United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


                             BACKGROUND DOCUMENT


                      INFORMATION ON PROGRAMME ELEMENT II.c


            TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPORT 
                          SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT


                                New York, June 1998

This is a non-official document, for information only, prepared by the
UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANISATION as Lead Agency on this
Programme Element within the informal, high level Interagency Task Force on
Forests (ITFF). It provides additional background information to delegations
attending the second session of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests
(Geneva, 24 August-4 September 1998). Published in English only.



                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
Executive Summary
INTRODUCTION
GENERAL OVERVIEW OF IPF■S CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION
CURRENT STATUS OF TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMNETALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES
      Multilateral resource providers
      Bilateral resource providers
      United Nations agencies and international/regional intergovernmnetal
             organisations
      Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), professional societies,
             networks and associations.
      Local organisations and associations
      Universities and research institutions 
      Extension institutions
      Contributions from the private sector
ASSESSMENT OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
      Forest development policy imperatives
      Range of possible technologies
      Technology assessment methodology, and capacity building
      Interlinkages between research, technology generation, information
             technology and trade
      Current trends in north-south technology transfer
      Current trends in south-south technology transfer
      Technology transfer and diffusion to extension workers, private
             sector agents and farmers
      Gender implications of forest related technology transfer
      Technologies for the use of wood as an energy source
CONCLUSIONS AND PRELIMINARY PROPOSALS FOR ACTION
      Assessment of technology generation and needs
      Interlinkages between research, technology generation and information
             technology
      North-South technology transfer
      South-south and trilateral technology transfer
      Technology transfer and diffusion through extension workers to
             private secotr agents and farmers
      Technologies for use of wood as an energy source
References

This document is meant to be a document in evolution.  Any comments on this
document are appreciated and can be forwarded to the IFF Secretariat,
attention:
             Elisabeth Barsk-Rundquist, Economic Affairs Officer
             Room: DC2-1264
             IFF Secretariat
             Division for Sustainable Development/DESA
             United Nations
             New York, New York 10017, USA
             E-mail: barsk-rundquiste@un.org          
             Ph: 1-212-963-3263         
             Fax: 1-212-963-3463


                              ACRONYMS

APAFRI       Asia-Pacific Association of Forest Research Institutes
ATO          African Timber Organisation
CIDA         Canadian International Development Agency
CITES        Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild
             Fauna and Flora
DFID         Department for International Development (UK)
DPCSD        Department of Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
FAO          Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
FORSPA       Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific
IFF          Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Forum on Forests
IPF          Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests
ITFF         Interagency Task Force on Forests
ITTO         International Tropical Timber Organisation
IUCN         The World Conservation Union
IUFRO        International Union of Forest Research Organisations
NGOs         Non-governmental organisations
ODA          Official Development Assistance
SADC         Southern Africa Development Conference
SIDA         Swedish International Development Agency
UNCED        United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNEP         United Nations Environment Programme
UNDP         United Nations Development Programme
UNIDO        United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
WWF          World Wide Fund for Nature


                             INTRODUCTION

1.    At its first session in October 1997, the Intergovernmental Forum on
Forests emphasised the need to build on the positive results achieved by the
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF) and to consider matters left pending and
matters arising from the programme elements discussed during the IPF process. The
Forum decided that the topic of technology transfer would be discussed under
Category II.c of its programme of work with the following mandate:

      "Examination of ways of promoting, facilitating and financing access to and
transfer of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how to
developing countries on favourable terms, including concessional and preferential
terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account chapter 34 of Agenda 21 and
paragraph 11 of the Forest Principles, and examine appropriate mechanisms to
effect such access and transfer; consider technologies and technical knowledge,
including extension services for local sustainable management, as well as
enhanced technology development, transfer and application to improve the
utilisation of wood and non-wood forest products and services, with special
attention to wood as an energy source and to the role of women." (paragraph 7 of
E/CN.17/IFF/1997/4)

2.    The Forum also decided that this issue would receive substantive
discussion at its second session. This background document is prepared with
the intention of providing the basis for that discussion.

3.    This background document, therefore, recalls some of the conclusions and
proposals for action in the final report of IPF (E/CN.17/IPF/1997/12) relevant
to transfer of environmentally sound technologies. The document will also give
a brief overview of the particular problems encountered on transferring
technologies specifically for forests and forest products processing.  It will
describe some of the activities undertaken by some of the major actors in
transferring forest-related technologies.  The document also has brief
description of the types of technologies that need to be transferred and what
particular mechanisms would be needed to facilitate this.  The background
document concludes with a set of conclusions and preliminary proposals for
action that the Forum may wish to consider.

4.    Improved access to and better application of available and emerging
technologies would greatly contribute to sustainable management of forests.
It is, however, also important to recognise the reality of many countries,
where technology is often not the critical limiting factor in enhancing
conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests. Rather, the
status of forestry practice in many countries is such that major advances can
be made in sustainable forest management through improvements in current
management practices. Therefore, in this background document, technology is
understood in a broad sense, to include techniques (e.g. genetic engineering)
as well as methods (e.g. management), and technical knowledge and information.

5.    Furthermore, there may not necessarily be a -technology-fix■ for every
problem; not every constraint to sustainable forest management can be
alleviated by the transfer of technology. Policy environments favourable to
sustainable forest management and to the implementation of technologies are
as important as the technologies themselves.

6.    Sound technologies should be developed, adapted and adopted by different
actors and major groups in sustainable management of forests at different
levels. Local communities and NGOs, whose participation is now more adequately
acknowledged and integrated in National Forest Programmes, are of particular
importance.

7.    It is important to stress that, in the transparent and participatory
spirit of the IPF/IFF dialogues, all parties need to be cautious about the
possible mix of purposes between technology transfer and "technology dumping".
Transfer of technology should be driven by needs and not by supply.

8.    In addition, the way technologies are used is critical to their impact
on sustainable forest management. Thus capacity building, training and
organisation are critical to the transfer of technology process.

9.    Although the present distribution of technologies is uneven, their
transfer should not be limited to one way, e.g. from developed to developing
countries or from technical institutions to user communities. The active
participation of -recipients■ is essential to the development, adoption and
implementation of technologies. The adequate integration of their specific
knowledge and experience is necessary to enrich the global technology pool.

10.   Traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) requires specific
consideration in the discussion of transfer and benefit sharing from derived
products.  This is a somewhat neglected area but there exists significant
opportunities for transfer of Traditional Forest Related Knowledge (TFRK) and
methods. There are many environmentally sound indigenous technologies to be
refined and shared by developing countries. In many cases, in developing
countries, where TFRK has the potential to lead to important breakthroughs,
intellectual property protection does not exist and/or is not enforced. 

11.   It is clear that for the world's forests to continue providing life
support systems while also supporting social and economic development of
present and future populations, their conservation, management and sustainable
development must continue to benefit from and take advantage of the most
recent relevant technological advances and technical know-how. Technological
advances hold great potential for more efficient and sustainable management
of forests in the areas of accurate resource assessment, intensification of
production, wood processing and use, non-wood forest products processing and
use. This is common to all countries, developing and developed.

12.   The aspects of forestry which stand the most to benefit from
technological innovations include (i) forest resource assessment (remote
sensing, computer based GIS techniques, etc.), (ii) intensive wood production
(biotechnology and breeding), (iii) forest harvesting and transport, (iv) wood
processing and use (saw mill technologies, pulp and paper manufacturing,
energy production), and (v) processing and other addition of value  to non-
wood forest products (fruits, oils/gums, pharmaceutical products, etc.). It
is important to maintain focus on all these areas in considering opportunities
and options for technology transfer and capacity building, as they all impact
on sustainable management of forests. Thus the scope of the deliberations  on
technology transfer need to be broader and not only consider, for example,
logging practices but also the whole chain of technologies applied to and for
forest products and services, as well as methods and systems.

13.    Much of the advanced technologies both of realised and potential
benefit to conservation, management and sustainable development of forests are
located in developed countries and access often remains difficult to
developing countries. At the same time developing countries continue to rely
on out-dated technologies in  forest operations such as saw milling, with
undesirable wastage and environmental consequences. This wastage and
environmental degradation is so alarming in many timber producing developing
countries in the tropics that  many actors in the public domain and private
sector have embarked on initiatives for certification of sustainable
management forests and labelling of forest products in international trade. 

14.   It is important to pursue the IPF recommendation that "finance and
technology should be considered interrelated components of investment and
international assistance, and are essential for socio-economic development and
growth.■ Several estimates have been made on the net investment required to
achieve sustainable forest management in developing countries. Chapter 11 of
Agenda 21 estimated that the total cost would be of about $ 31.25 billion
annually for the period 1993-2000.  Even if all costs related  to SFM is not
only to be borne by ODA but also by domestic sources, current level of ODA in
forestry is only 27.2% of this amount and it is not likely to increase in the
present day political and economic climate" (Interagency Task Force on
Forests, June 1997). For developing countries, technology transfer has,
traditionally, been a component of development assistance packages. In the
future, however, the private sector is likely to play a greater role and
technology transfer would feature more prominently in agreements on trade and
environment in relation to forest products and services.


     II.   GENERAL OVERVIEW OF IPF'S CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION

15.   In order to make progress, it is important for the discussions at the
second session of IFF  to  build upon the following specific recommendations
of the Final Session of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests
(February 1997):
   
   "63. There is unprecedented accumulation of technological capability - much
   of which remains largely unrecognised, under-utilised, and inadequately
   shared. Technological innovations are critical. It is also noted that
   transfer of environmentally sound technologies in the forest sector
   emphasised in principle 11 of the Forest Principles is critical to the
   implementation of NFPs. However, the potentials of technologies for
   transfer need to be assessed by all interested parties".
   
   "64. Technology resides largely in the North. Thus, North - South co-
   operation is important. But, South - South co-operation is also important".
   
   "65. Developed countries bear special responsibility for transfer and
   equitable sharing of the necessary technologies for strong NFPs in
   developing countries".
   
   "66. Priority in technology transfer and capacity building should be
   established and continuously reviewed".
   
   "67. The need to review and improve information systems emphasised.
   Internet-based information systems have great potentials".
   
   "68. Proposals for action to enhance technology transfer and capacity
   building are:
   
      Countries to assess and to explicitly identify their national
          technological requirements consistent with recognised priorities
          within NFPs and other national policy frameworks.
      Countries to formulate policies and incentives that encourage all
          concerned to develop and to use environmentally sound technologies
      Promotion of South-South, North-South, as well as trilateral co-
          operation in forest related technology transfer
      Greater emphasis on capacity building in the development of NFPs.
      Donor countries and multilateral organisations to support capacity
          building in data gathering as part of NFPs and to strengthen national
          institutions in forest assessment".

16.   Following its final session, CSD endorsed IPF report and stressed the
urgent need for:

      "enhanced international co-operation to implement IPF■s proposals for
actions towards management, conservation and sustainable development of all
types of forests, including provision for financial resources, capacity
building, research and the transfer of technology".

17.   The Interagency Task Force on Forests prepared a document "Interagency
Partnership on Forests: Implementation of the IPF Proposals for Action by the
ITFF" proposing a work plan for each programme element of the IPF. Concerning
-International Co-operation in Financial Assistance and Technology Transfer
for Sustainable Forest Management, proposed activities include:

 (i) to develop and implement in different socio-economic and ecological
regions and in a pilot scale, innovative ways of financing sustainable forest
management, including the development of incentives, partnerships (i.e.
partnership agreements), taking into account existing experiences;

(ii) to support countries in identifying, developing and utilising
environmentally sound technologies, including traditional forest knowledge,
and address the related needs for capacity building at all levels, including
through the strengthening of North-South and South-South co-operation;

(iii) to identify ways and means to ensure co-ordination and complementarily
of forest and forest related actions at the national and international level
being undertaken by bilateral and multilateral institutions and organisations
and international instruments related to forests.


     CURRENT STATUS OF THE TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES

18.   Technology for sustainable forest management is understood here in a
broad sense encompassing techniques as well as methods, technical knowledge
and information. Therefore transfer of technology is a component of a wide
range of programmes and projects at different levels from research and
scientific information to technical co-operation and extension.

19.   Diverse organisations play different roles in the transfer of
environmentally sound technologies to support sustainable forest management.
For example, universities and other research and training organisations
provide help with the state of knowledge and practice. Public and private
organisations have formal and informal linkages specifically for transfer of
such technologies the world over. Multilateral, bilateral and local resource
providers  include technology transfer and capacity building components in
their support packages. The United Nations and its relevant specialised agencies
play a significant role as facilitators of global consensus building and assist
countries in technology transfer and capacity building. Many intergovernmental
agencies and political and/or economic blocks assist in the transfer and adoption
of environmentally sound technologies. In some countries, private industry is
active in the development and transfer of technologies. Environmental  NGOs are
becoming increasingly important advocates for the transfer and adoption of
environmentally sound technologies in many parts of the world. A few examples are
described in the following sections to highlight status and trends in technology
transfer.

      A.     Multilateral Resource Providers 

20.   The World Bank has the largest portfolio of support for natural
resources/rural environmental management projects (involving some aspects of
forest management). Indeed, since UNCED, the World Bank Group has undertaken
a major reassessment of its policies in an attempt to ensure conformity with
the relevant international agreements. However, the World Bank's profile in
direct support specifically for transfer of environmentally sound technologies
remains relatively low. For example, a breakdown of investments in World Bank-
financed forestry projects (1984 - 1995) indicate that US $ 232 million, went
specifically to support technology development and transfer which amounts to
only 4% of its total investment in the forestry sector for the same period.
A particularly noteworthy recent development is the World Bank's participation
in multi-stakeholder partnerships such as the Markets Transformation Initiatives
(MTIs) which includes forestry among a few other technology development areas.
The Forest Markets Transformation Initiative aims at helping the global timber
industry to shift towards environmentally sustainable practices through
innovative financing packages to stimulate sustainable timber harvesting. This
presents an excellent opportunity to promote and to support transfer of
environmentally sound technologies as part of drive for "green carrot" financing
mechanisms.

21.   Conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests is a major
goal of the European Union (EU) The European Commission■s support for forest
sector development currently stands at about 100 million ECU annually. Although
direct support to technology transfer is not always clearly identified, it is
recognised that that EU exerts important leverage in relevant bilateral
assistance packages involving its member states. The International Cooperation
(INCO) programme, formerly Science and Technology for Development (STD), which
supports research projects associating institutions in developing and in EU
countries, is an interesting mechanism for transfer of technology through
concrete co-operation in common projects.

22.   Among the regional banks that support development projects in forest
sector, the Asian Development Bank (AsDB) supports several forestry development
projects within its area of coverage. For example, in 1993, AsDB invested US $
74.0 million out of a total of US $ 574.3 million invested by all the Official
Development Assistance (ODA) invested in the region. It is noteworthy that a
relatively high proportion of AsDB investment has been on support of technology
transfer and capacity building projects.  

23.   The African Development Bank (AfDB) support for forest sector projects
in Africa totaled US $ 5.0 million out of a total of US $ 472 million of ODA
invested in the continent in the same year. AfDB has developed an
environmental policy since 1990 and prepared a specific forestry policy in
1994 titled "African Development Bank Forest Policy and Strategy for lending
to forestry development programmes in Africa. AfDB accords high priority to
investment in projects with strong components on technology transfer and
capacity building.

24.   The Inter American Development Bank (IADB) has drastically increased its
investment in forest sector projects since UNCED. For example, IADB's
investment in forestry projects rose sharply from US $ 9.8 million in 1990 to
US $ 74 million in 1993. IADB currently accords high priority to projects with
strong components on transfer of technology and know-how.


      B.     Bilateral Resource Providers

25.   Sustainable forest management is the objective of numerous bilateral co-
operation and assistance projects by developed countries in the world. These
projects concern all aspects of sustainable forest development from participatory
natural forest management to plantations and saw milling technologies. Although
very few are specifically aimed at transfer of technology, this latter activity
is, in most cases, included as a means or prerequisite to achieving the overall
objectives of the projects. The national expertise and experience of the country
providing assistance are contributed for the implementation of the projects,
which often also involve capacity building through short term or long term
training to acquire knowledge and techniques necessary to the achievement of the
objectives.

26.   The Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) has rapidly become a
major actor in providing bilateral assistance (including for forestry projects)
to many developing countries in the last fifteen years or so. In 1993, Japan's
official development assistance for forestry projects in various parts of the
world stood at US $84 million.

27.   The USA government bilateral assistance agency, the United States Agency
for International Development (USAID) supports many forestry projects in
developing countries. In 1993, the total USAID support for forestry projects
in various countries stood at US $ 121 million.

28.   The Federal Republic of Germany is another important actor in the transfer
of technologies and technical know-how for sustainable management of forests. The
government bilateral agency for technical co-operation, Gessellschaft fur
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) supports many forestry projects in various parts
of the world with technology transfer and capacity building components. In 1993,
GTZ total support to forestry projects in various countries stood at US $ 173.1
million. The Institute of World Forestry at the Federal Research Centre for
Forestry and Forest Products (BFH) in Hamburg conducts research on forest
management and forest products utilization in many parts of the world.

29.   Britain has, and continues to play a role in the transfer of
technologies, particularly in the Commonwealth countries. Capacity building
and technology transfer have been supported by the government agency for
international co-operation, DFID, in areas such as forest assessment, charcoal
making, saw milling, etc. For example, DFID supports forestry research in
developing countries at the level of pound sterling 2.5 million annually.
Currently DFID supports many projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia with
significant components on access to markets development of national skills and
infrastructure, such as drying kilns and processing equipment.

30.   France supports many forestry development projects primarily in
francophone countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean region
(including its overseas territories). For example, in 1993, the official
development assistance in the forest sector totalled US $ 30.5 million.
Significant components of these projects involve capacity building. Both
public and private sector organisations in France have made important
contributions to the transfer of environmentally sound technologies,
particularly in the use of biotechnology for enhanced forest production.

31.   Canada has a long history of support for capacity building and
technology transfer for forestry development in many developing countries. The
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) supports many forestry
projects in developing countries with technology transfer components. For
example, CIDA has made recent important contribution to the transfer of tree
seed handling technologies in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia.

32.   The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) has
several on-going forestry research projects, mainly in Southeast Asia, the
Pacific and Africa. Through these projects, developing countries benefit from
transfer of technologies and know-how. The Forest Products Laboratory of the
Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO),
for example, is currently developing a new technology for utilising wood waste
from forest harvesting and sawmills to be used for electricity generation in
"micro-turbine" gasifiers.

33.   Nordic countries are also actively engaged in the transfer of technology.
For example, many of the projects supported by the Swedish International
Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) in many developing countries have had
capacity building and technology transfer components. Swedish timber harvesting
and saw milling technologies have been adopted in many countries of the tropics.
The thrust of SIDA■s new strategy is in integrated national forests programmes
with greater emphasis on environmentally sound technologies. Denmark, Norway, and
Finland are important actors in capacity building and technology transfer in
support of sustainable forest management in many beneficiary developing
countries. Denmark has made most significant impact in training and technology
transfer in the area of forest genetic resources, tree seed procurement and
handling. Finland has made important contributions in training and technology
transfer in the areas of timber harvesting and in pulp and paper manufacture.
Norway has developed a good reputation  in forest engineering and has supported
capacity building and technology transfer in many developing countries in this
field.

      C.     United Nations Agencies and International/Regional
                         Intergovernmental Organisations

34.   The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) serves
as an intergovernmental policy forum on forestry development issues, as a focal
point for technical information collection and dissemination, and as a
facilitator in assisting countries in capacity building through technical
co-operation. FAO assists its member countries with technical expertise including
capacity building and technology transfer. FAO Forestry Field Programme comprised
a total of 179 projects in various countries with an annual budget of US $ 60
million. The FAO executed project on -Improved productivity of man-made forests
through application of technological advances in tree breeding and propagation■
(FORTIP) in Asia and the Pacific, is a good example of a mechanism to facilitate
transfer of technologies among countries of a region and the incorporation of
relevant methods and techniques from outside the region.

35.   United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) assists countries to build
self-reliance through institutional capacity building focused on the countries'
basic needs. In 1993, UNDP direct support to projects in the forest sector in the
various countries totaled US $ 33.5 million. Since, and in response to UNCED,
UNDP has launched its Capacity 21 programme to assist countries develop their
capacities to manage their resources in environmentally sound manner with
transfer of technologies and know-how as important components. 

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) plays a central role in assisting
countries to integrate environmental concerns and requirements in their national
development programmes and activities. Transfer of knowledge, methods and sound
technologies for sustainable forest management and conservation is a component
of many UNEP projects in the forestry sector.

37.   The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) has reviewed
its  projects and developed new operational guidelines with greater focus on
environmental aspects of forest industries and stronger linkages between forest
management and industries. UNIDO supports transfer of technologies through
provision of advice (UNIDO runs a Timber Industries Unit). It has been UNIDO's
general strategy to promote and to support joint ventures within a country to
take advantage of improved technologies. A good example of this strategy is a
recent initiative in Ecuador which involves partnership between UNIDO and the
Executive Commission for the Wood Industries of Ecuador (CEEIMA) which runs an
integrated package of projects covering training, investment or partnership
promotion, technical advice, and market development. 

38.   The International Timber Trade Organization (ITTO) has maintained focus on
environmental impact of timber trade. For example, ITTO has made noteworthy
contribution in the development of Criteria and Indicators of sustainable
management of forests. ITTO provides support for forestry development projects
in member countries. For example, in 1993, ITTO support for projects amounted to
US $ 15.5 million. ITTO currently accords high priority to transfer of
environmentally sound technologies. For example, ITTO provides fellowships to
support study attachments, study tours and seminars, which facilitates
"technology transfer to producer member countries". To date, 382 fellowships have
been awarded to individuals from 32 countries.

39.   Tratado de Cooperacion Amazonica/Amazon Cooperation Treaty (TCA) fosters
collaboration on policies and activities in agriculture, fisheries, forestry and
environment among member countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana,
Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. TCA implements its activities through specific
Commission on Environment (CEMMA) and Commission on Science and Technology
(CECTA). Both CEMMA and CECTA currently benefit from technical assistance from
FAO. TCA attempts to realise technology transfer through CECTA.

40.   The Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) aims at promoting
common development strategies towards economic integration into a common
market. SADC implements specific forestry projects through Forestry Sector
Technical Coordination Unit (FSTCU). Currently, FSTCU implements 16 forestry
projects with total budget of US $ 117 million. Many of the on-going forestry
projects have capacity building and technology transfer components. 

41.   The African Timber Organisation (ATO) is an intergovernmental organisation
that promotes common policies and strategies for forest management and trade of
sustainably produced timber from Africa. ATO has participated actively in UNCED
follow-up processes notably in the drafting of Criteria and Indicators for
sustainable forest management in the African context. ATO is a dominant actor in
the promotion of forest sector industrialisation in the continent. ATO advocates
for, and supports transfer of appropriate technologies among its member
countries. 

      D.     Non-Governmental Organisations, Professional Societies, Networks
             and Associations 

42.   There are many non-governmental organisations, professional societies,
networks and associations in both developed and developing countries that play
important roles in advocacy, facilitation, monitoring of the use and transfer of
technologies. Although many of these organisations do not play direct roles as
such in technology transfer, they make significant national and international
impact on the policy environment. In a few cases, like with the Greenpeace
interventions, they force concerned parties to adopt alternative technological
options.

43.   The International Union of Forestry Research Organisations (IUFRO) promotes
exchange of scientific and technological information among member institutions
and individual scientists. IUFRO■s impact centres on its many active Work
Divisions and Working Groups of scientists who meet regularly to review and
exchange information on current developments in forest science and technology.
IUFRO remains a dominant actor in promoting networking and collaboration, which
offer valuable platforms in the transfer of technologies. Its Special Programmes
for Developing Countries (SPDC) aims at strengthening research capacities in
developing countries to improve their participation in the union■s activities
thus facilitating North-South and South-South transfer of technologies.

44.   The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and the World Wide Fund for Nature
(WWF) are leading international NGOs in the international dialogue and action
on the conservation of forests and the use of environmentally sound forest
harvesting technologies. The Forest Conservation Programme of IUCN has on-
going projects on forest policy and management, community and social forestry,
non-timber forest products, forest biodiversity, and protected areas. Through
these projects, IUCN promotes the use of environmentally sound technologies
in forest harvesting including technology transfer.

45.   The International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) acts as a
facilitator in technology application and transfer for all aspects of
sustainable use and development of the important non-wood forest products.
Such a network is certainly an example to consider as arrangement to share
technologies among predominantly developing countries.

46.   The Central America and Mexico Coniferous Resources Cooperative,
CAMCORE, is an association of profit oriented pulp and paper companies and
research institutions, from developed and developing countries in America,
Africa and Asia, for better use and development of plantation species. Through
CAMCORE, its members benefited from the identification of new species or
populations of forest trees that grow better than plantation species being
used, from the development of breeding programmes.

     E.      Local Organisations and Associations

47.   While the role of multilateral and bilateral organisations and regional
networks is undoubtedly important, it is also critical to recognise that,
although un-quantified, local organisations and groups provide the bulk of
financial and human resource investment in technology transfer and adaptation. 
For example, associations of private forest owners in Nordic countries
participate, articulate needs and help fund, test, assess and guide appropriate
technology development in addition to their role in influencing and developing
appropriate policy.  Their organisation helps to increase market integration and
sustainable forest management.  Local organisations, associations and groups hold
the key to successful transfer.  In many areas of the developing world local user
groups are not empowered to play their role in the transfer process and are,
thus, sometimes passive victims rather than active beneficiaries of technology
transfer.  Efforts are needed to help empower these organisations and increase
their capacities to contribute, guide and articulate needs in technology
transfer.

      F.     Universities and Research Institutions

48.   International research centres, CIFOR, ICRAF and IPGRI, play an important
role in development of knowledge, methods and techniques of general significance
to sustainable forest management. They also contribute to transfer of technology
and capacity building through their collaborative research and training
programmes.

49.   National research institutions and universities are indispensable to
conduct research to satisfy specific needs of the countries and in adapting and
transferring technologies at national and local level. There are several examples
of co-operation between universities (forestry schools) of developed and
developing countries.  For example, Auburn University  in the United States have
exchange programmes with among others China, Brazil and Nepal. 

      G.     Extension Institutions

50.   National extension systems, integrating public, private and non-
governmental partners are essential to effective transfer and implementation of
technologies for sustainable forest management by its multiple and diverse
actors.

      H.     Contributions from the Private Sector 

51.   The on-going IPF/IFF dialogue emphasises the expected increased support
from the private sector in sustainable management of forests. Moreover, since the
private sector fuels the bulk of technological advancement, the sector will be
expected to play a greater role in access and transfer of environmentally sound
technologies, if supported by adequate policy environment and incentives. 

52.   Several European, American, and Japanese forest based private firms have
operations in Central and South America, Africa, and in Southeast Asia. In the
past, these firms relied on exports of roundwood, wood chips, and sawn timber
with end product processing in the home countries. For a variety of reasons, the
situation will change towards more end-product processing in the exporting
countries (largely in developing countries). This will necessitate technology
transfer and it is expected that the private sector will be a key player in the
process.

ASSESSMENT OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

53.   The report of the Secretary-General to the Fifth Session of the Commission
on Sustainable Development (E/CN.17/1997/2) amply summarised the status that,
while many of the UNCED goals were to be achieved through reliance on
environmentally sound technologies, there has been little follow-up action on
increased transfer of available technologies for sustainable management of
forests. IFF needs to address the various facets of this shortfall as follows:

      A.     Forest Development Policy Imperatives

54.   Currently, most national forest policies are silent on promotion of
investments in, and transfer of, environmentally sound technologies as well as
on extension in general. It is important that this issue be addressed in the new
generation forest policies and as part of national forests programmes. Important
components of national forest programmes involve assessment of technology
requirements and specific action plans for their access, transfer, and
development as well as extension programmes for local capacity building.

55.   It is expected that the new generation of national forests programmes will
feature stronger partnerships between the public sector, private sector, and
communities in sustainable management of forests. It is also expected that,
through such partnerships, the private sector will potentially  play a bigger
role in sustainable forest management and conservation. It is therefore also
expected that the private sector will play a major role in forest technology
development and transfer, if supported by adequate policy environments.

      B.     Range of Possible Technologies

56.   It is instructive to consider developments around three technology groups
below: 
             (i)    Available Technologies

57.   First, there are many available technologies in both developed and
developing countries that could be better utilised for sustainable management of
forests. Examples of available technologies and methods include improved genetic
quality of planting material, tree plantation development, and timber harvesting
and processing technologies. The success of their transfer and use depend on  (i)
enabling policy environment; and (ii) human capacity development, particularly
for developing countries.

58. For these available technologies to be utilised, actions are needed primarily
at the national level with technology transfer playing a relatively small role.
However, recent trends in many developing countries indicate that, without
targeted and specific assistance, little additional investment towards the use
of environmentally sound technologies in forest management can be expected from
either the public or private sector.  Developing countries need continued and
enhanced  international  support to put to better use the available technologies
in the management of their forests.

             (ii)   Technologies Needing Increased Transfer

59.   Secondly, there are many technologies for the sustainable management of
forests, which are already in use, also in developing countries , but which have
not yet been tested and transferred to other developing countries. Examples of
such technologies include satellite and GIS based forest assessment techniques,
biotechnology, and specialised aspects of tree product processing (value
addition), which are currently applied largely in developed countries only. For
some of these recently developed technologies, there is a need for adaptive
research on their effective use given the  nature and conditions of forests in
developing countries. For developing countries to take full advantage of these
recently developed technologies towards sustainable management of their forests,
they need additional investments in: (i) training of their staff; (i) minimal
facilities to support their use, and (iii) operating costs.

60.   Two important limitations to the transfer and effective use of this second
group of technologies in developing countries need to be specifically considered
in the on-going IFF dialogue.  These limitations are; (i) the patent and other
Intellectual Property Right (IPR) issues of technologies (particularly for high
value pharmaceutical and food tree products), and (ii) the high costs and
difficulties of access to some of these technologies (particularly for satellite
based technologies). These two limitations need further consideration in the IFF
process.

             (iii)  Emerging Technologies

61.   Thirdly, there are a few new and emerging technologies of significant
potential value for our understanding of how forest ecosystems work and which
could contribute to their environmentally sound management. Some of these
emerging technologies are still at the research and development stage while
others are at an application and testing stage in a few countries. Examples of
these emerging technologies and methods include genetic engineering, technologies
used in assessing some functions of forests such as carbon sequestration,
participatory approach and methods, etc. While some of these emerging
technologies are still at the research stages, there are early indications that
some of them have the potential to revolutionise the way we assess, conserve, and
enhance the functions and services of forests. The most important issue as
regards these technologies would be a discussion within the IFF  of how
developing countries can be encouraged and supported to fully participate in 
ongoing research and development. Such partnership in technology research and
development (R & D), will circumvent some of the technology access and transfer
problems encountered by  developing countries.  It would, for example,  greatly
reduce the time gap between development and their future impact on sustainable
management of forests in developing countries.

      C.     Technology Assessment Methodology, and Capacity building

62.   One of the most important landmarks of the post-UNCED international
dialogue is the evolving consensus on criteria and indicators for sustainable
forest management.  Little progress has been made, however, on the development
of, and consensus on methods for assessing environmental soundness of forest
production and forest product processing technologies. This is an important area
of continuing international dialogue that extends into such aspects as sharing
of costs of environmental damage, certain aspects of international trade in
forest products and technology transfer.

63.   The practical starting point of such a dialogue, is the development of
appropriate technology assessment methods according to which there could be
international consensus on certain objective criteria and indicators. To take an
example from an other sector, one method which has been applied in assessing
agricultural technologies involves the combination of biological, physical, and
economic measures into a single index such as the Total Factor Productivity
(TFP). The TFP expresses the total value of all outputs produced by the system
divided by total value of all inputs used during the production cycle. Maybe of
greater potential utility to forestry, are the recent attempts by agricultural
scientists to include the costs of natural resources in such indices. In any
case, the minimum requirement for technology assessment remains the ex-ante
appraisal of societal and environmental effects of technology application.

64.   There is an urgent need to develop methods for assessing environmental
soundness of technologies in the process of their development and transfer. This
is an area that calls for technical guidance from specialised agencies with
comparative advantage.  For example, the FAO's Forest Harvesting, Trade, and
Marketing unit already offers technical advice and capacity building on
technologies for sustainable forest management in member countries, including the
development and promotion of use of its "Model Code of Forest Harvesting
Practices".  Other organisations, like the ITTO, have also promoted and supported
the development of similar guidelines for regional and international application.
The IFF may wish to consider specific action to precipitate the development and
further consensus building on technology assessment methods and guidelines.

65.   Developing countries need to address the urgent need for capacity building
in technology assessment and access, within their international forestry
co-operation and support programmes. The capacity building efforts of these
countries need to focus first and foremost on better utilisation of technologies
already available in the country. Secondly, capacity building efforts need to
focus on methods for assessing technologies earmarked for transfer. Thirdly,
capacity building need to  focus on exposure to, and assessment of new and
emerging technologies which could enhance sustainable management of forests in
the future.

66.   For many developing countries, the existing capacity for technology
assessment is below threshold levels. Countries in this situation could
benefit from assistance from developed countries (many of them already receive
such assistance). Such capacity building efforts could, however, be better
sustained if developing countries, among themselves, developed mechanisms of
collaboration and networking to reduce costs and to move towards collective
self reliance in their capacities to effectively assess technologies. This is
an area where international and regional organisations could promote and
support regional training and information networking.

      D.     Interlinkages between Research, Technology Generation, Information
             Technology, and Trade

67.   In many countries, forestry research and technology generation/transfer
are integrated and/or compounded. These linkages are particularly evident
where research is supported by the private sector. It should be noted that
forestry as practised in many countries today is not adequately utilising
research findings and technological innovations. Issues addressed under the
section on changing dimensions of forestry science and practice apply equally
well to forestry research. These close linkages need to be recognised and
treated, as far as possible, as two sides of the same coin.

68.   Lack of current information on available technologies and on those under
research and development is another important limitation to technology assessment
and transfer. Few developing countries have focal points for technology
information dissemination and assessment. Even fewer developing countries have
central technology advisory units or technology parks. There are also
significantly small numbers of routine national mechanisms and/or centres for
technology assessment. Information on relevant technological innovations and
adoptions in other countries is often not sufficiently targeted for possible
assessment. The combination of lack of information and lack of mechanisms/centres
for their assessment greatly limit transfer and adoption of environmentally sound
technologies in forest management in developing countries. Pertinent developments
in information technology are important prerequisites for technology transfer.

69.   In the current more liberalised global trade (post Uruguay Round of GATT
negotiations), it is to be expected that countries, in particular developing
countries, will seek greater opportunities to benefit from value addition on
the products and services from their forests.  This is accomplished through
increased local processing and through investment in environmentally sound
extraction and processing technologies.

      E.     Current Trends in North-South Technology Transfer

70.   In most cases, industrialised countries place no restrictions on transfer
of those technologies that are available in the market. Developing countries,
however, have yet to develop appropriate mechanisms for their routine access and
assessment. Only few countries have developed specific investment incentives to
promote technology transfer, both on the exporting and receiving ends. A more
significant trend is the growing pressure from powerful environmental NGOs on
industrialised country private companies to use cleaner technologies in their
operations based in developing countries. The current pressure for the use of
clean technologies will be a very significant factor in accelerating technology
transfer.

71.   The current inertia in North-South transfer of environmentally sound
technologies is such that developing countries need to consider alternative
strategies to accelerate the process. A possible strategy would be for
developing countries to engage in collective bargaining for technology
transfer to their regions. Such a strategy has great potential impact if it
revolves around the many promising post-UNCED regional country blocks, which
have taken collective actions on some IFF issues.

      F.     Current Trends in South-South Technology Transfer

72.   Environmentally sound technologies which are generated in the South are
likely to be (i) more accessible, (ii) less costly, and (iii) more appropriate
for countries in the South. Clearly, this constitutes a strong case for
strengthening South -South co-operation in assessment needs for improved
technologies and their transfer among countries and regions. This is the
rationale behind initiatives like the recent consultations between the African
Timber Organisation and Malaysian forest industries on assessment of needs and
arrangements for the transfer of environmentally sound forest technologies. 

73.   It is recognised that several initiatives have been started to promote
and to support technical co-operation among developing countries. These could
provide useful platforms for accelerating transfer of forest technologies. For
example, FAO■s programme on Technical Co-operation among Developing Countries
(TCDC) has already made significant impact in supporting consultations on
South-South transfer of agricultural technologies. TCDC or similar initiatives
could play important roles in promoting and supporting transfer of forest
technologies from countries such as Malaysia, South Africa, Brazil, for
example, to technologically less endowed developing countries.

74.   Traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) requires specific consideration
in the discussion of transfer and benefit sharing from derived products. For
example, during the IPF process, the Leticia Declaration and Proposals for Action
(E/CN.17/IPF/1997/6) highlighted the rights of indigenous and other
forest-dependent peoples on the management, conservation and sustainable
development of all types of forests. The forests are the greatest reservoirs of
biodiversity with species of great value as food, pharmacopoeia and traditional
medicine. Examples from African forests include Ancistrocladus korupensis of
which some elements have shown promising activities against the human
immuno-deficiency viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2, and Prunus africana of which elements
have been proven to treat prostrate cancer. In many cases, in developing
countries, where TFRK have the potential to lead to important breakthroughs,
intellectual property right protection does not exist and/or is not enforced.
Under such circumstances, there are many unresolved issues on transparency, fair
recognition and sharing of benefits upon transfer of knowledge and technology.

75.   Regional and inter-regional networks are potentially good mechanisms for
South-South and trilateral transfer of technologies for sustainable forest
management.

      G.     Technology Transfer/Diffusion to Extension Workers, Private Sector
             Agents and Farmers

76.   So far, the on-going international dialogue has given relatively little
emphasis to the need for more effective technology dialogue with end
beneficiaries - extension workers, private sector agents, and farmers in both
developed and developing countries.  A few success stories of transfer of
computer aided woodlot management and woodworking industry technologies to
extension workers and private sector agents have recently been reported in,
for example, U.S.A., Finland, and Sweden. Transfer and diffusion of
technologies to end-users are of particular importance for wood energy
technologies. Such transfers to end-users have the potential to make
significant contribution to sustainable management of forests the world over. 

77.   Only few developing countries have taken specific action towards sustained
technology transfer and diffusion to the various end-users. Good examples of
these include South Africa, where the Institute for Commercial Forestry Research
relies on its Technology Transfer Support Group, and Brazil where the Brazilian
Agricultural Research Enterprise (EMBRAPA) has its Diffusion Service as a window
for its generated technologies to reach various end-users. Technology transfer
and diffusion to end-users are development challenges for most countries,
developed and developing, and which deserve greater emphasis in the IFF.

78.   In this context it is worth mentioning that it would be of particular
importance to transfer technologies related to worker■s safety and health. 
Many counties have poor legal and technical mechanisms related to forest
workers safety. 

      H.     Gender Implications of Forest-Related Technology Transfer

79.   Although there exists important gender related tree, forest tenure and
ownership issues to be resolved, it is fully recognised that the transfer and
diffusion of technologies for the use of wood as an energy source have made
a significant impact on the quality of life and economic advancement of women
in some developing countries. The Nairobi Plan of Action as endorsed by the
United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Energy (1981) addressed
important development challenges, but, unfortunately, for many developing
countries, the needed relief on the burden on women, in particular, as
fuelwood collectors has not been sustained.

80.   The Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China in 1995 called
for an assessment of the implications of any planned action, for women and men. 
This is a process generally known as gender mainstreaming.  This provided an
impetus for action to ensure that women not only have access to and training in
technology, but also participate in the process from development to application
as well as monitoring and evaluation.  The Conference also calls for
diversification of and an increase in vocational and technical training of women
and girls in such fields as environmental and technical sciences.  It also urges
the promotion of women■s central role in food and agricultural research and
extension programmes. The Beijing Platform for Action calls for an increased
effort in outreach programmes specifically targeted at low-income women in rural
areas for the provision of: training and information, credit and investment
funds. 

81.   In many countries, women play a major role in the establishment and
management of forests and are the depository of a large part of forest related
technologies, including Traditional Forest Related Knowledge. Therefore, women
are important actors and participants in the transfer and application of
technologies for sustainable forest management.  Women■s roles, in all countries,
need to be recognised  and their participation in SFM needs to be actively
supported.  Much greater enrolment by women is needed in some of the
traditionally more male dominated forest-related education and training
programmes.

      I.     Technologies for the Use of Wood as an Energy Source 

82.   Wood energy technologies deserve special consideration in the current
international dialogue on forests. Chapter 11 of Agenda 21 specifically addresses
■efficient utilisation and assessment to recover full value of the goods and
services provided by forests, forest lands and woodlands■. Article 2 of the
Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) addresses forests in "stabilisation
of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system". The Montreal
Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and, particularly Article 10
of the more recent Kyoto Protocol under the FCCC address the pivotal roles of the
world■s forests on carbon sequestration. The emerging -New Energy Order■, which
calls for increasing reliance on non-fossil and environmentally friendly energy
sources, has increased global attention on  forest and wood as energy sources
energy as well as on associated technologies and their transfer.

83.   Energy use in the forest and wood sectors has two extremes.  On one
extreme, technologies for large scale wood processing (including pulp and paper
manufacture) have energy and waste/pollutant implications of great national
and international concerns. The energy efficiency of forest production and
processing technologies has been the subject of international debate and
action by both the public and private sectors in developed and in developing
countries. On the other extreme, energy saving wood and charcoal devices in
households, particularly in developing countries, have significantly reduced
the fuelwood demands resulting in some reduction on deforestation.

84.   Only a small proportion of harvested wood (about one third) ends up in
final processed products such as furniture and paper. The rest of the harvested
wood has great potential (and is indeed put to valuable energy use in developing
countries) for supplying a substantial proportion of the world■s energy needs.
More efficient use of this substantial by-product of wood processing constitutes
carbon dioxide substitution of significant consequence to climate systems, i.e.
use of wood energy instead of the traditional fossil energy use. 

85.   Already, many medium and large scale wood processing industries, in
primarily developed countries, have made significant attempts to achieve
energy self sufficiency  (use of waste and by-products to generate energy
required internally by the plant,). In some developed countries, there are
manufacturing plants that have attained about 30% energy substitution. In
contrast, many wood processing plants in developing countries have made few
attempts at energy substitution and/or overall increase in energy efficiency.
The plants are not only energy inefficient, but also high in wood wastage. A
common sight in many developing countries are saw mills, using outmoded
technologies, buried in their sawdust heaps. In view of forests■ role in
environmental and climate stabilisation, a special case can be made for
international promotion and facilitation of efficient wood energy technology
transfer, particularly to  developing countries with forest products
processing industries. Such efforts need to be targeted at small and medium
scale operations in rural communities. For example, the Forest Products
Laboratory of the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organisation (CSIRO) recently reported on the development of a promising new
technology for utilising wood waste from forest harvesting and sawmills for
electricity generation in "micro-turbine" gasifiers

86.   The forest sector in many developing countries is a dominant employer of
labour. By virtue of their mainly rural locations, forest sector operations often
have greater direct impact on the most economically marginalised populations. By
the nature of their operations, wood energy technologies employ some ten times
the labour needed for fossil energy based technologies. Furthermore, many
developing countries already have access to appropriate technologies for the use
of wood as source of energy, as well as wood collection and transportation. What
they often lack is mechanisms for efficient diffusion of these technologies to
rural communities right down to household applications. As this additional
employment would be in the rural areas, adoption of wood energy technologies
would have significant economic, political and social stabilisation consequences.

V     CONCLUSIONS AND PRELIMINARY PROPOSALS FOR ACTION

87.   While better implementation of sound technologies bears great potential in
enhancing conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests,
technology is often not the critical limiting factor and not every constraint to
sustainable forest management can be alleviated by the transfer of technology.
Policy environments favourable to sustainable forest management and to the
implementation of technologies are as important as the technologies themselves.
      
      A.     Forest Development Policy Imperatives

Conclusions:

88.   Currently, most national forest policies do not specifically address
promotion and facilitation of investments in and transfer of environmentally
sound technologies in support of sustainable forest management and for forest
products industries. Interested partners, in particular the private sector, are
expected to play a more prominent role in forest technology development and
transfer in the future, particularly in forest-rich countries.  

Preliminary Proposals for Action:

89.   The IFF may wish to consider:

      a)     inclusion of transfer of environmentally sound technologies and
investment promotions in national forest programmes; and
      b)     adequate policies to further the participation of interested parties
in development and decision making affecting efficient technology development,
transfer and use.

      B.     Range of Possible Technologies

(I)   Available Technologies

Conclusions

90.   There are many available technologies in both developed and developing
countries that could be better utilised for sustainable management of forests.
Better utilisation of these available technologies depend primarily on actions
at the national level with technology transfer playing a relatively small role.
Developing countries need continued and enhanced international support to better
utilize available technologies in  forest management.

Preliminary Proposals for Action:

91.   The Forum may wish to consider specific assistance to facilitate public and
private investment towards the use of environmentally sound technologies in
forest management targeted at creating enabling policy environments; and human
capacity development.

(ii)  Technologies Needing Increased Transfer

Conclusions:

92.   Many technologies for sustainable forest management are already in use, but
have not yet been tested and transferred to developing countries. For some of
these, there is a need for adaptive research on the limitations of their adaption
and application in developing countries. 

Preliminary Proposals for Action:

93.   The IFF may wish to consider:

      a)     additional investments towards developing countries taking full
advantage of  recently developed technologies through assistance to training and
minimal facilities to support their use.

      b)     addressing limitations in the patent and other intellectual property
right aspects of technologies (particularly for high value pharmaceutical and
food products), and the high costs and difficulties of access to some of these
technologies (particularly for satellite based technologies).

(iii) Emerging technologies

Conclusions:

94.   There are a new and emerging technologies of significant potential value
for our understanding of forest ecosystems functions, which could contribute to
environmentally sound management. Partnership in technology research and
development (R & D), will circumvent some of the technology access and transfer
problems encountered by developing countries. 

Proposals for action:

95.   The Forum may wish to consider to:

      a)     strengthen support towards full participation of developing
countries' in ongoing research and development (R&D).
      b)     propose ways and means to create partnerships in technology R & D
in order to reduce the time gap between development and application.

      C.     Assessment of Technology Generation and Needs

Conclusions: 

96.   There has been insufficient efforts in comprehensive assessment of
technology generation and needs. Furthermore, many developing countries have weak
capacities for assessment of the environmental soundness of technologies.

Preliminary Proposals for Action

97.   The IFF may wish to consider: 

      a)     including comprehensive assessment of technology needs and their
transfer as a strong feature in national forests programmes.

      b)     mechanisms for sustained international support for capacity building
in technology assessment, and for access and dissemination of  information on
sound technologies and equipment for management, conservation and sustainable
development of all types of forests.

      D.     Interlinkages between Research, Technology Generation, and
Information Technology

Conclusions 

98.   In many countries technology generation has been initiated and progressed
satisfactorily mainly through efforts in research on addressing some of the
common weaknesses of the transfer process such as poor coverage, target group
bias, high costs, poor and limited information content and lack of funding. 
Rapidly advancing information technology continues to play a major role in
catalysing technology generation.

Preliminary Proposals for Action 

99.   The Forum may wish to consider:

      a)     actions that strengthen and take increased advantage of the
interlinkages between research and technology development of forest and forest
processing technologies, through involving users in research planning;

      b)     ways and means to assess the potential of electronic information
systems/information and communication technologies (EIS/ICT) , through developing
techniques and methods to further integrate these technologies with ongoing
communication and information networks.

      E.     North-South Technology Transfer

Conclusions 

100.  North-South transfer would need the collaboration and close involvement of
the private sector. It is apparent that there are still many challenges to
increased private sector investment in forestry and forest industry in developing
countries as well as in the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.
There are opportunities to catalyse and support north-south technology transfer
as parts of official bilateral and multilateral assistance programmes for
especially developing countries with low forest cover. Transfer of forest
technologies may be constrained by broader policy issues, for example those
related to forest harvesting, where some donor agencies have limitations in
financing projects dealing with this aspect of forestry unless seen as one of the
component of sustainable forest management.

Preliminary proposals for action 

101.  The Forum may wish to consider:

      a)     practical ways to promote and support review of national policies
related to investment in the forest sector, particularly incentives to promote
transfer and implementation of environmentally sound technologies.

      b)     urging developed and developing countries to specifically include
forest related technology transfer in assistance packages on terms mutually
agreeable to all parties, with a particular attetnion to countries with low
forest cover.

      F.     South-south and Trilateral Technology Transfer

Conclusions 

102.  There are many appropriate technologies already transferred to, or
generated in the south, which could be applied in sustainable forests management
and that are more accessible, less costly and have higher adoption potential as
compared to technologies from the north.

Preliminary Proposals for Action 

103.  The Forum may wish to consider

      a)     strengthening initiatives, which could accelerate south-south
      and trilateral transfer of environmentally sound forest and forest
      products processing technologies, such as programmes on Technical Co-
      operation among Developing Countries (TCDC) and regional or inter-
      regional networks; and 

      b)     mechanisms to realize the potential of transfer and benefits of
      TFRK through the development and enforcement of intellectual property
      rights in developing countries.

      G.     Technology Transfer and Diffusion through Extension Workers to
      Private Sector Agents and Farmers

Conclusions 

104.  Relatively little attention over the past years has been placed on
the needs for increased technology diffusion to end beneficiaries through
extension workers. A few countries have attempted to develop effective
mechanisms for diffusion of appropriate technologies to the end users.
These mechanisms have a significant potential to be emulated by a broader
set of countries.

Preliminary Proposals for Action 

105.  The Forum may wish to consider practical measures to promote and
support the timely diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to the
end users, particularly those in rural communities in developing countries,
through the establishment of technology diffusion centres.

      H.     Gender Implications

Conclusions

106.  Gender mainstreaming related to wood energy use, tree cultivation for
household use, forest tenure and ownership, sustainable forest management as well
as capacity building and empowerment through access to and transfer of technology
need much more focused attention.  Women's contributions, concerns and
experiences must be fully taken into account in planning and implementation of
forest policies and programmes.

Preliminary Proposals for Action

107.  The Forum may wish to consider:

      a)     steps to ensure opportunities for women, including indigenous and
rural women, to participate forest-related decision making at all levels;
      b)     ensuring the use of data and information that is desegregated by sex
in gender-specific sectoral surveys and studies used in the development of SFM
policies and projects, so that women's rights and roles are fully reflected in
decisions; 
      c)     strengthening of outreach programmes targeted at poor, rural women
in training, small credit, and training and information related to household use
of wood, wood lots for fuelwood, and in cooking technology;
      d)     encourage the training and education of women and girls in energy
technologies and cultivation of trees for household use; and
      e)     increasing efforts to enrol more women in higher education in forest
related issues, such as: forestry; ecology; wood technology; pulp and paper
engineering; biology and biotechnology; chemistry and pharmacology, both in
developed and developing countries. 

      I.     Technologies for Use of Wood as an Energy Source

Conclusions 

108.  There is an urgent need for technological innovations to turn the currently
large proportion of waste and by-products in forest logging and wood processing
into an environmental good through the use of modern wood energy technologies,
which could have significant impact on  carbon  substitution locally and
globally.  Appropriate technologies for use of wood as an energy source at the
rural household level has a great potential to enhance the health and
socio-economic status of women in many developing countries.

109.  A shift to a reliance on modern wood energy technologies could bring with
it quantum increases in employment generation and redistribution of investment
to marginalised rural populations.

Preliminary Proposals for Action 

110.  The Forum may consider:

      a)     proposing international action, as a  logical follow-up to the
Montreal Protocol, UNCED, as well as the Kyoto Protocol, urging a shift to modern
wood energy technologies as part of addressing the global concerns  of carbon
sequestration and  substitution.

      b)     pursuing concrete actions, to be taken at individual country and
forest industry level, to use energy efficient technologies, as important
criteria in assessing environmental soundness of wood processing technologies.

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