EGM/PRDC/1996/REP.1 7 November 1996 UNITED NATIONS DIVISION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN INTERNATIONAL PEACE RESEARCH INSTITUTE, OSLO EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON POLITICAL DECISION-MAKING AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION: THE IMPACT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE SANTO DOMINGO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 7-11 OCTOBER 1996 CONTENTS Paragraphs Preface............................................................ 1 - 8 I. Organization of Work.................................... 9 - 23 A. Attendance......................................... 9 - 10 B. Documentation...................... ............... 11 C. Adoption of the agenda............................. 12 D. Election of officers............................... 13 E. Opening statements................................. 14 - 23 II. Summary of debate....................................... 24 - 54 A. Introduction........................................ 24 - 38 B. When, where and how do women make a difference?..... 39 - 48 C. Contributions of a gender perspective to decision-making and conflict resolution............................. 49 - 54 III. Conclusions and Recommendations........................................... 55 - 78 A. The peace process................................... 57 - 65 B. Responses to armed conflicts........................ 66 - 68 C. Sustaining peace.................................... 69 - 75 D. Training and capacity building...................... 76 E. Promoting a transformed view of power, security and participation....................................... 77 - 78 Annexes Pages I. List of Participants.................................... 27 - 36 II. List of Documents....................................... 37 - 39 III. Agenda of the Meeting................................... 40 - 42 PREFACE 1. The issue of gender difference in political decision-making and conflict resolution: the Impact of gender difference, is a part of the broader problem of gender equality in all spheres of political participation and decision-making which have been analysed by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) since 1989 and discussed by the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) in 1989, 1990, 1992, 1993 and 1995, as well as by expert group meetings in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1995. 2. The Expert Group Meeting on "Political Decision-Making and Conflict Resolution: The Impact of Gender Difference" followed up on previous expert group meetings and reports and was organized in accordance with the provisions of the Beijing Platform for Action. The Platform for Action noted that "Despite the widespread movement towards democratization in most countries, women are largely under represented at most levels of government, especially in ministerial and other executive bodies, and have made little progress in attaining political power in legislative bodies or in achieving the target endorsed by the Economic and Social Council of having 30% women in positions at the decision-making levels by 1995". 3. The data indicate that in the areas of political decision-making related to peace, security and conflict resolution, at both national and international levels, the situation is even worse than in some other fields, and amounts to almost complete absence of women. This exclusion has consequences for women and for society in general. From the human rights perspective, it contradicts international standards of equality and prevents women from enjoying their rights to be full citizens of their countries and full participants in world governance. It also deprives the world community of women's distinct perspectives and contributions to the resolution of key global problems, and as the Platform for Action states ".....Without the active participation of women and the incorporation of women's perspective at all levels of decision-making, the goals of equality, development and peace cannot be achieved" (para. 182). 4. In order to redress this situation the Platform calls for action to "........promote equal participation of women and equal opportunities for women to participate in all forums and peace activities at all levels, particularly at the decision-making level...."(para. 142, a), to "Strengthen the role of women and ensure equal representation of women at all decision- making levels in national and international institutions which may make or influence policy with regard to matters related to peace-keeping, preventive diplomacy and related activities and in all stages of peace mediation and negotiations....." (para.144, c) and to ".....Integrate a gender perspective in the resolution of armed or other conflicts......." (para. 142, b). 5. The fact that the Meeting was jointly organized by the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) and the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO), a mainstream research institute set an example for mainstreaming and translated "the concept into practical action" (A/51/322, para 7). 6. On the basis of the existing literature and the state of theoretical knowledge in the relevant academic disciplines and inter disciplinary fields, the Meeting examined gender differences in men's and women's participation in decision-making, in particular in the areas of peace, security and conflict resolution in terms of setting political agendas and priorities; influencing the content of decisions, and outcome of negotiations; as well as managerial/leadership, style and working climate. 7. In this context and in view of women's gross under-representation at the decision-making levels in all these areas the Meeting also examined case-studies of examples where women as individuals or in formal or informal organizations and associations, have brought different priorities, experiences and perspectives to influence and affect the political process, sustain peace and built post-conflict reconciliation. 8. The Meeting also considered the policy implications of those gender differences and elaborated a set of recommendations. 1. ORGANIZATION OF WORK A. Attendance 9. The Expert Group Meeting on "Political Decision-Making and Conflict Resolution: The Impact of Gender Difference", was held at INSTRAW, Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, from 7 to 11 October 1996. It was organized by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women/Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DAW/DPCSD) and the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO) in cooperation with the United Nations International Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 10. The meeting was attended by 10 experts representing all regions, and 23 observers: 7 from the UN system and 14 from non-governmental organizations (see annex I for list of participants). B. Documentation 11. The documentation of the Meeting comprised 3 working papers prepared by organizers; 6 experts' papers; 3 observers' papers; and 5 background papers prepared by the participants for other meetings and submitted because of their relevance (see annex II). C. Adoption of the agenda 12. At its first plenary session on 7 October 1996 the Meeting adopted the agenda as follows (see annex III): - Opening of the Meeting - Adoption of the agenda - Introduction to themes and purpose of meeting - Overview of broad themes: . the state of knowledge and practice . gender and a culture of peace . the problem of essentialism - Election of officers - General debate - Gender difference and political behaviour: . women in decision-making . critical mass . critical action - Gender difference and Violence: . women and war . men and pacifism . the gendered shape of security policy . high policies - Gender difference in conflict resolution: . Bosnia . Somalia . Sri Lanka . Colombia . Humanitarian relief situation - Discussion in informal groups - Completion of draft report - Adoption of Report of the Expert Group Meeting - Closing of the Meeting D. Election of Officers 13. At the first plenary session the Meeting elected the following officers to the Bureau: Chairperson: Ms. Eugenia Piza Lopez Mexico Vice-Chairperson Mr. Michael Salla Australia Rapporteur Ms. Carolyn Stephenson USA E. Opening statements 14. In his opening statement, Mr. Mathiason, Deputy Director, United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), recalled that the Commission on the Status of Women would be taking up the issue of women in power and decision-making at its next session and that the work of the expert group meeting would serve as an input into that discussion. He noted that the specific question of women and conflict resolution had grown in importance as a result of Beijing. Since women were largely absent from decision-making on peace and security issues, it had not been possible to establish gender differences in approaches to conflict resolution. Without some understanding of those issues, the value added by women to decision-making processes would not be clear and the matter of equality in participation in decision-making would be based purely on abstract rights. He stated that the expert group meeting had been set up to bring together both new theoretical perspectives on the issue and practical recommendations drawn from experience. 15. In her opening statement, Mrs. Martha Duen~as Loza, Acting Director of INSTRAW welcomed the participants to the Meeting. She emphasized that conflict and decision-making were complex non-linear processes; that women's participation was considered marginal, although women have always been active participants in these processes or been affected by their consequences. Women's invisibility also resulted from the existing structures of decision-making and conflict resolution. Thus, the meeting should discuss the possibility of creating new structures that would allow women and men to have a voice on an equal basis and would help to overcome the stereotyped roles of women and men, as passive victims and as violent actors respectively. She also remarked that gender was not a biological but a social condition. 16. She further emphasized that the meeting should address the underlying causes of conflicts, including the contradictory and parallel processes of rapid development and growing disparities within and between nation states and addressing persistent gender inequalities. The Meeting should also focus on women's participation in decision-making and conflict resolution at the international, national and local levels, and in such important sectors as the military and the arms-production industry. The recommendations resulting from this Expert Group Meeting should be useful for both, theory and practice, and could contribute to the changes towards peace. 17. In her opening statement, Ms. Dorota Gierycz, Social Affairs Officer, United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), introduced a paper entitled "Gender differences in decision-making and conflict resolution: United Nations knowledge and practice after Beijing", in which she presented the historical evolution of the topic of women, decision-making and peace in the United Nations, since the creation of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) in 1946. She also presented the main arguments for gender balanced participation in decision-making and conflict resolution first: human rights argument and a "gender difference" argument. The approach was based on the right of every person without discrimination to vote and to hold office and public function. It also reflected the equal right of women to participate in politics and decision-making at national and international levels together with men, in accordance with the international standards of equality reflected in articles 7 and 8 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This rights-based approach pointed out to the gap between the de jure and de facto situation of women in the area of decision-making, one of the widest among all areas of human rights. 18. A "gender difference" argument led to the examination of consequences of the exclusion of women from the decision-making bodies for societies. The results showed that if women were represented in large enough numbers in the decision-making arena (constituting what has been termed a critical mass, estimated at a level of at least 30 to 35 per cent in decision-making bodies), they have visible impact on the political style and the content of decisions. 19. She concluded that this hypothesis needed to be further studied in order to prove that "gender difference" played indeed, an important role in decision-making, conflict resolution and governance, in particular, because a major part of the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action involves understanding gender analysis key issues, including those related to peace and conflict resolution. 20. In his opening statement, Mr. Dan Smith, Director of the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO), presented a paper entitled "On Essentialism" in which he explored the philosophical perspectives underlying the claim that women's role was determined by biology. He drew the parallels between this attitude, racism and certain kinds of aggressive nationalism, all falsely claiming to know the essential nature of people's identities. His critique began with the point that, if essentialism was to be believed, and human nature was fixed by biology and birth, then change was impossible, which also meant that reconciliation was out of the question. Therefore, essentialism could not be believed. He pointed out that there was an abundance of empirical research and theoretical reflection to show that peoples' social identity was much less fixed than often supposed, that was multiple, changeable and ambiguous. Precisely because identity was complex he claimed that there was hope of people changing, of justice being created out of unjust situations, of conflict ending in reconciliation. 21. However, he argued, the recognition of the dangers of essentialism in philosophies of power and aggression should also alert us to the risks entailed in using essentialist arguments to support peace and justice. There was an important distinction between generalisations which allow for exceptions, and claimed universal rules that allow for no exceptions. He concluded that it was necessary to take a more scientific and less ideological approach to, for example, understanding differences in attitude between men and women on issues of war and peace. 22. Ms. Ingeborg Breines, Director of Women and a Culture of Peace in UNESCO, presented UNESCO's programme: "Towards a Culture of Peace" from a gender perspective. She also referred to the statement on women's contribution to a culture of peace, that had been presented to the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing by UNESCO and since then broadly disseminated. She further pointed to education as the most important process by which people could gain the values, attitudes and behavioural patterns conducive for the development of a culture of peace. She then underlined the importance of long term preventive actions, such as gender-sensitive education for peace, human rights and democracy at different levels of the educational system. She also presented a series of UNESCO's activities related to the newly developed notion of "learning to live together". 23. She further referred to various post-conflict peace-building projects and initiatives involving women in Africa, Latin-America and the Caribbean. Finally, she pointed out to the difference in the socialization of women and men and its impact on developments towards a culture of peace and emphasized the negative impact of traditional male roles which should be discussed by the Meeting. II. SUMMARY OF DEBATE A. Introduction 24. The United Nations Charter affirms a commitment to the "equal rights of men and women." The equality of men and women is integrally related to peace, security, and sustainable development, as was made clear when the Member States of the United Nations designated the themes of International Women's Year and the Decade of Women as "Equality, Development, and Peace." The relationship between women and peace is reciprocal and the Beijing Platform for Action adopted by the Fourth World Conference on Women recognizes the linkages between the empowerment and participation of women and the achievement of peace. 25. The Platform for Action affirms the multiple linkages between women's status and peace when it states, The maintenance of peace and security at the global, regional and local levels, together with the prevention of policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing and the resolution of armed conflict, is crucial for the protection of the human rights of women and girl children, as well as for the elimination of all forms of violence against them and of their use as a weapon of war. (para. 12) It also states that, "the full realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms of all women is essential for the empowerment of women." (para.9). But the relationship between women and peace is acknowledged by the Beijing Platform to be reciprocal. It says that women's "full participation in decision-making, conflict prevention and resolution and all other peace initiatives is essential to the realization of lasting peace." (para. 23) It also states that "The equal access and full participation of women in power structures and their full involvement in all efforts for the prevention and resolution of conflicts are essential for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security." (para. 134) 26. The Member States of the United Nations thus concluded, on the basis of recognition of these linkages, that they would "take measures to ensure women's equal access to and full participation in power structures and decision-making," in particular, by increasing the participation of women in conflict resolution at decision-making levels. 27. As part of the review of the critical areas of concern found in the Platform for Action, the Commission on the Status of Women decided to consider women in power and decision-making at its 41st session in 1997 and women in armed conflict at its 42nd session in 1998. To assist in the preparation for its discussions, the present expert group meeting was convened to explore the subject of women in political decision-making and conflict resolution. The expert group meeting built upon the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the report of the 1994 expert group meeting on Gender and the Agenda for Peace. 28. There are two clearly distinct bases for increasing the participation of women in decision-making and conflict resolution. The expert group meeting discussed each of the two arguments. The experts agreed that first, and most important, women are simply entitled to full participation with men as a basic human right under the United Nations Charter and international human rights instruments. Regardless of whether women may be different from men in their approaches to issues of peace and conflict resolution, it is their human right to participate fully in decision-making processes. 29. A second and separate argument is that political systems at all levels have something to gain from the participation of women, particularly with respect to decision-making on peace and conflict resolution, that would otherwise be missing when it is primarily men who make such decisions. Most of the experts agreed that a broad range of research and experience over several decades indicates that most women appear to have somewhat different definitions of peace, security, and sovereignty than most men. In general, women's approaches to violence, conflict and the resolution of conflict appear to be somewhat different than those of men in positions of decision-making in peace and security matters. It is argued that increasing the participation of women in decision-making, especially on matters of peace, security, and conflict resolution, has the potential to move political and international systems closer to peace. 30. The expert group meeting regarded a reconsideration of some of the basic concepts of international politics as central to the realization of this potential. While States constitute the present framework for participatory democracy, economic globalization is affecting the nature of the State and its capacities. States, which have formal responsibility for national security, constitute the focal organizing basis of the international system, but globalization is impinging on state sovereignty. At the same time, the underlying causes of conflict continue to exist, among them political and social exclusion, economic exploitation, poverty, xenophobia and nationalism. 31. In these circumstances, the expert group meeting concluded that a conceptual and practical evolution in three directions is required. First, the centrality of democracy as a means for achieving peace requires that the gender balance in decision-making structures concerned with peace, security and conflict resolution should be significantly altered. Second, the importance of peace as a means for achieving democracy requires an overhaul of the idea of what constitutes security. Third, the absence of women from decision-making processes indicates a value system that supports gender stereotypes that are not conducive to peace. It is the accepted position of the United Nations that democracy and participatory government, as well as full and equal participation of women, are fundamental to sustainable peace. 32. Without women's participation, most institutions, including those in the United Nations system itself, are unrepresentative, as is also the case with most State institutions. By bringing in gender-sensitive and democratic perspectives, conventional patriarchal and hierarchical power will be challenged. This can bring new methods of functioning and prove an example to other multilateral and State institutions. It can also mobilize previously excluded and marginalized actors. This will encourage greater awareness of gender issues, gender-based crimes, and the needs of excluded and marginalized peoples, thereby initiating a movement toward political and cultural pluralism which entails democratic, transparent and pluralist politics. 33. If peace "includes not only the absence of war, violence and hostilities ... but also the enjoyment of economic and social justice, equality and the entire range of human rights and fundamental freedoms within society" as the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies state (paragraph 13), the empowerment of people is essential and gender equality is an essential part of the democratic transformation. 34. Conventional definitions of power usually stress its coercive character: being able to impose individual, group or institutional will over others. Hierarchy and inequality are implicit in this conceptualization of power. This understanding of power justifies existing hierarchies and inequalities among nations and between groups within nations including the historical exclusion of women from decision-making at the highest levels and the dehumanization of the most marginalized segments of the population. 35. It has been argued that traditional definitions of national security, national interest and international conflict resolution appear to remain prisoners of the Realpolitik model of thinking. This model assumes that States are the only important actors and that States' actions are only basis for realizing global stability. Peace and international conflict resolution are narrowly defined to manage outbreaks of violent conflict between States, or which threaten the continued existence of States or governments. Conflict resolution in this model can only be crisis-management, where the root causes of conflict are never addressed. 36. A better approach is to transform the notion of national security into one of human security. This would not only serve to expand the understanding of what counts as security issues (thus including economic and food security, and environmental sustainability), but would also imply bringing in a much larger group of interested actors who have a stake in developing and preserving democratic structures. Throughout the last two hundred years, popular movements have demanded democratic transformation. This has been duly recognized and encouraged by the United Nations. It is time now to take this into the field of national security. 37. The broadening both of democratic participation and of the concept of security will lead to a commensurate broadening of the approach to conflict resolution. The idea that conflict resolution can be successful if limited to negotiations between the leaders of conflicting parties is recognized to have serious limitations by those active in the field of conflict resolution. The involvement of representatives of civil society and especially women's organizations in a broader process of negotiation and reconciliation is noticeable in the more successful examples of conflict resolution in recent years. 38. The core element of a new concept of power can be summarized as a change from the idea of that power is essentially exercised by "some over others" to a notion that power is exercised by "each with others". This requires fundamental changes in how relationships at the international, national, community and household levels are experienced. It means looking beyond current unjust and unequal realities to what would happen if collective will were exercised to transcend existing unjust and unequal relationships. The loss of some power by those who have traditionally held it, will be more than compensated by the empowerment of the marginalized many, the majority of whom are women. B. When, where and how do women make a difference? 39. The potential of women in national and international political decision-making has not been fulfilled. There is evidence that women can make a visible impact on political decisions and agendas, as well as the political culture and decision-making style when they achieve a sufficient proportion of decision-making groups, what is termed a "critical mass," (often set as at least 30 or 35 per cent) and when supported by active women's organizations and groups. 40. One of the ways in which women, based on their specific experiences, are thought to make a difference is in the decision-making on existing political agendas. Another is that women, in sufficient numbers, may have a long-term effect on the prevalent discourse of politics, the shape of the political space, or the determination of what gets onto the political agenda. 41. There is evidence that women in large enough numbers change the styles used in political decision-making. Differences in the style of all female, mixed male-female, and all male meetings have been discovered in research and experience both within and outside the United Nations, and in large and small groups. 42. On the other hand, simply adding very small numbers of women, particularly in areas of decision-making which States deem critical to the core interests of their security and foreign policies, does not appear to have any differential impact on the substance or style of decision-making. 43. Women make a difference when they undertake "critical acts," defined as acts which change the position of women as a whole. This may take the form of recruiting significant numbers of other women to all levels of decision-making and empowering women at the grass roots. This may also take the form of introducing new items onto the decision-making agenda, based on various women's experiences. 44. Whether women can make a difference also is dependent on whether the women who enter decision-making positions have different values than men. Clearly, some women do, some do not. It does appear, however, that there are some systematic differences in experiences between the majority of women and the majority of men, and that distinct differences lie in the areas of peace, security, and conflict resolution. For example, a "gender gap" has long been seen in attitude research on the use of military force. Men seem to exhibit a roughly 10-15 percent greater preference for the use of military force over that of women, in diverse situations. This has been confirmed in multiple studies in a variety of countries and during different time periods. 45. The predominant view today is that the significant differences in women's and men's roles, behaviours, attitudes, and styles result from the different social constructions of female and male identities and from their different social positions. These processes vary across time and space, and are specific to each culture in which they occur. The key factor here is the understanding that these differences are socially constructed rather than innate in female and male behaviour. Thus the term gender is used to indicate differentiation in women's and men's socially constructed and expected identities rather than biological or innate differences between the sexes. 46. Research has shown that human beings are neither innately aggressive nor innately peaceful, likewise that neither men nor women are innately more aggressive or peaceful than the other. We learn the way we behave. As the UNESCO Constitution proclaims, "Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that defences for peace must be constructed." It follows that a culture of peace can be constructed which includes more peaceful roles for both men and women. 47. It does appear that most societies have constructed masculinity to be more aggressive than femininity. Coupled with men being more prevalent in occupying positions of political decision-making, this has made societies more prone to use coercive force than might be the case if women were equal participants in decision-making. 48. Indeed, it may be that one important explanation of the observed differences in the style, attitudes and behaviour of most men as compared with most women is that women have largely been excluded from power structures and political decision-making. C. Contributions of a gender perspective to decision-making and conflict resolution 49. To bring a gender perspective to bear on decision-making and conflict resolution is to recognize that women and men are differently involved in them. Much of politics and social science research has been carried on in a way that is blind to gender difference, and gender blindness has usually meant that men and male norms are taken to represent the norm for all human beings. This has resulted in both making women invisible and excluding them. Therefore, a gender perspective often means paying specific attention to women, enabling a better understanding of the relationship between men and women and their gendered roles and the gendered structure of society in a specific context. Thus, a gender perspective is a way of developing a fuller understanding of decision-making and conflict resolution. 50. Part of applying a gender perspective involves looking at the changes that might come about if the participation of women in decision-making and conflict resolutions were to expand. Among the factors which members of the expert group considered might well change were the following: (a) The present conception of politics might be altered. A conception of power that was not primarily based on coercion but more on the development of consensus could well develop. There is evidence that women exhibit a more cooperative style of decision-making, thus they are more likely to seek consensual results. Consensual results produced through constructive rather than destructive struggle may well be more reasoned, are certainly less likely to split the group or make it more difficult for it to work together later, and are likely to make implementation of any decision easier; (b) Political discourse and the political culture might change. The metaphors by which politics are described may well change. For example, politics might not be described as analogous to a football game. Meetings might be less formal, with shorter speeches, less formal language, more to the point; (c) There might well be changes in the political agenda, with prioritizing of issues such as social, family and community matters, environment, and equality between the sexes; (d) There might well be changes in the way issues already on the political agenda are treated, such as different priorities in defence and security policy; (e) An increase in the participation of women in political decision-making may well change the position of women as a whole in society. New role models will be created, and the stereotyping of women will most likely be reduced somewhat; (f) The reaction to women politicians is likely to change, leading to less discrimination against them, and thus to a likely increase in their own efficiency as they face fewer barriers, less stress, less isolation, and fewer sexist attitudes. 51. The actions and participation of women might well contribute significantly to conflict resolution specifically. The expert group meeting found that there are countless examples of situations where women have crossed lines of conflict that men were unwilling or unable to cross. It appears that women, often out of concern for their children or other family members, have been willing to face significant difficulty and danger, to contact and work with those on the other side of a conflict in an attempt to initiate peaceful solutions. Among the cases cited in the expert group meeting were Somalia, the former Yugoslavia, Chechnya and Russian Federation, and Sri Lanka. However, while certain issues appear to unite women others, such as ethnicity, nationalism and religion, appear to divide them just as they divide men. 52. There are some indications that women have a broader view of conflict resolution, and this may positively affect the resolution of conflict. Women may often see what male decision-makers fail to see, especially the effect of various kinds of resolution on the ground, and especially their effect on women. 53. There is no expectation that applying a gender perspective to decision-making and conflict resolution will instantly change the entire system. Increasing the participation of women in decision-making and shifting gender roles so that both men and women are taught peaceful methods of resolving conflict are likely to have important effects, but not sufficient to bring about instant peace. The effects, as of any social change, are likely to be incremental. However, applying a gender perspective and including women equally in decision-making and conflict resolution does appear to offer benefits to society and politics in general, not only to women. 54. The expert group meeting unanimously agreed that while gender difference was an important reason for increasing the participation of women, the core reason remains the fulfilment of their human rights. Women are entitled to equal participation with men in decision-making and conflict resolution simply because it is a human right. III. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 55. The expert group meeting structured its conclusions into recommendations under five headings: the peace process, responses to armed conflicts, sustaining peace, training and capacity building and promoting a transformed view of power, security and participation. The meeting concentrated on bringing forward new proposals and expanding proposals that have already been made, occasionally choosing to emphasize the importance of recommendations that have been incorporated into United Nations policy documents but which have not yet been fully implemented. 56. The expert group meeting reaffirmed the recommendation found in paragraph 144(c) of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, which specifies action by Governments to: Strengthen the role of women and ensure equal representation of women at all decision-making levels in national and international institutions which may make or influence policy with regard to matters related to peace-keeping, preventive diplomacy and related activities and in all stages of peace mediation and negotiations, taking note of the specific recommendations of the Secretary-General in his strategic plan of action for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat (1995-2000) (A/49/587, sect. IV). A. The peace process 57. The expert group meeting, based on its understanding that power and security are broader than the traditional concepts used in international politics, concluded that the peace process was a long term process that included monitoring and early warning of potential violent conflict, preventive diplomacy to avert or avoid conflict turning into violence, peacemaking where there is conflict, peace-keeping where there is agreement to keep the peace but a danger of that peace not being kept, and peace-building as a approach that would be used, not only in the post-conflict phase, but throughout conflictual and non-conflictual periods to build the conditions of peace. 58. The expert group meeting recognized that peacemaking may well include the forceful stoppage of violent conflict but also that, without negotiation over the real issues underlying the conflict, such "peace" will not be more than temporary. It recommends that emphasis in the peacemaking area could be best placed at the peaceful settlement end of the spectrum of power rather than on the coercive power of enforcement. 59. Noting that the Secretary-General's Agenda For Peace is organized around four concepts: - preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peace-keeping, and post-conflict peace-building - and that the supplement to the Agenda also refers to the use of sanctions and enforcement power, the Expert Group Meeting recommended that the Security Council, the UN as a whole, and Member States, attempt to develop greater clarity on the distinct methods which might be appropriate in each specific conflict. 60. The Expert Group Meeting noted that approaches derived from the Agenda have led to two distinct and perhaps contradictory trends. On the one hand is the approach to achieving human security through comprehensive means rather than through military force and threat. This approach has been widely accepted as the UN mandate has broadened into agendas for development, human rights, and the environment. On the other hand, the Security Council's definition of security in the post-Cold War period has also begun to move in the direction of achieving collective security through military means and greater reliance on peace enforcement. The peace enforcement trend represents a turning away from actions encompassed in Chapter VI of the Charter to those permitted under Chapter VII. The group recommends that the balance be moved to greater UN emphasis on Chapter VI methods of peaceful settlement. 61. The expert group meeting also urged that the UN and Member States be clear about the distinction between peace-keeping and enforcement, with peace-keeping not specifically mentioned in the Charter but deriving its mandate from somewhere between Chapter VI and Chapter VII, while enforcement authority is provided under Chapter VII. Peace-keeping requires the consent of the parties involved while enforcement does not. In traditional peace-keeping, force is minimal and used only for self-defence; peace enforcement employs coervice force. Peace-keepers remain impartial; peace enforcement is not impartial. The expert group supported the utility of peace-keeping, but was considerably more sceptical of the utility of enforcement, particularly when it considered the alternative uses that could be made of the resources utilized for it. 62. The expert group meeting was concerned that the label of "peace-keeping" has been applied over the past five years to a range of United Nations operations, including ones in which there was no peace to keep. In those operations for which the label of "peace-keeping" is fully suitable, the meeting recommends that the civilian component of the mission should be as high as possible; this must be assessed on a case-by-case basis, responding to the conditions of conflict and the nature of the disputes that originally gave rise to violence. 63. The Expert Group Meeting recommended that primary emphasis and priority should be given to the peaceful settlement procedures of Chapter VI, especially emphasizing the use of good offices, mediation and conciliation. Specifically, it urged an increase in budget and institutional capacity for conflict resolution, especially third-party conflict resolution, treating Article 33 of the UN Charter seriously by providing the resources to make it work. 64. The Meeting also urged that increased energy and resources should be given to peace-building which averts violent conflict in addition to post-conflict peace-building. Linking post-conflict peace-building to sustainable development is essential. Most important, though, is broadening the peace-building approach so that it prevents the outbreak of violent conflict by removing or at least reducing the fundamental causes of the conflict. It urged that peace-building must not be limited to post-conflict situations. 65. Recognizing that the practice of conflict resolution has developed new aspects in recent years with the emergence of informal and non-governmental diplomacy, the Expert Group Meeting endorsed the broadening of the concept and practice of conflict resolution, and recommended that: (a) There should be greater involvement of women at the grassroots level in conflict resolution and the peace process. This will ensure that the drafting of peace agreements reflect gender concerns, including those of indigenous women, and women and girls with disabilities and female-headed households; (b) Women from the locality should be involved in identifying problems, and in designing and implementing solutions as a means of more effective development of local confidence building measures; (c) Indigenous initiatives and processes for conflict resolution and peace-building, especially those initiated by women, must be supported and integrated in the peace process; the persons who are most directly affected and involved must be the major interpreters and resolvers of problems of peace and security. B. Responses to armed conflicts 66. Understanding that building the conditions of peace and preventing armed conflict are likely to be more effective over the long term than simply responding to armed conflict, the Expert Group Meeting recommended the shifting of UN and Member States resources in that direction. However, the Meeting concluded that immediate humanitarian responses to armed conflicts are essential. 67. The Expert Group Meeting concluded that an immediate response to armed conflicts must include attention to gender-specific crimes, must address the issue of impunity of perpetrators, and must be directed to long-term solutions. It specifically recommended that: (a) It is essential that the understanding that systematic use of rape in war is a war crime comparable to terrorism and torture should be included in international law by considering it to be included in the 1977 additional protocol to the Geneva Convention; (b) Action should be taken to ensure that trials for rape and other gender specific crimes in time of war - such as forced prostitution and sexual slavery - happen much sooner after the offense than has so far been the norm and to this end the High Commissioner for Human Rights should field fact -finding teams that can accumulate evidence suitable for use in legal procedures in cases of rape, forced prostitution, sexual slavery and other gender specific crimes as soon as allegations of such abuses are made. Consideration should also be given to establishing the appropriate means of legal redress, compensation and reparation in the country where the crimes occur; (c) Action against rape and against the systematic use of rape that has been recognized as a war crime should be included as part of the terms of reference of the planned International Criminal Court, as well as any future ad hoc tribunals, and the procedures of those courts should include full protection to women so that they are able to testify safely. 68. The Expert Group Meeting concluded that a gender perspective needed to be applied to humanitarian assistance as part of an immediate response to armed conflict. Specifically, it recommended that: (a) Intergovernmental action should be taken to disseminate and implement the UNHCR Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women. A similar set of guidelines should be developed for the protection of women who have been internally displaced. These should be developed by the United Nations Special Representative on Internally Displaced Persons with the close cooperation with internally displaced persons and intergovernmental action should be taken to implement them; (b) As part of developing this new set of guidelines, a gender sensitive evaluation of the experiences of internally-displaced persons in conflicts should be carried out. This work should be coordinated with the work of the Special Representative on Internally Displaced Persons. One aim of this evaluation should be to guarantee the participation of internally-displaced persons in the wider conflict resolution and reconciliation process in which they have the most direct stake; (c) International aid agencies and governments should be particularly aware of the economic, political and legal needs of women and children when evaluating the prospects of return for refugees and internally-displaced persons. They should especially ensure that potential returnees have access to information and free choice in the process of return and resettlement; (d) Within overall humanitarian relief efforts, the personnel of aid agencies and international bodies should be properly trained to recognize the trauma of rape, forced prostitution and sexual slavery and to provide proper resources for responding to it and its effects; (e) International aid agencies, governments and all parties involved in the negotiation process should recognize that as humanitarian assistance continues in the immediate aftermath of war, it must be carefully designed so as to minimize the risk of new conflicts between internally-displaced persons and refugees returning home, on the one hand, and people who never fled, on the other; C. Sustaining peace 69. The Expert Group Meeting agreed that the roots of peace are to be found in a combination of economic, social, cultural and political factors. To foster the conditions that lead to sustainable peace, the expert group meeting recommended that: (a) Democratic institutions must be strengthened in government and in civil society based on the full and equal participation and representation of women. Gender equality in independent judicial structures, civil administration, the police and the executive should ensure transparency and accountability and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; (b) The violence of economic and social deprivation should be confronted. Poverty and social injustices such as exclusion and discrimination weigh particularly heavily on women. Redressing the asymmetries of wealth within and between countries is indispensable for addressing the root causes of conflict in the world; (c) Greater coherence should be created between aid, trade and economic policy and the redesign of those policies to meet reconstruction and prevention needs according to national contexts. 70. Sustaining peace also requires an effectively operating system to ensure the enjoyment by women of their human rights. With this in mind, the expert group meeting recommended that: (a) The draft of an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women to introduce the right of petition, which is under discussion by the Commission on the Status of Women, should be elaborated and adopted by the end of 1998; (b) In order to strengthen the protection, monitoring and promotion of the human rights of women, independent and autonomous national human rights institutions should be created where they do not exist; and coordinated with the relevant mechanisms, institutions and activities of the United Nations system; (c) The mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women which will expire in 1997 should be extended for a further three years and adequate resources should be provided to enable her to carry out the mandate; (d) Independent Commissions of Inquiry into violations of human rights committed in the course of conflict should be established with mandates to hold independent inquiries, establish responsibility and bring all perpetrators to justice thereby eliminating practices that have led to impunity; (e) Strategic Objective I.3. of the Beijing Platform for Action on achieving legal literacy , especially the translation of international instruments, including the Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, into local languages should be implemented. 71. The promotion and implementation of economic, social and cultural rights is essential for the development of participatory democracy and the prevention of violent conflict. In order to promote economic justice and prevent violence from emerging and/or worsening, transparency and accountability of economic institutions is essential. The expert group meeting recommended that: (a) The Economic and Social Council should regularly examine the impact of global macro-economic trends, and especially poverty, that contribute to the development of violent conflict; (b) Internationally agreed standards and instruments should be used as a condition of and a benchmark in the development of national economic policy by governments and international bodies in reconstruction processes; (c) In the emerging context of war and reconstruction, structural adjustment programmes should be redesigned to ensure that resources are available for social development. Conditionality for reconstruction loans should be focused on commitments by recipient governments to protect human rights, social sector investment (particularly health and education) and groups (e.g. food producers) whose vulnerability and poverty is increased as a result of economic reform and war. It is the poorest people, the majority of whom are women, who bear the brunt of civil unrest and violence; they should not be made to pay the highest price for reconstruction. 72. The Expert Group Meeting reaffirmed the importance of sufficient resources and the need to obtain them by reallocation of priorities. It recommended that: (a) Resources to promote equitable social development should be a major priority for both donors and governments in reconstruction processes. Aid should be targeted for this purpose towards, for example, social development; investment in credit, extension services and economic infrastructure; skills development for women; and rehabilitation of demobilized troops (both men and women) both into society and the economy; (b) Peace requires lower military budgets and conversion of military expenditure should take place on the basis of reduction targets in order to release resources for peace building activities and social development; 73. The Expert Group Meeting stressed the importance of education for peace, human rights and democracy as an essential means for sustaining peace. Education for all is a basic key to democracy in everyday life and a guarantee of a broad basis for recruitment to decision-making positions. Education, formal and non-formal, in schools, in the family, through the mass media and social institutions, is the most important process by which people can gain the values, attitudes and behavioural patterns of a culture of peace, provided, however that it includes and is relevant to different socio-cultural patterns and encourages gender-sensitive interpersonal and intercultural dialogue. The expert group meeting recommended that: (a) Broadly agreed international normative instruments like the UNESCO Declaration and Integrated Framework on Education for Peace, Human Rights, and Democracy (Geneva 1994) should be effectively implemented at all levels of the school system and its gender perspectives strengthened; (b) Every available means should be employed to encourage national authorities to implement education programmes promoting peace, conflict-resolution and gender-sensitivity at all levels of their educational system; (c) States should be encouraged to implement educational programmes consistent A.with the principles and premises embodied in the report of the International Commission on Education for the 21st Century: "Learning, the treasure within", (UNESCO, Paris 1995), that underlines the importance of " learning to live together". Specific attention to be given to actions that (i) Promote tolerance of diversity, gender sensitivity, alternatives to violent methods of conflict resolution; and include peace education at all levels, especially in primary schools where lifelong attitudes to conflict resolution take shape; (ii) Take into account in the development of curricula and teaching material the redefinition of concepts of power, security and national interest provided by a gender perspective; (iii) Promote educational, academic and research programmes, projects and activities to recognize women's role in history, especially in resolving violent conflicts; (iv) Expand at all levels programmes in the area of media, communication and public discourse that propagate learning to live together and oppose images of violence and intolerance; also promote socialization of men and boys in new gender perspectives through gender-sensitivity and gender-consciousness raising for families in all their forms, as well as focussing on girls' socialization and questioning traditional or imposed gender roles; (v) Encourage organizations of the United Nations system, the private sector and civil society institutions to develop media programming for radio, television, the Internet, journals, other periodicals and public discourse in all its forms for gender sensitivity; and encourage artists and writers to re-write, explore and interpret traditional gender-constructive oral forms of communication and education such as story-telling, in order to present women's vision for a culture of peace. 74. The expert group meeting also considered that the mass media had an important role to play in sustaining peace. Reaffirming Strategic Objective J.1 of the Platform for Action, the meeting recommended that the growing and disturbing levels of violence in the media should be addressed from a gender perspective in different fora. 75. Stressing the importance of preventive diplomacy and the early detection of possible violent conflict, the expert group meeting recommended that preventive diplomacy mechanisms should be strengthened by incorporating women on a full and equal basis. D. Training and capacity building 76. In order to develop new approaches and methods of conflict resolution, as well as to ensure equal participation of women and the inclusion of a gender perspective, the importance of training and capacity building at various levels was stressed, including: grassroots level, civil society and NGOs, governments and the international level. The expert group meeting recommended that: (a) Networks and programmes that can develop methods in gender sensitive conflict resolution training and capacity building should be established and supported by Governments and by the United Nations; (b) Regional women's peace monitoring bodies should be established to respond to conflict situations, acting as a mechanism for channelling the concerns of the affected women to the official mediators; (c) Resources should be made available to strengthen the capacities and negotiating skills of the affected women and to monitor their effective participation in the negotiating and peace-keeping stages; (d) Gender and culture sensitivity training should be made compulsory for all personnel (male and female) working in peacekeeping. Such training of peacekeepers should be the responsibility of countries that provide peacekeeping forces for their personnel, augmented by the United Nations. National governments should reform their approaches to basic military training to remove the more brutal aspects; (e) All governments and decision makers should effectively include gender sensitive training at all levels of decision-making in the society; (f) In countries where military service is obligatory and where opportunities exist for objections on grounds of conscience, one of the options available to conscientious objectors should be training in peace building skills. persons so trained should be deployed in a higher percentage on peace-keeping missions. E. Promoting a transformed view of power, security and participation 77. The expert group meeting was convinced of the need to promote a different or transformed conceptualization of power and security that would reflect a gender perspective and would ensure equal participation of women and men in decision-making and conflict resolution, as was set out in the introduction. Promotion of this transformed view of power implies the rapid implementation of United Nations principles of gender equality in politics, economy and society. The expert group meeting, in considering how this transformed view could be promoted, recommended that: (a) Forums should be convened at the local, national and international levels in order to discuss more fully the impact for interested actors of these changed conceptions of power and national security; part of these discussions should focus explicitly on changes to curriculum at all levels of the educational system and the results of these discussions should be widely disseminated; (b) Non-governmental organizations, trade unions and other institutions of civil society should examine the concepts of power that underlie their workings to see whether they empower or disempower ordinary people, especially women; they should ensure that their own political processes empower marginalized people and especially women; (c) The Security Council should convene a new Summit of Heads of State or Government to review An Agenda for Peace and its Supplement in the context of these changed notions of power, national security and conflict resolution; (d) The United Nations and other multilateral institutions should adopt changed notions of power, security and conflict resolution and reflect them in their plans and programmes, and encourage States and governments to do the same through available mechanisms; (e) United Nations bodies should include in the integrated follow-up to recommendations of the World Conferences and Summits of the 1990s their link with conflict resolution, especially in terms of addressing violence, in promoting mainstreaming of a gender perspective and the furtherance of revised concepts of power and security; (f) Weapons development, production, deployment and sales should be registered and ultimately eliminated; as a first step, the United Nations Register of Arms Transfers should be expanded to include production, should be made obligatory, and should include all types of weapons; (g) Since a new approach to peace and international security cannot proceed as long as weapons are excessively available to fuel conflicts, full implementation should take place of resolutions adopted by the General Assembly which call on Governments to register arms sales; reduce military budgets and military arsenals; start negotiations for general and complete disarmament; negotiate a convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction, and excessively injurious weapons, and work for a total ban on the development and production and sale of land mines. 78. New approaches to power, security and participation imply that immediate action has to be taken rapidly to promote equal participation of women and equal opportunities for women to participate in all forums and peace activities al all levels, particularly at the decision making level, including in the United Nations Secretariat with due regard to equitable geographical distribution in accordance with Article 101 of the Charter of the United Nations,. With this in mind, the expert group meeting recommended that: (a) The agreed target of equal participation of women in decision-making, especially in conflict resolution, should be pursued with affirmative action and be met by the year 2000 and that an intermediate target of 40 per cent by the year 1998 be set and met; (b) The Secretary-General should be requested to monitor actions and progress towards the implementation of these targets, and to report annually on the progress made to the General Assembly. ANNEXES I. LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Experts Ms. Rukia Said Ali P.O. Box 405 Roxbury MA 02120 Fax: (617) 742-4694 Tel: (617) 739-2413 Ms. Anuradha M. Chenoy School of International Studies Associate Professor Jawaharlal Nehru University Campus GW3 Ganga, Uttarakhand New Delhi-110077, India Fax: (91-11) 464-6468 Tel: Res (91-11) 617-7492/616-4330 Ms. Drude Dahlerup Department of Political Science Associate Professor of Aarhus University Political Science and Universitetisparken Women's Studies DK-8000 Aarhus C Denmark Fax: (45-86) 13 98 39 Tel: (45-86) 42 11 33 Email: email@example.com Private Solsikkevej 23 8240 Risskov Denmark Tel/Fax: (45-86) 17 47 99 Mr. Errol I. Miller Faculty of Education Professor of Teacher Education University of the West Indies, Mona Kingston 7, Jamaica Fax: (809) 978-4829 Tel: (809) 927-2431 Email: Emiller@uwimma.edu.jm Ms. Eugenia Piza Lopez International Alert Policy and Advocacy Manager 1 Glyn Street London SE 11 United Kingdom Fax: (44-171) 793-7975 Tel: (44-171) 793-8383 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Michael Salla American University Peace & Conflict Resolution Programme School of International Service 1100 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Fax: (202) 885-2494 Tel: (202) 885-2454 Email: email@example.com Ms. Kumudini Samuel 1601 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Suite 700 Washington D.C. 20009, USA Fax: (202) 232-6731 Tel: (202) 232-8500 Email: Shilpini@lanka.gn.apc.org After February 1997 Mirje, 4 Jayaratne Ave., Colombo 5 Sri Lanka Fax: (941) 580721 Tel: (941) 584380 Dr. Svetlana Slapsak ISH/Institute for Humanistics Lublijana Beethovenove 2 Sankarajeva 9 Fax: (386-61) 125-0475/125-4510 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Carolyn Stephenson 2424 Maile Way, Porteus 640 Associate Professor of University of Hawaii at Manoa Political Science Honolulu, HI 96822 Fax: (808) 956-6877 Tel: (808) 956-8195 Private 6710 Hawaii Kai Dr. #1004 Honolulu HI 96822 Tel: (808) 395-5046 Dr. Sandra Whitworth Centre for International and Associate Professor Strategic Studies (CISS) York University North York, Ontario M3J 1P3 Fax: (416) 736-5752 Tel: (416) 736-5156, ext. 46004 Email: Sandraw@Yorku.ca Private RR #2 Newington, Ontario KOC 1YO Fax: (613) 984-2213 Tel: (613) 984-2213 Observers from the United Nations Mr. Juan M.Castro Magluff United Nations High Commissioner Chief for Refugees (UNHCR) San Martin de Porres No. 14 Ensanche Naco Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Fax: (809) 565-2577 Tel: (809) 567-8454 Ms. Soknan Han Jung Regional Bureau for Europe and Deputy Chief, Division 1 the Commonwealth Independent States (RBEC) United Nations Development Programme 304 East 45th Street 4th Floor New York, NY 10017 Fax: (212) 906-6267 or 906-6595 Tel: (212) 906-5151 Email: email@example.com Ms. Comfort Lamptey Political Empowerment Section UNIFEM 304 East 45th Street, 6th Floor New York, NY 10017 Fax: (212) 906-6705 Tel: (212) 906-6891 Email: Comfort.firstname.lastname@example.org Ms. Terry Morel United Nations High Commissioner Regional Adviser on Refugees (UNHCR) Refugee Women Apartado Postal 12 Lecosa 1009 San Jose', Costa Rica Fax: (506) 224-4891 Tel: (506) 234-2021/234-2022 Ms. Sonia Munoz United Nations High Commissioner for Protection Officer Refugees (UNHCR) San Martin de Porres No. 14 Ensanche Naco Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Fax: (809) 565-2577 Tel: (809) 567-8454 Ms. Joan Seymour Security Council Practices and Chief Charter Research Branch, Department of Political Affairs United Nations, Room S-3558A New York, NY 10017 Fax: (212) 963-6174 Tel: (212) 963-5395 Email: email@example.com Ms. Eva Irene Tuft United Nations International Consultant Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women Calle Ce'sar Nicola's Penson No. 102-A Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Fax: (809) 685-2117 Tel: (809) 685-2111 Observers from non-governmental organizations Ms. Georgina Ashworth CHANGE Director 5, Central Bldgs, Rye Lane, London SE 15 5 DW, United Kingdom Fax: (44-171) 277 61 87 Telephone: (44-171) 227-6187 Ms. Berit Kyllingstad Collet Quaker United Nations Office Associate Quaker 777 United Nations Plaza UN Representative New York, NY 10017 Fax: (212) 983-0034 Tel: (212) 682-2745 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Claire Fulcher International Federation of Business & Professional Women (IFBPW) 130 East 18th Street, Suite 3F New York, NY 10003-2418 Fax: (212) 533-9124 Tel: (212) 533-9124 Dra. Martha Olga Garcia Calle 31 Deste No. 9 Consultant to the Senate on la Castellana Women Issues (Correspondence to be sent to: Calle Mustafa' Khemal Ataturk No. 46 Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Tel: (809) 541-0382 Ms. Elise Judith Kant The Netherlands Special Programme Consultant Women & Development Ministry of Foreign Affairs C/o CBM/BT P.O. Box 20061 2500 EB The Hague The Netherlands Fax: (31-70) 348-6463 Tel: (31-23) 561-6299 Email: email@example.com Ms. Maja Mischke Gender, Conflict and Development Project Officer Vrouwenberaad Ontwikkelingssamenwerking/WIDF P.O. Box 77 2340 AB Oegstgeest The Netherlands Fax: (31-71) 517-5391 Tel: (31-71) 515-9392 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Ms. Maria Cristina Nogufra Apartado Postal 25344 Santo Domingo Dominican Republic Fax: (809) 562-9112 Tel: (809) 562-9085 Ms. Mary S. Power Baha'i International Community Representative to the 866 United Nations Plaza United Nations Suite 120 New York, NY 10017 Fax: (212) 803-2566 Tel: (212) 803-2500 Email: email@example.com Ms. Lucero Quiroga Area de la Mujer Coordinadora de ONG's del Calle Santiago No. 503, Gazcue Area de la Mujer Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Fax: (809) 682-9844 Tel: (809) 682-9721 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Ms. Maria Cristina Sara-Serrano United Nations' Disabled Peoples' International P.O. Box 48 Mt. Tremper, NY 12457 Fax: (914) 688-2678 Tel: (914) 688-7879 Email: email@example.com Ms. Eleni Stamiris Women and Youth Programme Director Commonwealth Secretariat Marborough House, Pall Mall London SW1Y 5HX United Kingdom Fax: (44-171) 747-6460 Tel: (44-171) 930-1647 Dr. Maj Britt Theorin European Parliament Member of European Parliament 93-113, rue Belliard B-1047 Bruxelles Fax: (32-2) 284-9661 Tel: (32-2) 284-5661 Strasbourg Fax (33-8) 817-9661 Tel: (33-8) 817-5661 Riksdagen 10012 Stokholm, Sweden Fax: (46-8) 21 15 24 Tel: (46-8) 786-4360 Private Fax: (46-8) 34 63 40 Tel: (46-8) 34 64 30 Mobil: 070-586 43 60 Ms. Cora Weiss Samuel Rubin Foundation President 777 United Nations Plaza Fax: (212) 682-0886 Tel: (212) 697-8945 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Ms. June A. Willenz Committee on Women Chairperson World Veterans Federation 6309 Bannockbum Dr. Bethesda, Md. 20817 Tel & Fax: (301) 320-6490 Meeting organizers Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) United Nations Mr. John Mathiason Division for the Advancement of Deputy Director Women Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development Two UN Plaza Room DC2-1250 New York, NY 10017 Fax: (212) 963-3463 Tel: (212) 963-3171 Ms. Dorota Gierycz Division for the Advancement of Social Affairs Officer Women Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development Two UN Plaza Room DC2-1230 New York, NY 10017 Fax: (212) 963-3463 Tel: (212) 963-5913 Email: email@example.com International Peace Research Institute Oslo, Norway (PRIO) Mr. Dan Smith International Peace Research Director Institute (PRIO) Fuglehauggt 11,0260 Oslo, Norway Fax: (47 22) 54 77 01 Tel: (47 22) 54 77 00 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Ms. Inger Skjelsbaek International Peace Research Assistant to the Director Institute (PRIO) Fuglehauggt, 11,0260 Oslo, Norway Fax: (47-22) 54 77 01 Tel: (47 22) 54 77 00 Email: email@example.com United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) Mrs. Martha Duen~as Loza INSTRAW Acting Director Ce'sar Nicola`s Penson 102-A Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Fax: (809) 685 2117 Tel: (809) 685 2111 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Ms. Ingeborg Breines Women and a Culture of Peace Director 7, Place de Fontenoy 75352 Paris 07 SP, France Fax: (33-1) 4065-9330 Tel: (33-1) 4568-1212 INSTRAW Support Staff Mrs. Blanca Jiemenez Acting Administrative Officer Mrs. Elsa Miura Public Information Unit Mrs. Grace de Pen~a Conference Officer Mrs. Jeannie Pou Public Information Unit Mrs. Maria Eugenia Tayabas Secretary II. LIST OF DOCUMENTS Information Papers EGM/PDCR/1996/INF.1 Programme of Work EGM/PDCR/1996/INF.2 List of Participants EGM/PDCR/1996/INF.3 List of Documents Working Papers EGM/PDCR/1996/WP.1 Gender Differences in Decision-making and Conflict Resolution: United Nations Knowledge and Practice after Beijing. Prepared by United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, DAW EGM/PDCR/1996/WP.2 The Problem of Essentialism Prepared by Dan Smith, the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo, Norway EGM/PDCR/1996/WP.3 Is Feminist Inherently Peaceful? Prepared by Inger Skjelsbaek, International Peace Research Institute in Oslo, Norway Experts' Papers EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.1 Promoting "Peace, Security and Conflict Resolution": Altering the Gender Balance in Decision-Making Structures Prepared by Anuradha M. Chenoy and Achin Vanaik EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.2 Gender Difference in Conflict Resolution: The Case of Sri Lanka Paper prepared byKumudini Samuel EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.3 Women & War, Men & Pacifism Paper prepared by Michael E. Salla EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.4 Gender Difference in Conflict Resolution Paper prepared by Carolyn M. Stephenson EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.5 Political Decision-Making and Conflict Resolution: The Impact of Gender Difference Paper prepared by Rukia Said Ali EGM/PDCR/1996/EP.6 The Nigerian Military and Women in Politics Paper prepared by Margaret Anderinsola Vogt Observers' Papers EGM/PDCR/1996/OP.1 The Gender Gap in Political Decision-Making: Challenges of Transition in Eastern Europe and CIS Paper prepared by Soknan Han Jung EGM/PDRC/1996/OP.2 A Never Ending Story. Paper prepared by Maj Britt Theorin EGM/PDCR/1996/OP.3 History of World Veterans Federation Standing Committee on Women: A Case Study Paper prepared by June A. Willenz Background Papers EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.1 Silence Kills, Let's Speak for Peace Paper prepared by Svetlana Slapsak EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.2 Children and Armed Conflict in Colombia Paper prepared by Edgar Augusto Ardila A. and Eva Irene Tuft EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.3 From a Small to a Large Minority: Women in Scandinavian Politics Paper prepared by Drude Dahlerup EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.4 Gender, Race and the Politics of Peacekeeping Prepared by Sandra Whitworth EGM/PDCR/1996/BP.5 Gender, Conflict and Development - an exploration Paper prepared by Project Group Gender, Conflict and Development of Vrouwenberaad Ontwikkingssamenwerking Presented by Maja Mischke III. AGENDA OF THE MEETING Monday, 7 October 1996: 10.00 a.m - 1. Opening formalities. John Mathiason (DAW) 11.15 a.m: Introduction to themes & purpose Martha Duenas-Loza of meeting (INSTRAW) 11.15 a.m - Coffee break 11.30 a.m: 2. Overview of broad themes: . The state of knowledge and Dorota Gierycz (DAW) practice . Gender and the culture of peace Ingeborg Breines (UNESCO) . The problem of essentialism Dan Smith (PRIO) 3. Election of Officers. 1.00 p.m: Lunch 3.00 p.m - 4. Gender difference & Political Anuradha Chenoy/Errol behaviour: L. Miller 6.00 p.m: . Women in decision making Maj Britt Theorin . Critical mass & Critical Drude Dahlerup action 4.15 p.m - Coffee break 4.30 p.m: Tuesday, 8 October 1996: 10.00 a.m - 5. Gender difference & Violence: 11.15 a.m: . Women & War Inger Skjelsbaek . Men & pacifism Michael Salla . The gendered shape of security Sandra Whitworth/ policy and high politics Comfort Lamptey (UNIFEM) 11.15 a.m - Coffee break 11.30 a.m: 1.00 p.m: Lunch 3.00 p.m - 6.00 p.m: 4.15 p.m - Coffee break 4.30 p.m: Wednesday, 9 October 1996: 10.00 a.m - 6. Gender difference in conflict resolution Carolyn Stephenson 11.15 a.m: Case studies:- . Bosnia Svetlana Slapsak . Somalia Rukia Said Ali . Sri Lanka Kumudini Samuel . Colombia Eva Irene Tuft, (INSTRAW) . Humanitarian relief situation Eugenia Piza Lopez 11.15 a.m - Coffee break 11.30 a.m: 1.00 p.m: Lunch 3.00 p.m - 7. Discussion of cases, themes, generalizations 6.00 p.m: 4.15 p.m - Coffee break 4.30 p.m: Thursday, 10 October 1996: 10.00 a.m - 8. Policy recommendations: drafting 11.15 a.m: 11.15 a.m - Coffee break 11.30 a.m: 1.00 p.m: Lunch break 3.00 p.m - 6.00 p.m: 4.15 p.m - Coffee break 4.30 p.m: Friday, 11 October 1996: 10.00 a.m - 9. Policy recommendations/Report: adoption
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