United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


16 JUNE 1998/WORKING DRAFT/BD.4



                         BACKGROUND DOCUMENT  4 



                   INFORMATION ON FOREST-RELATED WORK 

              OF INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS



                           New York, June 1998

This is a non-official document, for information only, prepared by the IFF
Secretariat, in collaboration with members organizations of the informal,
high level Interagency Task Force on Forests. It provides additional
background information to delegations attending the second session of the
Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (Geneva, 24 August-4 September 1998).
Published in English only.


                          TABLE OF CONTENTS

(This document is a draft on work in progress.  All delegations, international
and regional organizations, and non-governmental organizations attending IFF II
session are kindly invited to provide comments and additional information to the
IFF Secretariat: 2 UN Plaza, 12th Floor, New York, N.Y.  10017.  The contact
person in the IFF Secretariat is Jaime Hurtubia: Phone (212) 963 4219; Fax: (212)
963-3463; E-mail: <hurtubia@un.org>  A revised version is envisaged as a next
step.)

Summary
Introduction
I.    OVERVIEW ON IPF■S CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION ON PROGRAMME
      ELEMENT V.1: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND MULTILATERAL
      INSTITUTIONS AND INSTRUMENTS.  

      A. Highlights from the IPF III session
      B. Highlights from the IPF IV session
      C. Outcome of the IPF on Forest-Related International Organizations
      and Multilateral  
           Institutions and Instruments
      D. Fifth session of the CSD and the IPF results
      E. Outcome of the UNGASS on IPF and establishment of the IFF

II.   FOREST-RELATED WORK BEING CARRIED OUT BY INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL
      ORGANIZATIONS.

      A. Survey of Forest-related work carried out by international and
regional organizations
      B. The Informal High-level Interagency Task Force on Forests (ITFF)
           1.      The Interagency Partnership on Forests: A Plan to
                   Implement IPF Proposals for Action
           2.      Main contributions of the ITFF
      C. Potential Institutional Synergies to Support the IFF Process
           1.      International Organizations - UN System
           2.      Regional Organizations
           3.      Other International Organizations and Processes        

III.  PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION

      A. Conclusions
      B. Preliminary Proposals for Action

ANNEXES
      I.    Questionnaire
      II.   List of forest-related organizations
      III.  Work carried out by international and regional organizations
            with special reference to the IPF/IFF processes


                                   ACRONYMS


(AFDB)      African Development Bank
(ASDB)      Asian Development Bank
(CACF/PA)   Central American Council of Forest and Protected Areas
(CBD)       Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity
(CIFOR)     Center for International Forestry Research
(DESA/DSD)  United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
            Division for Sustainable Development
(ECA)       Economic Commission for Africa
(ECE)       Economic Commission for Europe
(ECLAC)     Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
(EFI)       European Forest Institute
(ESCAP)     Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
(ESCWA)     Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
(FAO)       United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
(GEF)       Global Environmental Facility
(IADB)      Inter-American Development Bank
(ICRAF)     International Centre for Research in Agro Forestry
(IHPA)      International Wood Products Association
(IIED)      International Institute for Environment and Development
(ILO)       International Labour Organization
(IPCC)      Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(ITTO)      International Tropical Timber Organization
(IUCN)      The World Conservation Union
(IUFRO)     International Union of Forest Research Organizations
(OAS)       Organization of American States
(OECD)      Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(UNCTAD)    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(UNDP)      United Nations Development Programme
(UNEP)      United Nations Environment Programme 
(UNESCO)    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNIDO)     United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNU)       United Nations University
(WB)        The World Bank
(WBCSD)     World Business Council for Sustainable Development
(WCMC)      World Conservation Monitoring Centre
(WFP)       World Food Programme
(WIPO)      World Intellectual Property Organization
(WMO)       World Meteorological Organization
(WRI)       World Resources Institute
(WTO)       World Trade Organization
(WWF)       WWF International

   
                                Summary
                                       
   The present Background Document has been prepared to provide
supplementary information to the delegations attending the second session
of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF), in particular on Programme
ElementII.e (i): Forest-related work being carried out by international and
regional organizations and under existing instruments. This document
focusses only on international and regional organizations. A separate
Background Document (BD.5) has been prepared to provide additional
information on Programme Element II.e (ii) Forest-related work carried out
under existing instruments.

   During the IPF process, Governments reviewed the work of existing
institutions and instruments including their role and mandates vis a` vis
Programme Elements I-IV of its work programme, institutional linkages,
gaps, and areas requiring enhancement  (see documents presented at the IPF
Third session, E/CN.17/IPF/1996/23; at the Fourth session,
E/CN.17/IPF/1997/4; and IPF■s  Final Report, E/CN.17/1997/12) . 

   The present  document up-dates the information that was provided in
these documents and in the report prepared by the Swiss-Peruvian Initiative
on Forests (E/CN.17/IPF/1996/26). It provides generic background
information to assist in examining further the forest-related work carried
out by international and regional organizations. More specific information
on the forest-related work of institutions, in particular of members of the
Interagency Task Force on Forests (ITFF) is presented in the Secretary
General Report on Category I (a): Promoting and Facilitating the
Implementation of the IPF■s Proposals for Action (E/CN.17/IFF/1998/??) as
well as in the Background Document on same topic (BD.1)

   Chapter I of this document provides an overview of the Conclusions and
Proposals for Action adopted by the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on
Forests (IPF) on the issues related to Programme Element V.1 of its
programme of work on: International organizations and multilateral
institutions and instruments and description of existing institutions and
instruments.  

   Chapter II summarizes up-dated information on the forest-related work
being carried out by international and regional organizations, highlighting
the work of the members of the Informal, high level Interagency Task Force
on Forests (ITFF); the work of other organizations in the UN System,
regional economic commissions and relevant regional intergovernmental
bodies; and other international organizations and processes.

   Chapter III presents some preliminary conclusions and proposals for
action to continue the strengthening of cooperation and synergies on the
forest-related work being carried out by international and regional
organizations. The main conclusions are:

■  
-   The ITFF, as the main  -interagency partnership on forest■ provides the
mechanism for the organizations that cover almost the totality of 
programme elements in the international forest agenda as defined by the IPF
and IFF processes, with workprogrammes focused on  technical-operational
(UNDP, FAO, CIFOR, WB); policy making (ITTO, FAO, UNEP, CBD); coordinating
(FAO, UNEP, DESA, CBD); financial cooperation (WB, UNDP); and normative
activities (FAO, ITTO, CBD, UNEP);

■  
-   The further strengthening of the ITFF is also recommended for playing a 
major role in forging future synergies with other relevant international,
regional and non-governmental organizations as well as with donor countries
for implementing internationally agreed priorities for forests; 

■  
-   As far as the implementation of the IPF proposals for action is concerned,
the challenge is not to insist on identifying overlaps and substantive
areas of duplication, or gaps in action among international and regional
organizations, but to concentrate on making the best use of the existing
institutional capabilities at the national, regional and international
levels;

■  
-   The existing institutional capabilities of the ITFF and other potential
partners should be fully utilized to support forest-related activities
needing enhanced international efforts such as: 

(a)         Increased attention on capacity-building and technology
            transfer and exchange, as well as in human resource and
            institution development, in particular at the national and
            field levels; 

(b)         Funding and coordination for research and development on
            national priorities, as recognized in national forest
            programme, for sustainable forest management, including pilot
            projects of regional and international significance; and

(c) Strategic forest data collection, analysis and dissemination of
information.

   The document proposes that all interested parties, including the
governing bodies of relevant international and regional organizations
agreed to:

■  
-   Identify practical and concrete means for coordinating and mobilizing their
diverse strengths and capabilities to support countries■ efforts in
implementing the full range of proposals for actions adopted by the IPF as
well as those that will result from the current IFF process.  In this
regard, the implementation of the Plan entitled -Interagency Partnership on
Forests■ prepared by the ITFF constitutes a valuable example that should be
supported and expanded;

■  
-   Develop further the synergies among different international and regional
organizations, and instruments, ensuring their active participation in and
contributing to the international forest agenda and policy dialogue within
the framework of the IFF; and 

■  
-   Assist countries in building international consensus for the management,
conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests.

   The document in Annex I include a format of the brief questionnaire sent
to all members of the ITFF, and to a wide spectrum of institutions from the
UN System, regional organizations including economic commissions, regional
development banks and non-governmental organizations in order to collect
relevant information. The list of all international and regional
organizations to which the questionnaire was sent is presented in Annex II. 
The information compiled about their specific mandates, main forest-related
programmes and their links to specific IFF programme elements is presented
in Annex III.

   
                               INTRODUCTION

1.The CSD in its original mandate for the IPF in dealing with Programme
Element V.1 recognized the need to -Develop a clearer view of the work
being carried out by international organizations and multilateral
institutions and under existing instruments as appropriate, including the
Convention on Biological Diversity, the UN Convention to Combat
Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or
Desertification, particularly in Africa, the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the International
Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA), in forest-related issues, including UNCED
decisions related to forests and the institutional linkages emanating
therefrom, in order to identify any gaps, areas requiring enhancement, as
well as any areas of duplication■. The IPF in its final report agreed on
several conclusions and adopted four negotiated Proposals for Action on
Programme Element V.1 (see document E/CN.17/1997/12). 

                              A.  The IPF Process

2.Governments, as part of IPF process, reviewed the major issues, and
agreed on conclusions and proposals for action with regard to the forest-
related work of international organizations and multilateral institutions
and instruments.  For example, in its conclusions that reflect the overall
thrust of the discussion under this topic, the Panel recognized the need to
strengthen coordination among international organizations and multilateral
institutions, in order to provide a holistic and balanced approach to all
types of forests. It also acknowledged that, at present, no single
multilateral body, organization or instrument has either a mandate or
capacity to address, in a balanced, holistic and mutually-reinforcing way,
all issues which are currently on the international agenda, with respect to
all types of forests. It also noted that existing forest-related legally-
binding instruments do not deal comprehensively with all issues relating to
forests, including sustainable forest management. The Panel also agreed
that in order to achieve management, conservation, and sustainable
development of all types of forests it is necessary to deal coherently with
all the inter-related social, cultural, economic, trade, environment,
development, production, financial and technology issues that have a
concrete impact on these objectives. The benefits of regional approaches
should also be explored. 

3.A number of interlinked forest related areas  needing enhanced
international efforts were recognized such as improved mechanisms for
focusing, coordinating and monitoring the activities of agencies and under
instruments on international forest-related issues; improved participation
of major groups in forest fora and processes to promote sustainable forest
management; strategic data collection and analysis; and more focused and
effective funding for, and coordination of research and development in
priority areas concerned with sustainable forest management.

4.The Panel called on organizations to continue their work in the informal
high-level Interagency Task Force on Forests (ITFF)*, under the chairmanship
of FAO, focussing on the proposals for action negotiated by the IPF, in
accordance with their respective mandates and comparative advantage, and
proposed that it should, in a transparent and participatory manner,
undertake further coordination and explore means for collaboration and
coherent action at international, regional and country levels, in support
of any continuing intergovernmental dialogue on forests.

*  The ITFF members are: the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO); the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO); the
Secretariat of the Convention on Biodivreisty (CBD); the United Nations
Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA); the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP); the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); the World
Bank; and the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

5.The Panel also called on countries:

■  
-    to support the work on forest related issues of international and regional
organizations and agencies and under relevant instruments;  

■  
-   to clarify the mandates of the relevant international institutions and
organizations related to forest issues, inter-alia, through their
respective governing bodies in order to improve integration and
coordination of their efforts, and to guide the activities of each
organization to areas in which they can be most effective; 

■  
-   through the respective governing bodies, to work to eliminate waste and
duplication, thereby using available resources in an efficient manner;  

■  
-   to guide relevant international and regional institutions and those
administering instruments, through their governing bodies, to accelerate
incorporation into their relevant work programmes of the forest related
results of UNCED and, of further progress achieved since then, and of the
proposals for action adopted by the IPF.


                                B.  Mandate

6.The Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF), in its programme of work
adopted at its First session, under Category II on: Consider matters left
pending and other issues arising from the programme elements of the IPF
process, decided to include Programme Element (e) Consider forest-related
work of international and regional organizations, with the following
mandate: -Further examine the forest-related work being carried out by
international and regional organizations and under existing instruments in
order to identify gaps and overlaps■. 

7.According to the IFF■s adopted schedule of work, it was agreed that this
Programme Element  be subject to substantive discussions at the Second
session of the IFF to take place in Geneva, 24 August to 4 September 1998. 


                              C.  Scope

8.The present document provides a summary of  background information
compiled by the IFF Secretariat on the forest-related work carried out by
international and regional organization. It provides supplementary
information to the one presented in Background Document on Forest-related
work under existing instruments (BD.5). 

9.More specific information on the forest-related work carried out by
institutions, in particular of the members of the Interagency Task Force on
Forests (ITFF),  is presented in the Secretary General Report on Category I
(a): Promoting and Facilitating the Implementation of the IPF■s Proposals
for Action (E/CN.17/IFF/1998/??), and in the Background Document on same
topic (BD.1). 

10.It should be noted that this is a report on work in progress sketching
how a framework for examining the forest-related work carried out by
international and regional organizations might help countries, the IFF and
international and regional organizations for promoting the implementation
of IPF■s proposals for action and build consensus on management,
conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests. The
compilations, findings, and interpretations are those of the authors and
should not be attributed to the United Nations, the IFF or ITFF. All the
information provided in this report is subject to change and is presented
to stimulate discussion on how information on forest-related work might be
presented. The target audience for this draft is participants of the II
session of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF) to be held in
Geneva, 24 August-4 September 1998.

11.Chapter I summarizes the major challenges posed by the conclusions and
proposals for action adopted by the IPF on International Organizations and
Multilateral Institutions, e.g., to continue the work of the informal high-
level Interagency Task Force on Forests (ITFF),  focussing on the proposals
for action recommended by the IPF, in accordance with their respective
mandates and comparative advantage; and to support the work on forest
related issues of international and regional organizations and agencies.  
   
12.Chapter II includes a brief presentation of  the work being carried out
by international and regional organizations. This section is based largely
on the responses to a questionnaire prepared to up-date forest related work
of international and regional organizations and instruments, sent by the
IFF Secretariat to all relevant organisations. The format of the
questionnaire is attached as Annex I. The forest-related work carried out
by international and regional organizations with special reference to the
IFF process is presented in Annex III.
   
13. Chapter III highlights briefly the major issues  and concludes with
some suggestions for preliminary conclusions and proposals for action.


      I. OVERVIEW ON IPF■S CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION ON 
          PROGRAMME ELEMENT V.1: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND 
                 MULTILATERAL INSTITUTIONS AND INSTRUMENTS.

14.The Commission on Sustainable Development at its Third session (April
1995) defined  Programme Element V.1 on Forest-Related International
Organization as the need to "Develop a clearer view of the work being
carried out by international organizations and  multilateral institutions
and under existing instruments as appropriate, including the Conventions on
Biodiversity, Desertification, Climate Change, Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and
International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA), in forest-related issues,
including UNCED decisions related to forests and the institutional linkages
emanating therefrom, in order to identify any gaps, areas requiring
enhancement, as well as any areas of duplication".

15.Subsequently, at the First session of IPF, the Panel emphasized the need
for the preparation of a report presenting an overview and description of
existing institutions and instruments, including their role and mandates
viz a viz  all IPF■s programme elements, and identifying institutional
linkages, gaps, areas requiring enhancement, as well as any areas of
duplication.  

16.The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the highlights of the
documentation prepared for supporting the substantive discussion by the IPF
on Forest-Related International Organizations and Multilateral Institutions
and Instruments, and to recall the outcome of the IPF on this topic. It
also includes a summary of CSD V and UNGASS results on the same subject.

                A. Highlights from IPF III session 
          (Geneva, September 1996, doc. E/CN.17/IPF/1996/23)

17.The Panel was advised to consider:

   (a)             Appropriate mechanisms for enhanced high-level policy
guidance for defining action programmes in priority areas, such as:

      (i) Analysing, discussing and building consensus on important
      international forest-related issues, including underlying causes of
      deforestation and forest degradation; forests and biodiversity;
      forest product trade, forest planning and sustainable management;
      restoration of degraded forest land and ecosystems; traditional
      forest-related knowledge and sharing of benefits; and
      research-development priorities, including policy research;
      
      (ii) Formulating and focusing of funding and considering other
      international financing mechanisms for sustainable forest management,
      forest research, forest assessment, including all forest-dependent
      and forest-related resource conservation and management aspects;

      (iii) Improving capacities to effect sustainable forest-based
      development in all countries;

   (b)             Enhanced and improved strategic data sets and analysis
                   systems as crucial to guide high-level policy discussions;

   (c)             Strengthened global-level forest research and
                   development;

   (d)             Defining mechanisms and arrangements, at the
                   international level, for necessary improvements to
                   operational methods and structures to be achieved through
                   coordination and collaboration among existing
                   organizations or instruments;

   (e)             The desirability of a new institutional system of pooled
                   funding, including for activities supporting
                   international policy formulation, to more effectively use
                   some existing resources and to seek new forms and sources
                   of funding.

         B. Highlights from documents prepared for the IPF IV session 
               (New York, February 1997, doc. E/CN.17/IPF/1997/4)

18.The following conclusions were elaborated according to the list of
programme elements of the IPF programme of work, with the purpose of
supporting the debate during the IPF IV session. Several of them coincide
with the IFF■s programme of work. From the substantive point of view, most
of them are still relevant for consideration by the IFF at its Second
sessio. 

19.National forest programmes.  The national forest programmes appear to be
an effective and a fundamental umbrella framework that could provide a
promising opportunity for enhancing the coordination of forest-related
activities, both domestic and international, at the country level. 
Considering that various international organizations are currently
undertaking activities that either directly support the formulation of
national forest programmes or assist countries in the formulation of other
relevant sectoral plans or strategies (in such areas as biodiversity and
desertification), opportunities for better coordination and greater
coherence in approaches exist.  This holds true not only for activities
related to planning but also for activities and efforts that focus on the
implementation of national forest programmes by all actors involved and not
only by the multilateral organizations.

20.Finance.  In view of the fact that ODA channelled through international
organizations is just a small share of total forest assistance, there would
be a definite advantage to have an agreement for developing a mechanism to
promote closer communication, coordination and collaboration among all
actors involved in international assistance to forests, at the
international as well as the national levels, in order to work in harmony
with the remaining share of ODA.

21.Coordination. There is a need to clarify United Nations system-wide
coordination responsibilities relevant to national forests programmes. 
There is a need to ensure practical approaches in the implementation of
country projects based upon a common understanding between headquarters and
field offices.  At the country level, United Nations resident coordinators
must ensure that coordination among Task Force members takes place, and
that the principle of country leadership and choice is respected.  However,
the UN Resident Coordinators themselves do not necessarily have to be
coordinators of forest-related activities.  That role can be delegated to
the organization that is best suited to perform that function, based on the
extent of its involvement and experience in a particular country, at the
request of the host country.

22.Underlying causes of deforestation. There is a discernable gap within
the system in the undertaking of comprehensive studies on national and
international underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation. 
The discussion of underlying causes of deforestation by the Panel has
tended to view that issue as a cross-sectoral, highly country-specific and
even local-area-specific issue.  The diagnostic tool suggested in the
report of the Secretary-General to the Panel on this topic could be a
useful instrument for developing agencies, investment banks and national
organizations responsible for policy development, land-use planning and
effective project design and implementation.

23.Traditional forest-related knowledge. The relatively new area of
traditional forest-related knowledge has just begun to be discussed at a
policy level by the Panel, and would be a potential area for close
collaboration among the informal Interagency Task Force on Forests (ITFF)
members.  This is a complex question, in which there is a definite gap in
activities of the United Nations system, in particular in the areas of
cultural value systems, customary law, legal systems and property rights,
land and resource use systems, and conflict resolution, all of which are
integral parts of sustainable forest management systems.  While FAO has
already developed some knowledge and methodologies in the area, there is a
need for increased analytical, programme formulation and basic policy work
on the topic.  Increased involvement in ITFF work on this topic by UNESCO,
CIFOR, CBD Secretariat, UNEP, ICRAF and UNU needs to be explored.

24.Rehabilitation of arid zone forest land. Activities related to the
rehabilitation of arid zones is ongoing in most of the agencies.  The
Convention to Combat Desertification has resulted in a renewed focus and
attention on the particular plight of Africa as regards the effects of
desertification and drought.

25.Airborne pollutants. Collaborative work on the effects of airborne
pollutants on forests is ongoing, and appears to work well within the
framework of the regional convention in Europe.  Outside the European
region, however, there is a gap in activities in forest areas affected by
pollution, except fires.

26.Countries with low forest cover. Areas that will require increased
attention by international organizations will be assistance to countries
with low forest cover in the identification and removal of land tenure,
taxation and resource pricing policies that perversely inhibit local
communities or private farmers from investing in tree planting and forest
management.  There could be some benefit in defining exactly what
constitutes a low forest cover for the purposes of such activities, and in
using such a definition to assess the ecological, social and economic needs
of countries with low forest cover, and to facilitate international
assistance.

27.Scientific research. While scientific research provides the underpinning
for the technological and ecological aspects of sustainable forest
management, there is a need for high-level consultation and guidance on
forest research priorities. Better coordination and strengthening of
research, as well as the establishment of an international network of
research organizations, needs to be fostered.  There is already an
indication that some of the relevant organizations are ready to clarify
some of their research needs and identify priorities.

   

28.Biological resources. Conservation and the sustainable use of biological
resources are now attracting increased attention, both in normative
programmes and in lending, as well as in field-level activities.  This is
reflected in many of the criteria and indicators developed for sustainable
forest management.  There is scope for increased coordination of the forest
genetic work of FAO, UNEP and the Convention on Biological Diversity, both
at the intergovernmental and at the secretariat levels.

29.Forest resource assessment. There is ample scope for collaboration in
forest resource assessment.  Contributions by organizations with useful
data for a broader forest assessment would enrich the necessary global
database associated with forest resource assessment.  In the absence of
necessary data, it would be important to identify which organizations are
best suited to collect certain data at the national level.  Currently,
there is inadequate capacity to collect the broader set of data, as well as
inadequate resources for such an effort at the national level.

30.Forest valuation. FAO, UNEP and the World Bank have already cooperated
in the area of forest valuation, and are planning to continue their
analytical work, monitoring developments and encouraging approaches that
lead to new perspectives on forests values.  Special emphasis should be
given to activities that involve forest resource accounting and full cost
internalization. 

31.Criteria and indicators. There is a need to strengthen cooperation in
activities directed towards regions not yet engaged in developing criteria
and indicators for sustainable forest management.  While a few meetings,
informative and catalytic in nature, have already taken place, it might
also be necessary to monitor the results of those activities, as well as of
those initiatives already in place, especially for the promotion of follow-
up action and implementation.  Continued cooperation between FAO, UNEP and
UNDP, supported by CIFOR, should be encouraged, as well as the increased
involvement by the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

32.Trade in forest products. Increased collaboration and coordination is
needed between FAO and ITTO as regards collection of trade relevant data to
eliminate some overlap.  The extent of the involvement and the role of the
United Nations system in certification and labelling schemes has yet to be
examined and clarified.■
                                       
        C. Outcome of the IPF on Forest-Related International 
      Organizations and Multilateral Institutions and Instruments
            (IPF Final Report,  doc. E/CN.17/1997/12)

33.The following conclusions are the final ones adopted by the IPF in its
final report (paragraphs 136 to 143):

      "136. The Panel recognized the need to strengthen coordination among
      international organizations and multilateral institutions, in order
      to provide a holistic and balanced approach to all types of forests.
      The Panel also recognized that a number of international instruments
      and institutions deal with specific aspects of or matters closely
      related to forests, as well as with matters in other sectors that may
      directly affect forests . At the same time the Panel acknowledged
      that, at present, no single multilateral body, organization or
      instrument has either a mandate or capacity to address, in a
      balanced, holistic and mutually-reinforcing way, all issues which are
      currently on the international agenda, with respect to all types of
      forests.

      137. The Panel noted that the IPF has provided a very useful forum
      for examining a wide range of international forest issues in a
      holistic, integrated and cohesive manner, and for building consensus
      in a number of areas.  The work of the informal high-level Inter-
      Agency Task Force on Forests (ITFF) established to support the Panel
      was commended as an example of effective inter-institutional
      collaboration. This informal  arrangement has proven to be flexible
      and effective, has provided an opportunity for outreach beyond the UN
      system, and could easily involve other institutions in the future.

      138. The Panel noted the need for enhanced international efforts in a
      number of interlinked forest related areas, including: effective
      governance of international institutions, organizations and
      instruments dealing with forest issues; improved mechanisms for
      focusing, coordinating and monitoring the activities of agencies and
      under instruments on international forest-related issues; improved
      participation of major groups in forest fora and processes to promote
      sustainable forest management; strategic data collection and
      analysis; projects to strengthen capacity-building, technology
      transfer and exchange, and human resource development, in particular
      at the national and field levels; improved coordination between
      international and bilateral funding agencies; and more focused and
      effective funding for, and coordination of research and development
      in priority areas concerned with sustainable forest management.

      139. The Panel agreed that forest-related international, regional and
      bilateral agencies and organizations, existing legal instruments,
      financial and trade institutions and treaty bodies should mobilize
      their respective strengths and capacities in implementing the
      proposals for action in the Panel's report and should further promote
      policy dialogue, consensus-building and international cooperation,
      recalling Agenda 21 and paragraph 10 of the Forest Principles.  More
      still needs to be done to clarify mandates, define capacities, and
      address overlaps, gaps and areas needing enhancement.  Forest-related
      activities should be made more transparent, effective and flexible,
      and should provide for effective participation of and collaboration
      with all interested parties and major groups.  The benefits of
      regional approaches should be fully explored.

      140. The Panel noted that there are existing international legally-
      binding instruments, relevant to forests, such as CBD, CCD, CITES,
      ITTA, FCCC, and Ramsar. These instruments address forest-related
      issues in a specific context, embody the concept of sustainability
      and address many cross-cutting issues that are relevant to forests,
      such as financial resources, technology transfer, trade, and
      traditional knowledge.  These existing instruments do not deal
      comprehensively with all issues relating to forests, including
      sustainable forest management. Some delegations considered that trade
      in products from all types of forests also need further consideration
      in a legal instrument.

      141. The Panel recognized the importance of addressing forests in a
      holistic way at the regional and national level and in this context
      noted the several regional and international initiatives and regional
      mechanisms that have been launched by like minded countries outside
      the UN system framework to promote the national implementation of
      improved forest management.  Notable are several initiatives related
      to developing and implementing criteria and indicators for
      sustainable forest management, in which more than 130 countries now
      participate.

      142. The Panel noted that there is no global instrument dealing in a
      comprehensive and holistic way with all types of forests. The Panel
      agreed that in order to achieve management, conservation, and
      sustainable development of all types of forests it is necessary to
      deal coherently with all the inter-related social, cultural,
      economic, trade, environment, development, production, financial and
      technology issues that have a concrete impact on these objectives. 
      The Panel recognized the need to address, in an integrated manner,
      such issues as trade, market access and transparency, and economic,
      environmental and social policies which directly or indirectly affect
      the forest sector, private investment, financial resources and
      transfer of technology.

      143. The Panel recommended that the  holistic and balanced approach
      to intergovernmental forest policy dialogue and consensus building ,
      as launched by the CSD through the establishment of the IPF, should
      be continued and enhanced.  This continued intergovernmental policy
      dialogue on forests, which could include a high-level component,
      should promote and facilitate, in a transparent and participatory
      manner, a holistic consideration of all relevant forest related
      issues, and ensure balanced treatment of all types of forests based
      on the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities of
      all countries, and of the sovereign right of States over their
      natural resources as contained in Principles 2 and 7 of the Rio
      Declaration and Paragraphs 1 a) and 2 a) of the Forest Principles."

34.The Proposals for Action adopted by the IPF on this topic ( see
paragraphs 144-146) were the following:

      "144. The Panel urged international organizations in cooperation with
      countries to support and implement the proposals for action of the
      Intergovernmental Panel on Forests.

      145. The Panel called upon the appropriate international institutions
      and organizations to continue their work in the informal high-level
      Interagency Task Force on Forests, under the chairmanship of FAO as
      task manager for chapter 11 of Agenda 21 focussing on the proposals
      for action recommended by the IPF, in accordance with their
      respective mandates and comparative advantage, and proposed that it
      should, in a transparent and participatory manner, undertake further
      coordination and explore means for collaboration and coherent action
      at international, regional and country levels, in support of any
      continuing intergovernmental dialogue on forests.

      146. The Panel called on countries:

      (a) to support the work on forest related issues of international and
      regional organizations and agencies and under relevant instruments;

      (b) to clarify the mandates of the relevant international
      institutions and organizations related to forest issues, inter-alia,
      through their respective governing bodies in order to improve
      integration and coordination of their efforts, and to guide the
      activities of each organization to areas in which they can be most
      effective;

      (c) through the respective governing bodies, to work to eliminate
      waste and duplication, thereby using available resources in an
      efficient manner;

      (d) to guide relevant international and regional institutions and
      those administering instruments, through their governing bodies, to
      accelerate incorporation into their relevant work programmes of the
      forest related results of UNCED and, of further progress achieved
      since then, and of the proposals for action recommended by the IPF;
      and
.
      (e) to support activities related to the management, conservation and
      sustainable development of all types of forests."

35.The Panel, however, left unresolved paragraph 147 with some key
questions of high political relevance for strengthening the international
cooperation required for implementing a Programme of Action for the
management, conservation and sustainable development of forests. 

             D. Fifth session of the CSD and the IPF results

36.The Fifth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD),
which took place in New York, 7-25 April 1997, after reviewing the IPF
Final Report agreed on three out of four paragraphs that summarizes the
major policy agreements achieved in the IPF process. 

37.The text agreed at CSD V notes that the IPF■s proposals for action
represent  significant progress and consensus on a wide range of forest
issues. The CSD V also recognized that in order to maintain the  momentum
generated by the IPF process there is an urgent need for, inter-alia: 

■     
-   countries and international organizations to implement the Panel■s
proposals for action; 

-   countries to develop national forest programmes; 

-   further clarification of all issues arising from the IPF process, in
particular international cooperation in financial assistance and technology
transfer, and trade and environment in relation to forest products and
services; and 
■     
-   international organizations to undertake further collaboration in the
informal, high-level Interagency Task Force on Forests (ITFF).

38.The  paragraph 147 left unresolved by the IPF IV session on follow-up
action to the IPF remained entirely in brackets after the CSD V, containing
a number of options, including calls for the establishment of an Ad-hoc,
open-ended Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF), which would consider
the need for or build the necessary consensus for a legally binding
instrument, or an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) on a
legally binding instrument on all types of forests.

    E. Outcome of the UNGASS on IPF and the establishment of the IFF

39.The outcome of the CSD on IPF was presented to the United Nations
General Assembly Special session (UNGASS) held in New York, 23-27 June
1997, for further consideration. The General Assembly, after several days
of negotiations at the Ministerial level decided:

      "To continue the intergovernmental policy dialogue on forests through
      the establishment of an ad-hoc, open-ended Intergovernmental Forum on
      Forests under the aegis of the Commission on Sustainable Development
      to work in an open, transparent and participatory manner, with a
      focused and time-limited mandate, charged with, inter alia:
      
      (a)   Promoting and facilitating the implementation of the Panel's
            proposals for action;

      (b)   Reviewing, monitoring and reporting on progress in the
            management, conservation and sustainable development of all
            types of forests;

      (c)   Considering matters left pending on the programme elements of
            the IPF, in particular trade and environment in relation to
            forest products and services, transfer of technology and the
            need for financial resources.

      The Forum should also identify the possible elements of and work
      toward consensus for international arrangements and mechanisms, for
      example a legally binding instrument.  The Forum will report on its
      work to the Commission for Sustainable Development in 1999.  Based on
      that report, and depending on the decision of the Commission at its
      eighth session, the Forum will engage in further action on
      establishing an intergovernmental negotiation process on new
      arrangements and mechanisms or a legally binding instrument on all
      types of forests."


                II. FOREST-RELATED WORK BEING CARRIED OUT
              BY INTERNATIONAL  AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

40.This chapter aims at updating the information on forest-related work
carried out by international and regional organizations. It is not an
assessment of forest activities of selected organizations. The main purpose
is to provide information to the Forum on major activities implemented by a
number of concerned institutions.

41.The information compiled in this section is based on a  brief
questionnaire sent to all members of the ITFF, to a wide spectrum of
institutions from the UN system, regional organizations including economic
commissions, regional development banks and other intergovernmental bodies,
as well as to several non-governmental organizations of recognized
experience in forest related activities. It is also based on material
compiled by the Swiss Peruvian Initiative in support to the IPF process
(doc. E/CN.17/1996/26).

42.Through the above mentioned survey, the analysis of published
information and the IPF documentation, detailed information was collected
and compiled. This information is presented and briefly discussed in this
chapter. The format of the questionnaire is attached as Annex I. The list
of international and regional organizations to which the questionnaire was
sent is attached as Annex II.

      A.   Survey of forest-related work carried out by international 
                       and regional organizations

43.A survey was initiated by the IFF Secretariat on December 1997-January
1998. Forms were sent to 42 Organizations involved in forest-related
activities, requesting their assistance in providing information available
about their activities with the purpose of supporting the preparation of
the doucmentation on Programme Element II.e of the programme of work of the
IFF, concerned with -forest-related work of international and regional
organizations, and under existing instruments■.

44.Detailed responses were received from 29 institutions. Additional
information was obtained when necessary from the web-page addressess of the
concerned institutions. The draft of the present document was circulated to
all of them and revised according to their suggestions and comments as 
necessary. The information compiled about their specific mandates, main
forest-specific or forest-related programmes and their links to most
relevant IFF programme elements is listed in Annex III. This information is
provided to the Forum with the aim of gaining deeper understanding of their
current major focus and the future potential synergies among them.

    B.  The Informal high-level Interagency Task Force on Forests (ITFF) 

45.The IPF gave unanimous support for the continuation of the informal,
high level Interagency Task Force on Forests (ITFF) and the continuation of
the IPF Secretariat based on staff secondments, which was clearly seen as a
very innovative and successful mechanism.

46.The main objective of the ITFF is to secure and coordinate support from
its members for the IPF/IFF in a manner which builds on the agencies■
respective strengths, minimizes duplication and overlaps, makes the most
efficient use of existing resources, and fosters partnership and
collaboration, but also assists many countries in national level
implementation of IPF proposals for action.

47.The ITFF has met on several occasions during the IPF/IFF process mostly
in connection with the meetings of the Panel/Forum and FAO's Committee on
Forestry (COFO).  At the First session of the IFF in October 1997 the ITFF
met with the NGO community where it was agreed to have regular
consultations between the ITFF and NGOs at future IFF meetings.  To further
facilitate this process of mutual consultations, the NGO agreed to nominate
a focal point. The next meeting of the ITFF will take place at the margin
of the II session of the IFF.  The ITFF is Chaired by FAO.

      1. The Interagency Partnership on Forests: A Plan to Implement IPF
                          Proposals for Action 

48.This Plan was prepared by the ITFF to support the implementation of the
IPF Proposals for Action, mainly as a response to paragraph 145 of IPF■s
Final Report (E/CN.17/1997/12), in which the Panel:     

      "called upon the appropriate international institutions and
      organizations to continue their work in the informal high-level
      Inter-Agency Task Force on Forests, under the chairmanship of FAO as
      task manager for chapter 11 of Agenda 21, focusing on the proposals
      for action recommended by the Panel, in accordance with their
      respective mandates and comparative advantage, and proposed that the
      Task Force, in a transparent and participatory manner, undertake
      further coordination and explore means for collaboration and coherent
      action at the international, regional and country levels, in support
      of any continuing intergovernmental dialogue on forests".
      
49.The objective of the Plan is to support the efforts of countries to
implement IPF■s proposals for action through well executed and coordinated
activities by ITFF members in association with other international
organisations, multilateral institutions and instruments, addressing needs
at the national, regional and international level.  In particular the Plan
identifies:
      
      i) areas where concrete and coordinated action by ITFF member
         organizations is feasible and practical; 

      ii)   means by which existing resources can be used more effectively
            and efficiently; and
 
      iii)  opportunities for participation by other potential partners
            such as NGO■s, private industry and other international
            organizations, for a more effective response to assisting
            Governments in the implementation of IPF■s proposals for
            action.
      
50.The Plan, as agreed by the ITFF, is intended to serve as a general
framework to continue strengthening partnerships within and outside the UN
System,  and to facilitate cooperation with donors, financing agencies and
bilateral organizations.  On the basis of reactions from recipient
countries, donors and other groups such as the Forestry Advisers Group, it
is intended to review and revise the Plan periodically and to update it
according to developments concerning availability of funds, decisions taken
by Governing Bodies of the ITFF member organizations, and comments received
from countries, NGOs and other interested parties.

51.IFF Secretariat has continued promoting the full implementation of the
Plan among all interested parties.  It is recognized that the plan
constitutes an important tool for the ITFF to contribute in a collaborative
and coordinated manner to the implementation of the IPF's proposals for
action.  The arrangements established among the ITFF members for supporting
the implementation of the IPF Proposals for Action, as presented in the
above mentioned Plan, is summarized in Table 1.



       Table 1.   INTERAGENCY PARTNERSHIP ON FOREST TO IMPLEMENT 
                        IPF PROPOSALS FOR ACTION*

(*As presented in the document "Interagency Partnership on Forests: A Plan to
implement IPF Proposals for Action", ITFF, New York, June 1997.)

IPF Programme Element            ITFF    Partners within     Proposed partners
                                 Lead    ITFF                the ITFF 
                                Agency

1.1  Progress Through National   FAO      UNDP,UNEP,WB       CCD, UNIDO
Forest and Land-use                       ITTO,CBD
Programmes

I.2  Underlying Causes of        UNEP     UNDP,FAO,CIFOR     ICRAF
Deforestation and Forest                  CBD,ITTO
Degradation

I.3  Traditional Forest-         CBD      FAO,UNEP,UNDP      CCD,UNFCCC,ILO,IADB, 
                                          ITTO,DESA,WB       ASDB,AFDB,WIPO,
                                                             UNESCO,WTO,UNIDO,
                                                             UNCTAD,UNU

I.4  Part One: Fragile           FAO      UNDP,UNEP,CBD      UNSO,CDD,UNFCCC,
Ecosystems Affected by                                       UNESCO
Desertification and Drought

I.4 Part Two: Impact of Air-     FAO      UNEP,CBD           UNFCCC
borne Pollution on Forests

I.5  Needs and requirements      UNEP      FAO,CBD,WB         CCD, Regional
of countries with low forest                                  Developmen Banks,
cover                                                         ICRAF

II.International Cooperation    UNDP      WB,CBD,ITTO,FAO    Regional Development 
in Financial Assistance and               UNEP               Banks
Technology Transfer for
Sustainable Forest Management

III.1(a) Part One: Assessment   FAO       UNEP,ITTO,CIFOR     UN/ECE
of the multiple benefits of all 
types of forests

Part Two: Forestry Research     CIFOR     FAO,CBD             IUFRO, ICRAF, UNU,
                                                              International Boreal
                                                              Forest Research
                                                              Ass., EFI, WCMC.

III.1(b)Methodologies for       WB     (Not yet consulted)    EFI, HIID
the proper valuation of                    FAO, CIFOR,CBD
the multiple benefits of forests            ITTO,UNEP

III.2 Criteria and Indicators   FAO       UNEP,ITTO,UNDP     UNESCO,IUFRO,IUCN,
for Sustainable Forest                    CBD,CIFOR,WB       WWF,Regional Dev.
Management                                                   Banks

IV.Trade and Environment       ITTO       FAO,UNEP           UNCTAD, WTO
Relating to Forest Goods
and Services

                       
52.The total annual cost of implementation of the Plan, as tentatively
estimated by the ITFF, is approximately US$ 50 million, increasing slightly
from US$ 45 million in phase I (present-2000) and US$ 50 million in phase
II (2001-2005) to US$ 55 million in phase III (2006-2010).  It should be
noted that this is just a rough estimation made by the ITFF to show the
level of resources required to initiate a collective response for the
implementation of those proposals for action addressed to international
organizations and agencies.  Although these figures include funds already
available in regular programme budgets and trust funds of members of the
ITFF, they are primarily indicative figures of the level of additional
funds yet to be sought from external sources.

53.In the implementation of the Plan, the ITFF foresees the forging of
partnerships with other institutions outside of ITFF.  Internally, each
ITFF member has accepted the role of main/lead facilitator for the same
Programme Elements for which it was lead agency during the IPF process -
with the exception of Programme Element I.B Underlying causes of
deforestation which passed from UNDP to UNEP.

     2.  Principal contributions of the ITFF

         2.1.  Secondment of staff to the IPF/IFF Secretariat

54.The IFF Secretariat continue with basically the same level of staffing,
composed of Senior Officers on loan to the DSD/DESA.  Only the Coordinator
and Head of the Secretariat and its support staff are hired directly by the
UN.  FAO, DESA, ITTO, UNDP and UNEP each provide a senior staff member to
the IFF Secretariat.  This arrangement has demonstrated several advantages
including relatively rapid deployment of experienced staff on an ad hoc
basis in accordance with the nature and mandate of the IFF; a de facto
interagency coordination function within the Secretariat; and the ability
of the IFF Secretariat to draw on the full institutional capacity of the
ITFF members.

         2.2.  Agreed Division of Labour and Partnerships to support
IPF/IFF processes.

55.During the IPF process ITFF agreed to accept lead agency responsibility
for the Programme Elements of the IPF■s work programme as shown in Table 2
(the numbering of Programme Elements follows the outline of the final
report of the IPF. The -old■ numbering during the IPF process is provided
in parenthesis.

56.In paragraph 145 of its final report the IPF called upon the appropriate
international institutions and organizations to continue their work in the
ITFF.  This work should be focused on the proposals for action adopted by
the Panel.  According to the respective mandates and comparative advantage
of each of its members the ITFF is now undertaking further coordination in
support of the IFF programme of work (see Table 3).




         TABLE 2: ITFF Division of Labour to Support the 
             implementation of IPF Proposals for Action

Category I.  Implementation of Forest-related Decisions of the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development at the National and International
Levels, Including an Examination of Sectoral and Cross-sectoral Linkages

I.A.(I.1)    Progress through national forest and     FAO 
             land-use programmes 

I.B.(I.2)    Underlying causes of deforestation and   Initially UNDP; UNEP has
             forest degradation                       accepted the lead        
                                                      facilitating role for the
                                                      implementation of proposals 
                                                      for action under this    
                                                      Programme Element

I.C.(I.3)    Traditional forest-related knowledge     CBD Secretariat

I.D.(I.4(1)) Fragile ecosystems affected by           FAO
             desertification and drought

I.E.(I.4(2)) Impact of airborne pollution on forests  FAO

I.F.(I.5)    Needs and requirements of developing      UNEP
             and other countries with low forest cover

     Category II. International Cooperation in Financial Assistance
                         and Technology Transfer

II.A.(II)    Financial assistance                       UNDP

II.B.(II)    Technology transfer and capacity-         UNDP; FAO has accepted
             building and information                  responsibility for      
                                                       transfer of technology  
                                                       during the IFF process


        Category III.  Scientific Research, Forest Assessment and
               the Development of Criteria and Indicators for 
                       Sustainable Forest Management

III.A.(III.1.a)   Assessment of the multiple benefits   FAO
                  of all types of forests

III.B.(III.1.a)   Forest research                       CIFOR

III.C.(III.1.b)   Methodologies for the proper          World Bank
                  valuation of the multiple benefits
                  of forests

III.D.(III.2)    Criteria and indicators for sustainable   FAO
                 forest management


         Category IV. Trade and Environment in Relation to 
                     Forest Products and Services


IV(IV)     Trade and Environment in Relation to Forest     ITTO
           Products and Services

          Category V.International Organizations and Multilateral 
    Institutions and Instruments, Including Appropriate Legal Mechanisms

V(V.1;V.2)  International Organizations and Multilateral    DESA, former
            Institutions and Instruments, Including         DPCSD
            Appropriate Legal Mechanisms


     TABLE 3: The ITFF division of labour to support the IFF process:

CATEGORY/PROGRAMME ELEMENT                             LEAD
                                                       ORGANIZATION

CATEGORY I
I.a.  Promote and facilitate implementation            As identified in the ITFF
                                                       Implementation Plan

I.b.Monitor progress in implementation                 As identified in the ITFF
                                                       Implementation Plan

CATEGORY II 
Consider matters on 
II.a.   The need for financial resources               UNDP

II.b.Trade and environment                             ITTO

II.cTransfer of Technology                             FAO 

II.dIssues Needing Further Clarification

- Underlying causes of deforestation                   UNEP
- Traditional forest related knowledge                 CBD-Secr.
- Rehabilitation of forest cover                       FAO
- Forest conservation                                  UNEP
- Research priorities                                  CIFOR
- Valuation of forest goods and services               WB
- Economic instruments, tax policies and land tenure   WB
- Supply and demand of wood and non-wood 
      forest products and services                     FAO

II.eforest-related work of organisations               DESA

CATEGORY III.
Identify elements, build a global consensus and        DESA
engage in further action



57.The extensive range of activities being undertaken by the ITFF members
in support of the IPF/IFF processes, in particular the implementation on
IPF's proposals for action are widely documented in the Secretary General
Report on Programme Element I.a: Promoting and facilitating the
implementation of the IPF■s Proposals for Action document
(E/CN.17/IFF/1998/??), and in the Background Document prepared on same
topic (BD.1). A general supplementary information is provided below on
major activities. A more detailed description on mandates, forest-related
programmes and links with specific IFF programmes elements of all
organizations and instrument members of the ITFF, is presented in Annex
III.

58.UNDP. After February 1997 UNDP  initiated a Global Programme on Forests
(GPF) to promote sustainable forest management  and related public and
private sector partnerships at country level in order to support
sustainable livelihoods.  It is directly linked to the work of the IPF/IFF
processes and constitutes UNDP■s follow-up to the IPF■s proposals for
action.

59.The GPF programme consists of three processes that are mutually
reinforcing but independent components with specific objectives: ( i)
Identifying successful strategies for sustainable forest management; (ii)
strengthening national Forests Programmes and forest partnership agreements 
as instruments to promote sustainable forest management; and (iii)
developing innovative financing for sustainable forest management.

60.The GPF programme can assist countries in identifying key issues,
providing analysis, and following through on options for action.  Four
countries, Costa Rica, Cameroon, Guyana and Vietnam are initially
participating in the Programme.  Representatives from these programme
countries, international forest experts, collaborating bilateral partners
and UNDP held a workshop in April 1998 in New York to discuss the GPF
approach and to facilitate the preparation.

61.FAO. In 1997 FAO supported the Government of Turkey in the organization
of the XI World Forestry Congress: -Sustainable forestry development:
towards the XXI century■.  The Antalya Declaration and the conclusions and
recommendations of the Congress were an excellent means to bring the IPF
proposals for action to a broad audience in the forest sector, including
ministers who attended an informal meeting before the Congress.

62.The Committee on Forestry held its thirteenth session in Rome 10-13
March 1997 and discussed progress toward sustainable forest development and
follow-up to UNCED including implications of the work of the IPF.  The
regional forestry commissions also have a standing item in their agenda on
-Follow-up to UNCED in forestry: IPF proposals for action and the IFF
process.  The Asia Pacific Forestry Commission met in Yogyakarta,
Indonesia, in February 1998 and the African Forestry and Wildlife
Commission in Dakar, Senegal, in April1998.  FAO organized three regional
workshops on international cooperation and resource mobilization for
national forest programmes.  The first workshop, held in Yogyakarta,
Indonesia 19-21 February 1998, was attended by participants from 23
countries and 5 donors and 4 international organizations.  The second one,
in Dakar, Senegal 17-19 April 1998 brought together participants from 19
African countries and 2 donor countries.  The third workshop was held in
Santiago, Chile, 3-5 June 1996 with participants from 16 countries and 10
donors and international organizations.

63.The preparations for the Forest Resources Assessment 2000, in
cooperation with many national and international institutions are under
way. In the field of Criteria and Indicators of sustainable forest
management, support has been given to the member countries of the Central
American CCAB-AP (Lepaterique process); the African and Near-East dry
countries; Helsinki process; and in launching field projects and workshops
for helping countries in the definition and implementation of C and I at
the forest management level.

64.FAO is developing collaborative activities with the CCD Secretariat and
with IFAD and is assisting several countries for the formulation of
national action plans to combat desertification.  Major publications on
afforestation, forest management in the dry zones, and forestry and
wildlife contribution to food security were produced.

65.A regional FAO/IUFRO/CIFOR expert consultation on low-impact forest
harvesting practices was organized in Latin America in July 1997 and a
similar one is scheduled for Africa in 1998.  An FAO/IUFRO seminar on
forest operations in Himalayan forests was held in Bhutan in October 1997. 
Also a seminar on sustainable forest operations for countries in transition
was planned for October 1998.

66.The report on the Global Fibre Supply study is available in draft and
will be published in 1998.  Monographs on non-wood forest products,
including medicinal plants, have been produced.  Studies on Wood Energy in
OECD countries and Eastern Europe and in Asia were completed and a
newsletter, -Forest Energy Forum■, was launched.

67.The 1997 State of the World■s Forests report reviewed the major issues
facing forest management around the world.  FAO and the European Commission
have begun a new partnership program with a number of developing countries
to boost their ability to gather, collect, compile and tabulate important
information for better management of forests.

68.As requested by the IPF important advances have been made by several
organizations including the Committee on Forestry (COFO) of FAO, ITTA
Council, the Commonwealth Forestry Conference, the llth World Forestry
Congress, among others. Significant progress has also been achieved in the
past months in guiding relevant international and regional institutions
through their governing bodies, to accelerate the incorporation into their
relevant work programmes of the forest related results of UNCED and of the
proposals for action recommended by the IPF.

69.World Bank.  World Bank initiatives include activities under the
recently created World Bank- World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Alliance, a
series of meetings convened by the President between forest industry CEOs
and environmental organizations, participation as an active member of
Forest Trends and strengthening the World Bank■s role in the IFF/ITFF
process. 

70.ITTO. The International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC) has authorized
the Executive Director of ITTO to undertake the necessary studies, within
the scope of its mandate, to support the IFF process. Linked to ITTO■s Year
2000 Objective and ITTO■s guidelines on criteria and indicators there are
projects being implemented in Sarawak and peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan
(Indonesia).

71.UNEP. The organization of an NGOs/Government of Costa Rica Initiative on
Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation to be hosted by
Costa Rica, is being actively supported by UNEP. UNEP Governing Council by
Decision GC.19/22 approved the revised proposals for 1996 -1997 and
proposals for 1998 - 1999 which includes activities for follow-up to the
work of the IPF.  IFF Programme Element II.d Underlying Causes of
Deforestation and Forest  Degradation is reflected in sub-programme 1.2
Caring for Biological Resources. UNEP is preparing a report entitled: In-
depth Analysis of Underlying Causes and their Regional Variances of
Deforestation and Forest Degradation; Strategic and Policy Options to
address the Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation.  

72.In March 1998, UNEP was  requested by the UN Secretary General to
coordinate actions with the UN Department for Humanitarian Affairs and
other UN organizations, including FAO, to launch emergency programmes of
action to tackle with the environmental crisis provoked by the forest fires
in Indonesia and Amazonia.  Forest fires are becoming serious environmental
emergencies around the world. Along several underlying causes of
deforestation and forest impoverishment, including illegal logging and
ground fire, the incidence of forest fires around the world has greatly
increased in the last years. When mismanagement and inapproppriate land-use
activities replace the tall, dense, naturally-resistant virgin forests with
agricultural lands, the remaining degraded forests could evolve in a highly
flammable ecosystems. During the past seasonal drought that affects half of
Amazonia, vast areas of forest in Indonesia, Central America and Mexico,
many of these flammable ecosystems burned. When seasonal drought is very
severe, such as during the El Nino event of 1997/98, even virgin forests
become more vulnerable to the ravages of fire. Unfortunately, as a result
of forest mismanagement, land-use influences and agriculture malpractices,
much of the natural forests ecosystems are also losing its natural capacity
to protect itself from fires.

73.In the Amazonia, in the 1997/98 period,  deforestation--the outright
cutting and burning of mature forest--was responsible, on average, for only
16% of the total burned area, while 73% percent of the burning is on land
that is already deforested and supports pastures, secondary fallow forests,
and other types of non-forest vegetation. Eleven percent of the burning is
beneath the canopy of standing forests. This last type of burning, which is
called forest ground fire, is difficult to monitor using satellites. During
years of intense drought, the areal extent of forest ground fire generally
increases dramatically. 

74.CBD. The work programme on forest biological diversity, that has been
recently adopted under the decision IV/7 of the Conference of the Parties
to the Convention on Biological Diversity (Bratislava, May 1998), takes
into account, as appropriate, the IPF proposals for action in regard to the
areas of focus of the programme on the research, cooperation and
development of technologies necessary for the conservation, sustainable use
and equitable sharing of benefits arising from biological diversity of all
types of forests. One of the objectives of the work plan is to identify
traditional forest systems of conservation and sustainable use of forest
biological diversity and to promote the wider application, use and role of
traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) in sustainable forest
management and the equitable sharing of benefits, in accordance with
Article 8(j) and other related provisions of the CBD. This work programme
stresses the importance to contribute to ongoing work in other
international and regional organizations and processes, in particular, to
the implementation of the proposals for action of the IPF and to provide
inputs to the IFF. 

75.The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity,
in its decision III/14, requested Parties to develop national legislation
and corresponding strategies for the implementation of Article 8(j), in
consultation particularly with representatives of their indigenous and
local communities. It also urged Parties to supply information about the
implementation of Article 8(j) and related articles, for example, national
legislation and administrative and incentive measures. A synthesis
outlining elements from the case studies received by the CBD Secretariat
was produced for the fourth Conference of the Parties (document
UNEP/CBD/COP/4/10), which provided information, inter alia, on the
application of TFRK regarding forest and land use management, incentive
measures, national legislation, benefit sharing, intellectual property
rights, involvement in in situ conservation, and identification and
monitoring. In its decision IV/9, the COP established an ad hoc open-ended
intersessional working group to address the implementation of Article 8(j)
and related provisions of the CBD.

76.CIFOR.  A research programme has been under implementation since 1994
testing a set of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management
in Brazil, Cameroon, Co^te d■Ivoire, Germany, India and Indonesia. An in-
depth study has been published on modelling underlying causes of
deforestation in tropical countries. 

77.CIFOR is cooperating with the governments of Indonesia and Austria,
assisted by IUFRO (the world■s oldest NGO concerned with forests),  FAO and
the IFF Secretariat, have organised an international expert consultation on
"Research and Information Systems in Forestry" (ICRIS) to be held in
Austria from 4-11 September 1998. Participants in this consultation will
include policy-makers and senior scientists, experts nominated by countries
of both North and South, international and regional organisations, major
groups and  the private sector. 

       C. Potential Institutional Synergies to Support the IFF Process*

(* This Section will be up-dated according to further inputs hereby kindly
requested from all international and regional organizations listed in Annex 1,
as well as from other international and regional Non-Governmental Organizations
carrying out forest-related work at the global, regional or national levels. 
These inputs should be sent to the IFF Secretariat: 2 UN Plaza, 12th Floor, New
York, N.Y. 10017 Fax: (212) 963 3463; Email: <hutubia@un.org>)

78.In Annex III a brief description of the mandates and main forest-related
work is presented for all regional and international organizations that
responded to the questionnaire prepared by the IFF Secretariat.  In this
list special reference is made to their links with most relevant programme
elements of the IFF programme of work.  In addition to the information
provided in Annex III, a brief review of major findings is presented below.

                  1. International Organizations - UN System

79.In addition to the work being carried out by the ITFF members a very
significant supporting work in the field of forest is being carried out by
several organizations of the UN System.  The work being supported by the
GEF through its technical and financial assistance to developing countries
in the field of biodiversity conservation, including forest ecosystems and
sustainable use methods in forestry and wildlife conservation can have a
positive impact in strengthening national forest programmes if they are
properly coordinated at the country level with the national biodiversity
strategies and action plans. The work of UNU and UNESCO in supporting
forest-related research, conservation ecology, interrelationships between
forests, society and the environment, and traditional knowledge are also
relevant to support implementation of IFF  mandate. Similarly,  the
substantive contributions that organizations such as WIPO and WTO could
make to the Forum in dealing with issues related to traditional knowledge,
trade and environment and valuation of forest goods and services must be
taken into account at the moment of forging institutional synergies with
respect to that specific programme elements.

                           2. Regional Organizations

80.The forest-related work being carried out by the Regional Commissions
and other regional intergovernmental organizations is relevant for most of
the IFF programme elements. For instance, the work of regional economic
commissions such as ECE and ESCAP in data collection, research and
information relating to national forest programmes, polluted areas, supply
and demand, forest conservation, criteria and indicators, valuation and
economic instruments; and the work of ECLAC on the role of fiscal and other
incentives in planted forests, paper industry, watershed management; and
the work of ECA in soil erosion and underlying causes of deforestation and
destruction of land resources. 

81.The Regional Development Banks focus their loan and technical assistance
grants on a wide array of activities including capacity building, policy
analysis, training, research and information, covering almost all IPF and
IFF programme elements.  All of them assist countries in their national
forest programmes, forest conservation, biodiversity, underlying causes of
deforestation, economic instruments, valuation, environmentally sound
technologies, and forest investments. For example,  the Inter-American
Development Bank (IADB) focus its activities on polluted areas, national
forestry development, forest conservation, and investments on industrial
plantations and commercial forest management. The African Development Bank
(AFDB) focus on national programmes, low forest cover, conservation,
underlying causes, supply and demand, and forest products industry. It is
important to note that all regional development banks have financial and
technical assistance activities including capacity building and policy
analysis on legal aspects of forests.


82.Information on two more regional organizations with forest-specific
activities is presented in Annex III. At the regional level, the European
Forest Institute (EFI) which has programmes in four priority areas closely
related to the IFF programme, namely forest ecology and management, forest
products, markets and socio economics; forest policy analysis; and forest
resources and information. At the subregional level, the Central American
Council of Forests and Protected Areas (CCAB-AP) constitute another type of
mechanism to influence sustainable forest management. The  CCAB-AP is
primarily a subregional technical body for implementing the policies for
sustainable use of forest resources in the subregion. Its main objectives
are to negotiate funding from international donors; promote sustainable
forestry and biological conservation policies; consolidate proposed
protected areas; implement timber concessions policies and guidelines; and
design and foster analytical forestry legislation. The working liaison of
of EFI and CCAB-AP with the ITFF and other international organizations
could notably strengthen the promotion and implementation of the IPF
proposals for action in their regions especially in areas such as forest
conservation and protection, traditional knowledge, forest biological
resources, criteria and indicators, valuation, environmentally sound
technologies, forest investments and legal regimes.

              3. Other International Organizations and Processes

83. The information on this Group in Annex III include the work of five
forest-specific organizations (ICRAF, IUFRO, FSC,  the criteria and
indicators processes, IHPA,  and the Ministerial Conference on the
Protection of Forest in Europe) and seven forest-related organizations
(IIED, OECD, IUCN, WCMC, WRI, WWF and WBCSD). Each of these organizations
and processes, outside the ITFF and the UN System, represent major
institutional efforts in  promoting the international forest agenda at the
local, national, regional and global levels. Collectively, their activities
cover all the IPF and IFF programme elements. Many of them are working in
partnerships with the members of the ITFF. 

84.Several established international initiatives to develop criteria and
indicators for sustainable forest management (the Montreal Process,
Helsinki Process, the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)
Process) are now reaching an implementation stage. Meanwhile new
initiatives have started such as the Tarapoto Process, the Dry Zone of
Africa initiative, and that in the Near East region.  All these initiatives
are considering criteria and indicators at the national level and some
countries have already implemented these criteria and indicators for
monitoring the sustainability of their forest management and development.
At the local level, some progress has been achieved in a limited number of
countries.  Forest management unit-level criteria and indicators have been
tested with the participation of one of the ITFF member, the Centre for
International Forestry Research (CIFOR) in a few temperate and tropical
countries.  Some countries have established forest management pilot
projects which include the testing and implementation of forest management
unit-level criteria and indicators. Countries with a long historical
tradition in forest management, particularly in Europe, have introduced 
new criteria of sustainability in their forest management unit-level
practices.

85.The G-8 meeting of Heads of State in Denver (June 1997), the seven major
industrializaed countries and the Russian Federation launched a Forest
Action Programme under the G-8 process, and called for immediate
implementation of the IPF Proposals for Action. This commitment was
reiterated in the G-8 meeting held in Birmingham (May 1998).  The action
programme has five components: implementaiton of national forest
programmes; establishing networks of protected areas; assessing the state
of each (G-8) nation■s forests using agreed criteria and indicators;
promoting private sector management of forests; and eliminating illegal
logging. The International Wood Products Association (IHPA) is advancing
programmes for responsible forest amangement and international trade in
wood products.  The OECD is currently working in forestry within its
activities on OECD environmental performance, statistics and indicators;
ODA flows to the forestry sector; on a scheme for the control of forest
reproductive material moving in international trade; genetically engineered
crop plants and tree species; and on the linkages between agriculture and
forestry.

86.WCMC has been working with a number of international and regional
organizations (FAO, CIFOR, EFI, IUFRO) to identify the needs for, and
design the mechanism and structure of, an internet-based Global Forest
Information Service (GFIS).  This would supply national, regional and
global summary data on all aspects of forests from many sources and provide
links to sources of more local-scale information.

87.The World Bank is the convener of a -CEOs process■, in association with
WWF, WRI, Conservation International (CI), the World Conservation Union
(IUCN), and a number of private sector companies involved in forest
products manufacturing (Apkindo, Aracruz Cellulose, Collins Pine Danzer,
etc.)  related to the forest reserves and sustainable forest management.
The World Bank in 1997 also formed an alliance with the WWF aimed at
collaboration around two sets of quantitative targets: a) promote the
establishment of an ecologically representative network of protected areas,
covering at least 10% of each of the world■s forest types by the year 2000.
The Bank has adopted a specific target of establishing 50 million ha. of
new forest protected areas in its client countries by 2005; and b)
cooperating to achieve independent certification of 200 million hectares of
well-managed production forests by 2005, 100 million in temperate and
boreal, and 100 million in tropical forest regions.

88.The WRI has recently launched the Global Forest Watch (GFW) as an
independent mechanism to monitor the status and trends related to the
world■s remaining frontier forests, including monitoring the direct and
underlying causes of deforestation in these areas.  The WWF is undertaking
a series of case studies on the socioeconomic causes of biodiversity loss.
Case studies will be carried out in a variety of locations with a diversity
of social and economic conditions. This activity is being developed by the
Macroeconomics for Sustainable Develpment Programme. The World Conservation
Union (IUCN) is implementing programmes on conservation, valuation,
biodiversity and protected areas; including information and policy work in
partnership with the WWWF. The IIED is focussing its activities in forest
policy and national policy processes, the sustainability of the pulp and
paper industry, development of assessment tools and systems that provide
information to policy makers and planners, and incentives for sustainable
forestry and land use.

89.There are many opportunities for the Forum to link up with all these
partnerships and alliances efforts and to invite them to support and to
collaborate with the ITFF in the implementation of the IPF■s proposals for
action.  The potential institutional synergies to support the IFF process
are presented in Table 3, which has been prepared on the basis of the
information compiled in the survey on the forest-related work carried out
by international and regional organizations.  Most of the activities being
implemented by other international organizations and Processes and Regional
organizations compliment the ITFF and IFF efforts and they offer an
excellent opportunity to the Forum for forging institutional synergies for
the benefit of the management, conservation and sustainable development of
all types of forests. 


    Table 3.  POTENTIAL INSTITUTIONAL SYNERGIES TO SUPPORT IFF PROCESS

IFF Programme Element          ITFF    Main Partners     Other Potential Partners
                               Lead    within ITFF
                               Agency

I.a.Promote and facilitate   See Table  See Table 1      See Table 1
implementation of the            1
proposals for action of IPF

I.b.Monitor progress in      See Table  See Table 1      See Table 1
implementation of IPF            1
proposals for action

II.a. The need for             UNDP     WB,DESA,UNDP     GEF, UNIDO, AFDB, ASDB, 
                                                         CACF/PA, IADB,OECD, WWF

II.b.Trade and Environment     ITTO     UNEP, FAO        UNCTAD, WTO, ECE, ECLAC, 
                                                         AFDB, ASDB, EFI, IADB, 
                                                         IHPA, OECD, WBCSD

II.c.Transfer of Technology    FAO      UNEP, WB, CBD,    ILO,UNIDO,ICRAF,IHPA
                                        ITTO, UNDP        WBCSD

II.d  Issues Needing Further   
   Clarification

   - Underlying causes of      UNEP      UNDP,CIFOR,     UNESCO,UNU,ECA,ADB,
    deforestation                        ITTO,CBD,FAO    CACF/PA, IUCN, WRI, WWF

  - Traditional forest         CBD       CIFOR,ITTO      UNESCO,AFDB,ASDB,IADB,
    related knowledge                    FAO,UNEP,WB     WRI, IUFRO,IUCN, UNU, 
                                                         CACF/PA, WIPO, WTO,   
                                                         UNIDO,UNCTAD, ILO

  - Rehabilitation of         FAO       UNEP,UNDP        UNESCO,UNU,WFP,ECA,AFDB,
    forest cover                                         IADB,ICRAF, IUCN

  - Forest conservation       UNEP      FAO,ITTO         UNESCO,ECA,ESCAP,AFDB,
                                       CIFOR,CBD,WB      ASDB, IADB,IUCN, WWF, 
                                                         WRI, WCMC

  - Research priorities       CIFOR     FAO,UNEP,CBD,    UNESCO,IUFRO,IUCN,WRI,
                                         ITTO, WB        GEF,UNU,WIPO,WMO, ICRAF, 
                                                         IIED,EFI,AFDB, ASDB

 - Valuation of forest        WB        UNEP,FAO,        GEF,UNCTAD,UNU,WTO,AFDB
   goods and services                   CIFOR,CBD,       ASDB,IUCN,OECD,WRI,WBCSD
                                        ITTO,UNDP

 - Economic instruments,      WB        UNEP,FAO,CBD,    GEF,UNU,ESCAP,ESCWA,ECA,
   tax policies and land                ITTO,UNDP        ECE,ECLAC,IUCN,OECD,WRI,
   tenure                                                WBCSD, ICRAF

 - Supply and demand of       FAO       ITTO,UNEP,CBD    AFDB,ASDB,IADB,UNESCO,
  wood and non-wood forest                               OECD,WRI,IUCN,ICRAF
  products and services

II.e forest-related work      DESA      ALL              ALL
    of organisations

III. Identify elements,      DESA       ITTO,CBD,UNEP    WIPO,WTO,CCD,UNFCCC 
   build a global consensus 
   and engage in further action


            III.  PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION   

                          A.  Preliminary Conclusions

                           1. Strengthening the ITFF

90.As a partnership mechanism in the field of forests, the ITFF has been
successful in initiating and strengthening forest-related collaboration
among organizations within and outside the UN. The analysis of the
information compiled by the survey undertaken by the IFF Secretariat shown
that the forest-related work-programmes of the ITFF members collectively
cover the totality of  programme elements in the international agenda on
forests as defined by the IPF and IFF processes. The focus within the
workprogrammes of  ITFF members include areas such as technical-operational
(UNDP, FAO, CIFOR, WB); policy making (ITTO, FAO, UNEP); coordinating
(UNEP, DESA, CBD); financial support (WB, UNDP); and normative (ITTO, CBD,
UNEP). In addition to the recognition accorded by the IPF, CSD and UNGASS,
the ITFF has also been noted as an innovative approach by the UN
Interagency Committee for Sustainable Development charged with coordinating
the follow-up to UNCED and Agenda 21 by the UN system.

91.The ITFF, as a new informal partnership mechanism requires a strong
institutional back-up from each of its members organizations and their
respective governing bodies. The strengthening of the ITFF is primarily 
needed for implementing the IPF Proposals for Action recognized as the
internationally agreed priorities for forests as stated in Secretary
General Report E/CN.17/IFF/1998/...prepared for IFF programme element I.a:
Promoting and Facilitating the Implementation of IPF■s Proposals for
Action. 

92.In the context of the implementation of the IPF proposals for action and
as shown in Secretary General Report on programme element I.a,  the issue
is not to insist on identifying overlaps and areas of duplication, or gaps
in action among different members of the ITFF or among other international
and regional organizations. The real challenges ahead are to strengthen
further the existing partnership among ITFF members and to  facilitate the
establishment of new modalities of cooperation between ITFF members and
other partners for making the best use of all the available forest-related
institutional capabilities that exist at the regional and international
levels. These institutional capabilities, as suggested in Table 3, should
be fully mobilized and utilized to support the efforts of the countries to
implement the IPF Proposals for Action.

                             2.  Forging Synergies

93.The IPF process emphasized the notion that forest policy and sustainable
forest management must take into account both the multiple benefits of
forests at the national, regional and global levels, as well as recognize
the high diversity of institutions involved in issues related to forests.
In this regard, a better understanding of the work being carried out by
different international and regional organizations, will represent an
important contribution towards the strengthening of the institutional
synergies and to ensure more integrated approaches rather than to continue
with the fragmented views on forest policies, programmes and institutions
that prevails to date. 

94.There is a significantly unrealized potential for further strengthening
of the commitment and mobilizing the capacity of existing international and
regional organizations to support and promote the goal of management,
conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests.  This can
be achieved through the enhancement of their complementarities, better
coordination and facilitation of the policy dialogue for guiding greater
coherence of action, including consistent policy guidance by counting at
the level of their governing bodies.  This approach would help to focus
collective action on jointly agreed priorities.

95.There are numerous international activities and programmes related to
forests, undertaken by international and regional organizations and other
non-governmental organizations.  There is a need to encourage the forging
of partnerships with all of these international and regional organizations,
in selected IPF/IFF programme elements.

96.Improved institutional partnerships will also be essential for the
monitoring, reviewing and assessing progress in the management,
conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests as stated
in document E/CN.17/IFF/1998.... on Category I (b): Monitor progress in
implementation. Shared objectives on forest-related issues for promoting
work among institutions is crucial to improve efficiency and coordination. 
Future efforts in international organizations, multilateral institutions
and instruments should concentrate on making monitoring and reporting
activities more effective and flexible to accommodate emerging needs.  This
approach should also provide for effective participation of and
collaboration with the non-governmental organizations and the private
sector. 

97.The Forum may wish to consider how to fully utilize the existing
institutional capabilities of the ITFF and other potential partners to
support actions needing enhanced international efforts.  Priority areas
include: capacity-building; technology transfer and exchange; institutional
and human resource development, in particular at the national and field
levels; funding and coordination for research and development on national
priorities for sustainable forest management;  pilot projects of regional
and international significance; and strategic forest data collection and
dissemination of information.

98.The experience gained in preparing the Survey of forest-related work has
shown the need to design a comprehensive Directory of forest-related
international and regional organizations, as a database for future
reference by the Forum in all matters related to the forest-related work. 
The Directory  may include the available institutional information
concerning missions, mandates, organizational structures, programmes,
activities and budget. It is suggested that such a database also become
accessible to all Governments and other interested parties in electronic
form, e.g., the Internet.  This Directory may also include detailed
information about the governing bodies decisions of each organization,
meetings, projects implementation and other relevant information.
Additional information about bilateral and multilateral forest-related
activities, private sector and  research institutions could also be
included. 

                     B.  Preliminary Proposals for Action

                     1.  Supporting the IPF/IFF processes

99.The Forum may wish to call upon all interested parties, including the
governing bodies of relevant international and regional organizations to:

a)     Identify practical means for mobilizing their diverse strengths and
       capabilities to support country-level efforts in implementing the
       Proposals for Action adopted by the IPF; and

b)     Foster synergies among different international and regional
       organization, and instruments, ensuring their active participation in
       and contributing to forest policy dialogue within the framework of
       the IFF, and to the internationally agreed agenda on forests. 

                          2.  Strengthening the ITFF

100.The Forum may wish to call upon ITFF member organizations to:

a)     Ensure that partnership arrangements be communicated throughout the
       organizational structure of the members organizations; 

b)     Inform their governing bodies about the outcome of the IPF/IFF
       process and to strengthen forest-related activities and the inter-
       agency cooperation in this field;

c)     To explore the potentialities for institutional synergies with other
       partners, especially the regional development banks, regional
       commissions and other regional intergovernmental bodies, non-
       governmental organizations, and other international organizations;
       and

d)     Design a comprehensive Directory of forest-related international and
       regional organizations engaged in forest-related activities, as a
       database for future reference by the Forum in all matters related to
       forests. 

                             3.  Forging Synergies

101.The Forum may wish to call upon the governing bodies of United Nations
agencies, regional organizations and other international intergovernmental
and non-governmental organizations to:

(a)    Facilitate inter-institutional consultation on cross-sectoral forest
       policies, policy reforms, and planning and programmes for sustainable
       forest management; 

(b)    Enhance strategic data sets and analysis systems, to allow the
       preparation and  the timely dissemination of  user-friendly macro-
       parameters for monitoring and reporting on progress in sustainable
       forest management practices; and

(c)    Establish a global forest research network, making full use of
       existing institutions, including the identification of  mechanisms
       for an effective flow of research results to those engaged in policy
       and implementation.


                                   ANNEX I

QUESTIONNAIRE ON UP-DATED FOREST-RELATED WORK BEING CARRIED OUT BY
INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND UNDER EXISTING INSTRUMENTS

Part. I General Information

Full Name of Institution:
Mailing Address:
Phone:
Fax:
E-mail:

Founded (year):                                Executive
Officer/Director:


Internet Home Page Address:

Organization/Institution Classification (Check where appropriate)

- Forest-specific institution      - Forest-related institution

- Intergovernmental                - Non-governmental             - Mixed

- Global                           - Regional                     - Subregional


Focal Point as Regards this Questionnaire
Name:......................................................................
Title:.....................................................................
Mailing Address:...........................................................
Email address:.............................................................
Tel:..............................Fax......................................

Return To:
Jaime Hurtubia                           E-mail:hurtubia@un.org
Room DC2-1254                            Ph: 1-212-963-4219
IFF Secretariat/UNITED NATIONS           Fax: 1-212-963-3463
New York, NewYork 10017--USA


                                 Statistics

                     Dedicated to  Percent of   National   Normative  Total
                     forest work   the Whole    Assistance
                                   organization

Number of
Professionals

Number of 
Adminstrative Support

Budget

    Regular
    Extra
    Budget 
    56314


                      Part II Instiutional Profile
         Kindly use separate pages to provide the requested information


Statement                 Describe the Organization
Mission and Objectives    Describe in some detail the mission and the major    
                          objectives of the Organization
Activities                Describe major on-going and planned activities
Services                  Describe in some details technical assistance,
                          consultancies, and any other services offered by the
                          Organization
Meetings                  Describe in some details the recurring
                          events/Conferences/Training
                          Seminars/Workshops/Symposia sponsored or conducted by
                          the Organization in forest specific or forest-related
                          fields.
Governing body            Describe the Organization■s Governing body that adopts
                          decisions/resolutions concerning  programme of work, 
                          budget, etc., including list of member■s governments.
Affiliations              Mention the name of subsidiary, branch or affiliated 
                          units and their relationship to the Organization.
Organizational Structure  Describe in some detail the Organizational Chart



Organisational Profile:   Please add a tick where applicable, add a $ where
financial and staff resources are concentrated. Use attached descriptors
indicating forest types and geographical regions:                              
 
Name of Organisation:


IPF/IFF
Programme
 of Work

National Forest and Land Use Programmes:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Fragile Ecosystems and Rehabilitaion Forests:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Arid and Semi-Arid Areas:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information


Polluted Areas:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Low Forest Cover:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Mountain Areas:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Forest Conservation and Protection:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Traditional Forest Related Knowledge:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Forest Biological Resources:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Valuation of Multiple Benefits of Forest:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Economic Instruments & Tax Policies:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Land Tenure:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Supply and Demand of Wood and Non-Wood Forest Products:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Trade in Forest Products and Services:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

Forest and Forest Products Industry:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information
Forest Investments:

Legal Aspects of Forests:

Financial Assistance/ Technical Assistance/ Capacity Building/ Policy Analysis/
Training/ Data Collection/ Research/ Information

             -----------------------------------------------------


                                Descriptors

                                FOREST TYPES

BO.: Boreal   TM.: Temperate   TR.: Tropical  STR.: Sub-tropical    DR.: Dry


                          GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS*

AFRICA
WSA:   West Sahelian Africa
ESA:   East Sahelian Africa
CA:    Central Africa
SAT:   Southern Africa Tropical
IEA:   Insular East Africa
NANT: North Africa Non-Tropical
SANT: Southern Africa Non-Tropical

ASIA
SA:    South Asia 
CSA:   Continental Southeast Asia
ISA:   Insular Southeast Asia
NE:    Near East
EA:    East Asia

OCEANIA
TRO:   Tropical Oceania
TO:    Temperate Oceania

EUROPE
NE:    Northern Europe
WE:    Western Europe
EE:    Eastern Europe
FU:    Former USSR

NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA
USAC:  USA and Canada
CAM:   Central America and Mexico
CA:    Caribbean

SOUTH AMERICA
TSA: Tropical South America
TeSA: Temperate South America

* List of Countries attached.  Source: FAO 1997. State of the World's
Forests 1997



                  List of Countries by Georgraphical Regions
                         Questionnaire for IFF II - II.e


West Sahelian Africa
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Chad
Gambia
Guinea-Bissau
Mail
Mauritania
Niger
Senegal

East Sahelian Africa
Djibouti
Former P.D.R.
Ethiopia
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Kenya
Somalia
Sudan

West Moist Africa
Benin
Cote D■Ivoire
Ghana
Guinea
Liberia
Nigeria
Sierra Leone
Togo

Central Africa
Burundi
Cameroon
Central African
Republic
Congo
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon 
Rwanda
Sao Tome and
Principe
Uganda
Zaire

Tropical Southern Africa
Angola
Botswana
Malawi
Mozambique
Namibia
Saint Helena
Tanzania, United                                          
Republic 
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Insular East Africa
Comoros
Madagascar
Mauritius
Reunion
Seychelles

North Africa
Algeria
Egypt
Libyan Arab
Republic
Morocco
Tunisia

Non-Tropical Southern Africa
Lesotho
South Africa
Swaziland



South Asia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
India
Maldives
Nepal
Pakistan
Sri Lanka

Continental Southeast Asia
Cambodia
Laos
Myanmar
Thailand
Viet Nam

Insular Southeast Asia
Brunei Darussalam
Indonesia
Malaysia
Philippines
Singapore

Near East
Afghanistan
Bahrain
Cyprus
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syrian Arab
Republic
Turkey
United Arab
Emirates
Yemen

East Asia
China
Hong Kong
Japan
Korea, D.P.R.
Korea, Republic
Macau
Mongolia


Tropical Oceania
American Samoa
Cook Islands
Fiji
French Polynesia
Guam
Kiribati
New Caledonia
Niue Island
Pacific Is. (Trust
Terr.)
Papua New Guinea
Samoa
Solomon Islands
Tonga
Vanuatu

Temperate Oceania
Australia
New Zealand


Northern Europe
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden

Western Europe
Austria
Belgium-Luxembourg
Denmark
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Liechtenstein
Malta
Netherlands
Portugal
Spain
Switzerland
United Kingdom

Estern Europe
Albania
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Czech Republic
Hungary
Poland
Macedonia
Romania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Yugoslavia,
Federal Republic

Former USSR
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Estonia
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Lithuania
Moldova, Republic of
Russian Federation
Tajikstan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan


North America
Canada
United States of
America


Central America and Mexico
Belize
Costa Rica
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama

Caribbean
Antigua and
Barbuda
Bahamas
Barbados
Bermuda
British Virgin
Islands
Cayman Islands
Cuba
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Haiti
Jamaica
Martinique
Montserrat
Netherlands
Antilles
Puerto Rico
Saint Kitts
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and
Miquelon
Saint
Vincent/Grenadine
Trinidad and
Tobago
US Virgin Islands

Tropical South America
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
French Guiana
Guyana
Paraguay
Peru
Suriname
Venezuela

Temperate South America
Argentina
Chile 
Uruguay



                                  ANNEX II.

               LIST OF FOREST-RELATED INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL

                         ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTRUMENTS


I.   INTERAGENCY TASK FORCE ON FORESTS (ITFF)

   1.  Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
   2.  International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)
   3.  Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
   4.  The World Bank (WB)
   5.  United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division
       for Sustainable Development (DESA/DSD)
   6.  United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
   7.  United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
   8.  United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

II.  INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS - UN SYSTEM
   
   1.   Global Environmental Facility (GEF)
   2.   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
   3.   International Labour Organization (ILO)
   4.   United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
   5.   United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
   6.   United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
   7.   United Nations University (UNU)
   8.   World Food Programme (WFP)
   9.   World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
   10. World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
   11. World Trade Organization (WTO)

III.  REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
   
A.     REGIONAL COMMISSIONS

   1.  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
   2.  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
   3.  Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)
   4.  Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)
   5.  Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)



III.B.  REGIONAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL BODIES

   1.  African Development Bank (AFDB)
   2.  Asian Development Bank (ASDB)
   3.  Central American Council of Forest and Protected Areas (CACF/PA)
   4.  European Forest Institute (EFI)
   5.  Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
   6.  Organization of American States (OAS)

IV.   OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND PROCESSES

   1.  International Centre for Research in Agro Forestry (ICRAF)
   2.  International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
   3.  International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO)
   4.  International Wood Products Association (IHPA)
   5.  Montreal Process
   6.  Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe
   7.  Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
   8.  The World Conservation Union (IUCN)
   9.  World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC)
   10. World Resources Institute (WRI)
   11 .WWF International (WWF)
   12. World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

                 ---------------------------------------------

                                   Annex III

         WORK CARRIED OUT BY INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
                   WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE IFF PROCESS

                          
I.  INFORMAL HIGH-LEVEL INTERAGENCY TASK FORCE ON FORESTS (ITFF)

Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

Mandate

Part of CGIAR.  Strategic and applied research in improved forest conservation,
productivity, and sustainable forest management.

Main forest-specific programmes

Improved understanding of physical,biological, economic and social aspects of
forest systems in tropical developing countries.  Sustainability in production
from forests through management, species selection/improvement, utilization,
marketing and policy.  Provision of information and advice to support policy
decisions.  Increase national forest research capacities.

I.a; II.d; I.b   

Web:www.cgiar.org.cifor

International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)

Mandate

Promote trade on tropical timber; implement ITTA; promote the conservation and
sustainable management of tropical forests with balance between conservation and
utilization; prevent deforestation in tropical forests.

Main forest-specific programmes

Economic information and market intelligence; Reforestation and forest development;
Forest industry. (Guidelines for sustainable forest management, plantations,
biodiversity; natural forest management; multiple-use of
hardwood forests; criteria and indicators; models for sustainable production of
wood and non-wood products; timber situation; policy development.)

I.a; I.b; II.b; III

Web: www.itto.or.jp

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

Mandate

The objectives of the Convention are the conservation of biological diversity,
the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the
benefits arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources, including by
approppriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate
transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those
resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding.

Main forest-related programmes 

Forest biological diversity, ecosystem approach, regulated acces to genetic
resources, conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity as an
integral part of sustainable forest management, the role of
traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant to biodiversity, use
and development of biodiversity indicators and targets.

I.a; I.b; II.d; III

Web:www.biodiv.org

The World Bank (WB)

Mandate

Lending for productive projects or finance reforms which will lead to economic
growth in developing countries. 

Main forest-related programmes 

Lending Programme (industrial forestry and social and environment forestry);
Free standing forestry projects; Social or rural development and environment
forestry programme; Watershed management/Land-use projects.

I.a ; II.a; II.d

Web: www.worldbank.org

United Nations, DESA, Division for Sustainable Development (DESA/DSD)

Mandate

Contribute to achieving sustainable development worldwide by facilitating
implementation of Agenda 21 and the Forest Principles. Closely related to the
mandate of the Commission on Sustainable Development
(CSD).

Main forest-specific programmes

Host the Secretariat of the IFF.  Carries out multiyear work programmes on
sustainable development indicators, freshwater management, international policy
dialogue on sustainable forest management, changing consumption and  production
patterns, and the transfer of environmentally sustainable technology.

I.a; I.b; II.a; II.e; III

Web: www.un.org/esa 

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

Mandate

Assist developing countries to accelerate their economic and social development
by providing systematic and sustained assistance geared to their development
objectives. Implementing agency for Global Environment Facility, leading United
Nations agency on capacity-building issues.

Main forest-related programmes 

Capacity-building programmes to implement sustainable forest management, national
forest programmes, environment, energy and natural resources programmes to
implement Agenda 21 through Capacity 21; funding mechanisms.

I.a; I.b; II.a

Web: www.undp.org

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

Mandate

Promote international cooperation in the field of the environment and sustainable
development; keep under review the state of the world environment; promote
acquisition, assessment and exchange of environmental
knowledge; formulate and implement environment programmes within the United
Nations.

Main forest-related programmes Contribution to global forest resources assessments; forest conservation and
protected areas, underlying causes of deforestation; needs of countries with low
forest cover; early warning for environmental emergencies affecting forest
critical areas; economic instruments to support sustainable
forest management and methodologies for assessing total value of forests. 
Synergies among environmental conventions and forest- related instruments.

I.a; I.b; II.b; II.d; III

Web: www.unep.org

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Mandate

Information on all aspects of forestry, primary forest products, technology and
forest statistics; capacity-building and technical assistance in forestry to
developing countries and countries in transition; resource management and
processing, promotion of the development of the sector to reconcile the interface
of social, protection and production factors.

Main forest-specific programmes 

Global forest resources:  assessment, sustainable management, plantations,
agroforestry, protection, conservation, genetic resources, wildlife, urban
forestry etc.  Coordinating function in national forest programmes; provides
financial support (e.g. TCP); and implement regular programmes on forests.

Forest policy, planning and institutions; statistics; community forestry; NGO
development; education, extension and promotion of national forest programmes;
international liaison and information.

Forest products:  harvesting, processing, utilization of wood and non-wood forest
products, marketing and trade.

Field programme:  identification, evaluation, preparation and implementation of
investment programmes and projects.

I.a; I.b; II.c; II.d

Web: www.fao.org

II.  INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS - UN SYSTEM

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Mandate

Help developing countries protect the global environment by providing grants and
concessional funding to meet incremental costs for activities addressing global
warming, biodiversity, international waters and ozone depletion.

Main forest-related programmes 

Biodiversity:  forest ecosystems (development, strengthening and establishment
of sustainable use methods in forestry, wildlife and biodiversity conservation).

Climate change:  rural renewal energy, biofuel activities, carbon sink
enhancement, restoration, prevention and reduction of land degradation.

I.a; II.a

Web: www.gefweb.org

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (WMO-UNEP)

Mandate 

Periodical assessment of the scientific and technical information related to the
impact of climate change and strategies for response.

Main forest-related programmes 

Improvement of forestry and agriculture, potential for increasing energy
efficiency, cleaner energy sources and technology.

Forestry options:  slowing current deforestation and forest degradation,
increasing forest biomass, improving use of wood, afforestation.

I.b; II.d

Web: www.ipcc.ch

International Labour Organization (ILO)

Mandate

Improve work and living standards throughout the world; social and labour aspects
of forestry.

Main forest-related programmes 

FAO/ECE/ILO Joint Committee on Forest Technology, Management and Training.

Technical cooperation, training, employment and management development,
conditions of work and working environment, industrial relations.

II.c; II.d

Web: www.ilo.org

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Mandate

Facilitation and promotion of restructuring of traditional patterns of
international trade in order to enable developing countries
to participate in world commerce.

Main forest-related programmes 

Integrated Programme for Commodities (tropical timber, forest product trade).

II.b

Web: www.unicc.org/unctad

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Mandate

Contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among nations through
education, science and culture.

Main forest-related programmes 

Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB/UNESCO) and the World Network of
Biosphere Reserves (conservation of genetic resources, ecosystems and biodiversity;
research; training and monitoring network; association of conservation with
sustainable land resources development). World Heritage
convention and World Heritage Sites in forested areas (forest conservation). 
International Hydrological Programme (water-forest interactions).

I.a; II.d


Web: www.unesco.org

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Mandate

Raise living standards through the promotion of industrial development.

Main forest-related programmes 

Promotes and develops secondary wood processing industries and is responsible for
dealing with issues in established mill operations.  Involved in non-wood pulp
industries, phyto-chemicals/phytopharmaceuticals, aroma chemicals and essential
oils.  Global source of industrial information.

II.a; II.c

Web: www.unido.org

United Nations University (UNU)

Mandate

Strengthen the capacities of  institutions of higher learning, particularly in
developing countries to carry out high-quality research and education.  Promote
academic exchange among  developing and developed countries
through networking. Create new centres of excellence in areas of importance to
national development programmes.

Main forest-related programmes 

In its environment area implement projects related to people, land management and
environmental change, mountain ecology, south-south cooperation. In advances
studies is working on the relations between world
forests, society and the environment, including trends in world forest sector and
related environmental, economic and policy issues.  Research on traditional
knowledge.  

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.unu.edu 

World Food Programme (WFP)

Mandate

Save lives in emergency situations; improve nutrition and quality of life of the
most vulnerable people at critical times; and help build assets and promote
self-reliance of poor people and communities.

Main forest-related programmes 

Forestry "food for work" projects involving forest protection committees,
nursery, reforestation, forest infrastructures
development.

Rural development, transport activities, human resources development, social,
land reclamation, irrigation, road-building.

I.b; II.d

Web: www.wfp.org

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Mandate

Protection of intellectual property and administration of various multilateral
treaties dealing with the legal and administrative aspects of intellectual
property.

Main forest-related programmes 

Relate to traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) issues. Encourages the
conclusion of new international treaties and the modernization of  national
legislations; assembles and disseminates information; it maintains services for
facilitating the obtaining of protection. Promote creative intellectual activity. 
Assistance to developing countries regarding  the notification and collection of
the intellectual property laws and regulations of WTO Members.

II.d; III

Web: www.wipo.org/eng

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

Mandate

Facilitate international cooperation in the collection, analysis, standardization
and dissemination of meteorological, hydrological and other related environmental
information.

Main forest-related programmes Forest-related work attached to agricultural meteorology within world climate
programme; promoting economically viable and high quality production by
strengthening indigenous capabilities to provide services to forest sector;
contributing to a better understanding by forest sector of the value and use of
meteorologicla/climatological information in planning and operational
activities.

I.a;  II.d

Web: www.wmo.org

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Mandate

Facilitate and liberalize international trade and place it on a secure basis;
supervise the settlement of commercial conflicts; recognize the need to protect
the environment and promote sustainable development.

Main forest-related programmes 

Committee on Trade and Environment:  explore link between trade and environmental
policies (compatibility between environmental protection measures and WTO rights
and obligations).

II.b; III

Web: www.wto.org

III.  REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    A: REGIONAL COMMISSIONS

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

Mandate

Regional arm of the United Nations in Asia-Pacific region. Contribute to further
the economic and social development of the Asia-Pacific region.

Main forest-related programmes 

Integrate sustainable development principles into policy planning and management
from the outset; improve legal and regulatory frameworks; make effective use of
market-based and economic instruments; establish systems of integrated and
economic accounting 

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.unescap.org

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)

Mandate

Regional arm of the United Nations in West Asia. Contribute to further the
economic and social development of the West Asian region.

Main forest-related programmes 

Although not directly related to forest, work include enhancing the sustainable
development of ESCWA member States, highlighting the linkages among the economic,
social, cultural, technological and environmental dimensions of development.
Subprogramme on management of natural resources include activities on energy,
water and the environment.

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.escwa.org.lb

Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)

Mandate

Regional arm of the United Nations in Africa. Encourages the growth of the
economic and social sectors on the continent; provides intellectual leadership
and technical support to African countries; and provide technical assistance.
Priority policy goal is poverty alleviation.

Main forest-related programmes  

Relate to forest in  analysing economic and development issues, as a policy
centre with a broad purview, and advocating in conjunction with  policy-makers
in Africa and abroad. Activities performed by various Divisions of ECA, who
conduct research resulting in technical publications and field projects.
Activities include soil erosion and destruction of land resources; integrated
water resource management, poverty, food security and environment linkages.

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.un.org/depts/eca

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)

Mandate

Regional arm of the United Nations in Europe. Generate and improve economic
relations among its members and with other countries and to
strengthen intergovernmental cooperation.

Main forest-related programmes 

Sustainable forest management in the region, support pan-European process on the
protection of forests; information on trends in the forest sector; temperate and
boreal forest resource assessment 2000; outlook for the supply and demand for
timber and non-wood good and services; review of markets for forest products.

I.a; I.b; II.b; II.d

Web: www.unece.org

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

Mandate

Regional arm of the United Nations in Latin America and the Caribbean. Facilitate
concerted action for dealing with urgent economic problems; for raising the level
of economic activity in the region; and for maintaining economic relations of the
region.

Main forest-related programmes 

Forest-related work on economic instruments to support environmental management,
watershed management, role of fiscal and other incentives in planted forests,
paper industry, compatibility of the international trade regime and the
international environmental regime.

I.a; II.b; II.d

Web: www.eclac.cl

III.  B: REGIONAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL BODIES

African Development Bank (AFDB)

Mandate

Contribute to the economic development and social progress of its members -
individually and jointly.

Main forest-related programmes 

Financial and technical assistance, and capacity building in support to  national
forest programmes, fragile ecosystems, forest conservation, underlying causes of
deforestation, and supply and demand of forest products. 

I.a; II.a; II.b; II.d

Web: www.afrobank.org

Asian Development Bank (ASDB)

Mandate

To assist the economic and social advancement of developing member countries.

Main forest-related programmes 

Financial and technical assistance, capacity building, policy analysis, training
in national forest programmes, fragile ecosystems, forest conservation,
traditional knowledge, valuation, economic instruments, transfer of
environmentally sound technologies, and forest investments.

I.a; I.b; II.a; II.b; II.d

Web:www.asiandevbank.org

Central American Council of Forest and Protected Areas (CACF/PA)

Mandate

Implementation of policies to the sustainable use of forest resources in Central
America.

Main forest-specific programmes 

Negotiate funding from international donors, promote sustainable forestry and
biodiversity conservation, implement timber concessions policies and guidelines,
design and foster analytical forest legislation in the subregion. Financial and
technical assistance in forest conservation and protected areas, traditional
knowledge, underlying causes of deforestation, criteria and indicators for forest
sustainability; forest invesment, and data collection.

I.a; I.b; II.a; II.d

Web: www.ccad.org.gt

European Forest Institute (EFI)

Mandate

To conduct problem-oriented and multi-disciplinary forest research at the
European level in order to serve the needs of policy-making and decision-making
bodies in Europe. 

Main forest-specific programmes 

Forest-specific research programmes in four priority areas including forest
ecology and management; forest products, markets and socio-economics; policy
analysis; and forest resources and information.

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.efi.joensuu.fi

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

Mandate

To contribute to the economic and social development of the regional developing
member countries.

Main forest-related programmes 

Financial and technical assistance, capacity building, policy analyis and
training in national forest programmes, fragile ecosystems, polluted areas,
forest conservation, traditional knowledge, land tenure, and forest investments
mainly in forest industrial plantations and commercial forets management.

I.a; II.a; II.b; II.d

Web: www.iadb.org 

Organization of American States (OAS)

Mandate

To facilitate peace and justice among the American nations, promote their
solidarity, strengthen their collaboration, and defend their sovereignity,
territorial integrity, and independence.

Main forest-related programmes 

Technical cooperation projects relating to forests, including the integrated
development of water resources, especially international river basins;
sustainable development of border areas; biodiversity and conservation;
environmental management in emerging trade corridors.

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web:www.oas.org

IV.   OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND PROCESSES

International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)

Mandate

Part of CGIAR.  Mitigate tropical deforestation, land depletion and rural
poverty through improved agroforestry systems.

Main forest-specific programmes 

Strategic and applied research in partnership with national institutions to
develop appropriate agroforestry technologies and strengthen national capacities
through training and information dissemination.  Focused on Africa, Latin America
and Asia.

I.a; I.b; II.c; II.d

Web: www.cgiar.org/icraf

International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)

Mandate

Promotes sustainable patterns of world development through collaborative
research, policy studies, consensus building and public.

Main forest-related programmes 

Forest policy and national policy processes; sustainability of pulp and paper
industries; continuous improvement towards sustainable forest management (SFM),
and the development of capacity amongst varied stakeholders; collaborative
research/training; developing assessment tools and systems that provide
sustainability information to policy-makers and planners; facilitating policy
improvement; defining roles and building capacity; creating incentives for
sustainable forestry and land use.

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.iied.org

International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO)

Mandate 

Promote research in forestry through a communicatios and collaboration network
of 15,000 scientists and 700 research institutions.

Main forest-specific programmes 

Meetings and exchange of information all related to scientific aspects of
forestry.  Promotes assistance to tropical research agencies.  Identifies future
needs and directions of forestry research.  Special Programme for Developing
Countries located in Vienna, which gives support to scientists to enable them to
participate in 250 networks.

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.iufro.boku.ac.at

International Wood Products Association (IHPA)

Mandate

To advance responsible forest management and international trade in wood products
through leadership  in business, environmental  and governmental affairs.
Represent companies that handle imported wood products.

Main forest-specific programmes 

Trade and environment relating to forest products and services.

II.b; II.c

web: www.ihpa.org

Montreal Process

Mandate

International dialogue on criteria and indicators for the conservation and
sustainable management of temperate and boreal forests.

Main forest-specific programmes 

Development and endorsement of the non-legally binding criteria and indicators
by 10 developing and developed countries in the northern and southern
hemispheres; implementation at the national level.

I.a; I.b

Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (including the
Helsinki Process)

Mandate

Cooperation of all countries in the protection and sustainable management of
forests in Europe; recommendations and themes to be further developed by
international organizations and their subsidiary bodies;
process to serve as reference for other forums.

Main forest-specific programmes 

Monitoring forest ecosystems; genetic resources; forest fires; mountain forests;
research network on physiology and forest ecosystems;

Guidelines for sustainable forest management, conservation of biodiversity,
adaptation to climate change; Helsinki Process; cooperation with countries in
transition; criteria and indicators for the sustainable management of forests in
Europe.

I.a; I.b; II.d

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Mandate

To promote policies designed to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth
and employment, and to contribute to world-wide economic expansion and the
expansion of world trade on a non-discriminatory basis.

Main forest-related programmes 

Forest-related activities in environmental performance, statistics and
indicators; ODA flows to the forestry sector; control of forest reproductive
material moving in international trade; genetically engineered crop plants and
tree species; and agriculture and forestry.

I.a; I.b; II.a; II.b; II.d

Web: www.oecd.org

The World Conservation Union (IUCN)

Mandate

To influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the
integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources
is equitable and ecologically sustainable. Advises and assists governments,
organisations and local communities in devising conservation strategies and in
their implementation.

Main forest-related programmes 

Forest related activities includes forest conservation programme, valuation,
biodiversity and protected areas. Policy and information work in partnership with
WWF. Technical assistance, capacity building and policy analysis in national
forest programmes, fragile ecosystems, mountain areas, criteria and indicators,
economic instruments, land tenure and legal aspects of forests.

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.iucn.org

World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC)

Mandate

Provides information services on conservation  and sustainable use of the world's
living resources, and helps others to develop information systems of their own.

Main forest-related programmes 

Guidance to international, regional and national policy and  action on the
conservation and sustainable management of forests and their biodiversity through
the provision of integrated, timely and accessible information.  Habitat coverage
and protected areas databases, data management and capacity building.

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.wcmc.org.uk

World Resources Institute (WRI)

Mandate 

Policy research and technical assistance on global environmental and development
issues. 

Main forest-related programmes 

Conservation of forest resources throughout the world; promote stewardship in and
around the world's last major frontier forests by influencing investment, policy,
and public opinion; full economic potential of forests; networking policy-makers,
activists, investors,  and researchers to promote policy reform; actions to
minimize the negative impacts of forest-clearing for agriculture, and illegal
logging.  

I.a; I.b; II.d

Web: www.wri.org

WWF International (WWF)

Mandate

Leads worldwide international efforts to protect the world's threatened wildlife
and the habitats they need to survive.

Main forest-related programmes 

Implement forest-related actions to tackle conservation emergencies such as the
need to save a highly endangered species or habitat or to acquire valuable land
for a park or protected area; create and preserve protected areas; build
conservation capacity; and designs funding mechanisms for conservation.

I.a; I.b; II.a; II.d

Web: www.wwf.org

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

Mandate

To develop closer co-operation between business,  government and all other
organizations concerned with the environment and sustainable development, and
encouraging high standards of environmental management in business itself. 

Main forest-related programmes  Forest related activities include advocacy on
issues connected with environment and sustainable development; forest policy
development in order to create a framework that allows business to contribute
effectively to sustainable forest management; forest resource management in
business and best practices.

I.a; II.b; II.c; II.d

Web: www.wbcsd.ch

 


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Date last posted: 5 December 1999 15:45:34
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD