7 November 1996



                                    EXPERT GROUP MEETING


                                 POLITICAL DECISION-MAKING
                                  AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION:
                              THE IMPACT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE

                             SANTO DOMINGO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
                                      7-11 OCTOBER 1996


Preface............................................................  1 - 8

I.         Organization of Work....................................  9 - 23

           A.   Attendance.........................................  9 - 10
           B.   Documentation...................... ...............  11 
           C.   Adoption of the agenda.............................  12
           D.   Election of officers...............................  13
           E.   Opening statements.................................  14 - 23

II.        Summary of debate.......................................  24 - 54

           A.   Introduction........................................  24 - 38
           B.   When, where and how do women make a difference?.....  39 - 48
           C.   Contributions of a gender perspective to decision-making
                and conflict resolution.............................  49 - 54

III.      Conclusions and
          Recommendations...........................................  55 - 78

           A.   The peace process...................................  57 - 65
           B.   Responses to armed conflicts........................  66 - 68
           C.   Sustaining peace....................................  69 - 75
           D.   Training and capacity building......................  76
           E.   Promoting a transformed view of power, security and
                participation.......................................  77 - 78



I.          List of Participants....................................  27 - 36

II.         List of Documents.......................................  37 - 39

III.        Agenda of the Meeting...................................  40 - 42


1.    The issue of gender difference in political decision-making and conflict
resolution: the Impact of gender difference, is a part of the broader problem
of gender equality in all spheres of political participation and
decision-making which have been analysed by the United Nations Division for
the Advancement of Women (DAW) since 1989 and discussed by the Commission on
the Status of Women (CSW) in 1989, 1990, 1992, 1993 and 1995, as well as by
expert group meetings in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1995.  

2.    The Expert Group Meeting on "Political Decision-Making and Conflict
Resolution: The Impact of Gender Difference" followed up on previous expert
group meetings and reports and was organized in accordance with the provisions
of the Beijing Platform for Action.  The Platform for Action noted that
"Despite the widespread movement towards democratization in most countries,
women are largely under represented at most levels of government, especially
in ministerial and other executive bodies, and have made little progress in
attaining political power in legislative bodies or in achieving the target
endorsed by the Economic and Social Council of having 30% women in positions
at the decision-making levels by 1995".

3.    The data indicate that in the areas of political decision-making related
to peace, security and conflict resolution, at both national and international
levels, the situation is even worse than in some other fields, and amounts to
almost complete absence of women.  This exclusion has consequences for women
and for society in general.   From the human rights perspective, it
contradicts international standards of equality and prevents women from
enjoying their rights to be full citizens of their countries and full
participants in world governance.  It also deprives the world community of
women's distinct perspectives and contributions to the resolution of key
global problems, and as the Platform for Action states ".....Without the
active participation of women and the incorporation of women's perspective
at all levels of decision-making, the goals of equality, development and peace
cannot be achieved" (para. 182).

4.    In order to redress this situation the Platform calls for action to
"........promote equal participation of women and equal opportunities for
women to participate in all forums and peace activities at all levels,
particularly at the decision-making level...."(para. 142, a), to "Strengthen
the role of women and ensure equal representation of women at all decision-
making levels in national and international institutions which may make or
influence policy with regard to matters related to peace-keeping, preventive
diplomacy and related activities and in all stages of peace mediation and
negotiations....." (para.144, c) and to ".....Integrate a gender perspective
in the resolution of armed or other conflicts......." (para. 142, b).

5.    The fact that the Meeting was jointly organized by the Division for the
Advancement of Women (DAW) and the International Peace Research Institute in
Oslo (PRIO), a mainstream  research institute set an example for mainstreaming
and translated "the concept into practical action" (A/51/322, para 7).

6.    On the basis of the existing literature and the state of theoretical
knowledge in the relevant academic disciplines and inter disciplinary fields,
the Meeting examined gender differences in men's and women's participation in
decision-making, in particular in the areas of peace, security and conflict
resolution in terms of setting political agendas and priorities;
influencing the content of decisions, and outcome of negotiations; as well as
managerial/leadership, style and working climate.

7.    In this context and in view of women's gross under-representation at the
decision-making levels in all these areas the Meeting also examined
case-studies of examples where women as individuals or in formal or informal
organizations and associations, have brought different priorities, experiences
and perspectives to influence and affect the political process, sustain peace
and built post-conflict reconciliation.

8.    The Meeting also considered the policy implications of those gender
differences and elaborated a set of recommendations.

                          1.    ORGANIZATION OF WORK

                               A.    Attendance

9.    The Expert Group Meeting on "Political Decision-Making and Conflict
Resolution:  The Impact of Gender Difference", was held at INSTRAW, Santo
Domingo, the Dominican Republic, from 7 to 11 October 1996.  It was organized
by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women/Department for
Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DAW/DPCSD) and the
International Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO) in cooperation with the
United Nations International Research Institute for the Advancement of Women
(INSTRAW) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO).

10.   The meeting was attended by 10 experts representing all regions, and 23
observers: 7 from the UN system and 14 from non-governmental organizations
(see annex I for list of participants).

                             B.    Documentation

11.   The documentation of the Meeting comprised 3 working papers prepared by 
organizers; 6 experts' papers; 3 observers' papers; and 5 background papers
prepared by the participants for other meetings and submitted because of their
relevance (see annex II).

                             C.    Adoption of the agenda

12.   At its first plenary session on 7 October 1996 the Meeting adopted the
agenda as follows (see annex III):

      -       Opening of the Meeting
      -       Adoption of the agenda
      -       Introduction to themes and purpose of meeting
      -       Overview of broad themes:
                                           .  the state of knowledge and
                                           .  gender and a culture of peace
                                           .  the problem of essentialism
      -       Election of officers
      -       General debate
      -       Gender difference and political behaviour:
                                            .  women in decision-making
                                            .  critical mass
                                            .  critical action

      -      Gender difference and Violence:
                                            .  women and war
                                            .  men and pacifism
                                            .  the gendered shape of security
                                            .  high policies
      -      Gender difference in conflict resolution:
                                            .  Bosnia
                                            .  Somalia
                                            .  Sri Lanka
                                            .  Colombia
                                            .   Humanitarian relief situation 
      -      Discussion in informal groups
      -      Completion of draft report
      -      Adoption of Report of the Expert Group Meeting
      -      Closing of the Meeting

                         D.    Election of Officers

13.   At the first plenary session the Meeting elected the following officers
to the Bureau:

     Chairperson:                        Ms. Eugenia Piza Lopez      Mexico
     Vice-Chairperson                    Mr. Michael Salla           Australia
     Rapporteur                          Ms. Carolyn Stephenson      USA

                              E.  Opening statements

14.   In his opening statement, Mr. Mathiason, Deputy Director, United Nations
Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), recalled that the Commission on
the Status of Women would be taking up the issue of women in power and
decision-making at its next session and that the work of the expert group
meeting would serve as an input into that discussion.  He noted that the
specific question of women and conflict resolution had grown in importance as
a result of Beijing.  Since women were largely absent from decision-making on
peace and security issues, it had not been possible to establish gender
differences in approaches to conflict resolution.  Without some understanding
of those issues, the value added by women to decision-making processes would
not be clear and the matter of equality in participation in decision-making
would be based purely on abstract rights.  He stated that the expert group
meeting had been set up to bring together both new theoretical perspectives on
the issue and practical recommendations drawn from experience.

15.   In her opening statement, Mrs. Martha Duen~as Loza, Acting Director of
INSTRAW welcomed the participants to the Meeting.  She emphasized that
conflict and decision-making were complex non-linear processes; that women's
participation was considered marginal, although women have always been active
participants in these processes or been affected by their consequences. 
Women's invisibility also resulted from the existing structures of
decision-making and conflict resolution.  Thus, the meeting should discuss the
possibility of creating new structures that would allow women and men to have
a voice on an equal basis and would help to overcome the stereotyped roles of
women and men, as passive victims and as violent actors respectively. She also
remarked that gender was not a biological but a social condition. 
16.   She further emphasized that the meeting should address the underlying 
causes of conflicts, including the contradictory and parallel processes of
rapid development and growing disparities within and between nation states and
addressing persistent gender inequalities.  The Meeting should also focus on
women's participation in decision-making and conflict resolution at the
international, national and local levels, and in such important sectors as the
military and the arms-production industry. The recommendations resulting from
this Expert Group Meeting should be useful for both, theory and practice, and
could contribute to the changes towards peace.

17.   In her opening statement, Ms. Dorota Gierycz, Social Affairs Officer,
United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), introduced a paper
entitled  "Gender differences in decision-making and conflict resolution:
United Nations knowledge and practice after Beijing", in which she presented
the historical evolution of the topic of women, decision-making and peace in
the United Nations, since the creation of the Commission on the Status of
Women (CSW) in 1946.  She also presented the main arguments for gender
balanced participation in decision-making and conflict resolution first: human
rights argument and a "gender difference" argument.  The approach was based on
the right of every person without discrimination to vote and to hold office
and public function.  It also reflected the equal right of women to
participate in politics and decision-making at national and international
levels together with men, in accordance with the international standards of
equality reflected in articles 7 and 8 of the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women.  This rights-based approach pointed
out to the gap between the de jure and de facto situation of women in the area
of decision-making, one of the widest among all areas of human rights. 

18.   A "gender difference" argument led to the examination of consequences of
the exclusion of women from the decision-making bodies for societies.   The
results showed that if women were represented in large enough numbers in the
decision-making arena (constituting what has been termed a critical mass,
estimated at a level of at least 30 to 35 per cent in decision-making bodies),
they have visible impact on the political style and the content of decisions. 

19.   She concluded that this hypothesis needed to be further studied in order
to prove that "gender difference" played indeed, an important role in
decision-making, conflict resolution and governance, in particular, because a
major part of the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for
Action involves understanding gender analysis key issues, including those
related to peace and conflict resolution.
20.   In his opening statement, Mr. Dan Smith, Director of the International
Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO), presented a paper entitled "On
Essentialism" in which he explored the philosophical perspectives underlying
the  claim that women's role was determined by biology.  He drew the parallels
between this attitude, racism and certain kinds of aggressive nationalism, all
falsely claiming to know the essential nature of people's identities.  His
critique began with the point that, if essentialism was to be believed, and
human nature was fixed by biology and birth, then change was impossible,
which also meant that reconciliation was out of the question. Therefore,
essentialism could not be believed.  He pointed out that there was an
abundance of empirical research and theoretical reflection to show that
peoples' social identity was much less fixed than often supposed, that was
multiple, changeable and ambiguous.  Precisely because identity was complex he
claimed that there was hope of people changing, of justice being created out
of unjust situations, of conflict ending in reconciliation.

21.   However, he argued, the recognition of the dangers of essentialism in 
philosophies of  power and aggression should also alert us to the risks
entailed in using essentialist arguments to support peace and justice. There
was an important distinction between generalisations which allow for
exceptions, and claimed universal rules that allow for no exceptions.  He
concluded that it was necessary to take a more scientific and less ideological
approach to, for example, understanding differences in attitude between men
and women on issues of war and peace.

22.   Ms. Ingeborg Breines, Director of Women and a Culture of Peace in
UNESCO, presented UNESCO's programme: "Towards a Culture of Peace" from a
gender perspective.  She also referred to the statement on women's
contribution to a culture of peace, that had been presented to the Fourth
World Conference on Women in Beijing by UNESCO and since then broadly
disseminated.  She further pointed to education as the most important process
by which people could gain the values, attitudes and behavioural patterns
conducive for the development of a culture of peace. She then underlined the
importance of long term preventive actions, such as gender-sensitive education
for peace, human rights and democracy at different levels of the educational
system.  She  also presented a series of UNESCO's activities related to the
newly developed notion of "learning to live together".

23.   She further referred to various post-conflict peace-building projects
and initiatives involving women in Africa, Latin-America and the Caribbean. 
Finally, she pointed out to the difference in the socialization of women and
men and its impact on developments towards a culture of peace and emphasized
the negative impact of traditional male roles which should be discussed by the

                        II.     SUMMARY OF DEBATE
                             A.    Introduction

24.   The United Nations Charter affirms a commitment to the "equal rights of
men and women."  The equality of men and women is integrally related to peace,
security, and sustainable development,  as was made clear when the Member
States of the United Nations designated the themes of International Women's
Year and the Decade of Women as "Equality, Development, and Peace."  The
relationship between women and peace is reciprocal and the Beijing Platform
for Action adopted by the Fourth World Conference on Women recognizes the
linkages between the empowerment and participation of women and the
achievement of peace.  

25.   The Platform for Action affirms the multiple linkages between women's
status and peace when it states,

      The maintenance of peace and security at the global, regional and local
      levels, together with the prevention of policies of aggression and
      ethnic cleansing and the resolution of armed conflict, is crucial for
      the protection of the human rights of women and girl children, as well
      as for the elimination of all forms of violence against them and of
      their use as a weapon of war. (para. 12)

It also states that, "the full realization of human rights and fundamental
freedoms of all women is essential for the empowerment of women." (para.9). 
But the relationship between women and peace is acknowledged by the Beijing
Platform to be reciprocal.  It says that women's "full participation in
decision-making, conflict prevention and resolution and all other peace
initiatives is essential to the realization of lasting peace." (para. 23)  It
also states that  "The equal access and full participation of women in power
structures and their full involvement in all efforts for the prevention and
resolution of conflicts are essential for the maintenance and promotion of
peace and security." (para. 134)

26.   The Member States of the United Nations thus concluded, on the basis of
recognition of these linkages, that they would "take measures to ensure
women's equal access to and full participation in power structures and
decision-making,"  in particular, by increasing the participation of women in
conflict resolution at decision-making levels.

27.   As part of the review of the critical areas of concern found in the
Platform for Action, the Commission on the Status of Women decided to consider
women in power and decision-making at its 41st session in 1997 and women in
armed conflict at its 42nd session in 1998.  To assist in the preparation for
its discussions, the present expert group meeting was convened to explore the
subject of women in political decision-making and conflict resolution. The
expert group meeting built upon the Beijing Declaration and Platform for
Action and the report of the 1994 expert group meeting on Gender and the
Agenda for Peace.

28.   There are two clearly distinct bases for increasing the participation of
women in decision-making and conflict resolution.  The expert group meeting
discussed each of the two arguments.  The experts agreed that first, and most
important, women are simply entitled to full participation with men as a basic
human right under the United Nations Charter and international human rights
instruments.  Regardless of whether women may be different from men in their
approaches to issues of peace and conflict resolution, it is their human right
to participate fully in decision-making processes.

29.   A second and separate argument is that political systems at all levels
have something to gain from the participation of women, particularly with
respect to decision-making on peace and conflict resolution, that would
otherwise be missing when it is primarily men who make such decisions.  Most
of the experts agreed that a broad range of research and experience over
several decades indicates that most women appear to have somewhat different
definitions of peace, security, and sovereignty than most men.  In general,
women's approaches to violence, conflict and the resolution of conflict appear
to be somewhat different than those of men in positions of decision-making in
peace and security matters.  It is argued that increasing the participation of
women in decision-making, especially on matters of peace, security, and
conflict resolution, has the potential to move political and international
systems closer to peace. 

30.   The expert group meeting regarded a reconsideration of some of the basic
concepts of international politics as central to the realization of this
potential. While States constitute the present framework for participatory
democracy, economic globalization is affecting the nature of the State and its
capacities.  States, which have formal responsibility for national security,
constitute the focal organizing basis of the international system, but
globalization is impinging on state sovereignty. At the same time, the
underlying causes of conflict continue to exist, among them political and
social exclusion, economic exploitation, poverty, xenophobia and nationalism. 

31.   In these circumstances, the expert group meeting concluded that a
conceptual and practical evolution in three directions is required. First, the
centrality of democracy as a means for achieving peace requires that the
gender balance in decision-making structures concerned with peace, security
and conflict resolution should be significantly altered. Second, the
importance of peace as a means for achieving democracy requires an overhaul of
the idea of what constitutes security.  Third, the absence of women from
decision-making processes indicates a value system that supports gender
stereotypes that are not conducive to peace.  It is the accepted position of
the United Nations that democracy and participatory government, as well
as full and equal participation of women, are fundamental to sustainable

32.   Without women's participation, most institutions, including those in the
United Nations system itself, are unrepresentative, as is also the case with
most State institutions. By bringing in gender-sensitive and democratic
perspectives, conventional patriarchal and hierarchical power will be
challenged. This can bring new methods of functioning and prove an example to
other multilateral and State institutions. It  can also mobilize previously
excluded and marginalized actors. This will encourage greater awareness of
gender issues, gender-based crimes, and the needs of excluded and marginalized
peoples, thereby initiating a movement toward political and cultural pluralism
which entails democratic, transparent and pluralist politics. 

33.   If peace "includes not only the absence of war, violence and hostilities
... but also the enjoyment of economic and social justice, equality and the
entire range of human rights and fundamental freedoms within society" as the
Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies state (paragraph 13), the empowerment of
people is essential and gender equality is an essential part of the democratic

34.   Conventional definitions of power  usually stress its coercive
character: being able to impose individual, group or institutional will over
others. Hierarchy and inequality are implicit in this conceptualization of
power. This understanding of power justifies existing hierarchies and
inequalities among nations and between groups within nations including the
historical exclusion of women from decision-making at the highest levels and
the dehumanization of the most marginalized segments of the population.

35.   It has been argued that traditional definitions of national security,
national interest and international conflict resolution appear to remain
prisoners of the Realpolitik model of thinking.  This model assumes that
States are the only important actors and that States' actions are only basis
for realizing global stability.  Peace and international conflict resolution
are narrowly defined to manage outbreaks of violent conflict between States,
or which threaten the continued existence of States or governments.  Conflict
resolution in this model can only be crisis-management, where the root causes
of conflict are never addressed. 
36.   A better approach is to transform the notion of national security into
one of human security. This would not only serve to expand the understanding
of what counts as security issues (thus including economic and food security,
and environmental sustainability), but would also imply bringing in a much
larger group of interested actors who have a stake in developing and
preserving democratic structures. Throughout the last two hundred years,
popular movements have demanded democratic transformation. This has been duly
recognized and encouraged by the United Nations. It is time now to take this
into the field of national security.

37.   The broadening both of democratic participation and of the concept of
security will lead to a commensurate broadening of the approach to conflict
resolution. The idea that conflict resolution can be successful if limited to
negotiations between the leaders of conflicting parties is recognized to have
serious limitations by those active in the field of conflict resolution. The
involvement of representatives of civil society and especially women's
organizations in a broader process of negotiation and reconciliation is
noticeable in the more successful examples of conflict resolution in recent

38.   The core element of a new concept of power can be summarized as a change
from the idea of that power is essentially exercised by "some over others" to
a notion that power is exercised by "each with others". This requires
fundamental changes in how relationships at the international, national,
community and household levels are experienced.  It means looking beyond
current unjust and unequal realities to what would happen if collective will
were exercised to transcend existing unjust and unequal relationships. The
loss of some power by those who have traditionally held it, will be more than
compensated by the empowerment of the marginalized many, the majority of whom
are women.

                B. When, where and how do women make a difference?

39.   The potential of women in national and international political
decision-making has not been fulfilled.  There is evidence that women can make
a visible impact on political decisions and agendas, as well as the political
culture and decision-making style when they achieve a sufficient proportion of
decision-making groups, what is termed a "critical mass," (often set as at
least 30 or 35 per cent) and when supported by active women's organizations
and groups.

40.   One of the ways in which women, based on their specific experiences, are
thought to make a difference is in the decision-making on existing political
agendas.  Another is that women, in sufficient numbers, may have a long-term
effect on the prevalent discourse of politics, the shape of the political
space, or the determination of what gets onto the political agenda.

41.   There is evidence that women in large enough numbers change the styles
used in political decision-making.  Differences in the style of all female,
mixed male-female, and all male meetings have been discovered in research and
experience both within and outside the United Nations, and in large and small

42.   On the other hand, simply adding very small numbers of women,
particularly in areas of decision-making which States deem critical to the
core interests of their security and foreign policies, does not appear to have
any differential impact on the substance or style of decision-making.

43.   Women make a difference when they undertake "critical acts," defined as
acts which change the position of women as a whole.  This may take the form of
recruiting significant numbers of other women to all levels of decision-making
and empowering women at the grass roots.  This may also take the form of
introducing new items onto the decision-making agenda, based on various
women's experiences.

44.   Whether women can make a difference also is dependent on whether the
women who enter decision-making positions have different values than men.
Clearly, some women do, some do not.  It does appear, however, that there are
some systematic differences in experiences between the majority of women and
the majority of men, and that distinct differences lie in the areas of peace,
security, and conflict resolution.  For example, a "gender gap" has long been
seen in attitude research on the use of military force.  Men seem to exhibit a
roughly 10-15 percent greater preference  for the use of military force over
that of women, in diverse situations. This has been confirmed in multiple
studies in a variety of countries and during different time periods.

45.   The predominant view today is that the significant differences in
women's and men's roles, behaviours, attitudes, and styles result from the
different social constructions of female and male identities and from their
different social positions.  These processes vary across time and space, and
are specific to each culture in which they occur.  The key factor here is the
understanding that these differences are socially constructed rather than
innate in female and male behaviour.  Thus the term gender is used to indicate
differentiation in women's and men's socially constructed and expected
identities rather than biological or innate differences between the sexes.

46.   Research has shown that human beings are neither innately aggressive nor
innately peaceful, likewise that neither men nor women are innately more
aggressive or peaceful than the other.  We learn the way we behave.  As the
UNESCO Constitution proclaims, "Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in
the minds of men that defences for peace must be constructed."  It follows
that  a culture of peace can be constructed which includes more peaceful roles
for both men and women.

47.   It does appear that most societies have constructed masculinity to be
more aggressive than femininity.  Coupled with men being more prevalent in
occupying positions of political decision-making, this has made societies more
prone to use coercive force than might be the case if women were equal
participants in decision-making.

48.   Indeed, it may be that one important explanation of the observed
differences in the style, attitudes and behaviour of most men as compared with
most women is that women have largely been excluded from power structures and
political decision-making.

        C.   Contributions of a gender perspective to decision-making 
                            and conflict resolution

49.   To bring a gender perspective to bear on decision-making and conflict
resolution is to recognize that women and men are differently involved in
them.  Much of politics and social science research has been carried on in a
way that is blind to gender difference, and gender blindness has usually meant
that men and male norms are taken to represent the norm for all human beings.
This has resulted in both making women invisible and excluding them.
Therefore, a gender perspective often means paying specific attention to
women, enabling a better understanding of the relationship between men and
women and their gendered roles and the gendered structure of society in a
specific context. Thus, a gender perspective is a way of developing a fuller
understanding of decision-making and conflict resolution.

50.   Part of applying a gender perspective involves looking at the changes
that might come about if the participation of women in decision-making and
conflict resolutions were to expand.  Among the factors which members of the
expert group considered might well change were the following:

(a)   The present conception of politics might be altered.  A conception of
power that was not primarily based on coercion but more on the development
of consensus could well develop.  There is evidence that women exhibit a
more cooperative style of decision-making, thus they are more likely to seek
consensual results.  Consensual results produced through constructive rather
than destructive struggle may well be more reasoned, are certainly less likely
to split the group or make it more difficult for it to work together later,
and are likely to make implementation of any decision easier;
(b)  Political discourse and the political culture might change.  The
metaphors by which politics are described may well change.  For example,
politics might not be described as analogous to a football game.  Meetings
might be less formal, with shorter speeches, less formal language, more to the

(c)  There might well be changes in the political agenda, with prioritizing of
issues such as social, family and community matters, environment, and
equality between the sexes;
(d)  There might well be changes in the way issues already on the political
agenda are treated, such as different priorities in defence and security

(e)  An increase in the participation of women in political decision-making
may well change the position of women as a whole in society.  New role
models will be created, and the stereotyping of women will most likely be
reduced somewhat;

(f) The reaction to women politicians is likely to change, leading to less
discrimination against them, and thus to a likely increase in their own
efficiency as they face fewer barriers, less stress, less isolation, and fewer
sexist attitudes.  

51.   The actions and participation of women might well contribute
significantly to conflict resolution specifically. The expert group meeting
found that there are countless examples of situations where women have crossed
lines of conflict that men were unwilling or unable to cross. It appears that
women, often out of concern for their children or other family members, have
been willing to face significant difficulty and danger, to contact and work
with those on the other side of a conflict in an attempt to initiate peaceful
solutions. Among the cases cited in the expert group meeting were Somalia, the
former Yugoslavia, Chechnya and Russian Federation, and Sri Lanka.  However,
while certain issues appear to unite women others, such as ethnicity,
nationalism and religion, appear to  divide them just as they divide men.  

52.   There are some indications that women have a broader view of conflict
resolution, and this may positively affect the resolution of conflict.  Women
may often see what male decision-makers fail to see, especially  the effect of
various kinds of resolution on the ground, and especially their effect on

53.   There is no expectation that applying a gender perspective to
decision-making and conflict resolution will instantly change the entire
system.  Increasing the participation of women in decision-making and shifting
gender roles so that both men and women are taught peaceful methods of
resolving conflict are likely to have important effects, but not sufficient to
bring about instant peace.  The effects, as of any social change, are likely
to be incremental.  However, applying a gender perspective and including women
equally in decision-making and conflict resolution does appear to offer
benefits to society and politics in general, not only to women.

54.    The expert group meeting unanimously agreed that while gender
difference was an important reason for increasing the participation of women,
the core reason remains the fulfilment of their human rights.  Women are
entitled to equal participation with men in decision-making and conflict
resolution simply because it is a human right.


55.    The expert group meeting structured its conclusions into
recommendations under five headings: the peace process, responses to armed
conflicts, sustaining peace, training and capacity building and promoting a
transformed view of power, security and participation.  The meeting 
concentrated on bringing forward new proposals and expanding proposals that
have already been made, occasionally choosing to emphasize the importance of
recommendations that have been incorporated into United Nations policy
documents but which have not yet been fully implemented.

56.    The expert group meeting reaffirmed the recommendation found in
paragraph 144(c) of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, which
specifies action by Governments to:

      Strengthen the role of women and ensure equal representation of women at
      all decision-making levels in national and international institutions
      which may make or influence policy with regard to matters related to
      peace-keeping, preventive diplomacy and related activities and in all
      stages of peace mediation and negotiations, taking note of the specific
      recommendations of the Secretary-General in his strategic plan of action
      for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat
      (1995-2000) (A/49/587, sect. IV).

                              A.    The peace process

57.   The expert group meeting, based on its understanding that power and
security are broader than the traditional concepts used in international
politics, concluded that the peace process was a long term process that
included monitoring and early warning of potential violent conflict,
preventive diplomacy to avert or avoid conflict turning into violence,
peacemaking where there is conflict, peace-keeping where there is agreement to
keep the peace but a danger of that peace not being kept, and peace-building
as a approach that would be used, not only in the post-conflict phase, but
throughout conflictual and non-conflictual periods to build the conditions of

58.   The expert group meeting recognized that peacemaking may well include
the forceful stoppage of violent conflict but also that, without negotiation
over the real issues underlying the conflict, such "peace" will not be more
than temporary.  It recommends that emphasis in the peacemaking area could be
best placed at the peaceful settlement end of the spectrum of power rather
than on the coercive power of enforcement.

59.   Noting that the Secretary-General's Agenda For Peace is organized around
four concepts: - preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peace-keeping, and
post-conflict peace-building  -  and that the supplement to the Agenda also
refers to the use of sanctions and enforcement power, the Expert Group Meeting
recommended that the Security Council, the UN as a whole, and Member States,
attempt to develop greater clarity on the distinct methods which might be
appropriate in each specific conflict.

60.   The Expert Group Meeting noted that approaches derived from the Agenda
have led to two distinct and perhaps contradictory trends.  On the one hand is
the approach to achieving human security through comprehensive means rather
than through military force and threat.  This approach has been widely
accepted as the UN mandate has broadened into agendas for development, human
rights, and the environment.  On the other hand, the Security Council's
definition of security in the post-Cold War period has also begun to move in
the direction of achieving collective security through military means and
greater reliance on peace enforcement.  The peace enforcement trend represents
a turning away from actions encompassed in Chapter VI of the Charter to those
permitted under Chapter VII.  The group recommends that the balance be moved
to greater UN emphasis on Chapter VI methods of peaceful settlement. 

61.   The expert group meeting also urged that the UN and Member States be
clear about the distinction between peace-keeping and enforcement, with
peace-keeping not specifically mentioned in the Charter but deriving its
mandate from somewhere between Chapter VI and Chapter VII, while enforcement
authority is provided under Chapter VII.  Peace-keeping requires the consent
of the parties involved while enforcement does not.  In traditional
peace-keeping, force is minimal and used only for self-defence; peace
enforcement employs coervice force.  Peace-keepers remain
impartial; peace enforcement is not impartial.  The expert group supported the
utility of peace-keeping, but was considerably more sceptical of the utility
of enforcement, particularly when it considered the alternative uses that
could be made of the resources utilized for it.  

62.   The expert group meeting was concerned that the label of "peace-keeping"
has been applied over the past five years to a range of United Nations
operations, including ones in which there was no peace to keep. In those
operations for which the label of "peace-keeping" is fully suitable, the
meeting recommends that the civilian component of the mission should be as
high as possible; this must be assessed on a case-by-case basis, responding to
the conditions of conflict and the nature of the disputes that originally gave
rise to violence.

63.   The Expert Group Meeting recommended that primary emphasis and priority
should be given to the peaceful settlement procedures of Chapter VI,
especially emphasizing the use of good offices, mediation and conciliation. 
Specifically, it urged an increase in budget and institutional capacity for
conflict resolution, especially third-party conflict resolution, treating
Article 33 of the UN Charter seriously  by providing the resources to make it

64.   The Meeting also urged that increased energy and resources should be
given to peace-building which averts violent conflict in addition to
post-conflict peace-building.  Linking post-conflict peace-building to
sustainable development is essential.  Most important, though, is broadening
the peace-building approach so that it prevents the outbreak of violent
conflict by removing or at least reducing the fundamental causes
of the conflict.  It urged that peace-building must not be limited to
post-conflict situations.

65.   Recognizing that the practice of conflict resolution has developed new
aspects in recent years with the emergence of informal and non-governmental
diplomacy, the Expert Group Meeting endorsed the broadening of the concept and
practice of conflict resolution, and recommended that:

(a) There should be greater involvement of women at the grassroots level in
conflict resolution and the peace process. This will ensure that the drafting
of peace agreements reflect gender concerns, including those of indigenous
women, and women and girls with disabilities and female-headed households;

(b) Women from the locality should be involved in identifying problems, and
in designing and implementing solutions as a means of more effective
development of local confidence building measures;

(c) Indigenous initiatives and processes for conflict resolution and
peace-building, especially those initiated by women, must be supported and
integrated in the peace process;  the persons who are most directly affected
and involved must be the major interpreters and resolvers of problems of peace
and security.

                      B.    Responses to armed conflicts

66.   Understanding that building the conditions of peace and preventing armed
conflict are likely to be more effective over the long term than simply
responding to armed conflict, the Expert Group Meeting recommended the
shifting of UN and Member States resources in that direction.  However, the
Meeting concluded that immediate humanitarian responses to armed conflicts are

67.   The Expert Group Meeting concluded that an immediate response to armed
conflicts must include attention to gender-specific crimes, must address the
issue of impunity of perpetrators, and must be directed to long-term
solutions.  It specifically recommended that:

(a) It is essential that the understanding that systematic use of rape in war
is a war crime comparable to terrorism and torture should be included in
international law by considering it to be included in the 1977 additional
protocol to the Geneva Convention; 

(b) Action should be taken to ensure that trials for rape and other gender
specific crimes in time of war - such as forced prostitution and sexual
slavery - happen much sooner after the offense than has so far been the norm
and to this end the High Commissioner for Human Rights should field fact
-finding teams that can accumulate evidence suitable for use in legal
procedures in cases of rape,  forced prostitution, sexual slavery and other
gender specific crimes as soon as allegations of such abuses are made.
Consideration should also be given to establishing the appropriate means of
legal redress, compensation and reparation in the country where the crimes

(c) Action against rape and against the systematic use of rape that has been
recognized as a war crime should be included as part of the terms of reference
of the planned International Criminal Court, as well as any future ad hoc
tribunals, and the procedures of those courts should include full protection
to women so that they are able to testify safely.

68.   The Expert Group Meeting concluded that a gender perspective needed to
be applied to humanitarian assistance as part of an immediate response to
armed conflict.  Specifically, it recommended that:

(a) Intergovernmental action should be taken to disseminate and implement the
UNHCR Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women. A similar set of
guidelines should be developed for the protection of women who have been
internally displaced.  These should be developed by the United Nations Special
Representative on Internally Displaced Persons with the close cooperation with
internally displaced persons and intergovernmental action should be taken to
implement them;

(b)  As part of developing this new set of guidelines, a gender sensitive
evaluation of the experiences of internally-displaced persons in conflicts
should be carried out. This work should be coordinated with the work of the
Special Representative on Internally Displaced Persons. One aim of this
evaluation should be to guarantee the participation of  internally-displaced
persons in the wider conflict resolution and reconciliation process in which
they have the most direct stake;

(c)  International aid agencies and governments should be particularly aware
of the economic, political and legal needs of women and children when
evaluating the prospects of return for refugees and internally-displaced
persons.  They should especially ensure that potential returnees have access
to information and free choice in the process of return and resettlement;

(d)  Within overall humanitarian relief efforts, the personnel of  aid
agencies and international bodies should be properly trained to recognize the
trauma of rape, forced prostitution and sexual slavery and to provide proper
resources for responding to it and its effects;

(e) International aid agencies, governments and all parties involved in the
negotiation process should recognize that as humanitarian assistance continues
in the immediate aftermath of war, it must be carefully designed so as to
minimize the risk of new conflicts between internally-displaced persons and
refugees returning home, on the one hand, and people who never fled, on the

                           C.    Sustaining peace

69.   The Expert Group Meeting agreed that the roots of peace are to be found
in a combination of economic, social, cultural and political factors. To
foster the conditions that lead to sustainable peace, the expert group meeting
recommended that:

(a) Democratic institutions must be strengthened in government and in civil
society based on the full and equal participation and representation of women.
Gender equality in independent judicial structures, civil administration, the
police and the executive should ensure transparency and accountability and
respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;

(b) The violence of economic and social deprivation should be confronted. 
Poverty and social injustices such as exclusion and discrimination weigh
particularly heavily on women.  Redressing the asymmetries of wealth within
and between countries is indispensable for addressing the root causes of
conflict in the world;

(c)  Greater coherence should be created between aid, trade and economic
policy and the redesign of those policies to meet reconstruction and
prevention needs according to national contexts.

70.   Sustaining peace also requires an effectively operating system to ensure
the enjoyment by women of their human rights.  With this in mind, the expert
group meeting recommended that:

(a) The draft of an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination Against Women to introduce the right of petition,
which is under discussion by the Commission on the Status of Women, should
be elaborated and adopted by the end of 1998;

(b)  In order to strengthen the protection, monitoring and promotion of the
human rights of women, independent and autonomous national human rights
institutions should be created where they do not exist; and coordinated with
the relevant mechanisms, institutions and activities of the United Nations

(c)  The mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women
which will expire in 1997 should be extended for a further three years and
adequate resources should be provided to enable her to carry out the mandate;

(d) Independent Commissions of Inquiry into violations of human rights
committed in the course of conflict should be established with mandates to
hold independent inquiries, establish responsibility and bring all
perpetrators to justice thereby eliminating practices that have led to

(e)  Strategic Objective I.3. of the Beijing Platform for Action on achieving
legal literacy , especially the translation of international instruments,
including the Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights, into local languages should be implemented.

71.   The promotion and implementation of economic, social and cultural rights
is essential for the development of participatory democracy and the prevention
of violent conflict.  In order to promote economic justice and prevent
violence from emerging and/or worsening, transparency and accountability of
economic institutions is essential.  The expert group meeting recommended

(a) The Economic and Social Council should regularly examine the impact of
global macro-economic trends, and especially poverty, that contribute to the
development of violent conflict;

(b) Internationally agreed standards and instruments should be used as a
condition of and a benchmark in the development of national economic policy
by governments and international bodies in reconstruction processes; 

(c) In the emerging context of war and reconstruction, structural adjustment
programmes should be redesigned to ensure that resources are available for
social development. Conditionality for reconstruction loans should be focused
on commitments by recipient governments to protect human rights, social
sector investment (particularly health and education) and groups (e.g. food
producers) whose vulnerability and poverty is increased as a result of
economic reform and war.  It is the poorest people, the majority of whom are
women, who bear the brunt of civil unrest and violence; they should not be
made to pay the highest price for reconstruction.

72.    The Expert Group Meeting reaffirmed the importance of sufficient
resources and the need to obtain them by reallocation of priorities.  It
recommended that:

(a)  Resources to promote equitable social development should be a major
priority for both donors and governments in reconstruction processes.  Aid
should be targeted for this purpose towards, for example, social development;
investment in credit, extension services and economic infrastructure; skills
development for women; and rehabilitation of demobilized troops (both men
and women) both into society and the economy;

(b)  Peace requires lower military budgets and conversion of military
expenditure should take place on the basis of reduction targets in order to
release resources for peace building activities and social development;

73.   The Expert Group Meeting stressed the importance of education for peace,
human rights and democracy as an essential means for sustaining peace. 
Education for all is a basic key to democracy in everyday life and a guarantee
of a broad basis for recruitment to decision-making positions.  Education,
formal and non-formal, in schools, in the family, through the mass media and
social institutions, is the most important process by which people can gain
the values, attitudes and behavioural patterns of a culture of peace,
provided, however that it includes and is relevant to different socio-cultural
patterns and encourages gender-sensitive interpersonal and intercultural
dialogue.  The expert group meeting recommended that:

(a) Broadly agreed international normative instruments like the UNESCO
Declaration and Integrated Framework on Education for Peace, Human Rights,
and Democracy (Geneva 1994) should be effectively implemented at all levels
of the school system and its gender perspectives strengthened;

(b)  Every available means should be employed to encourage national
authorities to implement education programmes promoting peace,
conflict-resolution and gender-sensitivity at all levels of their educational

(c)  States should be encouraged to implement educational programmes
consistent A.with the principles and premises embodied  in the  report of the
International Commission on Education for the 21st Century: "Learning, the
treasure within", (UNESCO, Paris 1995), that underlines the importance of "
learning to live together".  Specific attention to be given to actions that

(i) Promote tolerance of diversity, gender sensitivity, alternatives to
violent methods of conflict resolution; and include peace education at
all levels, especially in primary schools where lifelong attitudes to
conflict resolution take shape;

(ii) Take into account in the development of curricula and teaching
material the redefinition of concepts of power, security and national
interest provided by a gender perspective;

(iii) Promote educational, academic and research programmes, projects
and activities to recognize women's role in history, especially in
resolving violent conflicts;

(iv) Expand at all levels programmes in the area of media,
communication and public discourse that propagate learning to live
together and oppose images of violence and intolerance;  also promote
socialization of men and boys in new gender perspectives through
gender-sensitivity and gender-consciousness raising for families in all
their forms, as well as focussing on girls' socialization and questioning
traditional or imposed gender roles;

(v) Encourage organizations of the United Nations system, the private
sector and civil society institutions to develop media programming for
radio, television, the Internet, journals, other periodicals and public
discourse in all its forms for gender sensitivity;  and encourage artists
and writers to re-write, explore and interpret traditional
gender-constructive oral forms of communication and education such as
story-telling, in order to present women's vision for a culture of peace.

74.   The expert group meeting also considered that the mass media had an
important role to play in sustaining peace.  Reaffirming Strategic Objective
J.1 of the Platform for Action, the meeting recommended that the growing and
disturbing levels of violence in the media should be addressed from a gender
perspective in different fora.

75.   Stressing the importance of preventive diplomacy and the early detection
of possible violent conflict, the expert group meeting recommended that
preventive diplomacy mechanisms should be strengthened by incorporating women
on a full and equal basis.

                  D.    Training and capacity building

76.   In order to develop new approaches and methods of conflict resolution,
as well as to ensure equal participation of women and the inclusion of a
gender perspective, the importance of training and capacity building at
various levels was stressed, including: grassroots level, civil society and
NGOs, governments and the  international level.  The expert group meeting
recommended that:

(a)  Networks and programmes that can develop methods in gender sensitive
conflict resolution training and capacity building should be established and
supported by Governments and by the United Nations;

(b)  Regional women's peace monitoring bodies  should be established to
respond to conflict situations, acting as a mechanism for channelling the
concerns of the affected women to the official mediators;

(c)  Resources should be made available to strengthen the capacities and
negotiating skills of the affected women and to monitor their effective
participation in the negotiating and peace-keeping stages;

(d)  Gender and culture sensitivity training should be made compulsory for all
personnel (male and female) working in peacekeeping. Such training of
peacekeepers should be the responsibility of countries that provide
peacekeeping forces for their personnel, augmented by the United Nations. 
National governments should reform their approaches to basic military training
to  remove the more brutal aspects;

(e) All governments and decision makers should effectively include gender
sensitive training at all levels of decision-making in the society;

(f)  In countries where military service is obligatory and where opportunities
exist  for objections on grounds of conscience, one of the options available
to conscientious objectors  should be training in peace building skills. 
persons so trained should be deployed in a higher percentage on peace-keeping

               E.   Promoting a transformed view of power, security 
                                   and participation

77.  The expert group meeting was convinced of the need to promote a different
or transformed conceptualization of power and security that would reflect a
gender perspective and would ensure equal participation of women and men in
decision-making and conflict resolution, as was set out in the introduction. 
Promotion of this transformed view of power implies the rapid implementation
of United Nations principles of gender equality  in politics, economy and
society.  The expert group meeting, in considering how this transformed view
could be promoted, recommended that:

(a) Forums should be convened at the local, national and international levels
in order to discuss more fully the impact for interested actors of these
changed conceptions of power and national security;  part of these discussions
should focus explicitly on changes to curriculum at all levels of the
educational system and the results of these  discussions should be widely

(b)  Non-governmental organizations, trade unions and other institutions of
civil society should examine the concepts of power that underlie their
workings to see whether they empower or disempower ordinary people, especially
women;  they should ensure that their own political processes empower
marginalized people and especially women;

(c)  The Security Council should convene a new Summit of Heads of State or
Government to review An Agenda for Peace and its Supplement in the context
of these changed notions of  power, national security and conflict resolution;

(d)  The United Nations and other multilateral institutions should adopt
changed notions of power, security and conflict resolution and reflect them in
their plans and programmes, and encourage States and governments to do the
same through available mechanisms;

(e)  United Nations bodies should include in the integrated follow-up to
recommendations  of the World Conferences and Summits of the 1990s their
link with conflict resolution, especially in terms of addressing violence, in
promoting mainstreaming of a gender perspective and the furtherance of
revised concepts of power and security;

(f)  Weapons development, production, deployment and sales should be
registered and ultimately eliminated; as a first step, the United Nations
Register of Arms Transfers should be expanded to include production, should
be made obligatory, and should include all types of weapons;

(g)  Since a new approach to peace and international security cannot proceed
as long as weapons are excessively available to fuel conflicts, full
implementation should take place of resolutions adopted by the General
Assembly which call on Governments to register arms sales; reduce military
budgets and military arsenals; start negotiations for general and complete
disarmament; negotiate a convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons
and weapons of mass destruction, and excessively injurious weapons, and work
for a total ban on the development and production and sale of land mines.

78.   New approaches to power, security and participation imply that immediate
action has to be taken rapidly to promote equal participation of women and
equal opportunities for women to participate in all forums and peace
activities al all levels, particularly at the decision making level, including
in the United Nations Secretariat with due regard to equitable geographical
distribution in accordance with Article 101 of the Charter of the United
Nations,.  With this in mind, the expert group meeting recommended that:

(a)  The agreed target of equal participation of women in decision-making,
especially in conflict resolution, should be pursued with affirmative action
and be met by the year 2000 and that an intermediate target of 40 per cent by
the year 1998 be set and met;

(b) The Secretary-General should be requested to monitor actions and progress
towards the implementation of these targets, and to report  annually on the
progress made to the General Assembly.


                        I.   LIST OF PARTICIPANTS


Ms. Rukia Said Ali                         P.O. Box 405
                                           MA 02120
                                           Fax: (617) 742-4694
                                           Tel: (617) 739-2413

Ms. Anuradha M. Chenoy                     School of International Studies
Associate Professor                        Jawaharlal Nehru University
                                           GW3 Ganga, Uttarakhand
                                           New Delhi-110077, India
                                           Fax: (91-11) 464-6468
                                           Tel: Res (91-11) 617-7492/616-4330

Ms. Drude Dahlerup                         Department of Political Science  
Associate Professor of                     Aarhus University  
Political Science and                      Universitetisparken
Women's Studies                            DK-8000 Aarhus C
                                           Fax: (45-86) 13 98 39
                                           Tel: (45-86)  42 11 33
                                           Solsikkevej 23
                                           8240 Risskov
                                           Tel/Fax: (45-86) 17 47 99

Mr. Errol I. Miller                        Faculty of Education
Professor of Teacher Education             University of the West Indies, Mona
                                           Kingston 7, Jamaica
                                           Fax: (809) 978-4829
                                           Tel: (809) 927-2431

Ms. Eugenia Piza Lopez                     International Alert
Policy and Advocacy Manager                1 Glyn Street      
                                           London SE 11 
                                           United Kingdom
                                           Fax: (44-171) 793-7975
                                           Tel: (44-171) 793-8383

Dr. Michael Salla                          American University
                                           Peace & Conflict Resolution
                                           School of International Service
                                           1100 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
                                           Fax: (202) 885-2494
                                           Tel: (202) 885-2454

Ms. Kumudini Samuel                        1601 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
                                           Suite 700
                                           Washington D.C. 20009, USA
                                           Fax:   (202) 232-6731
                                           Tel:    (202) 232-8500
                                           After February 1997
                                           Mirje, 4 Jayaratne Ave., Colombo 5
                                           Sri Lanka
                                           Fax: (941) 580721
                                           Tel: (941) 584380

Dr. Svetlana Slapsak                       ISH/Institute for Humanistics
                                           Beethovenove 2
                                           Sankarajeva 9
                                           Fax: (386-61)   125-0475/125-4510

Dr. Carolyn Stephenson                     2424 Maile Way, Porteus 640
Associate Professor of                     University of Hawaii at Manoa
Political Science                          Honolulu, HI 96822
                                           Fax: (808) 956-6877
                                           Tel: (808) 956-8195
                                           6710 Hawaii Kai Dr. #1004
                                           Honolulu HI 96822
                                           Tel: (808) 395-5046

Dr. Sandra Whitworth                       Centre for International and 
Associate Professor                        Strategic Studies (CISS)
                                           York University
                                           North York, Ontario
                                           M3J 1P3
                                           Fax:   (416) 736-5752
                                           Tel: (416) 736-5156, ext. 46004
                                           RR #2
                                           Newington, Ontario
                                           KOC 1YO
                                           Fax: (613) 984-2213
                                           Tel: (613) 984-2213

                    Observers from the United Nations          

Mr. Juan M.Castro Magluff                  United Nations High Commissioner
Chief                                      for Refugees (UNHCR)               

                                           San Martin de Porres No. 14
                                           Ensanche Naco
                                           Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
                                           Fax: (809) 565-2577
                                           Tel: (809) 567-8454

Ms. Soknan Han Jung                        Regional Bureau for Europe and 
Deputy Chief, Division 1                   the Commonwealth Independent States
                                           United Nations Development
                                           304 East 45th Street 4th Floor
                                           New York, NY 10017
                                           Fax: (212) 906-6267 or 906-6595
                                           Tel: (212) 906-5151

Ms. Comfort Lamptey                        Political Empowerment Section 
                                           304 East 45th Street, 6th Floor
                                           New York, NY 10017
                                           Fax: (212) 906-6705
                                           Tel: (212) 906-6891

Ms. Terry Morel                            United Nations High Commissioner
Regional Adviser on                        Refugees (UNHCR)
Refugee Women                              Apartado Postal 12 Lecosa
                                           1009 San Jose', Costa Rica
                                           Fax: (506) 224-4891
                                           Tel: (506) 234-2021/234-2022

Ms. Sonia Munoz                            United Nations High Commissioner
                                           for Protection Officer 
                                           Refugees (UNHCR)
                                           San Martin de Porres No. 14
                                           Ensanche Naco
                                           Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
                                           Fax: (809) 565-2577
                                           Tel: (809) 567-8454

Ms. Joan Seymour                           Security Council Practices and
Chief                                      Charter Research Branch,
                                           Department of Political Affairs    

                                           United Nations, Room S-3558A
                                           New York, NY 10017
                                           Fax: (212) 963-6174
                                           Tel: (212) 963-5395
Ms. Eva Irene Tuft                         United Nations International
Consultant                                 Research and Training Institute for
                                           the Advancement of Women
                                           Calle Ce'sar Nicola's Penson 
                                           No. 102-A
                                           Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
                                           Fax: (809) 685-2117
                                           Tel: (809) 685-2111

Observers from non-governmental organizations

Ms. Georgina Ashworth                      CHANGE
Director                                   5, Central Bldgs, Rye Lane, London
                                           SE 15 5 DW, United Kingdom
                                           Fax: (44-171) 277 61 87
                                           Telephone: (44-171) 227-6187

Ms. Berit Kyllingstad Collet               Quaker United Nations Office
Associate Quaker                           777 United Nations Plaza
UN Representative                          New York, NY 10017
                                           Fax: (212) 983-0034
                                           Tel: (212) 682-2745

Dr. Claire Fulcher                         International Federation of
                                           Business & Professional Women
                                           130 East 18th Street, Suite 3F
                                           New York, NY 10003-2418
                                           Fax: (212) 533-9124
                                           Tel:  (212) 533-9124

Dra. Martha Olga Garcia                    Calle 31 Deste No. 9
Consultant to the Senate on                la Castellana
Women Issues                               (Correspondence to be sent to:
                                           Calle Mustafa' Khemal Ataturk 
                                           No. 46                              
                                           Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 
                                           Tel:   (809) 541-0382

Ms. Elise Judith Kant                      The Netherlands Special Programme
Consultant                                 Women & Development
                                           Ministry of Foreign Affairs
                                           C/o CBM/BT
                                           P.O. Box 20061
                                           2500 EB The Hague
                                           The Netherlands
                                           Fax: (31-70) 348-6463
                                           Tel:  (31-23) 561-6299

Ms. Maja Mischke                           Gender, Conflict and Development
Project Officer                            Vrouwenberaad
                                           P.O. Box 77
                                           2340 AB Oegstgeest
                                           The Netherlands
                                           Fax: (31-71) 517-5391
                                           Tel:  (31-71) 515-9392
                                           Email: vbos4@antenna.n1

Ms. Maria Cristina Nogufra                 Apartado Postal 25344
                                           Santo Domingo 
                                           Dominican Republic 
                                           Fax: (809) 562-9112
                                           Tel: (809) 562-9085

Ms. Mary S. Power                          Baha'i International Community
Representative to the                      866 United Nations Plaza
United Nations                             Suite 120
                                           New York, NY 10017
                                           Fax: (212) 803-2566
                                           Tel: (212) 803-2500

Ms. Lucero Quiroga                         Area de la Mujer
Coordinadora de ONG's del                  Calle Santiago No. 503, Gazcue
Area de la Mujer                           Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 
                                           Fax: (809) 682-9844
                                           Tel: (809) 682-9721

Ms. Maria Cristina Sara-Serrano            United Nations' Disabled
                                           Peoples' International
                                           P.O. Box 48
                                           Mt. Tremper, NY 12457
                                           Fax:   (914) 688-2678
                                           Tel:    (914) 688-7879

Ms. Eleni Stamiris                         Women and Youth Programme
Director                                   Commonwealth Secretariat
                                           Marborough House, Pall Mall
                                           London SW1Y 5HX
                                           United Kingdom
                                           Fax: (44-171) 747-6460
                                           Tel: (44-171) 930-1647

Dr. Maj Britt Theorin                      European Parliament
Member of European Parliament              93-113, rue Belliard B-1047
                                           Fax: (32-2) 284-9661
                                           Tel: (32-2) 284-5661
                                           Fax (33-8) 817-9661
                                           Tel: (33-8) 817-5661
                                           10012 Stokholm, Sweden
                                           Fax:   (46-8) 21 15 24
                                           Tel:    (46-8) 786-4360
                                           Fax: (46-8) 34 63 40
                                           Tel: (46-8) 34 64 30
                                           Mobil: 070-586 43 60

Ms. Cora Weiss                             Samuel Rubin Foundation
President                                  777 United Nations Plaza
                                           Fax: (212) 682-0886
                                           Tel: (212) 697-8945

Ms. June A. Willenz                        Committee on Women
Chairperson                                World Veterans Federation
                                           6309 Bannockbum Dr.
                                           Bethesda, Md. 20817
                                           Tel & Fax: (301) 320-6490

Meeting organizers

Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW)
United Nations

Mr. John Mathiason                         Division for the Advancement of
Deputy Director                            Women 
                                           Department for Policy Coordination
                                           and Sustainable Development
                                           Two UN Plaza Room DC2-1250
                                           New York, NY 10017
                                           Fax: (212) 963-3463
                                           Tel: (212) 963-3171

Ms. Dorota Gierycz                         Division for the Advancement of
Social Affairs Officer                     Women
                                           Department for Policy Coordination
                                           and Sustainable Development
                                           Two UN Plaza Room DC2-1230
                                           New York, NY 10017
                                           Fax: (212) 963-3463
                                           Tel: (212) 963-5913

International Peace Research 
Institute Oslo, Norway (PRIO)

Mr. Dan Smith                              International Peace Research
Director                                   Institute (PRIO)
                                           Fuglehauggt 11,0260 Oslo, Norway
                                           Fax: (47 22) 54 77 01
                                           Tel: (47 22) 54 77 00

Ms. Inger Skjelsbaek                       International Peace Research
Assistant to the Director                  Institute (PRIO)
                                           Fuglehauggt, 11,0260 Oslo, Norway
                                           Fax: (47-22) 54 77 01 
                                           Tel: (47 22) 54 77 00

United Nations International Research
and Training Institute for the Advancement
of Women (INSTRAW)

Mrs. Martha Duen~as Loza                   INSTRAW
Acting Director                            Ce'sar Nicola`s Penson 102-A
                                           Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
                                           Fax: (809) 685 2117
                                           Tel: (809) 685 2111

United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Ms. Ingeborg Breines                       Women and a Culture of Peace
Director                                   7, Place de Fontenoy
                                           75352 Paris 07 SP, France
                                           Fax: (33-1) 4065-9330
                                           Tel: (33-1) 4568-1212

INSTRAW Support Staff

Mrs. Blanca Jiemenez                       
Acting Administrative Officer

Mrs. Elsa Miura                            
Public Information Unit

Mrs. Grace de Pen~a
Conference Officer

Mrs. Jeannie Pou                           
Public Information Unit

Mrs. Maria Eugenia Tayabas


Information Papers

EGM/PDCR/1996/INF.1                 Programme of Work

EGM/PDCR/1996/INF.2                 List of Participants

EGM/PDCR/1996/INF.3                 List of Documents

Working Papers

EGM/PDCR/1996/WP.1                  Gender Differences in Decision-making and 
                                    Conflict Resolution: United Nations
                                    Knowledge and Practice after Beijing.
                                    Prepared by United Nations Division
                                    for the Advancement of Women, DAW

EGM/PDCR/1996/WP.2                  The Problem of Essentialism
                                    Prepared by Dan Smith, the International
                                    Peace Research Institute in Oslo, Norway   

EGM/PDCR/1996/WP.3                  Is Feminist Inherently Peaceful?
                                    Prepared by Inger Skjelsbaek,
                                    International Peace Research Institute 
                                    in Oslo, Norway

Experts' Papers

EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.1                  Promoting "Peace, Security and Conflict    
                                    Resolution": Altering the Gender Balance
                                    in Decision-Making Structures
                                    Prepared by Anuradha M. Chenoy
                                    and Achin Vanaik

EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.2                  Gender Difference in Conflict Resolution:
                                    The Case of Sri Lanka
                                    Paper prepared byKumudini Samuel

EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.3                  Women & War, Men & Pacifism
                                    Paper prepared by Michael E. Salla

EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.4                  Gender Difference in Conflict Resolution
                                    Paper prepared by Carolyn M. Stephenson

EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.5                  Political Decision-Making and Conflict
                                    Resolution: The Impact of Gender
                                    Paper prepared by Rukia Said Ali
EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.6                  The Nigerian Military and Women in
                                    Paper prepared by Margaret
                                    Anderinsola Vogt

Observers' Papers

EGM/PDCR/1996/OP.1                  The Gender Gap in Political
                                    Challenges of Transition in Eastern
                                    Europe and CIS
                                    Paper prepared by Soknan Han Jung

EGM/PDRC/1996/OP.2                  A Never Ending Story.
                                    Paper prepared by Maj Britt Theorin

EGM/PDCR/1996/OP.3                  History of World Veterans Federation 
                                    Standing Committee on Women: A Case
                                    Paper prepared by June A. Willenz

Background Papers

EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.1                  Silence Kills, Let's Speak for Peace
                                    Paper prepared by Svetlana Slapsak

EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.2                  Children and Armed Conflict in Colombia
                                    Paper prepared by Edgar Augusto Ardila A.
                                    and Eva Irene Tuft

EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.3                  From a Small to a Large Minority:
                                    Women in Scandinavian Politics
                                    Paper prepared by Drude Dahlerup

EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.4                  Gender, Race and the Politics of
                                    Prepared by Sandra Whitworth

EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.5                  Gender, Conflict and Development
                                    - an exploration
                                    Paper prepared by Project Group Gender,
                                    Conflict and Development of
                                    Presented by Maja Mischke

                           III.    AGENDA OF THE MEETING

Monday, 7 October 1996:

10.00 a.m -       1. Opening formalities.               John Mathiason (DAW)
11.15 a.m:           Introduction to themes & purpose   Martha Duenas-Loza
                     of meeting                         (INSTRAW)

11.15 a.m -       Coffee break
11.30 a.m:
                  2. Overview of broad themes:
                     .  The state of knowledge and      Dorota Gierycz (DAW) 
                     .  Gender and the culture of peace Ingeborg Breines       
                     .  The problem of essentialism     Dan Smith (PRIO)
                  3. Election of Officers.                     

1.00 p.m:         Lunch

3.00 p.m -        4. Gender difference & Political      Anuradha Chenoy/Errol
                     behaviour:                         L. Miller 
6.00 p.m:            .  Women in decision making        Maj Britt Theorin
                     .  Critical mass & Critical        Drude Dahlerup

4.15 p.m -        Coffee break
4.30 p.m:

Tuesday, 8 October 1996:

10.00 a.m -        5. Gender difference & Violence:
11.15 a.m:           .  Women & War                      Inger Skjelsbaek
                     .  Men & pacifism                   Michael Salla
                     .  The gendered shape of security   Sandra Whitworth/
                        policy and high politics         Comfort Lamptey

11.15 a.m -           Coffee break
11.30 a.m:

1.00 p.m:             Lunch

3.00 p.m -
6.00 p.m:

4.15 p.m -            Coffee break
4.30 p.m:

Wednesday, 9 October 1996:

10.00 a.m -     6. Gender difference in conflict resolution Carolyn Stephenson
11.15 a.m:             Case studies:-
                       .    Bosnia                         Svetlana Slapsak
                       .    Somalia                        Rukia Said Ali
                       .    Sri Lanka                      Kumudini Samuel
                       .    Colombia                       Eva Irene Tuft,
                       .    Humanitarian relief situation  Eugenia Piza Lopez

11.15 a.m -           Coffee break
11.30 a.m:

1.00 p.m:             Lunch 

3.00 p.m -            7.  Discussion of cases, themes, generalizations
6.00 p.m:

4.15 p.m -            Coffee break
4.30 p.m:

Thursday, 10 October 1996:

10.00 a.m -           8.     Policy recommendations: drafting
11.15 a.m:

11.15 a.m -           Coffee break
11.30 a.m:

1.00 p.m:             Lunch break

3.00 p.m -
6.00 p.m:

4.15 p.m -            Coffee break
4.30 p.m:

Friday, 11 October 1996:

10.00 a.m -           9.     Policy recommendations/Report: adoption 



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