United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


Commission on Sustainable Development               Background Paper No. 28
Sixth Session
20 April-1 May 1998


     INFORMATION ON THE NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRES PROGRAMME


Contents

INFORMATION ON THE NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRES  PROGRAMME

Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Objectives of the National Cleaner Production Centres Programme . . 1
Organizational Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Major Achievements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Key Indicators of the Progress of the ongoing NCPC Programme. . . . 4
Overview of Progress per NCPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     Brazil. .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     Hungary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
     India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
     Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
     Slovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
     United Republic of Tanzania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
     Tunisia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
     Zimbabwe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Annex I - CONTACT PERSONS AND ADDRESSES

National Cleaner Production Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
NCPC Programme office at UNIDO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
NCPC Programme office at UNEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

Annex II - GENERAL INFORMATION ON CP AND THE NCPC PROGRAMME . . . .24

Annex III - SELECTION OF  PUBLICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30


                           Note to the Reader:

This activity report is cumulative and is updated every 6 months. It is
intended to inform the reader about the accomplished and ongoing
activities of the individual centres.

General information on the NCPC programme and on Cleaner Production is
available in Annex II and from other information sources. A selected list
of UNIDO/UNEP publications is attached in Annex III.

CP Information on the Internet can be accessed as follows:

           UNIDO: http://www.unido.org

Select: -Activities■, then go to: -Cleaner production network■ or -
Cleaner production information■

           UNEP: http://www.unepie.org


Commission on Sustainable Development           Background Paper No. 28
Sixth Session
20 April - 1 May 1998


       INFORMATION ON THE NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRES  PROGRAMME

              United Nations Industrial Development Organization

                                   Background

1.         The National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPC) programme is a joint
initiative by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO) and the United Nations Environment Programme Industry and
Environment Programme Activity Centre in Paris (UNEP IEPAC, hereafter
referred to as UNEP).  UNIDO is the executing agency, with UNEP assisting
in the provision of strategic  guidance and professional environmental
support.

2.        Phase I of the NCPC programme began in 1994 with the start of eight
NCPCs. These eight centres are located in Brazil, China , Czech Republic,
India, Mexico, Slovak Republic, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe.
The eight centres were selected from solicitations received from 39
institutions in 25 countries. Phase II activities have already started
with the funding of two new centres, Hungary and Nicaragua, and of an
already existing CP Centre in Tunisia, started by USAID in 1992. Cleaner
production projects, which are expected to lead to the establishment of 
NCPCs, have started in Uzbekistan, Croatia and Viet Nam.

3.       The programme is funded from a number of sources.  The Government
of the Netherlands funds the centres in China, India, Mexico, Tanzania
and Zimbabwe,  and the Government of Austria funds the centres in the
Czech Republic, Hungary, Nicaragua  and Slovakia.   UNEP also provided
substantial funding for the programme in  Phase I.  The centre in Brazil
is funded through a self-financed trust fund. The centre in Tunisia,
initially established with assistance from USAID, is supported by Norway. 
The cleaner production projects are funded by the Czech Republic
(Croatia), Japan (Uzbekistan) and Sweden (Viet Nam).


      Objectives of the National Cleaner Production Centres Programme

4.        The objective of the NCPC programme is to build national capacity
in the field of cleaner production (CP).  The programme builds capacity
to provide four services:  in-plant assessments, training, information
dissemination and policy advice. All these services are interrelated and
strongly support each other: 

           In-plant Assessments   Through in-plant assessments, an NCPC shows
           that the CP concept  can be applied to any industrial sector and
           that pollutant reduction can be financially attractive.  In-plant
           assessments create examples of successful CP applications that have
           a direct positive impact on the environment and that can be copied
           by other enterprises. 

           Training    Through training, an NCPC develops a core of national
           CP consultants, ensures that plant personnel participating in
           assessments retain the ability to implement additional CP measures
           and informs other relevant parties, such as subsector  
           organizations, governments, research institutes, financial
           institutions, universities and consultants, of the advantages of
           CP.

           Information Dissemination   Through  information dissemination, an
           NCPC provides technical information (e.g., available technologies
           for solving environmental problems in sector-specific processes),
           shares experience with interested partners through CP case studies
           and promotes its services. An effective information dissemination
           programme is essential for ensuring that CP consultants can provide
           SMIs with information  about the most appropriate CP techniques and
           technologies. 
           
           Policy Advice    Through policy dialogue, an NCPC aims to modify 
           national legislation and policies to assign priority to preventive
           environmental management and to support effective environmental
           regulation. The latter involves not only administrative measures,
           such as licencing, but also economic measures such as realistic
           disposal charges and market priced energy and water.


5.         Phase I support for the Centres will end in mid-1998.  Phase I has
emphasized building capacity to provide two of the four core NCPC
services, in-plant assessments and training, because the outcomes from
providing these services are essential building blocks for the other two
services.   Phase II of the NCPC programme aims to enhance the Centres■
nascent capacity for the other two core NCPC services --  information
dissemination and policy dialogue. More importantly, it will use capacity
of the NCPCs: (a) to establish CP expertise for in-plant  assessments and
training in other institutions (designated as strategic allies) already
advising SMIs on technology choices; and (b) to work with other
institutions (designated as cooperating partners) that are already
engaged with SMIs in complementary activities such as environmental
regulation, business support and financial services.  The NCPCs, together
with their strategic allies and cooperating partners, will constitute the
core of the CP institutional network in each country. Phase III of the
NCPC programme, approximately one-third of the annual support provided
in Phases I and II, is envisaged to cover national and international
networking, provision of technical information by the NCPCs to their
strategic allies and cooperating partners and training and/or advice to
new strategic allies.  By the start of Phase III, the NCPCs should have
the potential to shift from where their main clients and level of work
are at the micro level with enterprises leading to consultancy based
NCPCs to where their main interest and level of work are at the meso
level with strategic allies and cooperating partners leading to effective
national networks.  This new level should result in a much higher
outreach to SMIs.  


                      Organizational Structure

6.        The programme has a relatively lean organizational structure.  Each
NCPC is directed by an experienced country national,  hosted within a
local organization, and receives guidance from a national advisory board.

7.       The NCPC programme organizes annual meetings to evaluate the
progress of the programme, to exchange experience, and to discuss future
activities to be undertaken by the centres. The list of contact persons
and addresses is included in Annex I.


                          Major Achievements

8.        The table on the next page summarizes the main achievements of
the NCPCs in the first three years of the programme (1995 - 1997).  At
the time of the review, the number of plants which participated in in-
plant assessments was 341, the number of trained consultants  707; 15,090
persons participated in seminars and 6,580 in workshops. 19 newsletters
and 34 publications  had been issued. In addition, the NCPCs receive
attention by local TV and  radio stations and the press.


       KEY INDICATORS OF THE PROGRESS OF THE ONGOING NCPC PROGRAMME 
                        (as of 31 October 1997)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country:  Brazil

Start of operation:  September  95

Overall assessment of progress: Satisfactory, as planned

Number of plants which have participated in in-plant assessments:
     on-going:  21
     completed:  1

Number of trained assessors
     on-going:  25
     completed: 18

Number of participants
     seminar: 3,000
     workshop:  460

Newsletters issued: 1

Number of publications:  5

Press coverage
     TV: x
     Radio: x
     Press: x
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country: China

Start of Operation: June 95

Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planned

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     On-going:  1
     Completed: 66

Number of Trained Assessors
     On-going: 0
     Completed: 41

Number of Participants
     Seminar: 9,390
     Workshop: 4,220

Newsletters Issued: 8

Number of Publications: 5

Press Coverage
     TV: -
     Radio: X
     Press: X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country: Czech Republic

Start of Operation: November  94

Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planned

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     On-going:  14
     Completed: 46

Number of Trained Assessors
     On-going: 40
     Completed: 146

Number of Participants
     Seminar: -
     Workshop: 80

Number of Publications: 5

Press Coverage
     TV: X
     Radio: X
     Press: X
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hungary

Start of Operation: May 97

Overall Assessment of Progress: Satisfactory, as planned  

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     On-going: 16

Number of Trained Assessors
     On-going: 11

Number of Participants
     Seminar: 300

Number of Publications: 2

Press Coverage
     TV: X
     Radio: X
     Press: X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country: India

Start of Operation: July 95

Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planned

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     On-going:  8
     Completed: 9

Number of Trained Assessors
     On-going: 0
     Completed: 48

Number of Participants
     Seminar: 790
     Workshop: 650

Newsletters Issued: 3

Number of Publications: 5

Press Coverage
     TV: X
     Radio: X
     Press: X
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country: Mexico

Start of Operation: November  95

Overall Assessment of Progress: 0.00

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     On-going:  6
     Completed: 13

Number of Trained Assessors
     On-going: 7
     Completed: 4

Number of Participants
     Seminar: 960
     Workshop: 210

Newsletters Issued: 2

Number of Publications: 3

Press Coverage
     TV: 0.00
     Radio: 0.00
     Press: 0.00
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country: Slovak Republic

Start of Operation: November  94

Overall Assessment of Progress: 0.00

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     Completed:  69

Number of Trained Assessors
     On-going:  148
     Completed: 179

Number of Participants
     Workshop: 70

Newsletters Issued: 2

Number of Publications: 9

Press Coverage
     TV:    0.00
     Radio: 0.00
     Press: 0.00
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country: Tanzania

Start of Operation:      August 95

Overall Assessment of Progress: 0.00

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     On-going:  16
     Completed: 16

Number of Trained Assessors
     On-going: 15
     Completed: 0.00

Number of Participants
     Seminar: 120
     Workshop: 50

Newsletters Issued:  1

Number of Publications: 0.00

Press Coverage
     TV:    0.00
     Radio: 0.00
     Press: 0.00
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country: Tunisia

Start of Operation:  September  94

Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planned

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     On-going:  6
     Completed: 14

Number of Trained Assessors
     Completed: 10

Number of Participants
     Seminar: 250
     Workshop: 650

Newsletters Issued:  1

Number of Publications: 3

Press Coverage
     TV:    X
     Radio: X
     Press: X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country: Zimbabwe

Start of Operation: March 95

Overall Assessment of Progress: Satisfactory, as planned

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     On-going:  8
     Completed: 11

Number of Trained Assessors
     On-going: 7
     Completed: 8

Number of Participants
     On-going: 280
     Completed: 190

Newsletters Issued:  1

Number of Publications: 2

Press Coverage
     Radio: X
     Press: X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
ALL CENTRES

Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planne

Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: 
     On-going:  96
     Completed: 245

Number of Trained Assessors
     On-going: 253
     Completed: 454

Number of Participants
     Seminar: 15,090
     Workshop: 6,580

Newsletters Issued: 19

Number of Publications: 34
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note:  The exact figures in the table above should be taken with some
reservations as the Centres have used slightly different definitions, e.g., to
distinguish between seminars and workshops.


                     Overview of Progress per NCPC
 
                                Brazil

Organizational structure

           The National Cleaner Production Centre of Brazil (BCPC) is located
at its host institution, the Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial
(SENAI), in Porto Alegre.  The office employs 13  staff members. It also
relies on external consultants (mechanical and chemical engineers).The
activities of BCPC started in July 1995 when the Trust Fund Agreement
with SENAI was signed in the presence of the Governor of the state of Rio
Grande do Sul. The Centre works closely with STENUM, Austria, who
provides consultancy.

In-plant assessments

           The first in-plant assessment organized by the BCPC was in the
metalworking sector and involved five medium-scale enterprises in the
cities of Porto Alegre and Caxias do Sul.  The project started in August
1996, when the first training workshop took place with the assistance of
STENUM.

           In October 1996 the Centre initiated two additional demonstration
projects in the agro-industrial sector (slaughterhouse, canned fruits,
rice and fishing industry) in Caxias do Sul and Pelotas and one regional
project near Porto Alegre.

           In March and August 1997, international missions took place, their 
goal being to provide additional technical support to the on-going
demonstration projects and to start new ones in  specific areas, e.g. 
development of a regional logistic system for tire production.

           The in-plant assessments resulted in minimization of hazardous
wastes, solid wastes and energy and thereby in substantial monetary
savings. 

           A new demonstration project is under way in the footwear sector.
Other assessments are planned for the viniculture and dairy sectors. 

Training

           In 1995, the BCPC team participated in a workshop on Environment
Management Systems, organized by STENUM in Graz, Austria, and took part
in the UNIDO-NGO forum on cleaner industrial production in Vienna.

     In co-operation with the STENUM expert, the BCPC  conducted training
workshops for the companies participating in in-plant assessments. A
total of 22 national consultants are being trained in conjunction with
these assessments.  Seventeen workshops  on the CP methodology for
representatives of government institutions, industrial associations and
universities in Rio Grande do Sul were held.  In total the BCPC has
trained 460 people in specific workshops and 62 company staff. A
specialization course in CP is planned to be held in 1998 with the
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. 

Information dissemination

           The centre■s information strategy includes an indirect campaign
(publications and radio talks) and a direct campaign (seminars,
presentations and on-site visit). In July 1996 the BCPC started
publishing a newsletter -CNTL Informativo■.   The management of the BCPC
organized 322 awareness seminars. Publications include 2 folders, 1
newsletter, 1 diagnosis paper of the metal-mechanic sector and 3 papers
presented to international seminars. The Centre■s staff participated in
38 national seminars and 5 international seminars. 

Policy Dialogue

           The BCPC has organized 12 seminars for a total of 300
representatives of the  government. In co-operation with the
Environmental Committee of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the Centre
prepared a comprehensive environmental  policy proposal on the
application of CP on a sustainable basis in the state of Rio Grande do
Sul. This proposal was submitted to the State Ministry of Environment.


                                 China

Organizational structure

           The China National Cleaner Production Centre (CNCPC) is hosted by 
the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, an institution
of the National Environment Protection Agency.  The China NCPC has 11
staff members.

           CNCPC started its activities in June 1995. The CNCPC has provided
assistance in setting up 12 associated cleaner production centres and has
established a network of 60 institutions engaged in CP in China. The
counterpart institution is IVAM, The Netherlands.

In-plant assessments

     Although CNCPC is based in a government institution, most of the in-
plant assessments take place in the semi-private sector.  To date, CNCPC
has undertaken assessments in 66 plants including pulp and paper mills
and breweries.  The mills expect  joint savings of 15 million yuan and
the breweries of 4.2 million yuan annually.  Company personnel and
management as well as representatives from other companies and various
semi-governmental and governmental organizations attended the workshops. 
UNIDO sectoral experts provided technical assistance.  CP assessments
were initiated in three breweries.  Further audits are planned in the
pulp and paper, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and metal-finishing
sectors.

Training

           To date, the CNCPC has provided training for 12 cleaner production
centres in China. Most of these are provincial cleaner production
centres.  In total, 41 consultants have been trained in CP.

           In June 1997, the CNCPC started a training programme on ISO 14001
Environmental Management Systems.  The training focuses on CP as a tool
for achieving targets set under the ISO 14001 Management System.

           A one-week training course was offered to senior officers of the
Moroccan Ministry of Industry and Trade in November 1996.

Information dissemination

           CNCPC produces a newsletter every two months and prepares training
materials for self-audits.  A documentary on CP was produced for
broadcasting on Chinese state television.  Guidelines have been produced
for five sectors among which are the metal finishing, organic chemicals,
silk dyeing and printing sectors.  CNCPC also updated the Chinese World
Bank Cleaner Production audit manual. The centre has trained 4,220 people
at focussed workshops and 9,388 people have participated in awareness
raising seminars. The CNCPC is in the process of establishing a network
of CP actors in China. At the first meeting it drew together 66 Chinese
organizations that are interested in CP. Most of these organizations can
play a facilitating role in introducing the concept country-wide. 

     CNCPC also presented papers at several meetings, including the First
Asian-Pacific Meeting on the Establishment of Regional Hazardous Wastes
Centres, held at Beijing, and organized by the Basel Convention, and the
Fourth High Level Seminar on Cleaner Production at Oxford, UK,  organized
by UNEP, in September 1996

Policy Dialogue

           The CNCPC has been lobbying for a long time for the inclusion of CP
into environmental impact assessments and for establishment of a national
certification system for CP consultants. These efforts are about to bear
fruit.


                               Czech Republic

Organizational structure

           The Czech Cleaner Production Centre (CCPC) is an independent non-
governmental organization.  The office consists of four staff members.
CCPC cooperates closely with a network of national CP experts who were
trained in a three-year-long capacity building programme financed by the
Government of Norway.

           CCPC became operational in January 1995.  Cooperation with the
counterpart institution STENUM (Austria) started in March of that year.

In-plant assessments

           In 1995, CCPC started three demonstration projects in different
places:  in the city of Decin in Northern Bohemia, in the city of Zlin,
and in a cluster of municipalities on the upper reaches of the Svitava
River.  The municipalities of Decin and Zlin are making financial
contributions to the programme. The main results of these demonstration
projects are documented in 25 case studies. Assessments in the Svitava
area are now being conducted exclusively by national experts. 

           In May 1997, the CCPC started a long-term training course on
integrating EMS (environment management systems) and CP. The aim of this
course is to train 15 national experts on CP+EMS and to implement this
system in 6 companies.

Training

     CCPC has trained 61 national CP experts, and 74 representatives from
the private and public sector participated in specific workshops.
Graduates of the training programme have joined the Association of
Managers for Cleaner Production (AMCP), which provides training and
advisory service to national industry.

     The CCPC is providing experts in implementing CP projects in Croatia
and Uzbekistan. 

Information dissemination

           With the financial support of the Ministry of Industry, CCPC has
developed a CP manual for Czech industries. The centre has also published
a manual for the state administration.

           In November 1996, CCPC and two Czech companies participated in the
expert forum -Cleaner Industrial Production in Central and Eastern
Europe:  Technology Transfer and New Opportunities for Cooperation■.  The
forum was organized by UNIDO in cooperation with the Austrian non-
governmental organization OEGUT.

Policy Dialogue

           CCPC submitted to the Ministry of Environment a report focusing on
CP priority sectors, the application for CP labeling of products, the
country■s CP potential and a plan on how to realize it.  At the beginning
of 1997, CCPC was selected by the Ministry of Environment to act as
counterpart for a CP programme in Croatia that is being financed by the
Government of the Czech Republic. 

           The director of CCPC has been appointed as one of the five members
of the Executive Committee of the European Round Table of Central and
Eastern European Countries.


                                 Hungary

Organizational structure

           The National Cleaner Production Centre of Hungary (HCPC) is located
at its host institution, the Budapest University of Economic Science, and
cooperates with a number of national institutions involved in CP in
Hungary. The office consists of five staff members, including the
director. The NCPC affiliate  opened in Miskolc in January 1998.

           HCPC started preparatory  activities in January 1997 and prepared
a work plan, which the advisory board discussed and approved on 8 May
1997. The official inauguration of the HCPC took place on 12 May 1997.The
advisory board met on 9 December 1997 and revised the work plan and the
budget of the NCPC.

           The counterpart to the Centre is STENUM, Graz,  Austria.

In-plant assessments

           Currently the HCPC is preparing the first workshop for two regional
CP projects in Salgotarjan and Dorog. These projects are based on the
™koprofit methodology, which has been developed by STENUM, and are
carried out in close co-operation with the two municipalities.

Training

           In September the staff of the centre and 7 national experts took
part in an in-depth CP training, which was organized by STENUM in Graz,
Austria. 

           The topic "cleaner production" has been included in the curriculum
of environment management courses at the University of Economics.

Information dissemination

           The director and the staff of the centre have  organized various CP
awareness seminars in Hungary.

           The HCPC has been requested to organize the following two
international conferences: TECHCOM in May 1998 and the European Cleaner
Production Round table in 1999.

Policy Dialogue

           The HCPC is participating in the establishment of a national
accreditation body for EMS (environment management systems) and is member
of the National Accreditation Committee.

           Also, the HCPC is taking part in the development of economic and
legal conditions in order to promote the CP concept, e.g. creation of an
environmental insurance system for companies, where the fee is based on
the environmental performance of the company.


                                   India

Organizational structure

           The National Cleaner Production Centre of India (ICPC) is based at
the National Productivity Council in New Delhi but is an independent
entity.  The office consists of three staff members, including the
director.  India has a well-organized network of productivity councils
that has proved to be very effective for the promotion of CP.  The
advisory board consists of six members from the Council, government
institutions and the Confederation of Indian Industry.

           ICPC was able to start its activities in July 1995.  The centre is
very advanced at the technical level and has now started to receive
requests from state governments who are willing to pay up to US$ 140,000
for the establishment of regional centres.

           The counterpart recently changed from DTI, Denmark,  to IVAM
Environmental Research, The Netherlands.

In-plant assessments

           ICPC developed a checklist with criteria based on those used by the
EP3 programme of the United States Agency for International Development
for the selection of sectors and companies.  Using this checklist, it
selected five sectors for assessments: edible oils, dairy, hosiery,
electroplating and dyes and dye intermediates.  The hosiery sector was
selected for the first demonstration (nine companies).  ICPC received
assistance from a DTI expert in textiles.  Late in 1996, the centre
started in-plant assessments in  four textile dyeing factories.

     Part of the assessment is a CP circle.  This is a group of companies
that could not be directly involved in the assessments, but that follow
the project and apply the lessons learned in the assessment.  The group
is guided through regular meetings organized by the centre.

           After the ICPC has conducted the first assessments, private
consultants trained by the centre are, in some cases, able to continue
with assessments on a cost recovering basis. 

Training

           Together with regional cleaner production centres and branch
organizations, ICPC organizes CP workshops.  In 1995, five workshops
attracted 200 people.  In 1996, the workshops attracted another 300
participants.  The centre is also assisting the National Institute of
Small-scale Industry Extension Training in developing CP courses. The
centre has trained a total of 48 CP consultants.

Information dissemination

           Awareness programmes are being developed with regional productivity
centres and industry associations. So far 15 of these workshops have been
conducted. Several awareness workshops were held  in collaboration with
other organizations such as the Association of Women Entrepreneurs of
Karnataka in Bangalore.  A CP round table conference and a workshop for
the hotel industry were also organized. A total of 1,440 persons have
participated in the workshops and seminars organized by the  ICPC. 
Another 600 were addressed during events organized by other
organizations.

           The ICPC has also participated in several international meetings.

           ICPC has published a booklet, -Cleaner industrial production:  all
you wanted to know but could not ask■, and a guide, -From waste to
profits:  guidelines for waste minimization■.  It also distributes a
technical manual and a video on the DESIRE project. TV presentations were
given.

Policy Dialogue

           A study  assessing the existing industrial and environmental
policies with respect to CP has been started.  The study will also
formulate appropriate policy measures that can be taken to promote and
stimulate the adoption of CP by Indian industries.


                                  Mexico

Organizational structure

           The National Cleaner Production Centre of Mexico (MCPC) is based at
its host institution, the Instituto Polite'cnico Nacional at Mexico City. 
The activities of MCPC started in December 1995, when the modalities of
operation were signed and the director was nominated. The office employs
five staff, including the director. The MCPC signed a working agreement
with Canacintra (an industry association for SMEs) and cooperates closely
with the EP3 programme of the United States Agency for International
Development.

           The counterpart institutions are the University of Massachusetts,
USA,  and IVAM, The Netherlands.

In-plant assessments

           In February 1996, the director and deputy director of MCPC
participated in a one-week training programme at an EP3 demonstration
project involving in-bond assembly plants in the Reynosa-Matamoros area
near the northern border of Mexico. In August 1996 the first assessment 
for the electroplating sector began. The six participating companies
cooperated closely with international experts  from EP3 and the MCPC.
Based on the results of this project, a CP manual was elaborated and
presented at a workshop for the electroplating sector.  Currently, five
companies are taking part in a second phase of the project.

           In February 1997, the MCPC started the second assessment project in
the foundry sector.  The project involves seven companies from four
cities:  San Luis Potosi, Quere'taro, Me'xico D.F. and Saltillo.  The
project is carried out with the assistance of international CP experts
from IVAM and a UNIDO senior expert in the foundry sector.

           The third assessment project was initiated in September 1997 and 
involves seven companies from the chemical sector.

Training

           In cooperation with the Lowell Center of the University of
Massachusetts, the first in-depth training activities started in August
1996, when national experts and the staff of MCPC received training in
the CP concept. In September 1997 the MCPC organized a train-the-trainer
workshop with the assistance of the Lowell Center.  In all, 1,170
representatives from the private and public sector participated in the
awareness seminars and workshops, not including those held in conjunction
with in-plant assessments.

Information dissemination
     
           Nine hundred people participated in the inaugural meeting of the
Advisory Committee in June 1996.  On that occasion the director of MCPC
held a seminar for the participants to raise their awareness of CP.  The
Centre has issued two publications in cooperation with the Instituto
Polite'cnico Nacional and has obtained television, radio and press
coverage.

Policy Dialogue

           Policy dialogue recently started with the Ministry of Environment.


                                Slovakia

Organizational structure

           The National Cleaner Production Centre of Slovakia (SCPC) is based
at the Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. SCPC started operation
in February 1995, when 35 CP advisers and trainers completed the
Norwegian-financed programme. Cooperation with the counterpart
institution STENUM started in the same month.  Like the NCPCs in the
Czech Republic and Hungary, SCPC follows the method applied by STENUM in
the ™koprofit project in Graz, Austria; the method focuses on cities and
regions.

In-plant assessments

           In April 1995, SCPC  organized the first workshop of the regional
assessment project in the city of Martin.  The ten participating
companies represent various  sectors, such as brewery, energy supply,
metallurgy (Martin Metal), agriculture, glass production (Skloobal
Nemsovar), hospital and wood furniture.

           In February 1996, the second regional assessment project started in
the city of Trnava.  Nine companies from the agro-industry  and the
chemical industry sectors, and the municipality of Trnava are
participating in this project. In April 1997 the results of the Trnava
project were officially presented. 

           In 1997 two new regional CP projects in Trencin and Ruzomberok were
initiated. These projects are carried out only by national experts.

Training

           In November 1995, 11 Slovak experts participated in a five-day
workshop on environmental management systems (EMS), organized by STENUM. 
During the demonstration projects in Martin and Trnava, ten consultants
received in-depth training in CP. In total - including the Norwegian CP
project - the centre has trained 186 national CP experts, consultants and
managers. In 1997 the SCPC has created a Club of national CP experts and
managers. In October 1997 a long-term training course on EMS and CP was
started. Similar to the training organized by the Czech Centre, the
EMS+CP course focuses on training of 15 national experts and 
implementation of EMS+CP at five national companies, to meet the demands
of ISO 14000.

Information dissemination

           In its first 36 months of operation, the SCPC organized 28 CP
workshops and introductory seminars for participants from industry,
services, municipalities and research and development institutions.  It 
published a 28-page brochure on the Slovak CP programme, one newsletter
and seven articles in bulletins and newspapers, and received press and
radio coverage. 

            A conference on cleaner production in Slovakia was held in June
1996.   At that time, the Club of Cleaner Production Experts and Managers
was formed.  In February 1997, the  most recent meeting of the Club■s
steering committee took place in Bratislava.

           In September 1996, in cooperation with SUSTAIN Austria, SCPC
organized an international conference with the theme "High Tech and
Sustainability".  In the same month, the director participated in the
Fourth High Level Seminar on Cleaner Production at Oxford,  organized by
UNEP.  In November 1996, SCPC and two Slovak companies participated in
the expert forum "Cleaner Industrial Production in Central and Eastern
Europe:  Technology Transfer and New Opportunities for Cooperation".  The
forum was organized by UNIDO in cooperation with the Austrian non-
governmental organization OEGUT.  About 100 representatives of the 
Austrian public and private sector participated. In 1997 the SCPC
organized the second Slovak Cleaner Production Conference and the
conference -Glass Industry and Environment■.

Policy Dialogue

           SCPC prepared several reports for the Government and the Ministry
of Economy, the most important ones being "Cleaner Technologies in Slovak
Industry" and "Development of Biotechnologies".  In addition, it proposed
that the Ministry of Economy should include CP in its document "Industrial
Policy in the Slovak Republic".  This proposal was approved
by the country■s Parliament.


                         United Republic of Tanzania

Organizational structure

           The National Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania (TCPC) is hosted
by the Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization (TIRDO). 
It has five staff members.  The advisory board consists of
representatives from industry, government, NGOs, the University of Dar-
es-Salaam and TIRDO.

           The TCPC started in August 1995. The counterpart institution is the
Danish Technical University (DTU).

In-plant assessments

           Sixteen companies have now completed in-plant assessments and a
further 16 are still on-going. The first assessments involved six
companies from Dar-es-Salaam.  Most of these companies are situated in
a residential area, and the pollution they generate has been of concern
to families living in the neighborhood and to the city of  Dar-es-Salaam. 
When the Vice-President recently decided to take action against the
polluting factories in these areas and went on an inspection round to
close the worst cases, he was impressed by the results achieved by the
assessments and has since emerged as a strong promoter of CP and the
Centre .

           Ten companies from the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba participated
in a second round of assessments.  Although all in-plant assessments are
ongoing, some companies have already made substantial savings. 

           TCPC actively participated in the final workshop of the CEPITA
project, a DANIDA-sponsored CP project.  It is investigating how to best
use the experience and results of the CEPITA project in follow-up
activities. The centre has already decided to continue to help the
companies in implementing the various options and in integrating CP into
their management system.

           The TCPC successfully integrated health and safety aspects into its
in-plant assessments. Now, the companies provide support to the Factories
Inspectorate when they visit their factory to advise them on health and
safety issues.

Training

           Four CP training workshops have been conducted by the Centre for
technical personnel from selected industries and stakeholders. Sixty-nine
participants drawn from the 16 companies with completed assessments,
factory inspectorate, city council, government and non-government
organizations have been trained in the basic skills needed for conducting
a CP assessment. Fifteen of these are now undergoing further training to
qualify as CP consultants.

Information dissemination

           The Centre conducted two awareness seminars and one dissemination
seminar for about 120 chief executives and policy-makers drawn from
selected industry and its associations, R&D institutions, government
departments and organizations, environmental management agencies, NGOs,
consultancy firms and media institutions.  The Centre has also collected
a number of CP publications in electronic and hard copies.  It has
distributed 1000 copies of the Centre■s CP Newsletter and 3000 copies of
its brochure.

           The Centre has excellent connections to the press and has  had
extensive press coverage of its activities and of the concept of CP.  The
interviews which  the Vice-President of Tanzania has given  on CP in
support of the centre have also been very helpful in supporting the
concept in Tanzania.

Policy Dialogue 

           The centre has been very active in interacting with policy makers,
industry executives and other stakeholders in the policy formation
process. Because of this, the CP concept has  been incorporated into the
National Environmental Policy (draft) and the Sustainable Industrial
Development Policy (1996 - 2000). 


                             Tunisia

Organizational structure

     The Centre de Production Plus Propre Tunisien (CP3)  was established
with the help of the United States Agency for International Development
in 1993. As from 1996 UNIDO/UNEP started supporting CP3.

           The Tunis International Centre for Environmental Technologies
(CITET)  is now about to establish a CP unit. CITET has an impressive
range of activities needed to properly embody the CP concept into related
issues. It is consequently a suitable host institution for an NCPC. The
modalities of merging the efforts of CP3 with CITET are now being worked
out.

           The counterpart institution for the NCPC in Tunisia is the World
Cleaner Production Society of Norway.

           As CP3 has been active for nearly three years, it has built up an
impressive record.  Although the methods used are different from those
used in the NCPC programme, the work can be described in similar terms. 

In-plant assessments

      Eleven in-plant assessments have been undertaken by experts from the
United States supported by CP3.  The experts used different methods and
concentrated on no-cost and low-cost options.  The new programme
introduced a  methodology for capacity building which focuses on 
training of factory personnel.  In 1996 and the first part of 1997, CP3
carried out in-plant assessments in 6 textile dyeing and leather tanning
companies.  The World Cleaner Production Society will assist CITET and
CP3 acting as a consultant to CITET.  It is expected that 17 experts in
CP will be trained and 15 in-plant assessments will take place starting
in January 1998. 

Training

           CP3 has conducted nine training activities, together with six
awareness-raising seminars, attracting more than 650 industrialists,
consultants, government officials and students.  It participated in 15
seminars organized by other groups.

           CP3 also offers training modules on waste management and
environmental impact assessment studies.  An environmental action
programme for hotels is being developed based on a UNEP document,
introducing environmental management into day-to-day business.

     In 1997, CP3 was contracted by the NCPC programme to assist the NCPC
in Mexico in preparing a marketing strategy and writing a business plan.

Information dissemination

           CP3 has published a booklet with CP success stories and prepared a
CP catalogue describing the experience of CP in Tunisia.  It has
established a clearing house consisting of a library and an electronic
information system.  It also participated in May 1996 in the Meeting of
the Commission on Sustainable Development and in the UNEP Mediterranean
Regional Meeting.

Policy Dialogue

           CP 3 has been active in policy dialogue and Cp components have been
introduced in industrial modernization projects. Moreover, CITET decided
to set up and support a cleaner production unit.


                               Zimbabwe

Organizational structure

           The Cleaner Production Centre of Zimbabwe (CPCZ) is hosted by the
Environmental Forum of Zimbabwe.  The Forum is a group of Zimbabwean
companies concerned about environmental degradation in Zimbabwe.  The
advisory board consists of members from the Confederation of Zimbabwe
Industries, the Institute of Engineers, the Government, universities, the
Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ), the Forum, SIRDC and two
companies. 

           CPCZ began its activities in April 1995.  DTI , Denmark, replaced
IVAM, The Netherlands, as the counterpart institution providing technical
advice on in-plant assessments.  The Erasmus University, The Netherlands, 
 assists in education and policy activities.

In-plant assessments

           In 1996, CPCZ carried out 17 in-plant assessments in breweries,
sugar-processing factories, foundries and coffee-making. Currently, the
centre is carrying out in-plant assessments with the National Railways
of Zimbabwe, and small municipality breweries. It charges substantial
fees for its services. That the demand for CP assessments exists is
indicated by the establishment of a new consulting company by a CP expert
trained by the CPCZ.

           On the request of the CPCZ, the University of Zimbabwe completed an
evaluation study of the CPCZ in-plant assessments.

Training

           Training of CP experts included two from SIRDC, one from the
Ministry of Energy and five private consultants. The latter are available
for the NCPC most of the time, while the rest are available  only on a
part-time basis.

           The contacts established with universities resulted in three
seminars for lecturers and students.  The two universities assigned four
final year engineering students for their final year projects to the
CPCZ; they were involved in undertaking in-plant assessments.  One master
degree student was also under the supervision of the director of the CPCZ
for his final thesis in 1997. A degree program is under development with
the National University of Science and Technology (Bulawayo), while the
University of Zimbabwe is initiating a master■s course in engineering
with CP inclusions in the syllabus.

Information dissemination

    A two-day workshop for central and local government authorities plus 
industrial associations drew many participants. This  resulted  in the
request by participants for regional and tailor-made workshops for
different groups; five workshops have since been conducted for local
authorities including three for  the directors of works of municipalities
(Bulawayo, Gweru and Harare) followed by two workshops for councilors
(politicians).

           The Centre has been invited to numerous workshops on pollution
prevention, waste management, climate change (Geneva), and CP (Carl
Duisberg Gesellschaft, Berlin).  It has been asked by the Zimbabwe
Broadcasting Corporation for help in preparing a programme on CP.

Policy dialogue

           In March 1996, a policy workshop was conducted for government
officials.  Together with the Government, CPCZ is developing a plan to
integrate the concept of CP into government policy. In the future,
emphasis will be put on the link between CP and policy at the municipal
level.


Annex I :   CONTACT PERSONS AND ADDRESSES

National Cleaner Production Centres

Carlos Adilio Maia do Nascimento, Director
National Cleaner Production Centre of Brazil
SENAI
Av. Assis Brasil 8450
91140-000 Porto Alegre
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Fax:      + 555 13 478848
Tel:      + 555 13 478849/ 3400811
e-mail: ncpc@nutecnet.com.br

Ning Duan, Director
China National Cleaner Production Centre
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
Anwai Beiyuan
Beijing 100012
People■s Republic of China
Fax:      + 86 10 649 01 532
Tel:      + 86 10 649 01 533
                  642 32255-233
e-mail: emicraes@public.east.cn.net

Vladimir Dobes, Director
Czech Cleaner Production Centre
Politickych Veznu 13
11000 Praha 1
Czech Republic
Tel:      + 420 2 260620
Fax:      + 420 2 260639
e-mail: czechcpc@czn.cz or
        czechcpc@scretchy.czech.net

Sa'ndor Kerekes, Director
National Cleaner Production Centre of Hungary
Budapest University of Economic Science
F_va'm ter 8
Hungary
Fax/phone:     +36 1 2188 076
Tel:           +36 1 217 9588
e-mail:  GKD_skerekes@pegasus.bke.hu

S. P. Chandak, Director
National Cleaner Production Centre  of India
5-6 Institutional Area
Lodi Road, New Delhi 110 003
India
Fax:      + 91 11 4625013 or 4615002
Tel:      + 91 11 4611243 or 4625013
e-mail: ncpc@del2.vsnl.net.in

Guillermo Roman, Director
Centro Mexicano para la Produccio'n Ma's Limpia
Avenida Politecnico s/n Edificio 9
de Laboratorios Pesados
Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos
Zacatenco, 007738 Mexico, D.F.
Fax:         + 525 729 6202
Tel:         + 525 729 6201
e-mail: cmpl@vmredipn.ipn.mx
or:          cmpl@ipn9021.ipn.mx

Viera Feckova, Director
Slovak Cleaner Production Centre at Slovak Technical University
Pionierska 15
83102 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
Fax:         + 421 7 259 015
Tel:         + 421 7 259 015
e-mail: feckova@cvt.stuba.sk
or           sccp@kchbi.chtf.stuba.sk                           

C.L.C. Migiro, Director
NCPC of Tanzania
Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization
P.O. Box 23235
Dar-es-Salaam
United Republic of Tanzania
Fax:         + 255 51 668147
Tel:         + 255 51 668105/668979
e-mail:    cpct@udsm.ac.tz

Khalil Attia
General Manager
Centre International des Technologies de Environnement de Tunis
Boulevard de l■environnement
1080 Tunis
Tunisia
Fax: +2161 772 255
Tel: +2161 770 285/770 998

Rachid Nafti, Director
Centre de Production Plus Propre
Colise'e Soula, Escalier D, 2e`me e'tage
2092 El Manar II
Tunisia
Fax:         + 216 1 870 766
Tel:         + 216 1 872 688
E-mail: cp3@cp3.com.tn

Lewin Mombemuriwo, Director
Zimbabwe Cleaner Production Centre
c/o UNIDO Office
67-69 Union Avenue
P.O. Box BW 1635
Borrowdale, Harare
Zimbabwe
Fax:         + 263 4 731779, 723963
Tel:         + 263 4 731778/9, 792681
e-mail:      cpczim@harare.iafrica.com


NCPC Programme office at UNIDO

NCPC Programme
Environment and Energy Branch
Industrial Sectors and Environment Division
Vienna International Centre
P.O. Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
Fax:         + 43 1 21131 6803
Tel switchboard:  + 43 1 21131 0
e-mail: ncpc_env@unido.org
Home page: http://www.unido.org

Ralph Luken, Chief
Cleaner Industrial Production Unit
tel: + 43 1 21131 3352
e-mail: rluken@unido.org

Igor Volodin
Programme Manager
tel: + 43 1 21131 3938
e-mail: ivolodin@unido.org

Petra Schwager
Programme Officer 
Latin America
tel: + 43 1 21131 3749
e-mail: pschwager@unido.org

Nils Hogsted
Programme Officer
Asia and Africa
tel: + 43 1 21131 5375
e-mail: nhogsted@unido.org

Paul Burgers
Assistant Programme Officer
Africa
tel: +43 1 21131 0
e-mail: pburgers@unido.org

Elisabeth Slowiak
Finance
tel: +43 1 21131 6732 
E-mail:eslowiak@unido.org

Gertrude Hynek
NCPC Publications
Tel: +43 1 21131 3942
E-mail: ghynek@unido.org  

Peter Pembleton
CP Information
Tel: +431 21131 3705
E-mail: ppembleton@unido.org


NCPC Programme office at UNEP 

UNEP Industry and Environment
Tour Mirabeau
39-43 quai Andre' Citroe"n
75739 Paris CEDEX 15, FRANCE
tel:       + 33 1 44 37 14 50
fax:       + 33 1 44 37 14 74
e-mail:    unepie@unep.fr
Internet:  http://www.unepie.org

Jonathan Hobbs
Coordinator
Cleaner Production Programme
tel: + 33 1 44 37 14 77
e-mail: jon.hobbs@unep.fr

Kristina Elvebakken
Environmental Affairs Officer
Cleaner Production Programme
tel: + 33 1 44 37 3006
e-mail: kristina.elvebakken@unep.fr

Uno Abrahmsen, Advisor
Cleaner Production Programme
tel: + 33 1 44 37 1422
e-mail: uno.abrahamsen@unep.fr

Garrette Clarke, Listserver
Cleaner Production Programme
tel: + 33 1 44 37 1422
e-mail: garette.clarke@unep.fr


      Annex II :  GENERAL  INFORMATION ON CLEANER PRODUCTION
                  AND THE NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRES  PROGRAMME

                         What is Cleaner Production?

             Cleaner Production (CP) is the continuous application of an
integrated preventive environmental strategy applied to processes,
products and services to increase eco-efficiency and reduce the risks to
humans and the environment. For processes, CP includes conserving raw
materials and energy, eliminating toxic raw materials and reducing the
quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes.  For products, CP
involves reducing the negative impacts along the life cycle of a product,
from raw materials extraction to its ultimate disposal. For services, the
strategy focuses on incorporating environmental concerns into designing
and delivering services. Experience with CP shows that many improvements
can be made in the production processes at no or very little cost,
improving both the profitability and the environmental performance.  The
NCPC Programme aims to transfer this method of reducing resource
utilization and discharge of pollutants in a cost-effective way.
 
          The UNIDO/UNEP National Cleaner Production Centre  Programme

        The National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPC) programme is a joint
initiative by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO) and the United Nations Environment Programme Industry and
Environment Programme Activity Centre in Paris (UNEP IEPAC, hereafter
referred to as UNEP).  UNIDO is the executing agency, with UNEP assisting
in the provision of strategic environmental guidance and professional
support.  UNIDO and UNEP meet regularly to review the progress of the
NCPC programme.

             Phase I of the NCPC programme started in 1994 with the start of
eight national cleaner production centres. These eight centres are
located in Brazil, China , Czech Republic, India, Mexico, Slovak
Republic, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe. The eight centres
were selected from solicitations received from 39 institutions in 25
countries. In 1996 Tunisia was included in the programme and in 1997 a
centre was established in Hungary. Cleaner production projects, which are
expected to lead to the establishment of  NCPCs, have started in
Uzbekistan, Croatia and Viet Nam.

             The programme is funded from a number of sources.  The Government
of the Netherlands funds the centres in China, India, Zimbabwe, Tanzania
and Mexico,  and the Government of Austria funds the centres in the Czech
Republic, Hungary and Slovakia.   UNEP also provided substantial funding
for the programme in  Phase I.  The centre in Brazil is funded through
a self-financed trust fund. The centre in Tunisia, initially established
with assistance from USAID, is supported by Norway.  The cleaner
production projects are funded by the Czech Republic (Croatia), Japan
(Uzbekistan) and Sweden (Viet Nam).
     
             Based on the lessons learned during Phase I, Phase II of the
programme is now being started. It  foresees increased regional
expansions in India and China and the establishment of at least 10
additional NCPCs. Countries which are being given high priority include
Croatia, Slovenia, Uzbekistan and Viet Nam, (where the cleaner production
projects are expected to lead to the establishment of NCPCs) as well as 
Argentina, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua,
Morocco, Philippines and Russia (where preparatory activities to
establish an NCPC are on-going) Other countries are invited to submit or
resubmit applications. It should be noted that the ultimate decision to
establish centres will depend on funding from donor and/or recipient
countries.     

       The same solicitation procedure used for Phase I is being followed
for Phase II.  Evaluation missions and project planning workshops will
be undertaken to select host organizations that will best house the
centres.


      Objectives of the National Cleaner Production Centres Programme

             The ultimate goal of the NCPC programme is to increase the
application of CP in industry and to incorporate  the concept into
national environmental policy. To realize this goal, the programme
establishes NCPCs to facilitate the transfer of CP information and CP
technology to industrial enterprises and environmental management
agencies.  This transfer of information and technology is not only north
to south, but also south to south.


                     The Four Core Services of NCPCs

        The centres provide four services: in-plant assessments, training,
information dissemination, and policy dialogue.  The four activities are
interrelated and strongly support one another, as described below.

             The organization of in-plant assessments is an important service
that generates CP success stories.  In-plant assessments can show how the
CP concept works in the given country and also provide opportunities for
hands-on training for plant personnel.  The NCPC demonstration follows
a method based on the PRISMA project, which has been successfully
implemented in the Netherlands.  The method proved to be suitable for small-
 and medium-sized companies during the UNIDO implemented DESIRE project
(DEmonstration in Small Industries for Reducing wastE) in India.  The
results of in-plant assessments are profitable CP options that have been
implemented and sustained.

             The training service  is linked to the in-plant assessments, as
training of company staff and consultants takes place during these
assessments.  Training is also conducted outside plants through
workshops, seminars and in-depth technical training.  These training
activities are conducted to raise the CP capacity and awareness of branch
organizations, government agencies, educational and research institutes,
and consultants.

     The information dissemination service is crucial in creating a  CP
network within a country and among countries. Within each country, the
NCPC can provide technical information such as available technologies for
solving environmental problems, share experience with interested partners
through the submission of case-studies, and promote the centre■s
activities.  All centres are being connected to the Internet, which
provides access to a wide variety of environmental information, including
the UNIDO and UNEP home pages with information on CP (case studies,
sectoral reviews and technologies), the NCPC Programme home page and to
e-mail.  The centres have also been equipped with numerous UNEP and UNIDO
technical manuals and policy guides on CP and environmental management,
UNEP's diskette database on CP (International Cleaner Production
Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC)), and periodicals  enable them to
access and provide the most current information on CP.  The NCPCs and
support institutions are also connected by the e-mail conferencing
network (NCPC-NET), which provides a platform for discussions and
exchange of information.  

             Policy dialogue promotes effective policy frameworks which
accommodate preventive environmental management.  This not only involves
administrative measures like licensing, but also economic instruments
such as duty and fee systems for waste disposal and pricing of raw
materials and energy.  The NCPCs assess the existing policies and provide
recommendations on how to better incorporate CP considerations.  The
centres have access to policy studies conducted in various countries and
are supported by international institutions which have experience in
conducting policy reviews.


    Continuous Assistance through Counterpart Institution Arrangements

             The programme has set up a pool of experienced institutions that
can assist the NCPCs to achieve their objectives. These institutions,
called counterparts, are contracted through the counterpart institution
arrangement, which specifies activities to be performed by each
counterpart to support the NCPC.  The counterparts assist the NCPCs by
sharing their experiences in promoting CP and by providing technical
expertise to the centres in providing CP services.

             The duration of the counterpart agreement is three years in
principle to give the partners the opportunity to become familiar with
each other and the overall NCPC programme.  The counterpart institutions
are also expected to assist in developing the programme methodology and
the long-term strategy for each NCPC.  The latter is especially difficult
to guide as the considerable differences in the countries lead to
significantly different strategies for each NCPC in the long term. 

             Currently, the counterpart institutions include the following
organizations: 

-  IVAM of the University of Amsterdam, and 
-  the Erasmus University from the Netherlands
-  STENUM of the University of Graz from Austria
-  the Danish Technological Institute (DTI), and 
-  the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) from Denmark
-  University of Massachusetts at Lowell from the USA, and 
-  the World Cleaner Production Society from Norway (since 1996)

          The above institutions have been selected as counterparts because
of their significant practical experiences in CP and also with
consideration to their status as professional organizations linked to
development and educational institutions.  The services are rendered on
a cost-recovery rather than a commercial basis.

          UNIDO and UNEP plan to engage NCPCs as counterpart institutes during
Phase II of the programme as they have accumulated unique knowledge and
experience in establishing centres.  Currently, the NCPCs from the Czech
Republic, India and Tunisia have been added to the pool of counterparts. 
These centres are also active in providing assistance to other projects
on CP and environmental management.

          To monitor the progress of individual centres and the overall
programme, the NCPCs and the counterparts work in close consultation with
the staff of UNIDO and UNEP.


                          Annual NCPC meetings

          The NCPC programme organizes annual meetings to evaluate the
progress of the programme,  to exchange experience, and to discuss future
activities to be undertaken by the centres.

          The First Annual Meeting of the National Cleaner Production Centres
programme was held in  Vienna, Austria, from 13 to 15 December 1995, with
an excursion to the NCPC in Bratislava.  The directors of the NCPCs,
representatives of the counterpart institutions and donor countries, and
UNIDO/UNEP personnel participated in the meeting.

          The Second Annual Meeting of the National Cleaner Production Centres
programme was held in Inyanga, Zimbabwe, from 25 to 30 November 1996. 
In addition to the programme review, short training sessions on total
cost accounting, environmental management systems and ISO 14000, and
business plan preparation were organized. 

          The Third Annual Meeting was held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 6 to
9 November 1997, and mainly discussed issues for entering Phase II of the
NCPC programme (programme strategy and new project document). The meeting
also included training sessions on marketing, business planning,
integration of EMS and CP and on-line CP information systems. The meeting
was attended by the directors of the NCPCs, representatives from the
international counterpart institutions, experts from the Swiss
Government, GTZ and  the Netherlands Management Cooperation Programme,
representatives from UNIDO, UNEP and the Thailand Environment Institute.

          Reports of the annual meetings are available upon request from UNIDO
or UNEP.


                         Organizational Structure

          The programme has a relatively lean organizational structure.  Each
NCPC is directed by an experienced country national,  hosted within a
local organization, and receives guidance from a national advisory board.

          Local host organizations provide infrastructure and a support
mechanism to the centres' operations.  For successful capacity building,
it is crucial to form partnerships with local organizations that are
willing to invest resources for promoting CP.  Host organizations make
both financial and in-kind contributions to the centre, such as
secondment of personnel, office facilities  and equipment.  This
arrangement has been effective in building ownership of the activities
in each country, and has also minimized operational costs. 

          The following institutions are currently hosting the NCPCs:

-  Brazil:          Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (National
                    Industrial Training Association)
-  China:           China Research Academy for Environmental Science
-  Czech Republic:  Independent Non-Governmental Organization
-  Hungary:         Budapest University of Economic Science
-  India:           National Productivity Council
-  Mexico:          Instituto Politecnico Nacional (National
                    Polytechnic Institute)
-  Slovakia:        Slovak Technical University
-  Tanzania:        Tanzania Industrial Research and Development
                    Organization
-  Tunisia:         Tunis International Centre for Environmental
                    Technologies
-  Zimbabwe:        Environmental Forum of Zimbabwe

      A Modality of Operation has been signed by each host institution and
UNIDO to specify inputs to be provided by UNIDO/UNEP and the host
organization, and activities to be undertaken by the NCPC.

           Each NCPC establishes an advisory board to obtain guidance on the
centre's activities and to get support for its operations.  The advisory
board solicits representation from the most important "CP players" in the
country, such as representatives from industrial organizations,
Ministries of Industry, Environment, and Economy, as well as from
education and research institutions.   The NCPC director and local
UNIDO/UNEP representatives are included.  Individual companies are also
represented occasionally.

           The average total annual budget provided to each NCPC is
approximately US$ 200,000.  Each director has an annual discretionary
budget of approximately US$ 40,000, which is allocated for national
consultants and other expenses.  UNIDO administers the remainder of the
budget in consultation with the centres to recruit counterpart
institution staff as well as other international experts.

           UNIDO's Cleaner Production Unit, within the Environment and Energy
Branch, is responsible for programme administration, development,
monitoring and fund raising.  The Cleaner Production Programme of UNEP
is responsible for the UNEP contribution of the NCPC Programme, such as
information, networking and policy advice. 


                           First Year Evaluation

           An independent evaluation of the NCPC Programme was commissioned at
the end of 1995.  The evaluation report recommended adjustments and
improvements for Phase II of the programme.  It also recognized the
relevance of the NCPC Programme and its unique potential role in the eco-
efficient industrial development of the targeted countries.  The report
concluded the following:

-...it must be recognized that the UNIDO/UNEP programme design
provides a unique set-up in terms of offering a profound
infrastructure for international co-operation and networking between
CP-actors throughout the world, which bilateral programmes cannot
provide."


                             Lessons Learned

     With the first two years of the programme completed, many issues and
ideas on how to improve the NCPC programme have been identified through
the annual meetings, independent evaluations and daily operations.  The
following summarizes some of the lessons learned so far:

-  A five-year project period is necessary to develop an NCPC to function
as a catalyst and a service-oriented unit.

-  People trained in CP need to be recognized for their specialist
abilities.  UNIDO and UNEP are testing the Cleaner Production Best
Practice Guide of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) in Tunisia, to see if it can form the basis for a
system for the certification of CP experts.

-  The CP message needs to be incorporated into and promoted with emerging
issues of interest, such as Environmental Management Systems and ISO
14001.  Certification should not be the only goal of introducing EMS and
ISO 14001.  The main goal should be improved environmental performance. 
With CP, NCPCs can work with enterprises to introduce continual
improvement that achieves environmental goals and economic efficiency. 
Additional work needs to be done to clarify the relationship between EMS
and CP, and to train the NCPCs.  This research is underway at UNEP and
UNIDO.

-  Sector-specific technical expertise should be developed.  The NCPCs are
centres of excellence in CP and its applications.  While the methodology
is applicable to all industrial sectors, there are limits on the ability
of companies and, to some extent the CP experts, to identify technical
opportunities.  To respond to this need, the programme is developing
projects that combine the methodological CP approach with sector specific
expertise.

-  The possibility of working with other environmental services, including
end-of-pipe solutions, needs to be considered to provide a comprehensive
solution to achieve compliance, even though CP should clearly remain the
preferred strategy.  While CP enables a company to reduce its pollution
load in a cost-effective manner, in some cases standards can only be met
by combining CP and end-of-pipe treatment.  This is more relevant if
legislation is based predominantly on the command-and-control approach.

-  Networking and programme interaction can help in building mutually
supportive mechanisms.  Although national circumstances differ, many
challenges and solutions for CP are universal.  The annual meetings and
information networking have helped in providing a platform for centre
personnel to learn from each other's experiences and to avoid duplication
of efforts.  Additional efforts will be made to share the NCPC
experiences with other CP practitioners outside the NCPC network and to
catalyze the establishment of NCPC-like programmes.

-  Emphasis should fall on enhancing capacity to ensure local ownership and
continuity beyond donor dependence.  Cost and responsibility sharing make
each NCPC a multi-stakeholder institution.  There is a need to consult
both the demand side (i.e. industry) and the supply side (i.e. donors and
governments) to ensure that the local capacity developed  adequately
addresses the needs and demands within the country.

-  An integrated programme, rather than project, approach needs to be used
for sustainable CP implementation.  The NCPCs need to include in their
plans of action both the micro level (in-plant assessments) and macro
level (policy advice) to make CP sustainable within a country.

           UNIDO and UNEP  developed a strategy which  incorporates those
lessons learned to improve the services of the NCPC programme.  In this
connection, a strategy document has been  prepared.


                 Annex III :   SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS

Technical manuals and reports:

           Breweries, dairy, electronics, fertilizers, hotels, iron
           foundries, leather tanning, metal finishing, non-ferrous metals
           ore mining, nickel, pulp and paper, sugar refineries, textiles
           (UNIDO and UNEP).

Other manuals and reports:

           Strategies and policy for CP, environmental auditing, hazardous
           wastes, emission reduction, chemical accidents, transport,
           environmental compliance, life-cycle assessment, eco-designs
           (UNIDO and UNEP).

Training and Information:

-  Cleaner Production - A Training Resource Package (trainers handbook),
UNEP, 1996 Trainers
-  Trainers Workbooks in brewing, leather and textile wet processing,
UNEP, 1996
-  International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse, Diskette,
Version II, UNEP, 1996
-  Trade Implications of International Standards for Quality and
Environmental Management Systems, Survey results, UNIDO/ISO, 1996
-  DESIRE - -From Waste to Profits■ - the Indian experience: case
studies, methodology for waste minimization, video, UNIDO, 1995.
-  Environmental Action Pack for Hotels, IHA/IHEI/UNEP, 1995.
-  ESID: -Ecologically Sustainable Industrial Development■, 10 learning
units, 7 short films on video, diskettes with data base, case studies
and project document sample, 3 booklets, learning recall tape, UNIDO,
1994.

Case studies:

-  NCPC Programme Case Studies, UNIDO/UNEP, 1997.
-  Cleaner Industrial Production, Demonstration projects, UNIDO, 1995.
-  Cleaner Production Worldwide, Volume I, 1993 and Volume II, 1996, UNEP.
-  Cleaner Production in the APEC Region, UNEP, 1994.

Periodicals:

-  Industry and Environment Review (quarterly) with CP Newsletter
(bi-annually) as a supplement, UNEP, IE.
-  Sustainable Industrial Development Network Newsletter (annually), UNIDO.

Videos: (*)

-  "Sustainable Industrial Development", 10 min/English. French and
Spanish under preparation, UNIDO, 1997.
-  "Cleaner Production: - A Global Trend", 14 min/English/German. French
and Spanish under preparation, UNIDO, 1996.
-  "National Cleaner Production Centres", 9 min/English/Spanish, UNIDO, 1996.
-  "Ganancias sin Residuos", 14 min/Spanish, UNIDO, 1996.
-  "From Waste to Profits - the Indian experience", 10 min/English,
UNIDO, 1996.

----------
(*) All videos available in VHS, Please specify colour system (PAL,
SECAM or NTSC).



           

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Date last posted: 8 December 1999 15:15:30
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