United Nations


Commission on the Status of Women

6 January 1995

Thirty-ninth session
New York, 15 March-4 April 1995
Item 3 (c) of the provisional agenda*


                  Reports from regional conferences and other
                           international conferences


           Excerpts from Agenda 21 1/ adopted by the United Nations
            Conference on Environment and Development, held at Rio
                  de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3 to 14 June 1992


     *   E/CN.6/1995/1.

     1/  Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions adopted by
the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8), resolution 1,
annex II.


     The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held at
Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992, adopted the Rio Declaration on
Environment and Development, in which principle 20 states:  "Women have a
vital role in environmental management and development.  Their full
participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable development."

     The present document contains excerpts from Agenda 21, also adopted by
the Conference, in which the advancement of women, gender equality, equality
of opportunity for men and women, and the role of women and of women's groups
are mentioned.  The following synoptic table indicates where those passages
are found in Agenda 21.

Chapter                                                          Paragraphs

 3. Combating poverty ....................................  3.2, 3.4-3.9

 4. Changing consumption patterns ........................  4.27

 5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability ..............  5.12, 5.16, 5.21,
                                                            5.28, 5.33-5.37,
                                                            5.48-5-53, 5.62

 6. Protecting and promoting human health ................  6.8, 6.11, 6.13,
                                                            6.18, 6.23-6.24,
                                                            6.27, 6.29-6.31,

 7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development ...  7.4, 7.16, 7.20,
                                                            7.26, 7.28, 7.30,
                                                            7.45, 7.51,

 8. Integrating environment and development in decision-
    making ...............................................  8.8, 8.10, 8.25,
                                                            8.45, 8.49

10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of
    land resources .......................................  10.5, 10.10,
                                                            10.11, 10.16

11. Combating deforestation ..............................  11.2-11.3, 11.13,
                                                            11.18, 11.27

12. Managing fragile ecosystems:  combating
    desertification and drought ..........................  12.14, 12.24,
                                                            12.28, 12.37,

13.  Managing fragile ecosystems:  sustainable mountain
     development ..........................................   13.11, 13.16-
                                                              13.17, 13.21

14.  Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural
     development ..........................................   14.14, 14.17-
                                                              14.18, 14.27,
                                                              14.81, 14.91

15.  Conservation of biological diversity .................   15.4-15.5

16.  Environmentally sound management of biotechnology ....   16.13-16.15

17.  Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including
     enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and
     the protection, rational use and development of their
     living resources .....................................   17.15, 17.82,

18.  Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater
     resources:  application of integrated approaches to
     the development, management and use of water resources   18.9, 18.12,
                                                              18.19, 18.22,
                                                              18.50, 18.53-
                                                              18.54, 18.59,
                                                              18.62, 18.68,
                                                              18.76, 18.80

19.  Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals,
     including prevention of illegal international traffic
     in toxic and dangerous products ......................   19.22

20.  Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes,
     including prevention of illegal international traffic
     in hazardous wastes ..................................   20.20, 20.26-

21.  Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and
     sewage-related issues ................................   21.19, 21.25,
23.  Preamble to section III, Strengthening the role of
     major groups .........................................   23.1-23.3

24.  Global action for women towards sustainable and
     equitable development ................................   24.1-24.11

25.  Children and youth in sustainable development ........   25.5, 25.8-25.9,

26.  Recognizing and strengthening the role of indigenous
     people and their communities .........................   26.9

28.  Local authorities' initiatives in support of Agenda 21   28.2

29.  Strengthening the role of workers and their trade
     unions ...............................................   29.7

30.  Strengthening the role of business and industry ......   30.1, 30.17,

31.  Scientific and technological community ...............   31.4, 31.10

32.  Strengthening the role of farmers ....................   32.2, 32.4-32.8,

33.  Financial resources and mechanisms ...................   33.8

34.  Transfer of environmentally sound technology,
     cooperation and capacity-building ....................   34.3, 34.14

35.  Science and sustainable development ..................   35.21, 35.25

36.  Promoting education, public awareness and training ...   36.4-36.5,
                                                              36.10, 36.13

37.  National mechanisms and international cooperation for
     capacity-building in developing countries ............   37.5

38.  International institutional arrangements .............   38.14, 38.19,
                                                              38.25, 38.42

40.  Information for decision makers ......................   40.8, 40.11

                                   Chapter 3

                               COMBATING POVERTY

                                PROGRAMME AREA

             Enabling the poor to achieve sustainable livelihoods

Basis for action

3.2.     While managing resources sustainably, an environmental policy that
focuses mainly on the conservation and protection of resources must take due
account of those who depend on the resources for their livelihoods.  Otherwise
it could have an adverse impact both on poverty and on chances for long-term
success in resource and environmental conservation.  Equally, a development
policy that focuses mainly on increasing the production of goods without
addressing the sustainability of the resources on which production is based
will sooner or later run into declining productivity, which could also have an
adverse impact on poverty.  A specific anti-poverty strategy is therefore one
of the basic conditions for ensuring sustainable development.  An effective
strategy for tackling the problems of poverty, development and environment
simultaneously should begin by focusing on resources, production and people
and should cover demographic issues, enhanced health care and education, the
rights of women, the role of youth and of indigenous people and local
communities and a democratic participation process in association with
improved governance.



3.4.     The long-term objective of enabling all people to achieve sustainable
livelihoods should provide an integrating factor that allows policies to
address issues of development, sustainable resource management and poverty
eradication simultaneously.  The objectives of this programme area are:

   (a)  To provide all persons urgently with the opportunity to earn a
sustainable livelihood;

   (b)  To implement policies and strategies that promote adequate levels of
funding and focus on integrated human development policies, including income
generation, increased local control of resources, local institution-
strengthening and capacity-building and greater involvement of
non-governmental organizations and local levels of government as delivery

   (c)  To develop for all poverty-stricken areas integrated strategies and
programmes of sound and sustainable management of the environment, resource
mobilization, poverty eradication and alleviation, employment and income

   (d)  To create a focus in national development plans and budgets on
investment in human capital, with special policies and programmes directed at
rural areas, the urban poor, women and children.


3.5. Activities that will contribute to the integrated promotion of
sustainable livelihoods and environmental protection cover a variety of
sectoral interventions involving a range of actors, from local to global, and
are essential at every level, especially the community and local levels. 
Enabling actions will be necessary at the national and international levels,
taking full account of regional and subregional conditions to support a
locally driven and country-specific approach.  In general design, the
programmes should:

   (a)  Focus on the empowerment of local and community groups through the
principle of delegating authority, accountability and resources to the most
appropriate level to ensure that the programme will be geographically and
ecologically specific;

   (b)  Contain immediate measures to enable those groups to alleviate
poverty and to develop sustainability;

   (c)  Contain a long-term strategy aimed at establishing the best possible
conditions for sustainable local, regional and national development that would
eliminate poverty and reduce the inequalities between various population
groups.  It should assist the most disadvantaged groups - in particular,
women, children and youth within those groups -  and refugees.  The groups
will include poor smallholders, pastoralists, artisans, fishing communities,
landless people, indigenous communities, migrants and the urban informal

3.6.    The focus here is on specific cross-cutting measures - in particular,
in the areas of basic education, primary/maternal health care, and the
advancement of women.

(a)     Empowering communities

3.7. Sustainable development must be achieved at every level of society. 
Peoples' organizations, women's groups and non-governmental organizations are
important sources of innovation and action at the local level and have a
strong interest and proven ability to promote sustainable livelihoods. 
Governments, in cooperation with appropriate international and
non-governmental organizations, should support a community-driven approach to
sustainability, which would include, inter alia:

   (a)  Empowering women through full participation in decision-making;

   (b)  Respecting the cultural integrity and the rights of indigenous people
and their communities;

   (c)  Promoting or establishing grass-roots mechanisms to allow for the
sharing of experience and knowledge between communities;

   (d)  Giving communities a large measure of participation in the
sustainable management and protection of the local natural resources in order
to enhance their productive capacity;

   (e)  Establishing a network of community-based learning centres for
capacity-building and sustainable development.

(b)     Management-related activities

3.8.    Governments, with the assistance of and in cooperation with
appropriate international, non-governmental and local community organizations,
should establish measures that will directly or indirectly:

   (a)  Generate remunerative employment and productive occupational
opportunities compatible with country-specific factor endowments, on a scale
sufficient to take care of prospective increases in the labour force and to
cover backlogs;

   (b)  With international support, where necessary, develop adequate
infrastructure, marketing systems, technology systems, credit systems and the
like and the human resources needed to support the above actions and to
achieve a widening of options for resource-poor people.  High priority should
be given to basic education and professional training;

   (c)  Provide substantial increases in economically efficient resource
productivity and measures to ensure that the local population benefits in
adequate measure from resource use;

   (d)  Empower community organizations and people to enable them to achieve
sustainable livelihoods;

   (e)  Set up an effective primary health care and maternal health care
system accessible to all;

   (f)  Consider strengthening/developing legal frameworks for land
management, access to land resources and land ownership - in particular, for
women - and for the protection of tenants;

   (g)  Rehabilitate degraded resources, to the extent practicable, and
introduce policy measures to promote sustainable use of resources for basic
human needs;

   (h)  Establish new community-based mechanisms and strengthen existing
mechanisms to enable communities to gain sustained access to resources needed
by the poor to overcome their poverty;

   (i)  Implement mechanisms for popular participation - particularly by poor
people, especially women - in local community groups, to promote sustainable

   (j)  Implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance with
country-specific conditions and legal systems, measures to ensure that women
and men have the same right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and
spacing of their children and have access to the information, education and
means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercise this right in keeping with
their freedom, dignity and personally held values, taking into account ethical
and cultural considerations.  Governments should take active steps to
implement programmes to establish and strengthen preventive and curative
health facilities, which include women-centred, women-managed, safe and
effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessible services, as
appropriate, for the responsible planning of family size, in keeping with
freedom, dignity and personally held values, taking into account ethical and
cultural considerations.  Programmes should focus on providing comprehensive
health care, including pre-natal care, education and information on health and
responsible parenthood and should provide the opportunity for all women to
breast-feed fully, at least during the first four months post-partum. 
Programmes should fully support women's productive and reproductive roles and
well-being, with special attention to the need for providing equal and
improved health care for all children and the need to reduce the risk of
maternal and child mortality and sickness;

   (k)  Adopt integrated policies aiming at sustainability in the management
of urban centres;

   (l)  Undertake activities aimed at the promotion of food security and,
where appropriate, food self-sufficiency within the context of sustainable

   (m)  Support research on and integration of traditional methods of
production that have been shown to be environmentally sustainable;

   (n)  Actively seek to recognize and integrate informal-sector activities
into the economy by removing regulations and hindrances that discriminate
against activities in those sectors;

   (o)  Consider making available lines of credit and other facilities for
the informal sector and improved access to land for the landless poor so that
they can acquire the means of production and reliable access to natural
resources.  In many instances special considerations for women are required. 
Strict feasibility appraisals are needed for borrowers to avoid debt crises;

   (p)  Provide the poor with access to fresh water and sanitation;

   (q)  Provide the poor with access to primary education.

(c)     Data, information and evaluation

3.9.    Governments should improve the collection of information on target
groups and target areas in order to facilitate the design of focused
programmes and activities, consistent with the target-group needs and
aspirations.  Evaluation of such programmes should be gender-specific, since
women are a particularly disadvantaged group.

                                   Chapter 4

                         CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

4.27. This programme is concerned primarily with changes in unsustainable
patterns of consumption and production and values that encourage sustainable
consumption patterns and lifestyles.  It requires the combined efforts of
Governments, consumers and producers.  Particular attention should be paid to
the significant role played by women and households as consumers and the
potential impacts of their combined purchasing power on the economy.

                                   Chapter 5


5.12. Awareness should be increased of the fundamental linkages between
improving the status of women and demographic dynamics, particularly through
women's access to education, primary and reproductive health care programmes,
economic independence and their effective, equitable participation in all
levels of decision-making.


         B.  Formulating integrated national policies for environment
              and development, taking into account demographic trends
                                    and factors

Basis for action

5.16. Existing plans for sustainable development have generally recognized
demographic trends and factors as elements that have a critical influence on
consumption patterns, production, lifestyles and long-term sustainability. 
But in future, more attention will have to be given to these issues in general
policy formulation and the design of development plans.  To do this, all
countries will have to improve their own capacities to assess the environment
and development implications of their demographic trends and factors.  They
will also need to formulate and implement policies and action programmes where
appropriate.  Policies should be designed to address the consequences of
population growth built into population momentum, while at the same time
incorporating measures to bring about demographic transition.  They should
combine environmental concerns and population issues within a holistic view of
development whose primary goals include the alleviation of poverty; secure
livelihoods; good health; quality of life; improvement of the status and
income of women and their access to schooling and professional training, as
well as fulfilment of their personal aspirations; and empowerment of
individuals and communities.  Recognizing that large increases in the size and
number of cities will occur in developing countries under any likely
population scenario, greater attention should be given to preparing for the
needs, in particular of women and children, for improved municipal management
and local government.


5.17. Full integration of population concerns into national planning, policy
and decision-making processes should continue.  Population policies and
programmes should be considered, with full recognition of women's rights.


5.21. Vulnerable population groups (such as rural landless workers, ethnic
minorities, refugees, migrants, displaced people, women heads of household)
whose changes in demographic structure may have specific impacts on
sustainable development should be identified.


5.28. Population data should be disaggregated by, inter alia, sex and age in
order to take into account the implications of the gender division of labour
for the use and management of natural resources.


5.33. Policies and programmes should be developed for handling the various
types of migrations that result from or induce environmental disruptions, with
special attention to women and vulnerable groups.

5.34. Demographic concerns, including concerns for environmental migrants and
displaced people, should be incorporated in the programmes for sustainable
development of relevant international and regional institutions.


5.37. Understanding of the interactions between demographic trends and factors
and sustainable development should be increased in all sectors of society. 
Stress should be placed on local and national action.  Demographic and
sustainable development education should be coordinated and integrated in both
the formal and non-formal education sectors.  Particular attention should be
given to population literacy programmes, notably for women.  Special emphasis
should be placed on the linkage between these programmes, primary
environmental care and the provision of primary health care and services.



5.43. Population programmes should be implemented along with natural resource
management and development programmes at the local level that will ensure
sustainable use of natural resources, improve the quality of life of the
people and enhance environmental quality.


5.44. Governments and local communities, including community-based women's
organizations and national non-governmental organizations, consistent with
national plans, objectives, strategies and priorities, could, inter alia,
undertake the activities set out below with the assistance and cooperation of
international organizations, as appropriate.  Governments could share their
experience in the implementation of Agenda 21 at the International Conference
on Population and Development, to be held in 1994, especially its committee on
population and environment.

(a)     Developing a framework for action

5.45. An effective consultative process should be established and implemented
with concerned groups of society where the formulation and decision-making of
all components of the programmes are based on a nationwide consultative
process drawing on community meetings, regional workshops and national
seminars, as appropriate.  This process should ensure that views of women and
men on needs, perspective and constraints are equally well reflected in the
design of programmes, and that solutions are rooted in specific experience. 
The poor and underprivileged should be priority groups in this process.

5.46. Nationally determined policies for integrated and multifaceted
programmes, with special attention to women, to the poorest people living in
critical areas and to other vulnerable groups should be implemented, ensuring
the involvement of groups with a special potential to act as agents for change
and sustainable development.  Special emphasis should be placed on those
programmes that achieve multiple objectives, encouraging sustainable economic
development, and mitigating adverse impacts of demographic trends and factors,
and avoiding long-term environmental damage.  Food security, access to secure
tenure, basic shelter, and essential infrastructure, education, family
welfare, women's reproductive health, family credit schemes, reforestation
programmes, primary environmental care, women's employment should, as
appropriate, be included among other factors.


5.48. Special attention should be given to the critical role of women in
population/environment programmes and in achieving sustainable development. 
Projects should take advantage of opportunities to link social, economic and
environmental gains for women and their families.  Empowerment of women is
essential and should be assured through education, training and policies to
accord and improve women's right and access to assets, human and civil rights,
labour-saving measures, job opportunities and participation in
decision-making.  Population/environment programmes must enable women to
mobilize themselves to alleviate their burden and improve their capacity to
participate in and benefit from socio-economic development.  Specific measures
should be undertaken to close the gap between female and male illiteracy

(b)     Supporting programmes that promote changes in demographic trends and
        factors towards sustainability

5.49. Reproductive health programmes and services, should, as appropriate, be
developed and enhanced to reduce maternal and infant mortality from all causes
and enable women and men to fulfil their personal aspirations in terms of
family size, in a way in keeping with their freedom and dignity and personally
held values.

5.50. Governments should take active steps to implement, as a matter of
urgency, in accordance with country-specific conditions and legal systems,
measures to ensure that women and men have the same right to decide freely and
responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, to have access to the
information, education and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercise
this right in keeping with their freedom, dignity and personally held values
taking into account ethical and cultural considerations.

5.51. Governments should take active steps to implement programmes to
establish and strengthen preventive and curative health facilities that
include women-centred, women-managed, safe and effective reproductive health
care and affordable, accessible services, as appropriate, for the responsible
planning of family size, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held
values and taking into account ethical and cultural considerations. 
Programmes should focus on providing comprehensive health care, including
pre-natal care, education and information on health and responsible parenthood
and should provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at
least during the first four months post-partum.  Programmes should fully
support women's productive and reproductive roles and well being, with special
attention to the need for providing equal and improved health care for all
children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and

5.52. Consistent with national priorities, culturally based information and
education programmes that transmit reproductive health messages to men and
women that are easily understood should be developed.

(c)     Creating appropriate institutional conditions

5.53. Constituencies and institutional conditions to facilitate the
implementation of demographic activities should, as appropriate, be fostered. 
This requires support and commitment from political, indigenous, religious and
traditional authorities, the private sector and the national scientific
community.  In developing these appropriate institutional conditions,
countries should closely involve established national machinery for women.


5.62. The areas of human resource development and capacity-building, with
particular attention to the education and training of women, are areas of
critical importance and are a very high priority in the implementation of
population programmes.

                                   Chapter 6


(c)     Human resources development

6.8.    Intersectoral approaches to the reform of health personnel
development should be strengthened to ensure its relevance to the "Health for
All" strategies.  Efforts to enhance managerial skills at the district level
should be supported, with the aim of ensuring the systematic development and
efficient operation of the basic health system.  Intensive, short, practical
training programmes with emphasis on skills in effective communication,
community organization and facilitation of behaviour change should be
developed in order to prepare the local personnel of all sectors involved in
social development for carrying out their respective roles.  In cooperation
with the education sector, special health education programmes should be
developed focusing on the role of women in the health-care system.


6.11. With HIV infection levels estimated to increase to 30-40 million by the
year 2000, the socio-economic impact of the pandemic is expected to be
devastating for all countries, and increasingly for women and children.  While
direct health costs will be substantial, they will be dwarfed by the indirect
costs of the pandemic - mainly costs associated with the loss of income and
decreased productivity of the workforce.  The pandemic will inhibit growth of
the service and industrial sectors and significantly increase the costs of
human capacity-building and retraining.  The agricultural sector is
particularly affected where production is labour-intensive.


6.13. Each national Government, in accordance with national plans for public
health, priorities and objectives, should consider developing a national
health action plan with appropriate international assistance and support,
including, at a minimum, the following components:

   (a)  National public health systems:

        (i)   Programmes to identify environmental hazards in the causation of
              communicable diseases;

       (ii)   Monitoring systems of epidemiological data to ensure adequate
              forecasting of the introduction, spread or aggravation of
              communicable diseases;

      (iii)   Intervention programmes, including measures consistent with the
              principles of the global AIDS strategy;

       (iv)   Vaccines for the prevention of communicable diseases;

   (b)   Public information and health education:

         Provide education and disseminate information on the risks of endemic
         communicable diseases and build awareness on environmental methods
         for control of communicable diseases to enable communities to play a
         role in the control of communicable diseases;

   (c)   Intersectoral cooperation and coordination:

         (i)  Second experienced health professionals to relevant sectors,
              such as planning, housing and agriculture;

        (ii)  Develop guidelines for effective coordination in the areas of
              professional training, assessment of risks and development of
              control technology;

   (d)   Control of environmental factors that influence the spread of
         communicable diseases:

         Apply methods for the prevention and control of communicable
         diseases, including water supply and sanitation control, water
         pollution control, food quality control, integrated vector control,
         garbage collection and disposal and environmentally sound irrigation

   (e)   Primary health care system:

         (i)  Strengthen prevention programmes, with particular emphasis on
              adequate and balanced nutrition;

        (ii)  Strengthen early diagnostic programmes and improve capacities
              for early preventative/treatment action;

       (iii)  Reduce the vulnerability to HIV infection of women and their 

   (f)   Support for research and methodology development:

         (i)  Intensify and expand multidisciplinary research, including
              focused efforts on the mitigation and environmental control of
              tropical diseases;

       (ii)   Carry out intervention studies to provide a solid
              epidemiological basis for control policies and to evaluate the
              efficiency of alternative approaches;

      (iii)   Undertake studies in the population and among health workers to
              determine the influence of cultural, behavioural and social
              factors on control policies;

    (g)  Development and dissemination of technology:

        (i)   Develop new technologies for the effective control of
              communicable diseases;

       (ii)   Promote studies to determine how to optimally disseminate
              results from research;

      (iii)   Ensure technical assistance, including the sharing of knowledge
              and know-how.

6.18. In addition to meeting basic health needs, specific emphasis has to be
given to protecting and educating vulnerable groups, particularly infants,
youth, women, indigenous people and the very poor as a prerequisite for
sustainable development.  Special attention should also be paid to the health
needs of the elderly and disabled population.


6.21. Women.  In developing countries, the health status of women remains
relatively low, and during the 1980s poverty, malnutrition and general
ill-health in women were even rising.  Most women in developing countries
still do not have adequate basic educational opportunities and they lack the
means of promoting their health, responsibly controlling their reproductive
life and improving their socio-economic status.  Particular attention should
be given to the provision of pre-natal care to ensure healthy babies.


6.23. The general objectives of protecting vulnerable groups are to ensure
that all such individuals should be allowed to develop to their full potential
(including healthy physical, mental and spiritual development); to ensure that
young people can develop, establish and maintain healthy lives; to allow women
to perform their key role in society; and to support indigenous people through
educational, economic and technical opportunities.

6.24. Specific major goals for child survival, development and protection were
agreed upon at the World Summit for Children and remain valid also for
Agenda 21.  Supporting and sectoral goals cover women's health and education,
nutrition, child health, water and sanitation, basic education and children in
difficult circumstances.


6.27. National Governments, in cooperation with local and non-governmental
organizations, should initiate or enhance programmes in the following areas:

   (a)  Infants and children:

      (i)     Strengthen basic health-care services for children in the
              context of primary health-care delivery, including prenatal
              care, breast-feeding, immunization and nutrition programmes;

    (ii)      Undertake widespread adult education on the use of oral
              rehydration therapy for diarrhoea, treatment of respiratory
              infections and prevention of communicable diseases;

   (iii)      Promote the creation, amendment and enforcement of a legal
              framework protecting children from sexual and workplace

    (iv)      Protect children from the effects of environmental and
              occupational toxic compounds;

   (b)  Youth:

        Strengthen services for youth in health, education and social sectors
        in order to provide better information, education, counselling and
        treatment for specific health problems, including drug abuse;

   (c)  Women:

     (i)      Involve women's groups in decision-making at the national and
              community levels to identify health risks and incorporate health
              issues in national action programmes on women and development;

    (ii)      Provide concrete incentives to encourage and maintain attendance
              of women of all ages at school and adult education courses,
              including health education and training in primary, home and
              maternal health care;

   (iii)      Carry out baseline surveys and knowledge, attitude and practice
              studies on the health and nutrition of women throughout their
              life cycle, especially as related to the impact of environmental
              degradation and adequate resources;

   (d)  Indigenous people and their communities:

     (i)      Strengthen, through resources and self-management, preventative
              and curative health services;

    (ii)      Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into health


6.29. Educational, health and research institutions should be strengthened to
provide support to improve the health of vulnerable groups.  Social research
on the specific problems of these groups should be expanded and methods for
implementing flexible pragmatic solutions explored, with emphasis on
preventive measures.  Technical support should be provided to Governments,
institutions and non-governmental organizations for youth, women and
indigenous people in the health sector.

(c)     Human resources development

6.30. The development of human resources for the health of children, youth and
women should include reinforcement of educational institutions, promotion of
interactive methods of education for health and increased use of mass media in
disseminating information to the target groups.  This requires the training of
more community health workers, nurses, midwives, physicians, social scientists
and educators, the education of mothers, families and communities and the
strengthening of ministries of education, health, population etc.

(d)     Capacity-building

6.31. Governments should promote, where necessary:  (i) the organization of
national, intercountry and interregional symposia and other meetings for the
exchange of information among agencies and groups concerned with the health of
children, youth, women and indigenous people, and (ii) women's organizations,
youth groups and indigenous people's organizations to facilitate health and
consult them on the creation, amendment and enforcement of legal frameworks to
ensure a healthy environment for children, youth, women and indigenous


6.33. The health and well-being of all urban dwellers must be improved so that
they can contribute to economic and social development.  The global objective
is to achieve a 10 to 40 per cent improvement in health indicators by the
year 2000.  The same rate of improvement should be achieved for environmental,
housing and health service indicators.  These include the development of
quantitative objectives for infant mortality, maternal mortality, percentage
of low birth weight newborns and specific indicators (e.g. tuberculosis as an
indicator of crowded housing, diarrhoeal diseases as indicators of inadequate
water and sanitation, rates of industrial and transportation accidents that
indicate possible opportunities for prevention of injury, and social problems
such as drug abuse, violence and crime that indicate underlying social

                                   Chapter 7


7.4.    The overall human settlement objective is to improve the social,
economic and environmental quality of human settlements and the living and
working environments of all people, in particular the urban and rural poor. 
Such improvement should be based on technical cooperation activities,
partnerships among the public, private and community sectors and participation
in the decision-making process by community groups and special interest groups
such as women, indigenous people, the elderly and the disabled.  These
approaches should form the core principles of national settlement strategies. 
In developing these strategies, countries will need to set priorities among
the eight programme areas in this chapter in accordance with their national
plans and objectives, taking fully into account their social and cultural
capabilities.  Furthermore, countries should make appropriate provision to
monitor the impact of their strategies on marginalized and disenfranchised
groups, with particular reference to the needs of women.


7.16. One existing framework for strengthening management is in the United
Nations Development Programme/World Bank/United Nations Centre for Human
Settlements (Habitat) Urban Management Programme (UMP), a concerted global
effort to assist developing countries in addressing urban management issues. 
Its coverage should be extended to all interested countries during the period
1993-2000.  All countries should, as appropriate and in accordance with
national plans, objectives and priorities and with the assistance of
non-governmental organizations and representatives of local authorities,
undertake the following activities at the national, state/provincial and local
levels, with the assistance of relevant programmes and support agencies:

   (a)  Adopting and applying urban management guidelines in the areas of
land management, urban environmental management, infrastructure management and
municipal finance and administration;

   (b)  Accelerating efforts to reduce urban poverty through a number of
actions, including:

      (i)     Generating employment for the urban poor, particularly women,
              through the provision, improvement and maintenance of urban
              infrastructure and services and the support of economic
              activities in the informal sector, such as repairs, recycling,
              services and small commerce;

    (ii)      Providing specific assistance to the poorest of the urban poor
              through, inter alia, the creation of social infrastructure in
              order to reduce hunger and homelessness, and the provision of
              adequate community services;

   (iii)      Encouraging the establishment of indigenous community-based
              organizations, private voluntary organizations and other forms
              of non-governmental entities that can contribute to the efforts
              to reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for low-income

   (c)  Adopting innovative city planning strategies to address environmental
and social issues by:

      (i)     Reducing subsidies on, and recovering the full costs of,
              environmental and other services of high standard (e.g. water
              supply, sanitation, waste collection, roads, telecommunications)
              provided to higher income neighbourhoods;

    (ii)      Improving the level of infrastructure and service provision in
              poorer urban areas;

   (d)  Developing local strategies for improving the quality of life and the
environment, integrating decisions on land use and land management, investing
in the public and private sectors and mobilizing human and material resources,
thereby promoting employment generation that is environmentally sound and
protective of human health.


7.20. All cities, particularly those characterized by severe sustainable
development problems, should, in accordance with national laws, rules and
regulations, develop and strengthen programmes aimed at addressing such
problems and guiding their development along a sustainable path.  Some
international initiatives in support of such efforts, as in the Sustainable
Cities Programme of Habitat and the Healthy Cities Programme of WHO, should be
intensified.  Additional initiatives involving the World Bank, the regional
development banks and bilateral agencies, as well as other interested
stakeholders, particularly international and national representatives of local
authorities, should be strengthened and coordinated.  Individual cities
should, as appropriate:

   (a)  Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable urban
development, based on a continuous dialogue between the actors involved in
urban development (the public sector, private sector and communities),
especially women and indigenous people;

   (b)  Improve the urban environment by promoting social organization and
environmental awareness through the participation of local communities in the
identification of public services needs, the provision of urban
infrastructure, the enhancement of public amenities and the protection and/or
rehabilitation of older buildings, historic precincts and other cultural
artifacts.  In addition, "green works" programmes should be activated to
create self-sustaining human development activities and both formal and
informal employment opportunities for low-income urban residents;

   (c)  Strengthen the capacities of their local governing bodies to deal
more effectively with the broad range of developmental and environmental
challenges associated with rapid and sound urban growth through comprehensive
approaches to planning that recognize the individual needs of cities and are
based on ecologically sound urban design practices;

   (d)  Participate in international "sustainable city networks" to exchange
experiences and mobilize national and international technical and financial

   (e)  Promote the formulation of environmentally sound and culturally
sensitive tourism programmes as a strategy for sustainable development of
urban and rural settlements and as a way of decentralizing urban development
and reducing discrepancies among regions;

   (f)  Establish mechanisms, with the assistance of relevant international
agencies, to mobilize resources for local initiatives to improve environmental

   (g)  Empower community groups, non-governmental organizations and
individuals to assume the authority and responsibility for managing and
enhancing their immediate environment through participatory tools, techniques
and approaches embodied in the concept of environmental care.


7.26. In addition, international efforts, such as the Urban Management
Programme, in cooperation with multilateral and bilateral agencies, should
continue to assist the developing countries in their efforts to develop a
participatory structure by mobilizing the human resources of the private
sector, non-governmental organizations and the poor, particularly women and
the disadvantaged.


7.28. The objective is to provide for the land requirements of human
settlement development through environmentally sound physical planning and
land use so as to ensure access to land to all households and, where
appropriate, the encouragement of communally and collectively owned and
managed land. 6/  Particular attention should be paid to the needs of women
and indigenous people for economic and cultural reasons.


7.30. Subsequently, all countries should consider developing national
land-resource management plans to guide land-resource development and
utilization and, to that end, should:

   (a)  Establish, as appropriate, national legislation to guide the
implementation of public policies for environmentally sound urban development,
land utilization, housing and for the improved management of urban expansion;

   (b)  Create, where appropriate, efficient and accessible land markets that
meet community development needs by, inter alia, improving land registry
systems and streamlining procedures in land transactions;

   (c)  Develop fiscal incentives and land-use control measures, including
land-use planning solutions for a more rational and environmentally sound use
of limited land resources;

   (d)  Encourage partnerships among the public, private and community
sectors in managing land resources for human settlements development;

   (e)  Strengthen community-based land-resource protection practices in
existing urban and rural settlements;

   (f)  Establish appropriate forms of land tenure that provide security of
tenure for all land-users, especially indigenous people, women, local
communities, the low-income urban dwellers and the rural poor;

   (g)  Accelerate efforts to promote access to land by the urban and rural
poor, including credit schemes for the purchase of land and for
building/acquiring or improving safe and healthy shelter and infrastructure

   (h)  Develop and support the implementation of improved land-management
practices that deal comprehensively with potentially competing land
requirements for agriculture, industry, transport, urban development, green
spaces, preserves and other vital needs;

   (i)  Promote understanding among policy makers of the adverse consequences
of unplanned settlements in environmentally vulnerable areas and of the
appropriate national and local land-use and settlements policies required for
this purpose.


7.45. With the assistance and support of funding agencies, all countries
should, as appropriate, undertake training and popular participation
programmes aimed at:

   (a)  Raising awareness of the means, approaches and benefits of the
provision of environmental infrastructure facilities, especially among
indigenous people, women, low-income groups and the poor;

   (b)  Developing a cadre of professionals with adequate skills in
integrated infrastructural service planning and maintenance of
resource-efficient, environmentally sound and socially acceptable systems;

   (c)  Strengthening the institutional capacity of local authorities and
administrators in the integrated provision of adequate infrastructure services
in partnership with local communities and the private sector;

   (d)  Adopting appropriate legal and regulatory instruments, including
cross-subsidy arrangements, to extend the benefits of adequate and affordable
environmental infrastructure to unserved population groups, especially the


7.51. A comprehensive approach to human settlements development should include
the promotion of sustainable energy development in all countries, as follows:

   (a)  Developing countries, in particular, should:

     (i)      Formulate national action programmes to promote and support
              reafforestation and national forest regeneration with a view to
              achieving sustained provision of the biomass energy needs of the
              low-income groups in urban areas and the rural poor, in
              particular women and children;

    (ii)      Formulate national action programmes to promote integrated
              development of energy-saving and renewable energy technologies,
              particularly for the use of solar, hydro, wind and biomass

   (iii)      Promote wide dissemination and commercialization of renewable
              energy technologies through suitable measures, inter alia,
              fiscal and technology transfer mechanisms;

    (iv)      Carry out information and training programmes directed at
              manufacturers and users in order to promote energy-saving
              techniques and energy-efficient appliances;

   (b)  International organizations and bilateral donors should:

     (i)      Support developing countries in implementing national energy
              programmes in order to achieve widespread use of energy-saving
              and renewable energy technologies, particularly the use of
              solar, wind, biomass and hydro sources;

    (ii)      Provide access to research and development results to increase
              energy-use efficiency levels in human settlements.


7.76. The objective is to improve human resource development and
capacity-building in all countries by enhancing the personal and institutional
capacity of all actors, particularly indigenous people and women, involved in
human settlement development.  In this regard, account should be taken of
traditional cultural practices of indigenous people and their relationship to
the environment.

7.77. Specific human resource development and capacity-building activities
have been built into each of the programme areas of this chapter.  More
generally, however, additional steps should be taken to reinforce those
activities.  In order to do so, all countries, as appropriate, should take the
following action:

   (a)  Strengthening the development of human resources and of capacities of
public sector institutions through technical assistance and international
cooperation so as to achieve by the year 2000 substantial improvement in the
efficiency of governmental activities;

   (b)  Creating an enabling policy environment supportive of the partnership
between the public, private and community sectors;

   (c)  Providing enhanced training and technical assistance to
institutions providing training for technicians, professionals and
administrators, and appointed, elected and professional members of local
governments and strengthening their capacity to address priority training
needs, particularly in regard to social, economic and environmental aspects of
human settlements development;

   (d)  Providing direct assistance for human settlement development at the
community level, inter alia, by:

     (i)      Strengthening and promoting programmes for social mobilization
              and raising awareness of the potential of women and youth in
              human settlements activities;

    (ii)      Facilitating coordination of the activities of women, youth,
              community groups and non-governmental organizations in human
              settlements development;

   (iii)      Promoting research on women's programmes and other groups, and
              evaluating progress made with a view to identifying bottlenecks
              and needed assistance;

        (e)   Promoting the inclusion of integrated environmental management
into general local government activities.

                                   Chapter 8


8.5.    To support a more integrated approach to decision-making, the data
systems and analytical methods used to support such decision-making processes
may need to be improved.  Governments, in collaboration, where appropriate,
with national and international organizations, should review the status of the
planning and management system and, where necessary, modify and strengthen
procedures so as to facilitate the integrated consideration of social,
economic and environmental issues.  Countries will develop their own
priorities in accordance with their national plans, policies and programmes
for the following activities:

   (a)  Improving the use of data and information at all stages of planning
and management, making systematic and simultaneous use of social, economic,
developmental, ecological and environmental data; analysis should stress
interactions and synergisms; a broad range of analytical methods should be
encouraged so as to provide various points of view;

   (b)  Adopting comprehensive analytical procedures for prior and
simultaneous assessment of the impacts of decisions, including the impacts
within and among the economic, social and environmental spheres; these
procedures should extend beyond the project level to policies and programmes;
analysis should also include assessment of costs, benefits and risks;

   (c)  Adopting flexible and integrative planning approaches that allow the
consideration of multiple goals and enable adjustment of changing needs;
integrative area approaches at the ecosystem or watershed level can assist in
this approach;

   (d)  Adopting integrated management systems, particularly for the
management of natural resources; traditional or indigenous methods should be
studied and considered wherever they have proved effective; women's
traditional roles should not be marginalized as a result of the introduction
of new management systems;

   (e)  Adopting integrated approaches to sustainable development at the
regional level, including transboundary areas, subject to the requirements of
particular circumstances and needs;

   (f)  Using policy instruments (legal/regulatory and economic) as a tool
for planning and management, seeking incorporation of efficiency criteria in
decisions; instruments should be regularly reviewed and adapted to ensure that
they continue to be effective;

   (g)  Delegating planning and management responsibilities to the lowest
level of public authority consistent with effective action; in particular the
advantages of effective and equitable opportunities for participation by women
should be discussed;

   (h)  Establishing procedures for involving local communities in
contingency planning for environmental and industrial accidents, and
maintaining an open exchange of information on local hazards.


8.10. Countries, in cooperation, where appropriate, with national, regional or
international organizations, should ensure that essential human resources
exist, or be developed, to undertake the integration of environment and
development at various stages of the decision-making and implementation
process.  To do this, they should improve education and technical training,
particularly for women and girls, by including interdisciplinary approaches,
as appropriate, in technical, vocational, university and other curricula. 
They should also undertake systematic training of government personnel,
planners and managers on a regular basis, giving priority to the requisite
integrative approaches and planning and management techniques that are suited
to country-specific conditions.


8.25. Participation in training is expected to benefit practitioners from
developing countries and to enhance training opportunities for women.  Demand
for this type of postgraduate and in-service training is known to be high. 
The seminars, workshops and conferences on review and enforcement that have
been held to date have been very successful and well attended.  The purpose of
these efforts is to develop resources (both human and institutional) to design
and implement effective programmes to continuously review and enforce national
and local laws, regulations and standards on sustainable development.


8.45. At the national level, the programme could be adopted mainly by the
agencies dealing with national accounts, in close cooperation with
environmental statistics and natural resource departments, with a view to
assisting national economic analysts and decision makers in charge of national
economic planning.  National institutions should play a crucial role not only
as the depositary of the system but also in its adaptation, establishment and
continuous use.  Unpaid productive work such as domestic work and child care
should be included, where appropriate, in satellite national accounts and
economic statistics.  Time-use surveys could be a first step in the process of
developing these satellite accounts.
8.49. National Governments could consider implementing the necessary 
enhancement in data collection to set in place national IEEAs with a view to
contributing pragmatically to sound economic management.  Major efforts should
be made to augment the capacity to collect and analyse environmental data and
information and to integrate it with economic data, including gender
disaggregated data.  Efforts should also be made to develop physical
environmental accounts.  International donor agencies should consider
financing the development of intersectoral data banks to help ensure that
national planning for sustainable development is based on precise, reliable
and effective information and is suited to national conditions.

                                  Chapter 10

                               OF LAND RESOURCES

10.5. The broad objective is to facilitate allocation of land to the uses that
provide the greatest sustainable benefits and to promote the transition to a
sustainable and integrated management of land resources.  In doing so,
environmental, social and economic issues should be taken into consideration. 
Protected areas, private property rights, the rights of indigenous people and
their communities and other local communities and the economic role of women
in agriculture and rural development, among other issues, should be taken into
account.  In more specific terms, the objectives are as follows:

   (a)  To review and develop policies to support the best possible use of
land and the sustainable management of land resources, by not later than 1996;

   (b)  To improve and strengthen planning, management and evaluation systems
for land and land resources, by not later than 2000;

   (c)  To strengthen institutions and coordinating mechanisms for land and
land resources, by not later than 1998;

   (d)  To create mechanisms to facilitate the active involvement and
participation of all concerned, particularly communities and people at the
local level, in decision-making on land use and management, by not later than


10.10. Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with national
organizations and with the support of regional and international
organizations, should establish innovative procedures, programmes, projects
and services that facilitate and encourage the active participation of those
affected in the decision-making and implementation process, especially of
groups that have, hitherto, often been excluded, such as women, youth,
indigenous people and their communities and other local communities.


10.11. Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with national
institutions and the private sector and with the support of regional and
international organizations, should strengthen the information systems
necessary for making decisions and evaluating future changes on land use and
management.  The needs of both men and women should be taken into account.  To
do this, they should:

   (a)  Strengthen information, systematic observation and assessment systems
for environmental, economic and social data related to land resources at the
global, regional, national and local levels and for land capability and
land-use and management patterns;

   (b)  Strengthen coordination between existing sectoral data systems on
land and land resources and strengthen national capacity to gather and assess

   (c)  Provide the appropriate technical information necessary for informed
decision-making on land use and management in an accessible form to all
sectors of the population, especially to local communities and women;

   (d)  Support low-cost, community-managed systems for the collection of
comparable information on the status and processes of change of land
resources, including soils, forest cover, wildlife, climate and other


10.16. Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with the
appropriate local authorities, non-governmental organizations and
international institutions, should promote the development of the human
resources that are required to plan and manage land and land resources
sustainably.  This should be done by providing incentives for local
initiatives and by enhancing local management capacity, particularly of women,

   (a)  Emphasizing interdisciplinary and integrative approaches in the
curricula of schools and technical, vocational and university training;

   (b)  Training all relevant sectors concerned to deal with land resources
in an integrated and sustainable manner;

   (c)  Training communities, relevant extension services, community-based
groups and non-governmental organizations on land management techniques and
approaches applied successfully elsewhere.

                                  Chapter 11

                            COMBATING DEFORESTATION

11.2. The objectives of this programme area are as follows:

   (a)  To strengthen forest-related national institutions, to enhance the
scope and effectiveness of activities related to the management, conservation
and sustainable development of forests, and to effectively ensure the
sustainable utilization and production of forests' goods and services in both
the developed and the developing countries; by the year 2000, to strengthen
the capacities and capabilities of national institutions to enable them to
acquire the necessary knowledge for the protection and conservation of
forests, as well as to expand their scope and, correspondingly, enhance the
effectiveness of programmes and activities related to the management and
development of forests;

   (b)  To strengthen and improve human, technical and professional skills as
well as expertise and capabilities to effectively formulate and implement
policies, plans, programmes, research and projects on management, conservation
and sustainable development of all types of forests and forest-based
resources, and forest lands inclusive, as well as other areas from which
forest benefits can be derived.

11.3. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of regional,
subregional and international organizations, should, where necessary, enhance
institutional capability to promote the multiple roles and functions of all
types of forests and vegetation inclusive of other related lands and forest-
based resources in supporting sustainable development and environmental
conservation in all sectors.  This should be done, wherever possible and
necessary, by strengthening and/or modifying the existing structures and
arrangements, and by improving cooperation and coordination of their
respective roles.  Some of the major activities in this regard are as follows:

   (a)  Rationalizing and strengthening administrative structures and
mechanisms, including provision of adequate levels of staff and allocation of
responsibilities, decentralization of decision-making, provision of
infrastructural facilities and equipment, intersectoral coordination and an
effective system of communication;

   (b)  Promoting participation of the private sector, labour unions, rural
cooperatives, local communities, indigenous people, youth, women, user groups
and non-governmental organizations in forest-related activities, and access to
information and training programmes within the national context;

   (c)  Reviewing and, if necessary, revising measures and programmes
relevant to all types of forests and vegetation, inclusive of other related
lands and forest-based resources, and relating them to other land uses and
development policies and legislation; promoting adequate legislation and other
measures as a basis against uncontrolled conversion to other types of land

   (d)  Developing and implementing plans and programmes, including
definition of national and, if necessary, regional and subregional goals,
programmes and criteria for their implementation and subsequent improvement;

   (e)  Establishing, developing and sustaining an effective system of forest
extension and public education to ensure better awareness, appreciation and
management of forests with regard to the multiple roles and values of trees,
forests and forest lands;

   (f)  Establishing and/or strengthening institutions for forest education
and training, as well as forestry industries, for developing an adequate cadre
of trained and skilled staff at the professional, technical and vocational
levels, with emphasis on youth and women;

   (g)  Establishing and strengthening capabilities for research related to
the different aspects of forests and forest products, for example, on the
sustainable management of forests, research on biodiversity, on the effects of
air-borne pollutants, on traditional uses of forest resources by local
populations and indigenous people, and on improving market returns and other
non-market values from the management of forests.


11.13. Governments should recognize the importance of categorizing forests,
within the framework of long-term forest conservation and management policies,
into different forest types and setting up sustainable units in every
region/watershed with a view to securing the conservation of forests. 
Governments, with the participation of the private sector, non-governmental
organizations, local community groups, indigenous people, women, local
government units and the public at large, should act to maintain and expand
the existing vegetative cover wherever ecologically, socially and economically
feasible, through technical cooperation and other forms of support.  Major
activities to be considered include:

   (a)  Ensuring the sustainable management of all forest ecosystems and
woodlands, through improved proper planning, management and timely
implementation of silvicultural operations, including inventory and relevant
research, as well as rehabilitation of degraded natural forests to restore
productivity and environmental contributions, giving particular attention to
human needs for economic and ecological services, wood-based energy,
agroforestry, non-timber forest products and services, watershed and soil
protection, wildlife management, and forest genetic resources;

   (b)  Establishing, expanding and managing, as appropriate to each national
context, protected area systems, which include systems of conservation units
for their environmental, social and spiritual functions and values, including
conservation of forests in representative ecological systems and landscapes,
primary old-growth forests, conservation and management of wildlife,
nomination of World Heritage Sites under the World Heritage Convention, as
appropriate, conservation of genetic resources, involving in situ and ex situ
measures and undertaking supportive measures to ensure sustainable utilization
of biological resources and conservation of biological diversity and the
traditional forest habitats of indigenous people, forest dwellers and local

   (c)  Undertaking and promoting buffer and transition zone management;

   (d)  Carrying out revegetation in appropriate mountain areas, highlands,
bare lands, degraded farm lands, arid and semi-arid lands and coastal areas
for combating desertification and preventing erosion problems and for other
protective functions and national programmes for rehabilitation of degraded
lands, including community forestry, social forestry, agroforestry and
silvipasture, while also taking into account the role of forests as national
carbon reservoirs and sinks;

   (e)  Developing industrial and non-industrial planted forests in order to
support and promote national ecologically sound afforestation and
reforestation/regeneration programmes in suitable sites, including upgrading
of existing planted forests of both industrial and non-industrial and
commercial purpose to increase their contribution to human needs and to offset
pressure on primary/old-growth forests.  Measures should be taken to promote
and provide intermediate yields and to improve the rate of returns on
investments in planted forests, through interplanting and underplanting
valuable crops;

   (f)  Developing/strengthening a national and/or master plan for planted
forests as a priority, indicating, inter alia, the location, scope and
species, and specifying areas of existing planted forests requiring
rehabilitation, taking into account the economic aspect for future planted
forest development, giving emphasis to native species;

   (g)  Increasing the protection of forests from pollutants, fire, pests and
diseases and other human-made interferences such as forest poaching, mining
and unmitigated shifting cultivation, the uncontrolled introduction of exotic
plant and animal species, as well as developing and accelerating research for
a better understanding of problems relating to the management and regeneration
of all types of forests; strengthening and/or establishing appropriate
measures to assess and/or check inter-border movement of plants and related

   (h)  Stimulating development of urban forestry for the greening of urban,
peri-urban and rural human settlements for amenity, recreation and production
purposes and for protecting trees and groves;

   (i)  Launching or improving opportunities for participation of all people,
including youth, women, indigenous people and local communities in the
formulation, development and implementation of forest-related programmes and
other activities, taking due account of the local needs and cultural values;

   (j)  Limiting and aiming to halt destructive shifting cultivation by
addressing the underlying social and ecological causes.


11.18. Essential means for effectively implementing the activities include
training and development of appropriate skills, working facilities and
conditions, public motivation and awareness.  Specific activities include:

   (a)  Providing specialized training in planning, management, environmental
conservation, biotechnology etc.;

   (b)  Establishing demonstration areas to serve as models and training

   (c)  Supporting local organizations, communities, non-governmental
organizations and private landowners, in particular women, youth, farmers and
indigenous people/shifting cultivators, through extension and provision of
inputs and training.


11.27. The success and effectiveness of the programme area depends on the
availability of skilled personnel.  Specialized training is an important
factor in this regard.  New emphasis should be given to the incorporation of
women.  Human resource development for programme implementation, in
quantitative and qualitative terms, should include:

   (a)  Developing required specialized skills to implement the programme,
including establishing special training facilities at all levels;

   (b)  Introducing/strengthening refresher training courses, including
fellowships and study tours, to update skills and technological know-how and
improve productivity;

   (c)  Strengthening capability for research, planning, economic analysis,
periodical evaluations and evaluation, relevant to improved utilization of
forest resources;

   (d)  Promoting efficiency and capability of private and cooperative
sectors through provision of facilities and incentives.

                                  Chapter 12

                                  AND DROUGHT

12.14. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations working on the issue of
desertification and drought, should:

   (a)  Strengthen national and local institutions by providing adequate
staff equipment and finance for assessing desertification;

   (b)  Promote the involvement of the local population, particularly women
and youth, in the collection and utilization of environmental information
through education and awareness-building.


12.24. Governments at the appropriate level and local communities, with the
support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Establish mechanisms to ensure that land users, particularly women,
are the main actors in implementing improved land use, including agroforestry
systems, in combating land degradation;

   (b)  Promote efficient extension-service facilities in areas prone to
desertification and drought, particularly for training farmers and
pastoralists in the improved management of land and water resources in


12.28. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Adopt policies at the national level regarding a decentralized
approach to land-resource management, delegating responsibility to rural

   (b)  Create or strengthen rural organizations in charge of village and
pastoral land management;

   (c)  Establish and develop local, national and intersectoral mechanisms to
handle environmental and developmental consequences of land tenure expressed
in terms of land use and land ownership.  Particular attention should be given
to protecting the property rights of women and pastoral and nomadic groups
living in rural areas;

   (d)  Create or strengthen village associations focused on economic
activities of common pastoral interest (market gardening, transformation of
agricultural products, livestock, herding, etc.);

   (e)  Promote rural credit and mobilization of rural savings through the
establishment of rural banking systems;

   (f)  Develop infrastructure, as well as local production and marketing
capacity, by involving the local people to promote alternative livelihood
systems and alleviate poverty;

   (g)  Establish a revolving fund for credit to rural entrepreneurs and
local groups to facilitate the establishment of cottage industries/business
ventures and credit for input to agropastoral activities.


12.37. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the
relevant international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Establish or strengthen, national and local anti-desertification
authorities within government and local executive bodies, as well as local
committees/associations of land users, in all rural communities affected, with
a view to organizing working cooperation between all actors concerned, from
the grass-roots level (farmers and pastoralists) to the higher levels of

   (b)  Develop national plans of action to combat desertification and as
appropriate, make them integral parts of national development plans and
national environmental action plans;

   (c)  Implement policies directed towards improving land use, managing
common lands appropriately, providing incentives to small farmers and
pastoralists, involving women and encouraging private investment in the
development of drylands;

   (d)  Ensure coordination among ministries and institutions working on
anti-desertification programmes at national and local levels.


12.56. The objectives of this programme area are:

   (a)  To develop and increase public awareness and knowledge concerning
desertification and drought, including the integration of environmental
education in the curriculum of primary and secondary schools;

   (b)  To establish and promote true partnership between government
authorities, at both the national and local levels, other executing agencies,
non-governmental organizations and land users stricken by drought and
desertification, giving land users a responsible role in the planning and
execution processes in order to benefit fully from development projects;

   (c)  To ensure that the partners understand one another's needs,
objectives and points of view by providing a variety of means such as
training, public awareness and open dialogue;

   (d)  To support local communities in their own efforts in combating
desertification, and to draw on the knowledge and experience of the
populations concerned, ensuring the full participation of women and indigenous

12.57. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Adopt policies and establish administrative structures for more
decentralized decision-making and implementation;

   (b)  Establish and utilize mechanisms for the consultation and involvement
of land users and for enhancing capability at the grass-roots level to
identify and/or contribute to the identification and planning of action;

   (c)  Define specific programme/project objectives in cooperation with
local communities; design local management plans to include such measures of
progress, thereby providing a means of altering project design or changing
management practices, as appropriate;

   (d)  Introduce legislative, institutional/organizational and financial
measures to secure user involvement and access to land resources;

   (e)  Establish and/or expand favourable conditions for the provision of
services, such as credit facilities and marketing outlets for rural

   (f)  Develop training programmes to increase the level of education and
participation of people, particularly women and indigenous groups, through,
inter alia, literacy and the development of technical skills;

   (g)  Create rural banking systems to facilitate access to credit for rural
populations, particularly women and indigenous groups, and to promote rural

   (h)  Adopt appropriate policies to stimulate private and public

12.58. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Review, develop and disseminate gender-disaggregated information,
skills and know-how at all levels on ways of organizing and promoting popular

   (b)  Accelerate the development of technological know-how, focusing on
appropriate and intermediate technology;

   (c)  Disseminate knowledge about applied research results on soil and
water issues, appropriate species, agricultural techniques and technological

                                  Chapter 13


13.11. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the
relevant international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Launch training and extension programmes in environmentally
appropriate technologies and practices that would be suitable to mountain

   (b)  Support higher education through fellowships and research grants for
environmental studies in mountains and hill areas, particularly for candidates
from indigenous mountain populations;

   (c)  Undertake environmental education for farmers, in particular for
women, to help the rural population better understand the ecological issues
regarding the sustainable development of mountain ecosystems.


13.16. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Undertake measures to prevent soil erosion and promote
erosion-control activities in all sectors;

   (b)  Establish task forces or watershed development committees,
complementing existing institutions, to coordinate integrated services to
support local initiatives in animal husbandry, forestry, horticulture and
rural development at all administrative levels;

   (c)  Enhance popular participation in the management of local resources
through appropriate legislation;

   (d)  Support non-governmental organizations and other private groups
assisting local organizations and communities in the preparation of projects
that would enhance participatory development of local people;

   (e)  Provide mechanisms to preserve threatened areas that could protect
wildlife, conserve biological diversity or serve as national parks;

   (f)  Develop national policies that would provide incentives to farmers
and local people to undertake conservation measures and to use
environment-friendly technologies;

   (g)  Undertake income-generating activities in cottage and agro-processing
industries, such as the cultivation and processing of medicinal and aromatic

   (h)  Undertake the above activities, taking into account the need for full
participation of women, including indigenous people and local communities, in

13.17. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Maintain and establish systematic observation and evaluation
capacities at the national, state or provincial level to generate information
for daily operations and to assess the environmental and socio-economic
impacts of projects;

   (b)  Generate data on alternative livelihoods and diversified production
systems at the village level on annual and tree crops, livestock, poultry,
beekeeping, fisheries, village industries, markets, transport and
income-earning opportunities, taking fully into account the role of women and
integrating them into the planning and implementation process.


13.21. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Consider undertaking pilot projects that combine environmental
protection and development functions with particular emphasis on some of the
traditional environmental management practices or systems that have a good
impact on the environment;

   (b)  Generate technologies for specific watershed and farm conditions
through a participatory approach involving local men and women, researchers
and extension agents who will carry out experiments and trials on farm

   (c)  Promote technologies of vegetative conservation measures for erosion
prevention, in situ moisture management, improved cropping technology, fodder
production and agroforestry that are low-cost, simple and easily adopted by
local people.

                                  Chapter 14


14.14. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Involve and train local economists, planners and analysts to initiate
national and international policy reviews and develop frameworks for
sustainable agriculture;

   (b)  Establish legal measures to promote access of women to land and
remove biases in their involvement in rural development.


14.17. The objectives of this programme area are:

   (a)  To promote greater public awareness of the role of people's
participation and people's organizations, especially women's groups, youth,
indigenous people, local communities and small farmers, in sustainable
agriculture and rural development;

   (b)  To ensure equitable access of rural people, particularly women, small
farmers, landless and indigenous people, to land, water and forest resources
and to technologies, financing, marketing, processing and distribution;

   (c)  To strengthen and develop the management and the internal capacities
of rural people's organizations and extension services and to decentralize
decision-making to the lowest community level.

14.18. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Develop and improve integrated agricultural extension services and
facilities and rural organizations and undertake natural resource management
and food security activities, taking into account the different needs of
subsistence agriculture as well as market-oriented crops;

   (b)  Review and refocus existing measures to achieve wider access to land,
water and forest resources and ensure equal rights of women and other
disadvantaged groups, with particular emphasis on rural populations,
indigenous people and local communities;

   (c)  Assign clear titles, rights and responsibilities for land and for
individuals or communities to encourage investment in land resources;

   (d)  Develop guidelines for decentralization policies for rural
development through reorganization and strengthening of rural institutions;

   (e)  Develop policies in extension, training, pricing, input distribution,
credit and taxation to ensure necessary incentives and equitable access by the
poor to production-support services;

   (f)  Provide support services and training, recognizing the variation in
agricultural circumstances and practices by location; the optimal use of
on-farm inputs and the minimal use of external inputs; optimal use of local
natural resources and management of renewable energy sources; and the
establishment of networks that deal with the exchange of information on
alternative forms of agriculture.


14.27. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Develop and disseminate to farming households integrated farm
management technologies, such as crop rotation, organic manuring and other
techniques involving reduced use of agricultural chemicals, multiple
techniques for sources of nutrients and the efficient utilization of external
inputs, while enhancing techniques for waste and by-product utilization and
prevention of pre- and post-harvest losses, taking particular note of the role
of women;

   (b)  Create non-farm employment opportunities through private small-scale
agro-processing units, rural service centres and related infrastructural

   (c)  Promote and improve rural financial networks that utilize investment
capital resources raised locally;

   (d)  Provide the essential rural infrastructure for access to agricultural
inputs and services, as well as to national and local markets, and reduce food

   (e)  Initiate and maintain farm surveys, on-farm testing of appropriate
technologies and dialogue with rural communities to identify constraints and
bottlenecks and find solutions;

   (f)  Analyse and identify possibilities for economic integration of
agricultural and forestry activities, as well as water and fisheries, and to
take effective measures to encourage forest management and growing of trees by
farmers (farm forestry) as an option for resource development.


14.81. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Prepare and conduct training programmes on approaches and techniques
for integrated pest management and control of pesticide use, to inform policy
makers, researchers, non-governmental organizations and farmers;

   (b)  Train extension agents and involve farmers and women's groups in crop
health and alternative non-chemical ways of controlling pests in agriculture.


14.91. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Train extension officers and researchers in plant nutrient
management, cropping systems and farming systems, and in economic evaluation
of plant nutrient impact;

   (b)  Train farmers and women's groups in plant nutrition management, with
special emphasis on topsoil conservation and production.

                                  Chapter 15


15.4. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the
relevant United Nations bodies and regional, intergovernmental and
non-governmental organizations, the private sector and financial institutions,
and taking into consideration indigenous people and their communities, as well
as social and economic factors, should:

   (a)  Press for the early entry into force of the Convention on Biological
Diversity, with the widest possible participation;

   (b)  Develop national strategies for the conservation of biological
diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources;

   (c)  Integrate strategies for the conservation of biological diversity and
the sustainable use of biological resources into national development
strategies and/or plans;

   (d)  Take appropriate measures for the fair and equitable sharing of
benefits derived from research and development and use of biological and
genetic resources, including biotechnology, between the sources of those
resources and those who use them;

   (e)  Carry out country studies, as appropriate, on the conservation of
biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources,
including analyses of relevant costs and benefits, with particular reference
to socio-economic aspects;

   (f)  Produce regularly updated world reports on biodiversity based upon
national assessments;

   (g)  Recognize and foster the traditional methods and the knowledge of
indigenous people and their communities, emphasizing the particular role of
women, relevant to the conservation of biological diversity and the
sustainable use of biological resources, and ensure the opportunity for the
participation of those groups in the economic and commercial benefits derived
from the use of such traditional methods and knowledge;

   (h)  Implement mechanisms for the improvement, generation, development and
sustainable use of biotechnology and its safe transfer, particularly to
developing countries, taking account of the potential contribution of
biotechnology to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable
use of biological resources;

   (i)  Promote broader international and regional cooperation in furthering
scientific and economic understanding of the importance of biodiversity and
its functions in ecosystems;

   (j)  Develop measures and arrangements to implement the rights of
countries of origin of genetic resources or countries providing genetic
resources, as defined in the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly
developing countries, to benefit from the biotechnological development and the
commercial utilization of products derived from such resources.

15.5. Governments at the appropriate levels, consistent with national policies
and practices, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and,
as appropriate, intergovernmental organizations and, with the support of
indigenous people and their communities, non-governmental organizations and
other groups, including the business and scientific communities, and
consistent with the requirements of international law, should, as appropriate:

   (a)  Develop new or strengthen existing strategies, plans or programmes of
action for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of
biological resources, taking account of education and training needs;

   (b)  Integrate strategies for the conservation of biological diversity and
the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources into relevant sectoral
or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies, with particular reference to
the special importance of terrestrial and aquatic biological and genetic
resources for food and agriculture;

   (c)  Undertake country studies or use other methods to identify components
of biological diversity important for its conservation and for the sustainable
use of biological resources, ascribe values to biological and genetic
resources, identify processes and activities with significant impacts upon
biological diversity, evaluate the potential economic implications of the
conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological and
genetic resources, and suggest priority action;

   (d)  Take effective economic, social and other appropriate incentive
measures to encourage the conservation of biological diversity and the
sustainable use of biological resources, including the promotion of
sustainable production systems, such as traditional methods of agriculture,
agroforestry, forestry, range and wildlife management, which use, maintain or
increase biodiversity;

   (e)  Subject to national legislation, take action to respect, record,
protect and promote the wider application of the knowledge, innovations and
practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles
for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of
biological resources, with a view to the fair and equitable sharing of the
benefits arising, and promote mechanisms to involve those communities,
including women, in the conservation and management of ecosystems;

   (f)  Undertake long-term research into the importance of biodiversity for
the functioning of ecosystems and the role of ecosystems in producing goods,
environmental services and other values supporting sustainable development,
with particular reference to the biology and reproductive capacities of key
terrestrial and aquatic species, including native, cultivated and cultured
species; new observation and inventory techniques; ecological conditions
necessary for biodiversity conservation and continued evolution; and social
behaviour and nutrition habits dependent on natural ecosystems, where women
play key roles.  The work should be undertaken with the widest possible
participation, especially of indigenous people and their communities,
including women;

   (g)  Take action where necessary for the conservation of biological
diversity through the in situ conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats,
as well as primitive cultivars and their wild relatives, and the maintenance
and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings,
and implement ex situ measures, preferably in the source country.  In situ
measures should include the reinforcement of terrestrial, marine and aquatic
protected area systems and embrace, inter alia, vulnerable freshwater and
other wetlands and coastal ecosystems, such as estuaries, coral reefs and

   (h)  Promote the rehabilitation and restoration of damaged ecosystems and
the recovery of threatened and endangered species;

   (i)  Develop policies to encourage the conservation of biodiversity and
the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources on private lands;

   (j)  Promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in areas
adjacent to protected areas with a view to furthering protection of these
   (k)  Introduce appropriate environmental impact assessment procedures for
proposed projects likely to have significant impacts upon biological
diversity, providing for suitable information to be made widely available and
for public participation, where appropriate, and encourage the assessment of
the impacts of relevant policies and programmes on biological diversity;

   (l)  Promote, where appropriate, the establishment and strengthening of
national inventory, regulation or management and control systems related to
biological resources, at the appropriate level;

   (m)  Take measures to encourage a greater understanding and appreciation
of the value of biological diversity, as manifested both in its component
parts and in the ecosystem services provided.

                                  Chapter 16


16.13. Governments at the appropriate level, with the assistance of
international and regional organizations, academic and scientific
institutions, and the pharmaceutical industry, should, taking into account
appropriate safety and ethical considerations:

   (a)  Develop national and international programmes for identifying and
targeting those populations of the world most in need of improvement in
general health and protection from diseases;

   (b)  Develop criteria for evaluating the effectiveness and the benefits
and risks of the proposed activities;

   (c)  Establish and enforce screening, systematic sampling and evaluation
procedures for drugs and medical technologies, with a view to barring the use
of those that are unsafe for the purposes of experimentation; ensure that
drugs and technologies relating to reproductive health are safe and effective
and take account of ethical considerations;

   (d)  Improve, systematically sample and evaluate drinking-water quality by
introducing appropriate specific measures, including diagnosis of water-borne
pathogens and pollutants;

   (e)  Develop and make widely available new and improved vaccines against
major communicable diseases that are efficient and safe and offer protection
with a minimum number of doses, including intensifying efforts directed at the
vaccines needed to combat common diseases of children;

   (f)  Develop biodegradable delivery systems for vaccines that eliminate
the need for present multiple-dose schedules, facilitate better coverage of
the population and reduce the costs of immunization;

   (g)  Develop effective biological control agents against disease-
transmitting vectors, such as mosquitoes and resistant variants, taking
account of environmental protection considerations;

   (h)  Using the tools provided by modern biotechnology, develop, inter
alia, improved diagnostics, new drugs and improved treatments and delivery

   (i)  Develop the improvement and more effective utilization of medicinal
plants and other related sources;

   (j)  Develop processes to increase the availability of materials derived
from biotechnology, for use in improving human health.

16.14. The following activities should be undertaken:

   (a)  Research to assess the comparative social, environmental and
financial costs and benefits of different technologies for basic and
reproductive health care within a framework of universal safety and ethical

   (b)  Development of public education programmes directed at decision 
makers and the general public to encourage awareness and understanding of the
relative benefits and risks of modern biotechnology, according to ethical and
cultural considerations.

16.15. Governments at the appropriate levels, with the support of relevant
international and regional organizations, should:

   (a)  Develop and strengthen appropriate safety procedures based on
programme area D, taking account of ethical considerations;

   (b)  Support the development of national programmes, particularly in
developing countries, for improvements in general health, especially
protection from major communicable diseases, common diseases of children and
disease-transmitting factors.

                                  Chapter 17

                               LIVING RESOURCES

17.15. Coastal States should promote and facilitate the organization of
education and training in integrated coastal and marine management and
sustainable development for scientists, technologists, managers (including
community-based managers) and users, leaders, indigenous peoples, fisherfolk,
women and youth, among others.  Management and development, as well as
environmental protection concerns and local planning issues, should be
incorporated in educational curricula and public awareness campaigns, with due
regard to traditional ecological knowledge and socio-cultural values.


17.82. Coastal States should support the sustainability of small-scale
artisanal fisheries.  To this end, they should, as appropriate:

   (a)  Integrate small-scale artisanal fisheries development in marine and
coastal planning, taking into account the interests and, where appropriate,
encouraging representation of fishermen, small-scale fishworkers, women, local
communities and indigenous people;

   (b)  Recognize the rights of small-scale fishworkers and the special
situation of indigenous people and local communities, including their rights
to utilization and protection of their habitats on a sustainable basis;

   (c)  Develop systems for the acquisition and recording of traditional
knowledge concerning marine living resources and environment and promote the
incorporation of such knowledge into management systems.


17.94. States individually, or through bilateral and multilateral cooperation
and with the support of relevant international organizations, whether
subregional, regional or global, as appropriate, should encourage and provide
support for developing countries, inter alia, to:

   (a)  Expand multidisciplinary education, training and research on marine
living resources, particularly in the social and economic sciences;

   (b)  Create training opportunities at national and regional levels to
support artisanal (including subsistence) fisheries, to develop small-scale
use of marine living resources and to encourage equitable participation of
local communities, small-scale fishworkers, women and indigenous people;

   (c)  Introduce topics relating to the importance of marine living
resources in educational curricula at all levels.

17.95. Coastal States, with the support of relevant subregional, regional and
global agencies, where appropriate, should:

   (a)  Develop research capacities for assessment of marine living resource
populations and monitoring;

   (b)  Provide support to local fishing communities, in particular those
that rely on fishing for subsistence, indigenous people and women, including,
as appropriate, the technical and financial assistance to organize, maintain,
exchange and improve traditional knowledge of marine living resources and
fishing techniques, and upgrade knowledge on marine ecosystems;

   (c)  Establish sustainable aquaculture development strategies, including
environmental management in support of rural fish-farming communities;

   (d)  Develop and strengthen, where the need may arise, institutions
capable of implementing the objectives and activities related to the
conservation and management of marine living resources.

                                  Chapter 18


18.9. Integrated water resources management, including the integration of
land- and water-related aspects, should be carried out at the level of the
catchment basin or sub-basin.  Four principal objectives should be pursued, as

   (a)  To promote a dynamic, interactive, iterative and multisectoral
approach to water resources management, including the identification and
protection of potential sources of freshwater supply, that integrates
technological, socio-economic, environmental and human health considerations;

   (b)  To plan for the sustainable and rational utilization, protection,
conservation and management of water resources based on community needs and
priorities within the framework of national economic development policy;

   (c)  To design, implement and evaluate projects and programmes that are
both economically efficient and socially appropriate within clearly defined
strategies, based on an approach of full public participation, including that
of women, youth, indigenous people and local communities in water management
policy-making and decision-making;

   (d)  To identify and strengthen or develop, as required, in particular in
developing countries, the appropriate institutional, legal and financial
mechanisms to ensure that water policy and its implementation are a catalyst
for sustainable social progress and economic growth.


18.12. All States, according to their capacity and available resources, and
through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations
and other relevant organizations as appropriate, could implement the following
activities to improve integrated water resources management:

   (a)  Formulation of costed and targeted national action plans and
investment programmes;

   (b)  Integration of measures for the protection and conservation of
potential sources of freshwater supply, including the inventorying of water
resources, with land-use planning, forest resource utilization, protection of
mountain slopes and riverbanks and other relevant development and conservation

   (c)  Development of interactive databases, forecasting models, economic
planning models and methods for water management and planning, including
environmental impact assessment methods;

   (d)  Optimization of water resources allocation under physical and
socio-economic constraints;

   (e)  Implementation of allocation decisions through demand management,
pricing mechanisms and regulatory measures;

   (f)  Flood and drought management, including risk analysis and
environmental and social impact assessment;

   (g)  Promotion of schemes for rational water use through public awareness-
raising, educational programmes and levying of water tariffs and other
economic instruments;

   (h)  Mobilization of water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid

   (i)  Promotion of international scientific research cooperation on
freshwater resources;

   (j)  Development of new and alternative sources of water-supply such as
sea-water desalination, artificial groundwater recharge, use of
marginal-quality water, waste-water reuse and water recycling;

   (k)  Integration of water (including surface and underground water
resources) quantity and quality management;

   (l)  Promotion of water conservation through improved water-use efficiency
and wastage minimization schemes for all users, including the development of
water-saving devices;

   (m)  Support to water-users groups to optimize local water resources

   (n)  Development of public participatory techniques and their
implementation in decision-making, particularly the enhancement of the role of
women in water resources planning and management;

   (o)  Development and strengthening, as appropriate, of cooperation,
including mechanisms where appropriate, at all levels concerned, namely:

     (i)      At the lowest appropriate level, delegation of water resources
              management, generally, to such a level, in accordance with
              national legislation, including decentralization of government
              services to local authorities, private enterprises and

    (ii)      At the national level, integrated water resources planning and
              management in the framework of the national planning process
              and, where appropriate, establishment of independent regulation
              and monitoring of freshwater, based on national legislation and
              economic measures;

   (iii)      At the regional level, consideration, where appropriate, of the
              harmonization of national strategies and action programmes;

    (iv)      At the global level, improved delineation of responsibilities,
              division of labour and coordination of international
              organizations and programmes, including facilitating discussions
              and sharing of experiences in areas related to water resources

   (p)  Dissemination of information, including operational guidelines, and
promotion of education for water users, including the consideration by the
United Nations of a World Water Day.


18.19. The delegation of water resources management to the lowest appropriate
level necessitates educating and training water management staff at all levels
and ensuring that women participate equally in the education and training
programmes.  Particular emphasis has to be placed on the introduction of
public participatory techniques, including enhancement of the role of women,
youth, indigenous people and local communities.  Skills related to various
water management functions have to be developed by municipal government and
water authorities, as well as in the private sector, local/national
non-governmental organizations, cooperatives, corporations and other
water-user groups.  Education of the public regarding the importance of water
and its proper management is also needed.


18.22. In creating the enabling environment for lowest-appropriate-level
management, the role of Government includes mobilization of financial and
human resources, legislation, standard-setting and other regulatory functions,
monitoring and assessment of the use of water and land resources, and creating
of opportunities for public participation.  International agencies and donors
have an important role to play in providing support to developing countries in
creating the required enabling environment for integrated water resources
management.  This should include, as appropriate, donor support to local
levels in developing countries, including community-based institutions,
non-governmental organizations and women's groups.


18.33. Recommended actions include:

   (a)  Identifying education and training needs geared to the specific
requirements of countries;

   (b)  Establishing and strengthening education and training programmes on
water-related topics, within an environmental and developmental context, for
all categories of staff involved in water resources assessment activities,
using advanced educational technology, where appropriate, and involving both
men and women;

   (c)  Developing sound recruitment, personnel and pay policies for staff of
national and local water agencies.

18.34. The conduct of water resources assessment on the basis of operational
national hydrometric networks requires an enabling environment at all levels. 
The following national support action is necessary for enhanced national

   (a)  Review of the legislative and regulatory basis of water resources

   (b)  Facilitation of close collaboration among water sector agencies,
particularly between information producers and users;

   (c)  Implementation of water management policies based upon realistic
appraisals of water resources conditions and trends;

   (d)  Strengthening of the managerial capabilities of water-user groups,
including women, youth, indigenous people and local communities, to improve
water-use efficiency at the local level.


18.44. Innovative approaches should be adopted for professional and managerial
staff training in order to cope with changing needs and challenges. 
Flexibility and adaptability regarding emerging water pollution issues should
be developed.  Training activities should be undertaken periodically at all
levels within the organizations responsible for water-quality management and
innovative teaching techniques adopted for specific aspects of water-quality
monitoring and control, including development of training skills, in-service
training, problem-solving workshops and refresher training courses.

18.45. Suitable approaches include the strengthening and improvement of the
human resource capabilities of local governments in managing water protection,
treatment and use, particularly in urban areas, and the establishment of
national and regional technical and engineering courses on the subjects of
water-quality protection and control at existing schools and
education/training courses on water resources protection and conservation for
laboratory and field technicians, women and other water-user groups.


18.48. The New Delhi Statement (adopted at the Global Consultation on Safe
Water and Sanitation for the 1990s, which was held in New Delhi from 10 to
14 September 1990) formalized the need to provide, on a sustainable basis,
access to safe water in sufficient quantities and proper sanitation for all,
emphasizing the "some for all rather than more for some" approach.  Four
guiding principles provide for the programme objectives:

   (a)  Protection of the environment and safeguarding of health through the
integrated management of water resources and liquid and solid wastes;

   (b)  Institutional reforms promoting an integrated approach and including
changes in procedures, attitudes and behaviour, and the full participation of
women at all levels in sector institutions;

   (c)  Community management of services, backed by measures to strengthen
local institutions in implementing and sustaining water and sanitation

   (d)  Sound financial practices, achieved through better management of
existing assets, and widespread use of appropriate technologies.


18.50. All States, according to their capacity and available resources, and
through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations
and other relevant organizations as appropriate, could implement the following

   (a)  Environment and health:

     (i)      Establishment of protected areas for sources of drinking-water

    (ii)      Sanitary disposal of excreta and sewage, using appropriate
              systems to treat waste waters in urban and rural areas;

   (iii)      Expansion of urban and rural water-supply and development and
              expansion of rainwater catchment systems, particularly on small
              islands, in addition to the reticulated water-supply system;

    (iv)      Building and expansion, where appropriate, of sewage treatment
              facilities and drainage systems;

     (v)      Treatment and safe reuse of domestic and industrial waste waters
              in urban and rural areas;

    (vi)      Control of water-associated diseases;

   (b)  People and institutions:

     (i)      Strengthening of the functioning of Governments in water
              resources management and, at the same time, giving of full
              recognition to the role of local authorities;

    (ii)      Encouragement of water development and management based on a
              participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy
              makers at all levels;

   (iii)      Application of the principle that decisions are to be taken at
              the lowest appropriate level, with public consultation and
              involvement of users in the planning and implementation of water

    (iv)      Human resource development at all levels, including special
              programmes for women;

     (v)      Broad-based education programmes, with particular emphasis on
              hygiene, local management and risk reduction;

    (vi)      International support mechanisms for programme funding,
              implementation and follow-up;

   (c)  National and community management:

     (i)      Support and assistance to communities in managing their own
              systems on a sustainable basis;

    (ii)      Encouragement of the local population, especially women, youth,
              indigenous people and local communities, in water management;

   (iii)      Linkages between national water plans and community management
              of local waters;

    (iv)      Integration of community management of water within the context
              of overall planning;

     (v)      Promotion of primary health and environmental care at the local
              level, including training for local communities in appropriate
              water management techniques and primary health care;

    (vi)      Assistance to service agencies in becoming more cost-effective
              and responsive to consumer needs;

   (vii)      Providing of more attention to underserved rural and low-income
              peri-urban areas;

  (viii)      Rehabilitation of defective systems, reduction of wastage and
              safe reuse of water and waste water;

    (ix)      Programmes for rational water use and ensured operation and

     (x)      Research and development of appropriate technical solutions;

    (xi)      Substantially increase urban treatment capacity commensurate
              with increasing loads;

   (d)  Awareness creation and public information/participation:

     (i)      Strengthening of sector monitoring and information management at
              subnational and national levels;

    (ii)      Annual processing, analysis and publication of monitoring
              results at national and local levels as a sector management and
              advocacy/awareness creation tool;

   (iii)      Use of limited sector indicators at regional and global levels
              to promote the sector and raise funds;

    (iv)      Improvement of sector coordination, planning and implementation,
              with the assistance of improved monitoring and information
              management, to increase the sector's absorptive capacity,
              particularly in community-based self-help projects.


18.53. To effectively plan and manage water-supply and sanitation at the
national, provincial, district and community level, and to utilize funds most
effectively, trained professional and technical staff must be developed within
each country in sufficient numbers.  To do this, countries must establish
manpower development plans, taking into consideration present requirements and
planned developments.  Subsequently, the development and performance of
country-level training institutions should be enhanced so that they can play a
pivotal role in capacity-building.  It is also important that countries
provide adequate training for women in the sustainable maintenance of
equipment, water resources management and environmental sanitation.

18.54. The implementation of water-supply and sanitation programmes is a
national responsibility.  To varying degrees, responsibility for the
implementation of projects and the operating of systems should be delegated to
all administrative levels down to the community and individual served.  This
also means that national authorities, together with the agencies and bodies of
the United Nations system and other external support agencies providing
support to national programmes, should develop mechanisms and procedures to
collaborate at all levels.  This is particularly important if full advantage
is to be taken of community-based approaches and self-reliance as tools for
sustainability.  This will entail a high degree of community participation,
involving women, in the conception, planning, decision-making, implementation
and evaluation connected with projects for domestic water-supply and


18.59. All States, according to their capacity and available resources, and
through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations
and other relevant organizations as appropriate, could implement the following

   (a)  Protection of water resources from depletion, pollution and

     (i)      Introduction of sanitary waste disposal facilities based on
              environmentally sound low-cost and upgradable technologies;

    (ii)      Implementation of urban storm-water run-off and drainage

   (iii)      Promotion of recycling and reuse of waste water and solid

    (iv)      Control of industrial pollution sources to protect water

     (v)      Protection of watersheds with respect to depletion and
              degradation of their forest cover and from harmful upstream

    (vi)      Promotion of research into the contribution of forests to
              sustainable water resources development;

   (vii)      Encouragement of the best management practices for the use of
              agrochemicals with a view to minimizing their impact on water

   (b)  Efficient and equitable allocation of water resources:

     (i)      Reconciliation of city development planning with the
              availability and sustainability of water resources;

    (ii)      Satisfaction of the basic water needs of the urban population;

   (iii)      Introduction of water tariffs, taking into account the
              circumstances in each country and where affordable, that reflect
              the marginal and opportunity cost of water, especially for
              productive activities;

   (c)  Institutional/legal/management reforms:

     (i)      Adoption of a city-wide approach to the management of water

    (ii)      Promotion at the national and local level of the elaboration of
              land-use plans that give due consideration to water resources

   (iii)      Utilization of the skills and potential of non-governmental
              organizations, the private sector and local people, taking into
              account the public's and strategic interests in water resources;

   (d)  Promotion of public participation:

     (i)      Initiation of public-awareness campaigns to encourage the
              public's move towards rational water utilization;

    (ii)      Sensitization of the public to the issue of protecting water
              quality within the urban environment;

   (iii)      Promotion of public participation in the collection, recycling
              and elimination of wastes;

   (e)  Support to local capacity-building:

     (i)      Development of legislation and policies to promote investments
              in urban water and waste management, reflecting the major
              contribution of cities to national economic development;

    (ii)      Provision of seed money and technical support to the local
              handling of materials supply and services;

   (iii)      Encouragement, to the extent possible, of autonomy and financial
              viability of city water, solid waste and sewerage utilities;

    (iv)      Creation and maintenance of a cadre of professionals and
              semi-professionals, for water, waste water and solid waste

   (f)  Provision of enhanced access to sanitary services:

     (i)      Implementation of water, sanitation and waste management
              programmes focused on the urban poor;

    (ii)      Making available of low-cost water-supply and sanitation
              technology choices;

   (iii)      Basing of choice of technology and service levels on user
              preferences and willingness to pay;

    (iv)      Mobilization and facilitation of the active involvement of women
              in water management teams;

     (v)      Encouragement and equipment of local water associations and
              water committees to manage community water-supply systems and
              communal latrines, with technical back-up available when

    (vi)      Consideration of the merits and practicality of rehabilitating
              existing malfunctioning systems and of correcting operation and
              maintenance inadequacies.


18.62. Implicit in virtually all elements of this programme is the need for
progressive enhancement of the training and career development of personnel at
all levels in sector institutions.  Specific programme activities will involve
the training and retention of staff with skills in community involvement, low-
cost technology, financial management, and integrated planning of urban water
resources management.  Special provision should be made for mobilizing and
facilitating the active participation of women, youth, indigenous people and
local communities in water management teams and for supporting the development
of water associations and water committees, with appropriate training of such
personnel as treasurers, secretaries and caretakers.  Special education and
training programmes for women should be launched with regard to the protection
of water resources and water-quality within urban areas.


18.68. The key strategic principles for holistic and integrated
environmentally sound management of water resources in the rural context may
be set forth as follows:

   (a)  Water should be regardrvation and
distribution; (iii) disaster mitigation plans; (iv) environmental protection
and conservation of the natural resource base;

   (d)  It is necessary to recognize and actively support the role of rural
populations, with particular emphasis on women.


18.76. All States, according to their capacity and available resources, and
through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations
and other relevant organizations as appropriate, could implement the following

   (a)  Water-supply and sanitation for the unserved rural poor:

     (i)      Establish national policies and budget priorities with regard to
              increasing service coverage;

    (ii)      Promote appropriate technologies;

   (iii)      Introduce suitable cost-recovery mechanisms, taking into account
              efficiency and equity through demand management mechanisms;

    (iv)      Promote community ownership and rights to water-supply and
              sanitation facilities;

     (v)      Establish monitoring and evaluation systems;

    (vi)      Strengthen the rural water-supply and sanitation sector with
              emphasis on institutional development, efficient management and
              an appropriate framework for financing of services;

   (vii)      Increase hygiene education and eliminate disease transmission

  (viii)      Adopt appropriate technologies for water treatment;

    (ix)      Adopt wide-scale environmental management measures to control
              disease vectors;

   (b)  Water-use efficiency:

     (i)      Increase of efficiency and productivity in agricultural water
              use for better utilization of limited water resources;

    (ii)      Strengthen water and soil management research under irrigation
              and rain-fed conditions;

   (iii)      Monitor and evaluate irrigation project performance to ensure,
              inter alia, the optimal utilization and proper maintenance of
              the project;

    (iv)      Support water-users groups with a view to improving management
              performance at the local level;

     (v)      Support the appropriate use of relatively brackish water for

   (c)  Waterlogging, salinity control and drainage:

     (i)      Introduce surface drainage in rain-fed agriculture to prevent
              temporary waterlogging and flooding of lowlands;

    (ii)      Introduce artificial drainage in irrigated and rain-fed

   (iii)      Encourage conjunctive use of surface and groundwaters, including
              monitoring and water-balance studies;

    (iv)      Practise drainage in irrigated areas of arid and semi-arid

   (d)  Water-quality management:

     (i)      Establish and operate cost-effective water-quality monitoring
              systems for agricultural water uses;

    (ii)      Prevent adverse effects of agricultural activities on
              water-quality for other social and economic activities and on
              wetlands, inter alia, through optimal use of on-farm input and
              the minimization of the use of external input in agricultural

   (iii)      Establish biological, physical and chemical water-quality
              criteria for agricultural water-users and for marine and
              riverine ecosystems;

    (iv)      Minimize soil run-off and sedimentation;

     (v)      Dispose properly of sewage from human settlements and of manure
              produced by intensive livestock breeding;

    (vi)      Minimize adverse effects from agricultural chemicals by use of
              integrated pest management;

   (vii)      Educate communities about the pollution-related impacts of the
              use of fertilizers and chemicals on water-quality, food safety
              and human health;

   (e)  Water resources development programmes:

     (i)      Develop small-scale irrigation and water-supply for humans and
              livestock and for water and soil conservation;

    (ii)      Formulate large-scale and long-term irrigation development
              programmes, taking into account their effects on the local
              level, the economy and the environment;

   (iii)      Promote local initiatives for the integrated development and
              management of water resources;

    (iv)      Provide adequate technical advice and support and enhancement of
              institutional collaboration at the local community level;

     (v)      Promote a farming approach for land and water management that
              takes account of the level of education, the capacity to
              mobilize local communities and the ecosystem requirements of
              arid and semi-arid regions;

    (vi)      Plan and develop multi-purpose hydroelectric power schemes,
              making sure that environmental concerns are duly taken into

   (f)  Scarce water resources management:

     (i)      Develop long-term strategies and practical implementation
              programmes for agricultural water use under scarcity conditions
              with competing demands for water;

    (ii)      Recognize water as a social, economic and strategic good in
              irrigation planning and management;

   (iii)      Formulate specialized programmes focused on drought
              preparedness, with emphasis on food scarcity and environmental

    (iv)      Promote and enhance waste-water reuse in agriculture;

   (g)  Water-supply for livestock:

     (i)      Improve quality of water available to livestock, taking into
              account their tolerance limits;

    (ii)      Increase the quantity of water sources available to livestock,
              in particular those in extensive grazing systems, in order to
              both reduce the distance needed to travel for water and to
              prevent overgrazing around water sources;

   (iii)      Prevent contamination of water sources with animal excrement in
              order to prevent the spread of diseases, in particular zoonosis;

    (iv)      Encourage multiple use of water-supplies through promotion of
              integrated agro-livestock-fishery systems;

     (v)      Encourage water spreading schemes for increasing water retention
              of extensive grasslands to stimulate forage production and
              prevent run-off;

   (h)  Inland fisheries:

     (i)      Develop the sustainable management of fisheries as part of
              national water resources planning;

    (ii)      Study specific aspects of the hydrobiology and environmental
              requirements of key inland fish species in relation to varying
              water regimes;

   (iii)      Prevent or mitigate modification of aquatic environments by
              other users or rehabilitate environments subjected to such
              modification on behalf of the sustainable use and conservation
              of biological diversity of living aquatic resources;

    (iv)      Develop and disseminate environmentally sound water resources
              development and management methodologies for the intensification
              of fish yield from inland waters;

     (v)      Establish and maintain adequate systems for the collection and
              interpretation of data on water quality and quantity and channel
              morphology related to the state and management of living aquatic
              resources, including fisheries;

   (i)  Aquaculture development:

     (i)      Develop environmentally sound aquaculture technologies that are
              compatible with local, regional and national water resources
              management plans and take into consideration social factors;

    (ii)      Introduce appropriate aquaculture techniques and related water
              development and management practices in countries not yet
              experienced in aquaculture;

   (iii)      Assess environmental impacts of aquaculture with specific
              reference to commercialized culture units and potential water
              pollution from processing centres;

    (iv)      Evaluate economic feasibility of aquaculture in relation to
              alternative use of water, taking into consideration the use of
              marginal-quality water and investment and operational


18.80. Education and training of human resources should be actively pursued at
the national level through:  (a) assessment of current and long-term human
resources management and training needs; (b) establishment of a national
policy for human resources development; and (c) initiation and implementation
of training programmes for staff at all levels as well as for farmers.  The
necessary actions are as follows:

   (a)  Assess training needs for agricultural water management;

   (b)  Increase formal and informal training activities;

   (c)  Develop practical training courses for improving the ability of
extension services to disseminate technologies and strengthen farmers'
capabilities, with special reference to small-scale producers;

   (d)  Train staff at all levels, including farmers, fishermen and members
of local communities, with particular reference to women;

   (e)  Increase the opportunities for career development to enhance the
capabilities of administrators and officers at all levels involved in land-
and water-management programmes.

                                  Chapter 19

                              DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

19.22. International organizations, with the participation of Governments and
non-governmental organizations, should launch training and education projects
involving women and children, who are at greatest risk, in order to enable
countries, and particularly developing countries, to make maximum national use
of international assessments of chemical risks.

                                  Chapter 20

                              IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

20.20. Many countries lack the national capacity to handle and manage
hazardous wastes.  This is primarily due to inadequate infrastructure,
deficiencies in regulatory frameworks, insufficient education and training
programmes and lack of coordination between the different ministries and
institutions involved in various aspects of waste management.  In addition,
there is a lack of knowledge about environmental contamination and pollution
and the associated health risk from the exposure of populations, especially
women and children, and ecosystems to hazardous wastes; assessment of risks;
and the characteristics of wastes.  Steps need to be taken immediately to
identify populations at high risk and to take remedial measures, where
necessary.  One of the main priorities in ensuring environmentally sound
management of hazardous wastes is to provide awareness, education and training
programmes covering all levels of society.  There is also a need to undertake
research programmes to understand the nature of hazardous wastes, to identify
their potential environmental effects and to develop technologies to safely
handle those wastes.  Finally, there is a need to strengthen the capacities of
institutions that are responsible for the management of hazardous wastes.


20.26. The following activities should be undertaken:

     (a) Governments, according to their capacities and available resources
and with the cooperation of the United Nations and other relevant
organizations and industry as appropriate, should increase support for
hazardous waste research management in developing countries;

     (b) Governments, in collaboration with international organizations,
should conduct research on the health effects of hazardous wastes in
developing countries, including the long-term effects on children and women;

     (c) Governments should conduct research aimed at the needs of small and
medium-sized industries;

     (d) Governments and international organizations in cooperation with
industry should expand technological research on environmentally sound
hazardous waste handling, storage, transport, treatment and disposal and on
hazardous waste assessment, management and remediation;

     (e) International organizations should identify relevant and improved
technologies for handling, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous

20.27. Governments, according to their capacities and available resources and
with the cooperation of the United Nations and other relevant organizations
and industry as appropriate, should:

     (a) Increase public awareness and information on hazardous waste issues
and promote the development and dissemination of hazardous wastes information
that the general public can understand;

     (b) Increase participation in hazardous waste management programmes by
the general public, particularly women, including participation at grass-roots

     (c) Develop training and education programmes for men and women in
industry and Government aimed at specific real-life problems, for example,
planning and implementing hazardous waste minimization programmes, conducting
hazardous materials audits and establishing appropriate regulatory programmes;

     (d) Promote the training of labour, industrial management and government
regulatory staff in developing countries on technologies to minimize and
manage hazardous wastes in an environmentally sound manner.

20.28. The following activities should also be undertaken:

     (a) Governments, according to their capacities and available resources
and with the cooperation of the United Nations, other organizations and
non-governmental organizations, should collaborate in developing and
disseminating educational materials concerning hazardous wastes and their
effects on environment and human health, for use in schools, by women's groups
and by the general public;

     (b) Governments, according to their capacities and available resources
and with the cooperation of the United Nations and other organizations, should
establish or strengthen programmes for the environmentally sound management of
hazardous wastes in accordance with, as appropriate, health and environmental
standards, and extend surveillance systems for the purpose of identifying
adverse effects on populations and the environment of exposure to hazardous

     (c) International organizations should provide assistance to member
States in assessing the health and environmental risks resulting from exposure
to hazardous wastes, and in identifying their priorities for controlling the
various categories or classes of wastes;

     (d) Governments, according to their capacities and available resources
and with the cooperation of the United Nations and other relevant
organizations, should promote centres of excellence for training in hazardous
waste management, building on appropriate national institutions and
encouraging international cooperation, inter alia, through institutional links
between developed and developing countries.

                                  Chapter 21

                           AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

21.19. Governments and institutions and non-governmental organizations,
including consumer, women's and youth groups, in collaboration with
appropriate organizations of the United Nations system, should launch
programmes to demonstrate and make operational enhanced waste reuse and
recycling.  These programmes should, wherever possible, build upon existing or
planned activities and should:

     (a) Develop and strengthen national capacity to reuse and recycle an
increasing proportion of wastes;

     (b) Review and reform national waste policies to provide incentives for
waste reuse and recycling;

     (c) Develop and implement national plans for waste management that take
advantage of, and give priority to, waste reuse and recycling;

     (d) Modify existing standards or purchase specifications to avoid
discrimination against recycled materials, taking into account the saving in
energy and raw materials;

     (e) Develop public education and awareness programmes to promote the use
of recycled products.
21.25. Training will be required to reorient current waste management
practices to include waste reuse and recycling.  Governments, in collaboration
with United Nations international and regional organizations, should undertake
the following indicative list of actions:

     (a) Including waste reuse and recycling in in-service training
programmes as integral components of technical cooperation programmes on urban
management and infrastructure development;

     (b) Expanding training programmes on water supply and sanitation to
incorporate techniques and policies for waste reuse and recycling;

     (c) Including the advantages and civic obligations associated with waste
reuse and recycling in school curricula and relevant general educational

     (d) Encouraging non-governmental organizations, community-based
organizations and women's, youth and public interest group programmes, in
collaboration with local municipal authorities, to mobilize community support
for waste reuse and recycling through focused community-level campaigns.
21.46. Research activities could be enhanced.  Countries, in cooperation with
appropriate international organizations and non-governmental organizations,
should, for instance:

     (a) Find solutions and equipment for managing wastes in areas of
concentrated populations and on small islands.  In particular, there is a need
for appropriate refuse storage and collection systems and cost-effective and
hygienic human waste disposal options;

     (b) Prepare and disseminate guidelines, case-studies, policy reviews and
technical reports on appropriate solutions and modes of service delivery to
unserved low-income areas;

     (c) Launch campaigns to encourage active community participation
involving women's and youth groups in the management of waste, particularly
household waste;

     (d) Promote intercountry transfer of relevant technologies, especially
technologies for high-density settlements.

                                  Chapter 23


23.1. Critical to the effective implementation of the objectives, policies and
mechanisms agreed to by Governments in all programme areas of Agenda 21 will
be the commitment and genuine involvement of all social groups.

23.2. One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable
development is broad public participation in decision-making.  Furthermore, in
the more specific context of environment and development, the need for new
forms of participation has emerged.  This includes the need of individuals,
groups and organizations to participate in environmental impact assessment
procedures and to know about and participate in decisions, particularly those
which potentially affect the communities in which they live and work. 
Individuals, groups and organizations should have access to information
relevant to environment and development held by national authorities,
including information on products and activities that have or are likely to
have a significant impact on the environment, and information on environmental
protection measures.

23.3. Any policies, definitions or rules affecting access to and participation
by non-governmental organizations in the work of United Nations institutions
or agencies associated with the implementation of Agenda 21 must apply equally
to all major groups.

                                  Chapter 24

                           AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT

                                PROGRAMME AREA

Basis for action

24.1. The international community has endorsed several plans of action and
conventions for the full, equal and beneficial integration of women in all
development activities, in particular the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies
for the Advancement of Women, 1/ which emphasize women's participation in
national and international ecosystem management and control of environment
degradation.  Several conventions, including the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (General Assembly resolution
34/180, annex) and conventions of ILO and UNESCO have also been adopted to end
gender-based discrimination and ensure women access to land and other
resources, education and safe and equal employment.  Also relevant are the
1990 World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children
and the Plan of Action for implementing the Declaration (A/45/625, annex). 
Effective implementation of these programmes will depend on the active
involvement of women in economic and political decision-making and will be
critical to the successful implementation of Agenda 21.

24.2. The following objectives are proposed for national Governments:

     (a) To implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the
Advancement of Women, particularly with regard to women's participation in
national ecosystem management and control of environment degradation;

     (b) To increase the proportion of women decision makers, planners,
technical advisers, managers and extension workers in environment and
development fields;

     (c) To consider developing and issuing by the year 2000 a strategy of
changes necessary to eliminate constitutional, legal, administrative,
cultural, behavioural, social and economic obstacles to women's full
participation in sustainable development and in public life;

     (d) To establish by the year 1995 mechanisms at the national, regional
and international levels to assess the implementation and impact of
development and environment policies and programmes on women and to ensure
their contributions and benefits;

     (e) To assess, review, revise and implement, where appropriate,
curricula and other educational material, with a view to promoting the
dissemination to both men and women of gender-relevant knowledge and valuation
of women's roles through formal and non-formal education, as well as through
training institutions, in collaboration with non-governmental organizations;

     (f) To formulate and implement clear governmental policies and national
guidelines, strategies and plans for the achievement of equality in all
aspects of society, including the promotion of women's literacy, education,
training, nutrition and health and their participation in key decision-making
positions and in management of the environment, particularly as it pertains to
their access to resources, by facilitating better access to all forms of
credit, particularly in the informal sector, taking measures towards ensuring
women's access to property rights as well as agricultural inputs and

     (g) To implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance with
country-specific conditions, measures to ensure that women and men have the
same right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their
children and have access to information, education and means, as appropriate,
to enable them to exercise this right in keeping with their freedom, dignity
and personally held values;

     (h) To consider adopting, strengthening and enforcing legislation
prohibiting violence against women and to take all necessary administrative,
social and educational measures to eliminate violence against women in all its

24.3. Governments should take active steps to implement the following:

     (a) Measures to review policies and establish plans to increase the
proportion of women involved as decision makers, planners, managers,
scientists and technical advisers in the design, development and
implementation of policies and programmes for sustainable development;

     (b) Measures to strengthen and empower women's bureaux, women's
non-governmental organizations and women's groups in enhancing
capacity-building for sustainable development;

     (c) Measures to eliminate illiteracy among females and to expand the
enrolment of women and girls in educational institutions, to promote the goal
of universal access to primary and secondary education for girl children and
for women, and to increase educational and training opportunities for women
and girls in sciences and technology, particularly at the post-secondary

     (d) Programmes to promote the reduction of the heavy workload of women
and girl children at home and outside through the establishment of more and
affordable nurseries and kindergartens by Governments, local authorities,
employers and other relevant organizations and the sharing of household tasks
by men and women on an equal basis, and to promote the provision of
environmentally sound technologies which have been designed, developed and
improved in consultation with women, accessible and clean water, an efficient
fuel supply and adequate sanitation facilities;

     (e) Programmes to establish and strengthen preventive and curative
health facilities, which include women-centred, women-managed, safe and
effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessible, responsible
planning of family size and services, as appropriate, in keeping with freedom,
dignity and personally held values.  Programmes should focus on providing
comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care, education and information
on health and responsible parenthood, and should provide the opportunity for
all women to fully breastfeed at least during the first four months
post-partum.  Programmes should fully support women's productive and
reproductive roles and well-being and should pay special attention to the need
to provide equal and improved health care for all children and to reduce the
risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness;

     (f) Programmes to support and strengthen equal employment opportunities
and equitable remuneration for women in the formal and informal sectors with
adequate economic, political and social support systems and services,
including child care, particularly day-care facilities and parental leave, and
equal access to credit, land and other natural resources;

     (g) Programmes to establish rural banking systems with a view to
facilitating and increasing rural women's access to credit and to agricultural
inputs and implements;

     (h) Programmes to develop consumer awareness and the active
participation of women, emphasizing their crucial role in achieving changes
necessary to reduce or eliminate unsustainable patterns of consumption and
production, particularly in industrialized countries, in order to encourage
investment in environmentally sound productive activities and induce
environmentally and socially friendly industrial development;

     (i) Programmes to eliminate persistent negative images, stereotypes,
attitudes and prejudices against women through changes in socialization
patterns, the media, advertising, and formal and non-formal education;

     (j) Measures to review progress made in these areas, including the
preparation of a review and appraisal report which includes recommendations to
be submitted to the 1995 world conference on women.

24.4. Governments are urged to ratify all relevant conventions pertaining to
women if they have not already done so.  Those that have ratified conventions
should enforce and establish legal, constitutional and administrative
procedures to transform agreed rights into domestic legislation and should
adopt measures to implement them in order to strengthen the legal capacity of
women for full and equal participation in issues and decisions on sustainable

24.5. States parties to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women should review and suggest amendments to it by the
year 2000, with a view to strengthening those elements of the Convention
related to environment and development, giving special attention to the issue
of access and entitlements to natural resources, technology, creative banking
facilities and low-cost housing, and the control of pollution and toxicity in
the home and workplace.  States parties should also clarify the extent of the
Convention's scope with respect to the issues of environment and development
and request the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
to develop guidelines regarding the nature of reporting such issues, required
under particular articles of the Convention.

24.6. Countries should take urgent measures to avert the ongoing rapid
environmental and economic degradation in developing countries that generally
affects the lives of women and children in rural areas suffering drought,
desertification and deforestation, armed hostilities, natural disasters, toxic
waste and the aftermath of the use of unsuitable agro-chemical products.

24.7. In order to reach these goals, women should be fully involved in
decision-making and in the implementation of sustainable development
24.8. Countries should develop gender-sensitive databases, information systems
and participatory action-oriented research and policy analyses with the
collaboration of academic institutions and local women researchers on the

     (a) Knowledge and experience on the part of women of the management and
conservation of natural resources for incorporation in the databases and
information systems for sustainable development;

     (b) The impact of structural adjustment programmes on women.  In
research done on structural adjustment programmes, special attention should be
given to the differential impact of those programmes on women, especially in
terms of cut-backs in social services, education and health and in the removal
of subsidies on food and fuel;

     (c) The impact on women of environmental degradation, particularly
drought, desertification, toxic chemicals and armed hostilities;

     (d) Analysis of the structural linkages between gender relations,
environment and development;

     (e) The integration of the value of unpaid work, including work that is
currently designated "domestic", in resource accounting mechanisms in order
better to represent the true value of the contribution of women to the
economy, using revised guidelines for the United Nations System of National
Accounts, to be issued in 1993;

     (f) Measures to develop and include environmental, social and gender
impact analyses as an essential step in the development and monitoring of
programmes and policies;

     (g) Programmes to create rural and urban training, research and resource
centres in developing and developed countries that will serve to disseminate
environmentally sound technologies to women.

24.9. The Secretary-General of the United Nations should review the adequacy
of all United Nations institutions, including those with a special focus on
the role of women, in meeting development and environment objectives, and make
recommendations for strengthening their capacities.  Institutions that require
special attention in this area include the Division for the Advancement of
Women (Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations
Office at Vienna), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
(INSTRAW) and the women's programmes of regional commissions.  The review
should consider how the environment and development programmes of each body of
the United Nations system could be strengthened to implement Agenda 21 and how
to incorporate the role of women in programmes and decisions related to
sustainable development.

24.10. Each body of the United Nations system should review the number of
women in senior policy-level and decision-making posts and, where appropriate,
adopt programmes to increase that number, in accordance with Economic and
Social Council resolution 1991/17 on the improvement of the status of women in
the Secretariat.

24.11. UNIFEM should establish regular consultations with donors in
collaboration with UNICEF, with a view to promoting operational programmes and
projects on sustainable development that will strengthen the participation of
women, especially low-income women, in sustainable development and in
decision-making.  UNDP should establish a women's focal point on development
and environment in each of its resident representative offices to provide
information and promote exchange of experience and information in these
fields.  Bodies of the United Nations system, governments and non-governmental
organizations involved in the follow-up to the Conference and the
implementation of Agenda 21 should ensure that gender considerations are fully
integrated into all the policies, programmes and activities.


                                  Chapter 25


25.5. Each country, by the year 2000, should ensure that more than 50 per cent
of its youth, gender balanced, are enrolled in or have access to appropriate
secondary education or equivalent educational or vocational training
programmes by increasing participation and access rates on an annual basis.


25.8. Each country should combat human rights abuses against young people,
particularly young women and girls, and should consider providing all youth
with legal protection, skills, opportunities and the support necessary for
them to fulfil their personal, economic and social aspirations and potentials.

25.9. Governments, according to their strategies, should take measures to:

     (a) Establish procedures allowing for consultation and possible
participation of youth of both genders, by 1993, in decision-making processes
with regard to the environment, involving youth at the local, national and
regional levels;

     (b) Promote dialogue with youth organizations regarding the drafting and
evaluation of environment plans and programmes or questions on development;

     (c) Consider for incorporation into relevant policies the
recommendations of international, regional and local youth conferences and
other forums that offer youth perspectives on social and economic development
and resource management;

     (d) Ensure access for all youth to all types of education, wherever
appropriate, providing alternative learning structures, ensure that education
reflects the economic and social needs of youth and incorporates the concepts
of environmental awareness and sustainable development throughout the
curricula; and expand vocational training, implementing innovative methods
aimed at increasing practical skills, such as environmental scouting;

     (e) In cooperation with relevant ministries and organizations, including
representatives of youth, develop and implement strategies for creating
alternative employment opportunities and provide required training to young
men and women;

     (f) Establish task forces that include youth and youth non-governmental
organizations to develop educational and awareness programmes specifically
targeted to the youth population on critical issues pertaining to youth. 
These task forces should use formal and non-formal educational methods to
reach a maximum audience.  National and local media, non-governmental
organizations, businesses and other organizations should assist in these task

     (g) Give support to programmes, projects, networks, national
organizations and youth non-governmental organizations to examine the
integration of programmes in relation to their project requirements,
encouraging the involvement of youth in project identification, design,
implementation and follow-up;

     (h) Include youth representatives in their delegations to international
meetings, in accordance with the relevant General Assembly resolutions adopted
in 1968, 1977, 1985 and 1989.


25.14. Governments should take active steps to:

     (a) Implement programmes for children designed to reach the
child-related goals of the 1990s in the areas of environment and development,
especially health, nutrition, education, literacy and poverty alleviation;

     (b) Ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child (General Assembly
resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989, annex), at the earliest moment and
implement it by addressing the basic needs of youth and children;

     (c) Promote primary environmental care activities that address the basic
needs of communities, improve the environment for children at the household
and community level and encourage the participation and empowerment of local
populations, including women, youth, children and indigenous people, towards
the objective of integrated community management of resources, especially in
developing countries;

     (d) Expand educational opportunities for children and youth, including
education for environmental and developmental responsibility, with overriding
attention to the education of the girl child;

     (e) Mobilize communities through schools and local health centres so
that children and their parents become effective focal points for
sensitization of communities to environmental issues;

     (f) Establish procedures to incorporate children's concerns into all
relevant policies and strategies for environment and development at the local,
regional and national levels, including those concerning allocation of and
entitlement to natural resources, housing and recreation needs, and control of
pollution and toxicity in both rural and urban areas.

                                  Chapter 26

                             AND THEIR COMMUNITIES

26.9. International development agencies and Governments should commit
financial and other resources to education and training for indigenous people
and their communities to develop their capacities to achieve their sustainable
self-development, and to contribute to and participate in sustainable and
equitable development at the national level.  Particular attention should be
given to strengthening the role of indigenous women.

                                  Chapter 28


28.2. The following objectives are proposed for this programme area:

     (a) By 1996, most local authorities in each country should have
undertaken a consultative process with their populations and achieved a
consensus on "a local Agenda 21" for the community;

     (b) By 1993, the international community should have initiated a
consultative process aimed at increasing cooperation between local

     (c) By 1994, representatives of associations of cities and other local
authorities should have increased levels of cooperation and coordination with
the goal of enhancing the exchange of information and experience among local

     (d) All local authorities in each country should be encouraged to
implement and monitor programmes which aim at ensuring that women and youth
are represented in decision-making, planning and implementation processes.

                                  Chapter 29


29.7. Joint (employer/worker) or tripartite (employer/worker/Government)
collaborative mechanisms at the workplace, community and national levels
should be established to deal with safety, health and environment, including
special reference to the rights and status of women in the workplace.

                                  Chapter 30


30.1. Business and industry, including transnational corporations, play a
crucial role in the social and economic development of a country.  A stable
policy regime enables and encourages business and industry to operate
responsibly and efficiently and to implement longer-term policies.  Increasing
prosperity, a major goal of the development process, is contributed primarily
by the activities of business and industry.  Business enterprises, large and
small, formal and informal, provide major trading, employment and livelihood
opportunities.  Business opportunities available to women are contributing
towards their professional development, strengthening their economic role and
transforming social systems.  Business and industry, including transnational
corporations, and their representative organizations should be full
participants in the implementation and evaluation of activities related to
Agenda 21.


30.17. Entrepreneurship is one of the most important driving forces for
innovations, increasing market efficiencies and responding to challenges and
opportunities.  Small and medium-sized entrepreneurs, in particular, play a
very important role in the social and economic development of a country. 
Often, they are the major means for rural development, increasing off-farm
employment and providing the transitional means for improving the livelihoods
of women.  Responsible entrepreneurship can play a major role in improving the
efficiency of resource use, reducing risks and hazards, minimizing wastes and
safeguarding environmental qualities.


30.24. Business and industry should establish national councils for
sustainable development and help promote entrepreneurship in the formal and
informal sectors.  The inclusion of women entrepreneurs should be facilitated.

                                  Chapter 31


31.4. Governments should undertake the following activities:

     (a) Review how national scientific and technological activities could be
more responsive to sustainable development needs as part of an overall effort
to strengthen national research and development systems, including through
strengthening and widening the membership of national scientific and
technological advisory councils, organizations and committees to ensure that:

     (i) The full range of national needs for scientific and technological
         programmes are communicated to Governments and the public;

    (ii) The various strands of public opinion are represented;

     (b) Promote regional cooperative mechanisms to address regional needs
for sustainable development.  Such regional cooperative mechanisms could be
facilitated through public/private partnerships and provide support to
Governments, industry, non-governmental educational institutions and other
domestic and international organizations, and by strengthening global
professional networks;

     (c) Improve and expand scientific and technical inputs through
appropriate mechanisms to intergovernmental consultative, cooperative and
negotiating processes towards international and regional agreements;

     (d) Strengthen science and technology advice to the highest levels of
the United Nations, and other international institutions, in order to ensure
the inclusion of science and technology know-how in sustainable development
policies and strategies;

     (e) Improve and strengthen programmes for disseminating research results
of universities and research institutions.  This requires recognition of and
greater support to the scientists, technologists and teachers who are engaged
in communicating and interpreting scientific and technological information to
policy makers, professionals in other fields and the general public.  Such
support should focus on the transfer of skills and the transfer and adaptation
of planning techniques.  This requires full and open sharing of data and
information among scientists and decision makers.  The publication of national
scientific research reports and technical reports that are understandable and
relevant to local sustainable development needs would also improve the
interface between science and decision-making, as well as the implementation
of scientific results;

     (f) Improve links between the official and independent research sectors
and industry so that research may become an important element of industrial

     (g) Promote and strengthen the role of women as full partners in the
science and technology disciplines;

     (h) Develop and implement information technologies to enhance the
dissemination of information for sustainable development.


31.10. The following activities could be undertaken:

     (a) Strengthening national and international cooperation, including the
non-governmental sector, to develop codes of practice and guidelines regarding
environmentally sound and sustainable development, taking into account the Rio
Declaration and existing codes of practice and guidelines;

     (b) Strengthening and establishing national advisory groups on
environmental and developmental ethics, in order to develop a common value
framework between the scientific and technological community and society as a
whole, and promote continuous dialogue;

     (c) Extending education and training in developmental and environmental
ethical issues to integrate such objectives into education curricula and
research priorities;

     (d) Reviewing and amending relevant national and international
environment and development legal instruments to ensure appropriate codes of
practice and guidelines are incorporated into such regulatory machinery.

                                  Chapter 32


32.2. The rural household, indigenous people and their communities, and the
family farmer, a substantial number of whom are women, have been the stewards
of much of the Earth's resources.  Farmers must conserve their physical
environment as they depend on it for their sustenance.  Over the past 20 years
there has been impressive increase in aggregate agricultural production.  Yet,
in some regions, this increase has been outstripped by population growth or
international debt or falling commodity prices.  Further, the natural
resources that sustain farming activity need proper care, and there is a
growing concern about the sustainability of agricultural production systems.


32.4. The sustainable development of people in marginal and fragile ecosystems
is also addressed in Agenda 21.  The key to the successful implementation of
these programmes lies in the motivation and attitudes of individual farmers
and government policies that would provide incentives to farmers to manage
their natural resources efficiently and in a sustainable way.  Farmers,
particularly women, face a high degree of economic, legal and institutional
uncertainties when investing in their land and other resources.  The
decentralization of decision-making towards local and community organizations
is the key in changing people's behaviour and implementing sustainable farming
strategies.  This programme area deals with activities which can contribute to
this end.

32.5. The following objectives are proposed:

   (a)  To encourage a decentralized decision-making process through the
creation and strengthening of local and village organizations that would
delegate power and responsibility to primary users of natural resources;

   (b)  To support and enhance the legal capacity of women and vulnerable
groups with regard to access, use and tenure of land;

   (c)  To promote and encourage sustainable farming practices and

   (d)  To introduce or strengthen policies that would encourage self-
sufficiency in low-input and low-energy technologies, including indigenous
practices, and pricing mechanisms that internalize environmental costs;

   (e)  To develop a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation
among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices;

   (f)  To enhance the participation of farmers, men and women, in the design
and implementation of policies directed towards these ends, through their
representative organizations.

32.6. National Governments should:

   (a)  Ensure the implementation of the programmes on sustainable
livelihoods, agriculture and rural development, managing fragile ecosystems,
water use in agriculture, and integrated management of natural resources;

   (b)  Promote pricing mechanisms, trade policies, fiscal incentives and
other policy instruments that positively affect individual farmer's decisions
about an efficient and sustainable use of natural resources, and take full
account of the impact of these decisions on household food security, farm
incomes, employment and the environment;

   (c)  Involve farmers and their representative organizations in the
formulation of policy;

   (d)  Protect, recognize and formalize women's access to tenure and use of
land, as well as rights to land, access to credit, technology, inputs and

   (e)  Support the formation of farmers' organizations by providing adequate
legal and social conditions.
32.8. Governments and farmers' organizations should:

   (a)  Initiate mechanisms to document, synthesize and disseminate local
knowledge, practices and project experiences so that they will make use of the
lessons of the past when formulating and implementing policies affecting
farming, forest and fishing populations;

   (b)  Establish networks for the exchange of experiences with regard to
farming that help to conserve land, water and forest resources, minimize the
use of chemicals and reduce or reutilize farm wastes;

   (c)  Develop pilot projects and extension services that would seek to
build on the needs and knowledge base of women farmers.
32.14. Governments should, in the light of each country's specific situation:

   (a)  Create the institutional and legal mechanisms to ensure effective
land tenure to farmers.  The absence of legislation indicating land rights has
been an obstacle in taking action against land degradation in many farming
communities in developing countries;

   (b)  Strengthen rural institutions that would enhance sustainability
through locally managed credit systems and technical assistance, local
production and distribution facilities for inputs, appropriate equipment and
small-scale processing units, and marketing and distribution systems;

   (c)  Establish mechanisms to increase access of farmers, in particular
women and farmers from indigenous groups, to agricultural training, credit and
use of improved technology for ensuring food security.

                                  Chapter 33


33.8. All countries should assess how to translate Agenda 21 into national
policies and programmes through a process that will integrate environment and
development considerations.  National and local priorities should be
established by means that include public participation and community
involvement, promoting equal opportunity for men and women.

                                  Chapter 34

                             AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

34.3. Environmentally sound technologies are not just individual technologies,
but total systems which include know-how, procedures, goods and services, and
equipment as well as organizational and managerial procedures.  This implies
that when discussing transfer of technologies, the human resource development
and local capacity-building aspects of technology choices, including
gender-relevant aspects, should also be addressed.  Environmentally sound
technologies should be compatible with nationally determined socio-economic,
cultural and environmental priorities.


34.14. The following objectives are proposed:

   (a)  To help to ensure the access, in particular of developing countries,
to scientific and technological information, including information on
state-of-the-art technologies;

   (b)  To promote, facilitate, and finance, as appropriate, the access to
and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding
know-how, in particular to developing countries, on favourable terms,
including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking
into account the need to protect intellectual property rights as well as the
special needs of developing countries for the implementation of Agenda 21;

   (c)  To facilitate the maintenance and promotion of environmentally sound
indigenous technologies that may have been neglected or displaced, in
particular in developing countries, paying particular attention to their
priority needs and taking into account the complementary roles of men and

   (d)  To support endogenous capacity-building, in particular in developing
countries, so they can assess, adopt, manage and apply environmentally sound
technologies.  This could be achieved through inter alia:

     (i)      Human resource development;

    (ii)      Strengthening of institutional capacities for research and
              development and programme implementation;

   (iii)      Integrated sector assessments of technology needs, in accordance
              with countries' plans, objectives and priorities as foreseen in
              the implementation of Agenda 21 at the national level;

   (e)  To promote long-term technological partnerships between holders of
environmentally sound technologies and potential users.

                                  Chapter 35


35.21. The primary objective is to improve the scientific capacities of all
countries - in particular, those of developing countries - with specific
regard to:

   (a)  Education, training and facilities for local research and development
and human resource development in basic scientific disciplines and in
environment-related sciences, utilizing where appropriate traditional and
local knowledge of sustainability;

   (b)  A substantial increase by the year 2000 in the number of scientists -
particularly women scientists - in those developing countries where their
number is at present insufficient;

   (c)  Reducing significantly the exodus of scientists from developing
countries and encouraging those who have left to return;

   (d)  Improving access to relevant information for scientists and decision
makers, with the aim of improving public awareness and participation in

   (e)  Involvement of scientists in national, regional and global
environmental and developmental research programmes, including
multidisciplinary research;

   (f)  Periodic academic update of scientists from developing countries in
their respective fields of knowledge.


35.25. Capacity-building includes the following:

   (a)  Creating conditions (e.g., salaries, equipment, libraries) to ensure
that the scientists will work effectively in their home countries;

   (b)  Enhancing national, regional and global capacities for carrying out
scientific research and applying scientific and technological information to
environmentally sound and sustainable development.  This includes a need to
increase financial resources for global and regional scientific and
technological information networks, as may be appropriate, so that they will
be able to function effectively and efficiently in satisfying the scientific
needs of developing countries.  Ensure the capacity-building of women by
recruiting more women in research and research training.

                                  Chapter 36


36.4. Recognizing that countries, regional and international organizations
will develop their own priorities and schedules for implementation in
accordance with their needs, policies and programmes, the following objectives
are proposed:

   (a)  To endorse the recommendations arising from the World Conference on
Education for All:  Meeting Basic Learning Needs 2/ (Jomtien, Thailand,
5-9 March 1990) and to strive to ensure universal access to basic education,
and to achieve primary education for at least 80 per cent of girls and
80 per cent of boys of primary school age through formal schooling or
non-formal education and to reduce the adult illiteracy rate to at least half
of its 1990 level.  Efforts should focus on reducing the high illiteracy
levels and redressing the lack of basic education among women and should bring
their literacy levels into line with those of men;

   (b)  To achieve environmental and development awareness in all sectors of
society on a world-wide scale as soon as possible;

   (c)  To strive to achieve the accessibility of environmental and
development education, linked to social education, from primary school age
through adulthood to all groups of people;

   (d)  To promote integration of environment and development concepts,
including demography, in all educational programmes, in particular the
analysis of the causes of major environment and development issues in a local
context, drawing on the best available scientific evidence and other
appropriate sources of knowledge, and giving special emphasis to the further
training of decision makers at all levels.

36.5. Recognizing that countries and regional and international organizations
will develop their own priorities and schedules for implementation in
accordance with their needs, policies and programmes, the following activities
are proposed:

   (a)  All countries are encouraged to endorse the recommendations of the
Jomtien Conference and strive to ensure its Framework for Action.  This would
encompass the preparation of national strategies and actions for meeting basic
learning needs, universalizing access and promoting equity, broadening the
means and scope of education, developing a supporting policy context,
mobilizing resources and strengthening international cooperation to redress
existing economic, social and gender disparities which interfere with these
aims.  Non-governmental organizations can make an important contribution in
designing and implementing educational programmes and should be recognized;

   (b)  Governments should strive to update or prepare strategies aimed at
integrating environment and development as a cross-cutting issue into
education at all levels within the next three years.  This should be done in
cooperation with all sectors of society.  The strategies should set out
policies and activities, and identify needs, cost, means and schedules for
their implementation, evaluation and review.  A thorough review of curricula
should be undertaken to ensure a multidisciplinary approach, with environment
and development issues and their socio-cultural and demographic aspects and
linkages.  Due respect should be given to community-defined needs and diverse
knowledge systems, including science, cultural and social sensitivities;

   (c)  Countries are encouraged to set up national advisory environmental
education coordinating bodies or round tables representative of various
environmental, developmental, educational, gender and other interests,
including non-governmental organizations, to encourage partnerships, help
mobilize resources, and provide a source of information and focal point for
international ties.  These bodies would help mobilize and facilitate different
population groups and communities to assess their own needs and to develop the
necessary skills to create and implement their own environment and development

   (d)  Educational authorities, with the appropriate assistance from
community groups or non-governmental organizations, are recommended to assist
or set up pre-service and in-service training programmes for all teachers,
administrators, and educational planners, as well as non-formal educators in
all sectors, addressing the nature and methods of environmental and
development education and making use of relevant experience of
non-governmental organizations;

   (e)  Relevant authorities should ensure that every school is assisted in
designing environmental activity work plans, with the participation of
students and staff.  Schools should involve schoolchildren in local and
regional studies on environmental health, including safe drinking water,
sanitation and food and ecosystems and in relevant activities, linking these
studies with services and research in national parks, wildlife reserves,
ecological heritage sites etc.;

   (f)  Educational authorities should promote proven educational methods and
the development of innovative teaching methods for educational settings.  They
should also recognize appropriate traditional education systems in local

   (g)  Within two years the United Nations system should undertake a
comprehensive review of its educational programmes, encompassing training and
public awareness, to reassess priorities and reallocate resources.  The
UNESCO/UNEP International Environmental Education Programme should, in
cooperation with the appropriate bodies of the United Nations system,
Governments, non-governmental organizations and others, establish a programme
within two years to integrate the decisions of the Conference into the
existing United Nations framework adapted to the needs of educators at
different levels and circumstances.  Regional organizations and national
authorities should be encouraged to elaborate similar parallel programmes and
opportunities by conducting an analysis of how to mobilize different sectors
of the population in order to assess and address their environmental and
development education needs;

   (h)  There is a need to strengthen, within five years, information
exchange by enhancing technologies and capacities necessary to promote
environment and development education and public awareness.  Countries should
cooperate with each other and with the various social sectors and population
groups to prepare educational tools that include regional environment and
development issues and initiatives, using learning materials and resources
suited to their own requirements;

   (i)  Countries could support university and other tertiary activities and
networks for environmental and development education.  Cross-disciplinary
courses could be made available to all students.  Existing regional networks
and activities and national university actions which promote research and
common teaching approaches on sustainable development should be built upon,
and new partnerships and bridges created with the business and other
independent sectors, as well as with all countries for technology, know-how,
and knowledge exchange;

   (j)  Countries, assisted by international organizations, non-governmental
organizations and other sectors, could strengthen or establish national or
regional centres of excellence in interdisciplinary research and education in
environmental and developmental sciences, law and the management of specific
environmental problems.  Such centres could be universities or existing
networks in each country or region, promoting cooperative research and
information sharing and dissemination.  At the global level these functions
should be performed by appropriate institutions;

   (k)  Countries should facilitate and promote non-formal education
activities at the local, regional and national levels by cooperating with and
supporting the efforts of non-formal educators and other community-based
organizations.  The appropriate bodies of the United Nations system in
cooperation with non-governmental organizations should encourage the
development of an international network for the achievement of global
educational aims.  At the national and local levels, public and scholastic
forums should discuss environmental and development issues, and suggest
sustainable alternatives to policy makers;

   (l)  Educational authorities, with appropriate assistance of
non-governmental organizations, including women's and indigenous peoples'
organizations, should promote all kinds of adult education programmes for
continuing education in environment and development, basing activities around
elementary/secondary schools and local problems.  These authorities and
industry should encourage business, industrial and agricultural schools to
include such topics in their curricula.  The corporate sector could include
sustainable development in their education and training programmes. 
Programmes at a post-graduate level should include specific courses aiming at
the further training of decision makers;

   (m)  Governments and educational authorities should foster opportunities
for women in non-traditional fields and eliminate gender stereotyping in
curricula.  This could be done by improving enrolment opportunities, including
females in advanced programmes as students and instructors, reforming entrance
and teacher staffing policies and providing incentives for establishing
child-care facilities, as appropriate.  Priority should be given to education
of young females and to programmes promoting literacy among women;

   (n)  Governments should affirm the rights of indigenous peoples, by
legislation if necessary, to use their experience and understanding of
sustainable development to play a part in education and training;

   (o)  The United Nations could maintain a monitoring and evaluative role
regarding decisions of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development on education and awareness, through the relevant United Nations
agencies.  With Governments and non-governmental organizations, as
appropriate, it should present and disseminate decisions in a variety of
forms, and should ensure the continuous implementation and review of the
educational implications of Conference decisions, in particular through
relevant events and conferences.


36.10. Recognizing that countries, regional and international organizations
will develop their own priorities and schedules for implementation in
accordance with their needs, policies and programmes, the following activities
are proposed:

   (a)  Countries should strengthen existing advisory bodies or establish new
ones for public environment and development information, and should coordinate
activities with, among others, the United Nations, non-governmental
organizations and important media.  They should encourage public participation
in discussions of environmental policies and assessments.  Governments should
also facilitate and support national to local networking of information
through existing networks;

   (b)  The United Nations system should improve its outreach in the course
of a review of its education and public awareness activities to promote
greater involvement and coordination of all parts of the system, especially
its information bodies and regional and country operations.  Systematic
surveys of the impact of awareness programmes should be conducted, recognizing
the needs and contributions of specific community groups;

   (c)  Countries and regional organizations should be encouraged, as
appropriate, to provide public environmental and development information
services for raising the awareness of all groups, the private sector and
particularly decision makers;

   (d)  Countries should stimulate educational establishments in all sectors,
especially the tertiary sector, to contribute more to awareness building. 
Educational materials of all kinds and for all audiences should be based on
the best available scientific information, including the natural, behavioural
and social sciences, and taking into account aesthetic and ethical dimensions;

   (e)  Countries and the United Nations system should promote a cooperative
relationship with the media, popular theatre groups, and entertainment and
advertising industries by initiating discussions to mobilize their experience
in shaping public behaviour and consumption patterns and making wide use of
their methods.  Such cooperation would also increase the active public
participation in the debate on the environment.  UNICEF should make
child-oriented material available to media as an educational tool, ensuring
close cooperation between the out-of-school public information sector and the
school curriculum, for the primary level.  UNESCO, UNEP and universities
should enrich pre-service curricula for journalists on environment and
development topics;

   (f)  Countries, in cooperation with the scientific community, should
establish ways of employing modern communication technologies for effective
public outreach.  National and local educational authorities and relevant
United Nations agencies should expand, as appropriate, the use of audio-visual
methods, especially in rural areas in mobile units, by producing television
and radio programmes for developing countries, involving local participation,
employing interactive multimedia methods and integrating advanced methods with
folk media;

   (g)  Countries should promote, as appropriate, environmentally sound
leisure and tourism activities, building on The Hague Declaration of Tourism
(1989) and the current programmes of the World Tourism Organization and UNEP, 
making suitable use of museums, heritage sites, zoos, botanical gardens,
national parks, and other protected areas;

   (h)  Countries should encourage non-governmental organizations to increase
their involvement in environmental and development problems, through joint
awareness initiatives and improved interchange with other constituencies in

   (i)  Countries and the United Nations system should increase their
interaction with and include, as appropriate, indigenous people in the
management, planning and development of their local environment, and should
promote dissemination of traditional and socially learned knowledge through
means based on local customs, especially in rural areas, integrating these
efforts with the electronic media, whenever appropriate;

   (j)  UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP and non-governmental organizations should
develop support programmes to involve young people and children in environment
and development issues, such as children's and youth hearings and building on
decisions of the World Summit for Children (A/45/625, annex);

   (k)  Countries, the United Nations and non-governmental organizations
should encourage mobilization of both men and women in awareness campaigns,
stressing the role of the family in environmental activities, women's
contribution to transmission of knowledge and social values and the
development of human resources;

   (l)  Public awareness should be heightened regarding the impacts of
violence in society.


36.13. The following objectives are proposed:

   (a)  To establish or strengthen vocational training programmes that meet
the needs of environment and development with ensured access to training
opportunities, regardless of social status, age, gender, race or religion;

   (b)  To promote a flexible and adaptable workforce of various ages
equipped to meet growing environment and development problems and changes
arising from the transition to a sustainable society;

   (c)  To strengthen national capacities, particularly in scientific
education and training, to enable Governments, employers and workers to meet
their environmental and development objectives and to facilitate the transfer
and assimilation of new environmentally sound, socially acceptable and
appropriate technology and know-how;

   (d)  To ensure that environmental and human ecological considerations are
integrated at all managerial levels and in all functional management areas,
such as marketing, production and finance.

                                  Chapter 37


37.5. As an important aspect of overall planning, each country should seek
internal consensus at all levels of society on policies and programmes needed
for short- and long-term capacity-building to implement its Agenda 21
programme.  This consensus should result from a participatory dialogue of
relevant interest groups and lead to an identification of skill gaps,
institutional capacities and capabilities, technological and scientific
requirements and resource needs to enhance environmental knowledge and
administration to integrate environment and development.  UNDP in partnership
with relevant specialized agencies and other international intergovernmental
and non-governmental organizations could assist, upon request of Governments,
in the identification of the requirements for technical cooperation, including
those related to technology transfer and know-how and development assistance
for the implementation of Agenda 21.  The national planning process together,
where appropriate, with national sustainable development action plans or
strategies should provide the framework for such cooperation and assistance. 
UNDP should use and further improve its network of field offices and its broad
mandate to provide assistance, using its experience in the field of technical
cooperation for facilitating capacity-building at the country and regional
levels and making full use of the expertise of other bodies, in particular
UNEP, the World Bank and regional commissions and development banks, as well
as relevant international intergovernmental and non-governmental

                                  Chapter 38


38.14. Within the intergovernmental framework, consideration should be given
to allowing non-governmental organizations, including those related to major
groups, particularly women's groups, committed to the implementation of
Agenda 21 to have relevant information available to them, including
information, reports and other data produced within the United Nations system.


38.19. A highly qualified and competent secretariat support structure within
the United Nations Secretariat, drawing, inter alia, on the expertise gained
in the Conference preparatory process is essential for the follow-up to the
Conference and the implementation of Agenda 21.  This secretariat support
structure should provide support to the work of both intergovernmental and
inter-agency coordination mechanisms.  Concrete organizational decisions fall
within the competence of the Secretary-General as the chief administrative
officer of the Organization, who is requested to report on the provisions to
be made, covering staffing implications, as soon as practicable, taking into
account gender balance as defined in Article 8 of the Charter of the United
Nations and the need for the best use of existing resources in the context of
the current and ongoing restructuring of the United Nations Secretariat.


38.25. Its role should include the following:

   (a)  Acting as the lead agency in organizing United Nations system efforts
towards capacity-building at the local, national and regional levels;

   (b)  Mobilizing donor resources on behalf of Governments for
capacity-building in recipient countries and, where appropriate, through the
use of the UNDP donor round-table mechanisms;

   (c)  Strengthening its own programmes in support of follow-up to the
Conference without prejudice to the fifth programming cycle;

   (d)  Assisting recipient countries, upon request, in the establishment and
strengthening of national coordination mechanisms and networks related to
activities for the follow-up to the Conference;

   (e)  Assisting recipient countries, upon request, in coordinating the
mobilization of domestic financial resources;

   (f)  Promoting and strengthening the role and involvement of women, youth
and other major groups in recipient countries in the implementation of
Agenda 21.


38.42. Non-governmental organizations and major groups are important partners
in the implementation of Agenda 21.  Relevant non-governmental organizations,
including the scientific community, the private sector and women's groups,
should be given opportunities to make their contributions and establish
appropriate relationships with the United Nations system.  Support should be
provided for developing countries' non-governmental organizations and their
self-organized networks.

                                  Chapter 40


40.8. Countries and, upon request, international organizations should carry
out inventories of environmental, resource and developmental data, based on
national/global priorities for the management of sustainable development. 
They should determine the gaps and organize activities to fill those gaps. 
Within the organs and organizations of the United Nations system and relevant
international organizations, data-collection activities, including those of
Earthwatch and World Weather Watch, need to be strengthened, especially in the
areas of urban air, freshwater, land resources (including forests and
rangelands), desertification, other habitats, soil degradation, biodiversity,
the high seas and the upper atmosphere.  Countries and international
organizations should make use of new techniques of data collection, including
satellite-based remote sensing.  In addition to the strengthening of existing
development-related data collection, special attention needs to be paid to
such areas as demographic factors, urbanization, poverty, health and rights of
access to resources, as well as special groups, including women, indigenous
peoples, youth, children and the disabled, and their relationships with
environment issues.


40.11. Countries, with the cooperation of international organizations, should
establish supporting mechanisms to provide local communities and resource
users with the information and know-how they need to manage their environment
and resources sustainably, applying traditional and indigenous knowledge and
approaches when appropriate.  This is particularly relevant for rural and
urban populations and indigenous, women's and youth groups.



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Date last updated: 06 December 1999 by DESA/DAW
Copyright 1999 United Nations