Chapter I

                MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC AND
                  SOCIAL COUNCIL OR BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION


                             A.  Draft resolutions

1.   The Commission on the Status of Women recommends to the Economic and
Social Council the adoption of the following draft resolutions:


                              DRAFT RESOLUTION I

                              Palestinian women*

     The Economic and Social Council,

     Having considered with appreciation the report of the Secretary-General
on the situation of and assistance to Palestinian women, 1/

     Recalling the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of
Women, 2/ in particular paragraph 260 concerning Palestinian women and
children, and the Beijing Platform for Action adopted by the Fourth World
Conference on Women, 3/

     Recalling also its resolution 1995/30 of 25 July 1995 and other relevant
United Nations resolutions,

     Recalling the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against
Women 4/ as it concerns the protection for civilian populations,

     Welcoming the signing by the Palestine Liberation Organization and the
Government of Israel of the Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arrangements, 5/ in Washington, D.C., on 13 September 1993,
as well as all subsequent agreements reached between the two parties,

     Concerned about the continuing difficult situation of Palestinian women
in the occupied Palestinian territory, including Jerusalem, and about the
severe consequences of continuous Israeli illegal settlements activities, as
well as the harsh economic conditions and other consequences for the situation
of Palestine women and their families, resulting from the frequent closure and
isolation of the occupied territory,

     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 57-61.

     1/   E/CN.6/1996/8.

     2/   Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the
Achiements of the United Nations Decade for Women:  Equality, Development and
Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1986 (United Nations publication, Sales No.
E.85.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

     3/   Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.

     4/   General Assembly resolution 48/104.

     5/   A/48/486-S/26560, annex.


     1.  Recognizes the gradual, positive changes that are taking place as a
result of the implementation of the agreements between the two parties;

     2.  Reaffirms that the Israeli occupation continues to constitute a
major obstacle to the advancement and self-reliance of Palestinian women and
their integration in the development planning of their society;

     3.  Demands that Israel, the occupying Power, comply fully with the
provisions and principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 
the Hague Conventions 7/  and the Geneva Convention relative to the
protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, 8/ in
order to protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families;

     4.  Calls upon Israel to facilitate the return of all refugee and
displaced Palestinian women and children to their homes and properties in the
occupied Palestinian territory, in compliance with relevant United Nations
resolutions;

     5.  Urges Member States, financial organizations of the United Nations
system, non-governmental organizations and other relevant institutions to
intensify their efforts to provide financial and technical assistance to
Palestinian women for the creation of projects responding to their needs,
especially during the transitional period;

     6.  Requests the Commission on the Status of Women to continue to
monitor and take action on the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies for the Advancement of Women, 2/ in particular paragraph 260
concerning Palestinian women and children, and the Beijing Platform for
Action; 3/

     7.  Requests the Secretary-General to continue to review the situation
and to assist Palestinian women by all available means, and to submit to the
Commission on the Status of Women at its forty-first session a report on
progress made in the implementation of the present resolution.

*    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 79-82.

6/   General Assembly resolution 217 A (III)

7/   Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Hague Conventions and
Declarations of 1899 and 1907 (New York, Oxford University Press, 1915).

8/   United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, No. 973, p. 287.


                              DRAFT RESOLUTION II

              Follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women*

     The Economic and Social Council,

     Welcoming the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women, held at
Beijing from 4 to 15 September 1995, and the adoption of the Platform for
Action, 3/

     Bearing in mind Economic and Social Council resolutions ll (II) of
21 June 1946 and 48 (IV) of 29 March 1947, by which the Council established
the Commission on the Status of Women and defined its terms of reference, and
1987/22 of 26 May 1987, by which the Council expanded the mandate of the
Commission,

     Taking into account agreed conclusions 1995/1, approved by the Council
on 28 July 1995, 9/ as well as General Assembly resolution 50/203 of
22 December 1995, on the follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and
full implementation of the Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action, in
which the Assembly invited the Economic and Social Council to review and
strengthen the mandate of the Commission,

     Acknowledging the decision of the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women to add to its reporting guidelines an invitation
to States parties to include in their report to the Committee information on
measures taken to implement the Platform for Action, in order to monitor
effectively, within its mandate, the rights guaranteed under the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,

                                       I

                Framework for the functioning of the Commission

     Recalling that the General Assembly, in resolution 50/203, decided that
the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and the Commission on
the Status of Women, in accordance with their respective mandates and in
accordance with Assembly resolution 48/162 of 20 December 1993 and other
relevant resolutions, should constitute a three-tiered intergovernmental
mechanism that would play the primary role in the overall policy-making and
follow-up, and in coordinating the implementation and monitoring of the
Platform for Action, reaffirming the need for a coordinated follow-up to and
implementation of the results of major international conferences in the
economic, social and related fields,

     Convinced that the follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women
should be undertaken on the basis of an integrated approach to the advancement
of women within the framework of a coordinated follow-up to and implementation
of the results of major international conferences in the economic, social and
related fields, as well as the overall responsibilities of the General
Assembly and the Economic and Social Council,

     1.  Decides that the Commission on the Status of Women shall have a
catalytic role in mainstreaming a gender perspective in policies and
programmes;

     2.  Decides that the inter-agency committee on the follow-up to the
Fourth World Conference on Women, once established by the Administrative
Committee on Coordination, shall inform the Commission and the Economic and
Social Council of the progress of its work, for the purpose of system-wide
coordination, and that a gender perspective shall also be fully integrated in
the work of all thematic task forces established by the Administrative
Committee on Coordination;

     3.  Decides that the Platform for Action should be implemented through
the work of all the bodies and organizations of the United Nations system
during the period 1995-2000, and notes that the institutions of the United
Nations especially devoted to the advancement of women, including the
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women and
the United Nations Development Fund for Women, are in the process of reviewing
their programmes of work in the light of the Platform for Action and its
implementation;

     4.  Decides, in view of the traditional importance of non-governmental
organizations in the advancement of women, that such organizations should be
encouraged to participate in the work of the Commission and in the monitoring
and implementation process related to the Conference to the maximum extent
possible, and requests the Secretary-General to make appropriate arrangements
to ensure full utilization of existing channels of communication with
non-governmental organizations in order to facilitate broad-based
participation and dissemination of information;

     5.  Decides, in recognition of the valuable contribution of
non-governmental organizations to the Fourth World Conference on Women, that
the Council and its Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations will review
the applications of these non-governmental organizations under Council
resolution 1296 (XLIV) of 23 May 1968 as expeditiously as possible, and also
decides that, prior to the forty-first session of the Commission on the Status
of Women, the Council will take a decision on the participation of the
non-governmental organizations that were accredited to the Conference and that
have applied for consultative status, in Conference follow-up and in the work
of the Commission on the Status of Women, without prejudice to the work of the
Open-ended Working Group on the Review of Arrangements for Consultation with
Non-Governmental Organizations;

     6.  Requests the Secretary-General urgently to draw the attention of
non-governmental organizations accredited to the Fourth World Conference on
Women to the provisions of the present resolution and to the process
established under Council resolution 1296 (XLIV);


     9/   A/50/3, chap. III, para. 22.
                                      II

                              Terms of reference

     1.  Confirms the existing mandate of the Commission on the Status of
Women as set out in its resolutions 11 (II), 48 (IV) and 1987/22, bearing in
mind that the Platform for Action builds upon the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies for the Advancement of Women;

     2.  Decides that the Commission shall assist the Economic and Social
Council in monitoring, reviewing and appraising progress achieved and problems
encountered in the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for
Action at all levels, and shall advise the Council thereon;

     3.  Decides that the Commission shall continue to ensure support for
mainstreaming a gender perspective in United Nations activities and develop
further its catalytic role in this regard in other areas;

     4.  Decides further that the Commission shall identify issues where
United Nations system-wide coordination needs to be improved in order to
assist the Council in its coordination function;

     5.  Decides that the Commission shall identify emerging issues, trends
and new approaches to issues affecting the situation of women or equality
between women and men that require urgent consideration, and make substantive
recommendations thereon;

     6.  Decides that the Commission shall maintain and enhance public
awareness and support for the implementation of the Platform for Action;

                                      III

                                 Documentation

     1.  Requests that all United Nations documentation be kept concise,
clear, analytical and timely with a focus on relevant issues and in accordance
with Council resolution 1987/24 of 26 May 1987 and agreed conclusions 1995/1,
approved by the Council on 28 July 1995; 9/ that reports contain
recommendations for action and indicate the actors; that reports be available
in all official languages, in accordance with the rules of the United Nations;
and that other methods of reporting, such as oral reports, also be explored;

     2.  Requests that the relevant reports of the meetings of inter-agency
mechanisms established by the Secretary-General be transmitted for information
to the Commission to ensure coordination, collaboration and coherence in the
implementation of the Platform for Action;

     3.  Decides that requests for reports of the Secretary-General should be
limited to the minimum strictly necessary and that the Secretariat should use
information and data already provided by Governments to the maximum extent
possible, avoiding duplication of requests to Governments for such
information;

     4.  Decides further that voluntary submission of national information,
for example national action plans or national reports by Governments, should
be encouraged;

     5.  Requests that the following reports be prepared under item 3,
entitled "Follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women", of the agenda
set out in section IV, paragraph 3, of the present resolution, bearing in mind
the need to promote integrated reporting:

     (a) Report of the Secretary-General on the measures taken and the
progress achieved in mainstreaming a gender perspective within the United
Nations system (annually);

     (b) Analytical report of the Secretary-General on the thematic issues
before the Commission in accordance with the multi-year work programme,
including, as far as possible, progress made in national implementation, based
on available data and statistics (annually);

     (c) Report on emerging issues under item 3 (b) of the agenda set out in
section IV, paragraph 3, of the present resolution, as appropriate, at the
request of the Commission or its Bureau;

     (d) Synthesized report on implementation plans of Governments and the
United Nations system, based, inter alia, on national action plans and any
other sources of information already available in the United Nations system
(in 1998);

     (e) Mid-term review of the system-wide medium-term plan for the
advancement of women, 1996-2001 (in 1998);

     (f) Report on the implementation of the Platform for Action, on the
basis of national reports, taking into account the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies for the Advancement of Women (in 2000);

                                      IV

            Work programme of the Commission on the Status of Women

     1.  Adopts a multi-year work programme for a focused and thematic
approach, culminating in a quinquennial review and appraisal of the Platform
for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women; the work programme, inter
alia, will provide a framework to assess the progress achieved in the
implementation of the Platform for Action and will be in line with the
coordinated follow-up to conferences;

     2.  Decides that the work of the Commission in relation to the programme
of work shall be closely related to the relevant provisions of the Platform
for Action, with a view to ensuring the effective implementation of the
Platform for Action;

     3.  Decides that the agenda for the Commission shall consist of the
following:

     1.  Election of officers.

     2.  Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters.

     3.  Follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women:

         (a)   Review of mainstreaming in organizations of the United Nations
               system;

         (b)   Emerging issues, trends and new approaches to issues affecting
               the situation of women or equality between women and men;

         (c)   Implementation of strategic objectives and action in the
               critical areas of concern.

     4.  Communications concerning the status of women.

     5.  The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
         against Women, including the elaboration of a draft optional
         protocol to the Convention.

     6.  Provisional agenda for the forty-second session of the Commission.
     
     7.  Adoption of the report of the Commission on its forty-first session.
     
     4.  Decides, in the light of the need for a focused and thematic
multi-year work programme on the critical areas of concern and bearing in mind
that the critical areas of concern are interrelated and interdependent, on the
following calendar:

     1997      Education and training of women (Platform for Action,
               chap. IV.B)

               Women and the economy (Platform for Action, chap. IV.F)

               Women in power and decision-making (Platform for Action,
               chap. IV.G)

               Women and the environment (Platform for Action, chap. IV.K)

     1998      Violence against women (Platform for Action, chap. IV.D)

               Women and armed conflict (Platform for Action, chap. IV.E)

               Human rights of women (Platform for Action, chap. IV.I)

               The girl child (Platform for Action, chap. IV.L)

     1999      Women and health (Platform for Action, chap. IV.C)

               Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women (Platform
               for Action, chap. IV.H)

               Initiation of the comprehensive review and appraisal of the
               implementation of the Platform for Action

     2000      Comprehensive quinquennial review and appraisal of the
               implementation of the Platform for Action

               Emerging issues

                                       V

                              Regional dimension

     Recalling the important role played by regional preparatory conferences
in the preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women and that plans
and programmes of action were adopted that served as essential inputs to the
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action,

     1.  Recommends that the regional follow-up and monitoring of the
regional platforms and programmes of action should be utilized as inputs for
the review and appraisal of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action;

     2.  Recommends further that the Council should consider how best to
integrate the inputs of regional commissions into the overall monitoring and
follow-up to the Platform for Action.


                              B.  Draft decisions

2.   The Commission on the Status of Women recommends to the Economic and
Social Council the adoption of the following draft decisions:


                               DRAFT DECISION I

         Renewal of the mandate of the Open-ended Working Group on the
         Elaboration of a Draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on
          the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women*

     The Economic and Social Council decides:

     (a) To renew the mandate of the in-session Open-ended Working Group on
the Elaboration of a Draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, so that it may
continue its work, taking into account the reports to be submitted under
resolution 40/8 of the Commission on the Status of Women, pursuant to Council
resolution 1995/29 of 24 July 1995;

     (b) To authorize, within existing United Nations resources, the Working
Group to meet in parallel with the Commission at its forty-first session;

     (c) To invite a representative of the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women to attend this meeting as a resource person.


                               DRAFT DECISION II

          Report of the Commission on the Status of Women on its fortieth
          session and provisional agenda and documentation for the
                   forty-first session of the Commission**

     The Economic and Social Council takes note of the report of the
Commission on the Status of Women on its fortieth session and approves the
provisional agenda and documentation for the forty-first session of the
Commission set out below.

     1.  Election of officers.

     2.  Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters.

     3.  Follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women:

         (a)   Review of mainstreaming in organizations of the United Nations
               system;

               Documentation

               Report of the Secretary-General on the measures taken and the
               progress achieved in mainstreaming a gender perspective within
               the United Nations system

         (b)   Emerging issues, trends and new approaches to issues affecting
               the situation of women or equality between women and men;

               Documentation

               Report of the Secretary-General on emerging issues, as
               appropriate, at the request of the Commission or its Bureau

         (c)   Implementation of strategic objectives and action in the
               critical areas of concern;

               Documentation

               Analytical report of the Secretary-General on the thematic
               issues before the Commission in accordance with the multi-year
               work programme, including, as far as possible, progress made in
               national implementation, based on available existing data and
               statistics

     4.  Communications concerning the status of women.

               Documentation

               Lists of confidential and non-confidential communications
               concerning the status of women

     5.  The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
         against Women, including the elaboration of a draft optional
         protocol to the Convention.

               Documentation

               Report of the Secretary-General containing additional views of
               Governments, intergovernmental organizations and non-
               governmental organizations on an optional protocol to the
               Convention, as well as a comparative summary of existing
               communications and inquiry procedures and practices under
               international human rights instruments and under the Charter of
               the United Nations

     6.  Provisional agenda for the forty-second session of the Commission.

     7.  Adoption of the report of the Commission on its forty-first session.

     *    For the discussion, see chap. IV.
     **   See chap. V.
              C.  Matters brought to the attention of the Council

                            1.  Agreed conclusions

3.   The following agreed conclusions of the Commission are brought to the
attention of the Council:


         Agreed conclusions 1996/1.  Methods of work for dealing with the
                                     implementation of the Platform for
                                     Action adopted by the Fourth World
                                     Conference on Women*

1.   The Commission on the Status of Women adopted the conclusions regarding
its methods of work set out below.

2.   The Commission considers that its effectiveness and efficiency could be
improved through innovative methods of work, including inviting experts to
participate in the substantive debate on selected issues as part of the
regular work of the Commission.

3.   These innovative methods must be understood as a process that includes
not only the sessions of the Commission but also the organization of work. 
Broad-based participation in the preparatory process for each session of the
Commission must be encouraged.  The practice of periodically convening
meetings of the Bureau of the Commission open to the participation of all
interested States should be encouraged and consolidated.

4.   The documentation prepared for each item of debate should be available
in all official languages in sufficient time to ensure active and wide
participation in discussions.

5.   The practice of inviting experts is expected to deal effectively with
the critical areas of concern established in the Beijing Platform for Action
and to contribute to the effective follow-up of the Conference.  The experts
should be chosen from the fields of study addressed under the critical areas
of concern, taking into account equitable geographical distribution and the
involvement of non-governmental organizations.

6.   Panels of experts should be formed.  They should include experts
appointed by the Secretary-General, experts working within the United Nations
system, and experts from Governments and from civil society.

7.   The selection of experts, the composition of the panels, and the
allocation of time to dialogues should be decided inter-sessionally by the
Bureau of the Commission, taking into consideration the proposals of the
United Nations Secretariat.  The Secretariat should prepare a list of
candidates for the panels based on suggestions from States and civil society. 
The Bureau should convene meetings open to the participation of all interested
States to ensure a broad base of participation.

8.   Meetings should be allotted for dialogue with organizations within the
United Nations system and civil society and among governmental delegations. 
Sufficient time should be devoted to intergovernmental dialogue.

9.   The results of dialogues should normally be reflected in concise,
action-oriented agreed conclusions to be transmitted to the Economic and
Social Council by a Commission decision.  They should also contain policy
recommendations and identify coordination issues to be dealt with by the
Council.

10.  The Commission, in order to strengthen its capacity to act as a catalyst
in support of mainstreaming a gender perspective in the work of the United
Nations system, to identify emerging issues, trends and new approaches
affecting the situation of women or equality between women and men, and to
review and appraise progress achieved and problems encountered in
implementation of critical areas of concern in the Platform for Action:

     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 70-78.

     (a) Should strengthen its cooperation with other relevant bodies of the
United Nations system, including other functional commissions and their
respective secretariats;

     (b) Should monitor progress on the system-wide medium-term plan for the
advancement of women;

     (c) Should make relevant documents available, through the Economic and
Social Council, to other functional commissions and relevant United Nations
expert bodies and mechanisms in order to assist in the integration of a gender
perspective in their work;

     (d) Notes, bearing in mind the role of the Economic and Social Council
in overall coordination, that increased dialogue between the Bureau of the
Commission on the Status of Women and the Economic and Social Council, the
chairpersons and secretariats, as appropriate, of the other functional
commissions, other subsidiary bodies and related bodies, including the
relevant executive boards, would assist in identifying issues that could be
addressed under the agenda item on emerging issues and trends;

     (e) Encourages the voluntary presentation of national information and
suggests that such information should address the priority issues identified
by the Commission on the Status of Women in its programme of work, bearing in
mind that Governments are to develop comprehensive implementation strategies
or national plans of action, including time-bound targets and benchmarks for
monitoring, in order to implement the Platform for Action fully;

     (f) Encourages States to submit national reports by the year 2000 for
the comprehensive quinquennial review and appraisal of the implementation of
the Platform for Action in the year 2000.


               Agreed conclusions 1996/2.  Women and the media*

1.   The Beijing Platform for Action identifies women and the media as one of
12 critical areas of concern.  As stated in the Beijing Platform for Action,
gender stereotyping in advertising and the media is one of the factors of
inequality that influences attitudes towards equality between women and men. 
Through a series of dialogues on the subject during its fortieth session, the
Commission on the Status of Women examined measures to be used for increasing
the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and
through the media and new technologies of communication.  Everywhere the
potential exists for the media to make a far greater contribution to the
advancement of women.  The conclusions emanating from the Commission's
dialogue contain proposals for successful implementation of the strategic
objectives and actions in the Platform for Action, taking into consideration
the importance of implementing all the elements of the Platform.


     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 89-91.

              A.  Respect for the human rights of women, including
                  freedom of expression, and the media 

2.   The Commission on the Status of Women reconfirmed the importance it
attached to the principles of freedom of expression and of freedom of the
press and other means of communication.  The Commission discussed freedom of
expression from a gender perspective, in particular as it related to women's
full enjoyment of freedom of expression, equal access to the media, balanced
and diverse portrayals by the media of women and their multiple roles, and
media information aimed at eliminating all forms of violence against women. 
Respect for the human rights of women, including freedom of expression, is a
fundamental principle of the international community.  In this regard, concern
was also expressed about discrimination, threats and acts of violence against
professional women in the field of information, including women journalists. 
If the goal of the full realization of the human rights of women, including
freedom of expression, is to be achieved, human rights instruments must be
applied in such a way as to take more clearly into consideration the
systematic and systemic nature of discrimination against women that gender
analysis has clearly indicated.

3.   Relevant United Nations bodies, including the Commission on Human Rights
and its mechanisms and procedures, the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women and independent expert bodies, should within
their mandates, further examine violations of the human rights of women,
including freedom of opinion and freedom of expression, from a gender
perspective, in cooperation with the Commission on the Status of Women within
its mandate.


           B.  Self-regulation, voluntary guidelines and responsiveness
               to civil society

4.   The Platform for Action states that self-regulatory mechanisms by the
media should be encouraged and, consistent with freedom of expression, should
include the development of professional guidelines and codes of conduct and
other forms of self-regulation so as to eliminate gender-biased programming
and to promote the presentation of non-stereotypical images of women and
balanced and diverse portrayals of women and men.

5.   In the context of responsiveness to civil society, self-regulation for
public and private sector industries should be set within a framework of
monitoring, awareness and education and well-developed and effective avenues
for complaint.  Such self-regulatory measures and voluntary guidelines should
be established through a process of dialogue with media professionals, not by
coercion.

6.   With regard to the presentation of violence in the media, initiatives by
Governments and other relevant actors, as appropriate, should be taken to
raise awareness of the role of the media in promoting non-stereotyped images
of women and men and in eliminating patterns of media presentation that
generate violence; to encourage those responsible for media content to
establish voluntary professional guidelines and codes of conduct; and to raise
awareness also of the important role of the media in informing and educating
people about the causes and effects of violence against women.

7.   The following initiatives are among those which could be taken, as
appropriate, consistent with the freedom of expression:

     (a) Encourage the media to take part in international discussions,
including the exchange of information and sharing of best practices on
voluntary guidelines on a gender-balanced portrayal of women and men.  Special
attention should be given to the proliferation of transborder and global
communications;

     (b) Support and encourage women's equal participation in management,
programming, education, training and research, including through positive
action and equal opportunity policies, with the goal of achieving gender
balance in all areas and at all levels of media work, as well as in the media
advisory, regulatory and monitoring bodies.


                   C.  The important role of media education

8.   Media education, through, for example, practical workshops and training
sessions, is an effective way to create greater awareness of gender
stereotyping and equality issues among the general public, government, media
industries and professionals.

9.   In countries where major parts of the population, including many women,
are illiterate or media illiterate, Governments should support the goal of
providing appropriate education and training.

10.  Civil society at large has an important role in exercising its influence
on media content and stereotyped portrayal through consumer action and
advocacy and different forms of media watch.

11.  At the international level, an exchange of national experiences on media
education and other measures can benefit legislators, national broadcasting
authorities and media professionals.


                     D.  Creating an enabling environment

12.  The creation of a positive environment is a condition to promote
measures intended to achieve a balanced portrayal of women and girls.  Changes
should be promoted in an enabling way and not through prescription.  Ongoing
research, including the establishment of indicators and monitoring, is
important for assessing progress.

13.  An enabling environment should also be created for women's media,
including at the international level, such as the development of Womenwatch, a
World Wide Web home page to link the United Nations and its activities for
women with non-governmental organizations, academics and other users of the
Internet.  The vital role of non-governmental organizations in media
education, research, consumer advocacy and monitoring should be recognized and
enhanced.

14.  Media networks should be encouraged to make a commitment or strengthen
their commitment to gender equality.  Public media, where they exist, should
be encouraged to set an example for private media by their commitment and
contribution to the advancement of women.

15.  Governments should support research into all aspects of women and the
media so as to define areas needing attention and action, and should review
existing media policies with a view to integrating a gender perspective.

16.  To the extent consistent with freedom of expression, Governments should
take effective measures or institute such measures, including appropriate
legislation against pornography and the projection of violence against women
and children in the media.


                      E.  Women and global communications

17.  Advances in information technology have opened up boundaries.  The role
of women in global communication networks needs to be strengthened.  Barriers
to such information technology and to women's involvement at every level of
its development should be reduced.


          Agreed conclusions 1996/3.  Child and dependant care, including
                                      sharing of work and family              
                                        responsibilities*

1.   Questions relating to child and dependant care, to sharing of family
tasks and responsibilities and to unremunerated work must be taken fully into
account in mainstreaming a gender perspective, in gender analysis and in all
other relevant methodologies used to promote equality between men and women.

2.   The main lines of action suggested in order to reduce the burden of
family responsibilities on women and bring about the sharing of these
responsibilities are set out below.


                            A.  Recognizing change

3.   Economic, social and demographic changes - particularly the growing
participation of women in economic and social life, the evolving nature of
family structures, the feminization of poverty and the link that exists with
unremunerated work - and their impact on the capacity of families to ensure
the care of children and dependants, as well as the sharing of family
responsibilities, including for domestic work, is an issue that affects not
only women but society as a whole.

4.   As was emphasized in the first plans and strategies drawn up at the
national level for the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action, the
sharing of family responsibilities and their reconciliation with professional
life must constitute a priority objective.


           B.  Increasing the role of men in family responsibilities

5.   Family responsibilities rest equally with men and with women.  Greater
participation of men in family responsibilities, including domestic work and
child and dependant care, would contribute to the welfare of children, women
and men themselves.  Even though this change is bound to be slow and
difficult, it remains essential.

6.   These changes, which imply a change in outlook, can be encouraged by
Governments, notably through education and by promoting greater access on the
part of men to activities hitherto regarded as women's activities.

     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 92-95.


                    C.  Changing attitudes and stereotypes

7.   It is important to change attitudes towards the status of unremunerated
work and the relative role of women and men in the family, the community, the
workplace and society at large.  Measures taken to this end must be aimed as
much at women as at men, and at the different generations, with particular
attention to adolescents.

8.   These measures should include recognition of the social and economic
importance of unremunerated work, and should aim at desegregating the labour
market through, inter alia, the adoption and application of laws embodying the
principle of equal pay for women and men for equal work or work of equal
value.

9.   The essential role of the educational system, particularly in primary
schools, in changing the perception of the role of girls and boys, must be
recognized.  The role of national mechanisms and of non-governmental
organizations in promoting change is a major one.


                         D.  Adapting the legal system

10.  There is a need, through legislation and/or other appropriate measures,
to rebalance the sharing of family responsibilities between men and women, and
to inform them of the existing legislative provisions.

11.  Reconciliation of work-related and family responsibilities and the
development of a legislative framework for ensuring child and dependant care
(particularly of the elderly and disabled) must be promoted by society as a
whole, including social partners, and by Governments.  The latter must be the
main agents of change.

12.  Action is needed to:

     (a) Promulgate and apply laws and other measures to prohibit all forms
of direct or indirect discrimination based on gender or matrimonial status,
inter alia, by making reference to family responsibilities;

     (b) Promote laws on maternity leave;

     (c) Promote legislative measures, incentives and/or measures of
encouragement that would enable men and women to take parental leave and
receive social security benefits.  Such measures should protect working men
and women against dismissal and guarantee their right to re-enter employment
in an equivalent post;

     (d) Promote conditions and a way of organizing work that would enable
women and men to reconcile their family and professional life, particularly
through the introduction of flexi-time for women and men;

     (e) Eliminate the differences in remuneration between women and men for
equal work or work of equal value, and promote the development of
non-discriminatory methods of evaluating work and their inclusion in wage
negotiations;

     (f) Work actively towards ratification of or accession to and
implementation of international and regional human rights treaties;

     (g) Ratify and accede to and ensure implementation of the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women so that universal
ratification can be achieved by the year 2000;

     (h) Ensure the application of laws and guidelines and encourage the
adoption of voluntary codes of conduct which guarantee that international
labour standards, such as International Labour Organization Convention No. 100
on equality of remuneration of men and women for equal work or work of equal
value, apply equally to working women and working men;

     (i) Encourage the participation of women in bodies responsible for
negotiating working conditions.  In this respect, it is interesting to note
the relationship that exists between the proportion of women participating in
negotiations on working conditions and the importance attached to this
problem;

     (j) Encourage social security regimes to take into account the time
spent by working men and women on child and dependant care.


              E.  Adopting and promoting a family support policy and
                  encouraging reconciliation of family and professional
                  life for women and men

13.  It is essential to define, at the national, regional and local levels, a
family support policy that is based on the principle of equal sharing of
family responsibilities and is consistent with the policies for promoting
equality in the labour market and protecting the rights of the child. 
Particular attention should be paid to single-parent families.  There is a
need, where necessary, to revise legislation so that women are no longer
defined as "minors" and/or dependants and to ensure that they enjoy the same
access to resources as men.

14.  The State and society at large have a responsibility for child and
dependant care.  This responsibility is reflected in the adoption of an
integrated approach at the local and national levels in order to ensure access
to affordable and reliable services for the children and dependants
(particularly those who are elderly and disabled) of women and men who are
working, undergoing training, studying or seeking employment.  This
responsibility can also take the form of incentives for parents and employers,
of a partnership between local authorities, management and labour,
non-governmental organizations and the private sector, and of the provision of
technical assistance and access to vocational training.

15.  With a view to complementing the efforts being made in this direction by
Governments, international financial institutions should be encouraged to take
into account the growing need for financing to establish day-care nurseries,
particularly in areas where there is a greater concentration of poverty, in
order to facilitate the training of mothers or their entry into paid
employment.

16.  Child and dependant care can constitute a major source of new jobs for
women and men.

17.  The burden of domestic work needs to be eased by making use of
appropriate technologies to provide drinking water and an energy supply.


               F.  Developing research and information exchange

18.  Research could be conducted drawing on the capabilities of the various
United Nations organizations, particularly in the following areas, when
compatible with the system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women,
1996-2001;

     (a) Changes in the situation and attitudes of men and women with regard
to the reconciliation of family and professional life and the sharing of
family responsibilities - in particular, a study should be conducted in the
context of sub-Saharan Africa;

     (b) Compilation of data on the unremunerated work which is already taken
into account in the System of National Accounts,  10/ for example in
agriculture and other types of non-mercantile production activity;

     (c) Collection and exchange of information on the different systems that
exist for alimony payments;

     (d) Unremunerated work which addresses the measuring and value of this
work, within the framework of the implementation of the Platform for Action;

     (e) Time-use surveys of unremunerated work of women and men, with a view
to measuring its impact on the use and monitoring of economic and social
policies.


            G.  Promoting change through international cooperation

19.  The Commission on the Status of Women recommends to the Economic and
Social Council that all the strategies and policies of the United Nations and
of Member States designed to promote gender equality should take fully into
account child and dependant care, sharing of family work and responsibilities
between men and women, and unremunerated work, as integral parts of the
concept of equality between men and women.

20.  The Commission on the Status of Women recommends to the Economic and
Social Council that the suggestions set out above be taken into account in
defining the policies of the United Nations system, as well as those of Member
States.


     10/  United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.XVII.4.

                         2.  Resolutions and decision

4.   The following resolutions and decision adopted by the Commission are
brought to the attention of the Council:




           Resolution 40/1.  Release of women and children taken hostage
                             in armed conflicts and imprisoned*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Recalling its resolution 39/2 of 31 March 1995,

     Recalling the relevant provisions contained in the instruments of
international humanitarian law relative to the protection of women and
children in areas of armed conflict,

     Welcoming the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for
Action by the Fourth World Conference on Women, 11/ including the
provisions regarding violence against women and children,

     Expressing grave concern at the continuation of armed conflicts in many
regions throughout the world and at the human suffering and humanitarian
emergencies that they have caused,

     Emphasizing that all forms of violence committed against women and
children in areas of armed conflict, including capturing them as hostages,
seriously contravene international humanitarian law,

     Expressing its strong belief that the rapid and unconditional release of
women and children taken hostage in areas of armed conflict will promote the
implementation of the noble goals enshrined in the Beijing Declaration and
Platform for Action, 

     1.  Condemns violent acts in contravention of international humanitarian
law against civilian women and children in areas of armed conflict, and calls
for an effective response to such acts, including the immediate release of
such women and children taken hostage in areas of armed conflict;

     2.  Strongly urges all parties to armed conflicts to respect fully the
norms of international humanitarian law in armed conflict and to take all
measures required for the protection of women and children, in particular the
immediate release of women and children taken hostage or imprisoned;

     3.  Urges all parties to conflicts to provide information and unimpeded
access to specialized assistance for women and children taken hostage in areas
of armed conflict;

     4.  Requests the Secretary-General and all relevant international
organizations to use all their capabilities and efforts to facilitate the
release of all women and children taken hostage in areas of armed conflict;

     5.  Also requests the Secretary-General to submit a report on the
implementation of the present resolution to the Commission on the Status of
Women at its forty-first session.

     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 32-35.

     11/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annexes I and
II.

                   Resolution 40/2.  Integration of women in the
                                     Middle East peace process*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Recalling General Assembly resolution 50/21 of 12 December 1995,
Economic and Social Council resolution 1995/52 of 28 July 1995 and Commission
on the Status of Women resolution 39/3 of 31 March 1995,

     Recalling also the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted
by the Fourth World Conference on Women, 11/

     Stressing that the achievement of a comprehensive, just and lasting
settlement of the Middle East conflict will constitute a significant
contribution to strengthening international peace and security,

     Recalling the convening of the Peace Conference on the Middle East at
Madrid on 30 October 1991, on the basis of Security Council resolutions
242 (1967) of 22 November 1967 and 338 (1973) of 22 October 1973, and the
subsequent bilateral negotiations, as well as the meetings of the multilateral
working groups, and noting with satisfaction the broad international support
for the peace process,

     Noting the continuing positive participation of the United Nations as a
full extraregional participant in the work of the multilateral working groups,

     Bearing in mind the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government
Agreements, 12/ and subsequent agreements made in the context of the Middle
East peace process,

     Taking into account section E of chapter IV of the Beijing Platform for
Action concerning women and armed conflict,

     1.  Welcomes the peace process started at Madrid, and supports the
subsequent bilateral negotiations;

     2.  Stresses the importance of, and need for, achieving a comprehensive,
just and lasting peace in the Middle East, expresses its full support for the
achievements of the peace process thus far and urges all parties to implement
the agreements reached;

     3.  Urges Governments, intergovernmental bodies and non-governmental
organizations to include women in the peace process;

     4.  Also urges Governments, intergovernmental bodies and
non-governmental organizations to support the implementation of the
Declaration of Principles and to assist the Palestinian people to ensure
Palestinian women's political development and participation;

     5.  Welcomes the results of the Conference to Support Middle East Peace,
convened in Washington on 1 October 1993, including the establishment of the
Ad Hoc Liaison Committee, the subsequent work of the World Bank Consultative
Group, welcomes also the appointment by the Secretary-General of the "United
Nations Special Coordinator in the Occupied Territories", and urges Member
States to expedite economic, financial and technical assistance to the
Palestinian people, particularly Palestinian women and children, during the
interim period;

     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 36-41.
     12/  A/48/486-S/26560, annex.

     6.  Supports the Declaration of the Summit of the Peacemakers, held in
Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt on 13 March 1996, which had as its objectives enhancing
the peace process, promoting security and combating terrorism, and condemns
terrorist attacks in the Middle East, which seek to undermine the peace
process and which have caused loss of life and injuries among women and their
families;

     7.  Calls upon all Member States to extend economic, financial and
technical assistance to parties in the region and to render support for the
peace process, especially with regard to women;

     8.  Urges Member States to ensure that all economic, financial and
technical assistance to parties in the region take into account the role of
women as full participants and beneficiaries;

     9.  Considers that an active United Nations role in the Middle East
peace process and in assisting in the implementation of the Declaration of
Principles can make a positive contribution with regard to the status of
women.


          Resolution 40/3.  Mainstreaming the human rights of women*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Recalling all relevant resolutions, in particular General Assembly
resolution 50/203 of 22 December 1995, in which, inter alia, the Assembly
endorsed the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted by the Fourth
World Conference on Women, 13/

     Welcoming the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the
World Conference on Human Rights, 14/ which emphasizes that the human
rights of women and the girl child are an inalienable, integral and
indivisible part of universal human rights and stresses that these rights
should be integrated into the mainstream of United Nations system-wide
activities, and noting that according to the Vienna Declaration and Programme
of Action, steps should be taken to increase cooperation and promote further
integration of objectives and goals between the Commission on the Status of
Women, the Commission on Human Rights, the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women, the United Nations Development Fund for Women,
the United Nations Development Programme and other United Nations bodies,

     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 42-44.
     13/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annexes I and
II.
     14/  Report of the World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, 14-25 June
1993 (A/CONF.157/24 (Part I)), chap. III.

     Recalling that the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women 15/ is a key international human rights
instrument for the promotion and protection of women's human rights, and
acknowledging both its codifying and innovating functions,

     Noting the important roles that the Commission on the Status of Women
and the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women have to
play in making the general human rights work of the United Nations more gender
conscious and in promoting the universal and indivisible human rights of
women,

     Reaffirming the importance of the adoption by the General Assembly of
the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, 16/ and
recalling Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/45 of
4 March 1994, 17/ in which the Commission decided to appoint, for a three-
year period, a Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and
consequences, as well as Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/85 of 8
March 1995 on the elimination of violence against women, 18/

     1.  Stresses the need to intensify efforts of cooperation and
coordination to ensure that the equal status and the human rights of all women
and the girl child are integrated into the mainstream of United Nations
system-wide activities and are addressed regularly and systematically in
relevant United Nations bodies and mechanisms;

     2.  Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General on the extent to which
violations of women's human rights have been addressed by human rights
mechanisms, 19/ and endorses the recommendations contained therein;

     3.  Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General on the joint work plan
of the Division for the Advancement of Women and the Centre for Human
Rights 20/ to improve cooperation between the Division and the Centre as an
element in mainstreaming the human rights of women;

     4.  Takes note of the request of the Commission on Human Rights, in its
resolution 1995/86 of 8 March 1995, 18/ that the special rapporteurs,
representatives, experts and chairpersons of the working groups of the
Commission on Human Rights, in future meetings on enhancing cooperation and
exchange of information, address violations of the human rights of women;

     5.  Recalls that the Commission on Human Rights, in its resolution
1994/45, requested the Secretary-General to ensure that the reports of the
Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences were
brought to the attention of the Commission on the Status of Women to assist
the Commission in its work in the area of violence against women;

     15/  General Assembly resolution 34/180.
     16/  General Assembly resolution 48/104.
     17/  See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1994,
Supplement No. 4 (E/1994/24), chap. II, sect. A.
     18/  Ibid.,1995, Supplement No. 3 (E/1995/23), chap. II, sect. A.
     19/  E/CN.6/1996/9.
     20/  E/CN.6/1996/13.

     6.  Notes General Assembly resolution 50/170 of 22 December 1995, in
which the Assembly welcomed the emphasis by the persons chairing the human
rights treaty bodies that the enjoyment of the human rights of women should be
closely monitored by each treaty body within the competence of its mandate;

     7.  Encourages the Division for the Advancement of Women to provide any
relevant material it receives or prepares, through the Centre for Human
Rights, for the information of the treaty bodies in their work;

     8.  Encourages the Division for the Advancement of Women to continue to
develop methodologies to analyse gender perspectives in the reports of the
States parties that are being considered by the treaty bodies;

     9.  Encourages the Division for the Advancement of Women to cooperate
with and assist the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes
and consequences through the automatic and regular exchange of information and
by forwarding expeditiously any relevant material it receives or prepares on
violence against women;

     10. Emphasizes the need to develop and enhance the role of focal points
on the human rights of women, in both the Centre for Human Rights and the
Division for the Advancement of Women, and to ensure cooperation and
coordination between the two bodies on an ongoing basis;

     11. Encourages the Division for the Advancement of Women and the Centre
for Human Rights to explore the possibility of providing training in the human
rights of women and of training personnel in the Division for the Advancement
of Women in general human rights matters;

     12. Encourages the efforts made by the United Nations High Commissioner
for Human Rights, within the mandate established by General Assembly
resolution 48/141 of 20 December 1993, to promote and protect the human rights
of women, including his efforts to coordinate the activities of relevant
United Nations organs, bodies and mechanisms dealing with human rights in
considering violations of the human rights of women;

     13. Emphasizes the need for all relevant organs, bodies and agencies of
the United Nations system to include information on gender-based human rights
violations in their activities and integrate the findings into all of their
programmes and activities;

     14. Urges States to consider the gender composition of the treaty bodies
when nominating and electing candidates to such bodies;

     15. Emphasizes the need for the United Nations Decade for Human Rights
Education to incorporate a gender perspective into all its activities and the
importance of drafting the mid-Decade report and the final report on the
Decade so as to include mainstreaming of the human rights of women, ensuring
that the evaluation criteria of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights for those reports include whether the human rights of women are a
mainstream concern;

     16. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Commission on the
Status of Women at its forty-first session, in 1997, on the implementation of
the present resolution;

     17. Decides to remain seized of the matter and, in particular, to
examine at its forty-first session the progress made and the plans developed.


                 Resolution 40/4.  Traffic in women and girls*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Reaffirming its faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and
worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women, enshrined
in the Charter of the United Nations, as well as the principles set forth in
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 21/ the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 22/ the
International Covenants on Human Rights, 23/ the Convention against Torture
and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 24/ the
Convention on the Rights of the Child 25/ and the Declaration on the
Elimination of Violence against Women, 26/

     Recalling General Assembly resolutions 49/166 of 23 December 1994 and
50/167 of 22 December 1995, Commission on the Status of Women resolution 39/6
of 29 March 1995 27/ and Commission on Human Rights resolutions 1994/45 of
4 March 1994 28/ and 1995/25 of 3 March 1995 29/ on traffic in women and
girls, 28/

     Concurring with the conclusions and recommendations made by recent
international conferences, including the World Conference on Human Rights in
Vienna, the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen, the
International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo and the Fourth
World Conference on Women in Beijing, on the human rights of women and girl
children, 

     Bearing in mind the need to strengthen the implementation of all
relevant human rights instruments in order to combat and eliminate, including
through international cooperation, organized and other forms of trafficking in
women or children, including trafficking for the purposes of sexual
exploitation, pornography, prostitution and sex tourism, and provide legal and
social services to the victims; this should include provisions for
international cooperation to prosecute and punish those responsible for
organized exploitation of women and children,

     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 45-47.
     21/  General Assembly resolution 217 A (III).
     22/  General Assembly resolution 34/180, annex.
     23/  General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI)
     24/  General Assembly resolution 39/46, annex.
     25/  General Assembly resolution 44/25, annex.
     26/  General Assembly resolution 48/104, annex.
     27/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1995,
Supplement No. 6 (E/1995/26), chap. I, sect. C.
     28/  Ibid., 1994, Supplement No. 4 (E/1994/24), chap. II, sect. A.
     29/  Ibid., 1995, Supplement No. 3 and corrigenda (E/1995/23 and Corr.1
and 2), chap. II, sect. A.

     Acknowledging that the problem of trafficking also victimizes young
boys,

     Welcoming the decision of the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice in its resolution 3/2 of 6 May 1994 30/ to consider the
international traffic in minors at its fourth session, in the context of its
discussion on the question of organized transnational crime,

     Concerned about the increasing number of women and girl children from
developing countries and from some countries with economies in transition who
are being victimized by traffickers,

     Noting the need to raise awareness of the important role of the media,
including new forms of information technology, in informing and educating
people about the causes and effects of violence against women and in
stimulating public debate on the topic,

     Realizing the urgent need for the adoption of effective measures at the
national, regional and international levels to protect women and girl children
from this nefarious traffic,

     Welcoming the holding of national, regional and international meetings
on trafficking in order to propose measures to eradicate the traffic in women
and girls,

     1.  Calls for the implementation of the Platform for Action of the
Fourth World Conference on Women 31/ by Governments of countries of origin,
transit and destination and regional and international organizations, as
appropriate, by:

     (a) Considering the ratification and enforcement of international
conventions on trafficking in persons and on slavery;

     (b) Taking appropriate measures to address the root factors, including
external factors, that encourage trafficking in women and girls for
prostitution and other forms of commercialized sex, forced marriages and
forced labour in order to eliminate trafficking in women, including by
strengthening existing legislation with a view to providing better protection
of the rights of women and girls and to punishing the perpetrators, through
both criminal and civil measures;

     (c) Stepping up cooperation and concerted action by all relevant law
enforcement authorities and institutions with a view to dismantling national,
regional and international networks in trafficking;

     (d) Allocating resources to provide comprehensive programmes designed to
heal and rehabilitate into society victims of trafficking, including through
job training and the provision of legal assistance and confidential health
care, taking measures to cooperate with non-governmental organizations to
provide for the social, medical and psychological care of the victims of
trafficking;

     30/  Ibid., 1994, Supplement No. 11 (E/1994/31), chap. I, sect. C.
     31/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annexes II.

     (e) Developing educational and training programmes and policies and
considering enacting legislation aimed at preventing sex tourism and
trafficking, giving special emphasis to the protection of young women and
children;

     2.  Encourages Governments, relevant organizations and bodies of the
United Nations system, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental
organizations to gather and share information relative to all aspects of
trafficking in women and girl children in order to facilitate the development
of anti-trafficking measures, and to adopt appropriate measures to create
wider public awareness of the problem;

     3.  Calls upon all Governments to take appropriate measures to prevent
the misuse and exploitation by traffickers of such economic activities as the
development of tourism and the export of labour;

     4.  Welcomes General Assembly resolution 50/167 of 22 December 1995, in
which the Assembly invited the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights, in addressing the obstacles to the realization of the human rights of
women, in particular, through his contacts with the Special Rapporteur of the
Commission on Human Rights on the sale of children, child prostitution and
child pornography, to include the traffic in women and girls among his
priority concerns;

     5.  Welcomes also the request by the General Assembly to the Commission
on Human Rights to encourage the Working Group on Contemporary Forms of
Slavery of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of
Minorities to continue to address the issue of the traffic in women and girls
under its draft programme of action on the traffic in persons and the
exploitation of the prostitution of others; 32/

     6.  Welcomes the decision of the General Assembly to focus the
International Day for the Abolition of Slavery, 2 December 1996, on the
problem of trafficking in human persons, especially women and children, and to
devote one meeting of the fifty-first session of the General Assembly to the
discussion of that problem; 33/

     7.  Decides to remain seized of this matter and to examine, at its
forty-second session, the reports of the Special Rapporteurs and relevant
organizations and bodies, with a view to making appropriate recommendations to
the General Assembly at its fifty-third session, through the Economic and
Social Council.

32/  General Assembly resolution 50/167, para. 9.
33/  Ibid., para. 12.


          Resolution 40/5.  International Research and Training Institute
                            for the Advancement of Women*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Recalling General Assembly resolution 50/163 of 22 December 1995, in
which the Assembly reaffirmed the original mandate and distinct capacity of
the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
to carry out research and training for the advancement of women, as stipulated
in General Assembly resolution 3520 (XXX) of 15 December 1975,

     Stressing the need for independent research to ensure that policy-making
and project implementation address issues and emerging areas of concern to
women and the role of the activities of the Institute therein,

     1.  Emphasizes the unique function of the International Research and
Training Institute for the Advancement of Women as the only entity within the
United Nations system devoted exclusively to research and training for the
advancement of women and their integration in the development process, and
stresses the importance of making its research findings available for policy
purposes, as background for operational activities and for the implementation
of the Platform for Action adopted by the Fourth World Conference on
Women; 34/ 

     2.  Reaffirms paragraph 360 of the Platform for Action, in which it is
stated that, recognizing the roles of United Nations funds, programmes and
specialized agencies, in particular the roles of the United Nations
Development Fund for Women and the International Research and Training
Institute for the Advancement of Women, in the promotion of the empowerment of
women, and therefore in the implementation of the Platform for Action within
their respective mandates, inter alia, in research, training and information
activities for the advancement of women, as well as technical and financial
assistance to incorporate a gender perspective in development efforts, the
resources provided by the international community need to be sufficient and
should be maintained at an adequate level;

     3.  Stresses the need for the Institute to further develop active and
close cooperation with the specialized agencies and related organizations of
the United Nations system and with other institutions;

     4.  Recognizes the special role that the Institute must play in the
implementation of the Platform for Action;

     5.  Commends the efforts of the Institute to address all levels of
poverty that hamper so dramatically the advancement of women, through the
coordination of research and training activities in the areas of economic and
political empowerment of women; statistics and indicators in gender issues;
communications; women, natural resources and sustainable development; water,
sanitation and waste management; renewable sources of energy; and issues
related to different population groups, such as the girl child, older women,
displaced women, refugee and migrant women and women in rural areas;

     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 48-50.
     34/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annexes II.

     6.  Urges the Secretary-General to implement the mandates set out in
General Assembly resolution 49/163 of 20 December 1994.


           Resolution 40/6.  Violence against women migrant workers*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Bearing in mind the Charter of the United Nations, which reaffirms faith
in human rights and fundamental freedoms, in the dignity and worth of the
human person, and in the equal rights of women and men,

     Reaffirming the principles set forth in the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights  and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women, 36/

     Recalling General Assembly resolutions 47/96 of 16 December 1992, 48/110
of 20 December 1993, 49/165 of 23 December 1994 and 50/168 of 22 December 1995
and Commission on the Status of Women resolutions 38/7 of 18 March 1994 37/
and 39/7 of 31 March 1995, 38/ as well as the Declaration on the
Elimination of Violence against Women adopted by the General Assembly at its
forty-eighth session, 39/ and general recommendation 19 on violence against
women of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,

     Welcoming the conclusions and recommendations made by recent
international conferences, including the World Conference on Human Rights held
in Vienna in June 1993, the International Conference on Population and
Development held in Cairo in September 1994, the World Summit for Social
Development held in Copenhagen in March 1995 and the Fourth World Conference
on Women held in Beijing in September 1995, on the promotion and protection of
the rights and fundamental freedoms of women, including women migrant workers,

     Noting the large numbers of women from developing countries and from
some countries with economies in transition who continue to venture forth to
more affluent countries in search of a living for themselves and their
families as a consequence of poverty, unemployment and other socio-economic
conditions,

     Recognizing that it is the duty of sending countries to protect and
promote the interests of their citizens who seek or receive employment in
other countries, to provide them with appropriate training/education and to
apprise them of their rights and obligations in the countries of employment,

     Aware of the moral obligation of receiving or host countries to ensure
the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all persons within their
boundaries, including migrant workers, who are doubly vulnerable because of
their gender and their being foreigners,

     *    For the discussion, see chap II, para. 51-53.
     35/  General Assembly resolution 217 A (III).
     36/  General Assembly resolution 34/180.
     37/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1994,
Supplement No. 7 (E/1994/27), chap. I, sect. C.
     38/  Ibid., 1995, Supplement No. 6 (E/1995/26), chap. I, sect. C.
     39/  General Assembly resolution 48/104.


     Noting the measures adopted by some receiving States to alleviate the
plight of women migrant workers residing within their areas of jurisdiction,

     Noting with concern, however, the continuing reports of grave abuses and
acts of violence committed against women migrant workers by some of their
employers in some host countries,

     Stressing that acts of violence directed against women impair or nullify
women's enjoyment of their human rights and fundamental freedoms,

     1.  Calls upon States Members of the United Nations to adopt measures
for the effective implementation of the Declaration on the Elimination of
Violence against Women, including applying them to women migrant workers, as
well as all relevant measures emanating from recent world conferences;

     2.  Invites States concerned, specifically those sending and receiving
women migrant workers, to conduct regular consultations for the purpose of
identifying problem areas in promoting and protecting the rights of women
migrant workers and ensuring health, legal and social services for them,
adopting specific measures to address these problems, setting up, as
appropriate, linguistically and culturally accessible services and mechanisms
to implement those measures and, in general, creating conditions that foster
greater harmony and tolerance between women migrant workers and the rest of
society in which they reside;

     3.  Encourages States Members of the United Nations, particularly those
from which women migrant workers originate and those that play host to them,
to ensure the protection of the rights and fundamental freedoms of women
migrant workers as defined by international conventions and agreements, taking
into account the outcome of recent international conferences;

     4.  Calls upon Governments to adopt and/or implement and periodically
review and analyse legislation to ensure its effectiveness in eliminating
violence against women, emphasizing the prevention of violence and the
prosecution of offenders, and to take measures to ensure the protection of
women subjected to violence, access to just and effective remedies, including
compensation and indemnification and healing of victims, and the
rehabilitation of perpetrators;

     5.  Recognizes the vulnerability to violence and other forms of abuse of
women migrants, including women migrant workers whose legal status in the host
country depends on the employers who may exploit their situation;

     6.  Encourages Member States to consider signing and ratifying or
acceding to the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of
All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; 40/

     7.  Calls upon States to explore the possibility of adopting measures to
prevent the victimization of women migrant workers by sexual traffickers and
to penalize those traffickers, including the ratification of the Convention
for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the
Prostitution of Others; 41/

     8.  Recommends to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights,
the Centre for Human Rights of the Secretariat and the Special Rapporteur of
the Commission on Human Rights on violence against women, as well as all
relevant bodies and programmes in the United Nations system, when addressing
the issue of violence against women, to give particular attention to the issue
of violence perpetrated against women migrant workers, and to provide
information to the Secretary-General for inclusion in his report to the
General Assembly;

     9.  Welcomes the scheduled holding from 27 to 31 May 1996 of a United
Nations expert group meeting on the issue of violence against women migrant
workers, with the participation of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on
Human Rights on violence against women, pursuant to General Assembly
resolution 50/168, to submit recommendations for improving coordination of the
various efforts of United Nations organizations on the issue of violence
against women migrant workers, and to develop concrete indicators as a basis
for determining the situation of women migrant workers, for submission,
through normal channels, to the General Assembly at its fifty-first session.


          Resolution 40/7.  Attainment of strategic objectives and action
                            to be taken in the critical area of concern:
                            women and the media*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Recalling the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women,
adopted in 1993, 42/

     Referring to the Toronto Platform for Action 43/ concerning the
access of women journalists to expression and decision-making,

     1.  Reaffirms the provisions of the Platform for Action adopted by the
Fourth World Conference on Women, 44/ in particular paragraphs 131 and 135
on violations of the human rights of women and on religious intolerance,
violence and terrorism suffered by women because of their place in society and
their sex;

     2.  Also reaffirms paragraph 145 (f) of the Platform for Action, which
calls upon the international community to condemn and combat all forms and
manifestations of terrorism;

     40/  General Assembly resolution 45/158.
*    For the discussion, see chap II, para. 54-56.
     41/  General Assembly resolution 317 (IV)
     42/  General Assembly resolution 34/180.
     43/  Adopted by the International Symposium of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization on the topic "Women and
media:  access to expression and decision-making", held at Toronto, Canada,
from 28 February to 3 March 1995.
     44/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.


     3.  Acknowledges that journalists, in particular women journalists,
because of their profession and their gender, are an easy and favourite target
for violent acts, intolerance and terrorist attacks;

     4.  Condemns the murders and acts of violence and terrorism committed
against women journalists, particularly in Algeria, because of their sex and
their profession;

     5.  Commends all the women who continue, with courage, sacrifice and
determination, to make their contribution, through the media, to improving the
status of women;

     6.  Appeals to the United Nations, the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization and the international community to join
their efforts in order to intensify, in accordance with the Platform for
Action, efforts to combat terrorism and all forms of intolerance and violence
and all violations of the human rights of women, which are a major obstacle to
achieving the objectives of equality, development and peace proclaimed in the
Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. 45/


           Resolution 40/8.  Elaboration of a draft optional protocol to
                             the Convention on the Elimination of All
                             Forms of Discrimination against Women*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Recalling that the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action 46/ and
the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action 47/ called on Governments
to support the process to elaborate a draft optional protocol to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,

     Welcoming the process initiated by the in-session Open-ended Working
Group on the Elaboration of a Draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,

     *    For the discussion, see chap. IV.
     45/  Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the
Achiements of the United Nations Decade for Women:  Equality, Development and
Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1995 (United Nations publication, Sales No.
E.85.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.
     46/  Report of the World Conference on Human Rgiths, Vienna, 14-25 June
1993 (A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), chap. III.
     47/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annexes I and
II.


     1.  Requests the Secretary-General to invite Governments,
intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations to submit
additional views on an optional protocol to the Convention, taking into
account the elements contained in suggestion 7, adopted by the Committee on
the Elimination of Discrimination against Women at its fourteenth session, 48/
 as well as the deliberations of the Working Group;

     2.  Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the Commission on the
Status of Women at its forty-first session a comprehensive report, including a
synthesis of the views requested in paragraph 1 above;

     3.  Also requests the Secretary-General to provide to the Commission on
the Status of Women at its forty-first session a comparative summary of
existing communications and inquiry procedures and practices under
international human rights instruments and under the Charter of the United
Nations;  

     4.  Recommends that the Economic and Social Council adopt the draft
decision entitled "Renewal of the mandate of the open-ended Working Group on
the Elaboration of a draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women". 49/


             Resolution 40/9.  Implementation of strategic objectives
                               and action in the critical area of
                               concern:  poverty*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Recalling General Assembly resolution 50/203 of 22 December 1995 on the
follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women,

     Recalling also General Assembly resolution 49/110 of 19 December 1994
and other relevant resolutions of the Assembly related to international
cooperation for the eradication of poverty in developing countries,

     Recalling further Assembly resolution 50/107 of 20 December 1995 on the
observance of the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty and
proclamation of the first United Nations Decade for the Eradication of
Poverty,

     Reaffirming the importance of the outcome of the Fourth World Conference
on Women held in Beijing from 4 to 15 September 1995, as well as all the
United Nations major conferences and summits organized since 1990, in
particular the World Summit for Social Development held in Copenhagen in March
1995, 

     Recognizing that the eradication of poverty will require the
implementation and integration of strategies at the national and international
levels in all the critical areas of concern in the Platform for Action adopted
by the Fourth World Conference on Women, 50/

     *    For the discussion, see chap II, para. 62-69.
     48/  Official Records of the General Assembly, Fiftieth Session,
Supplement No. 48 (A/50/38), chap. I, sect. B.
     49/  For the text of the draft decision, see chap. I, sect. B, draft
decision I.
     50/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annexes II.


     Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on poverty 51/ in
the follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and of the discussion
that took place on this issue during the fortieth session of the Commission on
the Status of Women,

     Reaffirming General Assembly resolutions 50/173 of 22 December 1995 on
the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education, 1995-2004, and 49/184 of
23 December 1994, in which the Assembly expressed the conviction that each
woman, man and child, to realize their full human potential, must be made
aware of all their human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right
to development,

     Recognizing that mainstreaming a gender perspective into all policies
and programmes aimed at combating poverty is crucial, as women constitute the
majority of people living in poverty,

     Recognizing also that the full implementation of the human rights of
women and of the girl child, as an inalienable, integral and indivisible part
of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, is essential for the advancement
of women,

     Recognizing further that the commitment of Governments is of fundamental
importance in combating poverty and in improving living conditions for women
and men,

     Recognizing that national and international efforts to eradicate poverty
require full and equal participation of women in the formulation and
implementation of policies that take fully into account the gender perspective
and that empower women to be full partners in development,

     Emphasizing that empowering women is a critical factor in the
eradication of poverty, since women constitute the majority of people living
in poverty and contribute to the economy and to the combating of poverty
through both their unremunerated and remunerated work at home, in the
community, and in the workplace,

     Recognizing that poverty is a global problem affecting all countries and
that the complexity of poverty, including the feminization of poverty,
requires a wide range of measures and actions, at the national and the
regional level, giving particular priority to the situation of women living in
poverty and recognizing the need to improve their access to income, education,
health care and other resources,

     Recognizing also that more women than men live in absolute poverty and
that the imbalance is on the increase, resulting in the limited access of
women to income, resources, education, health care, nutrition, shelter and
safe water in all developing countries, particularly in Africa and in the
least developed countries,

     Recognizing further that a large number of women in countries with
economies in transition are also affected by poverty,

     Bearing in mind that the increasing number of women living in poverty in
developing countries, both in rural and in urban areas, requires action by the
international community in support of actions and measures at the national and
regional levels towards the eradication of poverty within the framework of the
Beijing Declaration 52/ and Platform for Action adopted by the Fourth World
Conference on Women,

     51/  E/CN.6/1996/CRP.3.
     52/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annexes I and
II.

     Stressing the necessity of promoting and implementing policies to create
a supportive external economic environment, through, inter alia, cooperation
in the formulation and implementation of macroeconomic policies, trade
liberalization, mobilization and/or the provision of new and additional
financial resources that are both adequate and predictable and mobilized in a
way that maximizes the availability of such resources for sustainable
development, using all available funding sources and mechanisms, enhanced
financial stability and ensuring increased access of developing countries to
global markets, productive investment and technologies, and appropriate
knowledge,

     1.  Recognizes the central role that women play in the eradication of
poverty, and stresses the need for their full and equal participation in the
formulation and implementation of policies that take fully into account the
gender perspective and that empower women to be full partners in development;

     2.  Stresses that the empowerment and autonomy of women and the
improvement of women's social, economic and political status are essential for
the eradication of poverty and that the full and equal participation of women
in decision-making at all levels is an integral part of the process;

     3.  Recognizes that the eradication of poverty is both a complex and a
multidimensional issue, and fundamental to promoting equality between men and
women as well as to reinforcing peace and achieving sustainable development;

     4.  Reaffirms that the promotion and protection of, and respect for, the
human rights and fundamental freedoms of women, including the right to
development, which are universal, indivisible, interdependent and
interrelated, should be mainstreamed into all policies and programmes aimed at
the eradication of poverty, and reaffirms as well the need to take measures to
ensure that every person is entitled to participate in, to contribute to and
to enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development;

     5.  Stresses that mainstreaming the gender perspective implies examining
the ways in which women and men are affected by poverty, the different assets
they possess to address the question and their respective contributions and
potentials;

     6.  Also stresses that both mainstreaming and other positive actions
should be regarded as complementary strategies aimed at enabling the full
release of women's and men's development potential and at eradicating poverty;

     7.  Urges all Governments to fulfil their commitments in the Platform
for Action to develop, preferably by the end of 1996, national implementation
strategies or plans of actions that should also focus on the reduction of
overall poverty and on the eradication of absolute poverty, with targets,
benchmarks for monitoring and proposals for allocation or reallocation of
resources for implementation, including resources for undertaking gender
impact analysis; where necessary the support of the international community
could be enlisted, including resources;

     8.  Urges all Governments, the United Nations system, including the
Bretton Woods institutions, and civil society, to implement the Platform for
Action in its entirety;

     9.  Emphasizes that, in addition to the commitments and recommendations
regarding the eradication of poverty outlined in the Programme of Action of
the World Summit for Social Development 53/ and in the Platform for Action
adopted by the Fourth World Conference on Women, specific measures in the
Platform for Action should be undertaken to address the feminization of
poverty and to mainstream a gender perspective in all policies and programmes
for the eradication of poverty, including, inter alia, measures to:

     (a) Develop and implement education, training and retraining policies
for women and girls;

     (b) Undertake legislative and administrative reforms to give women full
and equal access to economic resources, including the right to inheritance and
to ownership of land and other property, credit, natural resources and
appropriate technologies;

     (c) Promote the participation of women at all levels of decision-making;

     (d) Develop national strategies for promoting employment and self-
employment, including entrepreneurial and organizational skills, in order to
generate income for women;

     (e) Adopt policies to ensure that all women have adequate economic and
social protection during unemployment, ill health, maternity, child-bearing,
widowhood, disability and old age and that women, men and society share
responsibilities for child and other dependant care;

     (f)  Restructure and target the allocation of public expenditures to
promote women's economic opportunities and equal access to productive
resources and to address the basic social, educational and health needs of
women, including access to safe water, particularly of those living in
poverty;

     (g) Develop gender-based methodologies and conduct research for use in
designing more effective policies to recognize and value the full contribution
of women to the economy through both their unremunerated and renumerated work
and to address the feminization of poverty, in particular the relationship
between unremunerated work and women's vulnerability to poverty;

     (h) Develop gender-based methodologies and conduct research to address
the contribution of women to the economy, the feminization of poverty, and the
economic and social impact of debt and structural adjustment programmes in all
developing countries, particularly in Africa and the least developed
countries;

     (i) Analyse, from a gender perspective, macroeconomic and microeconomic
policies, and the allocation of public expenditures, which should be designed
and implemented with the full and equal participation of women so as to avoid
negative impacts on women living in poverty;

     53/  Report of the World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, 6-
12 March 1995 (A/CONF.166/9), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.


     (j) Reduce excessive military expenditures and investments for arms
production and acquisition, as is appropriate and consistent with national
security requirements, in order to increase resources for social and economic
development;

     10. Calls for the implementation of the outcome of all other major
United Nations conferences and summits related to the eradication of poverty;

     11.  Calls upon States to undertake all commitments of the Copenhagen
Declaration on Social Development, 54/ taking into account commitments 2
and 5 and the linkages between them, in their efforts to eradicate poverty,
and also calls upon all relevant actors to implement promptly the actions and
measures for the eradication of poverty, as contained in the Programme of
Action of the World Summit for Social Development; 55/

     12. Stresses the need to fully integrate a gender perspective into the
work of all thematic task forces relating to the eradication of poverty
established by the Administrative Committee on Coordination, as well as the
importance of establishing the proposed inter-agency committee on the follow-
up to the Fourth World Conference on Women;

     13. Recommends that a United Nations system-wide effort be undertaken to
review existing indicators, strengthen gender impact analysis of the design
and implementation of economic reform programmes, develop complementary,
qualitative assessments, and standardize measures and promote their
implementation, and stresses that this effort will necessitate effective
coordination;

     14.  Also recommends that the secretariats of the United Nations system,
including the Bretton Woods institutions, incorporate a coherent method of
including both the mainstreaming of the gender perspective and specific gender
programmes to achieve equality between women and men in the operational
activities, staffing and decision-making spheres of the system;

     15.  Stresses that the United Nations system, including the Bretton
Woods institutions, should play a central role in enhancing financial and
technical support and assistance for developing countries, particularly
African countries and least developed countries, in their efforts to achieve
the objectives of the eradication of poverty and the full integration of a
gender perspective into all policies and programmes, as set forth in the
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, particularly the goal of the
eradication of poverty;

     16. Recognizes that the implementation of the Platform for Action in the
countries with economies in transition will also require continued
international cooperation and assistance, in support of national efforts;

     17. Stresses the importance of using all available funding sources and
mechanisms with a view to contributing towards the goal of poverty eradication
and targeting of women living in poverty;

     18. Calls upon States committed to the initiative of allocation of
20 per cent of official development assistance and 20 per cent of the national
budget to basic social programmes to fully integrate a gender perspective into
its implementation, as called for in paragraph 16 of General Assembly
resolution 50/203;

     54/  Ibid., annex I.
     55/  Ibid., annex II, chap. II.
 
    19. Invites all countries, the United Nations system, including the
Bretton Woods institutions, relevant international organizations,
non-governmental organizations, the private sector, and all other sectors to
contribute to the implementation of programmes aimed at eradicating poverty;

     20. Stresses the need for a coherent and coordinated approach among all
partners in development in the implementation of national poverty eradication
plans or programmes that fully take into account the gender perspective;

     21. Also stresses the need for gender-sensitive training, with the
assistance of United Nations organizations, of those responsible for the
formulation and implementation of development policies and programmes;

     22. Further stresses the important role of non-governmental
organizations as actors involved at the grass-roots level in the policy
dialogue designed to reach women through poverty eradication programmes and
calls for further efforts to identify ways by which those non-governmental
organizations could contribute to the implementation of such programmes;

     23. Recommends that the Economic and Social Council, when examining the
"Coordination of the activities of the United Nations system for the
eradication of poverty" as the theme for the coordination segment of the
substantive session of 1996 of the Council, ensure that the relevant organs of
the United Nations system take fully into account the gender perspective in
their activities for the eradication of poverty, and, likewise, requests that
the Council recommend to the General Assembly that the gender dimension of
poverty be incorporated into all activities and documentation related to the
first United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty;

     24. Stresses the need to fully integrate a gender perspective into the
coordinated follow-up to major United Nations conferences and summits and
recommends that the Economic and Social Council examine, on a regular basis,
the extent to which gender factors have been taken into account in the
recommendations of all the concerned functional commissions;

     25. Requests the Secretary-General to keep in mind the multidimensional
nature of poverty in the implementation and review of reports on all other
critical areas of concern, taking into consideration the many links between
the eradication of poverty and those other critical areas of concern;

     26. Also requests the Secretary-General to report on the implementation
of the present resolution within the framework of his report on action
envisaged to be taken in preparation for the first United Nations Decade for
the Eradication of Poverty.


              Resolution 40/10.  Comments on the proposed system-wide
                                 medium-term plan for the advancement
                                 of women, 1996-2001*

     The Commission on the Status of Women,

     Recalling Economic and Social Council resolution 1985/46 of 31 May 1985,
in which the Council requested the formulation of a system-wide medium-term
plan for women and development, and the resulting plan, 56/ as endorsed by
the Council in its resolution 1987/86 of 8 July 1987,

     Also recalling Council resolution 1988/59 of 27 July 1988, in which the
Council requested the Secretary-General to initiate the formulation of a
system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women for the period
1996-2001,

     Noting that the Commission had before it at its thirty-seventh session a
draft system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women,
1996-2001, 57/ and that the Council, in its resolution 1993/16 of
27 July 1993, adopted the proposal of the Commission on the Status of Women to
invite the Secretary-General to revise the draft plan after the Platform for
Action and the second review and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies for the Advancement of Women 58/ had been formulated and adopted
by the Fourth World Conference on Women,

     Recognizing the role of the Council in overseeing system-wide
coordination in the implementation of the Platform for Action, 59/

     Recalling that Governments have the primary responsibility for
implementing the Platform for Action,

     Further recalling that the Platform for Action needs to be implemented
through the work of all of the organizations and bodies of the United Nations
system as an integral part of system-wide programming,

     Recognizing that the Platform for Action calls upon the specialized
agencies and other organizations of the United Nations system to strengthen
their support for actions at the national level and to enhance their
contributions to coordinated follow-up by the United Nations, each
organization should set out the specific actions that it will undertake,
including goals and targets to realign priorities and redirect resources to
meet the global priorities identified in the Platform for Action, with a clear
delineation of responsibility and accountability, all of which should be
reflected in the system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women,
1996-2001, and stressing in this connection the need for appropriate
mechanisms for coordination and cooperation,

     *    For the discussion, see chap. II, paras. 83-88.
     56/  E/1987/52.
     57/  E/1992/43.
     58/  Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the
Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women:  Equality, Development
and Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985 (United Nations publication, Sales No.
E.85.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.
     59/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.


     Aware that the Platform for Action stresses that the responsibility for
ensuring its implementation and the integration of a gender perspective into
all policies and programmes of the United Nations system must rest at the
highest levels,

     Also aware that the Platform for Action recommends that the Council
consider dedicating at least one coordination segment before the year 2000 to
coordination of the advancement of women, based on the revised system-wide
medium-term plan for the advancement of women,

     Further aware that the Platform for Action recommends that the Council
consider dedicating at least one operational activities segment before the
year 2000 to the consideration of development activities related to gender,
based on the revised system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of
women, with a view to instituting guidelines and procedures for implementation
of the Platform for Action by the funds and programmes of the United Nations
system,

     Mindful that the Platform for Action requests the Secretary-General to
assume responsibility for the coordination of policy within the United Nations
for the implementation of the Platform for Action and for mainstreaming a
system-wide gender perspective in all activities of the United Nations, and
noting the appointment of a special adviser on gender issues,

     1.  Stresses that the system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement
of women, 1996-2001 should be an effective instrument for promoting the
coordinated implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action;

     2.  Takes note of the revised draft plan prepared by the Ad Hoc
Inter-agency Meeting on Women; 60/

     3.  Recommends the adoption of the revised draft plan by the Economic
and Social Council, taking into account the present resolution and the
comments of the Commission contained in the annex to the present resolution;

     4.  Emphasizes the importance of a coherent approach and of the
strategic orientation/focus of the United Nations system spelt out under each
critical area of concern;

     5.  Stresses the importance of gender mainstreaming, including
institutional follow-up and capacity-building;

     6.  Recommends that the system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement
of women, 1996-2001 serve as a monitoring and coordination tool at all levels
for system-wide progress in implementing actions under each critical area of
concern in the Platform for Action;

     7.  Stresses the importance of involving all parts of the United Nations
in the implementation of the Platform for Action, including the
decision-making level;

     60/  E/CN.6/1996/CRP.2.


     8.  Invites the United Nations bodies that meet under the auspices of
the Administrative Committee on Coordination to regularly discuss progress
made in implementing activities under each area of critical concern, taking
into account the long-term programme of work of the Commission on the Status
of Women and the Economic and Social Council, and to provide up-to-date
information in those areas to the Council through the Commission, taking into
consideration the comments made on the plan by the Commission and other
relevant bodies;

     9.  Recommends that the Council, through the Commission, follow up the
implementation of the plan and undertake a comprehensive mid-term review of
the implementation of the plan as a basis for future programming and
coordination of activities for the advancement and empowerment of women by the
United Nations system, including a review of the progress made in
mainstreaming a gender perspective in all activities of the United Nations
system;

     10. Invites the Secretary-General to submit to the Council for its
consideration of the revised draft plan the comments of the Committee for
Programme and Coordination and the Administrative Committee on Coordination,
along with the comments of the Commission;

     11. Recommends that the Administrative Committee on Coordination and the
proposed inter-agency committee on the follow-up to the Fourth World
Conference on Women use the plan and comments on it as a basis for monitoring
increasing collaboration and cost-effective approaches to United Nations
system activities for the advancement and empowerment of women, including the
assessment of methods for mainstreaming a gender perspective in all United
Nations activities, ensuring accountability and carrying out impact analyses
of gender-sensitive programmes and policies;

     12. Recommends that the Council request the Secretary-General to submit
to it, through the Commission at its forty-second session, a progress report
on the implementation of the plan;

     13. Requests the Secretary-General to ensure the mainstreaming of a
system-wide gender perspective in all United Nations activities, including in
decision-making as part of the accountability of senior managers;

     14. Urges the Secretary-General to implement the decision taken by the
General Assembly at its fiftieth session to strengthen the capacity of the
Division for the Advancement of Women, and emphasizes the need to provide the
necessary resources in the current revision of the programme budget for the
biennium for the comprehensive follow-up of the Platform for Action; the
reformulation of policies and reallocation of resources may be needed within
and among programmes, without prejudice to development programmes, but some
policy changes may not necessarily have financial implications; mobilization
of additional resources, both public and private, including resources from
innovative sources of funding, may also be necessary;

     15. Requests the Secretary-General, in the implementation of the
Platform for Action, to integrate a gender perspective in budgetary decisions
on policies and programmes and to assure adequate financing of specific
programmes for securing equality between women and men;

     16. Recommends that the Council request the formulation of a new system-
wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women to cover the period
2002-2005, and that the Secretary-General, in his capacity as Chairman of the
Administrative Committee on Coordination, submit the new draft plan to the
Council at its substantive session of 2000 in order to provide guidance to the
medium-term plans of the individual organizations of the United Nations
system, and that the draft of the proposal be submitted to the Commission on
the Status of Women at its forty-fourth session for comment.


                                      Annex

COMMENTS OF THE COMMISSION ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN ON THE 
PROPOSED SYSTEM-WIDE MEDIUM-TERM PLAN FOR THE ADVANCEMENT
OF WOMEN, 1996-2001

                              I.  GENERAL COMMENTS

1.   The system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women, 1996-2001
needs to be more than a compilation of what the organizations of the United
Nations system are doing.

2.   More emphasis should be given to coordination and collaboration between
different organizations and actors.

3.   The concept of visible mainstreaming should be better reflected in the
indicative planning of the system.

4.   In many cases, although multiple actors are identified under actions to
be taken, the list of actors under different critical areas of concern should
not be exclusive; the possibility of identifying lead agencies should be
explored.

5.   More emphasis should be placed on policy coordination and the
implementation of policies and guidance by establishing a real bridge between
research and analysis, function and operational activities.

6.   The United Nations Secretariat as a whole should undertake activities in
the critical areas of concern - not only those entities that have a specific
mandate on the advancement of women and the operational agencies.  Certain
entities of the Secretariat, such as the Executive Office of the Secretary-
General, the Department of Political Affairs, the Department for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development, the Office of Legal Affairs and the
Department of Humanitarian Affairs, are not included in these activities.  As
another example, the Joint and Co-sponsored United Nations Programme on Human
Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome needs to be better
reflected in the system-wide medium-term plan.

7.   A more strategic orientation on the mainstreaming of a gender
perspective within the work of the United Nations is needed.

8.   The system-wide medium-term plan should have more focus on outputs and
results to be achieved.


     *    The proposed system-wide medium-term plan for the Advancement of
women, 1996-2001 was before the Commission in document E/CN.6/1996/CRP.2.


                            II.  SPECIFIC COMMENTS

                             A.  Women and poverty

9.   More emphasis should be placed on the need for joint efforts by the
United Nations system as regards the use of gender-disaggregated data and the
development of indicators to monitor trends in poverty from a gender
perspective.

10.  Insufficient attention is given to an understanding of the underlying
causes of poverty.  The system-wide medium-term plan should reinforce the
principle that resources allocated to development policies and programmes
aimed at the eradication of poverty should not be diverted to emergency relief
assistance.

11.  The notion that women's empowerment and the promotion and protection of
their human rights are fundamental for the achievement of development, should
also be better reflected in the plan.

12.  The integration of a gender dimension in the design and implementation
of both macroeconomic and micro-economic policies, including structural
adjustment programmes, is crucial.  The system-wide medium-term plan
highlights this as regards both research/analysis and operational activities. 
It is surprising, however, that no reference is made to the role of the World
Bank in paragraph 29 or to United Nations funds and programmes (the United
Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund and the
United Nations Population Fund).

13.  There is a need for all United Nations bodies to be involved in
development cooperation activities to mainstream a gender perspective into all
their policies and programmes.  This would imply the integration of gender
analysis and the development of gender expertise both at Headquarters and in
the field.


                      B.  Education and training of women

14.  Action within the United Nations Secretariat should include analysis and
monitoring of data, policy development and coordination of action by various
parts of the United Nations.  Currently action is limited almost exclusively
to United Nations agencies.  There are limited references to the Division for
the Advancement of Women of the Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable Development and the Department of Public Information.

15.  The United Nations system should consider how to integrate lifelong
education and training throughout the activities of the system and promote
similar action at the national level.  Appropriate support mechanisms for
teaching in difficult, especially violent, situations should be established.

16.  Data collection and research should include wider activities of the
Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

17.  Data collection should focus on data not currently available.  Existing
data may need to be presented in a different format to be useful to relevant
committees but duplication of data collection should be avoided.

18.  Measures that encourage the participation of girls and women in science
and technology in primary, secondary and further education should be included.

                             C.  Women and health

19.  All the items in this section should be updated to reflect accurately
the language from the Programme of Action of the International Conference on
Population and Development 61/ and the Fourth World Conference on Women
Platform for Action. 59/

20.  All relevant parts of the Platform for Action need to be implemented at
all levels.

21.  All relevant actors throughout the United Nations, including the
Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, the United
Nations Population Fund and the Centre for Human Rights need to be involved in
the implementation.

22.  The gender aspects of AIDS should be better integrated into United
Nations activities.  The heavy burden of care that is often placed on
caregivers, in particular women, needs to be addressed.

23.  The general comments need to avoid duplication of activity.  It should
be recognized, however, that more than one actor will have an interest in each
area.

24.  The involvement of men needs to be further addressed, as does the
encouragement of men and women to take responsibility for their sexual and
reproductive behaviour.

25.  The need to integrate education on reproductive and sexual health,
including family planning, into all population and development programmes
should be addressed.

26.  Insufficient consideration has been given to the issue of women and
health and to the activities proposed to deal with the graver problems of the
health of women and girls.  High priority should be given to eliminating the
major causes of death in women and girls.

27.  References to equality in the utilization of health care should be
understood to mean provision in response to need because women often make
greater use of health-care services; the need for equality of access to health
care should be reaffirmed.

61/  Report of the International Conference on Population and Development,
Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No.
E.95.XIII.18), chap. I, resolution 1, annex.


                          D.  Violence against women

28.  Actions contained in the system-wide medium-term plan in relation to
strategic objective D.3 (Eliminate trafficking in women and assist victims of
violence due to prostitution and trafficking) of the Platform for Action are
very limited, as is the list of organizations involved.


                         E.  Women and armed conflict

29.  The focus under this critical area of concern should be on actions to be
taken by the United Nations system consistent with the Charter of the United
Nations in order to protect women who are victims or who are at risk of
becoming victims, of armed conflict from violence and abuse.

30.  Measures should be further elaborated to raise awareness of women's
rights in armed conflict, and should be applied, inter alia, in the training
of police, military personnel, health workers, teachers and managers of camps
for refugee/displaced persons.

31.  Measures to promote the more active participation of women in conflict
resolution need to be addressed as the equal access and full participation of
women in power structures and their full involvement in all efforts for the
prevention and resolution of conflicts are essential for the maintenance and
promotion of peace and security.  However, the system-wide medium-term plan
should not assume - as it now does - that there are major differences between
women's and men's attitudes to peace, security and conflict resolution.


                           F.  Women and the economy

32.  In relation to the care of children and dependants and the sharing of
family responsibilities, child care and dependant care need to be provided as
integral parts of the concept of gender equality and gender analysis, and
Convention No. 156 of the International Labour Organization needs to be
promoted.

33.  In operational activities, there should be a greater commitment to the
provision of care of children and dependants.

34.  The work on indicators should be better coordinated.  The World Bank
should also be associated with the analysis of data on globalization and
change in international work patterns.

35.  In operational activities, there should be a clearer reference to United
Nations system assistance to Governments in implementing policies to ensure
women equal rights with men to economic resources; this should include access
to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, credit,
inheritance, natural resources and new technologies.

36.  As regards work and employment, there should be a more comprehensive
approach to methods of measuring and disseminating information on types,
extent and distribution of unremunerated work, in keeping with the relevant
paragraphs of the Platform for Action, particularly paragraph 165 (g).

37.  As regards women in the rural sector, as reflected in paragraphs 137
and 138 of the system-wide medium-term plan, there should be more emphasis
on the concepts contained in the Platform for Action, in particular
paragraph 166 (c).

38.  The collective capacity of the United Nations system to promote gender
analysis and policy advice on the impact of global economic issues on women,
particularly the effects of economic restructuring programmes and other
macroeconomic policies, should be utilized to the full.

                    G.  Women in power and decision-making

39.  The word "parity" is not used in the Platform for Action and should not
be used in the system-wide medium-term plan.

40.  Decision-making should be addressed at all levels.

41.  Activities within the United Nations Secretariat in this area of concern
need to be strengthened.

42.  The United Nations Statistics Division should collect and publicize
statistics (in a yearly publication) on the number of women and men throughout
the United Nations system at all levels, including their regional and
subregional composition by gender.

43.  Research on representation of men in fields where they are
underrepresented should be added.

44.  Dialogue with local communities and civil society and their
participation in development activities need to be strengthened.


           H.  Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women

45.  The United Nations system should take into account that the main task of
national machineries for the advancement of women is to support
government-wide mainstreaming of a gender perspective in all policy areas, and
that Governments should create or strengthen national machineries and other
governmental bodies for the advancement of women.

46.  Providing support to Governments and technical assistance on how to
strengthen institutional capacities for the advancement of women requires that
a broader range of actions be considered than those reflected in the
system-wide medium-term plan, which focus particularly on the collection, use
and dissemination of data.  Including gender capacity-building elements in
national plans and development strategies, as well as in supportive efforts
provided by international cooperation, should be considered.


                           I.  Human rights of women

47.  It should be emphasized that women's rights are human rights.

48.  It should also be emphasized that the human rights of women and of the
girl child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of all human
rights and fundamental freedoms.

49.  It should be stressed that this is one of the priority objectives of the
United Nations.

50.  The United Nations should develop a comprehensive policy programme for
mainstreaming the human rights of women throughout the United Nations system,
emphasizing the strengthening of the cooperation and coordination between
different entities of the United Nations in the promotion and protection of
the human rights of women.

51.  The Centre for Human Rights should take into account the Programme of
Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the
Platform of Action of the Fourth World Conference in all aspects of the human
rights of women.

52.  Integration of the human rights of women in all activities of the United
Nations should be emphasized.


                            J.  Women and the media

53.  This section should be updated in the light of the Platform for Action
and the Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development.

54.  The activities of all parts of the United Nations Secretariat should be
reflected, not just those of the Division for the Advancement of Women and the
Department of Public Information.  A gender element is needed in all
programmes.

55.  Emphasis should be placed on the ability to communicate in order to get
the mainstreaming message across.

56.  Public information and outreach should be undertaken by all parts of the
United Nations system.  Mainstreaming a gender perspective into all
publications is essential.  The role of women in political activity, as well
as in the social and economic activity in the United Nations system, is
important.  Not only should agencies that have traditionally had a role in
this critical area of concern undertake activities, but also others should get
more involved in the future.


                         K.  Women and the environment

57.  In the indication of areas of research, more emphasis should be given to
the issues identified in paragraph 258 (b) of the Platform for Action.

58.  The work on indicators should be integrated with the work initiated
under the aegis of the Commission on Sustainable Development.


                              L.  The girl child

59.  Educating the girl child about rights guaranteed to her under
international human rights instruments should be given more importance.

60.  Health should be emphasized, including reproductive and sexual health
and information on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome.


                        M.  Institutional arrangements

61.  More attention should be given to measures to promote mainstreaming of a
gender perspective into all policies and programmes of the United Nations.

62.  Clarification has to be sought on progress regarding innovative
mobilization of resources.

63.  Experiences from bilateral and regional cooperation should be taken into
account by indicating best practices and the importance of policy dialogue and
country strategies.

64.  The role of the Economic and Social Council and the importance of
coordinated follow-up of all major United Nations conferences should be
further highlighted.


              Decision 40/101.  Reports relating to follow-up to the
                                Fourth World Conference on Women

     At its 16th meeting, on 22 March 1996, the Commission on the Status of
Women took note of the following reports relating to follow-up to the Fourth
World Conference on Women:

     (a)  Report of the Secretary-General on the mandate, methods of work and
multi-year work programme of the Commission on the Status of Women; 62/

     (b)  Report of the Secretary-General on ways to enhance the capacity of
the Organization and of the United Nations system to support the ongoing
follow-up to the Conference; 63/

     (c)  Report of the Secretary-General on the elimination of stereotyping
in the mass media; 64/

     (d)  Report of the Secretary-General on child and dependant care,
including the sharing of work and family responsibilities; 65/

     (e)  Report of the Secretary-General on education for peace; 66/

     (f)  Report of the Secretary-General on the improvement of the status of
women in the Secretariat; 67/

     (g)  Report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of General
Assembly resolution 50/166 on the role of the United Nations Development Fund
for Women in eliminating violence against women. 68/


62/  E/CN.6/1996/2.
63/  E/CN.6/1996/3.
64/  E/CN.6/1996/4.
65/  E/CN.6/1996/5.
66/  E/CN.6/1996/6.
67/  E/CN.6/1996/7.
68/  E/CN.6/1996/11.



    	

 


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