EGM/WPSD/1996/REP.1
                                                        19 December 1996




United Nations 
Division for the Advancement of Women;
Division for Sustainable Development;
United Nations Population Fund; and the
International Training and Research Institute for the Advancement of Women







                             Expert Group Meeting
                                       on
                 Women, Population and Sustainable Development:
                    The Road from Rio, Cairo and Beijing


                     Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
                           18-22 November 1996




                                   REPORT


              United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women
         Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
                     2 United Nations Plaza, DC2-12th Floor
                          New York, N.Y. 10017, USA
                             Fax: (212) 963-3463
                   Web location: http://www.un.org/dpcsd/daw
                              E-mail: daw@un.org

    

                                  CONTENTS

                                                                              

                                                           Paragraphs

Introduction...............................................        1 - 4

Part One

I.         ORGANIZATION OF WORK...........................         5 - 13

           A.  Attendance.................................            6
           B.  Documentation..............................            7
           C.  Adoption of the agenda.....................            8
           D.  Election of officers.......................            9
           E.  Opening statements.........................        10 - 13


Part Two

II.       SUMMARY OF THE DISCUSSION.......................        14 - 55

          A.   Background.................................        14 - 55

III.      CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................        56 - 95

          A. Conclusions...................................       56 - 71
               Gender......................................       56 - 58
               Relationships between gender, population and 
                 sustainable development.....................     59 - 61
               Relationship between global and local issues of 
                 sustainable development.....................     62 - 65
               Women in decision making......................     66 - 71

         B. Recommendations..................................     72 - 95     

            

Annexes                                                                       

                                                                      Pages

I.       List of participants................................     20 - 24
II.      List of documents...................................     25 - 26
III.     Agenda and organization of work.....................     27 - 29



                               INTRODUCTION


1.         In the last decade of the twentieth century the United Nations has
organized a series of global conferences and summits that have sought to frame
the development challenges in an era of rapid social, economic and political
change. The international community has examined successively the integration
of environment and development at the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development (UNCED) in Rio, human rights and development at the World
Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, the International Conference on
Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, the World Summit on Social
Development (WSSD) in Copenhagen, the Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW),
the Second International Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in
Istanbul and the World Food Summit in Rome.

2.         Following the Beijing Conference, the Commission on the Status of
Women decided to consider the critical area of concern, women and the
environment, at its forty-first session in 1997 as part of its review of the
implementation of the Platform for Action adopted at the Beijing Conference.
In the preparation for the Commission's discussions, this Expert Group Meeting
was held to explore the subject of women, population and sustainable
development. The Secretary- General of the United Nations will take the
recommendations of the Expert Group into account in reporting to the
Commission on the Status of Women, which will in turn express its views and
make recommendations to the Commission for Sustainable Development in
connexion with the five-year review of the implementation of Agenda 21 which
will take place in a special session of the General Assembly in June 1997.

3.         The Expert Group focused its attention on the UNCED, ICPD and the
FWCW and in particular their discussions of the interlinkages of sustainable
development, population and the roles of women. The agreements reached at
these three conferences reflected an evolving understanding within the
international community of these interlinkages, and in particular of the
concept of gender and its practical application to issues of sustainable
development and population.  

4.         The Expert Group Meeting offered an opportunity to re-examine
relationships between women, sustainable development and population, at a
critical juncture in the review of implementation of Agenda 21 in light of
Cairo and Beijing, and to look closely at the integration of conference
agreements in strategies for sustainable and equitable development including
population stabilization.


                                   Part One

                        I.    ORGANIZATION OF WORK

5.         The Expert Group Meeting on "Women, Population and Sustainable
Development: the road from Rio to Cairo to Beijing" was held at INSTRAW, Santo
Domingo, the Dominican Republic from 18-22 November, 1996.  It was jointly
sponsored by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW),
Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development; the Division
for Sustainable Development (DSD), Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable Development; the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the
International Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW).


                        A.   Attendance

6.         The meeting was attended by seven experts from all regions, and
nine observers, two from the UN system, three from non-governmental
organizations and two from Member States and two from an Observer State (see
annex I).


                        B.   Documentation

7.         The documentation of the Meeting was comprised of two background
papers prepared by consultants, and six expert's papers (see annex II).


                     C.   Adoption of the agenda

8.         At its first plenary meeting on 18 November 1996, the Meeting
adopted the provisional agenda.  The topics of the agenda were as follows:

           A.    Conceptual and methodological aspects of crucial links
                 between population and sustainable development from a gender
                 perspective with emphasis on women's role in decision-making
                 at all levels.

           B.    Policy perspectives on implementation of recommendations from
                 Rio, Cairo and Beijing on women, population and sustainable
                 development. 

           C.    Framework for a gender-sensitive integrated approach to the
                 implementation of recommendations of Rio, Cairo and Beijing
                 on women, population and sustainable development: concepts,
                 levels and types of interventions, priorities and cost and
                 benefits.


                           D.   Election of officers

9.         At the first plenary meeting the following officers were elected to
the Bureau: 

           Chairperson:           Ms. Maria Onestini         Argentina
           Rapporteur :           Ms. Rachel Kyte            United Kingdom



                            E.   Opening statements

10.        In her opening statement, Ms. Martha Due¤as-Loza, Acting Director
of the International Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, welcomed
the participants in the Expert Group Meeting to the Dominican Republic, and to
INSTRAW.  She noted the importance of focusing on a better understanding of
the relationship between gender, population and sustainable development at a
time when economic growth models have resulted in increased inequality and
poverty and environmental degradation to the particular detriment of women who
constitute the bulk of the poor.  She noted that INSTRAW had a long history of
work - since 1982 - in the field of women and natural resources management. 
She highlighted INSTRAW's work in training for policy purposes in areas of
women and environmental management, particularly in the areas of water supply
and sanitation, waste management, and new and renewable sources of energy, and
invited the participants to learn more of the work of the Institute in this
field.

11.        In her opening statement, Ms. Kristen Timothy, Deputy Director of
the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women welcomed all
participants and stated the objective of the meeting to be to examine the
crucial links between population and sustainable development from a gender
perspective as an input to the work of the Commission on the Status of Women
when it meets in March 1997 for its discussion of the critical area of concern
from the Beijing Platform for Action, "Women and Environment".  She drew
attention to the provisions of the Platform for Action in this area and noted
that the experts were being invited to elaborate a framework for sustainable
development planning with an integrated approach for the implementation of
recommendations from Rio, Cairo and Beijing in terms of concepts, levels of
intervention, costs and benefits and priorities for action, as well as to make
recommendations on how to mainstream a gender perspective in activities
related to population and sustainable development.

12.        Ms. Ana Angarita-Noguera, Technical Officer, Gender, Population and
Development Branch, UNFPA stated in opening that at the International
Conference on Population and Development, the international community agreed
that population and development are intrinsically related and that all
strategies for sustainable development should incorporate not only a
population component, but also one of gender relations. UNFPA has always put
women at the centre of its population and development efforts.  The agreement
that reproductive rights are basic human rights and critical to women's
empowerment has resulted in a modification of a purely demographic vision of
population and sustainable development and led to a more all-embracing vision
in which individual needs and aspirations become the basis of sustainable
development policies and programmes.

13.        In his opening statement, Mr. Ralph Chipman, Senior Sustainable
Development Officer, Division for Sustainable Development, noted that the
Commission on Sustainable Development was preparing for the Special Session of
the General Assembly to be held in June 1997 to review the implementation of
Agenda 21 and the other commitments of the 1992 Rio Conference on Environment
and Development.  The Commission, at its April 1997 session, would review its
initial five-year work programme and define a new work programme for the
future, taking into account the results of subsequent conferences, notably the
1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development and the 1995 Beijing
Conference on Women.  While the first five-year programme had been very broad
in scope, covering all of the issues addressed in Agenda 21, it would be
desirable to focus the future work programme on priority issues and minimize
duplication with the follow-up programmes for the other conferences.  The
Expert Group could contribute to that effort by making recommendations to the
Commission on Sustainable Development concerning policies and programmes to
address critical issues of gender, population and sustainable development.


                                Part Two

                     II.  SUMMARY OF THE DISCUSSION

                            A.  Background


14.        It was stressed by the Group that Rio, Cairo and Beijing recognized
that the major causes of unsustainable development are the unsustainable
patterns of consumption and production engendered by the current development
model and hastened by globalization.  Addressing this problem should include
undertaking  a systematic reflection, within a human rights framework, of
gender, population and development interlinkages in order to rectify the
development model in favour of greater equality and equity and sustainable
development.

15.        Women and their movements have had an impact on the understanding
of gender and its interlinkages through the conference processes.  Agenda 21
at the earliest stages of UNCED, contained no mention of women and no gender
approach. By the end of the UNCED or Earth Summit there were over 140
references to women, but still no gender approach. The bulk of those
references were within the chapter on women as a major group (chapter 24 of
the Agenda 21). The major groups concept, which was important for the
involvement of business alongside NGOs, was rejected by most women's groups as
contrary to a full understanding of the gender approach.

16.        The debate on the relationships between population and consumption
and production patterns did not fully take place in Rio. Further, the
discussion on family planning was narrow and polarized and the result was
heavily qualified language on the rights of couples and individuals,
containing caveats on "dignity and personally held values and taking into
account ethical and cultural considerations".  The focus in Rio was also on
ethical behaviour as opposed to basic  human rights. The ethical approach
proved problematic for many, including women, as the question of whose ethics
became the issue.  It was the view of many participants, particularly women,
that the universality of human rights standards could not be replaced by a
universally accepted ethical standard of behaviour in areas as subjective as
the environment or sexual and reproductive behaviour.

17.        In Cairo the "and women" approach that had prevailed at UNCED was
replaced with the beginnings of convergence on issues of gender equality and
equity. These issues went on to become central at Beijing. However, in both
Cairo and Beijing it seemed easier for participants to discuss gender in
relation to women's reproductive roles, rather than in relation to their
productive roles, in many cases glossing over the critical interlinkages
between the two. 

18.        The ICPD Programme of Action took major steps to endorse a new
paradigm of population and development - one that shifted the population
debate away from a focus on demographic concerns and targets to one that put
the well-being of men and women at the centre of sustainable development.  It
underscored the imperative of gender equality and equity by declaring that
there can be no sustainable development without the full participation of
women.  It focused on the importance of women's empowerment and established a
new framework for family planning, in the context of reproductive and sexual
health.

19.        Cairo began to tackle the population, consumption and production
relationships. The critical language of paragraphs 3.16 1/and 3.22 2/ which
stated the balance between these issues and their interrelationships were
politically essential in unlocking agreement on difficult issues in the
chapters on reproductive rights and health and mortality. The delicate
North-South balance in Cairo was, simply stated, achieved by a recognition by
the North of the contribution of consumption and production issues in
perpetuating the global crises and inequalities, with new language on
balancing curbs on development with the "right to development", with strong
language extending understanding of basic human rights to include reproductive
rights, and a partial caveat on the principle of universality of human rights.



20.        Cairo coming after Rio, but also significantly after the Vienna
Conference on Human Rights with its landmark agreements on human rights of
women, and in particular its attention to all forms of violence against women
in the public and private spheres, made it possible to talk in a new way about
grounding population-related development policies clearly in the context of
women's human rights. Critical to the discussion of reproductive health was
the argument that family planning is  necessary but not sufficient. 

21.        Beijing, however, accepted the human rights framework in its
entirety and the caveat on universality was removed. The Beijing Platform for
Action included the issue of women and environment among the twelve critical
areas of concern and provided further analysis of development from a gender
perspective.  In Beijing the women's agenda became a gender agenda based on
the evolution of conceptual thinking about development as well as on the
changes that had taken place in the women's movement and the different space
occupied by women around the world. 

22.        The discussion of the experts was facilitated by two background
papers prepared by consultants.  The theses proposed in the background papers
provided a framework within which the participants were able to analyse and
discuss some of the most intricate aspects of the interlinkages between women,
population and sustainable development, as evolved through the three
conferences under discussion.

23.        One of the background papers, on "Gender, Population and
Sustainability: Critical Problems and Unresolved Issues" in particular,
recognized that discussion on the issues of the Expert Group Meeting had been
stymied in the past by lack of clarity and multiple perceptions of the key
concepts of gender, sustainable development and population. This was noted by
the participants and clarified by them in their discussions. Experts agreed
with United Nations usage that gender refers to the socially constructed roles
played by women and men that are ascribed to them on the basis of their sex.

24.        The experts were quick to recognize that the concept of gender and
its application to issues of sustainable development and population had
evolved through the three conferences under consideration as discussed above.
They agreed that new perspectives and agreement on the interrelationship
between gender, sustainable development and population as developed in Cairo
and Beijing should bring new light to strategies for implementation of Agenda
21 and in particular for taking decisions on priorities for future work to be
decided by the Special Session of the General Assembly to review Agenda 21 in
1997.

25.        The central premise in the background paper on gender, population
and sustainability -- that there are critical global environmental challenges
to sustainability which have no immediate technological or socio-political
solution, and that, in contrast to many local issues of sustainability, these
critical global issues do not have a significant gender dimension, became a
central question for discussion. 

26.        While the experts welcomed the sense of political priority attached
to the critical global issues, they felt that the relationships between the
local and the global were more complex, and that indeed, not enough was known
about the gender dimensions of those interlinkages.

27.        The paper noted that as a result of globalization, even the most
organized communities, with women having positive impact on natural resource
management and sustainability at the local level, can be negated by the
economic and social impact of global economic forces. The experts acknowledged
that the concentration of decision-making authority in the globalized economy,
and the growing inequities between and within countries as a result of the
predominant market-led economic model, may further marginalize women.

28.        The paper called for more importance to be placed on the
environment agenda by the international "women's movement". It noted that
women had been seen conventionally as the primary victims at the local level
of environmental changes and degradation, that they had been seen as having a
primary role as reproducers in demographic growth and transition, that they
were traditionally viewed as efficient environmental managers, and by some to
be inherently predisposed to more environmentally-friendly behaviour. Experts
expressed concern that the focus on the women's movement once again placed
responsibility on women for change. It was noted that the success of women's
organizations in bringing about significant change in understanding and
analysis came with partnership with other important actors and individuals
inside governments, agencies and other expert bodies and that the gender
approach was not sex specific.

29.        The paper noted that population trends were an important factor in
strategies to achieve sustainable development. However, it noted, and experts
agreed, that population trends such as growth, distribution, structure and
momentum, more often aggravated existing trends. The experts welcomed the
Cairo paradigm that improvements in gender relations, empowerment of women,
exercise of individual human rights, and greater male responsibility for the
reproductive health of their partners, and children, are essential for
population stabilization.


30.        Experts acknowledged the role of women's organizations as an
effective force for change throughout the series of global conferences, but
further noted that the evolving concept of gender had gone hand in hand with a
re-evaluation of the way in which women interact with sustainable development
and population. The complex and multiple roles of women as producers and
reproducers and the gender roles to which they are ascribed, make statements
about a homogenous relationship between women and the environment problematic.

31.        Questions were raised in the discussion about the impact of greater
numbers of women at all levels of decision making. One of the consultants had
noted that women as well as men have a vested interest in sustainable
development and that women's empowerment and increased role in decision making
was a necessary prerequisite for the reflection of their productive and
reproductive roles in decisions and for balance between population and
sustainable development.

32.        Experts discussed at length the impact on decisions taken in the
area of population and sustainable development when greater numbers of women
were involved. Experts underlined their commitment to women in decision making
as an issue of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms, justice and
equality. But while they acknowledged evidence from many regions of the world
where women at the local level had an impact on the type of decisions taken at
the local level, they noted that not enough was known about the types of
decisions women take on the basis of their sex, at higher levels.  Experts
underlined that life experience was probably a bigger determinant than sex in
the decisions made by both women and men.

33.        Experts noted that the immediate results of the process of
empowerment of women, within the predominant economic model, may not
necessarily be of immediate benefit to the environment, for example the
transition of women into the cash economy and their participation in
non-traditional agricultural export sectors, and their migration and increased
urbanization. 

34.        These reactions underlined the need to be precise and specific in
discussion of complex and politically charged issues and that generalizations
about women's interests, women's interaction with the environment, the effects
of the globalized economy on women, and causes and results of population
trends were not useful and added to misperceptions of the role of women.

35.        Results were presented from case studies undertaken in peri-urban
and rural communities in Chile, Ecuador and Honduras, respectively, focusing
on women, health and environmental degradation. It was noted that while women
were the first line of defence in protecting the health and well being of
their families and communities, their ability to do so was often diminished by
decisions and causes of degradation that took place outside of the community
or the locality where they were able to impact decisions and the results.  It
was underscored that women could not be seen one- dimensionally as either the
primary victims , or primary saviours, and that in order to develop gender-
sensitive policies and planning women should not be seen as an homogenous
group.

36.        It was also noted that the gender approach allowed the evolving
multiple roles and pressures of women in the community to be viewed in
relation to the evolving roles and pressures on men,  for example, in reaction
to economic pressures on patterns of agriculture and the integration of more
families and households into the cash economy. 
 
37.        Gender roles and the impact of macroeconomic changes on women in
Latin America were discussed focusing on where a gender approach gives a
greater understanding of the impact of these changes on women, particularly
women and children as the majority of the poor. It was noted that the critical
problems for Latin America were the impacts of massive and rapid urbanization,
liberalization of the economy, the feminization of poverty and the
pauperization of women. While the global trend is one of increased economic
growth matched by a drop in the percentage of people living in poverty, even
where the absolute numbers of people living in poverty have increased, in 
Latin America, the percentage of people living in poverty has increased at the
same time as economic growth. The over-emphasis in Latin America, on women as
fetchers of fuel wood and water was decried and a more detailed analysis of
women in urban environments was called for, including of their multiple roles
in the cash and informal economies, and of women's impact on the environment
and the environment's impact on women.

38.        A detailed analysis was presented of the sustainable development
and population trends in Uzbekistan.  The unique situation of women in the
economies in transition was outlined.  There is evidence of an increasing role
for women at local and community levels, but women in Uzbekistan face
declining participation in political decision-making at high levels. 
Population growth and birth rates are high, although there is decreasing
fertility as a result of a perceived decline in living standards and, 
suppressed fertility as a result of fear of the impact of environmental
degradation, particularly  in the Aral Sea region. It was  noted that women
tend to base their personal, economic  and social decisions on the situations
in which they find themselves. 

39.        In the discussion on the evolution from Rio to Cairo to Beijing, it
was noted that there were specific political factors, coupled with
mobilization of different constituencies, in addition to a cumulative
appreciation of complex interlinkages between problems that resulted in the
agreements. Concern was expressed that at the national level the evolving
conceptualization of gender can be confusing for those expected to work in
different areas of development planning and responsible for implementing the
agreements in an integrated and coordinated fashion. It was noted that at the
country level, women and their organizations often provide the sole
institutional and political memory of the change in conceptualization across
the international community and that this reinforces the need for their
partnership in policy-making and programme development.

40.        An analysis in the context of sub-Saharan Africa of the nexus of
gender, poverty, population, and environment was presented, stressing the
centrality of poverty, and the impact of issues such as land tenure systems,
property rights and the lack of recognition of the role of women in natural
resource management and its impact on decision-making about sustainable
development and population. Examples were given of different land tenure
systems throughout the region and it was noted that not enough was known about
their impact on sustainable development and population.

41.        The group noted that in the Africa region, the local manifestations
of global environmental problems and of the impact of a globalized economic
system, particularly structural adjustment programmes, the relationship of
women to the environment as important producers, managers and consumers was a
constant, but that this was tempered by limits to access and control over
resources.

42.        Case studies were presented from Fiji showing sustainable
development practices and some of the Fijian values which made them possible;
such as the role of women in environmental resource management, and of NGOs in
empowerment; the role of local knowledge as an early- warning system and first
line of defence, and instances of leadership decisions by women which have
made a difference. A strong statement of commitment to the intrinsic value of
gender equality and equity was made. Greater support for the efforts of women,
their networks and informal knowledge based research and findings was called
for. The significance of community participation as empowering to the entire
community was underlined. However, it was stressed that home grown approaches
are usually most effective. The issue of women's greater role in
decision-making was considered the key and the question of whether it would
change the decisions was raised.  It was noted that where women were absent
from decision making, decisions were made, for example, to use dynamite in
local commercial fishing, or to install saw mills on the banks of rivers. It
was stressed that such exclusion of women from decision-making is not likely
to lead to a sustainable future.

43.        The background papers and the papers presented by experts served to
bring to the fore important themes that experts agreed to discuss further and
seek consensus in their understanding, before making recommendations. These
themes were: the understanding of gender and its relationship to sustainable
development and population; the interlinkages between global and local
manifestations of crises in sustainable development and population, the
implications for women and men at both levels, and the issue of women in
decision-making for sustainable development and population.

44.        Representatives of  United Nations organizations present made
presentations on their areas of expertise and on the conference implementation
processes with which they were involved as a background and context for the
recommendations to be made.   

45.        The representative from the United Nations Division for Sustainable
Development noted that while the 1992 Rio Conference defined a broad programme
of sustainable development, that is still generally valid, the Cairo and
Beijing Conferences constituted substantial advances in the areas of
population and gender.  To the extent that there are conflicting elements in
the three programmes of action, the results of the latest conferences are
generally taken as superseding the earlier results, and in their
implementation, the three programmes of action are seen to be complementary. 
In light of the substantial overlap in the three programmes of action, the
United Nations has integrated its follow-up activities for the recent
conferences, dividing responsibilities by substantive area rather than by
conference. 

46.        In preparation for the 1997 review of Rio, two issues have been
identified, among others, as possible priority issues for the future work
programme of the Commission on Sustainable Development.  Both the High-level
Advisory Board on Sustainable Development and a report on trends in
sustainable development being prepared by the Secretariat identify energy and
water as critical issues for long-term sustainable development.  The High
level Advisory Board, in particular, examines ways to expand and improve
access to clean water and clean energy on a long-term sustainable basis. 
Considering the particular responsibility of women for these resources in most
developing countries, programmes to provide universal and affordable access
would have major benefits both for women and for sustainable development.

47.        The representative from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA),
noted that the ICPD Programme of Action, emphasized that poverty, gender
inequality, resource use and the environment are so closely linked, that none
can be effectively addressed apart from the others. It further recognized
that, as women are generally the poorest of the poor, eliminating social,
cultural, political and economic discrimination against them is a prerequisite
for eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development. 

48.        UNFPA has found that to promote a healthy environment with a view
to obtaining sustainable development, it is necessary to attend to the rights
and needs of individuals, calling for a strategy that is people-centred, as
well as for a strategy which seeks to establish equality for women and to
protect their human rights.  The representative of UNFPA concluded that
mechanisms and instruments are now in place to translate agreed objectives
into action. What remains is whether there is sustained and sufficient
political will at the international and national levels to make necessary
adjustments, generate new and additional resources and translate international
commitments into concrete policies and action. 

49.        A representative of  the Division on the Advancement of Women (DAW)
focused on the importance of mainstreaming a gender perspective and the need
to translate a concept into practice. The application of a gender perspective
is based on gender analysis which moves beyond a focus on women as an isolated
group, and to the consideration of an issue and its relationship to women and
men.  Such an approach allows that advantages and disadvantages experienced by
either group can be made visible, and foresees the steps to be taken to
address disadvantages with a view to preventing or eliminating and redressing
them.  Failure to be aware of the relevance of gender can lead to an
incomplete assessment of the issue at hand, to the overlooking or
underestimating of problem dimensions.

50.        While a gender perspective is first and foremost an approach
requiring a reconceptualization of the way things are looked at, it involves a
number of practical implications such as:  substantive coordination of all
partners in effort in order to prevent the unnecessary duplication of efforts
and diversion of needed resources, regular exchange of information and
experience among organizations and institutions concerned with common issues,
usage of data disaggregated by sex, a gender impact analysis of the design and
implementation of policies and programmes and monitoring the gender-sensitive
outcomes, especially  in operational activities.

51.        It is also important that each organization and institution
appraise its goals, legal framework, incentive system and institutional
culture, to see whether thee factors facilitate the mainstreaming of a gender
perspective. The monitoring and evaluation of the substantive work and
institutional change relating to mainstreaming a gender perspective should be
built into accountability context with the aim to achieve the synergistic
gender-sensitive policies. The extent to which women are able to participate
and make decisions  should  be considered also as a mean of ensuring 
accountability.

52.        Mainstreaming a gender perspective requires a conscious effort and
a "double" strategy. One has to secure that gender is taken into consideration
in all  activities  on a routine basis  to avoid either marginalization or
invisibility of women.  However, special measures  are also often necessary 
to increase awareness of gender dimension in all areas  and are important
links in the mainstreaming policy. 

53.        The Acting Director of INSTRAW  noted INSTRAW's experience in
research and training on women and environmental issues, primarily water
supply and sanitation, waste management and new and renewable sources of
energy.  She  further noted that environmentally sound and sustainable
development was not only a "trendy" word, but a commitment taken by the entire
international community.  However, a better understanding of the concept and
implications of sustainable development is needed. Much must be done to bring
this concept to concrete reality.  The interrelation between women,
environment and sustainable development encompasses, inter alia, such varied
areas as agriculture, land, water, energy and forestry.  Moreover, it includes
all aspects of women and the environment within the context of socio-economic
development as well as the effects that the global environment has upon their
lives.  Because of this complexity, we are still in the process today of
transforming environment and sustainable development from a general concept
into pragmatic actions at the local, national and international levels.

54.        Despite recommendations from UNCED, current development planning
and projects do not always take into consideration the holistic nature of
human activity and thus ignore women's experience, knowledge, administrative
and managerial skills.  Often development practices have had unexpected side
effects due to the lack of consultation and participation at the local level,
especially by women.   An important issue is to ensure that policy-makers and
planners recognize the medium and long-term economic benefits of including
women in the solution of environmental problems and the eventual achievement
of sustainable development.  In developing countries, where populations are
still expanding, pressure on scarce resources has made it difficult to
improve, living conditions --women in particular, have fallen prey to the
vicious cycle of poverty and ever-decreasing resources.  In developed
countries, where population levels are largely static, prosperity has given
rise to increased consumption and even overconsumption.  Such consumption
levels raise the question of sustainability, especially as a growing
proportion of the world's population aspires to comparable levels of
consumption.

55.        To approach the problems of environmental degradation as a
consequence of increasing population and subsistence requirements alone is to
oversimplify or diagnose the situation incorrectly.  It is population growth
working in conjunction with other factors that is bringing about widespread
environmental deterioration.  Some of these factors include: the widespread
breakdown of traditional systems of resources management; commercialization;
and inequality of access to land and other natural resources and the
fragmentation of holdings.  The Acting Director of INSTRAW also described the
research and training activities that the institute has carried out in the
field of women, environment and sustainable development since 1982, and one of
INSTRAW's staff elaborated briefly on these activities.


                     III.   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

                                  A. Conclusions

Gender

56.        The Experts Group Meeting considered that gender perspectives have
been reflected in an evolving fashion in the international conference process
from Rio to Cairo to Beijing.  The different perceptions of gender reflected
in these conferences was also displayed in the different constituencies that
relate to each conference. Therefore at the outset, without disputing the
concept of gender, or denying the existence of gender-based as well as
sex-based discrimination, it is important to acknowledge these different
perceptions, and show flexible approaches to policy making and programming.

57.        Noting that it had been agreed that gender refers to the socially
constructed roles played by women and men that are ascribed to them on the
basis of their sex, the Meeting also agreed that a gender perspective must
consider equally the roles of both women and men, thereby identifying
similarities and differences. However, in a world where women face widespread
discrimination, gender-sensitive policy-making and programming will, in the
majority of cases, be targeted to the specific needs and circumstances of
women.

58.        The Fourth World Conference on Women examined issues from a gender
perspective in some detail and made recommendations on mainstreaming a gender
perspective. It is important therefore that there be better understanding of
the meaning of gender and its practical implications. 
Relationships between gender, population and sustainable development.

59.        Since the preparations for UNCED, the understanding of the
relationship of gender to sustainable development and population has evolved.
The once common currency of women solely as victims of environmental
degradation, or as saviours of the environment, has given way to a better
understanding of the complexities of the interlinkages between gender roles
and sustainable development and the role of women as actors in relation to
environmental issues.

60.        It was stressed that women are not a homogenous group. Women's
interrelationships with environment vary depending on their social, political,
historical, and economic situations. The analysis of the impacts of
sustainable development should take into account both the reproductive and
productive roles of women and men.

61.        It was agreed that applying a gender perspective as expressed in
Cairo and Beijing provides a framework for better understanding of the
differential impacts and the differentiated policy responses addressing the
needs of women and men in order to achieve greater equality and equity.
However, the lack of a gender perspective has often meant that women and men's
needs have been ignored.  For example, the precautionary principle, if applied
with a gender perspective, will result in different and more timely policy and
programme responses. 3/

Relationship between global and local issues of sustainable development.

62.        It was generally agreed that global issues of sustainable
development, including globalization of the economy,  manifest themselves at
the local level, i.e. global is local. However, while some issues can be
resolved at the local level, with costs and benefits accruing within the
community or locality, for example, water and air pollution, some global
issues cannot. Where the costs may be borne at the local level
disproportionately to the local benefits, there is little incentive for change
in behaviour. In many situations, women may bear the brunt of the costs at the
local level. 

63.        The Expert Group Meeting also generally observed that the
identification of environmental and sustainable development problems at the
community level and the priority attached to them correlates not to sex, but
to the roles of men and women in the community. People's perceptions are based
on their reproductive and productive roles.  Therefore, men are the primary
wood cutters and sometime fuel wood collectors for mostly economic reasons and
women in many countries are the main fuel wood collectors for their families. 
They will both identify scarcity of wood as an environmental issue.

64.        It was noted that not enough is known about the interrelationships
between global and local environmental causes and effects and their gender
impacts.  By examining key areas of interlinkage, the gender impacts at the
local and global levels can be better understood and recommendations,
including changes in decision making, can be made. 

65.        In the fields of water and energy, a gender perspective may lead us
to more holistic responses which empower communities as a whole. While in some
developing country rural situations, women are the primary water resource
managers at the household level, their ability to manage the resources
sustainably is obviated by upstream, or regional decision-making that affects
quality and quantity of water supply. The same can be true for energy sources
such as fuel wood. 
  
Women in decision-making

66.        The Expert Group Meeting called for more women to be in
decision-making positions at all levels, in all spheres of society, as a
matter of rights and justice. The Meeting noted that it has been well
documented, in all regions of the world, that at the local level, because of
the way in which women's productive and reproductive roles link them to the
conditions and resources central to sustainable development, that their
presence in decision making does result in different decisions related to
population and sustainable development. 

67.        The Group noted the relative lack of evidence that due to a lack of
opportunity, increasing numbers of women per se at the national and
international levels will make different decisions for sustainable
development. Rather it is the dynamic interaction between gender and class,
race and ethnicity, and social experience and values, which may determine
decisions made.


68.        While the Group acknowledged that increasing participation of women
in decision-making does alter the style of decision-making, the group also
noted that greater participation of women in decision-making, forming a
critical mass (of at least 30 per cent), at national and international
economic and political fora related to sustainable development and population
may be an important new development and influence on decisions made.

69.        The Group stressed that women and men, when they act on values that
are empathetic to population issues and sustainable development may make a
difference in decisions taken.

70.        The Group also stressed that at the local level, women who are
empowered and in decision-making roles have an important positive influence on
the involvement of other women in decision-making processes. Involving women
in decision-making processes is also related to the feelings of ownership by
women of the processes and of the systems and resources that the decisions
will impact. The Expert Group stressed that participation of women and their
empowerment will bring positive changes in gender relations which will benefit
society. 

71.        Women's role in decision-making is often constrained  by the
predominant patriarchal model of exercise of authority and power and therefore
there is need to develop new gender- sensitive models for exercising power for
the benefit of men and women.

                              B. Recommendations

72.        Follow-up activities to Rio, Cairo and Beijing, both within the
United Nations system (including the Bretton Woods institutions) and at
national level, should be integrated and a gender perspective included to
ensure that both women and men benefit from access to necessary resources for
their participation in a wide range of productive and reproductive activities.

73.        The United Nations policy on mainstreaming a gender perspective
should include a focus on women's rights as human rights, ensuring women's
equal participation in programmes at all levels. Gender mainstreaming should
be given the priority that was attached to it in Beijing and should be
effectively monitored and evaluated. Lessons learned within other institutions
could be incorporated within the United Nations efforts.

74.        The United Nations should undertake a specific analysis of the
ongoing evolution of thinking and implementation of policies coming from the
Rio, Cairo and Beijing conferences as they relate to the nexus of gender,
population and sustainable development. This analysis should expand upon the
findings of this expert group.

75.        The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development should
incorporate mainstreaming a gender perspective in its future work programme,
ensuring that the differential impact on men and women is taken into account.

76.        Relevant UN agencies should increase their data collection,
interpretation and dissemination of information on the practical
implementation of policies and programmes related to gender, population and
sustainable development. For example, success stories in integrating these
issues should be disseminated. The results of specific policy and programme
planning tools which are modified to give greater weight to gender
mainstreaming in population and sustainable development should be more widely
disseminated and evaluated.

77.        In policies and programmes related to sustainable development,
particular attention should be given to understanding gender differences in
local or global environmental impacts. Of equal importance is that the costs
and benefits , including non-monetary measurements, of addressing
environmental problems be disaggregated by gender and assessed at a local and
supra-local level. 

78.        Qualitative and quantitative indicators need to be developed and
used in the measurements of the impacts of gender mainstreaming. 

79.        Given that the empowerment of women is an issue of human rights and
is essential to achieving sustainable and equitable development, and given
critical role played by women's organizations in the move towards more
sustainable development, the United Nations and other multilateral and
bilateral donors should enhance their procedures for support to women's
organizations, in all their diversity. In line with agreements in Rio, Cairo
and Beijing, financial and in kind assistance to women's organizations should
be increased in all areas of empowerment, including support to local women to
relieve their burden of multiple roles.

80.        In line with recommendations and agreements made at the
international level regarding the levels of financial and technical support
necessary to achieve population stabilization and sustainable development, in
the context of individual human rights and the empowerment of women,
governments and international agencies should increase funding and re-assign
budget allocations for gender-sensitive population and sustainable development
programmes.

81.        Development and cooperation agencies should ensure that all
projects incorporate gender mainstreaming as an essential component. The
allocations of resources for gender mainstreaiming should be made from within
budgets for population and sustainable development activities. Separate and
earmarked funds for women's programmes, where they exist, should not bear the
burden of resource allocation for gender mainstreaming.

82.        The international community should assist countries in establishing
and strengthening information databases on the complex dimensions of the
population, sustainable development and gender nexus.

83.        The United Nations system and all levels of government should be
encouraged to develop, together with civil society, programmes to increase
awareness of those working within the media of the new and changing
conceptualization of gender and its interrelationship with population and
sustainable development.

84.        The United Nations system, governments and civil society should
develop campaigns and strategies to ensure greater and better quality coverage
of issues of gender, population and sustainable development. 

85.        Policy-makers and programme managers should be provided with valid
and timely scientific information on the interlinkages of gender, population
and sustainable development. The information should be used to both advance
our knowledge on those interlinkages and to provide concrete mechanisms to
further mainstream gender in population and sustainable development
programmes. This research needs to be multi disciplinary, cross-sectional and
longitudinal in nature and should include an emphasis on the development of
new analytical approaches for capturing and assessing the significance of
gender based differences.

86.        Governments should undertake legal reforms, policy and
administrative reforms to ensure women's equal rights to natural resources,
including access to, ownership and control over land and other forms of
property, credit, inheritance, information and appropriate new technology.
These changes should be accompanied by programmes to promote changes in
traditional and customary practices that discriminate against women.

87.        Governments should establish consultative mechanisms before
planning is undertaken and policy formulated of the national machinery for the
advancement of women by all other sectors of government regarding the
mainstreaming of gender in order to promote equality and equity and to
implement, in an integrated way, the commitments in the United Nations
conferences.

88.        Training and education on issues of population and sustainable
development should be provided to programmes and units within international
institutions, national machineries and NGOs that work on gender.

89.        Training on gender and how to mainstream gender should be provided
to policy- makers and programme staff working on population and sustainable
development. Within the United Nations the technical expertise could be
provided by the Division on the Advancement of Women, UNIFEM and INSTRAW as
well as units within other relevant United Nations bodies.

90.        Educational materials need to be developed to inform policy-makers
and programme managers of the utility of a gender perspective in population
and sustainable development planning.

91.        Sustainable development policies and programmes need to give
greater attention to population factors beyond population growth, including
age structure, distribution, household headship, migration and reproductive
health and behaviour.  In addition, emphasis should also be placed to the
environmental health issues such as certain environmental pollutants that can
effect human reproductive system and children's mental development.

92.        Governments and international agencies should expand research on
the components of reproductive health, as defined in the ICPD Programme of
Action, and their interaction with environmental phenomena. The research
should take gender into account in order to reveal insights useful for a
global understanding of sustainable development.

93.        Since Rio, Cairo and Beijing there is better understanding of the
impact of environmental degradation on the health of men and women, in
particular on their reproductive health and capacity. Intensified research in
this field should be matched by better incorporation of this knowledge into
all areas of population and sustainable development planning.

94.        All strategies for sustainable development should harness local
knowledge. This knowledge should be respected, valued promoted within
research, policy and evaluation and taken into account at all levels of
decision- making.

95.        Advocacy campaigns based on valid and reliable research findings
should be developed in order to help overcome resistance towards innovative
gender mainstreaming in population and sustainable development policies and
programmes.



1/   The paragraph states: "The objective is to raise the quality of life for
all people through appropriate population and development policies and
programmes aimed at achieving poverty eradication, sustained economic growth
in the context of sustainable development and sustainable patterns of
consumption and production, human resource development and the guarantee of
all human rights, including the right to development as a universal and
inalienable right and an integral part of fundamental human rights. 
Particular attention is to be given to the socio-economic improvement of poor
women in developed and developing countries.  As women are generally the
poorest of the poor and at eliminating social, cultural, political and
economic discrimination against women is a prerequisite of eradicating
poverty, promoting sustained economic growth in the context of sustainable
development, ensuring quality family planning and reproductive health
services, and achieving balance between population and available resources and
sustainable patterns of consumption and production."


2/   The paragraph states: "The international community should continue to
promote a supportive economic environment, particularly for developing
countries and countries with economies in transition in their attempt to
eradicate poverty and achieve sustained economic growth in the context of
sustainable development.  In the context of the relevant international
agreements and commitments, efforts should be made to support those countries,
in particular the developing countries, by promoting an open, equitable,
secure non-discriminatory and predictable international trading system; by
promoting foreign direct investment; by reducing the debt burden; by providing
new and additional financial resources from all available funding sources and
mechanisms, including multilateral, bilateral and private sources, including
on concessional and grant terms according to sound and equitable criteria and
indicators; by providing access to technologies; and by ensuring that
structural adjustment programmes are so designed and implemented as to be
responsive to social and environmental concerns."

3/   Principal 15 of the Rio Declaration states "In order to protect the
environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States
according to their capabilities.  Where there are threats of serious or
irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a
reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental
degradation".
                                  ANNEXES

                         I.  LIST OF PARTICIPANTS


                                                Experts


Ms. Gracie M. FONG                    Women and Fisheries Network
                                      Suva, Fiji

Ms.Cecilia KINUTHIA-NJENGA            Women, Environment and Development
                                      Programme Coordinator
                                      Environment Liaison Centre International
                                      P.O. Box 72461
                                      Nairobi, Kenya
                                      Tel: (254-2) 562015
                                      Fax: (254-2) 562175
                                      e-mail:ckinuthia@elci.sasa.unon.org

Ms. Rachel KYTE                       Senior Policy Analyst
                                      International Women's Health Coalition
                                      24 East 21st Street
                                      New York, NY 10010
                                      Tel: (212) 979-8500
                                      Fax: (212) 979-9009 
                                      e-mail:rkyte@igc.apc.org

Ms. Maria ONESTINI                    Co-Director
                                      Centre for Environmental Studies, CEDES
                                      Casilla de Correo 116 Suc. 28
                                      1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina
                                      Tel/Fax:  (54-1) 812-6490
                                      e-mail:rponesti@criba.edu.ar

Mr. Michael J. PAOLISSO               Director, Health and Social Analysis
                                      International Center for Research on
                                      Women
                                      1717 Massachussetts Ave., N.W., 
                                      Suite 302
                                      Washington, DC 20036
                                      Tel: (202) 797-0007;
                                      Fax: (202) 797-0020
                                      e-mail:paolisso@icrw.org


Ms. Flora N. PIRNAZAROVA              Women's Resource Centre
                                      11, A. Kodiry Prosp.
                                      Tashkent 700011
                                      Uzbekistan
                                      Tel: (3712) 418931; home: (3712) 354753
                                      Fax: (3712) 412149; (3712) 354878
                                      e-mail:flora@twrc.silk.org
                                             twrc@silk.glas.apc.org

                                      Consultant

Mr. George MARTINE                    Asesor en Poblaci¢n, Desarrollo
                                      y Medio Ambiente (FAO)
                                      Tomas De Figueroa 2451
                                      Vitacura, Casilla 19036
                                      Santiago, Chile
                                      Tel: 2080656/2066089
                                      Fax: 56-2) 2066105 
                                      e-mail:gmartine@unfpa.org


                         Observers from the United Nations system

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Ms. T.V. LUONG                        Senior Adviser for Environment and
                                      Sanitation
                                      UNICEF
                                      3 United Nations Plaza - TA-26A
                                      New York, NY 10017
                                      Tel: (212) 824-6661
                                      Fax: (212) 824-6480
                                      e-mail:tvluong@unicef.org


United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)

Ms. Guadalupe ESPINOSA                Regional Programme Adviser
                                      UNIFEM Mexico, C.A and the Spanish
                                      Caribbean
                                      Presidente Masaryk, 29-10
                                      Col. Polanco
                                      Mexico City, Mexico
                                      Tel:and Fax: (52 5) 203 1894
                                      e-mail:guadalup@fomex.undp.org


                   Observers from non-governmental organizations

Ms.Catherine OBIANUJU ACHOLONU        LET'S HELP HUMANITARIAN PROJECT
                                      Alvan Ikoku College of Education
                                      PMB 1033
                                      Owerri, Nigeria
                                      Tel: 234 -83-230021, 2311030
                                      Fax: 234-83-231986

Ms. Mar”a Priscila PE„A               PRONATURA
                                      P.O. Box 2956
                                      Santo Domingo, Dom. Rep.
                                      Tel: (809) 687-5878
                                      Fax: (809) 687-5766
                                      e-mail:Pronatura@codetel.net.do

Ms. Maria Cristina NOGUERA            P.O. Box 52344
                                      Santo Domingo, Dom. Rep.
                                      Tel: 562-9085
                                      Fax: 562-9112

                        Observers from Member States and Observer States

THE NETHERLANDS

Ms. Usha S. GOPIE                     Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DGIS)
                                      United Nations Department
                                      Legal and Social Affairs Division
                                      P.O. Box 20061
                                      2500 E.B. The Hague
                                      The Netherlands
                                      Tel: 31-70-3485832
                                      Fax: 31-70-3486167
                                      e-mail:USGopie@min.buza.nl

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Ms. Marina TAVERAS                    Project Specialist
                                      U.S. Agency for International
                                      Development                             

                                      calle Leopoldo Navarro No.12
                                      c/o United States Embassy
                                      Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic       

                                      Tel: (809) 221-1100
                                      Fax: (809) 221-0444
                                      e-mail:mtaveras@usaid.gov

THE HOLY SEE

Ms. Zelided Alma DE RUIZ              Instituto de la Familia
                                      Santo Domingo, Dom. Rep.
                                      Tel: (809) 682-9803
                                      Fax: (809) 688-5897

Ms. Soledad Ar”stegui DE VASALLO      Calle Santo Domingo No. 3, Ens. La Julia
                                      Santo Domingo, Dom. Rep.
                                      Tel: (809) 544-2812 Ext. 142
                                      Fax: (809) 540-2351


                            Meeting co-sponsors

Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), United Nations

Ms. Kristen TIMOTHY                   Deputy Director                  
                                      Division for the Advancement of Women
                                      2 United Nations Plaza - Room 1216
                                      New York, NY 10017
                                      Tel: (212) 963-3104
                                      Fax: (212) 963-3463
                                      e-mail:timothy@un.org

Ms. Natalia ZAKHAROVA                 Social Affairs Officer
                                      2 United Nations Plaza - Room 1246
                                      New York, NY 10017
                                      Tel: (212) 963-8134
                                      Fax: (212) 963-3463
                                      e-mail:Zakharova@un.org

Division for Sustainable Development (DSD), United Nations

Mr. Ralph CHIPMAN                     Senior Sustainable Development Officer
                                      2 United Nations Plaza - Room 2214
                                      New York, NY 10017
                                      Tel: (212) 963-5504
                                      Fax: (212) 963-4260


United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

Ms. Ana ANGARITA-NOGUERA              Technical Officer
                                      Gender, Population and Development
                                      Branch                                  

                                      Technical and Evaluation Division
                                      220 East 42nd Street
                                      New York, NY 10017
                                      Tel: (212) 297-5146   
                                      Fax: (212) 297-5145

United Nations International Training and Research Institute
for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW)

Ms. Martha DUENAS-LOZA                 Acting Director
                                       INSTRAW
                                       Cesar Nicolas Penson 102-A
                                       Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
                                       Tel: (809) 685-2111
                                       Fax: (809) 685-2117
                                       e-mail: instraw.hq.sd@codetel.net.do

Ms. Corazon NARVAEZ                    Associate Social Affairs Officer
                                       Cesar Nicolas Penson 102-A
                                       Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
                                       Tel: (809) 685-2111
                                       Fax: (809) 685-2117
                                       e-mail:instraw.hq.sd@codetel.net.do

Ms. Julia TAVARES                      Associate Social Affairs Officer
                                       Cesar Nicolas Penson 102-A
                                       Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
                                       Tel: (809) 685-2111
                                       Fax: (809) 685-2117
                                       e-mail: instraw.hq.sd@codetel.net.do




                        II.  LIST OF DOCUMENTS

                             Information papers

EGM/WPSD/1996/INF.1          Information Note for Participants

EGM/WPSD/1996/INF.2          Agenda

EGM/WPSD/1996/INF.3          List of Participants

EGM/WPSD/1996/INF.4          List of Documents

                             Consultants' papers

EGM/WPSD/1996/CP.1           Women, Sustainable Development and Decision
Making                       Prepared by: Nata Duvvury

EGM/WPSD/1996/CP.2           Gender, Population and Sustainability: Critical
                             Problems and Unresolved Issues
                             Prepared by: George Martine and Marcela Villareal

                             Experts' papers

EGM/WPSD/1996/EP.            Gender, Environment and Socio-Environmental 
                             Crisis in Latin America
                             Prepared by: Maria Onestini                      

   
EGM/WPSD/1996/EP.2           Women's Status, Environment and Sustainable
                             Development in Uzbekistan
                             Prepared by:  Flora Pirnazarova

EGM/WPSD/1996/EP.3           Women's Responses to Environment Degradation:
                             Poverty and Demographic Constraints - Case
                             Studies from Latin America
                             Prepared by:  Michael Paolisso

EGM/WPSD/1996/EP.4           Gender, Population and Sustainable Development:
                             Some Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa
                             Prepared by:  Cecilia Kinuthia-Njenga

EGM/WPSD/1996/EP.5           Rio, Cairo and Beijing: A Political Analysis
                             of Women, Population and Sustainable Development
                             Prepared by:  Rachel Kyte                   

EGM/WPSD/1996/EP.6           Some Examples from Fiji of Successful Ways 
                             and Means of Addressing Issues Related to Women,
                             Population and Sustainable Development
                             Prepared by:  Gracie Fong
                      
                             Observer paper

EGM/WPSD/1996/OP.1           African Women in Environmental Development:
                             IMO/ABIA States of Nigeria as Case Studies
                             Prepared by: Catherine Obianuju Acholonu

                             Reference papers

Aide Memoire

Platform for Action and the Beijing Declaration. UN, Department of Public
Information, New York.  United Nations. 1996.

Agenda 21: An easy reference to the specific recommendations on women, UNIFEM
Publication.


Population and Development Programme of Action adopted at the International
Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.  United
Nations. 1996. ST.ESA.SER.A/149, Sales No. E.95.XIII.7.



                          III.  AGENDA AND ORGANIZATION OF WORK

Monday, 18 November 1996

Morning session

1. Opening and introductory statements

           Ms. Martha Duenas-Loza, Acting Director
           United Nations International and Research Institute
           for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW)

           Ms. Kristen Timothy, Deputy Director
           Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW)

           Mr. Ralph Chipman, Senior Sustainable Development Officer
           Division for Sustainable Development (DSD)

           Ms. Ana Angarita-Noguera, Technical Officer
           United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

2.  Election of officers

3.  Adoption of the agenda

4.  Presentation of consultants background papers and discussion

           George Martine   -   Gender, Population and Sustainability: 
                                Critical Problems and Unresolved Issues

           Nata Duvvury     -   Women, Sustainable Development and Decision
                                Making
                                (Presented by Ms. Timothy, DAW in the absence
                                 of Ms. Duvvury)

Afternoon session

5.  Presentations by experts and discussion

A.         Conceptual and methodological aspects of crucial links between
population and sustainable development from a gender perspective with emphasis
on women's role in decision-making at all levels.

           Maria Onestini   -   Gender, Environment and Socio-Environmental
                                Crisis in Latin America

           Michael Paolisso -   Women's Responses to Environment Degradation: 
                                Poverty and Demographic Constraints - Case
                                Studies from Latin America

           Flora Pirnazarova -  Women's Status, Environment and Sustainable
                                Development in Uzbekistan

           Rachel Kyte      -   Rio, Cairo and Beijing: A Political Analysis
                                of Women, Population and Sustainable
                                Development

Tuesday, 19 November 1996

Morning session

A.         Conceptual and methodological aspects of crucial links between
population and sustainable development from a gender perspective with emphasis
on women's role in decision-making at all levels (continued).

           Cecilia Kinuthia-Njenga - Gender, Population and Sustainable
                                     Development: 
                                     Some Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa

           Gracie Fong             - Some Examples from Fiji of Successful
                                     Ways and Means of Addressing Issues
                                     Related to Women, Population and
                                     Sustainable Development


Afternoon session

6.  Presentations by representatives of UN entities, and discussion

B.         Policy perspectives on implementation of recommendations from Rio,
Cairo and Beijing on women, population and sustainable development

           Ralph Chipman (DSD)     - Rio Conference and 1997 review of the
                                     implementation of Agenda 21
           
           Ana Angarita-Noguera    - Policy perspective on implementation of
                (UNFPA)              the Cairo programme for action

           Natalia Zakharova       - Mainstreaming a gender perspective into
                (DAW)                policies and programmes on sustainable
                                     development: Beijing perspective

           Martha Duenas-Loza      - Research and training on sustainable
                                     development


Wednesday, 20 November 1996

Morning session

7.  Discussion and elaboration of recommendations

C.         Framework for a gender-sensitive integrated approach to the
implementation of recommendations of Rio, Cairo and Beijing on women,
population and sustainable development: concepts; levels and types of
interventions; priorities and cost and benefits.

Afternoon session

C.         Discussion


Thursday, 21 November 1996

Morning session

C.         Framework for a gender-sensitive integrated approach to the
implementation of recommendations of Rio, Cairo and Beijing on women,
population and sustainable development: concepts; levels and types of
interventions; priorities and cost and benefits.  (continued)

Afternoon session

C.         Discussion (continued)

Friday, 22 November 1996

Morning session

8.  Adoption of report

Afternoon session

Closing


    	

 


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