BACKGROUND DOCUMENT INFORMATION ON PROGRAMME ELEMENT II.c TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT New York, June 1998 This is a non-official document, for information only, prepared by the UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANISATION as Lead Agency on this Programme Element within the informal, high level Interagency Task Force on Forests (ITFF). It provides additional background information to delegations attending the second session of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (Geneva, 24 August-4 September 1998). Published in English only. TABLE OF CONTENTS ACRONYMS Executive Summary INTRODUCTION GENERAL OVERVIEW OF IPF■S CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION CURRENT STATUS OF TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMNETALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES Multilateral resource providers Bilateral resource providers United Nations agencies and international/regional intergovernmnetal organisations Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), professional societies, networks and associations. Local organisations and associations Universities and research institutions Extension institutions Contributions from the private sector ASSESSMENT OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Forest development policy imperatives Range of possible technologies Technology assessment methodology, and capacity building Interlinkages between research, technology generation, information technology and trade Current trends in north-south technology transfer Current trends in south-south technology transfer Technology transfer and diffusion to extension workers, private sector agents and farmers Gender implications of forest related technology transfer Technologies for the use of wood as an energy source CONCLUSIONS AND PRELIMINARY PROPOSALS FOR ACTION Assessment of technology generation and needs Interlinkages between research, technology generation and information technology North-South technology transfer South-south and trilateral technology transfer Technology transfer and diffusion through extension workers to private secotr agents and farmers Technologies for use of wood as an energy source References This document is meant to be a document in evolution. Any comments on this document are appreciated and can be forwarded to the IFF Secretariat, attention: Elisabeth Barsk-Rundquist, Economic Affairs Officer Room: DC2-1264 IFF Secretariat Division for Sustainable Development/DESA United Nations New York, New York 10017, USA E-mail: email@example.com Ph: 1-212-963-3263 Fax: 1-212-963-3463 ACRONYMS APAFRI Asia-Pacific Association of Forest Research Institutes ATO African Timber Organisation CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild Fauna and Flora DFID Department for International Development (UK) DPCSD Department of Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations FORSPA Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific IFF Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Forum on Forests IPF Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests ITFF Interagency Task Force on Forests ITTO International Tropical Timber Organisation IUCN The World Conservation Union IUFRO International Union of Forest Research Organisations NGOs Non-governmental organisations ODA Official Development Assistance SADC Southern Africa Development Conference SIDA Swedish International Development Agency UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organisation WWF World Wide Fund for Nature INTRODUCTION 1. At its first session in October 1997, the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests emphasised the need to build on the positive results achieved by the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF) and to consider matters left pending and matters arising from the programme elements discussed during the IPF process. The Forum decided that the topic of technology transfer would be discussed under Category II.c of its programme of work with the following mandate: "Examination of ways of promoting, facilitating and financing access to and transfer of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how to developing countries on favourable terms, including concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account chapter 34 of Agenda 21 and paragraph 11 of the Forest Principles, and examine appropriate mechanisms to effect such access and transfer; consider technologies and technical knowledge, including extension services for local sustainable management, as well as enhanced technology development, transfer and application to improve the utilisation of wood and non-wood forest products and services, with special attention to wood as an energy source and to the role of women." (paragraph 7 of E/CN.17/IFF/1997/4) 2. The Forum also decided that this issue would receive substantive discussion at its second session. This background document is prepared with the intention of providing the basis for that discussion. 3. This background document, therefore, recalls some of the conclusions and proposals for action in the final report of IPF (E/CN.17/IPF/1997/12) relevant to transfer of environmentally sound technologies. The document will also give a brief overview of the particular problems encountered on transferring technologies specifically for forests and forest products processing. It will describe some of the activities undertaken by some of the major actors in transferring forest-related technologies. The document also has brief description of the types of technologies that need to be transferred and what particular mechanisms would be needed to facilitate this. The background document concludes with a set of conclusions and preliminary proposals for action that the Forum may wish to consider. 4. Improved access to and better application of available and emerging technologies would greatly contribute to sustainable management of forests. It is, however, also important to recognise the reality of many countries, where technology is often not the critical limiting factor in enhancing conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests. Rather, the status of forestry practice in many countries is such that major advances can be made in sustainable forest management through improvements in current management practices. Therefore, in this background document, technology is understood in a broad sense, to include techniques (e.g. genetic engineering) as well as methods (e.g. management), and technical knowledge and information. 5. Furthermore, there may not necessarily be a -technology-fix■ for every problem; not every constraint to sustainable forest management can be alleviated by the transfer of technology. Policy environments favourable to sustainable forest management and to the implementation of technologies are as important as the technologies themselves. 6. Sound technologies should be developed, adapted and adopted by different actors and major groups in sustainable management of forests at different levels. Local communities and NGOs, whose participation is now more adequately acknowledged and integrated in National Forest Programmes, are of particular importance. 7. It is important to stress that, in the transparent and participatory spirit of the IPF/IFF dialogues, all parties need to be cautious about the possible mix of purposes between technology transfer and "technology dumping". Transfer of technology should be driven by needs and not by supply. 8. In addition, the way technologies are used is critical to their impact on sustainable forest management. Thus capacity building, training and organisation are critical to the transfer of technology process. 9. Although the present distribution of technologies is uneven, their transfer should not be limited to one way, e.g. from developed to developing countries or from technical institutions to user communities. The active participation of -recipients■ is essential to the development, adoption and implementation of technologies. The adequate integration of their specific knowledge and experience is necessary to enrich the global technology pool. 10. Traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) requires specific consideration in the discussion of transfer and benefit sharing from derived products. This is a somewhat neglected area but there exists significant opportunities for transfer of Traditional Forest Related Knowledge (TFRK) and methods. There are many environmentally sound indigenous technologies to be refined and shared by developing countries. In many cases, in developing countries, where TFRK has the potential to lead to important breakthroughs, intellectual property protection does not exist and/or is not enforced. 11. It is clear that for the world's forests to continue providing life support systems while also supporting social and economic development of present and future populations, their conservation, management and sustainable development must continue to benefit from and take advantage of the most recent relevant technological advances and technical know-how. Technological advances hold great potential for more efficient and sustainable management of forests in the areas of accurate resource assessment, intensification of production, wood processing and use, non-wood forest products processing and use. This is common to all countries, developing and developed. 12. The aspects of forestry which stand the most to benefit from technological innovations include (i) forest resource assessment (remote sensing, computer based GIS techniques, etc.), (ii) intensive wood production (biotechnology and breeding), (iii) forest harvesting and transport, (iv) wood processing and use (saw mill technologies, pulp and paper manufacturing, energy production), and (v) processing and other addition of value to non- wood forest products (fruits, oils/gums, pharmaceutical products, etc.). It is important to maintain focus on all these areas in considering opportunities and options for technology transfer and capacity building, as they all impact on sustainable management of forests. Thus the scope of the deliberations on technology transfer need to be broader and not only consider, for example, logging practices but also the whole chain of technologies applied to and for forest products and services, as well as methods and systems. 13. Much of the advanced technologies both of realised and potential benefit to conservation, management and sustainable development of forests are located in developed countries and access often remains difficult to developing countries. At the same time developing countries continue to rely on out-dated technologies in forest operations such as saw milling, with undesirable wastage and environmental consequences. This wastage and environmental degradation is so alarming in many timber producing developing countries in the tropics that many actors in the public domain and private sector have embarked on initiatives for certification of sustainable management forests and labelling of forest products in international trade. 14. It is important to pursue the IPF recommendation that "finance and technology should be considered interrelated components of investment and international assistance, and are essential for socio-economic development and growth.■ Several estimates have been made on the net investment required to achieve sustainable forest management in developing countries. Chapter 11 of Agenda 21 estimated that the total cost would be of about $ 31.25 billion annually for the period 1993-2000. Even if all costs related to SFM is not only to be borne by ODA but also by domestic sources, current level of ODA in forestry is only 27.2% of this amount and it is not likely to increase in the present day political and economic climate" (Interagency Task Force on Forests, June 1997). For developing countries, technology transfer has, traditionally, been a component of development assistance packages. In the future, however, the private sector is likely to play a greater role and technology transfer would feature more prominently in agreements on trade and environment in relation to forest products and services. II. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF IPF'S CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION 15. In order to make progress, it is important for the discussions at the second session of IFF to build upon the following specific recommendations of the Final Session of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (February 1997): "63. There is unprecedented accumulation of technological capability - much of which remains largely unrecognised, under-utilised, and inadequately shared. Technological innovations are critical. It is also noted that transfer of environmentally sound technologies in the forest sector emphasised in principle 11 of the Forest Principles is critical to the implementation of NFPs. However, the potentials of technologies for transfer need to be assessed by all interested parties". "64. Technology resides largely in the North. Thus, North - South co- operation is important. But, South - South co-operation is also important". "65. Developed countries bear special responsibility for transfer and equitable sharing of the necessary technologies for strong NFPs in developing countries". "66. Priority in technology transfer and capacity building should be established and continuously reviewed". "67. The need to review and improve information systems emphasised. Internet-based information systems have great potentials". "68. Proposals for action to enhance technology transfer and capacity building are: Countries to assess and to explicitly identify their national technological requirements consistent with recognised priorities within NFPs and other national policy frameworks. Countries to formulate policies and incentives that encourage all concerned to develop and to use environmentally sound technologies Promotion of South-South, North-South, as well as trilateral co- operation in forest related technology transfer Greater emphasis on capacity building in the development of NFPs. Donor countries and multilateral organisations to support capacity building in data gathering as part of NFPs and to strengthen national institutions in forest assessment". 16. Following its final session, CSD endorsed IPF report and stressed the urgent need for: "enhanced international co-operation to implement IPF■s proposals for actions towards management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests, including provision for financial resources, capacity building, research and the transfer of technology". 17. The Interagency Task Force on Forests prepared a document "Interagency Partnership on Forests: Implementation of the IPF Proposals for Action by the ITFF" proposing a work plan for each programme element of the IPF. Concerning -International Co-operation in Financial Assistance and Technology Transfer for Sustainable Forest Management, proposed activities include: (i) to develop and implement in different socio-economic and ecological regions and in a pilot scale, innovative ways of financing sustainable forest management, including the development of incentives, partnerships (i.e. partnership agreements), taking into account existing experiences; (ii) to support countries in identifying, developing and utilising environmentally sound technologies, including traditional forest knowledge, and address the related needs for capacity building at all levels, including through the strengthening of North-South and South-South co-operation; (iii) to identify ways and means to ensure co-ordination and complementarily of forest and forest related actions at the national and international level being undertaken by bilateral and multilateral institutions and organisations and international instruments related to forests. CURRENT STATUS OF THE TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES 18. Technology for sustainable forest management is understood here in a broad sense encompassing techniques as well as methods, technical knowledge and information. Therefore transfer of technology is a component of a wide range of programmes and projects at different levels from research and scientific information to technical co-operation and extension. 19. Diverse organisations play different roles in the transfer of environmentally sound technologies to support sustainable forest management. For example, universities and other research and training organisations provide help with the state of knowledge and practice. Public and private organisations have formal and informal linkages specifically for transfer of such technologies the world over. Multilateral, bilateral and local resource providers include technology transfer and capacity building components in their support packages. The United Nations and its relevant specialised agencies play a significant role as facilitators of global consensus building and assist countries in technology transfer and capacity building. Many intergovernmental agencies and political and/or economic blocks assist in the transfer and adoption of environmentally sound technologies. In some countries, private industry is active in the development and transfer of technologies. Environmental NGOs are becoming increasingly important advocates for the transfer and adoption of environmentally sound technologies in many parts of the world. A few examples are described in the following sections to highlight status and trends in technology transfer. A. Multilateral Resource Providers 20. The World Bank has the largest portfolio of support for natural resources/rural environmental management projects (involving some aspects of forest management). Indeed, since UNCED, the World Bank Group has undertaken a major reassessment of its policies in an attempt to ensure conformity with the relevant international agreements. However, the World Bank's profile in direct support specifically for transfer of environmentally sound technologies remains relatively low. For example, a breakdown of investments in World Bank- financed forestry projects (1984 - 1995) indicate that US $ 232 million, went specifically to support technology development and transfer which amounts to only 4% of its total investment in the forestry sector for the same period. A particularly noteworthy recent development is the World Bank's participation in multi-stakeholder partnerships such as the Markets Transformation Initiatives (MTIs) which includes forestry among a few other technology development areas. The Forest Markets Transformation Initiative aims at helping the global timber industry to shift towards environmentally sustainable practices through innovative financing packages to stimulate sustainable timber harvesting. This presents an excellent opportunity to promote and to support transfer of environmentally sound technologies as part of drive for "green carrot" financing mechanisms. 21. Conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests is a major goal of the European Union (EU) The European Commission■s support for forest sector development currently stands at about 100 million ECU annually. Although direct support to technology transfer is not always clearly identified, it is recognised that that EU exerts important leverage in relevant bilateral assistance packages involving its member states. The International Cooperation (INCO) programme, formerly Science and Technology for Development (STD), which supports research projects associating institutions in developing and in EU countries, is an interesting mechanism for transfer of technology through concrete co-operation in common projects. 22. Among the regional banks that support development projects in forest sector, the Asian Development Bank (AsDB) supports several forestry development projects within its area of coverage. For example, in 1993, AsDB invested US $ 74.0 million out of a total of US $ 574.3 million invested by all the Official Development Assistance (ODA) invested in the region. It is noteworthy that a relatively high proportion of AsDB investment has been on support of technology transfer and capacity building projects. 23. The African Development Bank (AfDB) support for forest sector projects in Africa totaled US $ 5.0 million out of a total of US $ 472 million of ODA invested in the continent in the same year. AfDB has developed an environmental policy since 1990 and prepared a specific forestry policy in 1994 titled "African Development Bank Forest Policy and Strategy for lending to forestry development programmes in Africa. AfDB accords high priority to investment in projects with strong components on technology transfer and capacity building. 24. The Inter American Development Bank (IADB) has drastically increased its investment in forest sector projects since UNCED. For example, IADB's investment in forestry projects rose sharply from US $ 9.8 million in 1990 to US $ 74 million in 1993. IADB currently accords high priority to projects with strong components on transfer of technology and know-how. B. Bilateral Resource Providers 25. Sustainable forest management is the objective of numerous bilateral co- operation and assistance projects by developed countries in the world. These projects concern all aspects of sustainable forest development from participatory natural forest management to plantations and saw milling technologies. Although very few are specifically aimed at transfer of technology, this latter activity is, in most cases, included as a means or prerequisite to achieving the overall objectives of the projects. The national expertise and experience of the country providing assistance are contributed for the implementation of the projects, which often also involve capacity building through short term or long term training to acquire knowledge and techniques necessary to the achievement of the objectives. 26. The Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) has rapidly become a major actor in providing bilateral assistance (including for forestry projects) to many developing countries in the last fifteen years or so. In 1993, Japan's official development assistance for forestry projects in various parts of the world stood at US $84 million. 27. The USA government bilateral assistance agency, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) supports many forestry projects in developing countries. In 1993, the total USAID support for forestry projects in various countries stood at US $ 121 million. 28. The Federal Republic of Germany is another important actor in the transfer of technologies and technical know-how for sustainable management of forests. The government bilateral agency for technical co-operation, Gessellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) supports many forestry projects in various parts of the world with technology transfer and capacity building components. In 1993, GTZ total support to forestry projects in various countries stood at US $ 173.1 million. The Institute of World Forestry at the Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products (BFH) in Hamburg conducts research on forest management and forest products utilization in many parts of the world. 29. Britain has, and continues to play a role in the transfer of technologies, particularly in the Commonwealth countries. Capacity building and technology transfer have been supported by the government agency for international co-operation, DFID, in areas such as forest assessment, charcoal making, saw milling, etc. For example, DFID supports forestry research in developing countries at the level of pound sterling 2.5 million annually. Currently DFID supports many projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia with significant components on access to markets development of national skills and infrastructure, such as drying kilns and processing equipment. 30. France supports many forestry development projects primarily in francophone countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean region (including its overseas territories). For example, in 1993, the official development assistance in the forest sector totalled US $ 30.5 million. Significant components of these projects involve capacity building. Both public and private sector organisations in France have made important contributions to the transfer of environmentally sound technologies, particularly in the use of biotechnology for enhanced forest production. 31. Canada has a long history of support for capacity building and technology transfer for forestry development in many developing countries. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) supports many forestry projects in developing countries with technology transfer components. For example, CIDA has made recent important contribution to the transfer of tree seed handling technologies in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. 32. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) has several on-going forestry research projects, mainly in Southeast Asia, the Pacific and Africa. Through these projects, developing countries benefit from transfer of technologies and know-how. The Forest Products Laboratory of the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), for example, is currently developing a new technology for utilising wood waste from forest harvesting and sawmills to be used for electricity generation in "micro-turbine" gasifiers. 33. Nordic countries are also actively engaged in the transfer of technology. For example, many of the projects supported by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) in many developing countries have had capacity building and technology transfer components. Swedish timber harvesting and saw milling technologies have been adopted in many countries of the tropics. The thrust of SIDA■s new strategy is in integrated national forests programmes with greater emphasis on environmentally sound technologies. Denmark, Norway, and Finland are important actors in capacity building and technology transfer in support of sustainable forest management in many beneficiary developing countries. Denmark has made most significant impact in training and technology transfer in the area of forest genetic resources, tree seed procurement and handling. Finland has made important contributions in training and technology transfer in the areas of timber harvesting and in pulp and paper manufacture. Norway has developed a good reputation in forest engineering and has supported capacity building and technology transfer in many developing countries in this field. C. United Nations Agencies and International/Regional Intergovernmental Organisations 34. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) serves as an intergovernmental policy forum on forestry development issues, as a focal point for technical information collection and dissemination, and as a facilitator in assisting countries in capacity building through technical co-operation. FAO assists its member countries with technical expertise including capacity building and technology transfer. FAO Forestry Field Programme comprised a total of 179 projects in various countries with an annual budget of US $ 60 million. The FAO executed project on -Improved productivity of man-made forests through application of technological advances in tree breeding and propagation■ (FORTIP) in Asia and the Pacific, is a good example of a mechanism to facilitate transfer of technologies among countries of a region and the incorporation of relevant methods and techniques from outside the region. 35. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) assists countries to build self-reliance through institutional capacity building focused on the countries' basic needs. In 1993, UNDP direct support to projects in the forest sector in the various countries totaled US $ 33.5 million. Since, and in response to UNCED, UNDP has launched its Capacity 21 programme to assist countries develop their capacities to manage their resources in environmentally sound manner with transfer of technologies and know-how as important components. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) plays a central role in assisting countries to integrate environmental concerns and requirements in their national development programmes and activities. Transfer of knowledge, methods and sound technologies for sustainable forest management and conservation is a component of many UNEP projects in the forestry sector. 37. The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) has reviewed its projects and developed new operational guidelines with greater focus on environmental aspects of forest industries and stronger linkages between forest management and industries. UNIDO supports transfer of technologies through provision of advice (UNIDO runs a Timber Industries Unit). It has been UNIDO's general strategy to promote and to support joint ventures within a country to take advantage of improved technologies. A good example of this strategy is a recent initiative in Ecuador which involves partnership between UNIDO and the Executive Commission for the Wood Industries of Ecuador (CEEIMA) which runs an integrated package of projects covering training, investment or partnership promotion, technical advice, and market development. 38. The International Timber Trade Organization (ITTO) has maintained focus on environmental impact of timber trade. For example, ITTO has made noteworthy contribution in the development of Criteria and Indicators of sustainable management of forests. ITTO provides support for forestry development projects in member countries. For example, in 1993, ITTO support for projects amounted to US $ 15.5 million. ITTO currently accords high priority to transfer of environmentally sound technologies. For example, ITTO provides fellowships to support study attachments, study tours and seminars, which facilitates "technology transfer to producer member countries". To date, 382 fellowships have been awarded to individuals from 32 countries. 39. Tratado de Cooperacion Amazonica/Amazon Cooperation Treaty (TCA) fosters collaboration on policies and activities in agriculture, fisheries, forestry and environment among member countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. TCA implements its activities through specific Commission on Environment (CEMMA) and Commission on Science and Technology (CECTA). Both CEMMA and CECTA currently benefit from technical assistance from FAO. TCA attempts to realise technology transfer through CECTA. 40. The Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) aims at promoting common development strategies towards economic integration into a common market. SADC implements specific forestry projects through Forestry Sector Technical Coordination Unit (FSTCU). Currently, FSTCU implements 16 forestry projects with total budget of US $ 117 million. Many of the on-going forestry projects have capacity building and technology transfer components. 41. The African Timber Organisation (ATO) is an intergovernmental organisation that promotes common policies and strategies for forest management and trade of sustainably produced timber from Africa. ATO has participated actively in UNCED follow-up processes notably in the drafting of Criteria and Indicators for sustainable forest management in the African context. ATO is a dominant actor in the promotion of forest sector industrialisation in the continent. ATO advocates for, and supports transfer of appropriate technologies among its member countries. D. Non-Governmental Organisations, Professional Societies, Networks and Associations 42. There are many non-governmental organisations, professional societies, networks and associations in both developed and developing countries that play important roles in advocacy, facilitation, monitoring of the use and transfer of technologies. Although many of these organisations do not play direct roles as such in technology transfer, they make significant national and international impact on the policy environment. In a few cases, like with the Greenpeace interventions, they force concerned parties to adopt alternative technological options. 43. The International Union of Forestry Research Organisations (IUFRO) promotes exchange of scientific and technological information among member institutions and individual scientists. IUFRO■s impact centres on its many active Work Divisions and Working Groups of scientists who meet regularly to review and exchange information on current developments in forest science and technology. IUFRO remains a dominant actor in promoting networking and collaboration, which offer valuable platforms in the transfer of technologies. Its Special Programmes for Developing Countries (SPDC) aims at strengthening research capacities in developing countries to improve their participation in the union■s activities thus facilitating North-South and South-South transfer of technologies. 44. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) are leading international NGOs in the international dialogue and action on the conservation of forests and the use of environmentally sound forest harvesting technologies. The Forest Conservation Programme of IUCN has on- going projects on forest policy and management, community and social forestry, non-timber forest products, forest biodiversity, and protected areas. Through these projects, IUCN promotes the use of environmentally sound technologies in forest harvesting including technology transfer. 45. The International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) acts as a facilitator in technology application and transfer for all aspects of sustainable use and development of the important non-wood forest products. Such a network is certainly an example to consider as arrangement to share technologies among predominantly developing countries. 46. The Central America and Mexico Coniferous Resources Cooperative, CAMCORE, is an association of profit oriented pulp and paper companies and research institutions, from developed and developing countries in America, Africa and Asia, for better use and development of plantation species. Through CAMCORE, its members benefited from the identification of new species or populations of forest trees that grow better than plantation species being used, from the development of breeding programmes. E. Local Organisations and Associations 47. While the role of multilateral and bilateral organisations and regional networks is undoubtedly important, it is also critical to recognise that, although un-quantified, local organisations and groups provide the bulk of financial and human resource investment in technology transfer and adaptation. For example, associations of private forest owners in Nordic countries participate, articulate needs and help fund, test, assess and guide appropriate technology development in addition to their role in influencing and developing appropriate policy. Their organisation helps to increase market integration and sustainable forest management. Local organisations, associations and groups hold the key to successful transfer. In many areas of the developing world local user groups are not empowered to play their role in the transfer process and are, thus, sometimes passive victims rather than active beneficiaries of technology transfer. Efforts are needed to help empower these organisations and increase their capacities to contribute, guide and articulate needs in technology transfer. F. Universities and Research Institutions 48. International research centres, CIFOR, ICRAF and IPGRI, play an important role in development of knowledge, methods and techniques of general significance to sustainable forest management. They also contribute to transfer of technology and capacity building through their collaborative research and training programmes. 49. National research institutions and universities are indispensable to conduct research to satisfy specific needs of the countries and in adapting and transferring technologies at national and local level. There are several examples of co-operation between universities (forestry schools) of developed and developing countries. For example, Auburn University in the United States have exchange programmes with among others China, Brazil and Nepal. G. Extension Institutions 50. National extension systems, integrating public, private and non- governmental partners are essential to effective transfer and implementation of technologies for sustainable forest management by its multiple and diverse actors. H. Contributions from the Private Sector 51. The on-going IPF/IFF dialogue emphasises the expected increased support from the private sector in sustainable management of forests. Moreover, since the private sector fuels the bulk of technological advancement, the sector will be expected to play a greater role in access and transfer of environmentally sound technologies, if supported by adequate policy environment and incentives. 52. Several European, American, and Japanese forest based private firms have operations in Central and South America, Africa, and in Southeast Asia. In the past, these firms relied on exports of roundwood, wood chips, and sawn timber with end product processing in the home countries. For a variety of reasons, the situation will change towards more end-product processing in the exporting countries (largely in developing countries). This will necessitate technology transfer and it is expected that the private sector will be a key player in the process. ASSESSMENT OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 53. The report of the Secretary-General to the Fifth Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (E/CN.17/1997/2) amply summarised the status that, while many of the UNCED goals were to be achieved through reliance on environmentally sound technologies, there has been little follow-up action on increased transfer of available technologies for sustainable management of forests. IFF needs to address the various facets of this shortfall as follows: A. Forest Development Policy Imperatives 54. Currently, most national forest policies are silent on promotion of investments in, and transfer of, environmentally sound technologies as well as on extension in general. It is important that this issue be addressed in the new generation forest policies and as part of national forests programmes. Important components of national forest programmes involve assessment of technology requirements and specific action plans for their access, transfer, and development as well as extension programmes for local capacity building. 55. It is expected that the new generation of national forests programmes will feature stronger partnerships between the public sector, private sector, and communities in sustainable management of forests. It is also expected that, through such partnerships, the private sector will potentially play a bigger role in sustainable forest management and conservation. It is therefore also expected that the private sector will play a major role in forest technology development and transfer, if supported by adequate policy environments. B. Range of Possible Technologies 56. It is instructive to consider developments around three technology groups below: (i) Available Technologies 57. First, there are many available technologies in both developed and developing countries that could be better utilised for sustainable management of forests. Examples of available technologies and methods include improved genetic quality of planting material, tree plantation development, and timber harvesting and processing technologies. The success of their transfer and use depend on (i) enabling policy environment; and (ii) human capacity development, particularly for developing countries. 58. For these available technologies to be utilised, actions are needed primarily at the national level with technology transfer playing a relatively small role. However, recent trends in many developing countries indicate that, without targeted and specific assistance, little additional investment towards the use of environmentally sound technologies in forest management can be expected from either the public or private sector. Developing countries need continued and enhanced international support to put to better use the available technologies in the management of their forests. (ii) Technologies Needing Increased Transfer 59. Secondly, there are many technologies for the sustainable management of forests, which are already in use, also in developing countries , but which have not yet been tested and transferred to other developing countries. Examples of such technologies include satellite and GIS based forest assessment techniques, biotechnology, and specialised aspects of tree product processing (value addition), which are currently applied largely in developed countries only. For some of these recently developed technologies, there is a need for adaptive research on their effective use given the nature and conditions of forests in developing countries. For developing countries to take full advantage of these recently developed technologies towards sustainable management of their forests, they need additional investments in: (i) training of their staff; (i) minimal facilities to support their use, and (iii) operating costs. 60. Two important limitations to the transfer and effective use of this second group of technologies in developing countries need to be specifically considered in the on-going IFF dialogue. These limitations are; (i) the patent and other Intellectual Property Right (IPR) issues of technologies (particularly for high value pharmaceutical and food tree products), and (ii) the high costs and difficulties of access to some of these technologies (particularly for satellite based technologies). These two limitations need further consideration in the IFF process. (iii) Emerging Technologies 61. Thirdly, there are a few new and emerging technologies of significant potential value for our understanding of how forest ecosystems work and which could contribute to their environmentally sound management. Some of these emerging technologies are still at the research and development stage while others are at an application and testing stage in a few countries. Examples of these emerging technologies and methods include genetic engineering, technologies used in assessing some functions of forests such as carbon sequestration, participatory approach and methods, etc. While some of these emerging technologies are still at the research stages, there are early indications that some of them have the potential to revolutionise the way we assess, conserve, and enhance the functions and services of forests. The most important issue as regards these technologies would be a discussion within the IFF of how developing countries can be encouraged and supported to fully participate in ongoing research and development. Such partnership in technology research and development (R & D), will circumvent some of the technology access and transfer problems encountered by developing countries. It would, for example, greatly reduce the time gap between development and their future impact on sustainable management of forests in developing countries. C. Technology Assessment Methodology, and Capacity building 62. One of the most important landmarks of the post-UNCED international dialogue is the evolving consensus on criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. Little progress has been made, however, on the development of, and consensus on methods for assessing environmental soundness of forest production and forest product processing technologies. This is an important area of continuing international dialogue that extends into such aspects as sharing of costs of environmental damage, certain aspects of international trade in forest products and technology transfer. 63. The practical starting point of such a dialogue, is the development of appropriate technology assessment methods according to which there could be international consensus on certain objective criteria and indicators. To take an example from an other sector, one method which has been applied in assessing agricultural technologies involves the combination of biological, physical, and economic measures into a single index such as the Total Factor Productivity (TFP). The TFP expresses the total value of all outputs produced by the system divided by total value of all inputs used during the production cycle. Maybe of greater potential utility to forestry, are the recent attempts by agricultural scientists to include the costs of natural resources in such indices. In any case, the minimum requirement for technology assessment remains the ex-ante appraisal of societal and environmental effects of technology application. 64. There is an urgent need to develop methods for assessing environmental soundness of technologies in the process of their development and transfer. This is an area that calls for technical guidance from specialised agencies with comparative advantage. For example, the FAO's Forest Harvesting, Trade, and Marketing unit already offers technical advice and capacity building on technologies for sustainable forest management in member countries, including the development and promotion of use of its "Model Code of Forest Harvesting Practices". Other organisations, like the ITTO, have also promoted and supported the development of similar guidelines for regional and international application. The IFF may wish to consider specific action to precipitate the development and further consensus building on technology assessment methods and guidelines. 65. Developing countries need to address the urgent need for capacity building in technology assessment and access, within their international forestry co-operation and support programmes. The capacity building efforts of these countries need to focus first and foremost on better utilisation of technologies already available in the country. Secondly, capacity building efforts need to focus on methods for assessing technologies earmarked for transfer. Thirdly, capacity building need to focus on exposure to, and assessment of new and emerging technologies which could enhance sustainable management of forests in the future. 66. For many developing countries, the existing capacity for technology assessment is below threshold levels. Countries in this situation could benefit from assistance from developed countries (many of them already receive such assistance). Such capacity building efforts could, however, be better sustained if developing countries, among themselves, developed mechanisms of collaboration and networking to reduce costs and to move towards collective self reliance in their capacities to effectively assess technologies. This is an area where international and regional organisations could promote and support regional training and information networking. D. Interlinkages between Research, Technology Generation, Information Technology, and Trade 67. In many countries, forestry research and technology generation/transfer are integrated and/or compounded. These linkages are particularly evident where research is supported by the private sector. It should be noted that forestry as practised in many countries today is not adequately utilising research findings and technological innovations. Issues addressed under the section on changing dimensions of forestry science and practice apply equally well to forestry research. These close linkages need to be recognised and treated, as far as possible, as two sides of the same coin. 68. Lack of current information on available technologies and on those under research and development is another important limitation to technology assessment and transfer. Few developing countries have focal points for technology information dissemination and assessment. Even fewer developing countries have central technology advisory units or technology parks. There are also significantly small numbers of routine national mechanisms and/or centres for technology assessment. Information on relevant technological innovations and adoptions in other countries is often not sufficiently targeted for possible assessment. The combination of lack of information and lack of mechanisms/centres for their assessment greatly limit transfer and adoption of environmentally sound technologies in forest management in developing countries. Pertinent developments in information technology are important prerequisites for technology transfer. 69. In the current more liberalised global trade (post Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations), it is to be expected that countries, in particular developing countries, will seek greater opportunities to benefit from value addition on the products and services from their forests. This is accomplished through increased local processing and through investment in environmentally sound extraction and processing technologies. E. Current Trends in North-South Technology Transfer 70. In most cases, industrialised countries place no restrictions on transfer of those technologies that are available in the market. Developing countries, however, have yet to develop appropriate mechanisms for their routine access and assessment. Only few countries have developed specific investment incentives to promote technology transfer, both on the exporting and receiving ends. A more significant trend is the growing pressure from powerful environmental NGOs on industrialised country private companies to use cleaner technologies in their operations based in developing countries. The current pressure for the use of clean technologies will be a very significant factor in accelerating technology transfer. 71. The current inertia in North-South transfer of environmentally sound technologies is such that developing countries need to consider alternative strategies to accelerate the process. A possible strategy would be for developing countries to engage in collective bargaining for technology transfer to their regions. Such a strategy has great potential impact if it revolves around the many promising post-UNCED regional country blocks, which have taken collective actions on some IFF issues. F. Current Trends in South-South Technology Transfer 72. Environmentally sound technologies which are generated in the South are likely to be (i) more accessible, (ii) less costly, and (iii) more appropriate for countries in the South. Clearly, this constitutes a strong case for strengthening South -South co-operation in assessment needs for improved technologies and their transfer among countries and regions. This is the rationale behind initiatives like the recent consultations between the African Timber Organisation and Malaysian forest industries on assessment of needs and arrangements for the transfer of environmentally sound forest technologies. 73. It is recognised that several initiatives have been started to promote and to support technical co-operation among developing countries. These could provide useful platforms for accelerating transfer of forest technologies. For example, FAO■s programme on Technical Co-operation among Developing Countries (TCDC) has already made significant impact in supporting consultations on South-South transfer of agricultural technologies. TCDC or similar initiatives could play important roles in promoting and supporting transfer of forest technologies from countries such as Malaysia, South Africa, Brazil, for example, to technologically less endowed developing countries. 74. Traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) requires specific consideration in the discussion of transfer and benefit sharing from derived products. For example, during the IPF process, the Leticia Declaration and Proposals for Action (E/CN.17/IPF/1997/6) highlighted the rights of indigenous and other forest-dependent peoples on the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests. The forests are the greatest reservoirs of biodiversity with species of great value as food, pharmacopoeia and traditional medicine. Examples from African forests include Ancistrocladus korupensis of which some elements have shown promising activities against the human immuno-deficiency viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2, and Prunus africana of which elements have been proven to treat prostrate cancer. In many cases, in developing countries, where TFRK have the potential to lead to important breakthroughs, intellectual property right protection does not exist and/or is not enforced. Under such circumstances, there are many unresolved issues on transparency, fair recognition and sharing of benefits upon transfer of knowledge and technology. 75. Regional and inter-regional networks are potentially good mechanisms for South-South and trilateral transfer of technologies for sustainable forest management. G. Technology Transfer/Diffusion to Extension Workers, Private Sector Agents and Farmers 76. So far, the on-going international dialogue has given relatively little emphasis to the need for more effective technology dialogue with end beneficiaries - extension workers, private sector agents, and farmers in both developed and developing countries. A few success stories of transfer of computer aided woodlot management and woodworking industry technologies to extension workers and private sector agents have recently been reported in, for example, U.S.A., Finland, and Sweden. Transfer and diffusion of technologies to end-users are of particular importance for wood energy technologies. Such transfers to end-users have the potential to make significant contribution to sustainable management of forests the world over. 77. Only few developing countries have taken specific action towards sustained technology transfer and diffusion to the various end-users. Good examples of these include South Africa, where the Institute for Commercial Forestry Research relies on its Technology Transfer Support Group, and Brazil where the Brazilian Agricultural Research Enterprise (EMBRAPA) has its Diffusion Service as a window for its generated technologies to reach various end-users. Technology transfer and diffusion to end-users are development challenges for most countries, developed and developing, and which deserve greater emphasis in the IFF. 78. In this context it is worth mentioning that it would be of particular importance to transfer technologies related to worker■s safety and health. Many counties have poor legal and technical mechanisms related to forest workers safety. H. Gender Implications of Forest-Related Technology Transfer 79. Although there exists important gender related tree, forest tenure and ownership issues to be resolved, it is fully recognised that the transfer and diffusion of technologies for the use of wood as an energy source have made a significant impact on the quality of life and economic advancement of women in some developing countries. The Nairobi Plan of Action as endorsed by the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Energy (1981) addressed important development challenges, but, unfortunately, for many developing countries, the needed relief on the burden on women, in particular, as fuelwood collectors has not been sustained. 80. The Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China in 1995 called for an assessment of the implications of any planned action, for women and men. This is a process generally known as gender mainstreaming. This provided an impetus for action to ensure that women not only have access to and training in technology, but also participate in the process from development to application as well as monitoring and evaluation. The Conference also calls for diversification of and an increase in vocational and technical training of women and girls in such fields as environmental and technical sciences. It also urges the promotion of women■s central role in food and agricultural research and extension programmes. The Beijing Platform for Action calls for an increased effort in outreach programmes specifically targeted at low-income women in rural areas for the provision of: training and information, credit and investment funds. 81. In many countries, women play a major role in the establishment and management of forests and are the depository of a large part of forest related technologies, including Traditional Forest Related Knowledge. Therefore, women are important actors and participants in the transfer and application of technologies for sustainable forest management. Women■s roles, in all countries, need to be recognised and their participation in SFM needs to be actively supported. Much greater enrolment by women is needed in some of the traditionally more male dominated forest-related education and training programmes. I. Technologies for the Use of Wood as an Energy Source 82. Wood energy technologies deserve special consideration in the current international dialogue on forests. Chapter 11 of Agenda 21 specifically addresses ■efficient utilisation and assessment to recover full value of the goods and services provided by forests, forest lands and woodlands■. Article 2 of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) addresses forests in "stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system". The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and, particularly Article 10 of the more recent Kyoto Protocol under the FCCC address the pivotal roles of the world■s forests on carbon sequestration. The emerging -New Energy Order■, which calls for increasing reliance on non-fossil and environmentally friendly energy sources, has increased global attention on forest and wood as energy sources energy as well as on associated technologies and their transfer. 83. Energy use in the forest and wood sectors has two extremes. On one extreme, technologies for large scale wood processing (including pulp and paper manufacture) have energy and waste/pollutant implications of great national and international concerns. The energy efficiency of forest production and processing technologies has been the subject of international debate and action by both the public and private sectors in developed and in developing countries. On the other extreme, energy saving wood and charcoal devices in households, particularly in developing countries, have significantly reduced the fuelwood demands resulting in some reduction on deforestation. 84. Only a small proportion of harvested wood (about one third) ends up in final processed products such as furniture and paper. The rest of the harvested wood has great potential (and is indeed put to valuable energy use in developing countries) for supplying a substantial proportion of the world■s energy needs. More efficient use of this substantial by-product of wood processing constitutes carbon dioxide substitution of significant consequence to climate systems, i.e. use of wood energy instead of the traditional fossil energy use. 85. Already, many medium and large scale wood processing industries, in primarily developed countries, have made significant attempts to achieve energy self sufficiency (use of waste and by-products to generate energy required internally by the plant,). In some developed countries, there are manufacturing plants that have attained about 30% energy substitution. In contrast, many wood processing plants in developing countries have made few attempts at energy substitution and/or overall increase in energy efficiency. The plants are not only energy inefficient, but also high in wood wastage. A common sight in many developing countries are saw mills, using outmoded technologies, buried in their sawdust heaps. In view of forests■ role in environmental and climate stabilisation, a special case can be made for international promotion and facilitation of efficient wood energy technology transfer, particularly to developing countries with forest products processing industries. Such efforts need to be targeted at small and medium scale operations in rural communities. For example, the Forest Products Laboratory of the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) recently reported on the development of a promising new technology for utilising wood waste from forest harvesting and sawmills for electricity generation in "micro-turbine" gasifiers 86. The forest sector in many developing countries is a dominant employer of labour. By virtue of their mainly rural locations, forest sector operations often have greater direct impact on the most economically marginalised populations. By the nature of their operations, wood energy technologies employ some ten times the labour needed for fossil energy based technologies. Furthermore, many developing countries already have access to appropriate technologies for the use of wood as source of energy, as well as wood collection and transportation. What they often lack is mechanisms for efficient diffusion of these technologies to rural communities right down to household applications. As this additional employment would be in the rural areas, adoption of wood energy technologies would have significant economic, political and social stabilisation consequences. V CONCLUSIONS AND PRELIMINARY PROPOSALS FOR ACTION 87. While better implementation of sound technologies bears great potential in enhancing conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests, technology is often not the critical limiting factor and not every constraint to sustainable forest management can be alleviated by the transfer of technology. Policy environments favourable to sustainable forest management and to the implementation of technologies are as important as the technologies themselves. A. Forest Development Policy Imperatives Conclusions: 88. Currently, most national forest policies do not specifically address promotion and facilitation of investments in and transfer of environmentally sound technologies in support of sustainable forest management and for forest products industries. Interested partners, in particular the private sector, are expected to play a more prominent role in forest technology development and transfer in the future, particularly in forest-rich countries. Preliminary Proposals for Action: 89. The IFF may wish to consider: a) inclusion of transfer of environmentally sound technologies and investment promotions in national forest programmes; and b) adequate policies to further the participation of interested parties in development and decision making affecting efficient technology development, transfer and use. B. Range of Possible Technologies (I) Available Technologies Conclusions 90. There are many available technologies in both developed and developing countries that could be better utilised for sustainable management of forests. Better utilisation of these available technologies depend primarily on actions at the national level with technology transfer playing a relatively small role. Developing countries need continued and enhanced international support to better utilize available technologies in forest management. Preliminary Proposals for Action: 91. The Forum may wish to consider specific assistance to facilitate public and private investment towards the use of environmentally sound technologies in forest management targeted at creating enabling policy environments; and human capacity development. (ii) Technologies Needing Increased Transfer Conclusions: 92. Many technologies for sustainable forest management are already in use, but have not yet been tested and transferred to developing countries. For some of these, there is a need for adaptive research on the limitations of their adaption and application in developing countries. Preliminary Proposals for Action: 93. The IFF may wish to consider: a) additional investments towards developing countries taking full advantage of recently developed technologies through assistance to training and minimal facilities to support their use. b) addressing limitations in the patent and other intellectual property right aspects of technologies (particularly for high value pharmaceutical and food products), and the high costs and difficulties of access to some of these technologies (particularly for satellite based technologies). (iii) Emerging technologies Conclusions: 94. There are a new and emerging technologies of significant potential value for our understanding of forest ecosystems functions, which could contribute to environmentally sound management. Partnership in technology research and development (R & D), will circumvent some of the technology access and transfer problems encountered by developing countries. Proposals for action: 95. The Forum may wish to consider to: a) strengthen support towards full participation of developing countries' in ongoing research and development (R&D). b) propose ways and means to create partnerships in technology R & D in order to reduce the time gap between development and application. C. Assessment of Technology Generation and Needs Conclusions: 96. There has been insufficient efforts in comprehensive assessment of technology generation and needs. Furthermore, many developing countries have weak capacities for assessment of the environmental soundness of technologies. Preliminary Proposals for Action 97. The IFF may wish to consider: a) including comprehensive assessment of technology needs and their transfer as a strong feature in national forests programmes. b) mechanisms for sustained international support for capacity building in technology assessment, and for access and dissemination of information on sound technologies and equipment for management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests. D. Interlinkages between Research, Technology Generation, and Information Technology Conclusions 98. In many countries technology generation has been initiated and progressed satisfactorily mainly through efforts in research on addressing some of the common weaknesses of the transfer process such as poor coverage, target group bias, high costs, poor and limited information content and lack of funding. Rapidly advancing information technology continues to play a major role in catalysing technology generation. Preliminary Proposals for Action 99. The Forum may wish to consider: a) actions that strengthen and take increased advantage of the interlinkages between research and technology development of forest and forest processing technologies, through involving users in research planning; b) ways and means to assess the potential of electronic information systems/information and communication technologies (EIS/ICT) , through developing techniques and methods to further integrate these technologies with ongoing communication and information networks. E. North-South Technology Transfer Conclusions 100. North-South transfer would need the collaboration and close involvement of the private sector. It is apparent that there are still many challenges to increased private sector investment in forestry and forest industry in developing countries as well as in the transfer of environmentally sound technologies. There are opportunities to catalyse and support north-south technology transfer as parts of official bilateral and multilateral assistance programmes for especially developing countries with low forest cover. Transfer of forest technologies may be constrained by broader policy issues, for example those related to forest harvesting, where some donor agencies have limitations in financing projects dealing with this aspect of forestry unless seen as one of the component of sustainable forest management. Preliminary proposals for action 101. The Forum may wish to consider: a) practical ways to promote and support review of national policies related to investment in the forest sector, particularly incentives to promote transfer and implementation of environmentally sound technologies. b) urging developed and developing countries to specifically include forest related technology transfer in assistance packages on terms mutually agreeable to all parties, with a particular attetnion to countries with low forest cover. F. South-south and Trilateral Technology Transfer Conclusions 102. There are many appropriate technologies already transferred to, or generated in the south, which could be applied in sustainable forests management and that are more accessible, less costly and have higher adoption potential as compared to technologies from the north. Preliminary Proposals for Action 103. The Forum may wish to consider a) strengthening initiatives, which could accelerate south-south and trilateral transfer of environmentally sound forest and forest products processing technologies, such as programmes on Technical Co- operation among Developing Countries (TCDC) and regional or inter- regional networks; and b) mechanisms to realize the potential of transfer and benefits of TFRK through the development and enforcement of intellectual property rights in developing countries. G. Technology Transfer and Diffusion through Extension Workers to Private Sector Agents and Farmers Conclusions 104. Relatively little attention over the past years has been placed on the needs for increased technology diffusion to end beneficiaries through extension workers. A few countries have attempted to develop effective mechanisms for diffusion of appropriate technologies to the end users. These mechanisms have a significant potential to be emulated by a broader set of countries. Preliminary Proposals for Action 105. The Forum may wish to consider practical measures to promote and support the timely diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to the end users, particularly those in rural communities in developing countries, through the establishment of technology diffusion centres. H. Gender Implications Conclusions 106. Gender mainstreaming related to wood energy use, tree cultivation for household use, forest tenure and ownership, sustainable forest management as well as capacity building and empowerment through access to and transfer of technology need much more focused attention. Women's contributions, concerns and experiences must be fully taken into account in planning and implementation of forest policies and programmes. Preliminary Proposals for Action 107. The Forum may wish to consider: a) steps to ensure opportunities for women, including indigenous and rural women, to participate forest-related decision making at all levels; b) ensuring the use of data and information that is desegregated by sex in gender-specific sectoral surveys and studies used in the development of SFM policies and projects, so that women's rights and roles are fully reflected in decisions; c) strengthening of outreach programmes targeted at poor, rural women in training, small credit, and training and information related to household use of wood, wood lots for fuelwood, and in cooking technology; d) encourage the training and education of women and girls in energy technologies and cultivation of trees for household use; and e) increasing efforts to enrol more women in higher education in forest related issues, such as: forestry; ecology; wood technology; pulp and paper engineering; biology and biotechnology; chemistry and pharmacology, both in developed and developing countries. I. Technologies for Use of Wood as an Energy Source Conclusions 108. There is an urgent need for technological innovations to turn the currently large proportion of waste and by-products in forest logging and wood processing into an environmental good through the use of modern wood energy technologies, which could have significant impact on carbon substitution locally and globally. Appropriate technologies for use of wood as an energy source at the rural household level has a great potential to enhance the health and socio-economic status of women in many developing countries. 109. A shift to a reliance on modern wood energy technologies could bring with it quantum increases in employment generation and redistribution of investment to marginalised rural populations. Preliminary Proposals for Action 110. 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