United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


Commission on Sustainable Development           Background Paper No. 4
Sixth Session
2- April - 1 May 1998


                          RESPONSIBLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

                  United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 1/

(1/  This paper was prepared by the United Nations Environment
Programme - Industry and Environment, Tour Mirabeau, 39-43 quai Andre
Citroen, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France.  Telephone: (33-01) 4437-1450; 
Facsimile:  (33-01) 4437-1474.  E-mail: unepie@unep.fr .  Homepage:
http://www.unepie.org)


                                   I.     INTRODUCTION

1.     In 1997, Mr Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the UN stated during
an address in India: 

       -...the overall message is clear: nationally and
       internationally, the key to growth is with the private
       sector.  The role of government is increasingly shifting to
       one in which its primary task is to create an enabling
       environment for individual energies and initiatives to
       flourish.  This partnership between the public and private
       sector is now the key to development and prosperity."

2.     This increasingly central role of the private sector calls for
companies to manage their operations in a manner which will enhance
economic growth, ensure environmental protection, and promote social
justice.  This is what is now meant by ■responsible entrepreneurship■,
a concept which has evolved considerably since originally put forward
in 1992 in Chapter 30 of Agenda 21. 

3.     Responsible entrepreneurship is therefore a business strategy to
achieve sustainable development.  It is a strategy which companies
themselves and their industry associations will need to further
develop and implement.  Other stakeholders - in particular NGOs and
labour which have presented their views in other papers on responsible
entrepreneurship - have a critical role to play in fostering the
evolution of responsible entrepreneurship.

4.     Governments have a crucial role to play in setting long-term
goals for sustainable development and the corresponding clear
objectives and targets that companies must meet.  These should lead
companies not only to abide by laws and regulations to protect human
health and the environment, but also to innovate and take a proactive
approach, and work in partnership to achieve sustainability
objectives.

5.     This paper discusses:

       (a)    responsible entrepreneurship in practice: progress and gaps;
       (b)    responsible entrepreneurship: an evolving concept;
       (c)    the role of industry associations in fostering responsible
              entrepreneurship;
       (d)    the role of governments in fostering responsible
              entrepreneurship; and,
       (e)    the role of international organizations in fostering
              responsible entrepreneurship.


    II.     RESPONSIBLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP SINCE RIO: PROGRESS AND GAPS

6.     Responsible entrepreneurship is a concept in evolution.  This is
in part a result of the changing ethics and values of society.  It is
also because countries do not share the same situations or cultures -
what is seen to be relevant in one context may not be in another.  It
is also in part due to different stakeholder perspectives of the key
issues and their responses.  These differences in emphasis can be
brought together to obtain common ground, but they could also lead to
conflicting goals if not effectively understood.  

7.     It is thus helpful to review what responsible entrepreneurship
meant in 1992 when governments adopted Agenda 21 and to evaluate the
current situation.  This will help to obtain a clearer understanding
of the concept in practice in order to determine the policy
implications for governments.  

         A.     Responsible Entrepreneurship in Agenda 21

8.     Chapter 30 "Strengthening the Role of Business and Industry"
states that: 

       "Responsible entrepreneurship can play a major role in
       improving the efficiency of resource use, reducing risks and
       hazards, minimizing wastes and safeguarding environmental
       qualities."

9.     The objectives of the "promoting responsible entrepreneurship"
section of Chapter 30 of Agenda 21 were to encourage the concept of
stewardship in the management and utilization of natural resources by
entrepreneurs, and to increase the number of entrepreneurs engaged in
enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development
policies.  

10.    There are a number of activities listed in Chapter 30 of Agenda
21 that business and industry, including transnational corporations,
were encouraged to undertake to promote responsible entrepreneurship: 

       (a)    establish world-wide corporate polices on sustainable
              development; 
       (b)    arrange for environmentally sound technology transfer;  
       (c)    establish partnership schemes with small- and medium-sized
              enterprises;
       (d)    establish national councils for sustainable development;
       (e)    increase research and development of environmentally sound
              technologies and environmental management systems;
       (f)    ensure responsible and ethical management of products and
              processes from the point of view of health, safety and
              environmental aspects;  
       (g)    increase self-regulation, guided by appropriate codes,
              charters and initiatives integrated into all elements of
              business planning and decision-making; and,
       (h)    foster openness and dialogue with employees and the public.

11.    Governments were called upon to:

       (a)    encourage the establishment and operations of sustainably
              managed enterprises through a mix of regulatory measures,
              economic incentives, advice and assistance with information,
              infrastructural support and stewardship responsibilities;  
       (b)    encourage the establishment of venture capital funds for
              sustainable development projects and programmes;
       (c)    support training in the environmental aspects of enterprise
              management. 

12.    UN agencies, international organizations, multi lateral and
bilateral financial aid institutions were called upon to: 

       (a)    improve mechanisms to ensure that the environmental aspects
              are strengthened in foreign investment;
       (b)    increase support for research and development on improving
              the technological and management requirements for
              sustainable development, in particular for small- and
              medium-scale entrepreneurs (SMEs) in developing countries;
       (c)    encourage and support SMEs engaged in sustainable
              development activities.

                    B.     Responsible Entrepreneurship in Practice:
                            noteworthy progress and notable gaps

13.    When looking back at these targets set out in 1992, it is clear
that considerable progress has been made by business and governments
in moving towards responsible entrepreneurship as defined in Chapter
30 of Agenda 21.  However, notable gaps remain.  In addition, new
responsible entrepreneurship challenges have emerged since Agenda 21
was adopted in 1992.  


                               1.   Business and Industry

14.    An increasing number of multinational corporations have now
established corporate environmental policies, in particular as this is
a basic requirement of environmental management systems (EMS) such as
ISO 14001.  The implementation of EMS has also driven "supply chain
management" where larger companies work more closely with their
suppliers - often SMEs - to reach common environmental objectives.  In
addition, approaches such as cleaner production and eco-efficiency
have begun to lead to the development of clean technologies and a
preventative approach to improve resource productivity.

15.    However:

       (a)    while improved environmental management practices might be
              applied by multinationals operating in OECD countries, it is
              not always the case when the same multinationals operate in
              developing countries.  
       (b)    a growing number of multinationals based in rapidly growing
              economies are operating in other developing countries
              without taking environmental requirements into account.
       (c)    in many parts of the world, EMS remains to be implemented,
              in particular by SMEs, and new environmental management
              tools - such as environmental accounting - still need to be
              further developed.  Many 'environmentally sound'
              technologies are end-of-pipe - they treat an environmental
              problem after it has occurred rather than preventing it from
              occurring, and outdated technologies continue to be widely
              exported.  
       (d)    while policies and strategies developed by business and
              industry have made notable progress in addressing the
              environmental dimension of sustainability, the social
              dimension is just beginning to be addressed by most
              companies. Sustainability demands, among other things,
              social justice, the alleviation of poverty, the provision of
              meaningful employment, the observance of human rights, the
              empowerment of diverse groups, and due regard for animal
              welfare.

16.    A number of "green business networks" have emerged which bring
together companies and other organizations to achieve tasks that go
beyond the resources of their individual members.  The Global
Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI), the Prince of Wales
Business Leaders Forum (PWBLF), the World Business Council for
Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and its regional affiliates, the
International Network for Environmental Management (INEM), the Natural
Step, the Social Venture Network (SVN), and many others are such
examples.  Other academic and/or research institutes are also working
with business and industry to further develop corporate sustainable
development tools and strategies.  These include the Coalition for
Environmental Responsible Economies (CERES), the International
Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), the International
Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), the World Resources
Institute (WRI), the Wu"ppertal Institute, the Greening of Industry
Network, and many others.   

17.    However, though most of these networks try to actively involve
partners from developing countries, developing country representation
remains limited.  In addition, these networks include a limited number
of companies.  SMEs and other sectors - such as the service industry,
consulting or construction - are not usually involved in such
networks. 

18.    Voluntary codes of conduct - developed by industry for industry -
have been developed by a number of business organizations and industry
associations around the world.  These codes of conduct can be an
important tool to foster changes in business management and encourage
openness and dialogue with stakeholders.  

19.    However:

       (a)    many codes of conduct often remain just words on paper as
              effective and transparent monitoring and follow-up
              programmes to measure results are not always developed.  The
              implementation of such codes by business and industry can
              also be hindered by obstacles such as lack of training and
              adequate information.  The few codes of conduct which are
              supported by successful monitoring programmes are hampered
              by the ■free-riders■ in the industry sector.  
       (b)    a number of important business and industry sectors - such
              as petroleum, construction and consulting - have not yet
              developed a sectoral code of conduct.  In addition, many
              voluntary codes of conduct currently developed by industry
              associations focus on the environmental aspects of
              sustainable development and do not pay expressed attention
              to social issues.  
       (c)    while a notable few among the commercial banking, investment
              and insurance sector have made strides in promoting more
              sustainable practices - in part spearheaded by the UNEP
              Banking and Insurance Codes of Conduct - much needs to be
              done to shift from traditional investments to cleaner
              production investments.

20.    As responsibility must go hand-in-hand with accountability, an
increasing number of companies, in particular multinationals, are now
voluntarily disclosing information on their environmental activities
and emissions data through a company environmental report (CER).  The
growing quantity and quality of corporate environmental reports, and
the increasing trend to have CERs externally verified is encouraging.
Some companies now seek NGO input in their attempts to communicate
complex issues to an often diverse public. 

21.    However:

       (a)    corporate environmental reporting is certainly not a wide-
              spread practice.  In addition, many corporations who do
              prepare CERs - notably from Europe or North America - do not
              report on their operations in developing countries.  
       (b)    more standardized reporting to facilitate comparison between
              companies in the same sector and to measure effective
              progress is necessary.  Performance indicators need to be
              developed from which to measure the environmental
              performance and sustainability of business and industry.  

                                    2.   Governments

22.    There is increasing experience in developed country governments
in designing policy instruments which include a broader mix of
regulatory and non-regulatory measures to encourage responsible
entrepreneurship. 

23.    However:

       (a)    a number of governments still focus primarily on strict
              regulatory approaches.  This command-and control approach
              can bring important environmental and health improvements,
              however emission standards with short term objectives also
              tend to encourage end-of-pipe controls rather than eco-
              innovation.  As a complement to (not a replacement of)
              command-and control regulations, new approaches to bring
              about greater flexibility in implementing environmental
              policy are needed.  These approaches can encourage industry
              to innovate their technologies, services and management
              approaches while meeting sustainable development
              requirements.  
       (b)    only a few governments have promoted the development of
              voluntary initiatives.
       (c)    other experiences, in particular in the Netherlands, include
              "covenants", agreements negotiated with industry sectors
              which set quantified targets and time frames.  
       (d)    additional support is urgently required for SMEs which
              contribute significantly to the economic fabric of virtually
              all countries.  Venture capital funds for sustainable
              development projects and programmes, specifically called for
              in Chapter 30 or Agenda 21, have not been developed to any
              notable degree.  

24.    There is also a marked if gradual shift from a confrontational to
a more collaborative relationship with government and the private
sector.  National consultations and regional roundtables which bring
together diverse stakeholders are increasingly taking place.  The
goals of such roundtables are broadly speaking, to improve dialogue,
build consensus on sustainable development goals, and identify
appropriate solutions.  Effective partnerships are also developed at
the international level.  For example, the European Partners for the
Environment (EPE) aims to foster social dialogue and brings together
public authorities (including UN agencies), environmental citizens
organizations, business and industry, trade unions, and consumer and
professional organizations.   UNEP and the International Chamber of
Commerce (ICC) have also held a series of high-level consultations
between Environment Ministers, Chief Executive Officers and Non-
Governmental Organizations.  These panel meetings are designed to
discuss the implications of international environmental priorities for
business and industry, and to build consensus on implementation
activities and partnerships. 

25.    However, such "partnerships" are not always easy.  They require
openness and respect, trust and confidence building, and a willingness
to listen and to change. 

               3.   UN agencies, international organizations, multilateral
                        and bilateral financial aid institutions

26.    United Nations agencies and international organizations are
increasingly developing support programmes to assist business and
industry, in particular SMEs, to put responsible entrepreneurship into
practice.  UNEP, UNIDO, UNCTAD and others, have developed practical
and easy-to-use materials, and encourage information exchange, to
facilitate the adoption of cleaner, eco-efficient technologies and
management tools.  Some multi-lateral institutions have begun to
integrate environmental criteria into conditions of loans, and further
action should be taken to develop criteria for this purpose. 

27.    However, much remains to be done to ensure that environmental
aspects are strengthened in foreign investment.  In particular,
concerted action is required to ensure that sustainable development is
clearly recognized in the Multilateral Agreement on Investment
currently being negotiated by OECD nations.  


               III.     RESPONSIBLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: AN EVOLVING CONCEPT

28.    The concept of responsible entrepreneurship has evolved since
Agenda 21 was adopted in 1992 and will certainly continue to evolve
over time to meet the changing expectations, needs and demands of
society.  In 1992, as seen in Chapter 30 of Agenda 21, responsible
entrepreneurship focused on the environmental aspects of business
operations.  It is now increasingly taking into account social
considerations.  Likewise, the focus of "who" should implement
responsible entrepreneurship has expanded.  Since 1992, most external
pressure for responsible entrepreneurship has been directed at
multinational companies usually from OECD countries.  More recently
however, SMEs from developed countries and multinationals from rapidly
industrializing countries are increasingly expected to incorporate
responsible entrepreneurship principles into their business
operations.  

29.    The UNEP Industry and Environment office has held regular
consultations with industry and industry associations on their
implementation of Agenda 21 and has twice surveyed industry
interpretations and applications of Chapter 30 of Agenda 21.  UNEP IE
has also developed a framework for the development, use and monitoring
of voluntary codes of conduct, and regularly reports on progress in
environmental reporting.  On this basis, UNEP has identified the
following three broad stages in the practical implementation of
responsible entrepreneurship by business and industry. 

 A. 3 Broad Stages of Responsible Entrepreneurship for Business and Industry

30.    The following stages of responsible entrepreneurship are meant to
demonstrate the ■continual improvement■ process within business and
industry in moving toward responsible entrepreneurship and ultimately
sustainable development.  They are not intended to be exhaustive but
are outlined to generate interest and dialogue.

Stage 1: compliance to national law
       (a)    compliance to national environmental, health and safety
              standards and regulations
       (b)    public disclosure, when required, of regulated emissions
       (c)    adoption of voluntary charters or codes of conduct promoted
              by industry associations but with little
              monitoring/reporting of implementation
       (d)    environmental issues seen as an expense rather than an
              opportunity
       (e)    ad-hoc reaction to environmental accidents and risks
       (f)    social considerations not recognized
       (g)    active lobbying to avoid any new regulation

Stage 2: compliance and cleaner production/eco-efficiency
       (a)    proactive approach to sustainable development typically
              demonstrated through activities which are economically
              viable (eco-efficiency)
       (b)    setting of quantified objectives and targets for
              environmental performance, usually set within the continual
              improvement framework of an environmental management system
       (c)    monitoring and reporting of implementation of voluntary
              codes of conduct by industry associations
       (d)    operating standards similar in all parts of the world
       (e)    begin to work with suppliers to improve environmental
              performance (supply chain management)
       (f)    publication of environmental reports with quantified data,
              limited reporting on social issues
       (g)    openness to dialogue with governments and NGOs

Stage 3: compliance, cleaner production/eco-efficiency, and strategic
redefinition of business
       (a)    redefinition of company strategies and policies to include
              the "triple bottom line" of sustainable development -
              economic prosperity, environmental quality and social
              equity. This is applied in all divisions of the company
              (marketing, purchasing, product design, advertising...), and
              in all operations worldwide
       (b)    corresponding redesign of process, products and services to
              integrate the "triple bottom line"
       (c)    active partners in the development/implementation of
              international agreements/conventions 
       (d)    full recognition of the "public right to know" and
              "precautionary principle"
       (e)    development of sustainability indicators, in consultation
              with stakeholders, used for bench marking performance
              (environmental, economic and social) within and between
              industry sectors
       (f)    sustainable development reporting including reporting
              against global operating standards
       (g)    social audits
       (h)    transparency, openness, and active contribution to unbiased
              dialogue with all stakeholders

31.    Clearly, responsible entrepreneurship is a long-term challenge
for companies.  The few companies that have started to progress though
these broad stages of responsible entrepreneurship should be
congratulated, encouraged and supported.  What is also of primary
importance is that more companies, of all sizes, in all countries
start to operate responsibility and begin to develop or revise their
business to integrate the "triple bottom line" of sustainable
development.

                        B.     The Role of Industry Associations

32.    As the concept of responsible entrepreneurship evolves with time
and poses increasing challenges for companies, the role of industry
associations must evolve as well.  Some industry associations have
begun to make the transition from reactive - driven by the slowest
members and active defensive lobbying - to proactively servicing the
sustainable development needs of their members.

33.    The key roles for industry associations in this transition are
to:

       (a)    develop substantive voluntary codes of conduct and build the
              commitment of the membership to the voluntary code of
              conduct;
       (b)    provide guidance, support and training to assist members in
              implementing the voluntary code of conduct and to translate
              responsible entrepreneurship into action;
       (c)    monitor results and facilitate bench marking between
              members;
       (d)    publish regular consolidated reports on the environmental
              performance of the industry sector;
       (e)    track members so as to reduce ■free riders■;
       (f)    facilitate dialogue with stakeholders, including the public. 
              

     IV.     RESPONSIBLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS

             A.     The Benefits of Responsible Entrepreneurship

34.    Governments stand to gain enormously from the potential of
responsible entrepreneurship.  The benefits for government include:

       (a)    maximizing industry■s innovative capacity to respond to
              sustainable development challenges that lie beyond the scope
              of traditional regulations;
       (b)    enabling governments to focus inspectorate and enforcement
              resources on "free-riders" or companies which do not take
              voluntary commitments seriously;
       (c)    catalyzing synergies resulting from dialogue between various
              partners to improve the cost efficiency of environmental
              measures;
       (d)    channeling growing public interest in ways that encourage
              responsible entrepreneurship and motivate poor performers;
       (e)    gaining experience with new collaborative relationships with
              industry and public needed to meet current and future
              sustainable development challenges.

35.    To capitalize on these benefits however, governments need to be
prepared to take measures to set the appropriate enabling framework
and to minimize the drawbacks of responsible entrepreneurship which
can include "free-riders", "green-washing" and others. 

                B.     Creating a Conducive Environment

36.    Governments have a key role to play in creating a conducive
environment to foster responsible entrepreneurship in industry. 
Corresponding actions include:

       (a)    setting clear goals and objectives based on societal
              consensus;
       (b)    defining the appropriate combination of regulation, economic
              instruments and institutional measures that will promote
              industry responsibility, and give adequate market signals to
              promote the internalization of externalities;
       (c)    developing a dialogue with industry to facilitate the
              development of voluntary initiatives and programmes to reach
              set objectives.  Such initiatives can take many forms,
              starting with unilateral commitment from a company or an
              industry sector to reach targets beyond regulatory
              requirements, or ■covenants■ negotiated between industry
              sectors and governments or local authorities.  Such
              negotiated agreements, which specify quantified goals and
              time frames, are usually supported by regulations and
              economic incentives to facilitate implementation.  Some
              covenants between industry and non-governmental
              organizations, with the government acting as the
              facilitator, have also been undertaken.;
       (d)    developing various support programmes in particular for
              SMEs.  Innovative investment vehicles, such as venture
              capital funds and social funds should be encouraged.  Public
              awareness campaigns and increasing the use of information
              and communication technology and tools would facilitate the
              exchange of experience.  Reward schemes for responsible
              entrepreneurs would also facilitate a change in behaviour of
              industry managers;
       (e)    developing credible monitoring systems to measure and
              demonstrate actual results, to ensure that the goals and
              objectives are met.  In partnership with business and
              industry, and international organizations, governments
              should promote the development of performance indicators to
              facilitate the quantification and comparison of companies
              environmental performance.  A similar activity should be
              undertaken to develop criteria to ensure transparency,
              credibility and comparability of company environmental
              reporting, preferably on a sector by sector basis;
       (f)    encouraging competent bodies to make the disclosure of
              environmental performance a requirement for being listed on
              national stock exchanges.

              C.     Governments as Consumers and Investors

37.    Governments can stimulate the market for more environmentally
sound products and services by:

       (a)    taking sustainability factors into account in purchasing
              policies;
       (b)    implementing environmental management systems in their own
              operations;
       (c)    ensuring that home based companies invest in 'sustainable
              activities' in foreign countries; 
       (d)    ensuring that publicly owned companies also implement the
              principles of responsible entrepreneurship.  


              V.     THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

38.    Responsible entrepreneurship is above all a global need in
particular in an increasingly globalized economy.  The UN provides an
impartial platform for developing a common understanding of various
aspects of responsible entrepreneurship.  Differences in regional
situations and priorities also need to be taken into account if
responsible entrepreneurship is not to become marginalized in times of
regional or economic difficulty.  

39.    The adoption, under UN auspices, of an 'International Declaration
on Cleaner Production■ could be a useful tool to promote responsible
entrepreneurship.  Signatories would thereby voluntarily commit
themselves to:

       (a)    making the preventative strategy of cleaner production their
              preferred option;
       (b)    integrating preventative strategies into all relevant units
              of their organization;
       (c)    developing cleaner production action plans and programmes as
              a key element of commitment to continuous improvement;
       (d)    openly sharing experiences;
       (e)    setting clear, quantifiable targets and time frames and
              monitor and report annually on progress.  

40.    UNEP will develop a self-assessment guide that converts the
principles into measurable objectives and will collect and disseminate
the successes and difficulties in implementing the International
Declaration on Cleaner Production in a databank.

41.    UN organizations also provide an impartial forum for assessing
and disseminating best practice in responsible entrepreneurship, in
cooperation with industry, governments and nongovernmental
organizations from all over the world.  Relevant UN organizations,
with appropriate partners, should then strengthen their focus on the
following activities:

       (a)    monitoring the use of and results achieved by voluntary
              initiatives, including negotiated environmental agreements; 
       (b)    further developing corporate sustainability reporting as a
              key environmental management tool in particular focusing on
              reliability and comparability;
       (c)    preparing guidelines of the fundamentals of responsible
              entrepreneurship, in particular on an industry sector basis
              and disseminate corresponding best practice case studies;
       (d)    increasing technical assistance and training activities to
              translate guidelines into practice and multiply best
              practices globally;
       (e)    further developing indicators of corporate
              environmental/social performance, ensuring the link is made
              between public policy indicators being developed at the
              international and national levels and corporate micro
              indicators.  


                          VI.     CONCLUSIONS

42.    While noticeable progress has been made in the development of
"responsible entrepreneurship" as a business strategy, much remains to
be done.  Companies that have taken the lead should be acknowledged
for doing so, and the experience and lessons learned should be widely
disseminated.  

43.    The focus now should, building on steps taken by a number of
industry leaders, be put on those companies who have not taken any
steps at all to integrate responsible entrepreneurship into their
daily business practice.  SMEs which represent a considerable amount
of world productive capacity must urgently be supported in this
regard.

44.    Governments need to create an enabling framework which defines
the rules of the game and sets clear goals and targets for business
and industry.  This includes selecting the appropriate mix of
policies, legal and regulatory frameworks, market-based instruments
and voluntary programmes, supported by systems for measuring and
monitoring implementation.

45.    The international community as a whole needs to continue to push
forward a better understanding of the responsible entrepreneurship
concept to build consensus of how to price common goods to ensure
resource productivity, as well as environmental protection and social
equity.  The international community should continue to develop,
assess and disseminate best practice, and to monitor results achieved. 
A concerted effort by all governments and all industries - both large
and small - to respond and to act - is now required. 


                             Selected References

1.     Voluntary Initiatives for Responsible Entrepreneurship, Industry
       & Environment review, UNEP IE, 1988 

2.     UNEP IE Guidelines on Voluntary Industry Codes of Conduct for the
       Environment, Technical Report N°40, UNEP IE, 1988 

3.     Company Environmental Reporting: Engaging Stakeholders
       a)     Third International Progress Report on Company Environmental
              Reporting, SustainAbility/UNEP, 1997
       b)     The Benchmark Survey, SustainAbility/UNEP, 1996
       c)     Case Studies: Twelve users respond to company environmental
              reporting, SustainAbility/UNEP, 1996
       d)     Company Environmental Reporting, Technical Report N°24, UNEP
              IE, 1994 

4.     Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Role of Voluntary
       Programmes, a joint UNEP IE/ US EPA publication, 1997

5.     Partnerships for Sustainable Development: the Role of Business
       and Industry, a joint UNEP/PWBLF/Tufts University publication,
       1994

6.     UNEP/ICC/FIDIC Environmental Management System Training Resource
       Kit, 1997

7.     Environmental Codes of Conduct on Tourism, Technical Report N°29,
       UNEP IE 1994

8.     Implementation of Agenda 21 by Industry Associations, UNEP IE
       reports, 1996, 1995

9.     UNEP IE Consultation with Industry and Trade Associations, UNEP
       IE annual reports.

10.    Creating the Enabling Environment, Prince of Wales Business
       Leaders Forum in Collaboration with the World Bank and UNDP, 1997

11.    Business as Partners in Development - Creating Wealth for
       countries, companies and communities, Prince of Wales Business
       Leaders Forum in Collaboration with the World Bank and UNDP, 1997


                              About UNEP IE

UNEP established its Industry and Environment office (UNEP IE) in 1975
to bring industry and government together to promote environmentally -
sound industrial development. UNEP IE is located in Paris. Its goals
are:

*      To encourage the incorporation of environment criteria in
       industrial development plans;
*      To facilitate the implementation of procedures and principles for
       the protection of the environment;
*      To promote preventive environmental protection through the
       cleaner production and other pro-active approaches; and
*      To stimulate the exchange of information and experience
       throughout the world.

To achieve these goals, UNEP IE has developed the following main
programmes: Accident Prevention (APELL), Cleaner Production, Energy,
OzonAction, Industrial Pollution Management and Tourism. UNEP IE
organizes conferences and seminars, and undertakes training and co-
operative activities backed by regular follow-up and assessment. To
facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience, topical technical
reports, the quarterly Industry and Environment review and a technical
query/response service are available. Full list of publications
available upon request.

This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

Date last posted: 8 December 1999 15:15:30
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD