EGM/EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/REP.1 10 December 1996 United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women Expert Group Meeting on Women and Economic Decision-Making in International Financial Institutions and Transnational Corporations Simmons College, Graduate School of Management Boston, Massachusetts 11 - 15 November 1996 Expert Group Meeting on Women and Economic Decision-Making in International Financial Institutions and Transnational Corporations Simmons College Graduate School of Management Boston, Massachussetts 11 - 15 November 1996 REPORT Division for the Advancement of Women Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development 2 United Nations Plaza, DC2-12th floor New York, N.Y. 10017, USA Fax: (212) 963-3463 Web location: http://www.un.org/dpscd/daw E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org CONTENTS Paragraphs Introduction A. Strategic approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13 B. Opening statements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-46 Part One I. ORGANIZATION OF WORK A. Attendance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-48 B. Election of officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 C. Adoption of agenda and programme of work . . . . . . . . . .50 D. Working groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Part Two II. SUMMARY OF GENERAL DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-64 III. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65-66 B. Transnational corporations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67-71 C. International financial institutions . . . . . . . . . . 72-76 D. Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77-81 E. United Nations system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82-84 F. Non-governmental organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85-88 IV. NEXT STEPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Annexes Pages I. List of participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27-32 II. List of documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33-34 INTRODUCTION 1. In the Beijing Declaration, the governments participating in the Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) reaffirmed their commitment to the equal rights and inherent dignity of women and men. They further noted that women's empowerment and their full participation on the basis of equality in the decision-making process were fundamental for the achievement of equality, development and peace. 2. Implementation of the Platform for Action (PFA) required commitment from governments and the international community. The governments represented at the FWCW committed themselves to take all necessary measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and the girl child, and remove all obstacles to gender equality and the advancement and empowerment of women. 3. The Mission Statement of the Platform for Action noted that a transformed partnership based on equality between women and men is a condition for people-centered sustainable development. It further emphasized that women shared common concerns that can be addressed only by working together and in partnership with men towards the common goal of gender equality. In addition, it recognized that some women face particular barriers to their empowerment. 4. The success of the PFA requires the strong commitment of governments and international organizations at all levels. Therefore, the Expert Group Meeting on Women and Economic Decision-making in International Financial Institutions and Transnational Corporations focused its attention on the specific roles the various actors in the empowerment process of women in decision-making could play; and developed specific recommendations on the actions they should take. These actions were related to transnational corporations (TNCs), international financial institutions (IFIs), organizations, funds, programmes, and agencies of the United Nations system, governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). These actors, given their interdependence, need to cooperate in a constantly changing environment. 5. The Expert Group reaffirmed that the PFA could only be achieved by a true partnership between men and women. Therefore, the recommendations contained in this paper assumed such a partnership. They further assumed that recommendations which would benefit women would also have a positive impact on men and society as a whole. The Expert Group also noted the positive role which the media could and should play in facilitating the successful implementation of these recommendations. 6. A major focus of this Expert Group was on section F of the PFA, women and the economy. Although the recommendations addressed various strategic objectives in this section, the major focus was on the fifth strategic objective, namely to eliminate occupational segregation and all forms of employment discrimination. In particular, the Expert Group developed recommendations based on paragraph 178g (eliminate occupational segregation, especially by promoting the equal participation of women in highly skilled jobs and senior management) and directed to actors specified in chapter 5, section C of the Platform for Action. 7. The Expert Group Meeting also noted section G of the PFA, on women in power and decision-making, in particular, the structural and attitudinal barriers in paragraph 186 of the PFA which were considered in developing its recommendations. 8. With respect to IFIs, the Expert Group considered relevant sections of chapter 5 of the PFA concerning institutional arrangements. In this regard, paragraph 342 concerning "Other international institutions and organizations" was also noted. A. Strategic approach 9. There is ample evidence that increasing the representation of women in decision making is the smart thing to do, not just the right thing. For corporations, exclusion of women from decision-making translates into costs and losses; costs of staff turnover and loss of talent; loss of real and potential market share due to overlooking the needs of major consumer bases; loss of shareholder value, associated with insensitivity and poor track records on diversity issues. It translates into loss of some of half the potential in the talent pool if companies are not seen by women as attractive employers. 10. International organizations know that development must be sustainable to rationalize shrinking resources and have a lasting impact. This knowledge coupled with a changing portfolio generates needs for new approaches, including expanded consultative processes in project design and implementation, and greater attention to social dimensions of projects and capacity-building. To develop these approaches, TNCs and IFIs, as well as other actors, need to include the most qualified staff --women and men-- in decision-making, to increase the diversity of views, to better reflect the composition of the client population, and to demonstrate through their own staffing practices that they are committed to the advancement of women. 11. Women have made significant progress in terms of education, participation in economic activity and social status. However, they have a long way to go as far as advancement to top decision-making positions is concerned. They must assume responsibility for their own advancement but their ability to do this will be enhanced where governments and employers create enabling environments. 12. The full and sustainable empowerment of women requires that a critical mass of women be represented at all levels in the decision-making process in national private and public enterprises, IFIs, TNCs, Governments, United Nations system, and NGOs. This is essential to ensure that institutional barriers to the advancement of women are eliminated and that a continuous pool of qualified women is available for future advancement. The importance of this was underscored by the PFA. Critical mass, which is defined as at least one third representation of women, provides a support level which can mitigate perceived tokenism and a sense of isolation from a lower percentage of representation. 13. To achieve this strategic approach requires the commitment and action of local, national and international bodies. The successful organizations of the future will reflect the diversity of the nations they represent and in which they operate. They will challenge the myths and stereotypes which have in the past prevented women from achieving their full potential and rightful place in the economic development of nations. B. Opening statements 14. In her opening statement, Ms. Angela E.V. King, Director of the Division for the Advancement of Women, welcomed the experts and other participants and expressed her appreciation to the Dean and staff of Simmons College, Graduate School of Management for hosting the Meeting. This was the first such meeting that brought together experts to focus on women managers in international financial institutions and transnational corporations. She stressed that recent global trends having an impact on women include structural adjustment policies particularly in the developing countries; the rapid evolution in information technology creating instant access to a wide spectrum of information and opening doors for women to play a leading role in information and advocacy; growing economic interdependence and globalization of markets and production; and finally, the growing feminization of the labour market but also of poverty. 15. The Beijing Conference gave a sense that something was very wrong in terms of women's access to top level positions of very influential institutions and organizations. Their representation was almost negligible. Recent surveys show that in 1995, 95 per cent of all top management posts were still held by men in the United States of America. A recent census of women at the top in the United States Fortune 500 companies indicated that only 2 per cent of the highly paid positions and 10 per cent of corporate officer posts were held by women. She pointed out that the discrepancy was all the more striking as there have been significant gains at the levels immediately below top level management, i.e. there are current sizable numbers of women "in the pipeline" based on their access to tertiary education and their increasing representation in fields such as law, business and management. Failure to achieve equal representation in top management could not be blamed on the supply side of the equation. 16. Ms. King noted that despite the 20 years that have elapsed since the Mexico Conference on Women, there are still only eight women among the 185 permanent representatives to the United Nations (UN), and only five women heads of UN agencies. Women are seldom heads of delegations in the economic and financial committees. For example in the UN General Assembly Second Committee, which deals with economic and financial questions, the share of women heads of delegations has only moved from 3.6 per cent to 13.0 per cent over 20 years. In the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the number of women heads of delegations has remained at one over the same period. 17. She hoped that the meeting would look at strategies to ensure that the numbers of women increase and the comparative advantages of women's managerial styles will be recognized and adopted by mainstream management. In this regard, it would be useful to explore whether women who make it in these organizations have made a difference, and whether this difference is reflected in different policies and work environments, compared to policies, corporate culture and managerial styles in male dominated workplaces. The recommendations from this meeting, which she hoped would be practical and go beyond the many proposals in the Beijing Platform for Action, will be presented to the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women in March 1997. 18. In welcoming participants to the meeting Dr. Anne Jardim, Dean of the Graduate School of Management, Simmons College, recalled both the growth that has taken place in the scale of intergovernmental bodies (e.g. the United Nations doubled its national representation in 30 years). She also described the learning that is to be gained from the past. Simmons College was itself born out of the difficulties of individual women who were admitted as a small minority to the Harvard Business School. Their experience encouraged the foundation of this centre specifically to provide a management education for women. This was an entrepreneurial act, bold in concept and in risk-taking with modest start up finance. Since then growth has been financed by the alumnae, an achievement for the School and for the women themselves since it is a measure of their career success. 19. Emphasizing the need to move beyond established ways of thinking, Dr. Jardim advocated that we equip women by helping them to look at issues of both leadership and "followership" as they go into corporations where there were centuries of practices built on men's experience and values. 20. Ms. Padma Mallampally, Chief, Investment-related Development Issues Section, UNCTAD, built on her previously circulated paper by reminding the meeting that in today's economic environment, characterized by globalization of economic activity and the liberalization of international transactions of all kinds, TNCs became more important as economic actors. Although their direct quantitative impact on employment world-wide was relatively modest, they were employing increasing numbers of people in developing countries. There was, moreover, some evidence that they often provided employment of higher quality, (in terms of wages and conditions of work) than domestic firms in developing host countries. In their effort to maintain competitiveness, TNCs were increasingly pursuing strategies that were efficiency-seeking -- not only market-seeking or resource-seeking. Their strategies were directed not only towards acquiring and servicing national markets, or exploiting primary resources (including low-cost labour), but at organizing their operations in such a manner that production activities or functions located in different countries or sites contributed the most towards corporate objectives, with sales often taking place in regional or global markets rather than the national markets where the parent or affiliates were located. 21. Ms. Mallampally said that the behaviour of TNCs with respect to the advancement of women to senior decision-making positions was likely to be similar to that of other firms or profit-seeking organizations. There were, however, some reasons for expecting that they could have a specific role to play in the area of women's advancement in economic decision-making. Because of their greater focus on competitiveness, TNCs might be more likely than others to recruit and promote on merit. Moreover, while they spaned different countries and regions with different cultures and business practices, their globally organized nature might enable them to remain free of, or less influenced by local cultural constraints. This offered greater flexibility in recruiting and promoting women and in transferring best practices from one location to another. In addition, TNCs were increasingly characterized by network structures in their human resource management, and such structures were held to be more hospitable to women. These factors could work to facilitate and accelerate women's advancement towards decision-making positions within TNCs in home as well as host countries, including developing countries. This could, in turn, affect the practices of other firms linked to them as suppliers or buyers, and also act as a catalyst for change on a broader scale. 22. Information was lacking as to what extent the opportunities and positions at the senior level generally accorded by TNCs to women corresponded to these expectations. Information on individual TNCs showed that a number of them had instituted policies and implemented measures for advancing women to higher positions within their corporate systems. Policies adopted and actions implemented at the national level were clearly important in creating an enabling framework that motivates and facilitates enterprises, including TNCs, taking measures to promote women's entry into and presence in decision-making positions. At the international level, existing frameworks dealing with foreign direct investment and TNCs did not specifically incorporate the issue of women's advancement in management or other decision-making areas, but allowed broad scope for application of the standards that host or home countries considered appropriate. Public and private sector cooperation, both in and between countries, in drawing-up guidelines or an agenda for the advancement of women in private enterprises, including TNCs, would be an important step forward. 23. Dr. Ariane Berthoin Antal, the United Nations consultant, referred to her paper saying that women in management was a comparatively recent topic for research, therefore information was weak. It was difficult to make comparisons across the world. Where there were numerical measures of representation, these were often of questionable value as the data were not comparable. Nevertheless the premise that increased numbers of women in the labour force will lead to their higher representation in management was supported by data from the International Labour Organization (ILO). This shows that, over seven years, there had been a doubling of the proportion of women in management. In some cases, e.g. Japan, this was from a very low base, i.e. from 4 per cent to 8 per cent. Trends showed as well that the investment in education was also paying off for women. However, in a number of countries, although women were more committed to a career and better educated, they did not generally get above middle management anywhere in the world. 24. One recent European-wide study on barriers specifically related to women in the banking sector showed that the obstacles women experienced change as they move up the career ladder. While at entry level women said that the most important barriers were related to family issues, as they moved up they experienced hurdles related to hidden processes in which promotion decisions were embedded. By the time women achieve senior or top management posts, 76 per cent said "traditional male" values were a barrier. The study found that this holds true across Europe including Scandinavia where there was a perception that there was stronger societal commitment to equality. Family/work balance issues continued to be cited and the lack of sufficient contacts with senior people emerged as a significant factor. At these higher levels, information about promotion processes were also a barrier. The study found that women and men often had different career paths. First, women tended to specialize rather than going into general management, which meant they were not seen to bring the broad experience needed for senior management. Secondly, the decision- making processes and criteria for senior management positions tended to become less formalized and rational. 25. Dr. Antal went on to say that, although there were no in-depth research studies about TNCs, she agreed that they set agendas by requiring local countries to adhere to home practices and as a result might create opportunities for local women. She cautioned however that when headquarters switch priorities too fast the change does not become embedded at the local level. TNCs could also increase the proportion of women in senior management by providing international assignments although research showed they were still often reluctant to do this. Dr. Antal said that in order to design effective change processes to grapple with cultural barriers to women in management, it was useful to learn from what worked in other change situations: þ Shared vision and concretely formulated targets - build these together; þ Sense of urgency and cost of not changing-should be spelled out; þ Ownership - use process to involve men as well as women; þ Commitment from power holders and role modelling; þ Investment in training - men as well as women; þ Value and build on past strengths - recognition helps with buy in; þ Monitoring and adjustment - what is not measured will not get done; þ Celebrating success - recognize steps along the way. 26. In concluding, Dr. Antal proposed that the meeting should build a mix of different approaches to tackle individual, organizational, societal and cultural issues simultaneously, recognizing that there was no one best way. The Meeting should aim to excite people with a challenging vision and to seek ways to engage and involve men's thoughts and ideas in bringing about change. The Meeting should propose mandatory action to establish a baseline but also voluntary action to allow for experimentation. Goals should be clearly measurable. Finally, diversity must be respected given that situations differed by country and by people. 27. In her opening statement Ms. Sununta Siengthai said that there had been a history of women in Thailand working alongside men but previously women were not educated to the same level. Some industries, e.g. textiles and electronics, employed many women but very few reached the top and companies were not prepared for women to participate in decision-making. 28. In Thailand, there were few financial TNCs but many other TNCs. However, they tended to send their headquarters personnel to Thailand rather than appoint locally. There were some national differences in that TNCs from the United States of America tended to localize appointments earlier than those from Japan. When such companies localized, then there was active competition for women and men to gain appointments. However, long held societal attitudes to women's education meant that there were few women managers. Only seven years of education was compulsory but girls now stayed on at secondary school; in 1990 they outnumbered boys. Recently women had begun to close the gap at the university level also and there was evidence that more women than men went into business education at the undergraduate level. Currently, those numbers diminished dramatically at the graduate level. 29. Historically, men had advantages related to seniority as they maintained loyalty to their own cohort. At top management levels, stereotypical views of women lead women to doubt their ability to combine traditional and executive roles. Women, while believing they were capable nevertheless, often internalized the popular stereotype. 30. Ms. Siengthai found support for the belief that women managers better understood the needs of women employees but no information was available on whether this was related to business performance. 31. Ms. Valerie Hammond introduced her paper and outlined the UK Campaign Opportunity 2000 which aimed to increase the quality and quantity of women's participation in the workforce, with an emphasis on business issues and focus. After less than five years Campaign members, who employed more than 25 per cent of the total United Kingdom workforce, showed an improved situation with regard to the numbers of women in management in advance of that achieved by non-members. For example, the proportion of women corporate Board Directors in member companies had risen from 5 per cent to 11.2 per cent. Among United Kingdom companies as a whole comparative figures showed a rise from 2.8 per cent to 3.3 per cent over the same period. 32. Norms had been established for the number and range of policies and practices which a 'woman friendly' employer typically offerred. Experience showed that the situation had improved for men too as policies introduced to benefit career women were quickly extended to all women and then all employees. The Campaign had generated an enormous amount of information about practices, costs and benefits, and the development of a convincing case for women's development. 33. A significant factor in the development and operation of the Campaign was the active involvement of Board level champions, mostly men, from the outset. This enabled the Campaign to use men's networking power to win support for women's development on boardroom agendas. The strong emphasis on identifying specific convincing cases for women's development had "sold" the campaign into private and public sector organizations of all kinds. 34. Opportunity 2000 was based on research which drew on learning from studies of organization culture change and required simultaneous attention to four different streams of activity relating to demonstrating commitment, changing behaviour, building shared ownership, and making the investment. The Campaign worked with three target audiences: the Board with a nominated representative often the Chair or Chief Executive Officer (CEO) who took an active, high profile role; senior human resource people with a nominated Opportunity 2000 manager; and, finally with line managers. Members were required to set their own goals and action plans and to put into place systems to measure progress. The Campaign had won the support of the media and members agree to give access to their goals, statements and progress. This unfettered access exerted a continuing and useful pressure. 35. Despite the success of Opportunity 2000 Ms. Hammond said many challenges remained in the United Kingdom. Young women were still unprepared for the organizational environment. There was significant work to do to ensure that black and Asian women have equal access. Stress was not officially on the organizational agenda but it was something that was discussed all the time and impacted strongly on women. In terms of critical mass, progress occurred where there were clusters of women or where there was a critical mass of like-minded people, i.e. involving men. Intriguingly, there was a high proportion of immigrant women - from North America, South Africa, New Zealand or Australia - among those in top jobs. However, learning from the United Kingdom experience was that high level decision makers in the corporate world and public sector would buy into a strategic approach to women's development. 36. Turning to the situation in South Africa, Ms. Dawn Mokhobo asked the meeting to remember that the political situation in South Africa which influenced action stemmed from a divided society. She reminded members of President Mandela's address in May 1994 when he stated "Freedom cannot be achieved unless women have been emancipated from all forms of oppression". 37. Women were part of the passion for reconstruction and development to build the country. Women are 25 per cent of Parliament and 17.7 per cent of the Senate, but they remained oppressed because behaviours and social practices remained unchanged. Women were therefore in leadership but had to quickly learn their role without any formal channels of support. Women had got there through their contribution to past struggles for political rights in the face of pass laws and a violent society. Most black women were caught between gender and race with little current attention to gender. This had the effect of dividing black and white women. NGOs kept gender on the agenda but white women maintained a low profile and black women were reluctant to join old structures. The Commission for Gender Equality was in place, aiming for broad representation, but corporate women were reluctant to serve on this Commission. The Office for the Status of Women was strategically placed in the President's Office. 38. Women were more likely to be employed as casuals with very small proportions in the professions, e.g. 1.5 per cent of engineers were women, 6.7 per cent of architects, 14 per cent of doctors, and 19 per cent of lawyers. Only 41 women held executive posts in the top 100 companies in South Africa. It was vital to get women into education and off the poverty line and to avoid demoralizing women by grand plans which, at this stage, were beyond their reach. On the other hand, women were primary consumers in South Africa and companies were missing out on this motivation. 39. It was difficult to build support amongst people at the top of organizations (largely white men) since they too felt threatened by diminishing prospects and were unable to share or support these issues. At the same time trade unions played a significant role in corporate South Africa in that, by law, there were regular monthly meetings with management and they had considerable influence on human resource practices. However, black trade unions and management associations currently focused on race, rather than gender. 40. At present the workplace environment was limiting to women; they were not welcome in many companies; they felt disempowered and reluctant to push for crŠches, etc., with the result that there were few women in the pipeline for management and those women in the corporations were leaving. In the past women developed resourceful ways of coping with a lack of funds, e.g. Stokvel system where they paid small amounts regularly as a saving programme. It seemed that women had exchanged a past adversary for a new one. In coming to a solution it was important that black and white women found ways to work together. 41. Ms. Apollonia Kerenge described the situation more generally for women in Sub-Saharan Africa. During the last decade, African governments had slowly started to see the political and socio-economic participation of women as a key factor and catalyst in the processes and linkages that engendered and encouraged equality, health and development of peace for accelerated advancement of women as well as for the continent's economic and social political development. However only modest progress had been made. The situation was reiterated in the African platform of action that women's inherent knowledge, talent, organizational and managerial abilities had not been fully recognized as attributes for their active participation in politics and decision-making processes. 42. Studies in corporations showed that, compared to men, the pool of highly qualified women was more limited. This was linked to the limited access to education by girls in most Sub-Saharan nations. Where women had achieved management posts, they had proved effective despite existing stereotypes based on culture and traditions. Institutions and agencies including the Eastern and Southern African Management Institute (ESAMI), the International Labour Organization (ILO), Economic Development Institute of the World Bank (EDI), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) had contributed to this situation through training programmes for women managers. This had proved beneficial in terms of formal training, but geography inhibited informal learning possibilities, e.g. physical networking was not viable economically; post services were problematic; telecommunications were unreliable. 43. It was a concern that recruitment and promotion decisions were sometimes based on subjective judgments in the absence of clear, objective criteria. In those circumstances it was understandable that women sometimes lacked self-confidence. One response was to mainstream gender awareness by including it in general management programmes and training women themselves to overcome their own barriers. 44. The prime need was to find ways of institutionalizing gender within corporations and to encourage women in leadership and decision-making roles to also take a more active role in the development of other women. 45. Ms. Meg Armstrong focused strongly on the need to find ways to illustrate quickly the cost to organizations of not developing women. She offered models showing the cost in graphic terms emphasizing that while family friendly type initiatives might assist at entry level, they did not, of themselves, propel women to the top jobs. She recommended instead arguments relating to the cost of turnover at middle management level, underutilized human assets, reduced motivation stemming from a demotivating climate, recruiting advantage and an enhanced corporate image. 46. To get to the top, Ms. Armstrong said women needed: line experience in key appointments early in their career, a broad range of relationships, the presence of mentors and sponsors and a knowledge of written and unwritten rules at every level. Men must be involved as well as women who were already in senior roles. Curricula about leadership and development as well as peer to peer relationships were important. Networks and associations played an important role in providing contacts and learning and, sometimes, in facilitating top level business-to-business links for women as they interfaced with men. Part One I. ORGANIZATION OF WORK A. Attendance 47. The Expert Group Meeting on "Women and Economic Decision-Making in International Financial Institutions and Transnational Corporations" was held at the Simmons College, Graduate School of Management, Boston, Massachusetts, from 11 to 15 November 1996. It was organized by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DAW/DPCSD) in cooperation with the Simmons College, Graduate School of Management. 48. The Meeting was attended by 27 participants, including five experts and 16 observers; staff members of the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women; the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); the World Bank; the International Monetary Fund (IMF); representatives from regional financial institutions, private corporations, non-governmental organizations, and participants from civil society. B. Election of officers 49. At the first plenary session on 11 November 1996, the Meeting elected the following officers to the Bureau: Chairperson: Ms. Dawn Mokhobo Rapporteur: Ms. Valerie Hammond. C. Adoption of the agenda and programme of work 50. At its plenary session on 11 November 1996, the Meeting adopted the agenda and programme of work as follows: - Opening of the meeting - Election of officers - Introduction to purpose of the meeting, as well as to rules and procedures followed in Expert Group Meetings - Adoption of the agenda - Introduction to the themes of the meeting - Presentation of papers by the consultant and experts: 1. General assessment of the situation and main constraints to women's equal access to top decision-making positions in regional and international organizations 2. Case studies: South Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States of America - General debate - Discussion in informal groups - Completion of draft report - Adoption of report of the Expert Group Meeting - Closing of the meeting D. Working groups 51. Discussion groups and working groups worked from 11 to 14 November and focused on the following issues. Each group arranged its own working procedures: Discussion Groups: þ Developing a convincing case for women's participation in top decision-making positions in regional and international economic organizations; þ Strategies and policies needed to improve women's individual performance; þ Approach to be adopted to get and sustain commitment to advancing women to decision-making positions in transnational corporations and international financial institutions. Working Groups: þ Working Group 1: Strategies to be adopted by international financial institutions. þ Working Group 2: Strategies to be adopted by transnational corporations; Strategies to be adopted by non-governmental organizations. þ Working Group 3: Strategies to be adopted by Governments; Strategies to be adopted by the United Nations system. Part Two II. SUMMARY OF GENERAL DISCUSSION 52. The discussion based on the opening statements was wide-ranging and covered the needs of the different players involved in the issue of women in economic decision-making as well as the issues for women in general. These players included transnational corporations (TNCs) and international financial institutions (IFIs), Governments, United Nations Agencies and Trade Unions as well as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and individual women and men. 53. TNCs and IFIs faced specific challenges and opportunities by the nature of their work. In organizations where no one national culture predominated, it was often more difficult to identify the cultural norms by which decisions were made. In other situations, the home base might dictate the approach to women's development. Members were concerned about the possible tendency for organizations to regress where standards differed between the local and home base. 54. Points raised in the discussion of IFIs highlighted ways in which they were unique, as well as ways in which they shared the situation of TNCs. IFIs were unique in that they were not subject to legislative mandates (e.g., equal opportunity legislation) in countries where they were headquartered, or accountable to any external governing body; as multicultural organizations, they had strong organizational cultures defined by technical as well as cultural identities; ownership by member countries created the need to balance multiple national concerns and to operate by consensus. Even within the IFI community, there were variations in structural and operating procedures. On the other hand, the same biases and similar administrative systems existed in IFIs and TNCs, and each could learn from the other in developing effective tools and strategies. For example, it was noted that IFIs and private corporations both had used social and gender impact statements, modelled on environmental statements as tools for assessing gender dimensions of initiatives and projects. It was noted that all the IFIs which attended at the Meeting had made progress in increasing the participation of women at all levels, but that in management and senior positions, they were still severely under-represented. 55. Participants considered the business arena in which the actors operated, thinking more broadly about the role of institutional investors and the media, particularly about how poor performance on social and environmental issues was increasingly and speedily reflected in the bottom line. 56. A priority need was for accurate comparative work force data and participants discussed the need for Governments and other agencies to put in place the machinery to collect and monitor data and to ensure that they used influence and followed best practices by themselves reflecting the proper representation of women. 57. Recognizing the role of the trade unions, the meeting also called for unions to ensure the full participation of women at all levels, in particular at the senior levels of management in trade unions. In meeting the future challenge of governance, trade unions should ensure that their organizations were supportive and sensitive to the empowerment of women as full and equal partners. 58. Discussion on the role of NGOs recognized that these have an essential role to play, particularly in linking the different actors. Understanding that in some parts of the world there was a sensitivity about pre-existing structures, an additional responsibility for NGOs could be to underpin the creation of new networks. 59. What would be the appropriate action to be taken by women and by men as individuals and as groups formed an important element of the discussions. Thinking first of women, a priority was the need to build solidarity between women, women of all races, throughout the world. The meeting acknowledged the lack of hard evidence and discussed the need for research on matters including women in international leadership, the skills and styles they brought to the job and the different ways in which they contributed to the bottom line. Members reviewed the training and development needs of women, particularly how they could be prepared and supported as they achieved the most senior roles. The tendency for persistent undermining action of women who had broken through to senior, public roles was examined and suggestions made on how to overcome such negativity. Ways of raising women's awareness of informal mechanisms and political skills were discussed since these became more important at senior levels. Turning to men, members discussed the desirability of understanding the concerns of men, especially in those situations where their own roles were not secure. On the other hand, men could be powerful advocates in favour of women in top management, especially in influencing other men. 60. Reviewing selection and recruitment processes, participants explored the ways these impact on women, particularly where these were covert. In some parts of the world it seemed that where criteria were explicit, they might discriminate against women , for example by stressing international education when few women had access to overseas travel. At the same time, participants discussed the difficulty of recruitment announcements reaching all relevant women. They saw the value of bringing women into senior positions from outside the organization but felt that this should only be a short-term solution. In particular, they discussed the need for more, and different, women on the Boards of TNCs and IFIs and in public life and private sector generally. 61. Turning to career development and to training more generally, experts/participants discussed the means of meeting the needs for women to compete more effectively for senior roles. Discussion ranged over the potential for exchanges, internships, study assignments to build experience as well as formal and informal mentoring systems. The group challenged the notion of one right route to the top noting the range of different experiences that were increasingly valued today, especially in view of the way organizations were themselves changing. Sources of powerful role models for women in leadership were identified including those beyond the conventional world of business. The meeting thought it useful to teach women early about the role of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and to use women-only training where this would be helpful. Gender sensitivity training was discussed as essential for both women and men, especially where this was fully incorporated into regular management training. Participants also discussed work/family and personal life balance and were concerned that these be routinely taken into account in organizational life. 62. Turning to the issue of critical mass, the Meeting discussed areas where there was already a large number of women such as in the public sector and looked at areas where women cluster in certain countries. 63. The Meeting reviewed a number of strategic approaches to improving the situation and recognized it would be necessary to work at both the top and the bottom. Ideas included setting up parallel organizations for women's development, creating international scholarships for women, looking for partnerships between business and education, and building convincing "business cases" that were appropriate and fit with different cultures. 64. Participants discussed the need for having measures in place to review progress and particularly to see the correlation between good business performance and effective policies for women. III. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. General The change process 65. The Expert Group Meeting considered that: All institutions are in a period of unprecedented transition. Change processes open up opportunities for gender balance initiatives. To be successful, change processes need to take into account important factors, such as the following: (a) Change is a long-term process, requiring adequate time to build personal and institutional ownership; (b) Change has to be built on fact rather than myth. This requires on-going data collection, analysis and feedback. þ Change goes through cycles and reflects the transition process (denial, resistance, exploration, commitment) that may be repeated many times; persistence is a key to success. Resistance can be harnessed to drive change, and may be greatest before real change occurs. (d) Initiatives have to be inclusive; they require champions and the involvement of all strategic players. (e) Change processes have to be built bottom-up and top-down simultaneously, and women and men have to be involved. Questionnaires, surveys, focus groups, task forces and conferences can be used to raise issues, to open up honest and complete dialogue between men and women to give voice to implied and non-verbal cultural and operational processes. Anonymity may need to be guaranteed. It must also be acknowledged that some people may not get all they want in the overall effort to advance women's empowerment. (f) Initiatives need to model successful change processes. (g) It is vital to be clear about the relationship between gender and other factors. In achieving change, the Meeting warned of ascribing changes to gender when they may be related to more general changes in the environment; on the other hand, stressed that changes which remove gender biases benefit women and men, and by extension, the institution as a whole. Operationalizing actions 66. The recommended actions contained herein need to be operationalized and adapted to the situations and working cultures of the various actors addressed in this document. In formulating actions to be taken, the Expert Group Meeting recommended the following: (a) Actions should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and, where appropriate, time-bound; (b) Actions require effective monitoring mechanisms; þ Successful implementation requires a partnership between women and men; (d) All actors including IFIs, TNCs, Governments, the UN system, and NGOs have an obligation to eliminate all institutional barriers which restrict the recruitment, development, retention and advancement of women; (e) All actors including IFIs, TNCs, Governments, the UN system, and NGOs have an obligation to provide all employees with the training and development opportunities necessary for them to achieve their full potential; (f) Actions should be taken in cooperation with different partners (IFIs, TNCs, Governments, UN system, NGOs and media); B. Transnational corporations 67. The importance of TNCs has been increasing and their organizational strategies have been evolving to reflect the increasing importance of globalization. In 1993, the worldwide sales of TNC's amounted to $6 trillion, an amount well in excess of the value of global export sales. They also play a significant role in terms of sustainable economic development. Their ability to act as a catalyst for change, their ability to transfer knowledge of markets, employment, management skills and technology to host country operations adds value in excess of their purely financial investments and revenue generation. 68. From a strategic perspective, TNC's have the ability to implement leading edge policies and global best practices with respect to the social and economic impacts of their operations. In particular, they have the ability to recruit, develop, promote and retain employees who reflect the demographic mix of their customers and to use labour markets as a means of developing a competitive advantage, particularly in developing countries. In the context of the development of employees, both male and female, TNC's can provide the expertise of a global human resources development process and capability which often exceeds the equivalent capacity in single-country organizations. 69. Since a TNC's culture may, in fact, influence local culture and practices, it provides an opportunity for them to act as a catalyst for change increasing the representation of women in all levels of decision-making and enacting policies in support of equity and the empowerment of women. In addition, TNCs have the capacity to develop all employees in terms of both domestic and international assignments of increasing responsibility and to fund community projects. Such activities can provide TNCs with access to key government decision-makers and create scope for cooperative efforts in human resource development. 70. The Expert Group Meeting considered that one cautionary note should be observed. The growth in dual career families, particularly in developed countries, makes it more difficult to persuade high potential women and men to accept international assignments which are often the key to career advancement in TNCs. This problem is exacerbated by the difficulty in obtaining work permits, as well as other related employment issues, for the accompanying spouse and family members. Therefore, TNCs may benefit from becoming more directly involved in lobbying both home and host governments and institutions to create the necessary framework to facilitate this process. Recommendations 71. The Expert Group Meeting recommended that, as women are participating in unprecedented numbers at all levels of society and the economy, TNCs should: þ Appoint a critical mass of women to their boards working towards at least one-third representation, resulting in the following added value: - A broader perspective reflecting: (1) Customers; (2) Employees; (3) Shareholders (institutional and other). - Different perspectives from a significant portion of the potential market that can flow into new product/service development and market strategy; - Monitor TNC policies and practices relating to gender equity; - Have a positive cascading effect on the recruitment, development, and advancement and retention of women at all levels in the organization. þ Develop and adopt policies and practices which: - Facilitate the advancement of women; - Promote gender equality; - Institutionalize recruitment processes to identify and attract qualified female candidates. Potential actions include: (1) Develop links with universities in home and host countries to identify women before they enter the pipeline (more cost effective long term); (2) Provide scholarships to support the development of women for leadership positions; (3) Use internships as a means of attracting potential candidates and enhancing TNC's attractiveness as a preferred employer; (4) Require that all positions staffed from external sources, e.g. headhunters and advertisements, clearly state request for female candidates (within local legal guidelines). - Ensure that TNCs do what is necessary to enable all employees to balance work, family and personal life; - Ensure that decision-makers who have responsibility for the promotion and advancement of women have specific, measurable goals which are tied to their compensation and bonus plans. þ Recognize the strategic dimension of human resources by: - Ensuring that the human resource function is part of the strategic and business planning process; - Develop specific, measurable, achievable, and time-bound plans for promoting women to senior positions. Potential actions include: (1) Internal support systems, e.g. mentoring, inclusion of high quality diversity training in mainstream training programmes; (2) Identification of high potential pool for career development; (3) Open access to information regarding jobs available, e.g. job posting system; (4) Definition of experience, skills and competencies for all jobs to support career planning. - Appoint women to international assignments to gain the following benefits: (1) Cultural change that is conducive to the further advancement of women in home and host cultures; (2) An enhanced pool of qualified women from which top management positions in TNC's can be filled; (3) Role models that demonstrate the value of women in senior roles; - Ensure balanced representation of women and men are on external advisory councils and regional boards of TNCs. Engage in the following additional actions: - Allow women to take sabbaticals and/or encourage their participation in cross- sectoral assignments, e.g. between TNCs, Governments, and NGOs, to maximize: (1) Cross fertilization of learning between organizations; (2) Knowledge of the global market place; (3) Cross cultural approaches to product development and market opportunities. - Develop mechanisms to ensure flexibility in the redistribution of work to support full employment in societies, e.g. avoid disparate impact on women downsizing or in difficult economic environments; - Partner with others, e.g. governments and NGOs, to enhance the skills of women managers and those of women in the larger community [see section III. D and F below]; - Develop best practices to enhance and support the development of women through organizations such as chambers of commerce, business and professional clubs and associations, boards of trade, and industry associations. C. International financial institutions 72. International Financial Institutions are defined as the Bretton Woods institutions (World Bank and the International Monetary Fund) and the regional development banks (Asian, Inter- American and African Development Banks et. al.). Over time, this group has been joined by other actors in development banking, including the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), non-profit development banks (e.g., Women's World Banking), and private, for-profit financial institutions (considered with TNCs in section III. B of this report). In recent years, expanding competition and the limited resources available to IFIs have created a need for more effective organizational performance. 73. IFIs have a significant role to play in setting the agenda for economic and development policies at the global, regional and national levels. As development agencies, IFIs need to increase their positive impacts in areas ranging from macro-economic policy to specific projects; and, to act as catalysts by promoting sustainable economic growth with greater concern for alleviating income disparities, social problems and poverty. 74. Meeting these challenges requires conscious efforts to develop new approaches, methodologies and skills. Women represent an under-utilized pool of resources for IFIs in this area. IFIs that bring more women into decision-making will enhance their effectiveness as funders supporting development, and as employers by better reflecting the composition of the client populations; bringing new skills, approaches and understanding of client population needs to development problems; being role models for gender equality in client countries; maintaining a competitive edge by attracting, developing and supporting the highest-quality women and men from member countries. Recommendations 75. Consideration of the gender dimension has to be built into all aspects of institutional decision-making, from the overall philosophy and strategic objectives through operational and administrative policies and procedures. Given this framework, IFIs can leverage change at numerous points. The Expert Group Meeting recommended that IFIs should do the following: þ Use every appointment, policy, process, decision, speech and meeting to promote the goal of having a critical mass of women in decision making and management throughout the institutions, including Boards and senior staff positions; þ Encourage Member States to establish a pool of and appoint qualified women to serve at the international level as board members and at the managerial level in IFIs; þ Encourage Member States to expand opportunities for women to participate in management and decision-making at the national level to help achieve high-quality, sustainable socio-economic growth and development.; þ Encourage local organizations to reflect the composition of recipient populations in their management and decision-making structures, so as to be sensitive to the critical needs of women and men; þ Review the gender dimension during all phases of programme and project preparation, management and evaluation. This may be achieved through balanced staffing mixes in the IFIs and by broadening consultative processes to include NGOs and other members of civil society; þ Assess executing agencies for their ability to implement projects in a gender-sensitive manner; þ Formulate programme and project conditions to require implementors to involve women in the management, decision-making and evaluation processes; þ Develop indicators and monitor: - The representation of women in decision-making in funded programmes and projects; - The impact of programmes and projects on the representation of women in management and decision-making in the entities affected by the project; - The impact of the involvement of women in decision-making on the outcomes of programmes and projects. Making it happen: ideas for action 76. The commitment of the Presidents of IFIs and human resource directors is crucial for achieving change. Managers also need to be committed and held accountable for results. Human resource practices need to be revised to correct gender biases; and to enhance women's participation and economic well-being. Such improvements will benefit both women and men, and, therefore, the Organization as a whole. The Expert Group Meeting recommended the following approaches for the IFIs themselves: þ Go beyond conventional methods of recruitment and traditional labour pools to identify and hire qualified women; þ Modify selection profiles to reflect new skill mixes needed for changing programmes, including the ability to work effectively in a diverse environment, and commitment to gender issues; þ Create an environment that encourages women to move into management, and modify practices to increase their rate of selection and promotion in order to achieve a critical mass at all levels of the organization; þ Develop practical interventions to address dual career issues; þ Create a work environment to enable all employees to balance work and family life; þ Use results to demonstrate IFIs' commitment to gender balance and work with the media to communicate this message in headquarters and member countries; þ Hold managers accountable for developing action plans and for achieving change in their areas of responsibility, and link it to performance evaluation and rewards; þ Monitor the representation of women in the organization and disclose the results and trends to encourage transparency; þ Invest in developing the skills of men and women to work together in management and decision-making; þ Enhance programmes to help retain and develop both women and men, such as internal and external assignments and secondments; þ Encourage the growth of support systems, such as mentoring and coaching; þ Learn from initiatives and best practices in other types of institutions through benchmarking. D. Governments 77. Governments play a variety of roles which are essential to the full economic empowerment of women. As direct actors, they determine national labour and employment policies, including the development of enforcement mechanisms for legislated employment practices in both the public and private sectors. While governments can also act as facilitators in the process of empowering women, when necessary, they must be prepared to utilize the enforcement mechanisms in place to ensure compliance with the law. This requires tracking mechanisms focused on the participation of women in decision-making at all levels in the public and private sector. Such mechanisms highlight potential areas of concern with respect to the so called "glass ceiling" or other institutional barriers to the full empowerment of women. 78. In their own activities, governments can ensure that the programmes, policies and practices they adopt and the composition of their labour force serve as a role model for the private sector. At both national and international levels, governments can promote the equal participation of both women and men in top governmental decision-making positions. As member countries of international organizations, they can and should appoint women to multilateral and intergovernmental boards of directors as well as to senior staff positions in all UN organizations, funds, programmes, specialized agencies and all other intergovernmental organizations, including head of delegations to United Nations committees, commissions and conferences, as well as in the foreign service. Governments can also use their purchasing power to award contracts to companies that have effective programmes to advance women in management and top decision- making positions. 79. With respect to TNCs, particularly those in developing countries, governments can utilize existing governmental or quasi-governmental agencies to link social objectives concerning the empowerment of women in decision-making roles with foreign direct investment. For example, national Boards of Investment can require or encourage enterprises, including TNCs, to establish mechanisms to ensure that the recruitment, development, retention and promotion of employees reflects, as far as possible, the general demographics of the country. In this regard, the government can not only set a vision for the country, but also take concrete actions to assure that the entire human asset potential of the country is harnessed. In addition, given the increasing importance of international exposure and assignments in the development of decision-makers, governments must play a pro-active role so that existing work permits and associated structures and processes do not act as barriers which prevent both women and men from achieving their full potential. 80. The full empowerment of women is predicated on the elimination of any and all barriers to the education and training of women and the girl child, including the revision of curricula to ensure that they are gender-sensitive. With a global vision that the employment practices of the future are going to be different from those of the past, governments must take the necessary steps to ensure compliance with section B of the Beijing Platform for Action. Recommendations 81. The Expert Group Meeting recommended that governments should: þ Develop programmes, policies and practices with respect to women's recruitment, development, retention and promotion to ensure gender balance and participation at all levels of decision-making in: - All governmental committees, bodies and delegations; - Intergovernmental boards of directors; UN programmes, funds, specialized agencies, bodies and committees, meetings and conferences; and in the foreign service; - Regional and international financial institutions. þ Create, develop, monitor and enforce employment policies in both the public and the private sectors directed towards achieving critical mass and, ultimately, equal participation of women and men in decision-making positions. þ Incorporate provisions into bilateral treaties and other agreements that facilitate spousal employment in home and host countries. þ Identify and eliminate discriminatory employment practices in all areas and sectors, and monitor compliance with employment legislation designed to facilitate the advancement of women in decision-making positions. þ Remove obstacles which restrict the formation of NGOs, particularly those advocating women's empowerment. þ Establish or expand mechanisms that facilitate interaction between, and mobility among managers / executives in profit, non-profit and public sectors to prepare women for senior leadership positions. þ Establish partnerships with NGOs, academic institutions and professional associations to develop programmes for the full empowerment of women. E. United Nations system 82. The United Nations system, including its funds, programmes, specialized agencies and organizations, has a major responsibility for implementing the Platform of Action, and for taking a lead in ensuring that women are represented in top levels of management. To this end, following the Beijing Conference, the Secretary-General appointed a Special Adviser on Gender Issues, and the General Assembly adopted the system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women, 1996-2000, which is aimed at assisting governments in increasing the role of women in decision-making in the economy. 83. Much work needs to be done to improve the representation of women in the UN system itself. For example, in the UN Secretariat, women account for only 4 per cent of all USG (Under- Secretary-General) posts. The Secretariat has adopted a Strategic Plan of Action for the Improvement for the Status of Women in the Secretariat (1995-2000), that calls for 50 per cent women in top positions by the year 2000. 84. To help the UN system meet its responsibilities of helping member nations and its own agencies achieve the goal of a critical mass of women in decision-making and management positions, the Expert Group Meeting recommended that: þ Agencies specializing in human resources, education, finance and other areas covered under the system-wide medium term plan, critical area "women in the economy," provide assistance to governments, TNCs, IFIs and organizations generally, in support of their efforts to promote women into top positions; þ Encourage member governments to appoint more women to the Boards and Secretariats of UN bodies, particularly ones where women are severely under-represented such as UNCTAD and WTO, and to UN Committees dealing with economic, financial and budgetary issues; þ UN agencies including the specialized agencies such as the Bretton Woods institutions, should increase collaboration and information-sharing in order to collaborate on recruitment, (for example through development of joint data bases on women candidates); develop indicators for benchmarking; exchange best practices; monitor progress; develop strategies responsive to the needs of multicultural institutions owned by Member States. F. Non-governmental organizations 85. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played and will continue to play a major role in the economic empowerment of women at all levels. As broad-based, grass roots organizations, they act as both advocacy groups and catalysts for change. Both women's organizations and non-gender-specific NGOs bring considerable expertise which can be used to leverage activities of governments, IFIs, TNCs and other important actors in the process of identifying and eliminating barriers to women's empowerment. 86. NGOs can and should play several key roles: þ Assist in identifying qualified women as candidates for decision-making positions; þ Serve as potential members of boards, regional advisory councils or other business organizations; þ Monitor the progress of the various actors in their efforts to eliminate barriers to the empowerment of women; þ Serve as a communication link with other interest groups and the media; þ Recognize and acknowledge positive performance by IFIs, TNCs and other actors; þ Build awareness of national legislation and international norms/standards/conventions and best practices relating to the advancement of women. 87. Because NGOs are largely not-for-profit organizations and are independent players, historically, they have high credibility in recognizing and promoting actors who advance the status of women. In addition, their access to both key decision-makers and the media may enhance the impact of their recommendations. In this context, it is important that NGOs continue to pro-actively develop partnerships with the various actors. At the same time, it is necessary to recognize that the capacity and the development of NGOs are uneven across regions and countries. Efforts have to be made to enable NGOs to play the role described above. Recommendations 88. The Expert Group Meeting recommended that NGOs: þ Identify and partner with TNCs, governments, IFIs, other NGOs, and other actors as appropriate to: - Enhance/develop common interests, e.g. employability of women, training, internships, and product/service development using focus groups; - Develop common projects/programmes around shared interests and goals; - Disseminate information concerning improving the status of women in decision- making; - Develop and award scholarships in support of women's education and advancement; - Partner media endeavours to strengthen women in top management. þ Identify and recommend potential employees and board members. þ Monitor and publicize best and/or worst practices with respect to the advancement of women. þ Provide reward and recognition for TNCs, IFIs, governments and other actors as appropriate. þ Report regularly the progress of all actors to the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), in the context of the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action including an assessment of their national government's periodic reports. þ Seeking the training, technical assistance and governmental support that will enable NGOs to play an active role in promoting women in decision making, especially in countries where NGOs are weak. IV. NEXT STEPS 89. The Expert Group Meeting agreed that this meeting is a first step in what should be an on-going process of awareness-raising, information-sharing and concerted action to achieve change. Recommendations for next steps included: þ Using the members of the current Expert Group as the core of a network and forum for continuing exploration of issues concerning women in decision-making, through e-mail communications and periodic meetings (e.g., every 18-24 months); þ Organizing meetings for top female and male decision-makers in the IFIs and TNCs, to review the report of this group and decide how recommendations might be implemented in their organizations; þ Organizing similar events at the regional level to highlight issues of women in management and decision-making; þ At the individual level, carrying back messages of this meeting to managers and colleagues in each participating institution. ANNEXES I. LIST OF PARTICIPANTS United Nations Ms. Angela E. V. King Director, Division for the Advancement of Women Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development Two UN Plaza, DC2-1220 New York, NY 10017 USA Tel: (212) 963 5086/Fax: (212) 963 5138 King@un.org Ms. Semia Guermas de Tapia Social Affairs Officer Division for the Advancement of Women Two United Nations Plaza, DC2-1242 New York, NY 10017 USA Tel: (212) 963 3168/Fax: (212) 963 3463 Tapia@un.org Ms. Padma Mallampally Chief, Investment-Related Development Issues Section International Investment, Transnationals and Technology Branch Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Palais des Nations, Room E-9012 1211 Geneva, Switzerland Tel: (41 22) 907 56 31 Fax: (41 22) 907 0194 Padma.Mallampally@unctad.org Simmons College, Graduate School of Management Dr. Anne Jardim Dean Simmons College Graduate School of Management 409 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215 USA Tel: (617) 521 3818/Fax: (617) 521 3881 Prof. Jim Grant Professor of Finance Simmons College Graduate School of Management 409 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215 USA Tel: (617) 521 3800/Fax: (617) 521 3880 Experts Ms. Meg Armstrong The Leadership Group 300 E. 40th. Street, 21st Floor New York, NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 867 3124/Fax: (212) 867 1465 Ms. Valerie J. Hammond Chief Executive Roffey Park Management Institute Forest Road Horsham, West Sussex RH12 4TD United Kingdom Tel: (44 1293) 851644/Fax:(44 1293) 851 565 Ms. Apollonia Kerenge Team Leader and Coordinator WIDEM Dept. Eastern and Southern African Management Institute (ESAMI) P.O. Box 3030 Arusha, Tanzania Tel: (255 057) 8384/3439 Fax: (255 057) 8285 ESAMI-ARUSHA@marie.gh.apc.org Ms. Dawn Mokhobo Executive Director: Growth and Development ESKOM P.O. Box 1091 Johannesburg 2000, Republic of South Africa OR P.O. Box 791 Petervalle 2151, Republic of South Africa Tel: (27 11) 800 3714/ 784 7834/Fax: (27 11) 800 5808 Dr. Sununta Siengthai Associate Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs Faculty of Commerce and Accountancy Thammasat University, 2 Prachan Road Bangkok 10200, Thailand Tel: (662) 221 6171 ext. 2201- 2202/Fax: (662) 225 2109 or 222 1331 email@example.com United Nations Consultant Dr. Ariane Berthoin Antal Senior Fellow Science Center Berlin (WZB) Reichpietschufer 50 D-10785 Berlin, Germany Tel: (49 30) 25491 625/Fax: (49 30) 327 5821 ABAntal@medea.wz-berlin.de Observers United Nations Ms. Zohreh Tabatabai United Nations Focal Point for Women Office of Human Resources Management United Nations Headquarters, S-2535 New York, NY 10017 USA Tel: (212) 963 6828/Fax: (212) 963 9545 firstname.lastname@example.org International Financial Institutions The World Bank Ms. Sheila Reines Office of the Senior Adviser on Gender Equality 1818 H Street NW Washington, DC 20433 USA Tel: (202) 458 7401/Fax: (202) 522 3434 SREINES@Worldbank.org International Monetary Fund Ms. Leena Lahti-Kotilainen Special Advisor on Diversity 700 19th Street NW Washington, DC 20431 Tel: (202) 623 8206/Fax: (202) 623 6927 LLahti@IMF.org Ms. Harriet Shugarman Special Assistant to the Director/United Nations Office 1 United Nations Plaza Room 1140, New York, NY 10017 USA Tel: (212) 963 0355/Fax: (212) 319 9040 email@example.com Asian Development Bank Ms. Claude Bernier Deputy Director Budget, Personnel and Management / Systems Department Asian Development Bank P.O. Box 789 Manila 0980 , Philippines Tel: (632) 632 4118/Fax: (632) 636 2526 firstname.lastname@example.org Inter-American Development Bank Ms. Marta Tvardek Advisor of the Administrative Manager 1300 N.Y. Avenue NW Washington, DC 20577 USA Tel: (202) 623 1275/Fax: (202) 623 3157 Martat@IDB.org Corporations Polaroid Corporation Ms. Carole Uhrich Executive Vice President, Global Supply Chain 549-TS-3 Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Tel: (617) 386 3284 Ms. Susan Kaplan Staff Director, Global Supply Chain 549 - 2 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Fax: (617) 386 3154 KaplanS@Polaroid.com Royal Bank of Canada Ms. Lynda White Manager, Employment Equity and Diversity Royal Bank Plaza, North Tower 200 Bay Street, 11th Floor Toronto, Ontario M5J 2J5 Canada Tel: (416) 955 5822/Fax: (416) 855 5840 The Gillette Co. Ms. Judy Herald Corporate Director of Workforce Strategy Prudential Tower Building, Floor 49 Boston, MA 02199 USA Tel: (617) 421 7994/Fax: (617) 421 8581 Xerox Ms. Julie Baskin Brooks Manager, Diversity and Life Cycle Strategy 800 Long Rich Road Stamford, Connecticut 06904 USA Tel: (203) 968 3637/ Fax: (203) 968 3761 Julie-Baskin-Brooks@EA.XEROX.COM International Non-governmental Organizations International Federation of Business and Professional Women (IFBPW) Ms. Jane Sheridan Fundraising Chairperson c/o Caltex Petroleum Corporation P.O. Box 619500 Dallas, TX 75261 USA Tel:(972) 506 9726/830 3925/Fax: (972) 506 0249/830 9208 Zonta International Ms. Marcy Varnerin-Luongo c/o Putnam Investments 31 Mann Street Braintree, MA 02184 USA Tel: (617) 760 5797/Fax: (617) 760 5702/5790 Marcy_Varnerin_Luongo@ppc-191.Putnaminv.com Civil Society National Association of Gender Diversity Training Ms. Leslie Jenness 4621 E. Abraham Lane Phoenix, AZ 85024 USA Tel: (602) 473 0426/Fax: (602) 473 0427 email@example.com Ms. Lynne Sullivan Senior Consultant Towers Perrin 175 Bloor Street East South Tower, Suite 1501 Toronto, Ontario M4W 3T6, Canada Tel: (416) 960 7090/Fax: (416) 960 2819 Foundation for Future Leadership Ms. Bonnie B. Whyte Executive Director and Employers Council on Flexible Compensation 927 15th Street, N.W., 10th Floor Washington, DC 20005 USA Tel: (202) 659 6364/4300/Fax: (202) 371 1467 II. LIST OF DOCUMENTS Information Papers EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/INF.1 Proposed Programme of Work 17 October 1996 EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/INF.2 Information for Participants 17 October 1996 EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/INF.3/Rev.3 List of Participants 15 November 1996 EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/INF.4/Rev.1 List of Documents 12 November 1996 EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/INF.5 Statement by Angela E.V. King, Director 12 November 1996 Division for the Advancement of Women EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/INF.6 Procedures followed in ad hoc Expert Group 12 November 1996 Meetings organized by the Division for the Advancement of Women EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/INF.7 United Nations Division for the Advancement 12 November 1996 of women EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/INF.8 Follow-up to the 1995 Beijing Platform for 12 November 1996 Action: Work Programme of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women 1996-2000 EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/INF.9 Composition of the United Nations 12 November 1996 Secretariat (A/51/421, A/51/304, selected tables) Background Papers EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/BP.1 Women and Economic Decision-Making: Experience of 5 November 1996 the United Nations, Division for the Advancement of Women EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/BP.2 Transnational corporations, the employment of 8 November 1996 women's participation in decision making, Padma Mallampally Working Papers EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/WP.1 Women and Senior Economic Decision-Making: the 30 October 1996 Experience of the United Kingdom, Valerie Hammond EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/WP.2 Women and Decision-Making in International 31 October 1996 Financial Institutions and Transnational Corporation; the African Perspective, Apollonia Kerenge EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/WP.3 Women and Economic Decision-Making in 1 November 1996 International Financial Institutions and Multinational Corporations inThailand, Sununta Siengthai EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/WP.4 Shattering the Glass Ceiling: the South African 4 November 1996 Reality, Dawn Mokhobo EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/WP.5 Women in Management Worldwide: Trends and Issues, 7 November 1996 Ariane Berthoin Antal EDM/IFI-TNC/1996/WP.6 Diversity with a Difference: Road Map for 11 November 1996 Performance Meg Armstrong
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