United Nations

  E/CN.17/IPF/1995/3


Economic and Social Council

 Distr. GENERAL
  9 October 1995
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


                   REPORT OF THE OPEN-ENDED AD HOC INTERGOVERNMENTAL
                         PANEL ON FORESTS ON ITS FIRST SESSION

                           (New York, 11-15 September 1995)


                                       CONTENTS


                                                              Paragraphs  Page

  I.   MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
       COUNCIL OR BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION ..................   1 - 2        3

       A.  Draft decision ...................................     1          3

       B.  Decision brought to the attention of the Council .     2          3

 II.   PROGRAMME OF WORK AND ORGANIZATIONAL MODALITIES FOR
       THE OPEN-ENDED AD HOC INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON
       FORESTS ..............................................   3 - 21       3

III.   DATES AND VENUES OF FUTURE MEETINGS ..................  22 - 26       9

 IV.   ADOPTION OF THE REPORT OF THE PANEL ON ITS FIRST
       SESSION ..............................................  27 - 29      10

  V.   ORGANIZATIONAL AND OTHER MATTERS .....................  30 - 42      10

       A.  Opening and duration of the session ..............  30 - 32      10

       B.  Attendance .......................................     33        10

       C.  Election of officers .............................  34 - 37      11

       D.  Agenda and organization of work ..................  38 - 39      11

       E.  Documentation ....................................     40        11

       F.  Participation of intergovernmental organizations
           in the work of the Panel .........................  41 - 42      12

                                        Annexes

  I.   ATTENDANCE .......................................................   13

 II.   LIST OF DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE PANEL AT ITS FIRST SESSION ..........   14

III.   TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE PANEL AS DETERMINED BY THE COMMISSION
       ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT .......................................   15

 IV.   LIST OF ACTIVITIES ORGANIZED BY GOVERNMENTS AND ORGANIZATIONS
       IN RELATION TO THE WORK OF THE PANEL .............................   18


           I.  MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
               COUNCIL OR BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION

                                  A.  Draft decision

1.   The Open-ended Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests recommends to
the Economic and Social Council the adoption of the following draft decision:


              Future sessions of the Open-ended Ad Hoc Intergovernmental
                                   Panel on Forests

     The Economic and Social Council approves the request of the Panel to
extend the duration of it second session, to be held in Geneva, from one week
to two weeks, so that the dates of the second session would be from 11 to
22 March 1995, and also approves its request that the third session be held
from 2 to 13 September 1996 at a venue to be determined.


                 B.  Decision brought to the attention of the Council

2.   The following decision adopted by the Panel is brought to the attention
of the Council:


                   Participation of intergovernmental organizations
                               in the work of the Panel

     The Open-ended Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests decides to
invite the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) to attend its
sessions as an intergovernmental organization with the status of observer.


          II.  PROGRAMME OF WORK AND ORGANIZATIONAL MODALITIES FOR THE
               OPEN-ENDED AD HOC INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON FORESTS

3.   At its 1st to 6th meetings, from 11 to 14 September 1995, the Open-ended
Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests considered item 3 of its agenda.  It
had before it the report of the Secretary-General on the proposed programme of
work and organizational modalities for the Panel of the Commission on
Sustainable Development (E/CN.17/IPF/1995/2).

4.   During the consideration of the item, statements were made by the
representatives of the Philippines (on behalf of the States Members of the
United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China), Iran (Islamic
Republic of), Spain (on behalf of the States members of the European Union),
the United States of America, Australia, China, Malaysia, the Republic of
Korea, Canada, Brazil, Indonesia, Japan, Uganda, Mexico, Finland, Germany, the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Venezuela, India,
France, Gabon, the Netherlands and Costa Rica.

5.   Statements were also made by the observers for Norway, Switzerland,
New Zealand, Colombia, Sweden, Ecuador, Guatemala and Portugal.

6.   Statements were made by the following specialized agencies:  United
Nations Industrial Development Organization, and Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations.

7.   A statement was also made by the representative of the European
Community.

8.   Statements were also made by the following non-governmental organizations
in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council:  International
Chamber of Commerce (category I); International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources (category II); Friends of the Earth, and
Fundacio'n Peruana para la Conservacio'n de la Naturaleza (roster).

9.   The Panel considered suggestions regarding its future programme of work
as contained in the report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.17/IPF/1995/2).

10.  The Panel stressed the need for an integrated and holistic approach in
its work in relation to all of the programme elements included in its terms of
reference by the Commission on Sustainable Development.  It decided that the
agendas of its forthcoming sessions should include all the issues in its
programme of work in order to allow their consideration in a balanced and
integrated manner.

11.  At the same time, the Panel felt that certain issues should be dealt with
in depth at particular future sessions, as follows:

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Programme
 element   Session 2               Session 3               Session 4
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  I.1      Initial discussion      Substantive discussion  Final consideration
  I.2      Substantive discussion  Progress report         Final consideration
  I.3      Initial discussion      Substantive discussion  Final consideration
  I.4      Substantive discussion  Progress report         Final consideration
  I.5      Substantive discussion  Progress report         Final consideration

 II        Substantive discussion  Further substantive     Final consideration
                                   discussion

III.1      Substantive discussion  Further substantive     Final consideration
                                   discussion

III.2      Initial discussion      Substantive discussion  Final consideration

 IV        Initial discussion      Substantive discussion  Final consideration

  V.1      Initial discussion      Substantive discussion  Final consideration
  V.2      No discussion           Initial discussion      Substantive
                                                           discussion and
                                                           final consideration
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

It was further decided that all issues would be open for consideration until
the conclusion of the work of the Panel.

12.  The Panel took note with satisfaction of the establishment of 
collaborative inter-agency arrangements comprising the organizations most
directly concerned with forest issues, particularly the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World
Bank, the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the
International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO).  Those arrangements were
intended to provide and mobilize substantive support for the work of the Panel
and its secretariat.  The Panel requested the Co-Chairmen of the Panel and the
Bureau to maintain close contacts with the secretariat and the inter-agency
arrangements mentioned above in order to provide guidance for the preparatory
work.

13.  The Panel requested the Secretary-General, through the inter-agency
arrangements established to support the work of the Panel, and drawing
particularly on the resources and technical expertise of relevant
organizations, including FAO, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, ITTO, and other
relevant organizations within and outside the United Nations system and
secretariats of relevant conventions, with appropriate contributions of non-
governmental organizations, to prepare reports as indicated in paragraph 18. 
Preparation of those reports should make full use of national information and
the body of knowledge existing in the international community.

14.  The Panel reiterated the need to confine its deliberations within the
terms of its reference as determined by the Commission on Sustainable
Development.

15.  The Panel welcomed efforts of Governments and organizations to organize
activities in relation with the work of the Panel and took note of various
ongoing and planned activities, which are listed in annex II below.  However,
although the results of such activities could provide valuable expert input to
the work of the Panel, any decisions on policy recommendations, to be
presented for consideration of the Commission on Sustainable Development at
its fifth session, would rest with the Panel itself.  Furthermore, those
activities should be in full conformity with the tasks assigned to the Panel.

16.  The Panel recommended to all countries and organizations planning or
proposing to organize meetings or expert consultations relevant to the work of
the Panel to ensure the open-ended, transparent, participatory and
representative nature of such initiatives and the balanced and active
involvement of developed and developing countries from all regions and groups.
The organizers, in the course of their preparation, should consult with the
Co-Chairmen, the Bureau and the secretariat of the Panel, as appropriate.

17.  The Panel appreciated the need for the broad and active involvement and
contribution of major groups, including the private sector and
non-governmental organizations, in the preparatory work for and deliberations
at its future sessions.

18.  The Panel decided that, for its future sessions, the preparatory work
should cover all elements in its programme of work as approved by the
Commission on Sustainable Development at its third session and would include
among others, the following:


          I.  Implementation of United Nations Conference on Environment
              and Development decisions related to forests at the
              national and international level including an examination
              of sectoral and cross-sectoral linkages

     I.1   The preparatory work should be based on the provisions of the
     Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global
     Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of
     all Types of Forests, and would benefit from consideration of regional
     initiatives and regional dimensions.  The preparatory work should
     include the preparation of a report on all types of forests, presenting
     an overview of current approaches to national strategies, including
     links between national forest plans and sustainable development
     strategies/plans, and land-use plans, including ecosystem management
     aspects, and sectoral plans; and a synthesis of lessons learned,
     including lessons learned from participatory forest management
     approaches at the national and field levels.  The preparatory work
     should also include a report on an assessment of progress made in
     implementing national forest and integrated land-use plans and should
     identify gaps in need of further attention.  It should also focus on
     improved cooperation and implementation by national Governments of
     bilateral and multilateral forest-related planning activities and
     programmes, and the use of national-level participatory processes to
     that end.

     I.2   Preparation for the discussion of this issue requires judicious
     consideration of an array of contributing factors, many of them of a
     cross-sectoral nature.  A report on the underlying causes and cross-
     sectoral influences on forest degradation and deforestation and on the
     difficulties of implementing sustainable forest management should be
     prepared.  The report should bring together key work in this area and
     identify gaps.

     I.3   Preparation for this programme element should take full benefit of,
     and establish links to, the work of the Conference of the Parties to the
     United Nations Convention of Biological Diversity.  Consistent with the
     terms of that Convention, it should encourage countries to consider ways
     and means for the effective protection and use of forest-related
     knowledge, the innovations and practices of forest dwellers, indigenous
     people and other local communities, and fair and equitable sharing of
     benefits arising from such knowledge, innovations and practices.

     I.4   Preparation for this issue would include a report on the experience
     with afforestation, reforestation, and the restoration of forest
     systems, where appropriate, particularly in countries with fragile
     ecosystems and those affected by desertification and/or drought,
     particularly in Africa, including links to the implementation of the
     United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries
     Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in
     Africa.  A synthesis of the impact of air-borne pollutants on forests -
     in particular, those in central and eastern Europe - and an assessment
     of ongoing activities and proposals for possible future action would
     also be included.  The report should include an assessment of the
     expansion of all types of forest cover due to reforestation and
     afforestation.

     I.5   Preparation would include a report on the specific needs of
     countries with low forest cover, particularly developing countries, in
     order to promote activities aimed at conserving the existing coverage,
     with particular attention to unique type of forests.  The report should
     consider particular situations where communities and forest dwellers
     depend on forests to meet their subsistence needs such as fuel, food,
     forage, grazing provisions for livestock, shelter, and medicinal plants. 
     The preparations for this issue should also include an identification of
     areas of low forest cover, forests as protected areas, and dry wood
     lands.


            II.  International cooperation in financial assistance and
                 technology transfer
 
     II.1  Preparations for and deliberations on this cross-cutting issue are
     relevant to the consideration of all other programme elements. 
     Consideration should be given to ways to address the critical areas
     relating to the transfer and development of environmentally sound
     technology on favourable terms, as mutually agreed, and the mobilization
     of financial resources, including the provision of new and additional
     resources, taking into account principles 10 and 11 of the Non-legally
     Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on
     the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of all Types of
     Forests and relevant chapters of Agenda 21, with a view to assisting
     developing countries to pursue policies and comprehensive strategies for
     achieving sustainable forest management, and taking into account the
     ongoing work of the Commission on Sustainable Development and other
     relevant processes.  Consideration should also be given to ways of
     improving the efficiency and coordination of bilateral and multilateral
     assistance in delivering forest programmes, including proposals for
     cooperation, at the national and international levels, within and among
     all relevant multilateral institutions, including United Nations
     agencies and the World Bank, and between multilateral and bilateral
     donors.


          III.  Scientific research, forest assessment and development of
                criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management

     III.1  Preparation would include two reports - one identifying ways to
     expand on the FAO Forest Resources Assessment with regard to the
     qualitative and quantitative assessment of all types of forests,
     including information on biological resources and non-wood forest
     products and services; information on environmental and social benefits;
     standardization of tropical and non-tropical data; collection of broader
     types of forest statistics; coordination of forest monitoring with
     remote sensing and geographical information systems; the continuous
     nature of the assessment; and accessibility of information generated to
     all interested parties.

     The second report would consider ways to promote the further development
     of methodologies for properly valuating the multiple benefits derived
     from forests, in the form of goods and services, and subsequently
     consider their inclusion within the systems of national accounts,
     drawing upon work that has already been undertaken by the United Nations
     and other relevant organizations and assessing progress in the
     application and incorporation of innovative approaches into national
     accounts.  Consideration of this item should benefit from deliberations
     under programme element IV and other ongoing work done in this field.

     The science community should be involved in the preparations of these
     analyses in order to explore ways and means of enhancing the scientific
     basis for such assessments and valuations.

     III.2  A report for discussion under this item should include, for all
     types of forests, a review of experience of the development and
     implementation of national-level criteria and indicators; an exploration
     of ways and means of facilitating the engagement of regions and
     countries not yet involved in a process for the development of criteria
     and indicators; and an examination of the need to promote comparability
     and the appropriateness of international compatibility, should that be
     judged necessary.  Work under this element should take into account
     regional and subregional characteristics of forests and the diversity of
     economic, social and cultural environments.  The report should consider
     the progress of various initiatives including those of ITTO, the
     Helsinki Process, the Montreal Process, the Tarapoto Process and the
     results of FAO/UNEP regional meetings.


             IV.  Trade and environment relating to forest products
                  and services

     IV.1  The broad mandate assigned to the Panel by the Commission on
     Sustainable Development should be examined in an integrated and holistic
     manner.  The overall goal is to promote the mutually supportive roles of
     trade and environment.  Reports should be prepared in order to identify
     opportunities and recommend measures for improving market access for
     forest products on a non-discriminatory basis and consider factors that
     may distort trade in forest products and affect their value, including
     pricing, import/export controls, subsidies and the need to remove bans
     and boycotts inconsistent with the rules of the multilateral trading
     system.  Reports should include an assessment of means to promote the
     development of methodologies to advance the full valuation, including
     replacement and environmental costs, of forest goods and services, and
     of wood substitutes, with the view to promoting full cost
     internalization.  Reports must, taking into account the interests of all
     sectors and the particularities of different countries and ensuring full
     transparency and participation of all interested parties, examine the
     issue of voluntary certification and labelling of forest products, so as
     to contribute to a better understanding of the role of voluntary
     certification with regard to the sustainable management of forests,
     including the impact of certification on developing countries.  The
     Secretary-General, in carrying out the consultative process outlined in
     paragraph 13 above, is requested to draw on the expertise of
     organizations, such as UNEP, UNCTAD, ITTO and the World Trade
     Organization (WTO), able to contribute to the preparatory work under
     this programme element.


          V.  International organizations and multilateral institutions
              and instruments including appropriate legal mechanisms

     V.1   Preparation would include a report presenting an overview and
     description of existing institutions and instruments, including their
     role and mandates vis-a`-vis programme elements I-IV above, and
     identifying institutional linkages, gaps, areas requiring enhancement,
     and any areas of duplication.

     V.2   The deliberation of this programme element would be based on a
     step-by-step consensus-building process and would be an item for
     substantive discussion at the fourth session of the Panel.

19.  The Panel agreed on the need to allocate the business to be considered
at its second and, probably, third sessions, between not more than two in-
sessional working groups, each chaired by one of the Co-Chairmen.  Specific
arrangements would be proposed by the two Co-Chairmen in consultation with all
interested delegations.

20.  Bearing in mind the complexity and broad scope of issues on its agenda,
the Panel decided that its second meeting should be held in Geneva for up to
two weeks, between 11 and 22 March 1996, and that its third session should be
held for up to two weeks, between 2 and 13 September 1996, provisionally in
Geneva.

21.  The Panel welcomed the active response of a number of organizations of
the United Nations system and ITTO in supporting the needs of the Panel and
the establishment of its secretariat.  The Panel also expressed its
appreciation to all countries who pledged to make voluntary contributions to
support the operation of the Panel and encouraged all others in a position to
do so to consider providing extrabudgetary resources for that purpose, as was
recommended by the Commission on Sustainable Development.


                       III.  DATES AND VENUES OF FUTURE MEETINGS

22.  The Panel considered item 4 of its agenda at its 6th to 8th meetings, on
14 and 15 September 1995.

23.  At the 6th meeting, on 14 September, statements were made by the
representatives of the United States of America, Spain (on behalf of the
States members of the European Union), the Philippines (on behalf of the
States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and
China) and Canada and by the observer for Switzerland.

24.  At the 7th meeting, on 14 September, a statement was made by the
Secretary of the Panel.

25.  At the 8th meeting on 15 September, statements were made by the
representatives of Spain (on behalf of the States members of the European
Union), the Philippines (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations
that are members of the Group of 77 and China), Japan, Canada and the United
States of America and by the observer for Switzerland.

26.  Also at the 8th meeting, on 15 September, the Panel decided, pending
approval of the Economic and Social Council, to extend the duration of its
second session, to be held in Geneva, by one week so that the dates of the
second session would be from 11 to 22 March 1996 (see chap. I, sect. A) and
decided that, pending approval of the Economic and Social Council, the dates
of the third session would be from 2 to 13 September 1996, at a venue to be
determined.


             IV.  ADOPTION OF THE REPORT OF THE PANEL ON ITS FIRST SESSION

27.  At the 8th meeting, on 15 September 1995, the Panel had before it the
draft report on its first session (E/CN.17/IPF/1995/L.2 and Add.1).

28.  At the same meeting, the Panel adopted the first part of the report.

29.  At the 9th meeting, on 15 September 1995, the Panel adopted the second
part of the report, as orally amended.


                         V.  ORGANIZATIONAL AND OTHER MATTERS

                        A.  Opening and duration of the session

30.  The Open-ended Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests of the
Commission on Sustainable Development held its first session from 11 to
15 September 1995, in accordance with Economic and Social Council decision
1995/226.  The Panel held nine meetings (1st to 9th meetings).

31.  The session was opened by the temporary Chairman, Mr. Henrique Brandao
Cavalcanti (Brazil).

32.  The Under-Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
Development addressed the Panel.


                                    B.  Attendance

33.  The session was attended by representatives of 35 States members of the
Commission on Sustainable Development.  Observers for other States Members of
the United Nations and for non-member States, representatives of organizations
of the United Nations system and observers for intergovernmental,
non-governmental and other organizations also attended.  A list of
participants is contained in annex I to the present report.


                               C.  Election of officers

34.  At its 1st meeting, on 11 September 1995, the Panel elected, by
acclamation, Sir Martin Holdgate (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland) Co-Chairman.  It also elected, by acclamation, Mr. N. R. Krishnan
(India) Co-Chairman for the first and second sessions of the Panel, on the
understanding that Mr. Manuel Rodriguez (Colombia) would be Co-Chairman for
the third and fourth sessions of the Panel.

35.  At the same meeting, after their election, statements were made by the
Co-Chairmen.

36.  At its 7th meeting, on 14 September 1995, the Panel elected, by
acclamation, Mr. Juste Boussienguet (Gabon) Vice-Chairman.

37.  At its 8th meeting, on 15 September 1995, the Panel elected, by
acclamation, Mr. Anatoliy I. Pisarenko (Russian Federation) Vice-Chairman.


                          D.  Agenda and organization of work

38.  At its 1st meeting, on 11 September 1995, the Panel adopted its
provisional agenda, contained in document E/CN.17/IPF/1995/1, as orally
corrected.  The agenda was as follows:

     1.    Election of officers.

     2.    Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters.

     3.    Programme of work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests.

     4.    Dates and venues of future meetings.

     5.    Other matters.

     6.    Adoption of the report of the Panel on its first session.

39.  At the same meeting, the Panel approved its organization of work.


                                   E.  Documentation

40.  The documents before the Panel are listed in annex II to the present
report.


               F.  Participation of intergovernmental organizations
                   in the work of the Panel

41.  At its 5th meeting, on 13 September 1995, the Panel considered the
question of the participation of intergovernmental organizations in its work. 
It had before it a note by the Secretariat (E/CN.17/IPF/1995/L.1) entitled
"Participation of intergovernmental organizations in the work of the Open-
ended Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests", in which the Secretariat
recommended to the Panel that the Centre for International Forestry Research
(CIFOR) be invited to attend the sessions of the Panel as an intergovernmental
organization with the status of observer.

42.  At the same meeting, the Panel approved the recommendation.


                                         Notes

     1/    See Report of the Commission on Social Development on its Third
Session (Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1995, Supplement
No. 12 (E/1995/32)), sect. III of annex I, following para. 204.  The programme
elements are reproduced in annex III to the present report.


                                        Annex I

                                      ATTENDANCE


                 Members of the Commission on Sustainable Development

     Australia, Belarus, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Finland,
France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic
Republic of), Italy, Japan, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Spain,
Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United
States of America, Uruguay and Venezuela.


             States Members of the United Nations represented by observers

     Algeria, Argentina, Austria, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador,
Guatemala, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Lebanon, Madagascar, Mali, New Zealand,
Norway, Paraguay, Portugal, Romania, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Syrian
Arab Republic, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago and Zimbabwe.


                Non-Member States and entities represented by observers

     Switzerland, European Community.


                    Specialized agencies and related organizations

     Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and United Nations
Industrial Development Organization.


               Intergovernmental organizations represented by observers

     Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee, Center for International
Forestry Research and International Tropical Timber Organization.


                            Non-governmental organizations

     Category I:  International Chamber of Commerce

     Category II:  International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
                   Resources (IUCN)

     Roster:  Friends of the Earth, Fundacio'n Peruana para la Conservacio'n
de la Naturaleza, Instituto Sul-Mineiro de Estudios e de Conservac'ao de
Natureza.


                                       Annex II

                LIST OF DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE PANEL AT ITS FIRST SESSION


  Document symbol            Agenda item                  Title

E/CN.17/IPF/1995/1                    2             Provisional agenda

E/CN.17/IPF/1995/2                    3             Report of the
                                                    Secretary-General
                                                    on the  proposed programme
                                                    of work and organizational
                                                    modalities for the
                                                    Open-ended Ad Hoc
                                                    Intergovernmental Panel on
                                                    Forests of the Commission
                                                    on Sustainable Development

E/CN.17/IPF/1995/L.1                  2             Note by the Secretariat on
                                                    the participation of
                                                    intergovernmental
                                                    organizations in the work
                                                    of the Open-ended
                                                    Ad Hoc Intergovernmental
                                                    Panel on Forests

E/CN.17/IPF/1995/L.2                  6             Draft report of the
 and Add.1                                          Open-ended
                                                    Ad Hoc Intergovernmental
                                                    Panel on Forests on its
                                                    first session


                                       Annex III

                 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE PANEL AS DETERMINED BY THE
                         COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


       I.  Implementation of the United Nations Conference on Environment
           and Development decisions related to forests at the national
           and international level, including an examination of sectoral
           and cross-sectoral linkages

1.   Consider actions to promote progress through national forests and land-
use plans and programmes in implementing the Forest Principles and chapter 11
and other chapters related to forests in Agenda 21, through an open,
transparent and participatory process involving Governments and all interested
parties, including major groups, particularly indigenous people and local
communities.

2.   Identify and consider ways to address the underlying causes of
deforestation, forest degradation and the difficulties in implementing
sustainable forest management, with particular attention to cross-sectoral
factors, including the impact on and from forests, at the national and
international levels, such as consumption and production patterns, poverty,
population growth, pollution, terms of trade, discriminatory trade practices
and unsustainable policies related to sectors such as agriculture, energy and
trade.

3.   Consistent with the terms of the Convention on Biological Diversity,
encourage countries to consider ways and means for the effective protection
and use of traditional forest-related knowledge, innovations and practices of
forest dwellers, indigenous people and other local communities, as well as
fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from such knowledge,
innovations and practices.

4.   Monitor actions to support afforestation, reforestation and the
restoration of forest systems, where appropriate, particularly in countries
with fragile ecosystems and affected by desertification and/or drought,
particularly in Africa.  Within this context, also consider specific actions
in countries whose forests are affected by pollution, particularly those with
economies in transition in central and eastern Europe

5.   Propose measures to address the needs and requirements of developing
countries and other countries with low forest cover in order to promote the
activities aimed at conserving the existing coverage, with particular
attention to the unique types of forests.


            II.  International cooperation in financial assistance and
                 technology transfer 

1.   Explore ways of improving the efficiency and coordination of bilateral
and multilateral assistance; and consider ways to address the critical areas
relating to the transfer and development of environmentally sound technology
on favourable terms as mutually agreed and the mobilization of financial
resources, including the provision of new and additional resources with a view
to assisting developing countries to pursue policies and comprehensive
strategies for achieving sustainable forest management, recalling principles
10 and 11 of the Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for
a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development
of All Types of Forests, and the Rome Statement on Forestry, agreed by
Ministers Responsible for Forests in March 1995.


          III.  Scientific research, forest assessment and development of
                criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management

1.   Review existing periodic assessment of forests, including relevant
socio-economic and environmental factors, at the global level; identify
shortfalls in present assessments relative to policy considerations; and
recommend practical ways of improving such assessments.  Examine ways to
broaden the scientific knowledge and the statistical database available in
order to better understand the ecological, economic, cultural and social
functions performed by all types of forests.  Promote the further development
of methodologies for properly valuing the multiple benefits derived from
forests in the form of goods and services, and subsequently to consider their
inclusion within the systems of national accounting, drawing upon work that
has been already undertaken by the United Nations and other relevant
organizations.

2.   Encourage national implementation of criteria and indicators for
sustainable forest management and study the feasibility of further developing
internationally agreed upon criteria and indicators against which progress
towards sustainable forest management of all types of forests could be
measured, taking into account the specific regional and subregional conditions
of forests and the diversity of economic, social and cultural environments. 
Within this context, facilitate the engagement of regions and countries not
yet involved in developing criteria and indicators of sustainable forest
management; share experiences in testing and implementing them; and examine
the need to promote comparability and the appropriateness of convergence among
international initiatives in this regard.


              IV.  Trade and environment relating to forest products
                    and services

1.   Examine relevant factors affecting trade in forest products and other
forest-and-trade issues in an integrated and holistic approach that promotes a
supportive relationship between trade and environment.  In this connection,
identify opportunities and recommend measures for improving market access for
forest products on a non-discriminatory basis and consider factors that may
distort trade in forest products and affect their value, including pricing,
import/export controls, subsidies and the need to remove unilateral bans and
boycotts inconsistent with the rules of the international trade system. 
Promote the development of methodologies to advance the full valuation,
including replacement and environmental costs, of forest goods and services,
with a view to promoting full cost internalization.  Taking account of the
interests of all sectors and particularities of different countries and
ensuring full transparency and participation of all interested parties,
examine the issue of voluntary certification and labelling of forest products
so as to contribute to a better understanding of the role of voluntary
certification with regard to the sustainable management of forests, including
the impact of certification on developing countries.


          V.  International organizations and multilateral institutions
              and instruments, including appropriate legal mechanisms

1.   Develop a clearer view of the work being carried out by international
organizations and multilateral institutions and under existing instruments as
appropriate, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United
Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing
Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa, the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and
the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) in forest-related issues,
including United Nations Conference on Environment and Development decisions
related to forests, and the institutional linkages emanating therefrom, in
order to identify any gaps, and areas requiring enhancement, as well as any
areas of duplication.

2.   In the light of issues I-V.1 above, based on consensus-building in a
step-by-step process, consider and advise on the need, or otherwise, for other
instruments or arrangements in further implementation of the Forest
Principles, including appropriate legal arrangements and mechanisms covering
all types of forests.


                                       Annex IV

             LIST OF ACTIVITIES ORGANIZED BY GOVERNMENTS AND ORGANIZATIONS
                         IN RELATION TO THE WORK OF THE PANEL

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Programme                                                          Tentative
 element            Title                      Sponsors         date and venue
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I.1 and II   Implementing the Forest
             Principles:  promotion of
             national forest and land-use
             programmes                        Germany          June 1996

I.2 and IV   Intersessional activity to study
             long-term trends in supply and
             demand for wood products, the
             factors affecting those trends,
             and possible implications for                      To be
             forest management                 Norway           determined

I.4          Desertification, rehabilitation
             and reafforestation of degraded                    February '96
             forest lands                      Portugal         (tentatively) 

II           Workshop on financial mechanisms,
             sources and coordination,
             including innovative financial
             resources, and issues related to
             financial resources/incentives
             within the context of the forest  Denmark,         To be
             sector                            UNDP             determined

III.1        Forest assessment                 France           To be
                                                                determined

III.2        Intergovernmental seminar of
             experts on criteria and
             indicators for sustainable
             forest management                 Finland          19-23 Aug.1996

III.2        Seminar on the testing of
             criteria and indicators at                         To be
             the regional and local levels     Japan            determined

IV           Conference on the certification
             and labelling of sustainably                       First half 
             produced forest products          Australia        of 1996

IV           Certification of forest products
             and trade                         Germany          August 1996

V.1          Study on the work of
             international organizations and
             multilateral institutions in      Switzerland      October 1995-
             the forest sector                 and Peru         September 1996

                                         -----

 


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Date last posted: 6 December 1999 16:48:34
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD