United Nations

E/CN.6/1995/2


Commission on the Status of Women

 Distr. GENERAL
27 February 1995
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH



COMMISSION ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN
Thirty-ninth session
New York, 15 March-4 April 1995
Item 3 (e) of the provisional agenda*

     *   E/CN.6/1995/1.


          PREPARATIONS FOR THE FOURTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN:  ACTION
          FOR EQUALITY, DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE:  DRAFT PLATFORM FOR ACTION

                           Draft Platform for Action

                        Report of the Secretary-General


1.   In its resolution 38/10, 1/ the Commission on the Status of Women
requested the Secretary-General to develop further the draft of the Platform
for Action for consideration by the Commission at its thirty-ninth session,
based on the texts contained in the annex to the resolution and taking into
account the relevant results of the regional preparatory meetings.  The
Commission also requested the Secretary-General to include in the draft of the
Platform for Action proposals to strengthen technical and financial
cooperation to benefit women.

2.   In the same resolution, the Commission invited the Secretary-General to
convene, in consultation with the Bureau, informal open-ended consultations to
exchange views on the draft of the Platform for Action prior to the
thirty-ninth session.  Informal consultations took place on 18 July and from 7
to 9 December 1994.

3.   The draft Platform for Action is contained in the annex below.


                                     Notes

     1/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1994,
Supplement No. 7 (E/1994/27), chap. I, sect. C.



                                     Annex

                           DRAFT PLATFORM FOR ACTION


                                   CONTENTS

                                                              Paragraphs Page


 I.   MISSION STATEMENT .....................................   1 - 3       4

II.   GLOBAL FRAMEWORK ......................................   4 - 33      4

III.  CRITICAL AREAS OF CONCERN .............................  34 - 37      9

IV.   STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AND ACTIONS ......................  38 - 182    10

      A. The persistent and increasing burden of poverty
         on women ..........................................   39 - 55     10

      B. Unequal access to and inadequate educational
         opportunities .....................................   56 - 70     15

      C. Inequalities in health status and unequal access to
         and inadequate health care services ...............   71 - 87     19

      D. Violence against women ............................   88 - 99     26

      E. Effects of armed or other kinds of conflict
         on women ..........................................  100 - 109    30

      F. Inequality in women's access to and participation
         in the definition of economic structures and
         policies and the productive process itself ........  110 - 127    35

      G. Inequality between men and women in the sharing of
         power and decision-making at all levels ...........  128 - 139    41

      H. Insufficient mechanisms at all levels to promote
         the advancement of women ..........................  140 - 148    44

      I. Lack of awareness of and commitment to
         internationally and nationally recognized women's
         human rights ......................................  149 - 160    47

      J. Insufficient mobilization of the mass media to
         promote women's positive contributions to society .  161 - 170    51

      K. Lack of adequate recognition and support for
         women's contribution to managing natural resources
         and safeguarding the environment ..................  171 - 182    53

 V.   INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ............................ 183 - 231    57

      A. National level ....................................  192 - 197    59

      B. Regional level ....................................  198 - 201    60

      C. International level ...............................  202 - 231    60

VI.   FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS ................................ 232 - 246    66

      A. National level ....................................  236 - 240    66

      B. Regional level ....................................    241        67

      C. International level ...............................  242 - 246    67



                             I.  MISSION STATEMENT

1.   The Platform for Action aims to accelerate the removal of obstacles to
women's full and equal participation in all spheres of public and private
life, including economic and political decision-making.  It is an agenda for
equality that seeks to safeguard women's human rights throughout the life
cycle.  It stresses the principle of shared responsibility and partnership
between men and women as the basis for achieving equality, development and
peace.
 
2.   The Platform for Action requires immediate action to create a peaceful,
developed and just world, based on the principle of equality for all peoples
of all ages and from all walks of life, built on the strength of women's
knowledge, energy, creativity and skills in partnership with men.

3.   The success of the Platform for Action requires strong institutions and
adequate resources for the implementation of the agreements made; a commitment
to the equal participation of women and men in all international, regional and
national bodies and policy-making processes; and mechanisms for accountability
to the world's women, in whose name these promises are made.


                             II.  GLOBAL FRAMEWORK

4.   The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women:  Action for
Equality, Development and Peace is taking place as the world stands poised on
the threshold of a new millennium.

5.   Since the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the
United Nations Decade for Women:  Equality, Development and Peace, held at
Nairobi in 1985, and the adoption of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies
for the Advancement of Women, 1/ the world has experienced profound political,
economic, social and cultural changes. 

6.   The end of the cold war resulted in international changes and the demise
of competition between super-Powers.  While the threat of global conflict has
been reduced, a resurgence of nationalism and ethnic conflict has threatened
peace in many regions.  The decade also saw the rise in power of transnational
corporations, which, by their very nature and wealth, remain beyond
accountability to Governments and peoples.  Global information networks
emerged, facilitated by new technology; they transcended national borders and
reduced distances between peoples of different cultures.

7.   A world-wide move towards democratization opened up the political process
in many nations.  South Africa's policy of institutionalized racism -
apartheid - was dismantled and a peaceful and democratic transfer of power
occurred.  Similarly, in Eastern Europe the transition to parliamentary
democracy was rapid and relatively peaceful.

8.   Development goals suffered a set-back due to the prolonged global
economic recession, which had repercussions on many national economies.  This
led to increased unemployment in industrialized nations and the relocation of
manufacturing to developing countries.  Regional trading blocs were created or
strengthened and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade reconfirmed the
interdependence of national economies.  The period was also characterized by
heavy military spending and a decline in international development assistance.


9.   Evidence of the increasing fragility of peace, the environment and the
institutions that govern society has prompted the international community to
search for alternative paths to development and security.  The participation
and leadership of the half of humanity that is female is essential to the
success of that search.  Therefore, nothing short of a radical transformation
of the relationships between men and women will enable the world to meet the
challenges of the new millennium.

10.  At its founding 50 years ago, the United Nations held the promise of
securing justice, human rights, social progress and maintaining international
peace and security.  Today's reality testifies to the difficulty of attaining
the goals of the United Nations for the majority of humankind.  The position
of women in society and the conditions in which they live demonstrate that the
past can be no model for the future.

11.  New policy frameworks have been proposed.  The Agenda for Peace defines
strategies for peace-keeping, preventive diplomacy and peacemaking.  The
Agenda for Development sets out specific approaches to foster development
cooperation and strengthen the United Nations role to that end.  While
strategies outlined in the Platform for Action should contribute to
development and peace, they also aim at promoting an agenda for equality.

12.  Women have established themselves as central actors in the movement of
humanity for peace.  However, continuing nationalistic and ethnic conflicts
have left them predominant among the refugees.  Their equal participation in
decision-making, multilateral interventions, preventive diplomacy and all
peace initiatives is essential to the realization of the Agenda for Peace. 
Their perspective and specific needs must be fully reflected in all
initiatives.

13.  The Fourth World Conference on Women is the continuation of a global
process formally begun in 1975 - proclaimed International Women's Year by the
United Nations General Assembly.  The Year was a turning-point for women. 
Gender-disaggregated statistics did not exist in many areas two decades ago. 
Little was known of the status of women in various societies and the diversity
of their needs, skills and contributions.

14.  The United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985) was a world-wide effort
to examine the status and rights of women and to bring women into
decision-making at all levels.  Some Governments created special structures to
address women's issues.  International agencies focused greater attention on
women's status and roles, as well as on their special skills and needs.  In
1979, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 2/ to eradicate
discrimination and inequality between men and women.  In 1985, the World
Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations
Decade for Women:  Equality, Development and Peace adopted the Nairobi
Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, to be implemented by
the year 2000.  Governments were urged to reformulate legal, political,
economic and social structures to ensure equality, development and peace.  Ten
years later that promise of equality and partnership has fallen far short of
expectations.

15.  On average, women represent a mere 10 per cent of all elected legislators
world wide.  The Nordic countries stand out as an exception, an example of how
a well-educated female constituency has demanded and successfully achieved
parity in political decision-making.  Sweden is the first country to achieve
parity between women and men at the Cabinet level.

16.  The staffing of most government structures, however, remains dominated by
men in every country.  The United Nations is no exception.  Fifty years after
its creation, the United Nations continues to deny itself the benefits of
women's leadership by their underrepresentation at decision-making levels
within the Secretariat and the specialized agencies.  In the private sector,
women have not fared much better.  Business and corporate hierarchies remain
predominantly the domain of male power. 

17.  Largely because of the leadership of the United Nations system, the
international community has attempted to respond to the challenges of the past
decade.  A series of conferences and conventions have explored and defined the
rights and responsibilities of individuals and States on a range of global
issues.  Non-governmental organizations, particularly women's organizations,
have played an increasingly influential role in focusing debates and in
recommending actions on women's potential contribution to solving problems.

18.  The World Summit for Children, the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development, the World Conference on Human Rights, the Global
Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States,
the International Conference on Population and Development and the World
Summit for Social Development have all addressed the various facets of
development and human rights and, within their specific perspectives, paid
significant attention to the gender dimension.  Similarly, the International
Year of the World's Indigenous People and the International Year of the Family
have emphasized the message of empowerment and equality.  Women have played an
important role in shaping the outcome of these initiatives.

19.  These international events and processes are evidence that significant,
global challenges threaten the very survival of humankind.  Recognition of the
role of women in meeting these challenges is a clear mandate for equality and
for shared responsibility of men and women within family and society. 
International consensus on the pivotal role of women in development exists. 
Thus, the Fourth World Conference on Women is a conference of commitment and
action.

20.  Recent international developments have had a disproportionate impact on
women.  For those States that carried a large burden of foreign debt,
structural adjustment programmes forced cuts in basic services and in
investments in human development, shifting the responsibilities of basic
social services from Governments to women without compensation.  In some
developing nations, especially in Africa, the situation was further aggravated
by a decline in commodity prices.

21.  Macrolevel economic policies have had an adverse impact on women and
families, especially those in poverty.  Inequities in quality of life,
nutrition, health, education and opportunities for a full and productive life
have increased from region to region and within nations.  Poverty has
increased in both absolute and relative terms, and the number of women living
in poverty has increased in all regions.

22.  One fourth of all households worldwide are headed by women, and
households dependent on female income even where men are present, are among
the poorest.  Family disintegration, urban migration, war and internal
displacements are factors contributing to the rise of female-headed
households.

23.  The growth of the world population is at an all-time high in absolute
numbers, with current increments approaching 90 million persons annually.  Two
other major demographic trends had profound repercussions on the dependency
ratio within families.  In many developing countries, 45-50 per cent of the
population is less than 25 years old, while in industrialized nations, both
the number and proportion of elderly people are increasing.  Women, who are
the principal care-givers to children, the sick and the elderly, carry these
additional responsibilities.  A reformulation of long-term social policies and
investments is required for a more equitable sharing of family
responsibilities between men and women.  Women have different needs at various
stages of the life cycle, which need to be addressed in policy planning and
programme and project implementation.

24.  In the past 20 years, the world has seen an explosion in the field of
communications.  With advances in computer technology and satellite and cable
television, global access to information continues to increase and expand,
creating new opportunities for the participation of women in communications
and the mass media and for dissemination of information about women.  Greater
involvement of women in both the technical and decision-making areas of
communication and the media would increase awareness of women's lives from
their own perspective.

25.  Continuing environmental degradation has a direct impact on women's
lives.  Women's health and their sustainable livelihood are threatened by
pollution and toxic wastes, and by large-scale deforestation, desertification
and soil depletion.  Those most affected are rural women, whose livelihood and
daily subsistence depends directly on sustainable ecosystems.

26.  These global trends and the conflicts arising from them have brought
profound changes in family survival strategies and structures.  Rural to urban
migration has increased substantially in all regions.  The urban population is
projected to reach 57 per cent by the year 2000.  An estimated 125 million
people are migrants, displaced or refugees from conflict or environmental
stress; half of them are in developing countries.  These massive movements of
people have profound consequences for family structure and have unequal
consequences for women and men. 

27.  Added to the political, economic and ecological turmoil of the decade was
the spectre of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic.  According to
estimates of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases had risen to 2.5 million by mid-1993. 
An estimated 14 million people are now infected with HIV, and it is projected
that another 20 or 30 million will be infected by the end of the decade if
effective prevention strategies are not pursued.  Transmission of the virus is
increasing at an alarming rate among women and girls.

28.  Since 1975, significant knowledge and information has been generated
about the status of women and the conditions under which they live.  From
infancy, throughout the entire life cycle, women's daily existence and
long-term aspirations are restricted by attitudes, structures and a lack of
resources, which prevent their full and equal participation.  Discrimination
against women begins at birth and must therefore be addressed from birth
onward. 

29.  The past decade demonstrated that by expanding opportunities for women,
especially in ways that enhance their productivity and income-earning
potential, women will be able to raise their standard of living, thereby
contributing to improved family well-being and the reduction and eradication
of poverty, as well as to better national economic performance.

30.  During the decade, the growing strength of the non-governmental sector,
particularly women's organizations, became the driving force for change. 
Despite their diversity, women expressed solidarity.  They organized,
networked and advocated.  Women's organizations became catalysts for new
approaches to development.  Women, particularly through non-governmental
organizations, participated in global, regional, national and community forums
and strongly influenced the international debates on environmental management
and conservation, human rights, violence against women, population and
sustainable development, economic expansion and science and technology. 

31.  This period also recognized the variety of women's skills in all spheres
of life.  Women's traditional and indigenous knowledge of science and
technology became known as a source of innovative and inexpensive solutions. 
Yet in the absence of women from decision-making, their perspectives and
priorities were not adequately considered; hence, many institutions failed to
be responsive to change.

32.  The Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women
established a framework for achieving the goals of equality, development and
peace.  These goals are interdependent and mutually reinforcing.  At every
stage and in all aspects of life, the principle of equality of women and men
must be integral to the socialization process.  The home is where girls and
boys first learn of their rights and their responsibilities to each other and
to society.  When men and women are not equal partners in private life, it is
all the more difficult to effect change in public life.

33.  International solidarity demonstrated that it was possible to bring an
end to institutionalized racism.  Renewed global commitment, greater
solidarity and accountability are necessary in order to achieve equality
between men and women. Both the diversity and universality of women's
experiences, knowledge, vision and hopes are a source of strength and the
basis for implementation of the Platform for Action.


                        III.  CRITICAL AREAS OF CONCERN

34.  The advancement of women and the achievement of equality between men and
women is not simply an issue of social justice.  It is the only way to build a
sustainable, just and developed society.  Empowerment and equality of women
are prerequisites for achieving political, social, economic, cultural and
environmental security among all peoples in the next century.

35.  The goals set out in the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the
Advancement of Women have not been achieved.  A profusion of barriers to
women's empowerment remain, despite the efforts of enlightened Governments,
non-governmental organizations and women and men everywhere.  Vast political
and economic upheavals, armed conflict and ingrained prejudicial attitudes
towards women and girls are but a few of the impediments encountered since the
World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations
Decade for Women:  Equality, Development and Peace, in 1985.

36.  A review of progress since the Nairobi Conference highlights special
concerns - areas of particular urgency that stand out as priorities for
action.  All parties working for the advancement of women should focus action
and resources on the critical areas of concern which are, necessarily,
interrelated, interdependent and of equal priority.

37.  The Platform for Action aims to accelerate the removal of the remaining
obstacles to women's full and equal participation in all spheres of life,
including economic and political decision-making; to protect women's human
rights throughout the life cycle; and to integrate women's concerns into all
areas of sustainable development so that women and men can work together for
equality, development and peace.  To this end, the international community,
Governments, non-governmental organizations and the private sector are called
upon to take strategic action in the following critical areas of concern:

     -   The persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women

     -   Unequal access to and inadequate educational opportunities

     -   Inequalities in health status and unequal access to and inadequate
         health care services

     -   Violence against women

     -   Effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women

     -   Inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition
         of economic structures and policies and the productive process
         itself

     -   Inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and
         decision-making at all levels 

     -   Insufficient mechanisms at all levels to promote the advancement of
         women

     -   Lack of awareness of and commitment to internationally and
         nationally recognized women's human rights

     -   Insufficient mobilization of the mass media to promote women's
         positive contributions to society

     -   Lack of adequate recognition and support for women's contribution to
         managing natural resources and safeguarding the environment


                     IV.  STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AND ACTIONS

38.  In each area of critical concern the problem is diagnosed and strategic
objectives proposed with concrete actions to be taken by various actors in
order to achieve these objectives.  The strategic objectives are derived from
the critical areas of concern, and specific actions to be taken to achieve
them cut across the boundaries of equality, development and peace - the goals
of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women - and
reflect their interdependence.   The objectives and actions are interlinked,
equal in priority and mutually reinforcing.


         A.  The persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women

39.  Poverty is a multidimensional, complex situation that has economic,
educational, social, political, cultural and technological dimensions.  The
prolonged global economic recession, combined with the debt crisis and
structural adjustment programmes, civil strife and displacement and
environmental degradation have undermined the capacity of Governments to meet
the basic needs of their populations.  This has resulted in a specific trend
towards the impoverishment of women, the extent of which varies from region to
region.  Migration and changing family structures have placed additional
burdens on women, especially those who provide for several dependants. 
Macroeconomic policies have not been readjusted to respond to these trends. 
Primarily concerned with the formal sector of the economy, these policies have
tended to hamper the initiatives of women and failed to consider the
differential impact on women and men.  In order to eradicate poverty and
achieve sustainable development, women must contribute fully to the
formulation of macroeconomic and social policies, as well as to anti-poverty
initiatives.

40.  The empowerment of women is a critical factor in the eradication of
poverty.  Women contribute to the economy and the reduction of poverty through
both paid and unpaid work at home, in the community and in the workplace.  As
women constitute the majority of the world's poor, the release of their
productive potential is essential to the eradication of poverty.

41.  However, in the past decade the number of women living in poverty has
increased disproportionately to men, particularly in countries which
themselves are poor.  While this trend can be attributed partially to the
negative impact of structural adjustment programmes and the burden of debt-
servicing, the rigidity of socially ascribed roles and women's limited access
to education and productive resources are also responsible.

42.  While poverty affects households as a whole, women bear a
disproportionate burden, attempting to manage household consumption under
conditions of increasing scarcity.  Rural, displaced and refugee women are
particularly burdened.  With the number of female-headed households increasing
worldwide, more divorced, widowed or single women are falling deeper into
poverty.  Especially vulnerable are older women and young girls.  New patterns
of poverty have also emerged.

43.  Women's poverty is directly related to their lack of access to services
and education, their lack of rights, and structural and attitudinal barriers
to land ownership, inheritance, employment, income, credit and training. 
Where employment opportunities exist, women, particularly young women, are
frequently relegated to the lowest wage categories, often without job
security, legal protection or trade union support.

44.  Investments that increase the productive capacities of women through
access to credit, technical assistance and training raise incomes and improve
nutrition, education and health care within the household.  However, when
women are not participants or decision makers in the design of macroeconomic
interventions, the opportunity to enhance women's productive potential is
lost. 

45.  Sustainable development is only possible through improving the economic
and social status of women.  Equal opportunities in education and employment
to ensure women's autonomy and financial independence, access to health care
and housing and ensuring legal and human rights for women at every stage of
the life cycle, are all essential to eradicating poverty.  Similar actions
targeted specifically to the poorest of the poor are also needed.  Women in
poverty have demonstrated that they possess knowledge, capacities and
management skills.  Only when women are enabled to participate fully will they
and their families be able to overcome poverty.


            Strategic objective A.1.  Adopt and maintain macroeconomic
                                      policies and development
                                      strategies that address the
                                      needs and efforts of women to
                                      overcome poverty

Actions to be taken

46.  By Governments:

     (a) Pursue sound macroeconomic policies that are gender-sensitive,
         designed with the full participation of women and based on
         development strategies centred on people;

     (b) Restructure and target the allocation of public expenditures to
         address the basic needs of women, expand social services to the
         poor, especially in education and primary health care, including
         family planning, and ensure access to a clean and available water
         supply;

     (c) Allocate the necessary financial, technical and human resources to
         ensure food security and food self-sufficiency;

     (d) Provide adequate safety nets and strengthen state- and community-
         based support systems, as an integral part of social policy, to
         enable the poor to withstand adverse economic environments and
         preserve their livelihood and assets in times of crisis;

     (e) Generate economic policies that have a positive impact on the
         employment and income of women workers;

     (f) Formulate and implement specific economic, agricultural and related
         policies in support of female-headed households;

     (g) Develop agricultural policies and programmes that protect and
         encourage women food producers, particularly through the provision
         of appropriate infrastructure (markets, access roads, transportation
         and so forth) and technology, especially in rural areas; 

     (h) Develop and implement equitable food-pricing policies and develop
         anti-poverty and employment programmes that improve the access of
         food purchasers; 

     (i) Introduce measures to make displaced women productive, including the
         recognition of the qualifications and skills of immigrant and
         refugee women, to enable their full integration into the labour
         force;

     (j) Develop innovative programmes to provide affordable housing and
         access to land, with special emphasis on meeting the needs of female
         heads of households and disabled, destitute, displaced and elderly
         women, living in extreme poverty;

     (k) Develop special programmes that reflect the specific needs of
         children, particularly girls, young women and the elderly, who are
         least able to gain access to resources;

     (l) Establish mechanisms to ensure that resource allocation at the
         macro, sectoral and project levels reflects the social costs and
         benefits of women's work;

     (m) Allocate adequate resources to subsistence farmers, the majority of
         whom are women, in the areas of finance, services and inputs in
         order to increase production.

47.  By international financial and development institutions, international
and bilateral donors, especially the World Bank, the International Monetary
Fund and regional development banks:

     (a) Increase resources allocated to the elimination of poverty, and
         target women in poverty;

     (b) Continue to integrate gender issues into the design and
         implementation of lending programmes, including structural
         adjustment programmes;

     (c) Substantially reduce or cancel external debt to increase the
         capacities of poor nations to finance programmes and projects
         targeted at disadvantaged women;

     (d) Ensure that structural adjustment programmes do not shift the
         responsibility of basic social services from Governments to women
         without compensation;

     (e) Create an enabling environment that allows women to build and
         maintain sustainable livelihoods.


        Strategic objective A.2.  Revise laws and administrative practices
                                  that limit disadvantaged women's access
                                  to economic resources

Actions to be taken

48.  By Governments:

     (a) Provide low-cost legal services, including legal literacy,
         especially designed to reach women living in poverty;

     (b) Repeal laws that exacerbate poverty among disadvantaged women,
         especially laws dealing with inheritance and land rights, and all
         forms of land-use and ownership.


          Strategic objective A.3.  Provide women with access to credit
                                    and savings

Actions to be taken

49.  By Governments:

     (a) Provide capital, finance and legislative support to banks and
         financial institutions that provide services to disadvantaged women
         in rural and urban areas;

     (b) Encourage link between financial institutions and non-governmental
         organizations and support innovative lending practices such as those
         of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh.

50.  By commercial banks, specialized financial institutions and the private
sector:
     
     (a) Use a credit and savings methodology that is effective in reaching
         women in poverty and innovative in reducing transaction costs and
         redefining risk;

     (b) Open special windows for lending to women, including young women,
         who lack access to traditional sources of collateral;

     (c) Reduce the minimum deposit and other requirements for opening bank
         accounts;
 
     (d) Ensure the participation and joint ownership, where possible, of
         women borrowers in the decision-making of institutions providing
         credit and financial services.

51.  By international multilateral and bilateral development cooperation
organizations:

     Support, through the provision of capital and resources, financial
     institutions that serve low-income women entrepreneurs and producers, in
     both the formal and informal sectors.

52.  By Governments and multilateral financial institutions:

     (a) Review rules and procedures of formal national and international
         financial institutions that obstruct replications of the Grameen
         Bank prototype;

     (b) Ensure parity in the flow and use of financial resources to
         low-income households, women entrepreneurs and producers by the year
         2005;

     (c) Provide financial, technical and institutional support to 1,000
         participatory financial institutions and non-governmental
         organizations by the year 2005.

53.  By international organizations:

     Increase funding for programmes and projects designed to promote
     sustainable and productive entrepreneurial activities among disadvantaged
     women.


          Strategic objective A.4.  Conduct research that enables women
                                    to overcome poverty

Actions to be taken

54.  By Governments, intergovernmental organizations, academic and research
institutions and the private sector:

     (a) Develop theoretical and practical means for incorporating gender
         perspectives into all aspects of economic policy-making, including
         structural adjustment programmes;

     (b) Conduct gender-impact studies of structural adjustment programmes
         and disseminate research findings.

55.  By national and international statistical organizations:

     (a) Collect gender and age-disaggregated data on poverty and all aspects
         of economic activity, and develop statistical indicators to
         facilitate the assessment of economic performance from a gender
         perspective;

     (b) Collect and analyse statistical data on the contribution of women's
         unpaid work to the national economy.


        B.  Unequal access to and inadequate educational opportunities

56.  Education is a basic human right and an essential tool for achieving the
goals of equality, development and peace.  Non-discriminatory education
benefits both girls and boys, and thus ultimately leads to more equal and
democratic relationships between women and men.  Equality of access is
necessary if more women are to become agents of change.  Investing in
education and training for girls and women, with its exceptionally high social
and economic return, has proved to be one of the best means of achieving
sustainable development.

57.  On a regional level, girls and boys have achieved equal access to primary
education, except in Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, and Central and
Southern Asia.  Progress has been made in secondary education, where parity
has been achieved in the developed countries and in Eastern Europe.  Enrolment
of girls in tertiary education has increased considerably.  Yet more than five
years after the World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand,
1990) adopted the World Declaration on Education for All and the Framework for
Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs, approximately 100 million children,
including at least 60 million girls, are without access to primary schooling,
and more than two thirds of the world's 960 million illiterate adults are
women.  The high number of illiterate females which is increasing in South
Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab States, remains a severe impediment
to both personal and national development. 

58.  Discrimination in girls' access to education persists in many areas,
owing to customary attitudes, early marriages and pregnancies, inadequate
teaching and educational materials, and lack of adequate schooling facilities.

In many cases, girls start to undertake heavy domestic chores at a very early
age.  Girls and young women are expected to manage both educational and
domestic responsibilities, often resulting in poor scholastic performance and
early drop-out from the educational system.  This has long-lasting
consequences for women in both their productive and reproductive roles, as
well as for their participation in policy formulation and decision-making.

59.  Curricula and teaching materials remain gender-biased to a large degree,
fail to meet the maturational differences of both sexes and are rarely
sensitive to the specific needs of girls and women.  This reinforces
traditional female roles which deny women opportunities for full and equal
partnership in society.  Lack of gender awareness by educators at all levels,
including school counsellors, strengthens existing inequities between males
and females by reinforcing discriminatory tendencies and undermines girls'
self-esteem. 

60.  Education, which equips girls and women to enter any field, exposing them
to science, technology and modern communications, stimulates their creativity
and self-esteem and is structured to keep them from dropping out prematurely,
is a necessary human development initiative.  Advanced study in science and
technology prepares women to take an active role in the technological
development of their countries, thus necessitating a diverse approach to
vocational and technical training.  Technology is gradually changing many
developing countries, and it is essential that women not only benefit from it,
but also participate in the process from the design to the application stage. 
In some cases, education of girls frequently does not prepare them for
employment because education and training policies have not been sufficiently
adapted to meet the changing needs of the labour market.

61.  The mass media are one of the most powerful means of education.  As an
educational tool and means of shaping values, the mass media can be utilized
by educators and governmental and non-governmental institutions for the
development and advancement of women.  Television especially has the greatest
impact on young people, thereby making it essential that educators teach
critical judgement and analytical skills.

62.  Resources allocated to education worldwide are insufficient and in cases
of structural adjustment programmes are further diminished.  This has a
long-term adverse effect on human development, particularly on that of women.


          Strategic objective B.1.  Ensure equal access to education

Actions to be taken

63.  By Governments:

     (a) Ensure universal access to primary education and the completion of
         primary education by at least 80 per cent of children, with special
         emphasis on girls.  Similarly, ensure equal access to secondary
         education by the year 2005 and equal access to higher education for
         girls and boys, including the disadvantaged and gifted.  These
         efforts will help achieve the targets set in the Convention on the
         Rights of the Child 3/ and the World Declaration on Education for
         All; 4/

     (b) Reduce disparities in access to third-level education, and ensure
         women's equal access to career development, training, scholarships
         and fellowships;

     (c) Create a gender-sensitive educational system in order to ensure
         equal educational and training opportunities and equal participation
         of women in educational administration and policy-making;

     (d) Increase enrolment and retention rates of girls by enlisting the
         support of the community and parents through campaigns, flexible
         school schedules, incentives, scholarships and other means to
         minimize the costs of girls' education to their families;

     (e) Make available non-discriminatory and gender-sensitive professional
         school counselling and career education programmes to encourage
         girls to pursue academic and technical curricula in order to widen
         their future career opportunities.


         Strategic objective B.2.  Eradicate illiteracy among women world
                                   wide by the year 2000

Actions to be taken

64.  By Governments, international, regional and national bodies, bilateral
and multilateral donors and non-governmental organizations:

     (a) Reduce the adult illiteracy rate to at least half its 1990 level,
         with emphasis on female literacy;

     (b) Eliminate the gender gap in basic and functional literacy by the
         year 2000, as recommended in the World Declaration on Education for
         All (Jomtien), and narrow the disparities between developed and
         developing countries.


         Strategic objective B.3.  Improve access to vocational training,
                                   science and technology and continuing
                                   education

Actions to be taken

65.  By Governments, in cooperation with employers and community, women's and
youth organizations:

     (a) Develop education, training and retraining policies that focus on
         women, especially young women, to provide skills to meet the demands
         of a changing economy;

     (b) Diversify vocational and technical training and increase access to
         education in science, mathematics, engineering, environmental
         sciences and technology, information technology and high technology,
         as well as management training;

     (c) Adapt curricula and teaching materials to promote non-traditional
         careers for women;

     (d) Increase technical, managerial and marketing training opportunities
         for women in agriculture, industry and business to increase
         income-generating opportunities, women's participation in economic
         decision-making and their contribution to production and marketing.


           Strategic objective B.4.  Develop non-discriminatory education
                                     and training

Actions to be taken

66.  By Governments, educational authorities and other educational and
academic institutions:

     (a) Develop curricula, textbooks and teaching aids free of
         sex-stereotypes for all levels of education, including teacher
         training;

     (b) Develop training programmes and materials for teachers and educators
         that raise awareness about the status and role of women in the
         family and society and promote equality, cooperation, mutual respect
         and shared responsibilities between girls and boys from pre-school
         level onward;

     (c) Take positive measures to increase the proportion of women in
         educational policy- and decision-making, in higher levels of
         education and in academic disciplines that are traditionally male;

     (d) Support and develop gender studies and research and apply them in
         the development of curricula, textbooks and teaching aids and in
         teacher training;

     (e) Develop education and information programmes, particularly in
         conjunction with the mass media, that make the public, particularly
         parents, aware of the importance of non-discriminatory education for
         children, especially daughters, and the equal sharing of domestic
         responsibilities between girls and boys.


            Strategic objective B.5.  Allocate sufficient resources for
                                      educational reforms and monitor
                                      implementation

Actions to be taken

67.  By Governments:

     (a) Provide the required budgetary resources by reallocating funds from
         other sectors, such as the military, to the educational sector, with
         reallocation within the educational sector to ensure at least
         50 per cent of funds for basic education;

     (b) Establish a mechanism to monitor the implementation of educational
         reforms and measures in relevant ministries.



68.  By Governments, private and public institutions, foundations, research
institutes and non-governmental organizations:

     Mobilize additional funds from organizations in the private sector to
     meet the costs of education.

69.  By multilateral development institutions, including the World Bank,
regional development banks, bilateral donors and foundations:

     (a) Increase funding for the education and training needs of girls and
         women as a priority in development programmes;

     (b) Maintain or increase funding levels for education in structural
         adjustment programmes, including lending and stabilization
         programmes.

70.  By international and intergovernmental organizations, especially the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), at
the global level:

     Monitor progress using educational indicators generated by national,
     regional and international bodies and make Governments accountable for
     implementing measures to close the gap between women and men in education
     and training opportunities, and in the levels of achievement in all
     fields, particularly primary and literacy programmes.


            C.  Inequalities in health status and unequal access to and
                inadequate health care services

71.  The right to health is a fundamental human right vital to women's ability
to participate in all areas of public and private life.  Health and well-being
elude millions of women.  Throughout their lives, women's health is affected
by multiple factors, including biological differences and social conditions,
discrimination and lack of access to and inadequate health care and other
services.  Lack of food and inadequate access to safe water and sanitation
facilities, particularly in rural and poor urban areas, and deficient housing
conditions overburden women and their families and pose a threat to their
health.  While many countries have made significant advances in primary health
care, the high morbidity and mortality rates of women due to inadequate
attention to reproductive health persist. 

72.  Through their organizations, women have raised concerns about their own
health.  In their efforts to control the spread of sexually transmitted
diseases, women, who represent half of all adults newly infected with
HIV/AIDS, have emphasized their social vulnerability.  In national and
international forums, women have articulated that to attain optimal health
throughout the life cycle, equality, including the sharing of family
responsibilities, development and peace are necessary conditions.

73.  Women's mental and physical health are jeopardized by social and
behavioural factors that also restrict their access to quality health care,
information and services.  A continuing deterioration of public health
systems, a decrease in public health spending and increasing privatization of
health care systems compound the problem.  This situation not only directly
affects the health of girls and women, but also places extra responsibilities
on women, who act as primary health care providers within the family and
community.  Women's roles are often not acknowledged and women lack the
necessary social and economic support.

74.  Inadequate access to safe and effective contraceptive methods and high
quality maternal care, and unsafe abortions, result in 500,000 maternal deaths
a year, as well as in acute and chronic complications affecting approximately
20 million women.  Most of these deaths, ill health and injuries are
preventable through improved access to adequate health care services,
including a wide range of safe and effective contraceptive methods.  Shared
responsibility between women and men in matters related to sexual and
reproductive behaviour is also essential to improving women's health.

75.  Discrimination against girls in access to nutrition and health care
services endangers their current and future health.  Conditions that force
girls into early marriage, pregnancy and childbearing, along with such harmful
practices as son preference and female genital mutilation, pose unnecessary
health risks.

76.  Sexual violence and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS,
are having a devastating effect on women's health, particularly the health of
adolescent girls and young women.  Women are often not able to insist on safe
sex practices and have little access to information on prevention.  The
consequences of HIV/AIDS reach beyond women's health to their role as
caregivers to the sick and destitute.  The social, developmental and health
consequences of AIDS need to be seen through a gender perspective, but this is
not always recognized.  Cancers of the reproductive system and infertility
also affect growing numbers of women and are often preventable.

77.  Adolescent girls are both biologically and psychosocially more vulnerable
than boys to the consequences of unprotected sexual relations.  The trend to
early sexual experience increases the risk of unwanted and too early
pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection, and unsafe
abortions.  Teenage pregnancy often marks the end of a young woman's access to
education. 

78.  There is growing evidence that links mental disorders with alienation,
powerlessness and poverty, conditions most frequently experienced by women,
along with overwork and stress.  Drug abuse and domestic violence are among
other health issues of growing concern to women.  Occupational health issues
are also growing in importance, as women now constitute over one third of the
formal labour market, and this figure is rising.  With the increase in life
expectancy, chronic non-communicable diseases and other health concerns of
elderly women urgently require more attention.

79.  Statistical data on health are not systematically collected, gender
disaggregated or analysed by age and sex.  Recent and reliable data on
maternal mortality and related indicators are not available in some countries.

Research in areas important to women's health often lack funding.  Drug
testing on female subjects to establish basic information about dosage,
side-effects and drug effectiveness are noticeably absent.


               Strategic objective C.1.  Achieve universal access to
                                         appropriate, affordable and
                                         quality health care and
                                         related services

Actions to be taken

80.  By Governments:

     (a) Implement the commitments made at the International Conference on
         Population and Development and the World Summit for Social
         Development to meet the health care needs of women;

     (b) Design health interventions and services to take into account
         women's multiple roles and responsibilities, the demands on their
         time, the special needs of women with disabilities, and the
         diversity of women's needs across age, socio-economic and cultural
         differences;

     (c) Make more accessible, available and affordable primary health care
         services and facilities, including reproductive health care and
         family planning information and services, as specified in the
         Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population
         and Development; 5/

     (d) Redesign health information, services and training for health
         workers so that they take into account women's specific physical and
         mental health needs at all ages through a holistic approach that
         includes nutritional, occupational, environmental, sexual and
         reproductive health interventions;

     (e) Strengthen and reorient health services, particularly primary health
         care, attain full coverage of the population and ensure universal
         access to quality health services for girls and women, including
         information and services related to reproductive health, in order to
         reduce maternal morbidity and achieve the agreed-upon goal of
         reducing maternal mortality by 50 percent of the 1990 levels by the
         year 2000 and a further one half by the year 2015, and provide
         quality services at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels;

     (f) Design health interventions to address the needs of women throughout
         their life cycle.  In this context, particular attention should be
         given to the needs of girls.  Special attention should be given to
         the achievement of internationally approved goals for the reduction
         of infant and child mortality - specifically, by the year 2000, the
         reduction of mortality rates of infants and children under five
         years of age by one third of the 1990 level, or 50 to 70 per 1,000
         live births, whichever is less; by the year 2015 an infant mortality
         rate below 35 per 1,000 live births and an under-five mortality rate
         below 45 per 1,000;

     (g) Create special policies, programmes and legislation necessary to
         alleviate and eliminate occupational health hazards associated with
         women's work in the home and in the workplace;

     (h) Integrate mental health services into primary health care systems,
         developing other supportive programmes and training primary health
         workers to recognize and treat girls and women who are under stress,
         who have emotional problems or who have been subjected to violence
         or other abuse, including armed and non-armed conflict;

     (i) Review existing mental health legislation, facilities and support
         services to ensure that they meet the changing roles and
         responsibilities of women wherever they reside; 

     (j) Establish mechanisms to involve non-governmental organizations,
         science and technology groups, health care professionals and other
         bodies working to improve the health of girls, youth and women in
         government policy-making, programme design and implementation within
         the health sector and related sectors at all levels;

     (k) Provide financial support and information to strengthen
         non-governmental organizations working on women's health, and help
         develop networks aimed at improving coordination and collaboration
         between all sectors that affect health; 

     (l) Rationalize drug procurement and adopt policies using the WHO Model
         List of essential drugs as a guideline;

     (m) Provide improved access and appropriateness of treatment services
         for women drug abusers and their families;

     (n) Ensure food security and universal access to safe drinking water and
         sanitation by the year 2000.


          Strategic objective C.2.  Strengthen preventive programmes that
                                    address main threats to women's health

Actions to be taken

81.  By Governments, non-governmental organizations, the mass media and other
organizations:

     (a) Conduct both formal and informal educational programmes on public
         health that encourage and enable women to make decisions on and take
         responsibility for their own health.  Special focus should be placed
         on programmes that discourage harmful attitudes and practices,
         including son preference, female genital mutilation, female
         foeticide and infanticide, violence, discrimination against girls
         and women in food allocation, and others related to the health and
         wellness of women;

     (b) Reinforce laws, institutions and cultural norms and practices that
         reduce discrimination against women and compel men and boys to take
         responsibility for their sexual and reproductive behaviour and to
         share equally in child care and household maintenance;

     (c) Prepare and disseminate information, through campaigns and the
         education system, designed to ensure that women and men,
         particularly young people, can acquire knowledge about their health,
         especially information on sexuality and reproduction, including such
         issues as menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, drug and alcohol
         abuse and prevention of violence;

     (d) Create and support programmes in the educational system, in the
         workplace and in the community to make sport and recreation
         available to girls and women on the same basis as they are to men;

     (e) Develop policies that recognize the disproportionate and increasing
         burden on women as health and care providers in the family and
         community by providing women with adequate support from health and
         social services and adopting regulations to ensure that the working
         conditions of women at all levels of the health system are
         non-discriminatory and enable them to work effectively;

     (f) Ensure that health and nutritional training form an integral part of
         all adult literacy programmes and school curricula from the primary
         level;

     (g) Provide updated training, information and services to health care
         providers to empower them to give compassionate, appropriate and
         timely health services to women at all stages of their life cycle,
         taking into account women's physical and mental health needs,
         through a holistic approach that includes nutritional, occupational,
         environmental, sexual and reproductive health interventions;

     (h) Reduce severe and moderate malnutrition among children under the age
         of five by one half of 1990 levels.


          Strategic objective C.3.  Undertake multisectoral initiatives,
                                    sensitive to women's life situations,
                                    that address the HIV pandemic

Actions to be taken

82.  By Governments, international bodies, bilateral and multilateral donors
and non-governmental organizations:

     (a) Ensure the involvement of women, especially those affected by the
         epidemic, in all decision-making relating to the epidemic, including
         HIV policy and programme development;

     (b) Ensure equity for women with respect to the law, based on
         established principles of human rights and access to legal
         protection and redress;

     (c) Review and amend laws and practices that may contribute to women's
         susceptibility to HIV infection;

     (d) Develop multisectoral programmes and strategies to end the social
         subordination of women and girls and to ensure their economic
         empowerment;

     (e) Develop programmes to facilitate community discussion of strategies
         for protecting women and young girls from sexually transmitted
         diseases, including HIV infection, violence and unwanted pregnancies
         and for ensuring an equitable sharing of the burden of care created
         by the epidemic;

     (f) Assist women and their formal and informal organizations to
         establish and expand effective peer education and outreach
         programmes;

     (g) Ensure the provision of affordable prevention services, accessible
         to women and sensitive to their needs, and expand the provision of
         counselling services for women;

     (h) Support action-oriented research on affordable methods, controlled
         by women, to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV
         infection; on strategies that women use to protect themselves; and
         on methods of care, support and treatment of women infected with
         HIV, ensuring the involvement of those women in all aspects of such
         research;

     (i) Design programmes for pre-adolescent boys and teenagers and men of
         all ages, aimed at encouraging responsible sexual and reproductive
         behaviour, including condom use;

     (j) Provide workshops and specialized training in prevention of the
         epidemic and its repercussions on both women and men, for decision
         makers and opinion leaders at all levels of the community, including
         religious and traditional authorities;

     (k) Provide resources and facilities to women who find themselves the
         principal caregivers or economic support for those affected by the
         epidemic and the survivors, particularly children; 

     (l) Encourage all sectors of society, including the public sector, to
         develop compassionate and supportive HIV-related personnel policies
         and practices; 

     (m) Acknowledge that the higher risk of contracting HIV among females is
         linked to both intravenous drug use and high-risk, drug-influenced
         sexual behaviour, and provide appropriate preventive care and
         treatment.

83.  By non-governmental organizations, particularly youth and women's
organizations:

     Facilitate the development of community strategies that will assist in
     protecting women from infection, mobilize all parts of the community in
     response and exert pressure on all responsible authorities to respond in
     a timely, effective, sustainable and gender-sensitive manner.

84.  By Governments, non-governmental organizations, the Joint United Nations
Programme on HIV/AIDS and other bodies of the United Nations system:

     (a) Develop gender-sensitive legal, ethical and human rights policies to
         provide guidance to the global response;

     (b) Support and initiate research which addresses women's needs and
         situations, including research on HIV infection in women and on
         female-controlled methods of protection, such as non-spermicidal
         microbicide;

     (c) Support and strengthen national capacity to create and improve HIV
         policies and programmes that support and protect women and are
         sensitive to their life circumstances.


            Strategic objective C.4.  Promote research and information
                                      dissemination on women's health

Actions to be taken

85.  By Governments:

     (a) Train personnel and introduce systems that allow for the use of data
         collected and analysed on the basis of sex, age and socio-economic
         differentials, in policy-making and planning;
 
     (b) Increase the number of women researchers and scientists to achieve
         at a minimum the agreed target of 30 per cent by the year 2000,
         recognizing that full equality should be achieved at the earliest
         possible date;

     (c) Increase support for biomedical, behavioural, epidemiological and
         health service research into diseases and conditions, such as breast
         cancer and infections of the reproductive tract;

     (d) Provide assistance to fund research on the conditions that affect
         the morbidity of women in the latter years of their life cycle,
         especially chronic non-communicable disease;

     (e) Finance social, economic, political and cultural research on how
         gender inequalities affect women's health (etiology, epidemiology,
         provision and utilization of services, eventual outcome of
         treatment); support research on neglected areas of women's health,
         such as occupational health, cardiovascular diseases,
         environmentally related and tropical diseases and HIV/AIDS;

     (f) Provide financial and institutional support for research on safe,
         effective and affordable technologies for reproductive and sexual
         health of women and men, including safe and effective methods for
         the regulation of fertility, barrier methods to protect against
         sexually transmitted diseases/HIV, and simple and inexpensive
         methods of diagnosing such diseases, among others;

     (g) Fund research on traditional medicine and health care, especially as
         practised by indigenous women, with a view to applying safe,
         effective and inexpensive methods in the public health system;

     (h) Create programmes to disseminate available data and research
         findings.


        Strategic objective C.5.  Increase resources for women's health

Actions to be taken

86.  By Governments:

     (a) Increase budgetary allocations for basic health and social services,
         with adequate support for secondary and tertiary levels, and give
         special attention to the health of girls and women and to rural
         health programmes;

     (b) Develop innovative approaches to funding health services through
         promoting community participation and local financing.

87.  By Governments, international financial institutions and bilateral
donors:

     (a) Institute policies favourable to public investment in women's health
         and increase allocations for such investment;

     (b) Monitor and evaluate progress achieved in women's health status.


                          D.  Violence against women

88.  Violence against women is a violation of basic human rights.  Knowledge
about its causes, incidence and measures to combat it have been developed
since the Nairobi Conference.  In all societies, women and girls are subjected
to physical, sexual and psychological abuse which cuts across boundaries of
class, ethnic group, religion, age and level of development.  The Declaration
on the Elimination of Violence against Women 6/ condemns gender-based
violence, defined as violence encountered by women and girls, within the
family and the community.  This includes domestic violence, rape, sexual
harassment and intimidation in the workplace and in educational institutions;
trafficking of women and girls and forced prostitution; harmful traditional
practices; and violence against women and girls condoned by the State.

89.  Acts or threat of violence instil fear and insecurity in women's lives,
rendering their aspirations for equality futile.  Violence against women
throughout the life cycle derives essentially from the lower status accorded
to women in the family and in society.  Physical, psychological or sexual
violence, whether occurring in the home or in society, is linked to male power
privilege and control.  Most of the violence against women and girls occurs in
the family, where violence is often tolerated and encouraged.  The neglect and
physical and sexual abuse of girl-children by family members and incidences of
spousal abuse and rape are hidden from view and difficult to detect.

90.  Violence against women and girls is abetted by their lack of legal
literacy, by the lack of laws to prohibit violence, by inadequate efforts on
the part of public authorities to enforce existing laws and by the absence of
educational and other means to address the causes of violence.  Developing a
holistic and multidisciplinary approach to the challenging task of creating
violence-free families is not only a necessity, but an achievable reality. 
The concept of equality and partnership between women and men must permeate
all stages of the socialization process.  Educational systems should promote
self-respect, mutual respect between women and men and peaceful mechanisms of
conflict resolution at all levels.

91.  The absence of adequate statistics on the incidence of violence make the
elaboration of programmes and monitoring of changes difficult.  Inadequate
documentation and research on domestic violence, sexual harassment and
violence against women and girls, in private and public, including in the
workplace, impede efforts to design specific intervention strategies. 
Experience in a number of countries shows that women and men can be mobilized
to overcome violence in all its forms and that effective public measures can
be taken to address both the consequences and the causes of violence.  Images
of violence against women including rape or sexual slavery, portrayed in the
mass media may be a contributing factor to its continued prevalence,
influencing young people and the community at large.

92.  Refugee, displaced and migrant women and women in zones of conflict or
foreign occupation are often subjected to sexual harassment and violence by
persons in positions of authority.

93.  The 1949 Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of
the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others 7/ has been of little
consequence in eliminating trafficking in women for the sex trade.  The use of
women in international prostitution networks has become a significant
international business, particularly with the increase of trafficking in girls
and children.


           Strategic objective D.1.  Take integrated measures to prevent
                                     and eradicate violence against women

Actions to be taken

94.  By Governments:

     (a) Enact or reinforce legislation which makes all violence against
         women a crime, whether in the home or in society, and a violation of
         women's human rights, subject to legal sanctions against
         perpetrators;

     (b) Take legal action against perpetrators of violence against women;

     (c) Enact or reinforce legislation at the national level in accordance
         with the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women,
         exercising due diligence and emphasizing the prevention of violence,
         as well as the protection of women subject to violence, prosecution
         of offenders and rehabilitation of victims and perpetrators;

     (d) All stages of the educational system should promote the concept of
         equality and shared responsibility of women and men, showing the
         links between inequality between men and women and violence against
         women, affirming that violence against women is illegal and
         promoting non-violent attitudes and mutual respect between women and
         men;

     (e) Create institutional mechanisms so that women can report acts of
         violence against them in a safe and confidential environment;

     (f) Reform training of judicial, legal and police personnel sensitizing
         them to the nature of gender-based violence so that fair treatment
         of female victims of violence can be ensured; recruit more women to
         those professions;

     (g) Sponsor programmes that increase awareness and enhance sensitivity
         among legal and health professionals, including counsellors, to the
         nature and dynamics of violence against women.

95.  By Governments, including local governments, community organizations and
non-governmental organizations:

     (a) Provide well-funded shelters for women subjected to violence, as
         well as medical, psychological and employment counselling services;

     (b) Organize, support and fund community-based education and training
         campaigns to raise awareness about violence as a violation of human
         rights, and mobilize communities to use traditional and innovative
         methods of conflict resolution;

     (c) Organize educational programmes for girls, boys and women so that
         they can learn to protect themselves against violence;

     (d) Encourage the mass media to publicize information on assistance
         available to women who are victims of violence.

96.  By Governments, employers, trade unions, community and youth
organizations and non-governmental organizations:

     (a) Develop programmes and procedures to eliminate sexual harassment in
         all educational institutions, workplaces and elsewhere;

     (b) Develop programmes and procedures to educate and raise awareness
         about violence as a violation of women's human rights;

     (c) Develop counselling and rehabilitation programmes for adolescents in
         homes where abusive relationships exist.

97.  By Governments, international organizations and women's non-governmental
organizations:

     (a) Monitor the implementation and impact of the Convention on the
         Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 2/
         especially as it relates to general recommendation 19, adopted by
         the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women at
         its eleventh session, 8/ and of the Declaration on the Elimination
         of Violence against Women;

     (b) Strengthen the mandate and support the work of the United Nations
         Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women.


              Strategic objective D.2.  Study the causes of violence
                                        against women 

Actions to be taken

98.  By Governments, the United Nations, other international organizations,
such as UNESCO and the Organization of American States, research institutions,
women's and youth organizations and intergovernmental organizations:

     (a) Study the causes of violence against women in their social, economic
         and political context;

     (b) Document, particularly in administrative, police and hospital
         records, the incidence of all types of violence;

     (c) Examine the impact of the mass media, including commercial
         advertisements, on violence against women and promote a
         violence-free society. 


         Strategic objective D.3.  Adopt special measures to eliminate
                                   trafficking in women and to assist
                                   female victims of violence

Actions to be taken

99.  By Governments:

     (a) Enforce the international conventions on trafficking in persons and
         on slavery;

     (b) Protect young women and girls who may be subject to trafficking for
         the purpose of forced prostitution and prevent further abuse by
         dismantling international networks on trafficking and providing
         assistance to victims of trafficking; 

     (c) Take special measures to eradicate violence against women,
         particularly those in vulnerable situations, such as young women,
         women with disabilities and women migrant workers, including
         enforcing existing legislation for women migrant workers in both
         sending and receiving countries.


           E.  Effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women

100. Armed conflict has not decreased with the end of the cold war; ethnic and
religious conflicts are an ongoing reality in nearly every region. 
Humanitarian law, prohibiting attacks on civilian populations, is
systematically ignored; human rights law is being violated by armed parties. 
In a world of continuing instability and violence, new approaches to peace and
security are urgently needed.  The perspectives of women could provide a more
constructive approach to the use of power and to the resolution of conflict. 
While women are chronically underrepresented at, if not altogether absent
from, the highest levels of decision-making in matters of security and peace,
they have experienced a disproportionate share of the consequences of armed
conflict.  If given the opportunity, women have shown an ability to resolve
conflicts, at both national and international levels.

101. There is considerable evidence that women are highly skilled in
negotiation, dialogue and forms of conflict resolution without the use of
military force.  Yet women are grossly underrepresented in decision-making
positions in defence and foreign ministries, the military and police agencies,
and international mediation and United Nations peace-keeping missions.  If
women are to play an equal part in securing and maintaining peace, they must
be empowered politically and economically and represented at all levels of
decision-making.

102. While not involved in decision-making, women and girls suffer the
consequences of armed conflict and militarism in special ways because of their
status in society and their sex.  The impact of violence is experienced by
women of all ages who are subjected to acts of terrorism, torture,
disappearance, rape and displacement.  This is compounded by the lifelong
social and psychologically traumatic consequences of armed conflict,
particularly for young women and girls.  Women and children constitute 80 per
cent of the world's 25 million refugees and displaced persons.  These women
and children are deprived of goods and services and threatened by violence and
insecurity.  This state of affairs makes it imperative that refugee women
become active partners in deciding on and assessing needs and in planning and
implementing activities.

103. In order to counter the instability posed by the production and
proliferation of weapons, women's non-governmental organizations have called
for reductions in military expenditures world wide and for the elimination of
the international weapons trade, questioning the morality of a militaristic
culture and armed conflict as a means of resolving disagreements.  Those most
affected by massive arms transfers and expenditures on weaponry and by armed
conflict are the poor, who are deprived because of the lack of investment in
basic services.  International policy-making bodies involved in matters of
collective security should study other means to achieve security besides
political rivalry and armaments.

104. Education to foster a culture of peace that upholds justice for all
nations and people is essential to attaining lasting peace.


             Strategic objective E.1.  Increase and strengthen women's
                                       participation in decision-making
                                       and leadership in conflict
                                       resolution

Actions to be taken

105. By Governments and international and regional intergovernmental
institutions:

     (a) Take affirmative and corrective action to establish a critical mass
         and gender balance to ensure equal participation of women
         numerically and qualitatively in all United Nations forums and peace
         activities at ambassadorial and decision-making levels, including
         the United Nations Secretariat;

     (b) Increase the percentage of women participating in United Nations
         forums and activities concerned with peace and security; specific
         targets to that end may be established;

     (c) Include a significant proportion of women in all activities relating
         to peace-keeping, peacemaking, peace-building and preventive
         diplomacy, including fact-finding and observer missions, and in all
         stages of peace mediation and negotiations;

     (d) Ensure that there is gender balance on such international bodies as
         the War Crimes Tribunal and the International Court of Justice.


          Strategic objective E.2.  Reduce and eliminate the availability
                                    of instruments of violence

Actions to be taken

106. By Governments:

     (a) Increase the conversion of military resources and related industries
         to peaceful purposes;

     (b) Undertake to explore new ways of generating new public and private
         financial resources, inter alia, through the appropriate reduction
         in excessive military expenditures including global military
         expenditures and arms trade, investments for arms production and
         acquisition, taking into consideration national security
         requirements, so as to allow possible allocation of additional funds
         for social and economic development;

     (c) Register, and ultimately eliminate, weapons development, production,
         deployment and sales and, as a first step, expand the United Nations
         Register of Conventional Arms to include production, making
         reporting obligatory, and to include all types of weapons, such as
         chemical and biological weapons;

     (d) Ban the use of land mines, more than 10 million of which are
         scattered in 64 countries globally, with an estimated cost of
         clearance of at least US$ 33 billion;

     (e) Impose conflict damage reparations against citizens involved in the
         production and marketing of arms, with special penalties for illegal
         arms sales and transfers, particularly from North to South.


         Strategic objective E.3.  Promote non-violent forms of conflict
                                   resolution

Actions to be taken

107. By Governments and international and regional organizations:

     (a) Encourage diplomacy, peaceful negotiation and non-military
         approaches to conflict resolution;

     (b) Ratify, if they have not done so, the 1977 Protocols Additional to
         the Geneva Conventions of 1949;

     (c) Establish a special United Nations unit for third-party conflict
         resolution that is balanced in composition between women and men;

     (d) Declare rape in the conduct of war a war crime comparable to
         genocide, terrorism and torture, and include provisions against rape
         in article 75 of Additional Protocol I of 1977 9/ to the Geneva
         Conventions of 1949;

     (e) Create institutions to break the cycle of violence, including war
         crimes trials, truth commissions and national peace commissions, and
         incorporate women in the steps towards national reconciliation;

     (f) Add gender-sensitive traditional practices of conflict resolution
         and reconciliation that take into consideration local conditions, to
         the repertoire of peace-making procedures followed by the United
         Nations;

     (g) Make gender-sensitive training compulsory for all personnel involved
         in United Nations peace-keeping operations.


              Strategic objective E.4.  Foster a culture of peace

Actions to be taken

108. By Governments, international and regional intergovernmental institutions
and non-governmental organizations:

     (a) Promote conflict resolution and peace education training in
         educational institutions, communities and families for all members
         of society.  Youth exchange programmes would be particularly
         beneficial;

     (b) Give priority in the support provided to research institutions and
         agencies, to programmes and projects related to peace and security
         that take gender into account;

     (c) Ensure that specific educational programmes on women's human rights
         and their relation to peace are included in the implementation of
         the Plan of Action for the United Nations Decade for Human Rights
         Education (1995-2004); 10/

     (d) Focus research by the United Nations and peace research institutes
         on the impact of conflict on women and on the extent, nature and
         effectiveness of women's participation in international, national
         and local peace movements; focus research on traditional mechanisms
         for containing violence and conflict resolution and women's
         perspectives on peace and security;

     (e) Ensure that the United Nations disseminates the Charter of the
         United Nations and that the principles relating to conflict
         resolution are translated and integrated into educational programmes
         world wide;

     (f) Create mechanisms to address the social and psychological
         consequences of armed conflict on women, particularly young women
         and girls;

     (g) Create national civilian commissions, in which men and women are
         represented equally, that would open to public scrutiny all military
         activities, expenditures, research and development.

           Strategic objective E.5.  Provide assistance and training
                                     to refugee and displaced women

Actions to be taken

109. By Governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and
other institutions involved in providing assistance to refugees and displaced
persons, especially the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the
World Food Programme:

     (a) Ensure that women are involved in the design, implementation,
         monitoring and evaluation of all short-term and long-term projects
         and programmes providing assistance to women refugees and displaced
         persons, including the management of refugee camps and resources;

     (b) Take steps to guarantee the physical safety of refugee and displaced
         women, both during their displacement and on their return;

     (c) Provide emergency relief that takes into account the specific needs
         of women;

     (d) Apply international norms to ensure equal rights and access of women
         to refugee determination procedures and the granting of asylum. 
         Consider gender factors in recognizing as refugees those women whose
         claim to refugee status is based on a well-founded fear of
         persecution, for reasons enumerated in the 1951 Geneva Convention
         relating to the Status of Refugees 11/ and the 1967 Protocol; 12/

     (e) Focus all programmes on promoting the self-reliant capacities of
         refugee women and their human rights, including all rights related
         to their status as refugees; 

     (f) Ensure that the human rights of refugee women, including all rights
         related to their status as refugees and their right to family
         reunification, are recognized;

     (g) Adopt special measures to provide refugee women of all ages with
         vocational/professional training programmes aimed at integrating
         them into the labour market; include in those programmes language
         training, small-scale enterprise development training, family
         planning and counselling on domestic violence;

     (h) Encourage and provide special programmes for women, particularly
         young women, in leadership and decision-making training within
         refugee and returnee communities;

     (i) Raise public awareness through the mass media, education and special
         programmes in order to create a better understanding and tolerance
         of refugees and displaced persons.


           F.  Inequality in women's access to and participation in the
               definition of economic structures and policies and the
               productive process itself

110. Women's participation in economic life significantly increased during the
past decade as women became the workers of choice in many industries and
predominant in small and medium-sized enterprises.  Nevertheless, women remain
underrepresented in economic decision-making at both national and
international levels.  Similarly, women are largely absent from the policy
formulation process in the multilateral institutions that define the terms of
structural adjustment programmes, loans and grants.  Discriminatory education
and training and hiring and promotion practices, inflexible working conditions
and inadequate sharing of family responsibilities continue to restrict women's
employment, professional opportunities and mobility in the formal sector. 
Moreover, attitudinal obstacles inhibit women's participation in economic
decision-making and restrict girls' access to education and training for
economic management.  Conversely, there has been a growth in women's
self-reliant activities in the informal sector, based on their initiatives,
knowledge, capacities and skills and their creative and innovative approaches
to financing, marketing and management.

111. Legal and customary barriers to ownership of or access to land, natural
resources, capital, technology and other means of production contribute to
impeding the economic progress of women.  The value of women's unremunerated
contribution to the economy, whether in family enterprises, community service
or domestic work, remains unrecognized and is therefore not reflected in
national accounts.

112. The globalization of the economy is undermining women's self-reliant
initiatives with respect to savings, production and trade.  The international
and sexual division of labour has reinforced the segregation of women into a
limited number of occupations.  This trend has been characterized by low
wages, low skill levels and a lack of job security, in both the formal and
informal sectors.  Young and migrant female workers remain the least protected
by labour and immigration laws.  Women, particularly young women, have limited
employment opportunities because of inflexible working conditions and
inadequate sharing of domestic responsibilities, including the care of
children and the elderly.

113. In transnational and national enterprises women are largely absent from
management and decision-making levels, denoting discriminatory hiring and
promotion policies and practices which reflect attitudinal prejudice. 
Consequently, women have increasingly become owners and managers of small and
medium-sized enterprises.  This expansion of the informal sector is due in
large part to women, whose collaborative, self-help and traditional practices
represent a valuable economic resource.  When given access to and control over
credit, resources, technology and training, women can increase production,
marketing and income to ensure sustainable livelihoods.


          Strategic objective F.1.  Secure economic rights for women

Actions to be taken

114. By Governments:

     (a) Devise mechanisms that provide women with access to and
         participation in the definition of economic structures and policies
         through such organizations as ministries of finance, national
         economic commissions and economic research institutes;

     (b) Reform commercial and property laws to provide women with full
         access to, ownership of and control over natural and economic
         resources, as well as technical services and the returns from their
         own economic activity;

     (c) Reform laws governing the operation of financial institutions to
         provide services to women on the same basis as men;

     (d) Revise and enact national policies that support the traditional
         savings and lending mechanisms of women;

     (e) Ensure that national policies related to international and regional
         trade agreements protect women's new and traditional economic
         activities;

     (f) Create flexible employment policies that facilitate the
         restructuring of work patterns and promote the sharing of family
         responsibilities;

     (g) Enact equal opportunity legislation and encourage compliance in the
         private sector through the granting of contracts;

     (h) Ensure that gender impact analyses are applied to all macroeconomic
         and micro-economic policies and that the results are recognized and
         acted upon.


           Strategic objective F.2.  Take positive action to facilitate
                                     women's equal access to resources,
                                     employment, markets and trade

Actions to be taken

115. By Governments:

     (a) Create and modify programmes to provide women farmers, especially
         those involved in food production, with equal access to new
         technologies, extension services and marketing and credit
         facilities;

     (b) Increase the proportion of women extension workers and other
         government personnel who provide technical assistance or administer
         economic programmes;

     (c) Review policies and regulations to ensure that they do not
         discriminate against small and medium-enterprises owned by women in
         rural and urban areas;

     (d) Establish advisory boards and other forums to enable women
         entrepreneurs to contribute to the formulation of policies and
         programmes being developed by economic ministries and banking
         institutions;

     (e) Conduct reviews of national income tax and social security systems
         to eliminate any existing bias against women, including homemakers.

116. By national machinery for the advancement of women:

     Analyse, advise on and coordinate policies that integrate the needs and
     interests of self-employed and entrepreneurial women into sectoral and
     inter-ministerial policies, programmes and budgets.

117. By Governments, central banks and national development banks:

     (a) Provide wholesale lending, refinancing and incentives to the local
         banking sector and intermediaries that serve the needs of women
         entrepreneurs in both rural and urban areas;

     (b) Structure services to reach rural and urban women involved in both
         small and micro enterprises, especially young women who lack access
         to capital and assets.

118. By Governments and non-governmental organizations:

     Disseminate market, trade and resource information to women.

119. By multilateral funding organizations, such as the International Fund for
Agricultural Development, the World Bank, regional development banks and the
United Nations Capital Development Fund, as well as bilateral and private
funding agencies at the international, regional and subregional levels:

     (a) Review policies, programmes and projects to ensure that a higher
         proportion of resources reach women, especially in rural areas;

     (b) Develop flexible funding arrangements to finance intermediary
         institutions that target women's economic activities and promote
         self-sufficiency and increased capacity in and profitability of
         women's economic enterprises.




          Strategic objective F.3.  Provide business services and access
                                    to markets, information and
                                    technology to low-income women 

Actions to be taken

120. By Governments, non-governmental organizations at the community and
national levels and the private sector:

     (a) Provide communications, storage and transportation infrastructure to
         ensure market access for women entrepreneurs;

     (b) Develop special programmes that provide training and low-cost
         services to women in business management, product development,
         financing, production and quality control, marketing and the legal
         aspects of business;

     (c) Create special investment funds to support women's businesses and
         target women in trade promotion programmes;

     (d) Disseminate information to girls and young women about successful
         women entrepreneurs and the skills necessary for such success;
         facilitate networking and the exchange of information;

     (e) Provide support services, such as child-care facilities.

121. By local, national and international business organizations and
non-governmental organizations concerned with women's issues:

     Advocate, at the national level, for the promotion and support of women's
     businesses, including those in the informal sector, and for full access
     of women to productive resources.


          Strategic objective F.4.  Strengthen women's economic capacity
                                    and commercial networks

Actions to be taken

122. By Governments:

     (a) Adopt policies that support business organizations, non-governmental
         organizations, cooperatives, credit unions, grass-roots
         organizations and other groups to provide services to women
         entrepreneurs in rural and urban areas;

     (b) Design special programmes for women affected by structural
         adjustment programmes and the transition to market economies and for
         women who work in the informal sector;

     (c) Adopt policies that strengthen women's self-help groups and workers'
         associations through non-conventional forms of support;

     (d) Use the research of women scientists and technologists and the
         indigenous knowledge of women to improve income-earning capacity.

123. By financial intermediaries, national training institutes, credit unions,
non-governmental organizations, women's associations, professional
organizations and the private sector:

     (a) Provide training in financial management and technical skills to
         enable women, especially young women, to participate at the
         national, regional and international levels;

     (b) Provide business services, including marketing and trade
         information, product design and innovation, technology transfer and
         quality control, for both the domestic and export sectors of the
         economy;

     (c) Promote technical and commercial links and establish joint ventures
         among women entrepreneurs at the national, regional and
         international levels to support community-based initiatives;

     (d) Strengthen women's production and marketing cooperatives, especially
         in rural areas;

     (e) Invest capital and develop investment portfolios to finance women's
         enterprises;

     (f) Support credit networks and innovative ventures, including
         traditional savings schemes. 

124. By transnational and national corporations:

     (a) Adopt policies and establish mechanisms to grant contracts on a
         parity basis to women who are self-employed or who are
         entrepreneurs;

     (b) Recruit women at decision-making and management levels and in
         management training programmes on the same basis as men.


         Strategic objective F.5.  Eliminate occupational segregation and
                                   wage inequality

Actions to be taken

125. By Governments, employers, employees, trade unions and women's
organizations:

     (a) Incorporate international norms on the equal rights of women in the
         economy into national legislation, as specified in the International
         Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 13/ and
         International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions, especially
         Convention No. 156 regarding workers with family responsibilities,
         including the protection of the rights of migrant and disabled
         women;

     (b) Enact and enforce laws against age and sex discrimination in the
         labour market, hiring and promotion, and the extension of employment
         benefits and social security and regarding discriminatory working
         conditions and sexual harassment;

     (c) Develop employment programmes and services for women entering the
         labour market, especially rural and young women and those affected
         by structural adjustment programmes;

     (d) Implement and monitor affirmative action programmes in the
         recruitment and promotion of women in all sectors; 

     (e) Increase incentives to enterprises and expand the number of
         vocational and training centres that provide training for women in
         non-traditional areas;

     (f) Provide women, especially young women, with information and
         professional training in non-traditional, scientific and technical
         careers, including areas with new economic opportunities;

     (g) Develop special programmes to enable women with disabilities to
         obtain and retain employment;

     (h) Enact legislation that ensures equal pay for equal work;

     (i) Strengthen and establish legal mechanisms to adjudicate matters
         relating to wage discrimination;
     
     (j) Reduce child labour by 50 per cent by the year 2000.


         Strategic objective F.6.  Create a flexible work environment

Actions to be taken

126. By Governments:

     (a) Extend the protection of labour and social security laws to
         part-time and temporary jobs and to seasonal and home-based workers
         and enact laws to promote career development based on flexible work
         conditions;

     (b) Enact laws that grant parental leave to both women and men and
         promote the sharing of responsibility for the family by men and
         women.

127. By Governments, the private sector and non-governmental organizations:

     (a) Establish training programmes to reintegrate women into the labour
         market after parental leave or a career interruption;

     (b) Encourage flexible work schedules;

     (c) Design educational programmes to raise awareness and acceptance of
         shared family responsibilities;

     (d) Provide on-site child care at workplaces and flexible working hours.


           G.  Inequality between men and women in the sharing of power
               and decision-making at all levels 

128. Despite the widespread movement towards democratization in the past
decade, women have made little progress in attaining political power in
legislative bodies or in achieving the target of 30 per cent women in
positions at decision-making levels set by the Economic and Social Council. 
Although women make up at least half of the electorate in almost all countries
and have had the right to vote and hold office for more than a generation, few
are candidates for public office.  The continuing gap between women's de jure
and de facto equality, as well as their absence from power and political
decision-making, is indicative of both attitudinal and structural
discrimination.  With the exception of the Nordic countries, where political
parties and Governments have undertaken specific initiatives, only 10 per cent
of the members of legislative bodies and a lower percentage of ministerial
positions are now held by women globally.  The discriminatory attitudes that
permeate education and training, political party culture and government
structures restrict women's political participation and deprive the world of
women's leadership and vision.  Only through the active participation of women
at all levels of decision-making will equality, development and peace be
achieved.

129. Women constitute over half of the electorate in almost all countries
where elections are held.  They have participated significantly both as voters
and in political campaigns.  They have also demonstrated considerable
leadership skills in public office.  However, socialization and negative
stereotyping of women, including stereotyping through the media, affirm that
power and political leadership are the domain of men.  This often discourages
women from seeking political office and reduces the credibility of women
candidates.

130. Due to their exclusion from traditional avenues to power, such as the
decision-making bodies of political parties and trade unions, women have
gained access to power through alternative structures, particularly in the
non-governmental organization sector.  Through non-governmental organizations,
women have been able to articulate their interests and concerns and have
placed women's issues on the national, regional and international agendas. 
Consequently, there has been increased collaboration between Governments and
women's organizations in decision-making processes.

131. Inequality in the public arena often starts with discriminatory attitudes
and practices within the household, where power relations between men and
women are first defined.  A more equal sharing of domestic responsibilities
and decision-making can result in greater participation for women in public
life.  Non-formal networks and patterns of decision-making that reflect a
dominant male ethos restrict women's ability to participate equally in
political and economic life. 

132. The low proportion of women among economic and political decision makers
at national, regional and international levels reflects structural and
attitudinal barriers that need to be addressed through positive measures. 
Transnational and national corporations, banks, and regional and international
organizations, including those in the United Nations system, have failed to
recruit and promote women as top-level managers, policy makers, diplomats and
negotiators.


       Strategic objective G.1.  Take special measures to ensure women's
                                 equal access to and full participation
                                 in power structures and decision-making

Actions to be taken

133. By Governments:

     (a) Establish targets and mechanisms for the inclusion of women in the
         lists of political parties as candidates for public office and for
         the appointment of women to the public service at decision-making
         levels; 

     (b) Appoint women on a parity basis to public advisory boards and other
         bodies;

     (c) Collect, analyse and disseminate quantitative and qualitative data
         on women at decision-making levels in the public and private sector;

     (d) Support non-governmental organizations and research institutes that
         conduct studies on women's participation in decision-making and
         their impact on the decision-making environment.

134. By political parties:

     (a) Adopt the goal of parity and partnership in all internal
         policy-making structures, maintaining the goal of 50-50
         representation in all appointive and electoral nominating processes;

     (b) Provide greater visibility and opportunities for leadership by
         women, recognizing that an important source of potential national
         leadership exists at the local and community levels, where women
         have created informal and formal networks that provide a democratic,
         informed and responsible base for decision-making.

135. By Governments, national bodies, the private sector, political parties,
trade unions, employers' organizations, subregional and regional bodies,
non-governmental and international organizations:

     (a) Take affirmative action to build a critical mass of women leaders,
         executives and managers in strategic decision-making positions;

     (b) Create regulatory bodies and enforcement mechanisms to monitor
         women's access to senior levels of decision-making;

     (c) Monitor progress towards the Secretary-General's target of having
         women in 50 per cent, or at least 40 per cent, of managerial and
         decision-making positions by the year 2000.

136. By the United Nations:

     (a) Adopt and implement existing and new policies and measures relating
         to all types of contracts in order to achieve complete overall
         gender parity in employment at the Professional level by the year
         2000;

     (b) Adopt affirmative action measures to achieve gender balance in all
         committees by the year 2000;

     (c) Continue to collect and disseminate quantitative and qualitative
         data on women in decision-making and analyse the differential impact
         on decision-making by women in the public and private sectors.

137. By women's organizations, non-governmental organizations, trade unions,
political parties and professional organizations:

     Mobilize women to organize, support and advocate on behalf of candidates
     committed to implementing the Platform for Action before the year 2000.


        Strategic objective G.2.  Increase women's capacity to participate
                                  in decision-making and leadership

Actions to be taken

138. By Governments, national bodies, the private sector, political parties,
trade unions, employers' organizations, subregional and regional bodies, and
non-governmental and international organizations:

     (a) Restructure recruitment and career-development programmes to ensure
         that women, especially young women, have equal access to managerial,
         entrepreneurial, technical and leadership training, including
         on-the-job training;

     (b) Develop programmes for career advancement for women through career
         planning, tracking, mentoring and coaching;

     (c) Provide gender-sensitive training for men and women to promote
         non-sexist working relationships and respect for diversity in work
         and management styles.

139. By women's organizations, non-governmental organizations and trade
unions:

     (a) Organize women to use their purchasing power as consumers to
         determine national economic policies;

     (b) Advocate at all levels to enable women to influence political and
         economic decisions, processes and systems;

     (c) Establish databases on women and their qualifications for use in
         appointing women to senior decision-making and advisory positions
         and for dissemination to Governments, international organizations
         and private enterprises.


             H.  Insufficient mechanisms at all levels to promote the
                 advancement of women

140. National machineries for the advancement of women have been established
in almost every Member State.  Created to advocate, implement, monitor and
mobilize support for policies that promote the advancement of women, national
machineries are diverse in form and uneven in their effectiveness.  Often
marginalized in national government structures, these mechanisms are hampered
by unclear mandates; lack of staff, training, adequate data and sufficient
resources; and the absence of unequivocal support from national leadership. 
At the international level, mechanisms to promote the advancement of women as
an integral part of mainstream political, development or human rights
initiatives encounter similar problems emanating from a lack of commitment at
the highest levels. 

141. Successive international conferences have demonstrated the need to take
gender factors into account in policy and programme planning.  Regional bodies
concerned with the advancement of women have been strengthened, together with
international machinery, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.  Methodologies
for incorporating women's concerns in policies and programmes and dealing with
the differential effects of policies on women and men have been developed in
many organizations and are available for application.


        Strategic objective H.1.  Create or strengthen national machineries
                                  and other governmental bodies

Actions to be taken

142. By Governments:

     (a) Create, where it does not exist, national machinery for the
         advancement of women that has clearly defined mandates, political
         commitment, the ability to influence policy and the functions of
         advocacy, policy analysis, communication, coordination and
         monitoring; 

     (b) Provide staff trained in both gender and managerial skills to carry
         out policy analysis, negotiation, communication and design and to
         monitor activities;

     (c) Establish procedures to allow the machinery to gather relevant
         information on policy issues at an early stage and apply it in the
         policy development process within government.

143. By national machinery:

     (a) Establish cooperative relationships with members of parliament,
         centres for women's studies and research, private sector bodies,
         private enterprises and non-governmental organizations;

     (b) Establish direct international links with other national machineries
         and with international bodies;

     (c) Provide training and advisory assistance to government agencies to
         integrate gender perspectives into their policies;

     (d) Report periodically to the parliament and the cabinet.

144. By international organizations, especially the United Nations Development
Fund for Women (UNIFEM), and bilateral donors:

     (a) Provide advisory and financial assistance to national machinery to
         increase the ability to gather information, develop networks and
         undertake gender analysis;

     (b) Strengthen international mechanisms to promote the advancement of
         women.


          Strategic objective H.2.  Integrate women's concerns in all
                                    public policies

Actions to be taken

145. By Governments:

     (a) Regularly review policies and projects to ensure that they reflect
         the costs and benefits of women's contribution to the economy and
         society and take into account the impact of policies on women's
         situation with regard to employment and earning policies;

     (b) Require officials to apply gender analysis in developing policies
         and programmes and to provide training to the staff in the areas of
         planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes
         and projects;

     (c) Establish networks of focal points in all ministries and agencies
         with a mandate to review policies and programmes and create
         mechanisms for the focal points to meet regularly with national
         machinery to monitor progress in the implementation of the Platform
         for Action.




             Strategic objective H.3.  Generate and disseminate gender
                                       disaggregated data and information
                                       for planning and evaluation

Actions to be taken

146. By national and international statistical services, in cooperation with
research organizations, in their respective areas of responsibility:

     (a) Collect data disaggregated by age, sex and socio-economic indicators
         for utilization in policy planning and implementation;

     (b) Integrate centres for women's studies and research in defining new
         indicators and in monitoring the goals of the Platform for Action;

     (c) Ensure that all statistics related to individuals are collected,
         analysed and presented by sex and age and reflect problems and
         questions related to men and women in society;

     (d) Designate staff to strengthen the structure and programmes of gender
         statistics and ensure their close link to all fields of statistical
         work by coordinating and monitoring this work and preparing outputs
         that integrate statistics from the various subject areas;

     (e) Improve the concepts and methods of data collection on and the
         measurement of the full contribution of women and men to the economy
         by taking steps to improve the measurement of their participation in
         the informal sector, agriculture and, in particular, small holdings,
         industry, trade and the domestic service sector, and to quantify the
         remunerated and unremunerated work of women and men, including
         housework and child care;

     (f) Develop an international classification of activities for time-use
         statistics, with Governments also undertaking time-use studies, and
         develop further work at the national level to prepare satellite
         accounts of women's and men's economic contribution to production
         and income;

     (g) Improve concepts and methods of data collection on the measurement
         of poverty among women and men, including their access to resources;

     (h) Strengthen vital statistical systems and incorporate gender analysis
         into publications and research; give priority to gender differences
         in research design and in data collection and analysis to improve
         data on morbidity; and improve data collection on access to health
         services, including access to comprehensive maternal care and family
         planning, giving special priority to adolescent mothers.



147. By Governments:

     (a) Produce a statistical publication on gender that presents and
         interprets topical data on women and men in a form suitable for a
         wide range of non-technical users;

     (b) Organize a review by producers and users of statistics in each
         country to assess the adequacy of the official statistical system
         and the coverage of gender issues and prepare a plan for needed
         improvements;

     (c) Develop statistics and qualitative studies on the sharing of power
         and influence in society, including the number of women and men in
         senior positions in decision-making in both the public and private
         sectors;

     (d) Use more gender-sensitive data in policy formulation.

148. By the United Nations:

     (a) Promote the development of statistical methods to improve data that
         may relate to women's human rights, including violence against
         women, for use by the Commission on Human Rights, the Committee on
         the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and other human
         rights treaty bodies;

     (b) Prepare a new issue of The World's Women at regular five-year
         intervals;

     (c) Assist countries in the development of gender statistics programmes
         and outputs;

     (d) Report on progress at the national and international levels to the
         United Nations Statistical Commission and the Commission on the
         Status of Women in a coordinated fashion.


          I.  Lack of awareness of and commitment to internationally and
              nationally recognized women's human rights

149. Universal respect of the indivisible and inalienable human rights of
women of all ages is the basis for all efforts for the advancement of women. 
In most countries, steps have been taken to reflect these rights in national
law; in others, however, these human rights' instruments are being undermined
by reservations that conflict with their object and purpose.  Unless women's
human rights, as defined by international conventions and standards, are fully
applied, interpreted and enforced in civil, penal and commercial codes and
administrative rules and regulations, they will exist only in name.  In many
countries, lack of awareness of one's rights and of how to exercise them
remains a considerable obstacle to women's access to full and equal human
rights.

150. The World Conference on Human Rights reaffirmed clearly that the human
rights of women throughout the life cycle are an inalienable, integral and
indivisible part of universal human rights.  The International Conference on
Population and Development reaffirmed women's reproductive rights and the
right to development.  Both the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the
Convention on the Rights of the Child guarantee children's rights and uphold
the principle of non-discrimination on the grounds of gender.  Three quarters
of the States Members of the United Nations have become parties to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. 
An increasing number of countries have established mechanisms to enable women
to exercise their rights. 

151. In countries that have not become party to the Convention or where
serious reservations have been entered, or where national laws have not been
modified to comply with international norms, women's de jure equality is not
yet secured.  Unresponsive legal systems, overly complex administrative
procedures, insensitive judicial personnel and inadequate monitoring of the
violation of the human rights of women undermine women's access to full and
equal rights.  Lack of enforcement of civil, penal and commercial codes or
administrative rules and regulations have undermined women's access to the
protection offered under international human rights instruments.

152. Furthermore, the lack of appropriate recourse mechanisms at the national
and international levels and inadequate resources for institutions monitoring
the violation of the human rights of women at the international level, such as
the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, compounds
the problem.

153. Changes in both men's and women's knowledge, attitudes and behaviour are
necessary conditions for achieving harmonious partnerships between women and
men.  It is essential to improve communication between women and men on issues
of shared responsibility, including sexuality and reproductive health, so that
women and men are equal partners in public and private life.  Special efforts
are needed to emphasize men's shared responsibility and promote their active
involvement in responsible parenthood and sexual and reproductive behaviour.

154. Special emphasis should be placed on the prevention of violence against
women and children.  Any form of violence against women, in private and public
life, or experienced as a result of armed conflict, is an abrogation of
international human rights law.

155. Women in particularly vulnerable circumstances such as migrant, refugee
or displaced women or those from minority or indigenous groups, are often
disadvantaged and marginalized by their lack of knowledge and recognition of
their basic human rights and the absence of recourse mechanisms to redress
violations of their rights.

156. Legal literacy programmes and media strategies have been effective in
helping women understand the link between their rights and other aspects of
their lives and in demonstrating that cost-effective initiatives can be
undertaken to help women obtain those rights.




        Strategic objective I.1.  Implement fully the Convention on the
                                  Elimination of All Forms of
                                  Discrimination against Women and other
                                  human rights instruments

Actions to be taken

157. By Governments:

     (a) Ratify or accede to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
         of Discrimination against Women, if they have not yet done so,
         without reservations, so that universal ratification is achieved by
         2000;

     (b) Report on the schedule for implementation of the Convention to the
         Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,
         following fully the guidelines established by the Committee and
         involving non-governmental organizations in the preparation of the
         report;

     (c) Include gender aspects in reporting on all other human rights
         conventions, as well as those of the ILO;

     (d) Revise the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
         Discrimination against Women to grant the Committee adequate meeting
         time to complete its mandate;

     (e) Review any substantive reservations entered to the Convention with a
         view to having all reservations removed before 2000;

     (f) Adopt an optional protocol to the Convention to establish a
         communications procedure that can enter into force before 2000;

     (g) Implement the Convention on the Rights of the Child to ensure equal
         rights for girls and boys.

158. By the High Commissioner for Human Rights:

     (a) In the exercise of his/her mandate to promote universal respect for
         and observance of all human rights, give full and equal
         consideration to the human rights of women;

     (b) Ensure the inclusion of gender issues in his/her activities with
         regard to advisory services, technical assistance, coordination,
         public information and human rights education;

     (c) Monitor the work of all human rights bodies and mechanisms and their
         secretariats to ensure that women's human rights are duly taken into
         account and that coordination is achieved among them in that
         respect;

     (d) Ensure a gender perspective in national programmes of action and in
         human rights and democratic institutions, within the context of
         human rights advisory services programmes. 

         Strategic objective I.2.  Ensure equality and non-discrimination
                                   under the law

Actions to be taken

159. By Governments:

     (a) Provide and guarantee constitutions that prohibit discrimination on
         the basis of sex and assure women of all ages full and equal
         citizenship;

     (b) Adopt, where necessary, equal opportunity legislation to give
         practical effect to constitutional guarantees;

     (c) Complete national law reviews by 2000 in order to incorporate the
         principles and provisions of accepted international norms and
         standards into national legislation and to revoke any remaining
         discriminatory laws;

     (d) Provide gender sensitivity and women's human rights training for all
         public officials, including law enforcement officers, legal and
         medical personnel, members of parliament and social workers, so that
         they may better exercise their public responsibilities;

     (e) Strengthen or establish alternative administrative mechanisms and
         legal aid programmes to assist disadvantaged women seeking redress
         for violations of their rights;

     (f) Strengthen and encourage the development of independent national
         institutions on human rights, such as human rights commissions or
         ombudspersons, and accord them appropriate status, resources and
         access to the Government to assist individuals in ensuring their
         human rights.


               Strategic objective I.3.  Achieve legal literacy

Actions to be taken

160. By Governments and non-governmental organizations:

     (a) Translate into local languages, publicize and disseminate laws and
         information relating to human rights, including the Convention on
         the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the
         Vienna Declaration adopted by the World Conference on Human
         Rights, 14/ particularly that section relating to the equal status
         and human rights of women;

     (b) Include human rights education in school curricula and undertake
         public campaigns for girls and boys, and adolescents in particular,
         in the most widely used languages of the country, on the equality of
         women and men and on women's human rights and the instruments
         available to ensure them.


            J.  Insufficient mobilization of the mass media to promote
                women's positive contributions to society

161. During the past decade, advances in information technology have
facilitated the development of international media organizations that
transcend national boundaries and have the power to shape public policy and
private attitudes.  These media offer the promise of greater interaction among
people, rapid exchange of knowledge and accessible sources of education.  They
can, on the one hand, be powerful tools for development and social progress
or, on the other, reinforce exploitative stereotypes, particularly of women. 
In many countries women are working to make the mass media more sensitive to
women's reality and to the emerging roles of both women and men.  Everywhere
the potential exists for the media to make a far greater contribution to the
advancement of women in society and to the public's acceptance of women's true
roles.

162. There has been an increase in the number of women involved in the
communications industries, but not at the decision-making levels.  Their lack
of power and influence in the organizations that employ them, mainly at the
writing and production levels, is evidenced by the failure to eliminate the
sex-based stereotyping that characterizes so much of the output of the major
international media organizations. 

163. The continued projection of out-of-date images of women in the global
media system is now overdue for correction.  Print and broadcast media in most
countries still do not provide an accurate picture of women's roles and value
in a changing world.  There is still too great a reliance on programming that
includes images of violence and dominance, with women invariably portrayed as
victims.  Foreign-produced programming is often culturally damaging, with
negative impact on both the perception of women's roles and behaviour and the
cultural identity of audiences.  The world-wide trend towards privatization
and commercialization has created a climate of consumerism in which
advertisements and commercial messages portray women primarily as consumers,
and young women and girls are often specific targets of inappropriate
commercial messages.

164. At another level, women have used the expanding electronic information
highways to link up with each other and to establish networks that provide
them with alternative sources of information.  This will strengthen their
ability to combat negative portrayals of women internationally and to
challenge the power of an industry that is outside public control and is
self-regulatory.




        Strategic objective J.1.  Increase and enhance the access of women
                                  to expression and decision-making in and
                                  through the mass media

Actions to be taken

165. By Governments:

     (a) Promote women's equal participation in the mass media, including
         equal participation in production, education, training and research;

     (b) Appoint women on a parity basis to all advisory, management or
         monitoring bodies connected to the national mass media;

     (c) Strengthen and recognize women's media networks as intermediaries
         for the dissemination of information to and about women.

166. By national machinery for the advancement of women:

     (a) Develop programmes and train women to produce information for the
         mass media, including funding of experimental efforts;

     (b) Train women in the use of information technology for communication
         and the mass media, whether public or private;

     (c) Elaborate codes of conduct and other forms of self-regulation to
         ensure realistic and affirmative portrayals of women by the media
         and to increase the participation of women in production.

167. By non-governmental organizations:

     (a) Establish media watchdog groups that can monitor the mass media in
         terms of presentation of women and women's concerns;

     (b) Make greater use of information technology for communication.


          Strategic objective J.2.  Promote a positive portrayal of women
                                    in the mass media

Actions to be taken

168. By Governments and international organizations:

     (a) Promote research and awareness campaigns aimed at facilitating
         positive and realistic images of women and girls through the media;

     (b) Encourage media and advertisers to develop specific programmes to
         raise awareness about the Platform for Action, including poverty,
         education, health, violence and human rights and their impact on
         women.

169. By mass media and advertising organizations:

     Establish codes of conduct and other forms of self-regulation to promote
     the presentation of positive and realistic images of women.

170. By mass media and non-governmental organizations in collaboration with
national machinery for the advancement of women:

     (a) Conduct systematic educational programmes and seminars to
         disseminate information on the sharing of responsibilities in the
         family;

     (b) Produce and/or disseminate media materials on women leaders,
         managers and entrepreneurs as role models, particularly for young
         women;

     (c) Develop and finance new alternative media and the use of electronic
         communications to disseminate information to and about women and
         their concerns.


             K.  Lack of adequate recognition and support for women's
                 contribution to managing natural resources and
                 safeguarding the environment

171. Awareness of resource depletion, the degradation of natural systems and
the dangers of polluting substances increased markedly in the past decade. 
All regions of the world are adversely affected by accelerated resource
depletion and environmental degradation due to drought, desertification,
deforestation, natural disasters, pollution from toxic wastes and the
aftermath of the use of unsuitable agro-chemical products.  Wars, civil strife
and armed conflicts, population density and wasteful consumption have all
contributed to the worsening environmental conditions.  The genetic
manipulation of life forms poses serious ecological and health risks. Many
ecosystems that are reservoirs of considerable ecological and biological
diversity are under threat.  These worsening conditions are destroying fragile
ecosystems, are displacing communities, especially women, from productive
activities and are an interregional abrogation of the right to a safe and
healthy environment.

172. Women, however, remain largely absent from decision-making in
environmental management, protection and rehabilitation.  The experience and
skills of women in advocacy for, and monitoring of proper natural resource
management remain marginalized in policy-making and decision-making bodies. 

173. Women, particularly indigenous women, have pivotal roles in environmental
conservation, owing to their combined roles and responsibilities in the family
and the community, their knowledge of ecological links and fragile ecosystem
management and their concern for the quality and sustainability of life for
present and future generations.  In certain regions, women are generally the
most stable members of the community, as men often migrate seasonally, leaving
women to safeguard environmental integrity and ensure adequate resource
allocation within the household and community.

174. There is a link between poverty and deteriorating natural environments. 
In both urban and rural areas, environmental degradation results in negative
effects on the health, well-being and quality of life of women and youth,
especially young girls, women in displaced populations (such as refugees),
farm workers, rural women, women in poor households and households in remote
areas or areas with harsh ecological conditions.  In many regions, women have
played leadership roles by promoting an environmental ethic, changing values,
and reducing, reusing and recycling resources to reduce waste and excessive
consumption.  In addition, women's contribution to environmental management
has taken place at the local level, where decentralized action on
environmental issues is most needed and most decisive.

175. Women's lack of decision-making power means that their roles as
environmental managers are often invisible.  Women are rarely trained as
professional natural resource managers with policy-making capacities
(e.g., agriculturalists, foresters, marine scientists and land-use planners). 
They are underrepresented in formal institutions, especially managerial
positions in environment-related agencies.  Furthermore, there are
institutional weaknesses in coordination between women's non-governmental
organizations and national institutions dealing with environmental issues,
despite the recent rapid growth and visibility of women's non-governmental
organizations working on these issues at all levels.

176. The strategic actions needed for sound environmental management require a
holistic, multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach.  Women's participation
and leadership is essential to every aspect of that approach.  The United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development and the International
Conference on Population and Development, as well as regional preparatory
conferences for the Fourth World Conference on Women, have acknowledged that
environmental policies that do not involve women will not succeed in the long
run.  They have called for the effective participation of women in the
generation of knowledge and in decision-making and management at all levels. 
Women's perspectives, experiences and contributions to an ecologically sound
environment must therefore be part of the agenda for the twenty-first century.

As long as there is inadequate recognition and support for women's
contribution to environmental management, sustainable development will be an
elusive goal.


         Strategic objective K.1.  Involve women actively in environmental
                                   decision-making at all levels

Actions to be taken

177. By Governments:

     (a) Enact and enforce laws to control pollution and toxicity,
         particulary in the home and the workplace, and the genetic
         manipulation of life-forms;

     (b) Mandate the inclusion of women as decision makers, managers,
         designers, planners, implementers and evaluators of environmental
         projects;

     (c) Evaluate policies and programmes in terms of environmental impact
         and women's access to and use of natural resources;

     (d) Ensure that indigenous women's knowledge and skills, including those
         concerning traditional medicines, biodiversity, and indigenous
         technologies, are protected and that their rights over intellectual
         property are safeguarded.

178. By Governments, international organizations and non-governmental
organizations:

     (a) Include gender impact studies in the policy development, analysis
         and monitoring work of the Commission on Sustainable Development;

     (b) Involve women and incorporate a gender perspective in the design and
         approval of projects funded under the Global Environment Facility
         and other international projects;

     (c) Design projects in the four areas of concern to the Global
         Environmental Facility to allocate resources to women and projects
         managed by women, especially in the area of biological diversity;

     (d) Include women as decision makers and managers in environment and
         natural resource projects and programmes on an equal basis within
         their organizations.

179. By non-governmental organizations and private sector institutions:

     Assume an advocacy role on issues relating to the environment and provide
     information on resource mobilization for environmental protection.


          Strategic objective K.2.  Ensure integration of women's needs,
                                    concerns and perspectives in policies
                                    and programmes for the environment and
                                    sustainable development

Actions to be taken

180. By Governments:

     (a) Integrate rural women's indigenous knowledge of sustainable resource
         use in the development of environmental management and extension
         programmes;

     (b) Sponsor research on the role of women in soil conservation,
         irrigation and watershed management, coastal zone management,
         integrated pest management, land-use planning, forest conservation
         and community forestry, focusing particularly on indigenous women;

     (c) Study the barriers to women's effective participation in
         environmentally sustainable development and the impact of these
         barriers on women's capacities as managers of the environment and
         natural resources; 

     (d) Promote the education of young women and girls in science,
         technology and economics, so they can make informed choices, offer
         informed input and participate in determining local economic,
         scientific and environmental priorities for the management of local
         resources and ecosystems;

     (e) Develop programmes to involve female professionals and experts -
         scientists, economists, educators, trainers, engineers, extension
         workers, etc. - in environmental management through the training of
         girls and women in these fields, accelerated hiring and promotion of
         women in these fields and other temporary special measures to
         advance women's expertise and participation in these activities;

     (f) Identify and promote environmentally sound technologies that have
         been designed, developed and improved in consultation with women and
         that are appropriate to both women and specific ecosystems and
         environments;

     (g) Ensure women's access to safe, sustainable and affordable energy
         technologies.

181. By international organizations, non-governmental organizations and
private sector institutions:

     (a) Involve women in the mass media in the development of consumer
         awareness related to environmental issues;

     (b) Establish a code of ethics on advertising and the environment;

     (c) Conduct educational campaigns to encourage women to use their
         purchasing power as consumers to promote the production of
         environmentally safe products and encourage them to invest in
         environmentally sound and productive agricultural, commercial and
         industrial activities.


          Strategic objective K.3.  Establish mechanisms at the national,
                                    regional and international levels to
                                    assess the impact of development and
                                    environmental policies on women

Actions to be taken

182. By Governments, international organizations and non-governmental
organizations:

     (a) Facilitate collaborative capacity-building in environmental
         management and sustainable development at international and national
         levels by incorporating gender and environmental analyses into
         existing sustainable development programmes to provide a systematic
         methodology for examining the different impacts of development
         interventions on women and men and on ecosystems and the
         environment;

     (b) Develop gender-sensitive databases, information systems and
         participatory action-oriented research, methodologies and policy
         analyses with the collaboration of academic institutions and local
         women researchers on the following:

     (i) Knowledge and experience on the part of women of the management and
         conservation of natural resources for incorporation in the databases
         and information systems for sustainable development;
         
    (ii) The impact on women of environmental degradation, particulary
         drought, desertification, toxic chemicals and armed conflicts;

   (iii) Analysis of the structural links between gender relations,
         environment and development, with special emphasis on particular
         sectors, such as agriculture, fisheries, forestry, environmental
         health and biological diversity;

    (iv) Measures to develop and include environmental, social and gender
         impact analyses as an essential step in the development and
         monitoring of programmes and policies;

     (v) Programmes to create rural and urban training, research and resource
         centres in developing countries that will disseminate
         environmentally sound technologies to women;

     (c) Promote new operating modalities and programme coordination within
         and among institutions to implement the Platform for Action and
         chapter 24 of Agenda 21 and to promote capacity-building in
         environmental management and sustainable development;

     (d) Promote intersectoral cooperation between environmental issues and
         other interrelated women's issues;

     (e) Require the Commission on Sustainable Development to monitor and
         evaluate periodically the implementation of Agenda 21 with regard to
         women and the environment.


                        V.  INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

183. The Platform for Action establishes a set of actions that should lead to
fundamental change.  Immediate action and accountability are essential if the
targets are to be met by the year 2000.  Implementation depends on a wide
range of institutions in the public, private and non-governmental sectors at
the community, national, regional and international levels. 

184. During the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985) many institutions
specifically devoted to the advancement of women were established at the
national and international levels. 

185. At the national level, a number of countries established or strengthened
national mechanisms to plan, advocate for and monitor progress in the
advancement of women. 

186. At the international level, two entities for women were established as a
direct result of the first United Nations women's conference (Mexico City,
1975) - the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement
of Women (INSTRAW) and the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM).
Following the entry into force of the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1981, a committee was established in
1982 to monitor the Convention.  These entities, along with the Commission on
the Status of Women and its secretariat, the Division for the Advancement of
Women, became the main institutions in the United Nations devoted to women's
advancement globally. 

187. In 1993, the Secretary-General submitted to the Economic and Social
Council a proposal for the merger of INSTRAW and UNIFEM, based upon a
recommendation made by a high-level panel of advisers on the restructuring of
the economic and social sectors of the Organization.  This proposal was
subsequently elaborated by a task force established by the Secretary-General. 
It was aimed at strengthening the programmes for the advancement of women and
enhancing the efficiency of the work of those organizations in terms of
function, structure and cost-effectiveness.

188. The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1994/51, which was
adopted by consensus at its resumed substantive session of 1994 recommended,
inter alia, that the General Assembly request the Council to re-examine the
issue of the merger at a resumed session to take place after the Fourth World
Conference on Women, taking into account the deliberations of the Commission
on the Status of Women at its thirty-ninth session and the Fourth World
Conference on Women concerning the institutional arrangements in the United
Nations system for the advancement of women.  The Council further recommended
that the General Assembly take a final decision on the proposed merger at its
fiftieth session, in view of the recommendations of the Council and the
deliberations of the Commission on the Status of Women and the Fourth World
Conference on Women.

189. Implementation of the Platform for Action by national and international
institutions, both public and private, would be facilitated by transparency
and a consistent flow of information among all concerned.  Clear objectives
and accountability mechanisms are required.  Links with other institutions at
the national, regional and international levels and with networks and
organizations devoted to the advancement of women, including non-governmental
and grass-roots organizations, are needed.

190. Effective implementation will also require changes in values, behaviour,
rules and procedures, including efforts to achieve equal opportunities in
employment and promotion.  Changing the internal dynamics of power and the
organizational culture are the key to sustaining institutions and integrating
women effectively.  In particular, sexual harassment should be eliminated.

191. Institutions should have strong mandates and the authority, resources and
accountability mechanisms needed to carry out the tasks set out in the
Platform for Action.  Their methods of operation should ensure efficient and
effective implementation of the Platform.  There should be a clear commitment
to international norms and standards of equality between men and women as a
basis for all actions.


                              A.  National level

192. Governments have the primary responsibility for implementing the Platform
for Action.  Commitment at the highest political level is essential to its
implementation, and Governments should take a leading role in coordinating,
monitoring and assessing progress in the advancement of women.

193. The active involvement of a broad and diverse range of other
institutional actors should be encouraged, including legislative bodies,
academic and research institutions, professional associations, trade unions,
cooperatives, local community groups, women's organizations, the media, non-
governmental organizations, youth organizations, cultural groups, and
financial and other for-profit organizations.  Governments should coordinate
with various institutions and organizations in formulating and carrying out an
implementation strategy.

194. Implementation of the Platform for Action requires actions to establish
or strengthen national mechanisms for the advancement of women, national
statistical services, ministerial focal points and other institutions with the
mandate and capacity to integrate women's concerns into policy.  The first
step in this process for all institutions should be to review their
objectives, programmes and operational procedures in terms of the actions
called for in the Platform.

195. National mechanisms and institutions for the advancement of women should
assist in public policy formulation and encourage the implementation of the
Platform for Action through various bodies and institutions and, where
necessary, act as a catalyst in developing new programmes in areas that are
not covered by existing institutions.

196. Governments should establish an implementation mechanism to monitor and
report on the implementation of the Platform.  They should draw on persons
from the highest level of authority in government, from national parliaments
and from academia, the private sector and non-governmental organizations.  The
implementation mechanism should be a national plan of action with time-bound
targets and implementation and monitoring mechanisms.  Responsible
institutions need to be identified and budgetary resources allocated for its
implementation.  There should be participation by the international community,
and non-governmental organizations should assist in the design, implementation
and monitoring of the national plan of action.  Non-governmental organizations
are encouraged to develop their own programmes to implement the Platform for
Action.  Reports on implementation of the Platform should be reviewed by
legislative bodies on a regular basis.  At the country level, UNDP, through
its network of field offices and resident coordinators, should facilitate the
efforts of the United Nations system towards gender equity in development and
capacity-building and should support the implementation of the Platform for
Action.

197. Governments should ensure gender parity between men and women in all
national committees, boards and other official bodies.


                              B.  Regional level

198. The regional commissions of the United Nations and other regional
structures should promote and monitor the implementation of the global
Platform for Action within the regional context, in close collaboration with
the Commission on the Status of Women and other entities in the United Nations
system dealing with women's issues. 

199. The women's units/focal points at the regional commissions should be
given appropriate status and the resources to provide support to the regional
monitoring, implementation and evaluation process and to coordinate with the
system as a whole. 

200. The United Nations regional commissions should collaborate on gender
issues with other regional intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental
organizations, financial and research institutions and the private sector. 
Each region should prepare a regional implementation plan for the Platform for
Action in collaboration with relevant regional or subregional
intergovernmental organizations in each region, such as the Organization of
African Unity, the Organization of American States, the Council of Europe, the
European Union, the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), the
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), the Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) and the Nordic Council, as well as with development banks, regional
non-governmental organizations and the regional offices of bodies and
specialized agencies of the United Nations system.

201. Regional non-governmental organizations and other regional structures
should continue the development of networks to coordinate advocacy and
dissemination of information about the global Platform for Action and the
respective regional platforms or plans of action.


                            C.  International level

202. The institutional and financial capacity of the United Nations to carry
out its responsibility for implementation of the Platform for Action should be
strengthened.

203. In following up the Fourth World Conference on Women, Secretariat
entities focusing on the advancement of women should have the necessary
resources to carry out follow-up activities and should collaborate closely
with other entities and organizations of the United Nations system, including
the focal points on women in the regional commissions, specialized agencies,
financial institutions, funds and programmes, as well as with national and
regional mechanisms. 

204. The capacity of the entities devoted to promoting the advancement of
women, should be enhanced and the efforts of gender focal points within
organizations should be well integrated into overall policy, planning,
programming and budgeting. 

205. Steps should be taken by organizations at the international level,
including the United Nations, to eliminate barriers to the advancement of
women, and to make the changes required in the dynamics of power and the
organizational culture in order to carry out both the spirit and the letter of
the Platform for Action.

206. Relevant aspects of the Platform need to be implemented through the work
of all of the organs of the United Nations system during the period 1995-2000,
both specifically and as an integral part of wider programming.  Gender issues
will be addressed in connection with the Agenda for Peace, and the Agenda for
Development and in implementing the results of global conferences, such as the
World Conference on Education for All, the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development, the International Conference on Nutrition, the
World Conference on Human Rights, the World Summit for Children, the
International Conference on Population and Development, the World Summit for
Social Development and the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements
(Habitat II).


                     1.  Commission on the Status of Women

207. The Commission on the Status of Women is the intergovernmental focal
point for implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the
Advancement of Women.  As the policy coordinating body on the advancement of
women, it will have the central role in monitoring the implementation of the
Platform for Action.  It should have a clear mandate to permit it to undertake
regular monitoring and to enable it to coordinate the reporting on
implementation of the Platform for Action.

208. The original mandate of the Commission on the Status of Women was to
promote women's rights, with the objective of implementing the principle that
men and women should have equal rights, and to develop proposals for achieving
this objective.  The Commission's mandate should enable it to review the
gender dimensions of all relevant issues, including those taken up in other
intergovernmental bodies.  To help formulate and monitor a system-wide
approach to implementation, it should receive monitoring reports, including
reports from organizations and agencies of the United Nations system.  The
effect of this would be to make the Commission the gender analysis arm of the
Economic and Social Council.  This would help strengthen the Council's policy
coordination function.

209. At its fortieth session, in 1996, the Commission needs to develop an
implementation plan for the United Nations system, based on proposals from all
relevant agencies, programmes and organizations of the United Nations system,
in particular those entities specifically concerned with the advancement of
women, such as the Division for the Advancement of Women.

210. The Commission, in developing its work programme for the period
1996-2000, should review the critical areas of concern in the Platform for
Action and add to its agenda an item on gender analysis of critical issues
before the United Nations, the content of which would be determined by the
issues being taken up by the Economic and Social Council and the General
Assembly, or by subsidiary bodies of the Council (e.g. in the Commission on
Human Rights, the Commission on Population and Development, the Commission on
Science and Technology for Development and the Commission on Sustainable
Development).  Under the existing item on programming and coordination
matters, there is a need to include in the discussion a more detailed review
of the programmes of all of the main United Nations bodies dealing with issues
related to the Platform for Action and related aspects of other global
conferences in the context of the system-wide medium-term plan for the
advancement of women, to be revised after the Fourth World Conference on
Women.


                   2.  Division for the Advancement of Women

211. The primary function of the Division for the Advancement of Women of the
Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development is providing
substantive servicing to the Commission on the Status of Women and other
intergovernmental bodies when they are concerned with the advancement of
women.  It also services the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
against Women.  It has been designated a focal point for the implementation of
the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women.  It
should be the focal point for the implementation of the Platform for Action. 
In keeping with resolution 37/9 of the Commission on the Status of Women, 15/
necessary steps should be taken to strengthen the Division and maintain its
identity and status and to ensure adequate resources on an ongoing basis. 

212. The Division should undertake gender analysis in preparing policy studies
for the Commission on the Status of Women and other subsidiary bodies of the
Economic and Social Council, for the Economic and Social Council itself and
for the General Assembly.  After the Fourth World Conference on Women it
should take the lead in preparing the revision of the system-wide medium-term
plan for the advancement of women for the period 1996-2001 and should continue
serving as the secretariat for inter-agency coordination for the advancement
of women, based on the network of gender focal points in the United Nations
system.  It should undertake the additional function of maintaining a flow of
information with non-governmental organizations, national commissions and
national institutions for the advancement of women with regard to
implementation of the Platform for Action.




               3.  International Research and Training Institute for
                   the Advancement of Women

213. In conformity with its mandates in research, training and the
dissemination of information for the advancement of women, the International
Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) should
review its work programme in the light of the Platform for Action, which,
together with Agenda 21, the Programme of Action of the International
Conference on Population and Development, and the Programme of Action of the
World Summit for Social Development, will provide guidelines for the
development of a programme for implementing those aspects of the Platform for
Action that fall within its mandate.  It should identify those types of
research and research methodologies to be given priority, strengthen national
capacities to carry out gender research, and develop networks of research
institutions that can be mobilized for that purpose.  It should identify those
types of training that can effectively be supported and promoted by the
Institute, which will also serve as a focal point for gender training in the
United Nations system as a whole. 


                 4.  United Nations Development Fund for Women

214. As an autonomous fund in association with UNDP, the United Nations
Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) increases options and opportunities for
women's economic and social development in developing countries.  UNIFEM
should review its work programme in the light of the Platform for Action and,
on that basis, develop a programme for implementing those aspects of the
Platform for Action that fall within its mandate.  UNIFEM should be
strengthened so that it can effectively undertake strategic interventions to
assist and collaborate with a range of development partners in providing
technical and financial capacity to incorporate the women's dimension into
development at all levels.  Its advocacy role should be increased by fostering
international awareness of women's empowerment.  Adequate resources for
carrying out its functions should be made available.


       5.  Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

215. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, in
implementing its responsibilities under the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women, should make a special effort to
assess the extent to which the States parties are implementing the Platform
for Action in terms of the Convention.  It should continue to review the
articles of the Convention, giving priority to those that are particularly
crucial for implementation of the Platform, such as article 4, and make
recommendations accordingly.

216. The Committee should increase its coordination with other human rights
treaty bodies, and in implementing the recommendations in the Vienna
Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the World Conference on Human
Rights, should take discrimination on the basis of sex into account in all of
its work, drawing on resources allocated for this purpose.


                             6.  General Assembly

217. The General Assembly should promote policies for the effective
implementation of the Platform for Action, recognizing that women's issues cut
across social, political and economic policy.  At its fiftieth session, in
1995, the General Assembly will examine a report on the follow-up to the
Fourth World Conference on Women, taking into account recommendations of the
Conference, in accordance with Assembly resolution 49/161.  In 1996, and every
other year thereafter to the year 2000, it should review the implementation of
the Platform. 


                        7.  Economic and Social Council

218. The Economic and Social Council should review the implementation of the
Platform for Action by examining the reports of the Commission on the Status
of Women.  The Council should incorporate gender concerns into its discussion
of all policy issues, based on recommendations prepared by the Commission.  It
should dedicate at least one high-level segment before 2000 to the issue of
advancement of women and implementation of the Platform for Action.

219. The Council should dedicate at least one coordination segment before the
year 2000 to coordination of the advancement of women, based on the revised
system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women.

220. The Council should dedicate at least one operational activities segment
to the coordination of development activities related to gender, with a view
to adopting guidelines and procedures for implementation of the Platform for
Action by the funds and organizations of the United Nations system.

221. Monitoring and coordination of the implementation of the Platform for
Action by organizations of the United Nations system is the responsibility of
the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC).  It should establish a
procedure at the inter-agency level for monitoring system-wide coordination of
the implementation of the Platform.


               8.  Other units of the United Nations Secretariat

222. The various units of the United Nations Secretariat should examine their
programmes to determine how they can best implement the Platform for Action.
Proposals for implementation of the Platform need to be reflected in the
revision of the system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women for
the period 1996-2001, as well as in the proposed United Nations medium-term
plan for the period 1998-2002.  The content of the actions will depend on the
mandates of the bodies concerned.

223. The Office of Human Resources Management should, in collaboration with
programme managers world wide, take the necessary measures to achieve the
target of 50 per cent women in posts subject to geographical distribution.  It
should also aim to have women in at least 40 per cent of posts at the
Principal Officer level and above by the year 2000.  The training service
should design and conduct regular gender-sensitivity training or include
gender-sensitivity training in all of its activities.

224. The Department of Public Information should expand existing programmes on
women, including the weekly women's radio programme, and should establish a
focal point to design and coordinate a five-year multi-media communications
strategy to support the implementation of the Platform for Action, taking new
technologies fully into account in its development and production.  Regular
outputs of the Department should also include information targeted at women,
young people and grass-roots groups to promote the goals of the Platform.

225. The Statistical Division of the Department for Economic and Social
Information and Policy Analysis should fully coordinate international work in
statistics as described above in section IV, strategic objective H.3.


                 9.  Specialized agencies and other organizations
                     of the United Nations system

226. Each organization should develop a plan of action with time-bound targets
for the implementation of the Platform for Action, with a clear delineation of
responsibility for its various sections and an outline of budgetary
allocations and mechanisms to be established for accountability.  These
proposals should in turn be reflected in the system-wide medium-term plan for
the advancement of women for the period 1996-2001.

227. Each organization should take steps to enhance the roles and
responsibilities of its focal points on women's issues.

228. Each organization should take steps to increase the proportion of
Professional women among its staff so that at least 50 per cent are women,
particularly at decision-making levels.  Organizations should report regularly
to their governing bodies on the implementation of all relevant aspects of the
Platform for Action.


                     10.  Other international institutions

229. International non-governmental organizations have an important role to
play in implementing the Platform for Action.  They should consider presenting
consolidated implementation plans to the Commission on the Status of Women.
Consideration should also be given to establishing a mechanism for
collaborating with non-governmental organizations to monitor implementation of
the Platform at various levels.

230. In implementing the Platform, international financial institutions should
review and revise policies, procedures and staffing to ensure that investments
and programmes benefit women and thus contribute to sustainable development.
They should increase the number of women in high-level positions, increase
staff training in gender analysis, and institute policies and guidelines to
ensure full consideration of the differential impact of lending programmes and
other activities on women and men.  Closer cooperation between the Bretton
Woods institutions and other development agencies on gender issues would help
to strengthen the effectiveness of the international response in this field.

231. The United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions, as well as media
networks and the private sector, can do a great deal to support national
efforts to implement the Platform for Action.  By providing information and
training and by committing human and financial resources they can play a
positive role as advocates to overcome local constraints and barriers to the
full and equal participation of women in society.


                          VI.  FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS

232. The strategic objectives can best be achieved and the required actions
taken if there is a commitment to make resources available for this purpose. 
Financial and human resources have generally been insufficient for the
advancement of women, which has also contributed to the slow progress in
implementing the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies.

233. Full and effective implementation of the Platform for Action will require
more effective deployment and targeting of existing resources and mobilization
of additional resources from many sources.  It may also require qualitative
changes in existing methods and programmes that already have funding.  For
example, law reform and the application of special measures can largely be
achieved within existing programmes.  Many other actions, such as those in
education and health, largely require that commitments made at previous
summits and conferences be honoured.  Honouring these commitments may,
however, require redeploying public funds from less productive purposes.  New
or redeployed funds will also be required to finance institutions whose task
it is to guide, facilitate, monitor or evaluate implementation of the
Platform.

234. Studies have shown that the return on investment in women has generally
outweighed the cost.  Resources for the advancement of women are needed both
from development funds in order to target women's programmes and from other
sectoral funds, such as those for agriculture, education and population, which
empower women and end discrimination on the basis of sex.

235. Funds to facilitate women's participation in the economy should be made
available from the public and private sectors in the form of credit and other
economic resources.  Governments should create an enabling environment that
encourages and facilitates the private sector's role. 


                              A.  National level

236. In order to successfully develop a national plan of action for the
implementation of the Platform for Action, each country needs to clearly
indicate the budgetary allocations and resources needed at each level and
within each sector.  Non-governmental organizations, the private sector and
other institutions are also called upon to consider allocating the resources
necessary for the implementation of the Platform. 

237. Adequate resources should be allocated to national institutions for the
advancement of women and other institutions having the mandate to implement
the Platform.  Where the institutions have been funded on a temporary basis,
consideration should be given to placing them on an established basis.

238. In order to release resources for redeployment, international creditors
should negotiate debt-relief arrangements based on implementation of the
Platform for Action and Governments should reduce military expenditures.

239. Governments should take immediate steps to provide the legal and
administrative basis for providing incentives to the private sector and
communities to generate resources for implementing the Platform for Action.

240. The fund-raising capacity of non-governmental organizations, particularly
women's organizations and networks, should be enhanced and they should be
supported by Governments, which should be encouraged to work closely with them
as important partners in the advancement of women.


                              B.  Regional level

241. Regional development banks, regional business associations and other
regional institutions should contribute to the implementation of the Platform
for Action in their lending and other activities and should help to mobilize
resources for this purpose.


                            C.  International level

242. Adequate financial resources should be committed at the international
level for the implementation of the Platform for Action.  In this connection,
those countries providing bilateral development cooperation should conduct a
critical analysis of their assistance programmes with a view to re-orienting
and channelling resources to achieve the objectives of the Platform.  The
official development assistance target of 0.7 per cent of the gross national
product (GNP) of developed countries should be maintained and encouragement
given to increasing the share targeted to actions designed to implement the
Platform.  The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development should
continue the coordination arrangements developed in preparation for the Fourth
World Conference on Women as a means of monitoring and directing development
assistance and should report annually on trends.

243. International financial institutions, including the World Bank Group, the
International Monetary Fund, the International Fund for Agricultural
Development and the regional development banks, should examine their grants
and lending and should target loans and grants to programmes intended to
implement the Platform for Action, especially in the least developed
countries.

244. Development funds and programmes of the United Nations system should
undertake an immediate analysis of the extent to which their programmes and
projects are directed to implementing the Platform for Action and, for the
next programming cycle, should at least double the resources targeted towards
eliminating disparities between males and females in their technical
assistance and lending activities.

245. Recognizing the special roles of UNIFEM and INSTRAW in the empowerment of
women, the resources provided by Governments should be substantially increased
by the year 2000.

246. Consideration should be given to strengthening, as appropriate, the
Division for the Advancement of Women, regional programmes for the advancement
of women and focal points on women's issues in the United Nations common
system.  Moreover, the Focal Point for Women in the Department of
Administration and Management of the United Nations Secretariat should be
strengthened.  Provision of additional funds for these programmes in the light
of the Platform for Action should be considered in future programme budgets.


                                     Notes

     1/  Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the
Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women:  Equality, Development
and Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985 (United Nations publication, Sales No.
E.85.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

     2/  General Assembly resolution 34/180, annex.

     3/  General Assembly resolution 44/25, annex.

     4/  Final Report of the World Conference on Education for All:  Meeting
Basic Learning Needs, Jomtien, Thailand, 5-9 March 1990, Inter-Agency
Commission (UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank) for the World Conference on
Education for All, New York, 1990, appendix 1. 

     5/  Report of the International Conference on Population and
Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (A/CONF.171/13 and Add.1), chap. I,
resolution 1, annex.

     6/  General Assembly resolution 48/104.

     7/  General Assembly resolution 317 (IV), annex.

     8/  Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-seventh Session,
Supplement No. 38 (A/47/38), chap. I.

     9/  United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1125, No. 17512.    

     10/ See the addendum to the report of the Secretary-General on the
preparation of a plan of action for a United Nations decade for human rights
education (A/49/261/Add.1-E/1994/110/Add.1), annex, and General Assembly
resolution 49/184.

     11/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 189, No. 2545, p. 150.

     12/ Ibid., vol. 606, No. 8791, p. 267.

     13/ General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI).

     14/ Report of the World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna,
14-25 June 1993 (A/CONF.157/24 (Part I)), chap. III.

     15/ Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1993,
Supplement No. 7 (E/1993/27), chap. I, sect. C.


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