United Nations

E/CN.6/1995/9


Commission on the Status of Women

 Distr. GENERAL
15 February 1995
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


COMMISSION ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN
Thirty-ninth session
New York, 15 March-4 April 1995
Item 5 of the provisional agenda*

     *   E/CN.6/1995/1.


         MONITORING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NAIROBI FORWARD-LOOKING
                    STRATEGIES FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN

           Activities of the United Nations bodies and institutions
                        concerned with crime prevention

                        Report of the Secretary-General



                                     SUMMARY

     In its resolution 38/3, the Commission on the Status of Women requested
the Secretary-General to report to the Commission at its thirty-ninth session
on the activities undertaken by the United Nations bodies and institutions
concerned with crime prevention with regard to the question of violence
against women.  The present report indicates the measures taken and planned by
United Nations bodies, meetings and institutions concerned with crime
prevention, including the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice,
the Ninth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment
of Offenders and its regional preparatory meetings, the Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Branch of the United Nations Office at Vienna and the United
Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI).







                                   CONTENTS

                                                              Paragraphs Page

INTRODUCTION ...............................................    1 - 3       3

 I.   COMMISSION ON CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE ..    4 - 9       4

II.   NINTH UNITED NATIONS CONGRESS ON THE PREVENTION OF
      CRIME AND THE TREATMENT OF OFFENDERS, AND ITS REGIONAL
      PREPARATORY MEETINGS .................................   10 - 20      6

      A. European regional preparatory meeting ............    11 - 14      7

      B. Latin America and the Caribbean regional
         preparatory meeting ..............................    15 - 16      7

      C. African regional preparatory meeting .............      17         8

      D. Asia and the Pacific regional preparatory meeting       18         8

      E. Western Asia regional preparatory meeting ........    19 - 20      8

III.  CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE BRANCH OF THE
      UNITED NATIONS OFFICE AT VIENNA ......................   21 - 22      9

IV.   UNITED NATIONS NETWORK OF INTERREGIONAL AND REGIONAL
      AFFILIATED AND ASSOCIATED INSTITUTES FOR CRIME
      PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE ......................   23 - 33      9

      A. Interregional and regional affiliated institutes .    23 - 29      9

         1.   United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice
              Research Institute (UNICRI) ..................   23 - 25      9

         2.   African Institute for the Prevention of Crime
              and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI) ......   26 - 29     10

      B. Associated institutes ............................    30 - 33     11

         1.   Australian Institute of Criminology ..........   30 - 31     11

         2.   International Centre for Criminal Law Reform
              and Criminal Justice Policy at the University
              of British Columbia ..........................   32 - 33     12



                                 INTRODUCTION


1.   In its resolution 38/3 on the elimination of violence against women, 1/
the Commission on the Status of Women requested the Secretary-General to
report to the Commission at its thirty-ninth session on the activities
undertaken by the United Nations bodies and institutions concerned with crime
prevention with regard to the question of violence against women.  In the same
resolution, the Commission took note of the report of the Secretary-General
containing the conclusions and recommendations of the Expert Group Meeting on
Measures to Eradicate Violence against Women (document E/CN.6/1994/4), held in
New Brunswick, New Jersey, in October 1993.

2.   Among the recommendations of that Expert Group Meeting (see document
E/CN.6/1994/4, annex) were the following:

     "34.  The Secretary-General of the United Nations should communicate the
     present recommendations of the Expert Group Meeting to all its branches
     and divisions, especially those related to human rights.  He should
     especially  communicate them to the United Nations bodies and
     institutions concerned with crime prevention so as to assist them in
     their compliance with the resolutions of the Sixth, Seventh and Eighth
     United Nations Congresses on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment
     of Offenders concerning the elimination of domestic violence.

     "35.  The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice should
     expand the relevant recommendations of the Crime Congresses and other
     resolutions to include all forms of violence against women.

     "36.  Bearing in mind the importance of the appraisal and review
     function of the Fourth World Conference on Women, the Expert Group
     Meeting urged the Secretary-General to prepare a report on the work of
     the United Nations bodies and institutions concerned with crime
     prevention in relation to their research with respect to violence
     against women and responses to such violence, to be presented to the
     Fourth World Conference.

     "37.  In the light of the report of the Expert Group Meeting,
     gender-based issues and, particularly, gender-based violence against
     women should be incorporated into the four agenda priority items at the
     Ninth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the
     Treatment of Offenders.

     "38.  In accordance with General Assembly resolution 45/114, Member
     States should exchange experiences and research findings regarding
     domestic violence and communicate them to non-governmental
     organizations.

     "39.  At its third session in 1994, the Commission on Crime Prevention
     and Criminal Justice should:

         "(a)  Urge States to gather data on a sex-disaggregated basis;

         "(b)  Urge States to record the relationship between the victim and
     the offender in statistics related to violence;
         "(c)  Request all United Nations bodies and institutions concerned
     with crime prevention also to gather data on a sex-disaggregated basis
     and record the relationship between the victim and the offender in
     statistics related to violence;

         "(d)  Urge the United Nations Criminal Justice Information Network to
     design and integrate an information system providing appropriate data on
     violence against women.

     "40.  The Secretary-General of the United Nations should request the
     United Nations interregional, regional and affiliated institutes on
     crime prevention to establish a formal network to coordinate their work
     on issues relating to violence against women and the equitable treatment
     of women within the administration of justice.

     "41.  The United Nations bodies and institutes concerned with crime
     prevention should give priority to gender-expertise and gender-
     sensitivity in the appointment of any staff member to its different
     bodies, including any interregional Advisers.

     "42.  An interregional adviser on gender-based violence against women
     should be appointed within the regular programme of technical
     cooperation of the United Nations.

     "43.  In conjunction with women's non-governmental organizations, the
     United Nations crime prevention bodies should conduct research on the
     effect of the criminal justice system on the individual offender and on
     the reduction of violence in society generally."

3.   The United Nations bodies and institutions concerned with crime
prevention and criminal justice include the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice, the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch of the
United Nations Office at Vienna, the Ninth United Nations Congress on the
Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders and its regional
preparatory meetings, the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice
Research Institute (UNICRI) and affiliated regional institutes.  This report
reflects the information that has been received by the Division for the
Advancement of Women of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
Development of the United Nations Secretariat on the activities of those
bodies and institutions since the proclamation, by the General Assembly in its
resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993, of the Declaration on the Elimination
of Violence against Women.


            I.  COMMISSION ON CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

4.   At its second session, held from 13 to 23 April 1993, the Commission on
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice had recommended to the Economic and
Social Council the adoption of a draft resolution on violence against women in
all its forms. 2/  The draft resolution was adopted by the Council as its
resolution 1993/26.  In that resolution, the Council, expressing deep concern
about the continuing and endemic violence against women, urged Governments,
the specialized agencies of the United Nations and the non-governmental
organization concerned, inter alia, to take all possible steps to prevent
violence against women, to promote police and penal systems that combined the
protection of society with the prosecution and appropriate punishment of
perpetrators, and to offer full assistance to women who were victims of
violence, as well as to include the issue of violence against women in all its
forms both under the appropriate item of the provisional agenda for the Ninth
United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of
Offenders, and in the preparations for and observance of the International
Year of the Family (under the question of crime prevention and criminal
justice).

5.   At its third session, held from 26 April to 6 May 1994, the Commission
on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice adopted resolution 3/1 on violence
against women and children. 3/  In that resolution, the Commission - upon
expressing its alarm at the marked increase in acts of sexual violence
directed notably against women and children, reiterating that such acts
constituted grave breaches of international humanitarian law, and also
expressing its alarm at the fact that armed conflicts severely affected the
civilian population, in particular women and children, and that situations
leading to impoverishment of families and the serious deterioration of their
living conditions contributed to the occurrence of violence against women and
children - called for the elimination of violence against women and children
in the family, in the general community and where perpetrated or condoned by
the State.

6.   The Commission also responded to the proclamation by the General
Assembly of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, and
the issue was a priority in the agenda of the Commission at its third session.

In its resolution 3/1, the Commission also encouraged the strengthening of
cooperation and coordination between the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice, the Commission on Human Rights, the Commission on the Status
of Women, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,
the Committee on the Rights of the Child and other treaty bodies, the United
Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the United Nations Children's
Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and other
United Nations organizations, including the International Labour Organization
(ILO), and requested the Secretary-General to report to the Commission on
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice at its fourth session on the activities
of United Nations bodies and institutions with regard to the issue of violence
against women and children.

7.   Violence against women in the family or society was considered a
criminal act that should be addressed by criminal justice systems and that
should continue to have priority within the Commission.  In its resolution
3/1, the Commission, recalling resolution 1993/46 of the Commission on Human
Rights, 4/ in which the Commission on Human Rights, inter alia, had condemned
all acts of violence and violations of human rights directed specifically
against women, expressed its appreciation of the decisions of the Commission
on Human Rights to appoint, at its fiftieth session, a Special Rapporteur on
violence against women 5/ and, at its forty-sixth session, a Special
Rapporteur to consider matters relating to the sale of children, child
prostitution and child pornography. 6/

8.   During the discussion of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice, representatives expressed views that there was a need for the
following:

     (a) Establishment of legal mechanisms of an international character to
protect women who had been exposed to injury resulting from the use of any
kind of violence against them; 

     (b) Elaboration of model legislation to provide effective mechanisms for
the apprehension and punishment of offenders;

     (c) Coordination among competent international bodies with a view to
considering the drafting of a protocol, supplementary to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (General Assembly
resolution 34/180, annex);

     (d) Support for and assistance to the recently established International
Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of
International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the former
Yugoslavia since 1991.  Such support would be a step towards consolidating
internal law and a manifestation of the determination of the international
community to deal with crimes at a global level;

     (e) Encouragement of States to arrange for a legal basis upon which to
address the issue of domestic violence and to remove gender-based bias from
existing legislation.

9.   It was thought that research on violence against women, including
marital rape and other family violence, should entail examining the particular
conditions under which such violence had occurred.


           II.  NINTH UNITED NATIONS CONGRESS ON THE PREVENTION OF CRIME
                AND THE TREATMENT OF OFFENDERS, AND ITS REGIONAL
                PREPARATORY MEETINGS

10.  The problem of domestic violence had been discussed at the Seventh
United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of
Offenders; and the Congress had recommended to the General Assembly the
adoption of its draft resolution on the subject. 7/  The draft resolution was
adopted by the General Assembly as its resolution 40/36.  In that resolution,
the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to intensify research on domestic
violence from a criminological perspective to formulate distinct action-
oriented strategies that would serve as a basis for policy formulation and to
report thereon to the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of
Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, and invited the Eighth Congress to
consider the problem of domestic violence under a separate agenda item.  At
the Eighth Congress, following discussions based on the report of the
Secretary-General on domestic violence (A/CONF.144/17), the Congress had
recommended to the Assembly the adoption of a draft resolution on the
subject. 8/  Subsequently, the draft resolution was adopted by the Assembly as
its resolution 45/114.  The Ninth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of
Crime and the Treatment of Offenders will be held at Cairo from 29 April to
10 May 1995.  The issue of violence against women will also be in the agenda
of the Ninth Congress in the context of topic 4:  "Crime prevention
strategies, in particular as related to crime in urban areas and juvenile and
violent criminality, including the question of victims:  assessment and new
perspectives", and has been featured, moreover, in regional preparatory
meetings.


                   A.  European regional preparatory meeting

11.  At the European regional preparatory meeting, held at Vienna from
28 February to 4 March 1994, violence against women was considered from
various perspectives.  The view was expressed that given the gravity of the
problem of violence against women, the appointment of a Special Rapporteur on
violence against women by the Commission on Human Rights and the adoption of a
declaration on violence against women would not be sufficient to deal with the
problem.  A United Nations convention on the elimination of violence against
women, under the auspices of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice, might be considered.

12.  Violence was seen as a vicious circle repeating itself from generation
to generation but one that was not irreversible and that could be addressed
through multidisciplinary cooperation at the national level, greater
condemnation of violence against women and children reflected in criminal
justice systems, and programmes to prevent violent behaviour and provide
better treatment for victims.

13.  At the European preparatory meeting, participants recommended that,
within the framework of the workshop on the prevention of violent crime at the
Ninth Congress, violence against women and children should be discussed as a
matter of priority.  Both the workshop and the discussions under topic 4 of
the Congress agenda should consider proposing recommendations to the
Commission in respect of developing, establishing or strengthening means for
preventing and controlling violence against women and children.  In this
connection, consideration should be given to ways of promoting recognized good
practices, such as those contained in Strategies for Confronting Domestic
Violence:  A Resource Manual (ST/CSDHA/20).

14.  The Commission should consider the issue more carefully under its
mandate on crime prevention and criminal justice, without duplicating work
undertaken by other bodies.  The Ninth Congress should study the issue of
violence against women and children as a separate subtopic and a matter of
priority during the discussion of topic 4 and in the workshop on the
prevention of violent crime.


                   B.  Latin America and the Caribbean regional
                       preparatory meeting

15.  The Latin America and the Caribbean regional preparatory meeting was
held at San Jose', Costa Rica, from 7 to 11 March 1994.  The meeting discussed
the issue of domestic violence within the context of the specific social
problems pertaining to the region.

16.  In the region, a multiplicity of factors both economic and social were
contributing to crime.  The overcrowding on the outskirts of large cities had
helped to increase the number of manifestations of violence in which the
principal victims were women and children.  Violence took various forms,
including assaults, conjugal brutality, rape and sexual abuse.  There was a
regional project for training judges who would concern themselves with the
question of violence against women.  Raising the awareness of justice
professionals would enable an institutional response to this phenomenon.


                   C.  African regional preparatory meeting

17.  The issue of violence against women as such was not raised at the
African regional preparatory meeting, held at Kampala, Uganda, from 14 to
18 February 1994.  However, large-scale movement of persons as migrants from
rural to urban areas, together with unemployment, health and education
problems, had contributed to the weakening of traditional extended family and
community life.  Such phenomena as broken homes and single-parent households
were among the results of the situation and young people and women were
certainly the main victims of those changes.


             D.  Asia and the Pacific regional preparatory meeting

18.  In the regional preparatory meeting for Asia and the Pacific, held at
Bangkok, Thailand, from 17 to 21 January 1994, several participants referred
to domestic violence as another form of crime that should receive appropriate
attention.  More important, however, it was noted that domestic violence was a
rarely reported form of crime.  That feature made it more difficult for
relevant governmental agencies to form a clear picture of the patterns and the
severity of the problem and to plan and take appropriate action.  Countering
victimization and ensuring adequate services to victims of crime were
considered particularly important.  Measures to that end included setting up
of special funds for compensation and relief to victims of crime, as well as
encouragement of volunteer assistance and counselling services to especially
vulnerable categories of victims, such as women.


                 E.  Western Asia regional preparatory meeting

19.  Several participants at the Western Asia regional preparatory meeting,
held at Amman, Jordan, from 20 to 24 March 1994, raised the question of
violence against women.  The view was expressed that there seemed to be a risk
of inadvertently overlooking other forms of violence by concentrating so
strongly on that phenomenon.  However, it was also recognized that there was
merit in focusing on this type of violence, as it required prevention
modalities that were not necessarily applicable to others.

20.  The meeting adopted a recommendation in which it invited member States
to develop effective strategies for the prevention and control of crime in
various areas, especially urban and semi-urban areas, as well as juvenile
delinquency, violent crime, including domestic violence, and victimization,
paying due regard to the role of religion, the family, schools and upbringing
and taking into account existing economic and social needs and conditions.


             III.  CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE BRANCH OF THE
                   UNITED NATIONS OFFICE AT VIENNA

21.  The Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch of the United Nations
Office at Vienna acts as the secretariat of the Commission on Crime Prevention
and Criminal Justice.  Under the guidance of the Commission, the Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch also organizes the quinquennial United
Nations Congresses on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders,
and services them as well as their regional preparatory meetings.  The overall
coordination of the United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice
programme, including the activities of its affiliated and associated
institutes, rests with the Branch.

22.  Violence against women has been in the agenda of the crime prevention
and criminal justice programme for decades.  More recently Strategies for
Confronting Domestic Violence:  A Resource Manual (ST/CSDHA/20), presented in
English and French, was prepared by the Branch in cooperation with the
Canadian Department of Justice and the European Institute for Crime Prevention
and Control (HEUNI), affiliated with the United Nations, and with support from
the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare.


             IV.  UNITED NATIONS NETWORK OF INTERREGIONAL AND REGIONAL
                  AFFILIATED AND ASSOCIATED INSTITUTES FOR CRIME
                  PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

             A.  Interregional and regional affiliated institutes

            1.  United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research
                Institute (UNICRI)

23.  The United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
(UNICRI) is a full-fledged United Nations body operating as the interregional
research and training arm of the United Nations crime prevention and criminal
justice programme, and responding to the needs of the international community.

As an example of its recent work on the issue under consideration, the
Institute has prepared an International Bibliography on Violence in the
Family, focusing on violence against women and children.  The bibliography,
comprising a collection of data and a qualitative analysis of the literature
collected, is designed to be a useful background - providing instrument,
especially for further studies and policy information on this matter.  The
work will be distributed in diskettes together with a summary that will be
published in the UNICRI series entitled "Issues and Reports".

24.  The Institute is currently preparing an analysis of the data on women
victims of crime in the developing world, collected during the 1992-1994
International Crime (Victim) Survey.  The analysis will compare 13
cities/urban areas from developing countries and will present, among other
information, data on the type and circumstances surrounding sexual incidents,
the reasons for not reporting, the evidence for satisfaction with the work of
the police, the existing mechanisms of victim support and the fear of crime. 
The results will be ready for distribution by the beginning of 1995.  Part of
the material from the study has been provided for the updated edition of The
World's Women:  Trends and Statistics.

25.  The aforementioned activities constitute the Institute's contribution to
the Fourth World Conference on Women.


             2.  African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the
                 Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI)

26.  The African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of
Offenders (UNAFRI) has organized a number of training activities relating to
violent crimes against women and children that are mainly intended to
sensitize participants about the key issues involved and to mobilize the
participants towards undertaking appropriate courses of action in their
respective countries.  These activities include (a) training seminars and
(b) research.

(a)  Training seminars

27.  The Institute organized two Training Seminars on the Prevention, Control
and Correction of Juvenile Delinquency in Africa (11-17 September 1991), and a
Training Seminar on Victims of Crime and Prevention of Victimization in Africa
(June 1992), all held in Kampala.  The last-mentioned Seminar stressed the
vulnerability of women and children as victims of crime owing to the problems
caused by social, economic and cultural factors within the African social
situation, and the fact that as a result of certain persisting cultural
practices, including the fear of putting their lives in danger, a large number
of women and children victims of crime did not report the crimes to the
authorities.  The elimination of gender-based violence and all forms of sexual
harassment and exploitation of children, including those resulting from
cultural prejudices, and the establishment of an effective machinery for
preventing and controlling such crimes in every African country were among the
recommendations made at the meeting.

28.  The Institute also organized two training workshops on "Reform of Penal
Laws and on Procedures in Africa" and on "Training Needs and Future Training
Requirements of African Countries" for heads of institutions of crime
prevention and criminal justice.  Both meetings took place in Kampala in 1993.

The first meeting, on the reform of penal laws, called upon UNAFRI to draft a
model penal code that would de-emphasize violence and brutality against women,
children and minority groups; the second meeting on training needs called for
the development of a model curriculum for the training of law enforcement
officials so as to foster respect for human rights in the field.

(b)  Research

29.  The Institute has undertaken research on victimization and the criminal
justice administration which included a Pilot Survey of the African Crime,
Victimization and Criminal Justice Administration.  The Survey revealed
alarming tendencies regarding the victimization of women and children in the
region.  Furthermore, analysis of the data of the Pilot Survey in relation to
violence against women indicated an increase in the incidence of such
violence, particularly with respect to rape cases.  However, it was also noted
that the women victims of rape offences were gradually coming forward with
information about occurrences of rape.  This could be explained in terms of
the important role being played by women's activity organizations which were
sensitizing women on the subject of their rights.  The Institute has continued
to establish, where possible, contacts with those organizations as a way of
encouraging them to continue their valuable work.  The Institute is convinced
that such an approach will promote, in a positive manner, crime prevention
efforts which in turn will enhance the reduction in the victimization of
women.  Furthermore, this approach is considered to be producing positive
results in neutralizing some of the cultural prejudices that have been
exploited to suppress and victimize womenfolk.


                           B.  Associated institutes

                    1.  Australian Institute of Criminology

30.  The Australian Institute of Criminology has had a long-standing
commitment to conducting research on violence against women, and to providing
policy advice on the reduction of such violence.  Its work has included a
range of research projects on violence against women, violence against
children, violence against the elderly, and violence experienced by migrant
women.  This work has been supplemented with conferences, including the Second
National Conference on Violence held in 1993, that have variously addressed
these issues.

31.  The Institute is currently setting future research priorities, which
will include a major programme devoted to the topics of violence and violence
prevention.  Specific projects that relate to the prevention of violence
against women are the Violence Against Women Clearing-house, the Violence
Prevention Awards, and the Homicide Monitoring Programme.  Further programmes
may be developed, in consultation with relevant women's policy, health,
welfare and injury surveillance agencies.  For example, the Institute has
recently assisted the Office of the Status of Women with advice on a national
survey, which is to be conducted during 1995, on the incidence of violence
against women.


           2.  International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal
               Justice Policy at the University of British Columbia

32.  In March 1992, an international meeting of experts was organized by the
International Centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, with the support of the
Canadian Government and the European Institute for Crime Prevention and
Control (HEUNI), to develop a manual on domestic violence.  That meeting led
to the publication of Strategies for Confronting Domestic Violence:  A
Resource Manual by the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch of the
United Nations Office at Vienna, in June 1993.

33.  More recently (January 1995), the International Centre hosted an
international advisory committee meeting in Vancouver.  At this meeting, the
advisory committee developed a mission statement, as well as goals and
objectives for a training programme on domestic violence against women.  Those
goals and objectives are related to a core curriculum that is being developed
by the International Centre, in consultation with the Justice Institute of
British Columbia, for utilization as a full technical cooperation training
programme for criminal justice practitioners, policy makers and other groups
working with issues of domestic violence world wide.  The advisory committee
has also established a training programme delivery plan, according to which
pilot courses on domestic violence against women will be offered in various
regions throughout 1995 and 1996, and evaluated and refined thereafter.  The
International Centre will coordinate these implementation activities. 
Progress reports concerning the programme will be presented at the Ninth
United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of
Offenders, to be held in Cairo, Egypt, in April and May 1995, and at the
Fourth World Conference on Women, to be held in Beijing, China, in
September 1995.  These international events will also serve as opportunities
for determining future requirements for technical cooperation in this field.


                                     Notes

     1/  See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1994,
Supplement No. 7 (E/1994/27), chap. I, sect. C.

     2/  Ibid., 1993, Supplement No. 12 (E/1993/32), chap. I, sect. A, draft
resolution I.

     3/  Ibid., 1994, Supplement No. 11 (E/1994/31), chap. I, sect. C.

     4/  Ibid., 1993, Supplement No. 3 (E/1993/23), chap. II, sect. A.

     5/  Ibid., 1994, Supplement No. 4 (E/1994/24 and Corr.1 and Add.1 and
2), chap. II, sect. A, resolution 1994/45.

     6/  Ibid., 1990, Supplement No. 2 (E/1990/22 and Corr.1 and Add.1),
chap. II, sect. A, resolution 1990/68.

     7/  See Report of the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention
of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Milan, 26 August-6 September 1985
(A/CONF.121/22/Rev.1) (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.86.IV.1),
chap. I, sect. C, draft resolution 4.

     8/  See Report of the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention
of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, 27 August-7 September 1990
(A/CONF.144/28/Rev.1) (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.91.IV.2),
chap. I, sect. A, draft resolution 8.


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