15 June 1998 WORKING DRAFT INFORMATION NOTE on Assessing, Monitoring and Rehabilitation of Forest Cover in Environmentally Critical Areas New York, June 1998 This is a non-official document, for information only, prepared by the IFF Secretariat based on inputs received from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). It provides additional background information to delegations attending the second session of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (Geneva, 24 August - 4 September 1998). Published in English only. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Executive Summary.................................................2 I. Introduction and Objectives.................................3 II. General Overview on IPF Conclusions and Proposals for Action......................................................4 III. Major Issues................................................5 IV. Proposed Process of Preparation for Substantive Discussion.................................................12 V. References.................................................15 SUMMARY The aim of this information note is to clarify for the international community, and in particular the policy makers engaged in the IFF process, the theme: Assessing, Monitoring and Rehabilitation of Forest Cover in Environmentally Critical Areas. Critical areas are understood to include dry zones, mountain areas, coastal areas, freshwater swamps and land degraded through unsustainable agriculture. The note discusses: the causes and extent of forest decline, degradation and deforestation; the special considerations needed for mountain Forests, including aspects of protection of water catchments and biological diversity; dry zones, with particular emphasis on desertification and sylvo-pastoral management; coastal zones, especially mangrove forests; and degraded sites, in particular arising from unsustainable agriculture. Other topics discussed include: assessment of extent of deforestation and degradation; causes of deforestation and degradation; objectives for the restoration and rehabilitation of forest cover; some pre-requisites for successful rehabilitation; supportive policies and facilitation by governments; international and national policy aspects and perceptions of rehabilitation of forest cover; technical factors, in particular concerning the recovery of natural vegetation; and assessment and monitoring, noting that degradation processes are more difficult to assess than land cover. The note finally makes proposals concerning a process of preparation for substantive discussion at IFF III. Introduction and Objectives 1.The aim of this information note is to clarify for the international community, and in particular the policy makers engaged in the IFF process, the theme: Assessing, Monitoring and Rehabilitation of Forest Cover in Environmentally Critical Areas. Critical areas are understood to include dry zones, mountain areas, coastal areas, freshwater swamps and land degraded through unsustainable agriculture. The criteria for the selection of critical areas include those landscapes where the site conditions and external factors acting on the site, make the growth, regrowth or development of forest cover difficult or impossible. Trees and forests are, however, highly resilient and adaptable renewable resources and, given protection from damage, some kind of woody plants will re-grow on most types of disturbed land once occupied by trees and scrubs. This information note is intended to identify, and further elaborate on, issues relating to assessment, monitoring and rehabilitation of forest cover of degraded land or under critical threats, thus complementing the document prepared by UNEP on -Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation■ (IFF programme element II.d.(1)) 2.Forest cover is defined by FAO as: "Land with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 ha. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 m at maturity in situ. (It) may consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground, or of open forest formations with a continuous vegetation cover in which tree crown cover exceeds 10 percent. ...(It) Excludes Land predominantly used for agricultural practices". 3.Thus, shelterbelts and plantations are classified as forest, but scattered trees on farms or in hedgerows are not. Such trees may, however, constitute agroforestry systems and contribute to "tree cover" as opposed to forest cover. They are both important to sustainable land use management. 4.Environmentally critical areas: Areas in which the tree or forest cover has particular importance and value for one or many products and/or environmental services, but which are often ecologically fragile since they pose problems for human interventions which seek to rehabilitate them. Many sites, for example, rain forests on inherently infertile sandy soils lose their fertility quickly once the trees have gone, and may change markedly, so that re-creating a sustainable ecosystem or even reintroducing the same species presents enormous problems similar or as important as those encountered in areas of limited water resources. 5.Identification of ecologically fragile areas: the following areas under specific conditions of terrain, slope, rainfall, geographical location, composition and structure are generally identified as fragile areas considering in particular the ecological aspects. They are: - Mountain forests - Catchments and watersheds, both forested and non forested - Dry zones, especially those covered by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD). - Coastal areas, notably mangroves - Lands degraded by agriculture, mining, etc. - Forests of high biological diversity, especially of limited extent and on threatened sites II. General Overview of IPF conclusions and proposed actions 6.The chapters of agenda 21 relating to the land cluster (chapters 11 to 15) and those relating to certain methodological aspects (Chapter 10 on Integrated Approach to the Planning and Management of Land Resources) are all relevant to the present studies and issues discussed. The -Forest Principles■ and the Conventions originating from the UNCED process, in particular the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), are also central to issues discussed. 7.The report of the second session of the IPF called for a diagnostic approach to the subject of deforestation and rehabilitation in the context of national forest programmes. Further analysis and subsequent discussions (CSD, 1996; IPF, 1996; Anon, 1996b) suggested, however, that there was a need to consider a number of other additional issues including: - The need to look beyond the forest sector, especially as deforestation is often caused by factors out of the sector■s responsibility and capability; - The need to address the causes of deforestation by focusing on and reversing damaging processes and promoting beneficial ones; - Policies for trees, other wooded lands and forests, consistent with all other national policies for sustainable development, including overall land use, economics and the environment; - The importance (and difficulty ) of national policies jointly and consistently making the best possible judgements about -optimum■ forest cover to meet diverse needs for goods and services. 8.The report of the fourth session of the IPF outlined priority items for consideration, including i) the need to determine the underlying causes of deforestation; ii) giving further consideration to the currently neglected Traditional Forest Related Knowledge (TFRK); iii) the need for regular monitoring of forest cover and its rehabilitation, including assessments of trans-boundary studies; iv) better assessing forest area under conservation under any status of protected areas; v) clear setting of research priorities; vi) better valuation of forest goods and services and the provision of economic instruments, tax policies and land tenure; and vii) better outlook studies of supply and demand for wood, non-wood products and forest services. 9.The report made a number of other important observations, notably that: - Effective assessment, monitoring and evaluation are a major policy issue; - Poverty and demographic pressures are the root causes of deforestation;(although it also follows that deforestation delivers the global benefit of increased food security through expanding agriculture.) - Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should be used as a basis for action against uncontrolled conversion of forest land for other purposes III. Major Issues Causes and extent of forest decline, degradation and deforestation 10.The causes of forest destruction and degradation are well known and their extent is regularly documented in FAO statistics (FAO, 1993). Nevertheless it is dangerous to generalise, since, in individual countries, different factors may hold differing degrees of importance in their effect on trees, wooded lands and forests. In many tropical developing countries, forests are lost (deforestation) to other land use forms such as agriculture, mining, urban development and other types of human settlements and that unmanaged or ill conceived forest and rangeland uses cause forest degradation. However, many variations in degree and extent of the processes prevail within this overall scenario. Mountain Forests: catchments and biodiversity 11.The relevant parts of the international agenda include Chapter 13 of Agenda 21 (managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development), Chapter 15 ( conservation of biodiversity) as well as Chapters 10-12, the "Forest Principles" and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Mountains are particularly fragile for a number of reasons (Mountain Agenda, 1997) They are generally: high energy environments; they are frequently regions of active geomorphological change; and are characterised (compared with hills) by having distinct altitudinal climatic belts. These belts are of particular significance for the migration of plant communities in periods of climatic change and are governed in part by the temperature gradient of 0.6 degrees per 100 m altitude, but often more significantly by precipitation patterns in relation to prevailing winds. Thus the natural vegetation on mountains also provides good indicators of global climate change, particularly near the tree line. Unfortunately, altitudinal climatic zones become narrower with increasing altitude, making mountain areas especially vulnerable to climate changes. (Hamilton, et al, 1997). 12.Cloud forests are especially vulnerable on some isolated mountains, since they depend almost entirely on occult precipitation through aerial condensation from fog and mist. Once the trees have been removed these areas may receive virtually no rainfall at all. It is noteworthy that some of the world's longest-lived organisms (e.g., the Huon pine in Tasmania) as well as some of its most threatened animal species (e.g., the Gorilla and many bird species) occur in cloud forests. They are also refuges for relict populations of rare plants. 13.FAO (FAO, 1993) estimates that upland forests are being lost at an annual rate of 1.1%, greater than elsewhere in the tropics. A major feature of many mountain forests is slash and burn agriculture, often due to the economic and political marginalisation of the cultivators. Yet these same farmers often have rich stores of knowledge, "folk agronomy", "ethno ecology" or TFRK and do not need to be taught sustainable farming (Hamilton et al, 1997). The promotion of agroforestry on individually held land is often regarded as more effective than setting up communal forestry schemes. In the natural upland forests, women are often the de facto managers, receiving little recognition and no management authority. 14.The quantity and variety of resources coming from mountain forests are often unsustainable, yet their value often accrues to downstream beneficiaries rather than to the mountain communities. (Preston, 1997). A survey from western China, for instance, found that 170 naturally occurring products from mountains were found in markets, the value of which was considerably greater than that of any timber harvested. The most important forest product of many mountains is water, which is often reflected in government forest reserves of former times being classified as "protection" forests. The downstream beneficiaries who receive the water, such as owners of irrigated farmlands, make little or no reinvestment either in the resources themselves or in the mountain communities. 15.For the rehabilitation by tree planting of mountain forests there is a dilemma in the choice of species. A shift from concern with biomass production only to more socio-ecological objectives, broader based management systems, better harvesting practices and an enabling political environment will be the avenues for mountain and mountain forest ecosystems rehabilitation. The essential prerequisite and facilitating framework will include the recognition of services rendered by mountain ecosystems and their dwellers to lowland community and systems and the necessity for compensation in a comprehensive consideration of local and national economies. Dry zones: desertification and silvo-pastoralism. 16.The important parts of the international agenda for dry zones are particularly the United Nations Convention for Combating Desertification (CCD) and Chapter 12 of Agenda 21. FAO (1997b). 17.The Secretary General■s Report to IPF III on Fragile Ecosystems Affected by Desertification (E/CN.17/IF/1996/17) noted that information on rates and causes of desertification are still needed, especially for Africa and proposed a target of the year 2001 for each country to have a policy for dry lands. It also emphasised capacity building, partnerships between civil society and NGOs and the empowerment of people along with the assessment of trees, woodlands and forests and the processes leading to degradation - the fore-runner to desertification. Recent studies in miombo woodland by CIFOR and others are concentrating on extension to traditional forest users to reverse degradation trends and encourage natural regeneration. The CCD itself emphasises the need for peoples■ participation in decision making and management, decentralisation and the value of a mix of local, national and international partnerships at all levels. 18.The important expert meeting held in 1996 in Portugal under the auspices of the governments of Senegal, Cape Verde and Portugal (Anon, 1996a) listed many constraints on development in dry zones, noting particularly that the issues were the use of trees for the support of sustainable livelihoods, and the need for a holistic approach. 19.Rehabilitation is expensive no matter which method is chosen. It may be undertaken by encouraging natural regrowth, but this will require complete protection from grazing and fire which may be socially unacceptable, and it takes time. It may also be accomplished through planting trees which may be slightly quicker but which still needs protection and is usually at a higher cost. When planting, therefore, it is important to take care to match the site and the species, whether the latter are exotic or indigenous. The choice of species must be made in line with social needs, however, and fast growth is not the only criterion. Some recent advances in techniques, such as water harvesting, may speed up the process of tree establishment. The low potential biomass yield in dry zones means that tree products should ideally be of high value and low biomass content (such as honey, silkworms or medicinal plants). Low value crops such as fuelwood usually give low benefit/cost ratios which are not likely to encourage outside investment. However, the services provided by trees in dry zones are likely to be of much higher socio-ecological value, including benefits such as shade, forage, food products as well as soil and water conservation. 20.The recommendations of the Lisbon expert meeting (Anon, 1996a) and those of the Second Expert Consultation on the Role of Forestry in Combating Desertification, held as a satellite meeting to the 11th World Forestry Congress, point strongly to the same critical policy issues including, inter alia: - the existence of National Forest Policies for dry lands, drawn up with peoples' involvement and incorporating sound ecological management principles; - clearer tenure arrangements to promote higher security in resource use, management and conservation; - prioritisation of preventive measures for action; - the need for guidelines to help decision making for choice of species and techniques for plantations and doing this on a truly participatory basis; - improvement of training and education at all levels together with revision of teaching curricula and a new approach to extension; - basing action on environmental safety, social acceptability and economic relevance. Coastal zones, especially Mangrove forests 21.Mangroves represent the single most important coastal forest formation in the world. Deforestation in mangrove forests can cause coastal erosion and interrupt important ecological succession in the stabilisation of deposited materials at the mouth of rivers. The areas are also important suppliers of wood products and provide habitats for rare species of avifauna (FAO, 1994). Some acid sulphate soils are especially susceptible when cleared for agriculture and should be avoided for this purpose. In view of the aquatic environment, aerial sprays of agricultural chemicals should also be avoided; and mining operations also present special hazards. What is most needed if mangroves are to be saved are strong policy options: that address the need for integrated approaches to the use and conservation of mangroves; that take account of the multiple services they provide; that raise awareness of and evaluate continuously the environmental impacts of development initiatives on mangroves; and that envisage social promotion of societies dependent on mangroves. Degraded sites arising from unsustainable agriculture 22.Soils, exhausted or made otherwise unproductive, from exploitative agriculture may often be restored by the planting of suitable woody species. Recent work by ICRAF on planted fallows shows what can be done on some tropical sites and that tree species may produce highly priced products. The need to address the restoration of alkaline and saline soils, which are no longer productive as a result of land clearance and improper irrigation techniques, is an important special case found world wide. Large areas of such soils exist, although they are not regarded as key for the restoration of forest cover. The need for sustainable agriculture is of great concern to the forest sector in this respect. Other special situations including forests of high biological diversity 23.Rehabilitation of special sites, including the reclamation of mining spoils and land fill sites, and the restoration of such lands to agricultural, forestry or agroforestry productivity, could substantially reduce the impacts of demands on existing natural forests. A recent report on saline land planting in Pakistan, Thailand and Australia by ACIAR (1998) emphasises the practicality of tree planting on these lands, but points out that the choice of tree species and of seed provenances and of planting technique is critical for success. Restoring such lands for agriculture could also reduce pressures on existing forests. Isolated forests of high endemism, such as those in eastern Nigeria, are often under intense pressure. If people are to continue to use such forests it is imperative that the threatened plants are identified and that clear objectives for their future established in a joint management plan. Assessment of extent of deforestation and degradation 24.Losses of forest cover are regularly monitored through the FAO Forest Resources Assessment exercises . The need will be, among others, to fine tune methods to better assess tree and forest formations which are susceptible to degradation, and tree resources outside forests which play extremely important ecological, social and economic functions. Causes of deforestation and degradation 25.The assessment of the state of forest cover from remote sensing or ground truthing is time consuming. Although the parameters of crown canopy cover are clear to characterize deforestation, it is more difficult to quantify forest degradation, since there are few forests in the world that have not been affected by human influences over the last few thousand years. Among underlying causes, Carpenter (1998) notes in particular: - international causes, including transboundary economic forces of deforestation and degradation, taking into account a historical perspective; and - the pressures exerted on forest by other sectors, notably agriculture in the quest for food security; 26.Transboundary causes of deforestation have often been associated with the movements of refugees. Historical factors are important for interpreting the reasons for today■s state of the world■s forests; the main historical factor for deforestation in almost all countries before the Industrial Revolution having been land clearance for agriculture. In drier countries, such as those of the Mediterranean basin, uncontrolled grazing has also been a major factor of both deforestation and forest degradation. These factors still apply today in causing deforestation in many developing countries. 27.With increasing numbers of population and the growing need for food, the forests and woodlands remain the first and most evident option for solutions seeking to alleviate rural food security and poverty. The gradual collapse of the fallow systems, which maintained secondary forests and secured periodical regeneration of woodlands, has accelerated deforestation and degradation. It is now realized that the participation of local communities and rural people in any rehabilitation work is of vital importance for it to be successful and sustainable. Objectives for the restoration and rehabilitation of forest cover 28.Degradation and deforestation entail loss of ecosystem productivity, elimination of natural buffer systems, reduced biological diversity, impairment of all the physical and biological services and functions provided by forest, woodlands and tree resources. Rehabilitation will aim at restoring and maintaining the balance of natural processes in forest ecosystems. 29.The process of effective rehabilitation can only take place with clearly defined objectives, against which progress can be monitored. Some examples of objectives are: - Establish nurse crops to restore, eventually, a previous ecosystem; - Establish ground cover to protect soils from erosion; - Protection of watersheds and catchments feeding rivers and hydro-electric dams; - Management of a single species with a view to promote understorey diversity; - Creation of a wood resource to take the pressure off natural forest vegetation. 30.It must be emphasised that setting objectives must be done with the involvement of, at least, the primary stakeholders and have their full agreement. Some pre-requisites for successful rehabilitation 31.One of the most important pre-requisites for successful rehabilitation is clear definition of control over the land in question. In most cases there will be several parties or stakeholders interested in the future use of even heavily degraded or deforested land. It is convenient to recognise Primary Stakeholders who have a direct stake in a land/ forest resource and Secondary Stakeholders who are not directly involved, but who may have important influence on the outcomes. A recent preliminary study carried out in six African countries has tested a concept of four "Rs" for stakeholder analysis and for resolving conflict between stakeholders. These are: the Rights; the Responsibilities; the Revenues/Returns; and Relationships. 32.The process is still in course of development but the clarification of all four Rs would seem to be an essential pre-requisite for successful rehabilitation of forest cover. Supportive policies and facilitation by governments 33.A further important consideration is land competition. It has often been observed that there can be no sustainable forestry without sustainable agriculture. Yet it has also been estimated that some 14 million ha of agricultural land annually will become unproductive through poor agricultural practices. Even degraded forest land is usually of higher fertility than degraded or unproductive agricultural land. Since the main cause of forest land conversion is agricultural expansion it follows that the main solution to deforestation is also to be found in the agricultural sector. Similarly, resources invested in forest land rehabilitation will be wasted if this activity conflicts with other more powerful interest in land use changes, such as urban development or military installations . International and national policy aspects and perceptions of rehabilitation of forest cover 34.Current international perceptions on the burning of fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect put considerable and quantified value on the sequestration and storage of carbon in growing trees. The Protocol of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto in December 1997 (United nations, 1997b) requires that human induced land use change and forestry activities be reported, although it does not specifically identify land clearance for farming. The Clean Development Mechanism is set up to assist in funding certified project activities, which may be a way of funding some rehabilitation programmes. Ford-Robertson,(1997) indicates that mature forests may contain 200-500 tonnes/ha of stored carbon, though young replanted or regenerated areas would take a long time to reach these levels. 35.At the local level priorities are likely to be for restoring production of forest products and services; thus in the forests of the Himalaya the main desired outputs might be for leaf biomass for compost, forage for domestic animals, fuelwood, medicinal plants and timber, in that order. International concerns are more likely to include unspecified biodiversity conservation among the benefits of forest rehabilitation whilst national concerns would be more likely to put control of flood and avalanches higher on the list. Such different priorities in the objects of forest and land management make it vital that they are defined and agreed before the rehabilitation starts. However, careful planning could result in multiple benefits from rehabilitation activities, with one or more functions receiving priority attention. 36.The restoration of local microclimate will normally be best dealt with using different agroforestry arrangements of trees in cropping and pastoral environments. These will include Shelterbelts and windbreaks, 37.The restoration of water catchments for the protection of water supplies and soil conservation may or may not demand the establishment of forests. East African experience is that protected grassland is often as effective as forest in controlling water run-off and yield. On balance, however, tree cover is less vulnerable and preferable and tree planting may take many forms from the planting of hedgerows of exotic species along the contour to mixed plantations of indigenous species. The key to the process is its potential for meeting the objectives of planting and the benefit/cost ratio of the programme. Technical factors 38.Technical packages do exist for most rehabilitation situations, depending on the objectives of the process. They fall naturally into two major divisions, the use and encouragement of natural regeneration, and the introduction of germplasm through planting. There are many options combining the two approaches. In almost all situations protection from grazing, fires and exploitation, sometimes in conjunction with soil conservation work, will ensure the recovery of some vegetative cover. This is usually the lowest financial cost option, but it may entail serious loss of benefits by poorer stakeholders. 39.Plantations may be of single species or mixtures, indigenous or exotic. Introduced species may have a rehabilitation capacity that indigenous species do not have, such as an ability for deep rooting in degraded or lateritic soils, building soil nutrient status, or the capability of withstanding drought and high winds on sand dunes. Introduced species of cash crops, forage or domestic animals may meet the aspirations of farmers better than local ones. An exchange of information, giving full weight and appreciation to TFRK, between technical foresters and local people could provide a better choice of species than either acting alone. Assessment and Monitoring 40.The assessment of deforestation is being carried out by FAO, its national correspondents and other partners. As noted already, the assessment of degradation is more difficult to identify and quantify; this issue needs to be further documented with practical information and tools. IV. Proposed Process of Preparation for Substantive Discussion 41.(1) A review of the assessment, monitoring and rehabilitation of forest cover must start with the understanding that forests, woodlands and trees are renewable resources. Then it should consider the nature of deforestation and degradation. What are the causes (including underlying causes) and under what conditions may tree cover be restored. The four basic questions will relate to i) shared understanding and definition of concepts and definitions used including forest cover, degradation, environmentally critical areas, areas under potential or actual threat; ii) identification of the location of the critical areas and respective opportunity for carrying out rehabilitation work; iii) elaboration on the importance of deforested and degraded areas; iv) the means available to rehabilitate and to monitor progress on the basis of generally recognized criteria for assessment. 42.The preceding pages of this information note have attempted to provide answers to some of the questions noted by the Forum, but the issue is complex, and it is important to prioritise the factors concerned at all stages. 43.(2) The Diagnostic Framework to analyse the underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation, produced by the second session of the IPF, is a valuable starting point. An adaptation of the management tool known as Force Field Analysis could then be used to examine the problem. This analytical business management process is based upon clear understanding of the problem to be solved, clear definition of the desired future situation and prioritising the influences hindering and those helping the achievement of the desired goal. This would lead to an action plan. The technique is very valuable for focusing attention on key issues and would help shed more light on clear and agreed definitions of the problem, on policy goals and options to address constraints and priorities. 44.(3) The IPF was successful in getting a broad range of high level politically important interest groups into the forest policy debate. The preparation of this information note is aimed at maintaining this momentum. Deforestation and degradation of forests are only partially related to and often only remotely under the control of the forestry sector. If possible, therefore, the participation of influential policy makers in agriculture/land use planning and national and economic planning should be ensured. Much has been written about the issues of dry lands (See e.g. FAO, 1993b, which, however, has only a limited reference to forestry) and the viewpoint of other relevant sectors is essential to a realistic position by the IFF. In addition to the major political sectors, in most cases the key primary interest groups or stakeholders are small farmers; and in forests associated with wider ecosystems the key stakeholder/managers are frequently women. Getting a valid viewpoint from these key stakeholders into the debate and defending their interests is a major challenge. 45.(4) An analysis of interest groups at a political level is not easy since many of the parties have to be represented by others. Nevertheless, a start can be made both to identify potential stakeholders in a general way and to assess their power and status. There are many ways in which this can be done but attention is drawn to the above mentioned -Four Rs■ process currently under development at the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Preparing for Substantive Discussion 46.Deliberations by the IFF may follow the geographical division of the subject into major environmentally critical zones, as well as some general issues. Mountain Zones and Highlands 47.Sectors of Importance in addition to Forestry and National Economic Planning: Mountain Institutions, agriculture, hydrology, tourism, environmental and social development NGOs, public works, defence, mining. 48.Proposed issues for discussion: Water yields from mountain forests; potential for and damage from tourism; land stability; hazard protection (floods, avalanches); dependence of farmers on forest biomass; management of isolated mountain massifs; integrated management of catchment areas; Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) production; and rare, endemic and threatened organisms. Dry Zones 49.Sectors of importance in addition to Forestry and National Economic Planning: Agriculture, livestock and animal husbandry, range management; land use planning, national parks and wildlife; environmental NGOs, social development NGOs, mining. 50.Proposed issues for discussion: Stakeholder analysis; rates and causes of deforestation and degradation in Africa; range management , (FAO, 1993b); wood production; Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) production; migrant graziers; wildlife conservation; agroforestry, silvo-arable and silvo-pastoral systems; water supplies; irrigation; potential for high value sales; and rare, endemic and threatened organisms. Mangrove Forests 51.Sectors of Importance in addition to Forestry and National Economic Planning: Fisheries, agriculture, mining, tourism. 52.Proposed issues for discussion: Unsustainable agriculture; valuation of forest products; rare, endemic and threatened organisms. Former Farmlands and Derelict Lands 53.Sectors of Importance in addition to Forestry and National Economic Planning: Agriculture, land use planners, environmental and social development NGOs, saline soil specialists, and livestock. 54.Proposed issues for discussion: Unsustainable agriculture, valuation of forest products, restoration of saline and alkaline soils, and areas involved. Forest Areas of Special Importance for Biological Diversity 55.Sectors of Importance in addition to Forestry and National Economic Planning: Agriculture, tourism, environmental and social development NGOs, and mining. 56.Proposed issues for discussion: Assessment of degradation, valuation of forest products, and compensation issues. Government Pricing of Forest Products 57.Governments regularly sell the forest products from nationally-owned forests at low prices (royalty rates, economic rent, forest fees, etc.) almost always at below the cost of production or replacement. The resulting economic undervaluation of forest products is a major factor in the destruction of forest cover and low attractiveness for investment. This needs political action at the highest level. Raising prices to harvesters is only one way of funding the restoration of forest cover without direct subsidies, provided that a substantial part of forest revenues is channelled back into forest management.. At the same time the economic valuation of forest and tree service functions needs to better understood at all levels. Use of ODA 58.Official Development Assistance (ODA) needs to be directed particularly towards capacity building at the national and local levels, following regular national assessments of personnel capacity. This will ensure that transfer of technology is channelled through to the field level. V References Assessing, Monitoring and Rehabilitation of Forest Cover in Environmentally Critical Areas Not all these references are referred to directly in the text but all have been used to provide information for the report. ACIAR(1997). Trees for saltland, ACIAR Research Notes RN18. Canberra, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. Anon (1996a). Expert Meeting on Rehabilitation of Forest Degraded Ecosystems. Lisbon, Ministry of Agriculture. Anon (1996b). Expert Consultation on implementing the Forest Principles, Feldafing, Germany 16-21 June 1996. Bellefontaine, R, Gaston, A and Petrucci, Y (1997). Ame'nagement des fore^ts naturelles des zones tropicales se`ches. Conservation Paper 32, FAO Rome. 316p. Bruns, S, Furberg, J, Luukkanen, O, and Wood, PJ (Eds)(1996). Dryland Forestry Research .Proc of IFS/IUFRO Workshop, Stockholm, IFS. Carpenter, C (1998). Earth Negotiations Bulletin Briefing Note. 8p. CSD(1996). Progress Report of the Secretary General Programme element I.2. E/CN.17/IPF?1996 DuBois, O (1998). Short Note on the Potential of the -4Rs■ framework in the analysis, diagnosis and negotiation of stakeholders■ roles in Collaborative Management of Natural Resources (CMNR). Unpublished note, , London, International Institute for Environment and Development. 7p. FAO (1993a). Forest Resource Assessment 1990, Tropical countries, Forestry paper 112, FAO Rome. FAO (1993b). Key aspects of strategies for the sustainable development of dry lands. Rome, FAO, 60p. FAO (1994). Mangrove forest management guidelines, Forestry paper 117, FAO, Rome. 319p. FAO (1998). The impact of air-borne pollutants on forests, in particular in Central 7 Eastern Europe. Synthesis for Intergovernmental panel on Forests (Programme Element I.4) FAO, Rome. Ford-Robertson, JB (1997). Carbon Balance Calculations for forest industries - a review. New Zealand Forestry, May 1997. Grayson, AJ and Maynard, WB (Eds) (1997). The World■s Forests - Rio+5: International Initiatives Towards sustainable Management. Oxford, Commonwealth Forestry Association.147p. Hamilton LS, Gilmour, DA and Cassels DS (1997) Montane Forests & Forestry. In: Messerli, B and Ives JB (Eds). Mountains of the World. New York, Parthenon. 281-311 IPF(1996). Secretary General■s Report 3rd Session Programme element I.4 on fragile ecosystems, desertification and airborne pollution IPF (1997). Draft Report on the 4th Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests Mountain Agenda(1997). Mountains of the World. Challenges for the 21st century. Bern, Inst of Geography.36p. Parotta, JA and Turnbull, JW (Eds) (1997). Catalyzing Native Forest Regeneration on Degraded Tropical lands. For. Ecol. & Management 99, 1-2, Special Issue on Proceedings of a Workshop held in Washington, DC, June, 1996.. 22 papers, 290p. Preston, L (Ed) (1997). Investing in mountains. Franklin, The Mountain Institute. 48p. Shiva V and Byandophadhay J (1986). The Evolution Structure and Impact of the Chipko movement. Mountain Res & Dev 6(2) 138-142. United Nations, ECOSOC (1996a). Secretary General■s Report on the International Convention to Combat Desertification United Nations, ECOSOC (1996b). Secretary General■s Report on Programme Element I.5: Needs and Requirements of countries with low forest cover. United Nations, ECOSOC (1997). Proposed programme of work for the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests United Nations (1997a). UN-ECE/FAO Temperate and Boreal Forest Resources assessment 2000. Terms and Definitions. New York and Geneva, United Nations.13p. United Nations (1997b). Framework Convention on Climate Change: Conference of the Parties, Third Session, Kyoto
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Date last posted: 5 December 1999 15:45:34