Commission on Sustainable Development Background Paper No. 28 Sixth Session 20 April-1 May 1998 INFORMATION ON THE NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRES PROGRAMME Contents INFORMATION ON THE NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRES PROGRAMME Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Objectives of the National Cleaner Production Centres Programme . . 1 Organizational Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Major Achievements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Key Indicators of the Progress of the ongoing NCPC Programme. . . . 4 Overview of Progress per NCPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brazil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Hungary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Slovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 United Republic of Tanzania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Tunisia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Zimbabwe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Annex I - CONTACT PERSONS AND ADDRESSES National Cleaner Production Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 NCPC Programme office at UNIDO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 NCPC Programme office at UNEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Annex II - GENERAL INFORMATION ON CP AND THE NCPC PROGRAMME . . . .24 Annex III - SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Note to the Reader: This activity report is cumulative and is updated every 6 months. It is intended to inform the reader about the accomplished and ongoing activities of the individual centres. General information on the NCPC programme and on Cleaner Production is available in Annex II and from other information sources. A selected list of UNIDO/UNEP publications is attached in Annex III. CP Information on the Internet can be accessed as follows: UNIDO: http://www.unido.org Select: -Activities■, then go to: -Cleaner production network■ or - Cleaner production information■ UNEP: http://www.unepie.org Commission on Sustainable Development Background Paper No. 28 Sixth Session 20 April - 1 May 1998 INFORMATION ON THE NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRES PROGRAMME United Nations Industrial Development Organization Background 1. The National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPC) programme is a joint initiative by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the United Nations Environment Programme Industry and Environment Programme Activity Centre in Paris (UNEP IEPAC, hereafter referred to as UNEP). UNIDO is the executing agency, with UNEP assisting in the provision of strategic guidance and professional environmental support. 2. Phase I of the NCPC programme began in 1994 with the start of eight NCPCs. These eight centres are located in Brazil, China , Czech Republic, India, Mexico, Slovak Republic, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe. The eight centres were selected from solicitations received from 39 institutions in 25 countries. Phase II activities have already started with the funding of two new centres, Hungary and Nicaragua, and of an already existing CP Centre in Tunisia, started by USAID in 1992. Cleaner production projects, which are expected to lead to the establishment of NCPCs, have started in Uzbekistan, Croatia and Viet Nam. 3. The programme is funded from a number of sources. The Government of the Netherlands funds the centres in China, India, Mexico, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, and the Government of Austria funds the centres in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Nicaragua and Slovakia. UNEP also provided substantial funding for the programme in Phase I. The centre in Brazil is funded through a self-financed trust fund. The centre in Tunisia, initially established with assistance from USAID, is supported by Norway. The cleaner production projects are funded by the Czech Republic (Croatia), Japan (Uzbekistan) and Sweden (Viet Nam). Objectives of the National Cleaner Production Centres Programme 4. The objective of the NCPC programme is to build national capacity in the field of cleaner production (CP). The programme builds capacity to provide four services: in-plant assessments, training, information dissemination and policy advice. All these services are interrelated and strongly support each other: In-plant Assessments Through in-plant assessments, an NCPC shows that the CP concept can be applied to any industrial sector and that pollutant reduction can be financially attractive. In-plant assessments create examples of successful CP applications that have a direct positive impact on the environment and that can be copied by other enterprises. Training Through training, an NCPC develops a core of national CP consultants, ensures that plant personnel participating in assessments retain the ability to implement additional CP measures and informs other relevant parties, such as subsector organizations, governments, research institutes, financial institutions, universities and consultants, of the advantages of CP. Information Dissemination Through information dissemination, an NCPC provides technical information (e.g., available technologies for solving environmental problems in sector-specific processes), shares experience with interested partners through CP case studies and promotes its services. An effective information dissemination programme is essential for ensuring that CP consultants can provide SMIs with information about the most appropriate CP techniques and technologies. Policy Advice Through policy dialogue, an NCPC aims to modify national legislation and policies to assign priority to preventive environmental management and to support effective environmental regulation. The latter involves not only administrative measures, such as licencing, but also economic measures such as realistic disposal charges and market priced energy and water. 5. Phase I support for the Centres will end in mid-1998. Phase I has emphasized building capacity to provide two of the four core NCPC services, in-plant assessments and training, because the outcomes from providing these services are essential building blocks for the other two services. Phase II of the NCPC programme aims to enhance the Centres■ nascent capacity for the other two core NCPC services -- information dissemination and policy dialogue. More importantly, it will use capacity of the NCPCs: (a) to establish CP expertise for in-plant assessments and training in other institutions (designated as strategic allies) already advising SMIs on technology choices; and (b) to work with other institutions (designated as cooperating partners) that are already engaged with SMIs in complementary activities such as environmental regulation, business support and financial services. The NCPCs, together with their strategic allies and cooperating partners, will constitute the core of the CP institutional network in each country. Phase III of the NCPC programme, approximately one-third of the annual support provided in Phases I and II, is envisaged to cover national and international networking, provision of technical information by the NCPCs to their strategic allies and cooperating partners and training and/or advice to new strategic allies. By the start of Phase III, the NCPCs should have the potential to shift from where their main clients and level of work are at the micro level with enterprises leading to consultancy based NCPCs to where their main interest and level of work are at the meso level with strategic allies and cooperating partners leading to effective national networks. This new level should result in a much higher outreach to SMIs. Organizational Structure 6. The programme has a relatively lean organizational structure. Each NCPC is directed by an experienced country national, hosted within a local organization, and receives guidance from a national advisory board. 7. The NCPC programme organizes annual meetings to evaluate the progress of the programme, to exchange experience, and to discuss future activities to be undertaken by the centres. The list of contact persons and addresses is included in Annex I. Major Achievements 8. The table on the next page summarizes the main achievements of the NCPCs in the first three years of the programme (1995 - 1997). At the time of the review, the number of plants which participated in in- plant assessments was 341, the number of trained consultants 707; 15,090 persons participated in seminars and 6,580 in workshops. 19 newsletters and 34 publications had been issued. In addition, the NCPCs receive attention by local TV and radio stations and the press. KEY INDICATORS OF THE PROGRESS OF THE ONGOING NCPC PROGRAMME (as of 31 October 1997) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Country: Brazil Start of operation: September 95 Overall assessment of progress: Satisfactory, as planned Number of plants which have participated in in-plant assessments: on-going: 21 completed: 1 Number of trained assessors on-going: 25 completed: 18 Number of participants seminar: 3,000 workshop: 460 Newsletters issued: 1 Number of publications: 5 Press coverage TV: x Radio: x Press: x ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Country: China Start of Operation: June 95 Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planned Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: On-going: 1 Completed: 66 Number of Trained Assessors On-going: 0 Completed: 41 Number of Participants Seminar: 9,390 Workshop: 4,220 Newsletters Issued: 8 Number of Publications: 5 Press Coverage TV: - Radio: X Press: X ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Country: Czech Republic Start of Operation: November 94 Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planned Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: On-going: 14 Completed: 46 Number of Trained Assessors On-going: 40 Completed: 146 Number of Participants Seminar: - Workshop: 80 Number of Publications: 5 Press Coverage TV: X Radio: X Press: X --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hungary Start of Operation: May 97 Overall Assessment of Progress: Satisfactory, as planned Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: On-going: 16 Number of Trained Assessors On-going: 11 Number of Participants Seminar: 300 Number of Publications: 2 Press Coverage TV: X Radio: X Press: X ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Country: India Start of Operation: July 95 Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planned Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: On-going: 8 Completed: 9 Number of Trained Assessors On-going: 0 Completed: 48 Number of Participants Seminar: 790 Workshop: 650 Newsletters Issued: 3 Number of Publications: 5 Press Coverage TV: X Radio: X Press: X --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Country: Mexico Start of Operation: November 95 Overall Assessment of Progress: 0.00 Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: On-going: 6 Completed: 13 Number of Trained Assessors On-going: 7 Completed: 4 Number of Participants Seminar: 960 Workshop: 210 Newsletters Issued: 2 Number of Publications: 3 Press Coverage TV: 0.00 Radio: 0.00 Press: 0.00 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Country: Slovak Republic Start of Operation: November 94 Overall Assessment of Progress: 0.00 Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: Completed: 69 Number of Trained Assessors On-going: 148 Completed: 179 Number of Participants Workshop: 70 Newsletters Issued: 2 Number of Publications: 9 Press Coverage TV: 0.00 Radio: 0.00 Press: 0.00 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Country: Tanzania Start of Operation: August 95 Overall Assessment of Progress: 0.00 Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: On-going: 16 Completed: 16 Number of Trained Assessors On-going: 15 Completed: 0.00 Number of Participants Seminar: 120 Workshop: 50 Newsletters Issued: 1 Number of Publications: 0.00 Press Coverage TV: 0.00 Radio: 0.00 Press: 0.00 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Country: Tunisia Start of Operation: September 94 Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planned Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: On-going: 6 Completed: 14 Number of Trained Assessors Completed: 10 Number of Participants Seminar: 250 Workshop: 650 Newsletters Issued: 1 Number of Publications: 3 Press Coverage TV: X Radio: X Press: X ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Country: Zimbabwe Start of Operation: March 95 Overall Assessment of Progress: Satisfactory, as planned Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: On-going: 8 Completed: 11 Number of Trained Assessors On-going: 7 Completed: 8 Number of Participants On-going: 280 Completed: 190 Newsletters Issued: 1 Number of Publications: 2 Press Coverage Radio: X Press: X ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ALL CENTRES Overall Assessment of Progress: Highly satisfactory, more than planne Number of Plants Which Have Participated in In-Plant Assessments: On-going: 96 Completed: 245 Number of Trained Assessors On-going: 253 Completed: 454 Number of Participants Seminar: 15,090 Workshop: 6,580 Newsletters Issued: 19 Number of Publications: 34 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Note: The exact figures in the table above should be taken with some reservations as the Centres have used slightly different definitions, e.g., to distinguish between seminars and workshops. Overview of Progress per NCPC Brazil Organizational structure The National Cleaner Production Centre of Brazil (BCPC) is located at its host institution, the Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), in Porto Alegre. The office employs 13 staff members. It also relies on external consultants (mechanical and chemical engineers).The activities of BCPC started in July 1995 when the Trust Fund Agreement with SENAI was signed in the presence of the Governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The Centre works closely with STENUM, Austria, who provides consultancy. In-plant assessments The first in-plant assessment organized by the BCPC was in the metalworking sector and involved five medium-scale enterprises in the cities of Porto Alegre and Caxias do Sul. The project started in August 1996, when the first training workshop took place with the assistance of STENUM. In October 1996 the Centre initiated two additional demonstration projects in the agro-industrial sector (slaughterhouse, canned fruits, rice and fishing industry) in Caxias do Sul and Pelotas and one regional project near Porto Alegre. In March and August 1997, international missions took place, their goal being to provide additional technical support to the on-going demonstration projects and to start new ones in specific areas, e.g. development of a regional logistic system for tire production. The in-plant assessments resulted in minimization of hazardous wastes, solid wastes and energy and thereby in substantial monetary savings. A new demonstration project is under way in the footwear sector. Other assessments are planned for the viniculture and dairy sectors. Training In 1995, the BCPC team participated in a workshop on Environment Management Systems, organized by STENUM in Graz, Austria, and took part in the UNIDO-NGO forum on cleaner industrial production in Vienna. In co-operation with the STENUM expert, the BCPC conducted training workshops for the companies participating in in-plant assessments. A total of 22 national consultants are being trained in conjunction with these assessments. Seventeen workshops on the CP methodology for representatives of government institutions, industrial associations and universities in Rio Grande do Sul were held. In total the BCPC has trained 460 people in specific workshops and 62 company staff. A specialization course in CP is planned to be held in 1998 with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Information dissemination The centre■s information strategy includes an indirect campaign (publications and radio talks) and a direct campaign (seminars, presentations and on-site visit). In July 1996 the BCPC started publishing a newsletter -CNTL Informativo■. The management of the BCPC organized 322 awareness seminars. Publications include 2 folders, 1 newsletter, 1 diagnosis paper of the metal-mechanic sector and 3 papers presented to international seminars. The Centre■s staff participated in 38 national seminars and 5 international seminars. Policy Dialogue The BCPC has organized 12 seminars for a total of 300 representatives of the government. In co-operation with the Environmental Committee of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the Centre prepared a comprehensive environmental policy proposal on the application of CP on a sustainable basis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This proposal was submitted to the State Ministry of Environment. China Organizational structure The China National Cleaner Production Centre (CNCPC) is hosted by the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, an institution of the National Environment Protection Agency. The China NCPC has 11 staff members. CNCPC started its activities in June 1995. The CNCPC has provided assistance in setting up 12 associated cleaner production centres and has established a network of 60 institutions engaged in CP in China. The counterpart institution is IVAM, The Netherlands. In-plant assessments Although CNCPC is based in a government institution, most of the in- plant assessments take place in the semi-private sector. To date, CNCPC has undertaken assessments in 66 plants including pulp and paper mills and breweries. The mills expect joint savings of 15 million yuan and the breweries of 4.2 million yuan annually. Company personnel and management as well as representatives from other companies and various semi-governmental and governmental organizations attended the workshops. UNIDO sectoral experts provided technical assistance. CP assessments were initiated in three breweries. Further audits are planned in the pulp and paper, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and metal-finishing sectors. Training To date, the CNCPC has provided training for 12 cleaner production centres in China. Most of these are provincial cleaner production centres. In total, 41 consultants have been trained in CP. In June 1997, the CNCPC started a training programme on ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems. The training focuses on CP as a tool for achieving targets set under the ISO 14001 Management System. A one-week training course was offered to senior officers of the Moroccan Ministry of Industry and Trade in November 1996. Information dissemination CNCPC produces a newsletter every two months and prepares training materials for self-audits. A documentary on CP was produced for broadcasting on Chinese state television. Guidelines have been produced for five sectors among which are the metal finishing, organic chemicals, silk dyeing and printing sectors. CNCPC also updated the Chinese World Bank Cleaner Production audit manual. The centre has trained 4,220 people at focussed workshops and 9,388 people have participated in awareness raising seminars. The CNCPC is in the process of establishing a network of CP actors in China. At the first meeting it drew together 66 Chinese organizations that are interested in CP. Most of these organizations can play a facilitating role in introducing the concept country-wide. CNCPC also presented papers at several meetings, including the First Asian-Pacific Meeting on the Establishment of Regional Hazardous Wastes Centres, held at Beijing, and organized by the Basel Convention, and the Fourth High Level Seminar on Cleaner Production at Oxford, UK, organized by UNEP, in September 1996 Policy Dialogue The CNCPC has been lobbying for a long time for the inclusion of CP into environmental impact assessments and for establishment of a national certification system for CP consultants. These efforts are about to bear fruit. Czech Republic Organizational structure The Czech Cleaner Production Centre (CCPC) is an independent non- governmental organization. The office consists of four staff members. CCPC cooperates closely with a network of national CP experts who were trained in a three-year-long capacity building programme financed by the Government of Norway. CCPC became operational in January 1995. Cooperation with the counterpart institution STENUM (Austria) started in March of that year. In-plant assessments In 1995, CCPC started three demonstration projects in different places: in the city of Decin in Northern Bohemia, in the city of Zlin, and in a cluster of municipalities on the upper reaches of the Svitava River. The municipalities of Decin and Zlin are making financial contributions to the programme. The main results of these demonstration projects are documented in 25 case studies. Assessments in the Svitava area are now being conducted exclusively by national experts. In May 1997, the CCPC started a long-term training course on integrating EMS (environment management systems) and CP. The aim of this course is to train 15 national experts on CP+EMS and to implement this system in 6 companies. Training CCPC has trained 61 national CP experts, and 74 representatives from the private and public sector participated in specific workshops. Graduates of the training programme have joined the Association of Managers for Cleaner Production (AMCP), which provides training and advisory service to national industry. The CCPC is providing experts in implementing CP projects in Croatia and Uzbekistan. Information dissemination With the financial support of the Ministry of Industry, CCPC has developed a CP manual for Czech industries. The centre has also published a manual for the state administration. In November 1996, CCPC and two Czech companies participated in the expert forum -Cleaner Industrial Production in Central and Eastern Europe: Technology Transfer and New Opportunities for Cooperation■. The forum was organized by UNIDO in cooperation with the Austrian non- governmental organization OEGUT. Policy Dialogue CCPC submitted to the Ministry of Environment a report focusing on CP priority sectors, the application for CP labeling of products, the country■s CP potential and a plan on how to realize it. At the beginning of 1997, CCPC was selected by the Ministry of Environment to act as counterpart for a CP programme in Croatia that is being financed by the Government of the Czech Republic. The director of CCPC has been appointed as one of the five members of the Executive Committee of the European Round Table of Central and Eastern European Countries. Hungary Organizational structure The National Cleaner Production Centre of Hungary (HCPC) is located at its host institution, the Budapest University of Economic Science, and cooperates with a number of national institutions involved in CP in Hungary. The office consists of five staff members, including the director. The NCPC affiliate opened in Miskolc in January 1998. HCPC started preparatory activities in January 1997 and prepared a work plan, which the advisory board discussed and approved on 8 May 1997. The official inauguration of the HCPC took place on 12 May 1997.The advisory board met on 9 December 1997 and revised the work plan and the budget of the NCPC. The counterpart to the Centre is STENUM, Graz, Austria. In-plant assessments Currently the HCPC is preparing the first workshop for two regional CP projects in Salgotarjan and Dorog. These projects are based on the koprofit methodology, which has been developed by STENUM, and are carried out in close co-operation with the two municipalities. Training In September the staff of the centre and 7 national experts took part in an in-depth CP training, which was organized by STENUM in Graz, Austria. The topic "cleaner production" has been included in the curriculum of environment management courses at the University of Economics. Information dissemination The director and the staff of the centre have organized various CP awareness seminars in Hungary. The HCPC has been requested to organize the following two international conferences: TECHCOM in May 1998 and the European Cleaner Production Round table in 1999. Policy Dialogue The HCPC is participating in the establishment of a national accreditation body for EMS (environment management systems) and is member of the National Accreditation Committee. Also, the HCPC is taking part in the development of economic and legal conditions in order to promote the CP concept, e.g. creation of an environmental insurance system for companies, where the fee is based on the environmental performance of the company. India Organizational structure The National Cleaner Production Centre of India (ICPC) is based at the National Productivity Council in New Delhi but is an independent entity. The office consists of three staff members, including the director. India has a well-organized network of productivity councils that has proved to be very effective for the promotion of CP. The advisory board consists of six members from the Council, government institutions and the Confederation of Indian Industry. ICPC was able to start its activities in July 1995. The centre is very advanced at the technical level and has now started to receive requests from state governments who are willing to pay up to US$ 140,000 for the establishment of regional centres. The counterpart recently changed from DTI, Denmark, to IVAM Environmental Research, The Netherlands. In-plant assessments ICPC developed a checklist with criteria based on those used by the EP3 programme of the United States Agency for International Development for the selection of sectors and companies. Using this checklist, it selected five sectors for assessments: edible oils, dairy, hosiery, electroplating and dyes and dye intermediates. The hosiery sector was selected for the first demonstration (nine companies). ICPC received assistance from a DTI expert in textiles. Late in 1996, the centre started in-plant assessments in four textile dyeing factories. Part of the assessment is a CP circle. This is a group of companies that could not be directly involved in the assessments, but that follow the project and apply the lessons learned in the assessment. The group is guided through regular meetings organized by the centre. After the ICPC has conducted the first assessments, private consultants trained by the centre are, in some cases, able to continue with assessments on a cost recovering basis. Training Together with regional cleaner production centres and branch organizations, ICPC organizes CP workshops. In 1995, five workshops attracted 200 people. In 1996, the workshops attracted another 300 participants. The centre is also assisting the National Institute of Small-scale Industry Extension Training in developing CP courses. The centre has trained a total of 48 CP consultants. Information dissemination Awareness programmes are being developed with regional productivity centres and industry associations. So far 15 of these workshops have been conducted. Several awareness workshops were held in collaboration with other organizations such as the Association of Women Entrepreneurs of Karnataka in Bangalore. A CP round table conference and a workshop for the hotel industry were also organized. A total of 1,440 persons have participated in the workshops and seminars organized by the ICPC. Another 600 were addressed during events organized by other organizations. The ICPC has also participated in several international meetings. ICPC has published a booklet, -Cleaner industrial production: all you wanted to know but could not ask■, and a guide, -From waste to profits: guidelines for waste minimization■. It also distributes a technical manual and a video on the DESIRE project. TV presentations were given. Policy Dialogue A study assessing the existing industrial and environmental policies with respect to CP has been started. The study will also formulate appropriate policy measures that can be taken to promote and stimulate the adoption of CP by Indian industries. Mexico Organizational structure The National Cleaner Production Centre of Mexico (MCPC) is based at its host institution, the Instituto Polite'cnico Nacional at Mexico City. The activities of MCPC started in December 1995, when the modalities of operation were signed and the director was nominated. The office employs five staff, including the director. The MCPC signed a working agreement with Canacintra (an industry association for SMEs) and cooperates closely with the EP3 programme of the United States Agency for International Development. The counterpart institutions are the University of Massachusetts, USA, and IVAM, The Netherlands. In-plant assessments In February 1996, the director and deputy director of MCPC participated in a one-week training programme at an EP3 demonstration project involving in-bond assembly plants in the Reynosa-Matamoros area near the northern border of Mexico. In August 1996 the first assessment for the electroplating sector began. The six participating companies cooperated closely with international experts from EP3 and the MCPC. Based on the results of this project, a CP manual was elaborated and presented at a workshop for the electroplating sector. Currently, five companies are taking part in a second phase of the project. In February 1997, the MCPC started the second assessment project in the foundry sector. The project involves seven companies from four cities: San Luis Potosi, Quere'taro, Me'xico D.F. and Saltillo. The project is carried out with the assistance of international CP experts from IVAM and a UNIDO senior expert in the foundry sector. The third assessment project was initiated in September 1997 and involves seven companies from the chemical sector. Training In cooperation with the Lowell Center of the University of Massachusetts, the first in-depth training activities started in August 1996, when national experts and the staff of MCPC received training in the CP concept. In September 1997 the MCPC organized a train-the-trainer workshop with the assistance of the Lowell Center. In all, 1,170 representatives from the private and public sector participated in the awareness seminars and workshops, not including those held in conjunction with in-plant assessments. Information dissemination Nine hundred people participated in the inaugural meeting of the Advisory Committee in June 1996. On that occasion the director of MCPC held a seminar for the participants to raise their awareness of CP. The Centre has issued two publications in cooperation with the Instituto Polite'cnico Nacional and has obtained television, radio and press coverage. Policy Dialogue Policy dialogue recently started with the Ministry of Environment. Slovakia Organizational structure The National Cleaner Production Centre of Slovakia (SCPC) is based at the Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. SCPC started operation in February 1995, when 35 CP advisers and trainers completed the Norwegian-financed programme. Cooperation with the counterpart institution STENUM started in the same month. Like the NCPCs in the Czech Republic and Hungary, SCPC follows the method applied by STENUM in the koprofit project in Graz, Austria; the method focuses on cities and regions. In-plant assessments In April 1995, SCPC organized the first workshop of the regional assessment project in the city of Martin. The ten participating companies represent various sectors, such as brewery, energy supply, metallurgy (Martin Metal), agriculture, glass production (Skloobal Nemsovar), hospital and wood furniture. In February 1996, the second regional assessment project started in the city of Trnava. Nine companies from the agro-industry and the chemical industry sectors, and the municipality of Trnava are participating in this project. In April 1997 the results of the Trnava project were officially presented. In 1997 two new regional CP projects in Trencin and Ruzomberok were initiated. These projects are carried out only by national experts. Training In November 1995, 11 Slovak experts participated in a five-day workshop on environmental management systems (EMS), organized by STENUM. During the demonstration projects in Martin and Trnava, ten consultants received in-depth training in CP. In total - including the Norwegian CP project - the centre has trained 186 national CP experts, consultants and managers. In 1997 the SCPC has created a Club of national CP experts and managers. In October 1997 a long-term training course on EMS and CP was started. Similar to the training organized by the Czech Centre, the EMS+CP course focuses on training of 15 national experts and implementation of EMS+CP at five national companies, to meet the demands of ISO 14000. Information dissemination In its first 36 months of operation, the SCPC organized 28 CP workshops and introductory seminars for participants from industry, services, municipalities and research and development institutions. It published a 28-page brochure on the Slovak CP programme, one newsletter and seven articles in bulletins and newspapers, and received press and radio coverage. A conference on cleaner production in Slovakia was held in June 1996. At that time, the Club of Cleaner Production Experts and Managers was formed. In February 1997, the most recent meeting of the Club■s steering committee took place in Bratislava. In September 1996, in cooperation with SUSTAIN Austria, SCPC organized an international conference with the theme "High Tech and Sustainability". In the same month, the director participated in the Fourth High Level Seminar on Cleaner Production at Oxford, organized by UNEP. In November 1996, SCPC and two Slovak companies participated in the expert forum "Cleaner Industrial Production in Central and Eastern Europe: Technology Transfer and New Opportunities for Cooperation". The forum was organized by UNIDO in cooperation with the Austrian non- governmental organization OEGUT. About 100 representatives of the Austrian public and private sector participated. In 1997 the SCPC organized the second Slovak Cleaner Production Conference and the conference -Glass Industry and Environment■. Policy Dialogue SCPC prepared several reports for the Government and the Ministry of Economy, the most important ones being "Cleaner Technologies in Slovak Industry" and "Development of Biotechnologies". In addition, it proposed that the Ministry of Economy should include CP in its document "Industrial Policy in the Slovak Republic". This proposal was approved by the country■s Parliament. United Republic of Tanzania Organizational structure The National Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania (TCPC) is hosted by the Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization (TIRDO). It has five staff members. The advisory board consists of representatives from industry, government, NGOs, the University of Dar- es-Salaam and TIRDO. The TCPC started in August 1995. The counterpart institution is the Danish Technical University (DTU). In-plant assessments Sixteen companies have now completed in-plant assessments and a further 16 are still on-going. The first assessments involved six companies from Dar-es-Salaam. Most of these companies are situated in a residential area, and the pollution they generate has been of concern to families living in the neighborhood and to the city of Dar-es-Salaam. When the Vice-President recently decided to take action against the polluting factories in these areas and went on an inspection round to close the worst cases, he was impressed by the results achieved by the assessments and has since emerged as a strong promoter of CP and the Centre . Ten companies from the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba participated in a second round of assessments. Although all in-plant assessments are ongoing, some companies have already made substantial savings. TCPC actively participated in the final workshop of the CEPITA project, a DANIDA-sponsored CP project. It is investigating how to best use the experience and results of the CEPITA project in follow-up activities. The centre has already decided to continue to help the companies in implementing the various options and in integrating CP into their management system. The TCPC successfully integrated health and safety aspects into its in-plant assessments. Now, the companies provide support to the Factories Inspectorate when they visit their factory to advise them on health and safety issues. Training Four CP training workshops have been conducted by the Centre for technical personnel from selected industries and stakeholders. Sixty-nine participants drawn from the 16 companies with completed assessments, factory inspectorate, city council, government and non-government organizations have been trained in the basic skills needed for conducting a CP assessment. Fifteen of these are now undergoing further training to qualify as CP consultants. Information dissemination The Centre conducted two awareness seminars and one dissemination seminar for about 120 chief executives and policy-makers drawn from selected industry and its associations, R&D institutions, government departments and organizations, environmental management agencies, NGOs, consultancy firms and media institutions. The Centre has also collected a number of CP publications in electronic and hard copies. It has distributed 1000 copies of the Centre■s CP Newsletter and 3000 copies of its brochure. The Centre has excellent connections to the press and has had extensive press coverage of its activities and of the concept of CP. The interviews which the Vice-President of Tanzania has given on CP in support of the centre have also been very helpful in supporting the concept in Tanzania. Policy Dialogue The centre has been very active in interacting with policy makers, industry executives and other stakeholders in the policy formation process. Because of this, the CP concept has been incorporated into the National Environmental Policy (draft) and the Sustainable Industrial Development Policy (1996 - 2000). Tunisia Organizational structure The Centre de Production Plus Propre Tunisien (CP3) was established with the help of the United States Agency for International Development in 1993. As from 1996 UNIDO/UNEP started supporting CP3. The Tunis International Centre for Environmental Technologies (CITET) is now about to establish a CP unit. CITET has an impressive range of activities needed to properly embody the CP concept into related issues. It is consequently a suitable host institution for an NCPC. The modalities of merging the efforts of CP3 with CITET are now being worked out. The counterpart institution for the NCPC in Tunisia is the World Cleaner Production Society of Norway. As CP3 has been active for nearly three years, it has built up an impressive record. Although the methods used are different from those used in the NCPC programme, the work can be described in similar terms. In-plant assessments Eleven in-plant assessments have been undertaken by experts from the United States supported by CP3. The experts used different methods and concentrated on no-cost and low-cost options. The new programme introduced a methodology for capacity building which focuses on training of factory personnel. In 1996 and the first part of 1997, CP3 carried out in-plant assessments in 6 textile dyeing and leather tanning companies. The World Cleaner Production Society will assist CITET and CP3 acting as a consultant to CITET. It is expected that 17 experts in CP will be trained and 15 in-plant assessments will take place starting in January 1998. Training CP3 has conducted nine training activities, together with six awareness-raising seminars, attracting more than 650 industrialists, consultants, government officials and students. It participated in 15 seminars organized by other groups. CP3 also offers training modules on waste management and environmental impact assessment studies. An environmental action programme for hotels is being developed based on a UNEP document, introducing environmental management into day-to-day business. In 1997, CP3 was contracted by the NCPC programme to assist the NCPC in Mexico in preparing a marketing strategy and writing a business plan. Information dissemination CP3 has published a booklet with CP success stories and prepared a CP catalogue describing the experience of CP in Tunisia. It has established a clearing house consisting of a library and an electronic information system. It also participated in May 1996 in the Meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development and in the UNEP Mediterranean Regional Meeting. Policy Dialogue CP 3 has been active in policy dialogue and Cp components have been introduced in industrial modernization projects. Moreover, CITET decided to set up and support a cleaner production unit. Zimbabwe Organizational structure The Cleaner Production Centre of Zimbabwe (CPCZ) is hosted by the Environmental Forum of Zimbabwe. The Forum is a group of Zimbabwean companies concerned about environmental degradation in Zimbabwe. The advisory board consists of members from the Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries, the Institute of Engineers, the Government, universities, the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ), the Forum, SIRDC and two companies. CPCZ began its activities in April 1995. DTI , Denmark, replaced IVAM, The Netherlands, as the counterpart institution providing technical advice on in-plant assessments. The Erasmus University, The Netherlands, assists in education and policy activities. In-plant assessments In 1996, CPCZ carried out 17 in-plant assessments in breweries, sugar-processing factories, foundries and coffee-making. Currently, the centre is carrying out in-plant assessments with the National Railways of Zimbabwe, and small municipality breweries. It charges substantial fees for its services. That the demand for CP assessments exists is indicated by the establishment of a new consulting company by a CP expert trained by the CPCZ. On the request of the CPCZ, the University of Zimbabwe completed an evaluation study of the CPCZ in-plant assessments. Training Training of CP experts included two from SIRDC, one from the Ministry of Energy and five private consultants. The latter are available for the NCPC most of the time, while the rest are available only on a part-time basis. The contacts established with universities resulted in three seminars for lecturers and students. The two universities assigned four final year engineering students for their final year projects to the CPCZ; they were involved in undertaking in-plant assessments. One master degree student was also under the supervision of the director of the CPCZ for his final thesis in 1997. A degree program is under development with the National University of Science and Technology (Bulawayo), while the University of Zimbabwe is initiating a master■s course in engineering with CP inclusions in the syllabus. Information dissemination A two-day workshop for central and local government authorities plus industrial associations drew many participants. This resulted in the request by participants for regional and tailor-made workshops for different groups; five workshops have since been conducted for local authorities including three for the directors of works of municipalities (Bulawayo, Gweru and Harare) followed by two workshops for councilors (politicians). The Centre has been invited to numerous workshops on pollution prevention, waste management, climate change (Geneva), and CP (Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft, Berlin). It has been asked by the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation for help in preparing a programme on CP. Policy dialogue In March 1996, a policy workshop was conducted for government officials. Together with the Government, CPCZ is developing a plan to integrate the concept of CP into government policy. In the future, emphasis will be put on the link between CP and policy at the municipal level. Annex I : CONTACT PERSONS AND ADDRESSES National Cleaner Production Centres Carlos Adilio Maia do Nascimento, Director National Cleaner Production Centre of Brazil SENAI Av. Assis Brasil 8450 91140-000 Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Fax: + 555 13 478848 Tel: + 555 13 478849/ 3400811 e-mail: email@example.com Ning Duan, Director China National Cleaner Production Centre Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences Anwai Beiyuan Beijing 100012 People■s Republic of China Fax: + 86 10 649 01 532 Tel: + 86 10 649 01 533 642 32255-233 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Vladimir Dobes, Director Czech Cleaner Production Centre Politickych Veznu 13 11000 Praha 1 Czech Republic Tel: + 420 2 260620 Fax: + 420 2 260639 e-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Sa'ndor Kerekes, Director National Cleaner Production Centre of Hungary Budapest University of Economic Science F_va'm ter 8 Hungary Fax/phone: +36 1 2188 076 Tel: +36 1 217 9588 e-mail: GKD_skerekes@pegasus.bke.hu S. P. Chandak, Director National Cleaner Production Centre of India 5-6 Institutional Area Lodi Road, New Delhi 110 003 India Fax: + 91 11 4625013 or 4615002 Tel: + 91 11 4611243 or 4625013 e-mail: email@example.com Guillermo Roman, Director Centro Mexicano para la Produccio'n Ma's Limpia Avenida Politecnico s/n Edificio 9 de Laboratorios Pesados Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos Zacatenco, 007738 Mexico, D.F. Fax: + 525 729 6202 Tel: + 525 729 6201 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or: email@example.com Viera Feckova, Director Slovak Cleaner Production Centre at Slovak Technical University Pionierska 15 83102 Bratislava Slovak Republic Fax: + 421 7 259 015 Tel: + 421 7 259 015 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com C.L.C. Migiro, Director NCPC of Tanzania Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization P.O. Box 23235 Dar-es-Salaam United Republic of Tanzania Fax: + 255 51 668147 Tel: + 255 51 668105/668979 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Khalil Attia General Manager Centre International des Technologies de Environnement de Tunis Boulevard de l■environnement 1080 Tunis Tunisia Fax: +2161 772 255 Tel: +2161 770 285/770 998 Rachid Nafti, Director Centre de Production Plus Propre Colise'e Soula, Escalier D, 2e`me e'tage 2092 El Manar II Tunisia Fax: + 216 1 870 766 Tel: + 216 1 872 688 E-mail: email@example.com Lewin Mombemuriwo, Director Zimbabwe Cleaner Production Centre c/o UNIDO Office 67-69 Union Avenue P.O. Box BW 1635 Borrowdale, Harare Zimbabwe Fax: + 263 4 731779, 723963 Tel: + 263 4 731778/9, 792681 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org NCPC Programme office at UNIDO NCPC Programme Environment and Energy Branch Industrial Sectors and Environment Division Vienna International Centre P.O. Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria Fax: + 43 1 21131 6803 Tel switchboard: + 43 1 21131 0 e-mail: email@example.com Home page: http://www.unido.org Ralph Luken, Chief Cleaner Industrial Production Unit tel: + 43 1 21131 3352 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Igor Volodin Programme Manager tel: + 43 1 21131 3938 e-mail: email@example.com Petra Schwager Programme Officer Latin America tel: + 43 1 21131 3749 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Nils Hogsted Programme Officer Asia and Africa tel: + 43 1 21131 5375 e-mail: email@example.com Paul Burgers Assistant Programme Officer Africa tel: +43 1 21131 0 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Elisabeth Slowiak Finance tel: +43 1 21131 6732 E-mail:email@example.com Gertrude Hynek NCPC Publications Tel: +43 1 21131 3942 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Peter Pembleton CP Information Tel: +431 21131 3705 E-mail: email@example.com NCPC Programme office at UNEP UNEP Industry and Environment Tour Mirabeau 39-43 quai Andre' Citroe"n 75739 Paris CEDEX 15, FRANCE tel: + 33 1 44 37 14 50 fax: + 33 1 44 37 14 74 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.unepie.org Jonathan Hobbs Coordinator Cleaner Production Programme tel: + 33 1 44 37 14 77 e-mail: email@example.com Kristina Elvebakken Environmental Affairs Officer Cleaner Production Programme tel: + 33 1 44 37 3006 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Uno Abrahmsen, Advisor Cleaner Production Programme tel: + 33 1 44 37 1422 e-mail: email@example.com Garrette Clarke, Listserver Cleaner Production Programme tel: + 33 1 44 37 1422 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Annex II : GENERAL INFORMATION ON CLEANER PRODUCTION AND THE NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRES PROGRAMME What is Cleaner Production? Cleaner Production (CP) is the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy applied to processes, products and services to increase eco-efficiency and reduce the risks to humans and the environment. For processes, CP includes conserving raw materials and energy, eliminating toxic raw materials and reducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes. For products, CP involves reducing the negative impacts along the life cycle of a product, from raw materials extraction to its ultimate disposal. For services, the strategy focuses on incorporating environmental concerns into designing and delivering services. Experience with CP shows that many improvements can be made in the production processes at no or very little cost, improving both the profitability and the environmental performance. The NCPC Programme aims to transfer this method of reducing resource utilization and discharge of pollutants in a cost-effective way. The UNIDO/UNEP National Cleaner Production Centre Programme The National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPC) programme is a joint initiative by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the United Nations Environment Programme Industry and Environment Programme Activity Centre in Paris (UNEP IEPAC, hereafter referred to as UNEP). UNIDO is the executing agency, with UNEP assisting in the provision of strategic environmental guidance and professional support. UNIDO and UNEP meet regularly to review the progress of the NCPC programme. Phase I of the NCPC programme started in 1994 with the start of eight national cleaner production centres. These eight centres are located in Brazil, China , Czech Republic, India, Mexico, Slovak Republic, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe. The eight centres were selected from solicitations received from 39 institutions in 25 countries. In 1996 Tunisia was included in the programme and in 1997 a centre was established in Hungary. Cleaner production projects, which are expected to lead to the establishment of NCPCs, have started in Uzbekistan, Croatia and Viet Nam. The programme is funded from a number of sources. The Government of the Netherlands funds the centres in China, India, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Mexico, and the Government of Austria funds the centres in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. UNEP also provided substantial funding for the programme in Phase I. The centre in Brazil is funded through a self-financed trust fund. The centre in Tunisia, initially established with assistance from USAID, is supported by Norway. The cleaner production projects are funded by the Czech Republic (Croatia), Japan (Uzbekistan) and Sweden (Viet Nam). Based on the lessons learned during Phase I, Phase II of the programme is now being started. It foresees increased regional expansions in India and China and the establishment of at least 10 additional NCPCs. Countries which are being given high priority include Croatia, Slovenia, Uzbekistan and Viet Nam, (where the cleaner production projects are expected to lead to the establishment of NCPCs) as well as Argentina, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Morocco, Philippines and Russia (where preparatory activities to establish an NCPC are on-going) Other countries are invited to submit or resubmit applications. It should be noted that the ultimate decision to establish centres will depend on funding from donor and/or recipient countries. The same solicitation procedure used for Phase I is being followed for Phase II. Evaluation missions and project planning workshops will be undertaken to select host organizations that will best house the centres. Objectives of the National Cleaner Production Centres Programme The ultimate goal of the NCPC programme is to increase the application of CP in industry and to incorporate the concept into national environmental policy. To realize this goal, the programme establishes NCPCs to facilitate the transfer of CP information and CP technology to industrial enterprises and environmental management agencies. This transfer of information and technology is not only north to south, but also south to south. The Four Core Services of NCPCs The centres provide four services: in-plant assessments, training, information dissemination, and policy dialogue. The four activities are interrelated and strongly support one another, as described below. The organization of in-plant assessments is an important service that generates CP success stories. In-plant assessments can show how the CP concept works in the given country and also provide opportunities for hands-on training for plant personnel. The NCPC demonstration follows a method based on the PRISMA project, which has been successfully implemented in the Netherlands. The method proved to be suitable for small- and medium-sized companies during the UNIDO implemented DESIRE project (DEmonstration in Small Industries for Reducing wastE) in India. The results of in-plant assessments are profitable CP options that have been implemented and sustained. The training service is linked to the in-plant assessments, as training of company staff and consultants takes place during these assessments. Training is also conducted outside plants through workshops, seminars and in-depth technical training. These training activities are conducted to raise the CP capacity and awareness of branch organizations, government agencies, educational and research institutes, and consultants. The information dissemination service is crucial in creating a CP network within a country and among countries. Within each country, the NCPC can provide technical information such as available technologies for solving environmental problems, share experience with interested partners through the submission of case-studies, and promote the centre■s activities. All centres are being connected to the Internet, which provides access to a wide variety of environmental information, including the UNIDO and UNEP home pages with information on CP (case studies, sectoral reviews and technologies), the NCPC Programme home page and to e-mail. The centres have also been equipped with numerous UNEP and UNIDO technical manuals and policy guides on CP and environmental management, UNEP's diskette database on CP (International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC)), and periodicals enable them to access and provide the most current information on CP. The NCPCs and support institutions are also connected by the e-mail conferencing network (NCPC-NET), which provides a platform for discussions and exchange of information. Policy dialogue promotes effective policy frameworks which accommodate preventive environmental management. This not only involves administrative measures like licensing, but also economic instruments such as duty and fee systems for waste disposal and pricing of raw materials and energy. The NCPCs assess the existing policies and provide recommendations on how to better incorporate CP considerations. The centres have access to policy studies conducted in various countries and are supported by international institutions which have experience in conducting policy reviews. Continuous Assistance through Counterpart Institution Arrangements The programme has set up a pool of experienced institutions that can assist the NCPCs to achieve their objectives. These institutions, called counterparts, are contracted through the counterpart institution arrangement, which specifies activities to be performed by each counterpart to support the NCPC. The counterparts assist the NCPCs by sharing their experiences in promoting CP and by providing technical expertise to the centres in providing CP services. The duration of the counterpart agreement is three years in principle to give the partners the opportunity to become familiar with each other and the overall NCPC programme. The counterpart institutions are also expected to assist in developing the programme methodology and the long-term strategy for each NCPC. The latter is especially difficult to guide as the considerable differences in the countries lead to significantly different strategies for each NCPC in the long term. Currently, the counterpart institutions include the following organizations: - IVAM of the University of Amsterdam, and - the Erasmus University from the Netherlands - STENUM of the University of Graz from Austria - the Danish Technological Institute (DTI), and - the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) from Denmark - University of Massachusetts at Lowell from the USA, and - the World Cleaner Production Society from Norway (since 1996) The above institutions have been selected as counterparts because of their significant practical experiences in CP and also with consideration to their status as professional organizations linked to development and educational institutions. The services are rendered on a cost-recovery rather than a commercial basis. UNIDO and UNEP plan to engage NCPCs as counterpart institutes during Phase II of the programme as they have accumulated unique knowledge and experience in establishing centres. Currently, the NCPCs from the Czech Republic, India and Tunisia have been added to the pool of counterparts. These centres are also active in providing assistance to other projects on CP and environmental management. To monitor the progress of individual centres and the overall programme, the NCPCs and the counterparts work in close consultation with the staff of UNIDO and UNEP. Annual NCPC meetings The NCPC programme organizes annual meetings to evaluate the progress of the programme, to exchange experience, and to discuss future activities to be undertaken by the centres. The First Annual Meeting of the National Cleaner Production Centres programme was held in Vienna, Austria, from 13 to 15 December 1995, with an excursion to the NCPC in Bratislava. The directors of the NCPCs, representatives of the counterpart institutions and donor countries, and UNIDO/UNEP personnel participated in the meeting. The Second Annual Meeting of the National Cleaner Production Centres programme was held in Inyanga, Zimbabwe, from 25 to 30 November 1996. In addition to the programme review, short training sessions on total cost accounting, environmental management systems and ISO 14000, and business plan preparation were organized. The Third Annual Meeting was held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 6 to 9 November 1997, and mainly discussed issues for entering Phase II of the NCPC programme (programme strategy and new project document). The meeting also included training sessions on marketing, business planning, integration of EMS and CP and on-line CP information systems. The meeting was attended by the directors of the NCPCs, representatives from the international counterpart institutions, experts from the Swiss Government, GTZ and the Netherlands Management Cooperation Programme, representatives from UNIDO, UNEP and the Thailand Environment Institute. Reports of the annual meetings are available upon request from UNIDO or UNEP. Organizational Structure The programme has a relatively lean organizational structure. Each NCPC is directed by an experienced country national, hosted within a local organization, and receives guidance from a national advisory board. Local host organizations provide infrastructure and a support mechanism to the centres' operations. For successful capacity building, it is crucial to form partnerships with local organizations that are willing to invest resources for promoting CP. Host organizations make both financial and in-kind contributions to the centre, such as secondment of personnel, office facilities and equipment. This arrangement has been effective in building ownership of the activities in each country, and has also minimized operational costs. The following institutions are currently hosting the NCPCs: - Brazil: Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (National Industrial Training Association) - China: China Research Academy for Environmental Science - Czech Republic: Independent Non-Governmental Organization - Hungary: Budapest University of Economic Science - India: National Productivity Council - Mexico: Instituto Politecnico Nacional (National Polytechnic Institute) - Slovakia: Slovak Technical University - Tanzania: Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization - Tunisia: Tunis International Centre for Environmental Technologies - Zimbabwe: Environmental Forum of Zimbabwe A Modality of Operation has been signed by each host institution and UNIDO to specify inputs to be provided by UNIDO/UNEP and the host organization, and activities to be undertaken by the NCPC. Each NCPC establishes an advisory board to obtain guidance on the centre's activities and to get support for its operations. The advisory board solicits representation from the most important "CP players" in the country, such as representatives from industrial organizations, Ministries of Industry, Environment, and Economy, as well as from education and research institutions. The NCPC director and local UNIDO/UNEP representatives are included. Individual companies are also represented occasionally. The average total annual budget provided to each NCPC is approximately US$ 200,000. Each director has an annual discretionary budget of approximately US$ 40,000, which is allocated for national consultants and other expenses. UNIDO administers the remainder of the budget in consultation with the centres to recruit counterpart institution staff as well as other international experts. UNIDO's Cleaner Production Unit, within the Environment and Energy Branch, is responsible for programme administration, development, monitoring and fund raising. The Cleaner Production Programme of UNEP is responsible for the UNEP contribution of the NCPC Programme, such as information, networking and policy advice. First Year Evaluation An independent evaluation of the NCPC Programme was commissioned at the end of 1995. The evaluation report recommended adjustments and improvements for Phase II of the programme. It also recognized the relevance of the NCPC Programme and its unique potential role in the eco- efficient industrial development of the targeted countries. The report concluded the following: -...it must be recognized that the UNIDO/UNEP programme design provides a unique set-up in terms of offering a profound infrastructure for international co-operation and networking between CP-actors throughout the world, which bilateral programmes cannot provide." Lessons Learned With the first two years of the programme completed, many issues and ideas on how to improve the NCPC programme have been identified through the annual meetings, independent evaluations and daily operations. The following summarizes some of the lessons learned so far: - A five-year project period is necessary to develop an NCPC to function as a catalyst and a service-oriented unit. - People trained in CP need to be recognized for their specialist abilities. UNIDO and UNEP are testing the Cleaner Production Best Practice Guide of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Tunisia, to see if it can form the basis for a system for the certification of CP experts. - The CP message needs to be incorporated into and promoted with emerging issues of interest, such as Environmental Management Systems and ISO 14001. Certification should not be the only goal of introducing EMS and ISO 14001. The main goal should be improved environmental performance. With CP, NCPCs can work with enterprises to introduce continual improvement that achieves environmental goals and economic efficiency. Additional work needs to be done to clarify the relationship between EMS and CP, and to train the NCPCs. This research is underway at UNEP and UNIDO. - Sector-specific technical expertise should be developed. The NCPCs are centres of excellence in CP and its applications. While the methodology is applicable to all industrial sectors, there are limits on the ability of companies and, to some extent the CP experts, to identify technical opportunities. To respond to this need, the programme is developing projects that combine the methodological CP approach with sector specific expertise. - The possibility of working with other environmental services, including end-of-pipe solutions, needs to be considered to provide a comprehensive solution to achieve compliance, even though CP should clearly remain the preferred strategy. While CP enables a company to reduce its pollution load in a cost-effective manner, in some cases standards can only be met by combining CP and end-of-pipe treatment. This is more relevant if legislation is based predominantly on the command-and-control approach. - Networking and programme interaction can help in building mutually supportive mechanisms. Although national circumstances differ, many challenges and solutions for CP are universal. The annual meetings and information networking have helped in providing a platform for centre personnel to learn from each other's experiences and to avoid duplication of efforts. Additional efforts will be made to share the NCPC experiences with other CP practitioners outside the NCPC network and to catalyze the establishment of NCPC-like programmes. - Emphasis should fall on enhancing capacity to ensure local ownership and continuity beyond donor dependence. Cost and responsibility sharing make each NCPC a multi-stakeholder institution. There is a need to consult both the demand side (i.e. industry) and the supply side (i.e. donors and governments) to ensure that the local capacity developed adequately addresses the needs and demands within the country. - An integrated programme, rather than project, approach needs to be used for sustainable CP implementation. The NCPCs need to include in their plans of action both the micro level (in-plant assessments) and macro level (policy advice) to make CP sustainable within a country. UNIDO and UNEP developed a strategy which incorporates those lessons learned to improve the services of the NCPC programme. In this connection, a strategy document has been prepared. Annex III : SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS Technical manuals and reports: Breweries, dairy, electronics, fertilizers, hotels, iron foundries, leather tanning, metal finishing, non-ferrous metals ore mining, nickel, pulp and paper, sugar refineries, textiles (UNIDO and UNEP). Other manuals and reports: Strategies and policy for CP, environmental auditing, hazardous wastes, emission reduction, chemical accidents, transport, environmental compliance, life-cycle assessment, eco-designs (UNIDO and UNEP). Training and Information: - Cleaner Production - A Training Resource Package (trainers handbook), UNEP, 1996 Trainers - Trainers Workbooks in brewing, leather and textile wet processing, UNEP, 1996 - International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse, Diskette, Version II, UNEP, 1996 - Trade Implications of International Standards for Quality and Environmental Management Systems, Survey results, UNIDO/ISO, 1996 - DESIRE - -From Waste to Profits■ - the Indian experience: case studies, methodology for waste minimization, video, UNIDO, 1995. - Environmental Action Pack for Hotels, IHA/IHEI/UNEP, 1995. - ESID: -Ecologically Sustainable Industrial Development■, 10 learning units, 7 short films on video, diskettes with data base, case studies and project document sample, 3 booklets, learning recall tape, UNIDO, 1994. Case studies: - NCPC Programme Case Studies, UNIDO/UNEP, 1997. - Cleaner Industrial Production, Demonstration projects, UNIDO, 1995. - Cleaner Production Worldwide, Volume I, 1993 and Volume II, 1996, UNEP. - Cleaner Production in the APEC Region, UNEP, 1994. Periodicals: - Industry and Environment Review (quarterly) with CP Newsletter (bi-annually) as a supplement, UNEP, IE. - Sustainable Industrial Development Network Newsletter (annually), UNIDO. Videos: (*) - "Sustainable Industrial Development", 10 min/English. French and Spanish under preparation, UNIDO, 1997. - "Cleaner Production: - A Global Trend", 14 min/English/German. French and Spanish under preparation, UNIDO, 1996. - "National Cleaner Production Centres", 9 min/English/Spanish, UNIDO, 1996. - "Ganancias sin Residuos", 14 min/Spanish, UNIDO, 1996. - "From Waste to Profits - the Indian experience", 10 min/English, UNIDO, 1996. ---------- (*) All videos available in VHS, Please specify colour system (PAL, SECAM or NTSC).
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Date last posted: 8 December 1999 15:15:30