could help to create a more
peaceful approach.

61.  The importance of creating national machineries, inter-ministerial
bodies, national committees and women's bureaux to ensure women's equal
participation in all aspects of decision-making, with adequate levels of
staffing and funding, and located at the centre of political power, was
cited as critical.  In addition, the mainstreaming of gender issues in
institutions was noted as another means to promote the advancement of women
in decision-making.  The need for effective monitoring mechanisms was
emphasized, with time-bound targets and measurable indicators to evaluate
progress.

62.  Ways and means of maintaining women in public office once elected or
appointed were deemed extremely important.  Gender-sensitive pressure
groups were mentioned as an important tool for maintaining women in public
office.  In keeping women in power, greater harmonization between
professional work and family responsibilities for both men and women was
considered essential.  Increasingly, parents were reluctant to forfeit time
with their families.  Greater sharing of parental and household
responsibilities between women and men was deemed paramount.  Recognition
of women's unpaid work and the need for flexible working hours, for sharing
of family responsibilities with men, and for women to participate in
decision-making at the household level were also considered important.

63.  The importance of education and training to enable women to have
greater control over their lives was emphasized.  Training for women
candidates in the conduct of electoral campaigns and fund-raising had
proved to be important for effecting the election of women to public
office.  Once in office, women often needed training in parliamentary
procedures and budgetary matters.  Leadership training was considered
essential for women at all levels including the community level, including
in rural areas.

64.  Girls' and boys' education as a means of breaking down traditional
stereotypes and promoting acceptance of diversity and women's right to
participate in decision-making was emphasized.  The revision of education
curricula and textbooks remained an important means of eliminating
gender-based stereotypes.  Attitudinal change was considered especially
important at the earliest stages of life when boys and girls had not yet
internalized sex stereotypes.

65.  The role of the media in perpetuating sex stereotypes was noted, as
was the need to ensure a positive view of women and portrayal of girls in
non-traditional roles.  Continued stereotyping of women and their negative
portrayal as sex objects on television and in films undermined the struggle
for women's equality.  The value of stimulating public debate on the
diverse roles of women, particularly in public life and in the family, was
emphasized.  Despite the growing presence of professional women in the
media, decisions about editorial content and production issues were still
largely controlled by men.

66.  An urgent need was identified for case studies on "women making a
difference" and for the creation of a database to monitor women's
participation in government, corporations, political parties, trade unions,
international organizations and the military.  The Internet was noted as a
new means to disseminate and share gender statistics and information on
women's leadership strategies, activities of national machineries for
women's advancement, affirmative action measures and other means for
changing perceptions of women's role in public life.

     Networking and building partnerships

67.  Women needed to seek greater partnership with men and to build
coalitions and strengthen alliances to advocate for women's political
empowerment and representation.  Mentoring, including for women by women,
was cited as important.  Women leaders and older women and men represented
a valuable resource for mentoring young women as future leaders.  Networks
among women leaders in politics and in other areas had helped serve as a
basis for expanding national and international coalitions.  National and
regional women's parliamentary caucuses should also include women from the
private sector and the civil service.  Specialized committees to promote
gender issues and to sponsor legislation had also proved beneficial.  The
mainstreaming of "women's issues", such as social services, the
environment, and accessible childcare, had led to their becoming issues of
concern to society as a whole as a result of the increased presence of
women in public policy-making.

68.  International organizations, Governments, non-governmental
organizations and women parliamentarians should join in partnership to
support with funding the development of women leaders through training, so
as to facilitate their entry into the political arena; and an enabling
environment should be established for women's full participation and equal
representation in power and political decision-making.

Implementation of strategic objectives and action in the critical area of
concern:  women and the economy (agenda item 3 (c) (iii))

69.  At the 6th meeting, on 12 March, the Commission held a panel
discussion on women and the economy and heard presentations by the
following experts:  Mihye Roh, Vice-President, Korean Women's Development
Institute; Nina A. Kaupova, Director of the Republican Research Centre of
Maternal and Child Health Care and Chairman of the Republican Council of
Women, Family and Demographic Policy Problems under the President of the
Republic of Kazakstan; Bickley Townsend, Senior Vice President, New
Ventures Catalyst; Mamounata Cisse', General Secretary, Organisation
nationale des syndicats libres; Lin Lean Lim, Labour Market Policies
Branch, International Labour Organization.

70.  At the same meeting, the Commission held a dialogue among Governments,
in which the following delegations participated:  India, Finland, Israel,
Dominican Republic, Kyrgyzstan, Ecuador, United States of America, Ghana,
Chile and Namibia.

71.  The observer for Palestine spoke.

72.  The observers for six caucuses of non-governmental organizations also
spoke.

73.  The panellists responded to points raised.

74.  At the 8th meeting, on 13 March, the Chairperson made a statement.

75.  At the same meeting, the Commission held a dialogue among Governments,
in which the following delegations participated:  Philippines, Israel,
China, Germany, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, Netherlands (on behalf of the
States Members of the United Nations that are members of the European
Union), Norway, Japan, Italy, France, Malaysia, Tunisia, Viet Nam, Zambia,
United Republic of Tanzania, Islamic Republic of Iran, Portugal, Co^te
d'Ivoire, United States of America, Poland, Spain, Guinea and Mali.

Moderator's summary of the panel discussion and dialogue on the critical
area of concern:  women and the economy

76.  The Beijing Platform for Action, proposed actions for women as
workers, self-employed women, entrepreneurs and managers.  It examined the
effects of economic policies and restructuring on women, women's access to
economic decision-making, women's unpaid work, and the need to balance work
and family responsibilities, as well as the importance of mainstreaming a
gender perspective in economic policies and programmes.

     Women's participation in economic decision-making

77.  While noting that women were involved in economic decision-making to
some degree at various levels, it was stressed that actions needed to be
taken to enable women to participate even more fully at all levels of
economic decision-making, including the household level where experience
had shown that women's decisions tended to contribute to the well-being of
the household as a whole.  Very few women were found in decision-making
positions in international financial institutions, such as the World Bank
and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in the World Trade Organization
or in transnational corporations.  Nor were women well represented in
economic decision-making at the national level, in academia, in banks or in
private companies.  Women were for the most part poorly represented in
trade unions, chambers of commerce and industry associations.  Their
participation in such bodies was essential.

78.  Legal instruments alone would not automatically lead to better
representation of women in economic decision-making.  Policy instruments to
improve women's position in those sectors and levels of the economy where
they were under-represented were required.  Education, training and
network-building were crucial to shaping women's and men's attitudes and
expectations with respect to women's role in economic decision-making.

     Women entrepreneurs

79.  Women-owned microenterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises
had increasingly become a source of employment, growth and innovation.  For
example, women employers tended to recruit other women and were family-
friendly.  However, women entrepreneurs, notably in developing, developed
and transition economies, faced serious constraints related to the legal
and institutional framework in which they had to operate, as well as to the
lack of training, support services and credit.  A major challenge for
women-owned enterprises was to access these services and to grow from
microenterprises to small and medium-sized enterprises.

80.  The importance of support services for women entrepreneurs in areas
such as technical assistance, creation of networks, business planning and
financial counselling was highlighted.  Marketing techniques and access to
markets were recognized as areas where women's business needed support for
further growth.

81.  Credit was considered a crucial requirement for women entrepreneurs. 
Where microfinancing schemes had been in existence for a long time, there
was a high-payback record for women.  Notably, since the adoption of the
Beijing Platform for Action, an even stronger emphasis had been placed on
credit as an instrument for empowering women in the economy.  Traditional
savings schemes were also being used, especially by poor women, as an
alternative to formal financial systems.  There should be an effort to
ensure that special credit and savings schemes for women did not lead to
their further marginalization.  The need for preferential treatment of
women in the provision of credit and for simplifying procedures for access
to credit was highlighted.  The achievements of the Grameen Bank, which
provides microcredit for a largely female clientele, were noted.

82.  It was noted that women entrepreneurs had benefited from creating
regional and international networks to expand markets and share experience.

     Women in rural areas

83.  The economic situation of women living in rural areas was given
special attention.  There was a critical need to increase their
productivity through, inter alia, the introduction of technology, including
for the reduction of household chores.  Men frequently controlled the
intermediary distribution of products produced by women, limiting women's
benefits from their own production.

84.  More and more rural women were expressing the need for credit and
information, but they often lacked the networks and access to information
and credit.  On the positive side, it was noted that, in some countries,
land policies and property laws were being revised to women's benefit, and
that a percentage of development assistance resources was being earmarked
in some places to support credit schemes for rural women.

     Women in management

85.  Breaking the glass ceiling that impeded women's access to top
management positions and avoiding the "sticky floors" on the lower levels
of the labour market were critical for the advancement of women and for the
mainstreaming of a gender perspective.  A critical mass of 30 per cent
women in top management positions was considered crucial.

86.  Equal-opportunity laws and existing International Labour Organization
(ILO) standards for equality in employment were not sufficient to address
gender discrimination in the labour market, especially at top decision-
making levels.  To increase women's participation in top management, a
number of measures had been successful, including adoption of anti-
discriminatory laws, introduction of changes in corporate practices,
teaching aides for consciousness-raising, monitoring schemes and monitoring
of employment practices.  Commitment at the top was vital for changing the
organizational culture and for placing women in management positions. 
Equal access to education, vocational training and enterprise-level
training were important tools for qualifying women for top management
positions.

87.  Employers' organizations had played an important role in influencing
attitudes and in making a business case for women in top management in some
countries.  Trade unions should also play a role by pushing for
implementation and by monitoring legislation and equal-opportunity
policies.

     Women in the labour force

88.  Women's employment was central to the achievement of equality between
women and men, and women's access to education played an important role in
access to work opportunities.  It was noted that empowering women in the
labour force could help in the empowerment of women in other spheres of
life, including the household, provided that a balance between family and
work could be achieved.  Arrangements to facilitate the reconciliation of
work and family responsibilities were urgently needed.  Notably, where
parental leave policies and flexible hours were available to both women and
men, the situation had improved.

89.  The unequal distribution between women and men of unpaid work was
noted. The tendency for women to be employed in low-wage industries and the
necessity of looking into the minimum-wage level were discussed.  Better
sharing of paid and unpaid work between women and men was required.  While
unpaid work was recognized as important by Governments, few efforts had
been made to develop methodologies to measure such work, yet its
measurement was necessary in order for society to recognize women's full
contribution to the economy.

90.  In most cases, the current challenge for policy makers, employers,
trade unions and women workers was to achieve a balance between more jobs
and more quality jobs in the labour market.  It was noted that atypical
forms of employment were leading to a growing feminization of poverty,
especially among older women.

91.  Concern was expressed regarding the efficiency of legislative tools,
including equal-opportunity and non-discriminatory laws, in redressing
gender discrimination in the labour market.  Gender-neutral policies, such
as equal employment opportunity laws, were not sufficient in this regard. 
Legislative tools needed to be accompanied by enforcement mechanisms and
publicity generated about businesses that violated anti-discrimination
laws.  Special protective measures for women were seen to have both
positive and adverse effects; in some countries protective measures for
women were being abolished.

92.  To overcome occupational segregation, many projects and programmes
were being developed to broaden the fields studied by women.  A strong
focus was being given to education and training in technology as well as in
new growth industries and sectors.  Other measures such as fellowships and
child-care arrangements had been promoted to facilitate women's access to
academic institutions.

93.  It was noted that occupational segregation contributed to the wage gap
between women and men.  In order to enforce the principle of equal pay for
work of equal value, policies should include effective legislation,
transparency of women's and men's wages, changing of stereotyped choices of
women and men, and effective guidance for employers.  Instruments were
being developed to compare wages for female-dominated and male-dominated
occupations.  Schemes for work evaluation had been suggested to facilitate
this process.

94.  Transnational corporations applied double standards by implementing
different equal-opportunity standards in wages and working conditions
abroad from those supported in their own countries, largely to the
detriment of women employees.

95.  The role that non-governmental organizations played in monitoring
working conditions for women and abuses in the labour market was stressed.

     Globalization and structural adjustment

96.  While it was recognized that an enabling environment for women's
participation in the economy was required at the national level, it was
also noted that the international level should not be overlooked because of
its impact on women and the national economic situation.

97.  The responsibility of Governments and international financial
institutions to ensure that women were not disproportionately discriminated
against in situations of structural change and economic recession was
emphasized. Structural adjustment had increased the total amount of women's
work and had reduced access to basic services and resources.  Economic
liberalization policies should be evaluated in relation to their impact on
women, and global efforts were required to cancel or reduce the debt owed
by developing countries.  Structural adjustment policies and other economic
policies were still being applied as if they were gender-neutral.  The
impact of structural adjustment policies on women in particular should be
monitored and assessed.

98.  The need for a regular and substantive dialogue between the United
Nations, the Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade Organization so
as to coordinate assistance aimed at strengthening programmes for the
benefit of women and their families was called for.  Such coordination was
especially important at the field level.

Implementation of strategic objectives and action in the critical area of
concern:  education and training of women (agenda item 3 (c) (iv))

99.  At the 9th meeting, on 14 March, the Chairperson made a statement.

100. At the same meeting, the Commission held a panel discussion and heard
presentations by the following experts:  Irene de la Caridad Rivera
Ferreiro, Deputy Minister, Ministry of Education of Cuba; Valentina
Ivanovna Matvienko, Member of the Board, Director of Liaison for the
Federation, Parliament, and Public and Political Organizations, Ministry of
Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation; Aicha Bah Diallo, Director,
Division of Basic Education, United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization; Celia Eccher, Coordinator, Guidance and Education
Programme, International Council for Adult Education.

101. Also at the same meeting, the Commission held a dialogue among
Governments, in which the following delegations participated:  Mexico,
Thailand, China, Mali, Tunisia and Netherlands (on behalf of the States
Members of the United Nations that are members of the European Union).

102. The observer for the European Community spoke.

103. The observers for four caucuses of non-governmental organizations
spoke.  The observers for Disabled Peoples International (also on behalf of
World Blind Union), Community Action for the Rights of Children and Women
and the International Federation of United Nations Associations also spoke.

104. The panellists responded to points raised.

105. At the 10th meeting, on 14 March, the Chairperson made a statement.

106. At the same meeting, the Commission held a dialogue among Governments,
in which the following delegations participated:  Togo, India, Norway,
United States of America, Namibia, Israel, Burkina Faso, Angola, Guinea,
Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Costa Rica, Canada, Brazil, Ghana,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Chile, Indonesia, France, Poland, Republic of
Korea, Japan, Peru, Germany and Islamic Republic of Iran.

107. The panellists responded to points raised.

Moderator's summary of the panel discussion and dialogue on education and
training of women

108. The Beijing Platform for Action recognized the central role of
education for the advancement of women and the numerous benefits yielded
for development and the empowerment of women.  Education and training were
necessities for the full and equal participation of women at all levels of
decision-making and in shaping the future of their communities.

109. Education was a constitutional right in many countries, but the full
enjoyment of this right remained restricted for many citizens, in
particular girls and women.  To implement the World Declaration on
Education for All and the Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning
Needs, adopted by the World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien,
Thailand, 1990), mobilization of all for education was needed.  In many
countries, various initiatives, including at the highest political level,
had been taken to reach those goals and implement commitments to education
made at the Fourth World Conference on Women.  To ensure equal access for
all to education, a joint effort of Governments and society in general was
considered a necessity from early childhood onwards.  The essential role
and responsibility of the State in providing access for all to quality
education was confirmed.  However, it was emphasized that in line with
decentralization efforts, the role of regional and local institutions as
well as of non-governmental organizations and the private sector had gained
importance.  While some requested an improvement in quality in public
rather than private schools, maintaining free public education at the
primary level, others favoured a more liberal policy environment with
competition between the private and public sector.  A new alignment between
academia and non-governmental organizations would contribute to the type of
action needed, based on mutual benefit and synergy.  Important examples of
successful networking at the national and regional levels were mentioned.

110. Women still accounted for the majority of the world's adult
illiterates.  These numbers had been steadily increasing owing to rapid
population growth in some subregions.  A strong plea was made for the
eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of the goals defined in the
Platform for Action; that is, reduction of the female illiteracy rate to at
least half its 1990 level.  Successful literacy campaigns were being
carried out in many countries jointly by government and non-governmental
organizations and with the active support of the media.  As illiteracy and
poverty were closely linked, successful literacy campaigns should include
technical training and training for income-generation as well as
information on health and citizenship.

111. It was acknowledged that general and basic education was fundamental
and provided the foundation for further education and training.  Completion
by all children of high-quality primary and lower secondary schooling and
the provision of remedial general education to adults, while not
sufficient, would make a more lasting contribution to equalization than any
policy measure concerning higher education or training alone.

112. A number of obstacles continued to discriminate against girls' access
to education, such as customary attitudes, inadequate and gender-biased
teaching and educational materials, sexual harassment and lack of adequate
schooling facilities.  As a result, girls in some subregions performed
poorly, repeated grades frequently and had a higher drop-out rate than
boys.  It was reported that the main reason for girls dropping out was
their obligation to perform household duties, early marriages and early
pregnancies.

113. In countries in transition, specific training and retraining of women
and adaptation of training to the changing needs of the labour market were
needed and considered essential for ensuring women's employability.

114. Girls and women in especially difficult circumstances and with special
needs faced discrimination in terms of access to education and availability
of training materials and support systems.  A favourable learning
environment that responded to special needs would enhance educational
performance.  It was noted that new technologies opened up new avenues for
training students with disabilities.

115. To improve access and retention of girls in schools, a number of
actions had been taken.  The recruitment of more female teachers reduced
the fear of sexual harassment and at the same time provided role models for
girls.  Programmes of open education or mobile schools had proved
successful, especially in remote rural areas or for certain populations
such as ethnic minorities or nomadic groups.  In many developing countries,
support mechanisms included the development of new technologies that eased
the burden of household work of girls and women.  The influence of parents,
in particular mothers, on girls' education was recognized, and various
initiatives had been taken to involve them in the process.  School feeding
programmes were another measure to improve the retention of girls in
schools.  Mentoring programmes provided girls with positive role models and
enhanced their motivation and self-esteem.  In some countries, provisions
were in place to transfer pregnant schoolgirls to other schools where
teachers had been sensitized so as to reduce drop-out rates.  There was a
strong plea to reinforce sports and physical education, especially for
girls and women.

116. Gender analysis in education and training was a basis for further
analysis, and comprehensive, innovative proposals for policy-making.  The
mainstreaming of gender concerns included the removal of bias from school
materials and teacher training, the introduction of gender-sensitive
educational materials at all levels, especially in mathematics, in science
and technology and in the development of curricula; the advancement of
gender studies; and the establishment of a post of gender ombudsman.  It
also included the promotion of more women into decision-making positions in
educational institutions.  Non-discriminatory education benefited both
girls and boys and thus ultimately contributed to equality between women
and men.

117. To be effective, vocational training of women had to be linked to the
labour market, or women would continue to face constraints and unequal
opportunities.  Women's employability was the key to access to both
employment and self-employment opportunities.  Persistent job segregation
originated in the educational choices of men and women as regards fields of
study and specialization.  Initiatives to bring women into non-traditional
fields had had some success.  A redesigned and up-to-date labour market
information system was needed.  More women should enter the expanding field
of new information technology.  To enable women to participate in training
or retraining schemes, support systems, including child care, were needed.

118. Only a minority of women entered and succeeded in the field of science
and technology.  A number of initiatives had been taken to make such fields
accessible to girls and women and to develop their creative potential. 
These initiatives included the development of specific projects for women,
incentives such as competitions and awards, scientific meetings, travelling
exhibitions and the provision of science equipment for girls.  Public
recognition of and information on famous women scientists as potential role
models would be beneficial.  The necessity of enhancing the motivation of
girls to continue higher education and to reach for positions in decision-
making in the scientific field was stressed.  Psycho-social factors played
an important role in changing the attitude of girls and their parents
towards such choices.

119. In a time of rapid change in knowledge, societal norms and technology,
education and training by necessity became a lifelong process.  For women,
lifelong education was still a means to gain basic knowledge, including
literacy, and for breaking the cycle of poverty.  Lifelong learning
included education for citizenship and democracy, legal literacy, access to
information and informed choice of information.  Distance learning and the
use of new communication technologies in adult education benefited women,
who often struggled against lack of mobility and time and financial
constraints.  The precondition for successful adult education was that
women would recognize its value.  Any form of adult education required a
favourable or facilitating environment and should be developed in a
participatory process involving all actors.  The first steps had been taken
in some countries to create a universally accessible lifelong education
system with flexibility that would allow the transfer of transcripts from
different establishments and recognition of credits and would hence benefit
women greatly.

120. The trend to reduce educational budgets, which were also affected by
increased demand due to population growth in many countries and structural
adjustment measures, had a negative impact on educational systems,
particularly for girls.  More strategic planning of resources in the field
of education was required, including sufficient allotments to primary
education, as well as the reallocation of funds from other sectors, such as
military spending, to education.  In this respect, the 20/20 concept as
accepted at the World Summit for Social Development and reinforced in the
Platform for Action was recalled.  The international community and
international organizations were requested to support national initiatives
and implementation of the targets set in the Platform for Action, including
the agreed target of 0.7 per cent of the gross national product of
developed countries for overall official development assistance.

121. At the 16th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission approved the proposal
of the Chairperson to include the following statement in its report:

          "The Commission held four panel meetings with invited experts
     followed by dialogues with the panellists and among Governments (11-14
     March 1997) related to item 3 (c) (Follow-up to the Fourth World
     Conference on Women:  implementation of strategic objectives and
     action in the critical areas of concern).

          "The principal elements emerging from the discussions were
     summarized by the moderators of the four panels, that is, the
     Chairperson and the Vice-Chairpersons of the Commission.  These texts
     were presented to the members of the Commission and comments were
     received from various delegations that were not accommodated in the
     summary.  However, the texts were not negotiated nor were they adopted
     by the Commission."


                       ACTION TAKEN BY THE COMMISSION

Release of women and children taken hostage in armed conflicts, including
those subsequently imprisoned

122. At the 14th meeting, on 20 March, the observer for Azerbaijan,1/1/ on
behalf of Angola, Argentina,1/ Azerbaijan,1/1/ Bangladesh,1/1/ Bosnia and
Herzegovina,1/1/ Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Georgia,1/1/
Guatemala,1/1/ the Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakstan,1/1/ Kyrgyzstan,1/1/
Malaysia, Mali, Namibia, Pakistan,1/1/ South Africa,1/1/ Tajikistan,1/1/
Tunisia, Turkey,1/1/ Turkmenistan,1/1/ the United Republic of Tanzania1/1/ and
Uzbekistan,1/1/ introduced a draft resolution (E/CN.6/1997/L.5) entitled
"Release of women and children taken hostage in armed conflicts and
imprisoned".  In introducing the draft resolution, the observer of
Azerbaijan orally revised it as follows:

     (a)  In the title, the words "and imprisoned" were replaced by the
words "including those subsequently imprisoned";

     (b)  In operative paragraph 1, the word "such" after the words
"immediate release of" was deleted and the words "including those
subsequently imprisoned, in armed conflict" were added at the end of the
paragraph;

     (c)  In operative paragraph 2, the word "these" was inserted after the
words "protection of" and the words "for the immediate release of women and
children taken hostage" were replaced by the words "for their immediate
release";

     (d)  In operative paragraph 3, the words "assistance for women and
children taken hostage in areas of armed conflict" were replaced by the
words "assistance for these women and children";

     (e)  In operative paragraph 4, the words "release of all women and
children taken hostage in area of armed conflict and urges all States to
use their influence to this end" were replaced by the words "release of
these women and children";

     (f)  In operative paragraph 5, the word "Member" before the word
"States" was deleted.

123. Subsequently, Botswana,1/1/ Co^te d'Ivoire,1/1/ Haiti,1/1/ Iraq,1/1/
Jordan,1/1/ Swaziland and Venezuela1/1/ joined in sponsoring the draft
resolution, as orally revised.

124. At the 15th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission adopted the draft
resolution, as orally revised (see chap. I, sect. C, Commission resolution
41/1).

Older women, human rights and development

125. At the 14th meeting, on 20 March, the observer for the United Republic
of Tanzania,1/1/ on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that
are members of the Group of 77 and China, introduced a draft resolution
(E/CN.6/1997/L.6) entitled "Older women, human rights and development" and
orally revised it as follows:

     (a)  In the sixth preambular paragraph, the word "particularly" was
inserted before the words "in developing countries";

     (b)  Operative paragraph 2, which read:

          "Recommends that the Commission, which has been assigned a
     central role in monitoring the mainstreaming of a gender perspective
     in all policies and programmes within the United Nations system,
     should ensure that the contributions and needs of women of all ages,
     including those of older women, are taken into account",

was replaced by the following text:

          "Decides to ensure that the contributions and needs of women of
     all ages, including those of older women, are taken into account when
     monitoring the mainstreaming of a gender perspective in all policies
     and programmes within the United Nations system";

     (c)  In operative paragraph 10, the words "prepare a" were deleted
after the words "Requests the Secretary-General to".

126. Subsequently, Germany, Israel,1/1/ Japan and the United States of
America joined in sponsoring the draft resolution, as orally revised.

127. At the 15th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission adopted the draft
resolution, as orally revised (see chap. I, sect. C, Commission resolution
41/2).

128. Before the draft resolution was adopted, the observer for the United
Republic of Tanzania made a statement.

Palestinian women

129. At the 14th meeting, on 20 March, the observer for the United Republic
of Tanzania,1/1/ on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that
are members of the Group of 77 and China, introduced a draft resolution
(E/CN.6/1997/L.7) entitled "Palestinian women".

130. At the 15th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission adopted the draft
resolution by a recorded vote of 38 to 1, with 3 abstentions (see chap. I,
sect. A, draft resolution I).  The voting was as follows:2/ 

     In favour:   Angola, Bahamas, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, China,
                  Costa Rica, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
                  Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, Guinea, India,
                  Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Japan, Libyan Arab
                  Jamahiriya, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia,
                  Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of
                  Korea, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Swaziland, Thailand,
                  Togo, Tunisia, United Kingdom of Great Britain and
                  Northern Ireland.

     Against:     United States of America.

     Abstaining:  Congo, Lebanon, Norway.

131. Before the draft resolution was adopted, statements were made by the
representative of the United States of America and the observer for Israel;
after it was adopted, statements were made by the representatives of
Lebanon, Norway and Costa Rica and the observer for the Syrian Arab
Republic.  The observer for Palestine also made a statement.

Humanitarian assistance:  mainstreaming a gender perspective

132. At the 14th meeting, on 20 March, the representative of the United
States of America introduced a draft resolution (E/CN.6/1997/L.9) entitled
"Humanitarian assistance:  mainstreaming a gender perspective", which read
as follows:

          "The Commission on the Status of Women,

          "Guided by the principles of the Charter of the United Nations
     and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including the principle
     of equal rights of men and women,

          "Reaffirming that human rights are women's rights and women's
     rights are human rights,

          "Reaffirming also the equal right of women and men and girls and
     boys to participate fully in political and economic life, including
     their equal right to pursue educational, employment and other
     opportunities,

          "Reaffirming further the United Nations system-wide policy on
     gender equality,

          "Recognizing the importance of women in all phases of development
     and humanitarian assistance, such as education, health care and food
     distribution,

          "1.  Requests the Secretary-General to ensure that the United
     Nations, including all its subsidiary bodies and agencies, designs and
     implements its programmes and assistance without discrimination
     against women, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,
     international human rights law, and other principles relevant to the
     advancement of women;

          "2.  Also requests the Secretary-General to ensure that all
     United Nations-assisted programmes are formulated in such a way as to
     promote the full participation of women in all aspects of those
     programmes, including design, management, implementation, monitoring
     and evaluation, as well as increase the number of female beneficiaries
     and participants;

          "3.  Further requests the Secretary-General to report to the
     Commission on the Status of Women at its forty-second session on the
     delivery of humanitarian assistance from a gender perspective."

133. At the 15th meeting, on 21 March, the representative of the United
States of America withdrew the draft resolution.

Mainstreaming a gender perspective into all policies and programmes in the
United Nations system

134. At the 14th meeting, on 20 March, the observer for Canada,1/1/ also on
behalf of Australia1/1/ and New Zealand,1/1/ introduced a draft resolution
(E/CN.6/1997/L.14) entitled "Mainstreaming a gender perspective into all
policies and programmes in the United Nations system", which read as
follows:

          "The Commission on the Status of Women,

          "Recalling General Assembly resolution 50/203 of 22 December 1995
     and 51/69 of 12 December 1996,

          "Recalling Economic and Social Council resolution 1996/6, in
     which the Council decided that the Commission on the Status of Women
     would have a catalytic role in mainstreaming a gender perspective in
     policies and programmes and would identify issues where United Nations
     system-wide coordination needed to be improved in order to assist the
     Council in its coordination function,

          "Emphasizing the need for full implementation of the system-wide
     medium-term plan for the advancement of women, 1996-2001,

          "Welcoming the note by the Secretary-General on agreed
     conclusions 1996/1 adopted by the Economic and Social Council on
     coordination of United Nations system activities for poverty
     eradication, in particular its emphasis on the mainstreaming of a
     gender perspective in United Nations activities for poverty
     eradication,

          "Having considered the question of mainstreaming in organizations
     of the United Nations system and the statement in the report of the
     Secretary-General that comments from the Commission on the Status of
     Women on mainstreaming would provide valuable input into the
     preparation of the report requested for the Economic and Social
     Council at its coordination segment in 1997,

          "1.  Reaffirms that mainstreaming a gender perspective is
     integral to the empowerment of women and to achieving gender equality;

          "2.  Welcomes the reports of the Secretary-General on the follow-
     up to the Fourth World Conference on Women, which underscore the
     importance of implementing the commitments to mainstream a gender
     perspective by translating the concept into practical action and, in
     this regard, notes the steps involved in mainstreaming a gender
     perspective into programming and policy-making;

          "3.  Also welcomes the efforts to increase cooperation between
     the Division for the Advancement of Women and other parts of the
     United Nations system in such areas as peacekeeping and humanitarian
     affairs and the results already achieved with respect to the
     Commission on Sustainable Development and the special session of the
     General Assembly to review and appraise the implementation of Agenda
     21, as well as the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements
     (Habitat II) and the World Food Summit;

          "4.  Welcomes the initial sessions of the Inter-Agency Committee
     on Women and Gender Equality and the importance of its work in
     regularly monitoring progress made in incorporating a gender
     perspective in institutional structures, policies and programming and
     in integrated Conference follow-up;

          "5.  Stresses that particular attention should be paid to the
     need to intensify cooperation and coordination efforts to ensure that
     the equal status and human rights of all women and the girl child are
     integrated in United Nations system-wide activities, as well as to the
     means of achieving this, as noted in Commission on the Status of Women
     resolution 40/3 and Commission on Human Rights resolution 1996/48 in
     particular, and in view of the critical areas of concern to be
     discussed by the Commission on the Status of Women at its forty-second
     session, the need to ensure that the reports of the Special Rapporteur
     on violence against women, its causes and consequences are brought to
     the attention of the Commission on the Status of Women;

          "6.  Reiterates the importance of inter-secretariat linkages such
     as the joint work plan of the Division for the Advancement of Women
     and the Centre for Human Rights and the need for this plan to be
     considered fully by the Commission on Human Rights;

          "7.  Stresses the need for steps to be taken to integrate a
     gender perspective into human rights activities and programmes,
     bearing in mind the guidelines contained in the report of the expert
     group meeting on the development of guidelines for the integration of
     a gender perspective into human rights activities and programmes,
     including reporting under international human rights instruments and
     mechanisms and in the preparations for the five-year review of the
     Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action and the commemoration of
     the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

          "8.  Requests the Secretariat, in the context of its review of
     the system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women in 1998,
     to give specific attention to mainstreaming;

          "9.  Recalls that the Committee for Programme and Coordination
     agreed to ensure, in its examination of the medium-term plan for the
     period 1998-2001, that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective was
     reflected in the individual programmes of the medium-term plan;

          "10. Emphasizes that the implementation of the Platform for
     Action requires the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into all
     policies and programmes in the United Nations system, and in this
     regard notes with appreciation the conclusion of the Inter-Agency
     Committee that mainstreaming is a responsibility of the United Nations
     system as a whole and of all staff in all policy and programme areas
     and in decision-making;

          "11. Encourages the Economic and Social Council:

          "(a) To assess the achievements made and obstacles encountered in
     mainstreaming a gender perspective at the intergovernmental level,
     including the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the
     regional commissions and the functional commissions, in the United
     Nations system, including the Secretariat, and in all operational
     activities, including at the field level;

          "(b) To suggest practical tools and methodologies for monitoring
     regularly progress in mainstreaming, especially at senior levels,
     through, inter alia, performance indicators, mechanisms for
     accountability, impact analysis and identification of best practices;

          "(c) To stress the importance of strengthening expertise on
     gender issues generally and in specialized areas, through assessment
     of the impact of training;

          "(d) To stress the need to draw on the considerable experience
     and expertise which exists within the Division for the Advancement of
     Women and other gender units/focal points to provide advice and
     encourage efforts to develop and enhance cooperation and linkages
     between these units and other parts of the system, including within
     the Inter-Agency Committee, in order to broaden responsibility for the
     implementation of mainstreaming;

          "(e) To call upon United Nations departments and bodies, in the
     context of preparation of the programme budget for the period 1998-
     1999, to mainstream gender perspectives into their programmes in line
     with the recommendations of the Platform for Action, and to identify
     clearly those activities that are necessary to achieve that objective;

          "(f) To call for sufficient human and financial resources within
     the regular budget of the United Nations, including resources for the
     Division for the Advancement of Women, in order to carry out all tasks
     foreseen in the Platform for Action, as requested by the General
     Assembly in its resolution 50/203;

          "12. Requests the Secretary-General to report on the
     implementation of the present resolution."

135. At the 16th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission had before it an
informal paper containing a draft resolution entitled "Mainstreaming of
gender perspectives into all policies and programmes in the United Nations
system", which was submitted by the Chairperson on the basis of informal
consultations held on draft resolution E/CN.6/1997/L.14.

136. A statement was made by the observer for Canada.

137. At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft resolution
contained in the informal paper (see chap. I, sect. C, Commission
resolution 41/6).

138. In the light of the adoption of the draft resolution submitted by the
Chairperson, draft resolution E/CN.6/1997/L.14 was withdrawn by the
sponsors.

Violence against women migrant workers

139. At the 14th meeting, on 20 March, the representative of the
Philippines, on behalf of Bangladesh,1/1/ Costa Rica, the Dominican
Republic, Namibia, Paraguay and the Philippines, introduced a draft
resolution (E/CN.6/1997/L.10) entitled "Violence against women migrant
workers", which read as follows:

          "The Commission on the Status of Women,

          "Bearing in mind the Charter of the United Nations, which
     reaffirms faith in human rights and fundamental freedoms, in the
     dignity and worth of the human person, and in the equal rights of
     women and men,

          "Reaffirming the principles set forth in the Universal
     Declaration of Human Rights, and the Convention on the Elimination of
     All Forms of Discrimination against Women,

          "Reaffirming also General Assembly resolutions 47/96 of
     16 December 1992, 48/110 of 20 December 1993, 49/165 of 23 December
     1994, 50/168 of 22 December 1995 and 51/65 of 12 December 1996 and
     Commission on the Status of Women resolutions 38/7 of 18 March 1994,
     39/7 of 31 March 1995 and 40/6 of 22 March 1996, as well as the
     Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women adopted by
     the General Assembly at its forty-eighth session,

          "Recalling the conclusions and recommendations made by recent
     international conferences, including the World Conference on Human
     Rights, held in Vienna in June 1993, the International Conference on
     Population and Development, held in Cairo in September 1994, the World
     Summit for Social Development, held in Copenhagen in March 1995, and
     the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in September
     1995, on the promotion and protection of the rights and fundamental
     freedoms of women, in particular women migrant workers,

          "Acknowledging the valuable contribution made by concerned
     intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to the promotion
     and protection of the rights and fundamental freedoms of women migrant
     workers,

          "Noting the large numbers of women from developing countries and
     from some countries with economies in transition who continue to
     venture forth to more affluent countries in search of a living for
     themselves and their families, as a consequence of poverty,
     unemployment and other socio-economic conditions,

          "Recognizing that it is the duty of sending countries to protect
     and promote the interests of their citizens who seek or receive
     employment in other countries, to provide them with appropriate
     training/education and to apprise them of their rights and obligations
     in the countries of employment,

          "Aware of the moral obligations of receiving or host countries to
     ensure the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all persons within
     their boundaries, including women migrant workers, who are doubly
     vulnerable because of their gender and their being foreigners,

          "Noting the measures adopted by some receiving States to
     alleviate the plight of women migrant workers residing within their
     areas of jurisdiction,

          "Noting with concern, however, the continuing reports of grave
     abuses and acts of violence committed against women migrant workers by
     some of their employers in some host countries,

          "Stressing that acts of violence directed against women impair or
     nullify women's enjoyment of their human rights and fundamental
     freedoms,

          "Recalling the decision of the Commission at its fortieth session
     to consider as part of its work programme for 1998 the issues of
     women's human rights, violence against women, women in armed
     conflicts, and the girl child, in line with the implementation of the
     Beijing Platform for Action,

          "1.  Welcomes the convening of the United Nations Expert Group
     Meeting on Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Manila, from 27
     to 31 May 1996;

          "2.  Decides to consider the report of the Expert Group Meeting,
     as well as the reports/recommendations of the Special Rapporteur of
     the Commission on Human Rights on Violence against Women, the
     Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of
     Minorities, including its Working Group on Contemporary Forms of
     Slavery, concerned agencies and bodies of the United Nations system
     and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations on
     the issue of violence against women migrant workers, at its forty-
     second session, in 1998, and to submit its report and recommendations
     thereon to the General Assembly at its fifty-third session."

140. In introducing the draft resolution, the representative of the
Philippines orally revised it.

141. Subsequently, Ecuador, Morocco, Indonesia and Sri Lanka1/1/ joined in
sponsoring the draft resolution, as orally revised.

142. At the 15th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission adopted the draft
resolution, as orally revised (see chap. I, sect. C, Commission resolution
41/4).

143. Before the draft resolution was adopted, statements were made by the
representative of the Philippines and the observer for Singapore.

Traffic in women and girls

144. At the 14th meeting, on 20 March, the representative of the
Philippines, on behalf of Bangladesh,1/1/  Costa Rica, the Dominican
Republic, Mongolia,1/1/ Namibia, Paraguay, the Philippines and South
Africa,1/1/ introduced a draft resolution (E/CN.6/1997/L.11) entitled
"Traffic in women and girls".  Subsequently, Angola, Argentina,1/1/ Belgium,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Cyprus, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Guatemala,1/1/ Guinea, Indonesia, Italy,1/1/ Kyrgyzstan,1/1/ Malaysia,
Morocco, Poland, Portugal, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of
Moldova,1/1/ Romania,1/ Thailand, Togo, the United States of America,
Venezuela1/1/ and Viet Nam1/1/ joined in sponsoring the draft resolution,
which read as follows:

          "The Commission on the Status of Women,

          "Reaffirming its faith in fundamental human rights, in the
     dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men
     and women, enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, as well as
     the principles set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
     the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
     against Women, the International Covenants on Human Rights, the
     Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
     Treatment or Punishment, the Convention for the Suppression of the
     Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of
     Others, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Declaration
     on the Elimination of Violence against Women,

          "Recalling its resolution 40/4 of 22 March 1996, General Assembly
     resolution 51/66 of 12 December 1996 and the Commission on Human
     Rights resolution 1996/24 of 19 April 1996, as well as all previous
     resolutions adopted by these three bodies on the subject of traffic in
     women and girls,

          "Recalling also and concurring with the conclusions of and
     recommendations made by recent international conferences on the human
     rights of women and girl children, in particular with respect to the
     violation of those rights through sexual and economic exploitation for
     the profit of recruiters, traffickers and crime syndicates, as well as
     other illegal activities related to trafficking, such as forced
     domestic labour, false marriages, child marriages, clandestine
     employment and false adoption,

          "Recalling further the Programme of Action of the International
     Conference on Population and Development, which, inter alia, called
     upon all Governments to prevent all international trafficking in
     migrants, especially for the purpose of prostitution, and for the
     adoption by Governments of both receiving countries and countries of
     origin of effective sanctions against those who organize undocumented
     migration, exploit undocumented migrants or engage in trafficking in
     undocumented migrants, especially those who engage in any form of
     international trafficking in women and girl children,

          "Acknowledging that the problem of trafficking also victimizes
     young boys,

          "Welcoming the convening of the World Congress against Commercial
     Sexual Exploitation of Children at Stockholm from 27 to 31 August 1996
     and other conferences on trafficking in women and children for sexual
     exploitation,

          "Noting with satisfaction the commemoration of the International
     Day for the Abolition of Slavery on 6 December 1996 at a plenary
     meeting of the General Assembly devoted to the discussion of the
     problem of trafficking in human persons, with the participation of a
     victim of trafficking,

          "Realizing the urgent need for the adoption of effective measures
     at the national, regional and international levels to protect women
     and girl children from this nefarious traffic,

          "Recognizing that trafficking in women and girl children is
     inseparable from other forms of sexual exploitation, including sex
     tourism, pornography, bride markets and prostitution,

          "1.  Expresses serious concern about the unabating traffic in
     women and girl children and the misuse of advanced information
     technology for pornography and trafficking purposes;

          "2.  Calls for the acceleration of the implementation of the
     Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women by
     Governments of countries of origin, transit and destination and
     regional and international organizations, as appropriate, by:

          "(a) Considering the ratification and enforcement of
     international conventions of trafficking in persons and on slavery;

          "(b) Taking appropriate measures to address the root factors,
     including external forces, that encourage trafficking in women and
     girls for prostitution and other forms of commercialized sex, forced
     marriages and forced labour in order to eliminate trafficking in
     women, including by strengthening existing legislation with a view to
     providing better protection of the rights of women and girls and to
     punish the perpetrators, including customers, through both criminal
     and civil measures;

          "(c) Stepping up cooperation and concerted action by all relevant
     law enforcement authorities and institutions with a view to
     dismantling national, regional and international networks in
     trafficking;

          "(d) Allocating resources to provide comprehensive programmes
     designed to heal and rehabilitate into society victims of trafficking,
     including through job training and the provision of legal assistance
     and confidential health care, as well as by taking measures to
     cooperate with non-governmental organizations to provide for the
     social, medical and psychological care of the victims of trafficking;

          "(e) Developing educational and training programmes and policies
     and considering enacting legislation aimed at preventing sex tourism
     and trafficking, and all forms of sexual exploitation, giving special
     emphasis to the protection of young women and children;

          "3.  Calls upon Governments to take all appropriate measures,
     including legislation, to suppress all forms of traffic in women and
     exploitation of the prostitution of women;

          "4.  Encourages Governments, relevant organizations and bodies of
     the United Nations system, intergovernmental organizations and
     non-governmental organizations to cooperate with one another so as to
     facilitate the development of anti-trafficking measures and to
     encourage wider public awareness of the problem;

          "5.  Calls upon all Governments to take appropriate measures to
     prevent misuse and exploitation by traffickers of such economic
     activities as the development of tourism and the export of labour and
     the use of information technology, including cyberspace;

          "6.  Encourages the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human
     Rights on violence against women and the Special Rapporteur of the
     Commission on Human Rights on the sale of children, child prostitution
     and child pornography, as well as the Working Group on Contemporary
     Forms of Slavery of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination
     and Protection of Minorities, to continue to pay special attention to
     the problem of trafficking in women and girl children, and to submit a
     report thereon to the Commission on the Status of Women at its forty-
     second session;

          "7.  Encourages the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal
     Justice to continue to consider the problem of trafficking in human
     persons in the context of its discussion on the question of organized
     transnational crime;

          "8.  Welcomes the proposal contained in General Assembly
     resolution 51/120 of 12 December 1996 for the elaboration of an
     international convention against organized transnational crime;

          "9.  Supports the work of the working group of the Commission on
     Human Rights on the elaboration of a draft optional protocol to the
     Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child
     prostitution and child pornography, and expresses the hope that the
     working group will make further progress prior to the fifty-third
     session of the Commission with a view to finalizing this work;

          "10. Encourages the holding of an international conference on
     trafficking and all forms of sexual exploitation;

          "11. Decides to remain seized of this matter and to examine at
     its forty-second session the reports of the Special Rapporteurs and
     relevant organizations and bodies, with a view to making appropriate
     recommendations to the General Assembly at its fifty-second session
     through the Economic and Social Council at its substantive session of
     1997."

145. At the 15th meeting, on 21 March, the representative of the
Philippines orally revised the draft resolution.

146. At the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft resolution, as
orally revised (see chap. I, sect. C, Commission resolution 41/5).

Follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women

147. At the 15th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.6/1997/L.16) entitled "Follow-up to the Fourth World
Conference on Women", submitted by the Chairperson.

148. At the same meeting, the Chairperson orally revised the draft decision
as follows:

     (a)  In subparagraph (a), the phrase "in order to deal with the
increasing number of States parties' reports submitted under article 18 of
the Convention" was deleted at the end of the paragraph;

     (b)  In subparagraph (b), the word "increased" between the word
"provide" and "substantive support" was deleted;

     (c)  Subparagraph (c), which read:

          "The Commission supports the increased efforts by the Division
     for the Advancement of Women to contribute actively to mainstreaming
     the human rights of women within the general human rights activities
     of the United Nations, and the increased cooperation between the
     Division and the Centre for Human Rights for that purpose, as shown in
     the joint programme of work presented for 1997, and underlines the
     importance of devoting a portion of the resources for technical
     assistance available to the Centre to mainstreaming women's human
     rights, in cooperation with the Division",

was replaced by the following text:

          "The Commission supports the increased efforts by the Division
     for the Advancement of Women to contribute actively to mainstreaming a
     gender perspective in all activities, programmes and policies of the
     United Nations and supports the increased cooperation between the
     Division, the functional commissions of the Economic and Social
     Council and United Nations bodies and agencies, including the Centre
     for Human Rights, as described in the joint work programme presented
     for 1997".

149. The Commission then adopted the draft decision, as orally revised (see
chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision 41/101).

Functional commissions

150. At the 15th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission had before it a draft
decision (E/CN.6/1997/L.18) entitled "Functional commissions", submitted by
the Chairperson.

151. At the same meeting the Commission adopted the draft decision (see
chap. I, sect. B, draft decision II).

Women and the environment

152. At its 16th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission had before it draft
agreed conclusions (E/CN.6/1997/L.3/Rev.1) on women and the environment,
submitted by the Chairperson.

153. At the same meeting, the Chairperson informed the Commission of
revisions to the text, agreed upon during informal consultations.

154. The Commission then adopted the draft agreed conclusions, as orally
revised, and decided to bring them to the attention of the Economic and
Social Council.

155. Also, at the 16th meeting, the representative of Zambia moved, under
rule 55 of the rules of procedure of the functional commissions of the
Economic and Social Council, that the Commission reconsider the draft
agreed conclusions, as orally revised.

156. The representatives of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and Morocco opposed
the motion, which was then put to the vote.

157. The motion was carried by 19 votes to 11, with 6 abstentions.  The
voting was as follows:

     In favour:   Angola, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador,
                  France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Kenya, Mexico, Namibia,
                  Norway, Paraguay, Portugal, Swaziland, United Kingdom of
                  Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of
                  America.

     Against:     Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Libyan Arab
                  Jamahiriya, Malaysia, Morocco, Peru,3/ Philippines,
                  Poland, Republic of Korea, Thailand, Tunisia.

     Abstaining:  Bulgaria, Cyprus, India, Japan, Russian Federation,
                  Slovakia.

158. Statements were made by the representatives of the Islamic Republic of
Iran, the United States of America, Bulgaria and Namibia and the observers
for South Africa, Nigeria and the Netherlands (on behalf of the States
Members of the United Nations that are members of the European Union).

159. The representative of Bulgaria requested the suspension of the
meeting.

160. Following the suspension of the meeting, the Chairperson orally
revised paragraph 24 of the draft agreed conclusions.

161. The Commission then adopted the draft agreed conclusions
(E/CN.6/1997/L.3/Rev.1), as further orally revised, and decided to bring
them to the attention of the Economic and Social Council (see chap. I,
sect. C, agreed conclusions 1997/1).

Women in power and decision-making

162. At its 16th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission had before it draft
agreed conclusions (E/CN.6/1997/L.4) on women in power and decision-making,
submitted by the Vice-Chairperson of the Commission, Ljudmila Boskova
(Bulgaria), who also reported on the outcome of informal consultations.

163. At the same meeting, the Secretary read out revisions to the text,
agreed upon during the informal consultations.

164. Also at the same meeting, the Commission adopted the draft agreed
conclusions, as orally revised, and decided to bring them to the attention
of the Economic and Social Council.

165. After the draft agreed conclusions were adopted, the observer for the
Netherlands, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the European Union, made a statement.

166. Also at the 16th meeting, the Commission decided, under rule 55 of the
rules of procedure of the functional commissions of the Economic and Social
Council, to reconsider the draft agreed conclusions, as orally revised.

167. The Deputy Director of the Division for the Advancement of Women read
out corrections to the text.

168. The Commission then adopted the draft agreed conclusions
(E/CN.6/1997/L.4), as orally revised and corrected, and decided to bring
them to the attention of the Economic and Social Council (see chap. I,
sect. C, agreed conclusions 1997/2).

Women and the economy

169. At its 16th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission had before it draft
agreed conclusions (E/CN.6/1997/L.12/Rev.1) on women and the economy,
submitted by the Vice-Chairperson of the Commission, Eva Hildrum (Norway),
who also informed the Commission of revisions to the text, agreed upon
during informal consultations.

170. The Commission then adopted the draft agreed conclusions
(E/CN.6/1997/L.12/Rev.1), as orally revised, and decided to bring them to
the attention of the Economic and Social Council (see chap. I, sect. C,
agreed conclusions 1997/3).

171. Before the adoption of the draft agreed conclusions, statements were
made by the representatives of Chile and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the
observers for the Netherlands (on behalf of the States Members of the
United Nations that are members of the European Union), Canada and Spain. 
The Vice-Chairperson, Ms. Hildrum (Norway), also made a statement.

Education and training of women

172. At its 16th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission had before it draft
agreed conclusions (E/CN.6/1997/L.13/Rev.1) on the education and training
of women, submitted by the Vice-Chairperson, Zakia Amara Bouaziz (Tunisia),
who also informed the Commission of revisions to the text, agreed upon
during informal consultations.

173. At the same meeting, statements were made by the observers for the
Netherlands (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the European Union) and the United Republic of Tanzania (on
behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
Group of 77), who also proposed an amendment to the text.

174. The Vice-Chairperson of the Commission, Ms. Bouaziz (Tunisia), also
made a statement.

175. The Commission then adopted the draft agreed conclusions
(E/CN.6/1997/L.13/Rev.1), as orally revised and amended, and decided to
bring them to the attention of the Economic and Social Council (see
chap. I, sect. C, agreed conclusions 1997/4).

Agreed conclusions on the critical areas of concern

176. At the 16th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission had before it a draft
resolution (E/CN.6/1997/L.19) entitled "Agreed conclusions on the critical
areas of concern", submitted by the Chairperson, who also informed the
Commission of revisions to the text, agreed upon during informal
consultations.

177. At the same meeting the Commission adopted the draft resolution, as
orally revised (see chap. I, sect. A, draft resolution II).

Follow-up to agreed conclusions 1996/1 of the Economic and Social Council

178. At its 15th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission agreed to include in
its report the text submitted by the Chairperson on the follow-up to agreed
conclusions 1996/1 of the Economic and Social Council (E/CN.6/1997/L.17). 
The text, as orally revised by the Chairperson, is as follows:

          "The Commission on the Status of Women welcomes agreed
     conclusions 1996/1 of the Economic and Social Council on the
     coordination of United Nations system activities for poverty
     eradication.  The agreed conclusions provide a framework for ensuring
     coordination of the multi-year work programmes of functional
     commissions and a better division of labour among them with a view to
     promoting a coordinated and integrated follow-up to major United
     Nations conferences.  The Commission on the Status of Women wishes to
     inform the Council of the following measures that it will adopt in
     order to implement agreed conclusions 1996/1:

          "(a)  The Commission on the Status of Women considered the theme
     'Poverty eradication' at its fortieth session, in 1996.  In accordance
     with its multi-year work programme, issues relating to poverty
     eradication will also be considered in 1998 within the framework of
     the review of the synthesis report of national action plans and of the
     mid-term review of the system-wide medium-term plan for the
     advancement of women, 1996-2001.  In this way, the Commission can
     provide an input to the overall review of the theme of poverty
     eradication to be undertaken by the Council;

          "(b)  The Commission on the Status of Women, at its forty-first
     session, adopted agreed conclusions on the theme 'Women and the
     environment'.  Those agreed conclusions will be transmitted to the
     Commission on Sustainable Development as a contribution to the review
     of the implementation of Agenda 21;

          "(c)  The Commission on the Status of Women has a special
     responsibility to promote the mainstreaming of a gender perspective
     into the process of review of the implementation of the results of
     major United Nations conferences in the economic, social and related
     fields, including in the areas of poverty eradication.  The
     Chairperson of the Commission on the Status of Women will contact the
     chairpersons of other functional commissions of the Council with
     responsibility for the follow-up of United Nations conferences, with a
     view to considering ways and means to cooperate in reviewing the
     implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action in areas falling
     under the mandate of other functional commissions, and to coordinate
     mutual inputs to discussions by the various functional commissions of
     priority topics, as appropriate.  The Secretariat will bring to the
     attention of other functional commissions relevant decisions of the
     Commission on the Status of Women;

          "(d)  The Commission on the Status of Women will undertake in
     1998 an overall review of the theme 'Human rights of women'.  In
     accordance with paragraph 45 of agreed conclusions 1996/1, the
     Commission on Human Rights should consider providing an input to the
     Commission on the Status of women on ensuring women's real enjoyment
     of their human rights, in particular those relating to alleviation of
     women's poverty, economic development and economic resources.  With a
     view to facilitating interaction between the two Commissions, the
     Secretariat is invited to submit a report on this subject to both the
     Commission on the Status of Women and the Commission on Human Rights,
     in cooperation with the Centre for Human Rights and the Division for
     the Advancement of Women of the United Nations Secretariat.  The
     Chairperson of the Commission on the Status of Women will contact the
     Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights with a view to examining
     the best way to ensure cooperation in the review of the theme 'Human
     rights of women';

          "(e)  The Commission on the Status of Women adopted agreed
     conclusions on the theme 'Education and training of women' at its
     forty-first session, and will review the theme 'Women and health' in
     1999.  The agreed conclusions adopted by the Commission on the Status
     of Women on those two subjects can be transmitted, as appropriate, to
     the Commission for Social Development, which will consider issues
     related to social services at its session in 1999, and to the
     Commission on Population and Development, which will consider the
     review and appraisal of the implementation of the Programme of Action
     of the International Conference on Population and Development at its
     session in 1999.  The Chairperson of the Commission on the Status of
     Women will contact the President of the Council and the chairpersons
     of the commissions mentioned in paragraph 57 of agreed conclusions
     1996/1 with a view to examining ways of ensuring the proper division
     of labour when reviewing the theme of basic social services for all;

          "(f)  The Commission on the Status of Women, in accordance with
     paragraph 58 of agreed conclusions 1996/1, would welcome an input from
     the Statistical Commission on the statistical implications of the
     Beijing Platform for Action.  The Chairperson of the Commission on the
     Status of Women will contact the Chairperson of the Statistical
     Commission with a view to examining how such input could be provided
     in a manner that enhances the opportunity for the Commission on the
     Status of Women to consider this subject."

Report of the Secretary-General on improvement of the status of women in
the Secretariat

179. At its 16th meeting, on 21 March, the Commission took note of the
report of the Secretary-General on improvement of the status of women in
the Secretariat (E/CN.6/1997/7) (see chap. I, sect. C, Commission decision
41/102).



    	

 


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