Commission on Sustainable Development Background Paper No. 27 Sixth Session 20 April-1 May 1998 CASE STUDIES - MAJOR GROUPS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PAGES 3 - 4 WOMEN PAGES 5 - 14 CHILDREN & YOUTH PAGES 15 - 23 INDIGENOUS PEOPLES PAGES 24 - 38 NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS PAGES 39 - 50 LOCAL AUTHORITIES PAGES 51 - 61 WORKERS & TRADES UNIONS PAGES 62 - 70 BUSINESS & INDUSTRY PAGES 71 - 79 SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY PAGES 80 - 89 FARMERS PAGES 90 - 98 INTRODUCTION The present collection of case studies on the Role of Major Groups in Sustainable Development Education is prepared as a background paper for the sixth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development which will discuss sustainable development education among other topics. The case studies were collected with two starting points in mind: (i) the crucial importance of education and awareness raising in achieving sustainable development, and (ii) the particular role of Major Groups in sustainable development in general, and in sustainable development education in particular. For the purposes of this collection, sustainable development education was defined broadly, as forms of learning for a sustainable future whether concerned with knowledge, skills, awareness, or attitude. Similarly, the cases studies include learning in all contexts, informal and formal, as well as learning for all stages of life. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992), clearly indicated that participation of economic and social actors from outside the governmental and inter-governmental fora is crucial in achieving the goals of Agenda 21. To promote partnership, Agenda 21 identified nine key economic and social sectors, under the concept of major groups to underline the importance of broad- based participation in follow up of the Rio results. The major groups identified in Section III of Agenda 21 are women, children and youth, indigenous peoples, non government organisations (NGOs), local authorities, workers and trades unions, business and industry, the scientific and technological community, and farmers. Distinct chapters of Agenda 21 (from 23-32) put forth the framework of roles and responsibilities for each major group as well as the kinds of support they would need from Governments and UN Agencies to fulfill their tasks as partners in sustainable development. The nine major groups are the source and the authors of the case-studies assembled here. Although certainly not exhaustive of all the major group efforts in sustainable development education, the collection attempts to be broadly representative of activities from a range of geographical areas and socio-economic conditions. Additionally, it seeks to include examples demonstrating the extent and diversity of the educational activities being undertaken. To achieve this, the selection of material was performed, whenever possible, in partnership with leading organizations from the major groups concerned. The case studies depict the major groups as much more than passive recipients of education. They are revealed as dynamic and imaginative providers of programmes that are of immediate relevance for building sustainable development. It is hoped that the significance of the enterprise and energy captured in these case-studies will be apparent to all who read them. They present an eloquent case for support and encouragement of the education initiatives of major groups. The present collection is not a comprehensive or exhaustive volume but gives a sense of the ownership major groups demonstrate about the goals of Agenda 21 related to education. There are many more successes in this area which need to be identified, absorbed from and disseminated for replication. The case-studies also point to an important factor regarding the support needed by major groups for their positive initiatives. Major groups are committed to carrying out their responsiblies in sustainable development, but their continued success largely depends on enabling environments. This is an area in which further and strategic action by governments and international organizations is needed. Sustainable development requires significant changes in the mind-set whether it is about changing the way goods are produced and consumed, the way we set our political and social priorities, or about the way we sense the dangers to the planet■s ecosystem. In other words, sustainable development is about learning to make different decisions than we have made in the past. Education is the key if we are to learn to make the right decisions today and in the future. ---------- The Division for Sustainable Development would like to thank all the major group organizations who submitted materials for use in this collection. The Division would also like to thank and recognize the assistance of Trevor Harvey, the Northern Co-Chair of the CSD NGO Education Caucus, with the collection of materials, consultations with the submitting organizations and preparing the first draft. WOMEN Agenda 21, Chapter 24 PUTTING BREAST CANCER ON THE MAP Awareness about Causes of Breast Cancer as a Key to Sustainable Living for All Introduction The Women's Environmental Network (WEN) is a non-profit organisation that aims to educate, inform and empower women who care about the environment. It is the only environmental group in the UK representing women that addresses not only environmental issues particularly affecting women, but also and those affecting the wider population. We are also one of the few groups in the country to make the connection between health and the environment. This has been so since WEN's launch in 1988. WEN considers environmental issues from a female perspective. Our campaigns and projects address issues that are directly relevant to women's everyday lives - yet have an impact on us all. Some WEN members are men, and organisations can affiliate. In all our campaigns, raising public awareness of the issues covered, and uncovering and disseminating information are integral components. Through educational activities of this type WEN gives people a choice of actions they can take at various levels, such as in their personal lives, shopping habits, or by their own activism. Other current campaigns include: - Food Transport Campaign - (promotes locally produced food, farmers' markets and local food projects); - Waste Prevention Campaign (initiated the Waste Minimisation Bill which now has Government support; this gives local authorities a new power to address the sources of waste); and - Test Tube Harvest Campaign adopting the precautionary principle, this calls for a moratorium on genetically engineered crops All of the above campaigns have a local as well as national focus and fit well with gaining greater understanding and control over local influences on health. WEN campaigns have generally had excellent scientific backing. Background to breast cancer project WEN started soon after its launch in 1988 with a campaign to eliminate chlorine bleaching from paper production to prevent dioxin contamination around paper mills and in the paper products themselves. The campaign was centred around sanitary protection and babies' disposable nappies, and received an enormous response from women. These products had been perceived as clean and sterile, but were revealed to be industrial products that were causing considerable pollution, and actually contained measurable amounts of dioxins from the bleaching process. The campaign had a world-wide impact. It achieved a drop in chlorine use throughout the range of paper production. This included products in contact with food such as milk cartons. At that time, dioxin contamination in body-fat was just coming to the notice of the Government, and concern was raised about levels in breast-milk. WEN brought together a group of organisations concerned with breast-feeding and held discussions with environmental scientists. A published report Chlorine, Pollution and the Parents of Tomorrow (1991) resulted. This looked at the sources for dioxins in UK body-fat, and the possible health effects that might result (especially on the foetus). It found that the main source of chlorine in the UK was not bleaching, but incineration - mainly of municipal waste. Many industrial products contain chlorine in forms such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic. Incineration resulted in the production of airborne dioxins that entered the food chain via grass and cows. The report concluded that damage to the foetal nervous system was likely in a small percentage of babies in the UK. In addition, it concluded that breast-feeding did not add to this problem. On the contrary, it had other health advantages. This report helped many grassroots anti-incinerator campaigns and contributed to the work Greenpeace is now doing on PVC phase out which now has mainstream acceptance. WEN's study of dioxins led to awareness of other synthetic chemical hormone disrupters such as the oestrogen mimics. WEN gave lectures and published articles on this at the time in 1993-4 when the first modern studies of sperm count reduction were being published, and responded to media interest in oestrogen mimics. These are now recognised to include pesticides such as DDT and endosulphan; other chemicals that can disrupt oestrogen pathways in the body include lindane, widely used in the UK. Because of our concern that these chemicals might be contributing to the high death rate from breast cancer in the UK, we became involved with the UK Breast Cancer Coalition. WEN organised a National Breast Cancer Petition that was submitted to the Department of Health in October 1995. The petition called for the government to pour more money into research into the prevention of breast cancer as well as into treatment and aftercare. We had an amazing response from people all over the country and collected 80,000 signatures. People wanted to do something to publicise the breast cancer issue and they wanted to do more than just sign their name on a piece of paper. "Putting Breast Cancer on the Map" thus grew out of all the work we had previously done on polluting chemicals. It aims to give people the skills to investigate possible causes of high breast cancer incidence and death rate in their areas. Environmental pollutants seemed to have substantial links not only with breast cancer but with a variety of other diseases and illnesses that affect women. To campaign on each illness was beyond our scope, both physically and financially, so a rational way of choosing a manageable issue was needed. We chose breast cancer because it is a serious and often fatal disease affecting one in twelve women, and because tackling it would also help remove the causes of other health problems. Polluted air, soil and water can contribute to a myriad of health problems including allergies, male reproductive disorders, fertility problems, asthma, cancer, etc. If we clean up the environment for breast cancer then this will generate a healthier and cleaner environment for all. Even the dietary changes that are recommended for cancer prevention (eating lower in the food chain) could improve the environment by reducing agricultural pollution. Breast cancer could be an indicator that our way of living is unsustainable. Perhaps it has been allowed to rise partly because the opinions of women about illness and the environment have been shut out of the mainstream of society. By beginning to reinstate them in this project, we will bring in new ideas for action that will contribute to a new sustainable culture. Breast cancer rates vary from country to country, and immigrants rapidly acquire the risks of their adopted country. This suggests that there are factors we can change. Although known causes (heredity and diet/hormonal factors) account for only 30 per cent of cases, other factors are strongly suspected. These include chemicals, reproductive history and breast-feeding, radiation and electromagnetic fields, and factors such as alcohol, the Pill and hormone replacement therapy. Last year we submitted a successful bid to the UK National Lottery Charities Board, who granted us 135,000 to undertake a two year project. The debate on what to do about breast cancer is usually confined to medical and scientific experts. They are effectively taking decisions about prevention and cure influenced by their own unspoken assumptions. For example they frequently treat women as passive patients who are not expected, for example, to be able to change their lifestyles. In fact, our experience indicates that women want to be active in tackling causes, and often find that experts are unwilling to discuss them. A new channel of communication is needed. The UK has the highest death rate from breast cancer in the world. If we change the conditions and lifestyle that cause it, a more sustainable society will be born. Objectives of the Project The objectives of "Putting Breast Cancer on the Map" are as itemised below. The project aims to: - act as a channel of communication for women concerned about the environment in which they live and the adverse impact it is having on their health and that of their family, friends and community; - create a map of various "hot-spots" around the country which show a specific increase in breast cancer incidence and death rates while also mapping the local area for sources of pollution; - raise awareness, stimulate discussion and participation and generate a network of organisations, individuals and groups who want to prevent breast cancer but who may be looking at different causes among the range of likely contributors; - increase access to information by sharing information between groups: sometimes everyone has a different piece of the jigsaw; - put emphasis on true prevention of breast cancer. Screening is often portrayed as prevention but real prevention involves looking at the causes and finding ways to change them; - give information about all known aspects of breast cancer prevention, including changes in diet, more exercise for young women and girls, breast-feeding, as well as avoidance of suspect chemicals in the home and workplace; and - produce evidence and awareness that will result in a rapid phase out of chemicals and pollutants suspected of instigating or promoting illness especially those associated with breast cancer. The ultimate vision of the project is to bring about a drastic reduction in the incidence and deaths from breast cancer in this country. Project Activities The objectives will be achieved by providing individuals and local communities with information and a questionnaire to create a map of their own locality. The project has two full time staff (the co-ordinator and an administrator with scientific knowledge and IT skills). There is also a part-time local groups' co-ordinator who promotes the project to WEN local groups, and works with them on other WEN issues. There is a steering group of three women living with breast cancer, who are activists on environmental issues and/or involved with mainstream breast cancer organisations such as the UK Breast Cancer Coalition. They became involved through the petition and through WEN's past work. The project has advice from research organisations, scientists and medical statisticians who have vetted the questionnaire (and in one case added questions), which will enable the results to be drawn upon by university based researchers. Advice is also available from an expert in geographical information systems (GIS), which will enable the local maps to be made and put together into a UK map at the end of the project. The maps can be compiled from either a personal or community perspective. They can be used as a campaigning tool for women who want to make an extensive study of their own localities and any suspected sources of pollution influencing health. All information collected will be compiled onto a database and used to draw attention to certain areas that display considerable circumstantial evidence of environmental links. An information pack will be provided covering mapping skills, campaigning skills and positive preventative information as well as relevant local and national organisations. Its contents are as detailed below: - Background to project - Risk factors associated with breast cancer - Questionnaire, with explanatory notes - Steps to help people to map their area - Contacts - useful organisations; groups already active; websites; useful journals and directories; book list - Publicity information: how to write press release and sample; poster for local publicity - Funding sources - WEN's general advice sheet on healthy living with lower environmental impact - Evaluation sheet Results Expected The culmination of this part of the project will be the production of a report and map that will highlight any links identified between breast cancer and environmental pollution in the UK. The results depend on the active groups that respond to it. This is an open-ended project which may produce results we do not expect, and creative ideas that surpass our expectations. We hope that the project will build a cohesive network of groups that support each other. We also hope that the project will stimulate other awareness raising and campaigns. It could provide publicity, by approaching the issue from a different angle, for the many existing women's groups campaigning for something to be done about the high toll from breast cancer Lessons Learned Over the course of our work on dioxins, we have become aware that it is very difficult to interest illness support groups in the idea that an environmental cause may be involved. Individuals may be receptive to these ideas, but the group as a whole often resists them. Likewise, research scientists and medical experts are generally resistant not only to the suggestion that environmental pollution is implicated, but also the idea that sufferers should discuss the causes of their illnesses. Some are very sceptical about women's power to change their own lifestyles. The project started in April 1997, and time has been taken in appointing staff and preparing the mapping system. During this time we have modified our ideas about what is practicable in mapping. Individual communities may also learn in a similar way and gain from our experience, but the potential is there for them to invent new techniques of their own that can be shared and publicised. This project is like much of our previous work in that it involves a fairly abstract purpose, but has a strong practical element (the mapping) with which people can engage. This approach has generally been successful for our organisation. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Contacts for Further Information Helen Lynn and Ann Link Women's Environmental Network 87 Worship Street, London EC2A 2BE Tel: (44) 171 247 3327 Fax (44) 171 247 4740 E-mail: email@example.com --------------------------------------------------------------------- PROJECT MORATA - Women Support Skills Training for Sustainable Development in Papua New Guinea Introduction The Morata Local Community Development Foundation (MLCDF) and AIESEC - Papua New Guinea have combined their efforts to help the people of Morata help themselves. MLCDF, a grassroots NGO, primarily staffed by indigenous women from Morata, is benefiting from the experience of AIESEC trainees, within the framework of the Youth Development Exchange Program. These trainees are developing the young people of Morata into entrepreneurs, thereby fulfilling AIESEC■s commitment of utilising exchange to train individuals who have a real impact on the sustainable development of the local community. The majority of Morata■s population is under 25, and most of them are 6th-grade dropouts with little or no future prospects. The community is in urgent need of providing the people of Morata, and most critically the youths, with income-generating activities. However, to accomplish this they need skills training that is unavailable to them. Project Activities The project provides women and youth from Morata with the skills and attitudes they need in order to start their own small entrepreneurial venture. It then assists them in the development of their business, especially in terms of business design according to environmentally sustainable practice, financing and monitoring principles. Close monitoring of and assistance to these ventures once they have been created represents an important stage of the project. The people participating in the project will be developing into community leaders, as their ventures will contribute to the common good, creating jobs, satisfying needs and raising living standards. The project activities also aim to raise the cultural and social awareness of AEISEC■s Youth Development Exchange Program (YDEP) trainees. Through exchange programmes of the type described in this case, the trainees are exposed to very different social and cultural realities. These empower them to bring about positive change, both in the community they visit and in their own communities after they return home. The Morata Local Community Development Foundation planned Project Morata for a duration of three years (1997-1999) in co-operation with AIESEC. The time frame adopted is sufficient to see significant improvement in areas. The evaluation of these improvements will be carried out on an ongoing basis. Objectives Sustainable development issues specifically addressed by the project are as follows: - poverty eradication in indigenous communities - capacity building for women, youth and local leaders, by providing education and training in support of sustainable development - partnership with local business Further very important objectives of the project relate to the empowerment of the community through the Morata Local Community Development Foundation. This means that the project (and through it the Foundation) must become sustainable by late 1999, in at least two ways: - Financial sustainability: all costs unrelated to the YDEP trainees (but including one full-time salary for a national person) must be met by the project's generated revenues (training fees and interests on the credit scheme). - Human sustainability: the community must be able to manage all the aspects of the project that they feel must continue after 1999. A trained, full-time national person should be able to take over the overall management. Another important aspect of this project is the link that AIESEC establishes between existing companies and the small businesses of Morata, through a godparent system. Through this, Project Morata develops a sense of social awareness and responsibility among Papua New Guinea's business community who support the start-up businesses in Morata. Results The project started in February 1997 with the first AIESEC trainee arriving in Papua New Guinea. Two more followed in July and August. A pilot -Start Your Business■ (SYB) workshop was successfully organised from 28 July to 12 August 1997, with nineteen participants. Another is planned for early February 1998. As a result, eleven small businesses are currently being set up, after which they will be monitored for a period of at least one year. Assistance is being provided to the entrepreneurs in terms of access to credit, for which a small scale credit scheme is being implemented. Another very important aspect is that these small businesses must answer a need in the Morata community, which will be their primary market. In parallel with the SYB workshops, AIESEC is running Micro Enterprise Development Workshops, specifically targeted towards the women of Morata. These workshops have been mostly focused on the development of vocational skills such as food processing, handicrafts or gardening, and have been resulted in the creation of micro enterprises, that require very little capital. In order to determine those needs, a survey of the areas was carried out by members of the MLCDF and AIESEC-PNG. The results of this survey were used to carry out a preliminary feasibility study for each of the businesses proposed during the pilot workshop. Before starting each of the formal training phases, a series of informal sessions are run in the community in order to work on the people■s mind-sets and attitudes, especially emphasising vision-building, initiative, proactivity and the integration of sustainable solutions on a community level. Lessons learned Implementing the project has taught us a lot: - The concept of micro enterprise development fits the need of community women, who often lack even basic education. It was a better approach than the standard SYB scheme. - The involvement of women in this project has helped to instil a sense of responsibility and solidarity among the youth, and from there strengthen the community links in Morata as a whole. Partners - International Association of Students in Economic and Business(AIESEC) - Small Business Development Corporation (SBCD) - University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Contact for Further Information Mr. Frank Kepson, Project Co-ordinator P.O. Box 326 - University of Papua New Guinea Waigani, NCD, - Papua New Guinea Tel: +675 326 2357 Fax: +675 3267187 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ------------------------------------------------------------------------ CHILDREN and YOUTH Agenda 21, Chapter 25 YOUTH SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS- A Rescue Mission Response to a CSD Challenge Introduction The "Rescue Mission Network" is a loose affiliation of schools, eco- groups and individuals who have worked on one of the Peace Child books over the last five years. The network is continuously expanding as a result of the success of the "Rescue Mission Planet Earth" book - a children's edition of Agenda 21 that to date has sold 320,000 copies in 18 languages, generating new inquiries daily. Currently, many Rescue Mission groups are engaged in the creation of a children's book of human rights which attempts to link the disciplines of sustainable development and the field of human rights. Most of our groups are composed of activists with a keen interest in getting the job done. As such they are generally not much impressed by UN conferences except insofar as they free up new resources, point in new directions, and spur governments to support them. Rescue Mission has always followed closely the work of CSD, hoping to persuade governments to do more to re-orient education towards teaching sustainability studies as they promised in Agenda 21. In preparing for the Youth Intersessional (for CSD in 1996), we decided to monitor whether governments were fulfilling their promises effectively especially in the area of enabling young people to participate in decision-making. The CSD was then deep in discussion about Indicators for Sustainable Development for the whole of Agenda 21. The CSD Secretariat invited Rescue Mission to do for indicators what it had done for Agenda 21: that is, simplify them, make them accessible to young people, and enable young people to use them to participate in sustainable development processes. Although the task was daunting, the young people of the Rescue Mission network readily accepted the challenge. Thus, the Youth Sustainability indicators project was born, directly inspired by the CSD. The "Rescue Mission Youth Sustainability Indicators Project" has since become a massive response from Children and Youth, one of the Agenda 21 Major Groups who have an immediate stake in the field of education for sustainable development. Objectives The objectives of the project were to: - help young people, especially those in the developing world, understand the meaning of sustainable development in the context of their local community, - create a hands-on learning programme that leads directly to action for community improvement, - create new indicators that would enhance and bring new information to the work of the CSD on Indicators, - provide a fun activity for young people that would put them more in touch with what is happening in their home community, - get the indicators programme embedded in school systems so that every student in school would, at some stage, get out and measure her/his community's progress towards sustainability, comparing results with previous year's findings. By creating the indicators through a partnership between young people from different parts of the world and top environment and development experts, it was intended that the project would promote the concept of partnership between youth and adults in decision-making. Project Activity - July/August 1995: Created First Draft Indicators Pack - questionnaires arranged eco-regionally on environmental, economic, social and attitudinal factors (stage I). - February 1996: Prepared First Report, Mission Made Possible; and Second Draft Indicators Pack in English, French and Spanish:- 16 questionnaires arranged by topic to cover all issues related to sustainable development covered in Agenda 21 (stage II). - April 1996: Presented new Indicators Pack and reported to CSD 4 at the Youth Intersessional Meeting. - May-October 1996: Conducted training meetings throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America on the use of the Indicators Pack. - February 1997: Reviewed results from over 1,000 groups in 48 countries and created Second Report, FutureWatch; prepared French & Spanish editions. - April 1997: Presented report and Indicators Stage III proposal at CSD5. - June 1997: Continued to lobby for government support for indicators programme, and the new components of Indicators Stage III - wider outreach to countries that had not yet participated in the programme; setting up of self-sustaining Sustainable Development Training Centres; New Country-specific Indicator Packs for Secondary School students and youth eco-groups; Junior Indicators Packs for Primary Schools; Action Funds to support small action projects that groups wish to undertake based on evidence discovered during indicator investigations. Results Achieved The impact of YSI has been enormous. An estimated 45,000 people took part in the "Indicators for Action" project, learning about and monitoring the sustainability of their communities. In 17 countries they organised national evaluation meetings to share the results of their findings and to discuss further plans. Results from a few countries include: - Pakistan - the go-ahead has been given for a project called the Pakistani Girl Child Project which will be setting up an Agenda 21 for Pakistani girls. Nation-wide girl councils are being set up to empower marginalised young girls and provide a platform for their opinions. - Peru - the Rescue Mission group in this country has been working with their national government to develop an environmental curriculum that involves a monitoring function for young people. This will be officially recognised by the local government, - Benin - The local Rescue Mission Group, Mission Terre Benin, has established a waste collection system as a result of doing the Indicators programme. The group is recycling biodegradable waste to use as compost for the village vegetables. The money generated from the vegetable sales is paying for the cost of collecting the rubbish, - Senegal - Rescue Mission group on this country published a report on the sustainability of Senegal with the assistance of the Dutch Embassy, which involved a nation-wide consultative process, - Zanzibar, Tanzania - Rescue Mission has been working with local village-women to implement a solar-box cooker project which was in response to findings that the need for fire-wood has devastated forest reserves on the island. The project was developed as a partnership between the local women and this group of young Tanzanians who were building the solar-box cookers. These projects and many others have been carried out by dedicated young people from around the world. The effects of their work in assisting schools with education for sustainability is immeasurable and we hope that generations of young people will grow up educated in the skills that they need to build sustainable futures in their countries. Feedback from thousands of students showed that the Youth Indicator Pack helped them learn for the first time about Agenda 21 and sustainable development as well as about concepts such as "Factor Four". Lessons Learned We learned three interesting things from the first two stages. First, Secondary School Students do not have much time for extra- curricular activities. Their minds are focused on their examination and classes. At a Youth meeting held to discuss this two courses of action were recommended, both of which we have taken up. These were to: - prepare a Junior Indicator Pack for primary school students. They have more time and are equally adept at getting out and finding out what is happening in their local communities. This we have done, and have had the joyous experience of working in partnership with some very talented 9-11 year olds, who have ideas every bit as practical about the disciplines of sustainability as older young people with whom we have typically worked, - prepare an Examination Course in Sustainability Studies. Ten pilot schools are being selected and the examination course will be created in partnership between the teachers, students and examiners. New Text Books are being created, and hands-on action projects based on the Indicators Programme included as course-work which earn examination credits. Both these initiatives are being prepared for the UK initially but may be quickly adapted to other country situations. Another part of the feedback, this time from the teachers, was that they would find it useful to know how their local indicators related to national trends. Our new indicator packs and exam courses are linked directly to national information and conditions. The second lesson that we learned was that getting young people to create their own indicators and take action based on their findings is hard. Like pulling teeth!! The representatives of participating groups discussed this at length at last year's planning meeting: they were all extremely frustrated as they are all from activist backgrounds and they had a problem with the indicators as young people and teachers felt that just by doing them, they were contributing to sustainable development - which of course, they were not! They might have learned the meaning of sustainable development - but until they took action, they had not made any contribution. Thus the idea of Action Funds was set up - small sums of money($50-$500) for which groups could compete to do projects. The New Indicator Packs were designed to build action integrally into the programmes - and they have done, but, of course, the funds need to be there to ensure it works. The third lesson, however, was the most depressing; currently, we cannot distribute these Indicator Packs, as we have no funding for the project. We have learned from the past three years the enormous difficulty in attempting to undertake a major international education programme without commitments to "sustainable funding". Many young people continue pressing for sustainable development education and support from governments and international organisations for their efforts in this direction. As Sheku Syl Kamara, co-ordinator of Rescue Mission Sierra Leone said when he spoke to the Special Session of the General Assembly on Agenda 21 in June 1997: "Young people need to learn the principles of sustainable development and we are anxious that Education for this noble concept does not remain a "forgotten priority" for the next five years. In the absence of a formal curriculum, we have found in Sierra Leone that doing the Rescue Mission indicators of sustainable development in our communities, we learn very well the meaning of the concept. But I come here today to issue an ultimatum to governments: particularly in Africa, you have to do more to educate us in this concept. You are failing us. If we are going to learn how to sustain life on this planet, you have to work education on this concept into school curricula." We continue responding to the challenge of sustainable development and looking for new and innovative ways of delivering sustainable development education to young people in the developing world. Through the World Bank's InfoDev programme and the EU, we are hoping to receive funding to set up Sustainable Development Training Centres - Internet Cafes which provide sustainable development training to schools via the internet and hands on activities, while at the same time earning their keep by providing business services for profit to business and individuals. We are also seeking to mainstream education for sustainable development by making an attractive course for students to study alongside other mainstream subjects. Without such mainstreaming, we fear the impetus for education in this area will be lost. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Contact for Further Information David Woollcombe, Director, Rescue Mission Planet Earth Peace Child International Headquarters The White House, Buntingford, Hertfordshire, England SG9 9AH Tel:+44 176 327 4459 Fax:+44 176 327 4460 E-Mail:email@example.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Development Mission in TierradentRo Columbia: Youth Learn Leadership and Entrepreneurial Skills for Sustainable Development Introduction The word Tierradentro signifies an obscure land, apart from civilisation, where indigenous people buried their dead, making the land sacred, full of rituals and myths that shape the region■s identity. The Tierradentro region is located in the south-western, mountainous part of Colombia, about 15 hours from the country■s capital Bogota'. The region■s population, mainly indigenous, lives off small scale (average 3 acres) farming, growing coffee, corn and Colombian banana. An earth quake in the 1980s, coupled with guerrilla activity that continued until recently, caused a virtual cessation of further development in the region. Despite this hardship, Tierradentro was declared Cultural and Historic Patrimony in 1996 by UNESCO. This recognised its archaeological richness and also its cultural diversity (the region■s population consists of a mixture of black, white and indigenous people). The project "Misio'n de Desarrollo en Tierradentro" is the result of an initiative held by the indigenous student group "Protierradentro" and "the International Association of Students in Economics and Management" (AIESEC). The project contributes to the development of the Tierradentro region, through the international action and co-operation of youth. The focus of the project is community- and youth-based. After conducting a joint investigation into the community needs, Protierradentro and AIESEC decided to focus their work on: - development of leadership and entrepreneurial skills among local youth; - awareness building for sustainable use of natural resources; and, - improvement of participation in local political institutions. Objectives - Developing training workshops on sustainable agriculture for local farmers through partnerships between the Federacion Nacional de Cafeteros (National Federation of Coffee Farmers) and the AIESEC trainees - Developing entrepreneurship and leadership towards poverty eradication in indigenous communities - Educating local leaders, youth and women on sustainable development - Development of youth through international exchange Project Activities The project■s core is the work of an interdisciplinary group of international students who live and work in the Tierradentro region. The students are selected from AIESEC■s world-wide exchange network. Upon their arrival in Bogota', AIESEC Andes provided an intensive preparation and introduction module for the international trainees. During the nine month duration of the project, three teams of students worked for three months each. In co-operation with the local school board and the region■s government institutions, AIESEC trainees helped local youth to develop leadership and entrepreneurial skills. These included how to set up micro-enterprises, and how to become aware of the potential for sustainable use of the natural environment. The development of "leadership and entrepreneurial skills" stands at the very top of the project■s priorities. Entrepreneurship is more than creation of enterprises, it empowers the community to address local development issues for itself. The trainees developed a complete cycle of leadership workshops with the following groups: students, community leaders, and community organisations. Main topics were the development of personal potential, the motivation of others in teams, the strategies for an independent assessment of community needs and education about the ways and means of political participation such as bringing community issues and claims to local and regional government. Participants were taught how to effectively design community based projects and how to access international and national funding for those initiatives. Results Achieved The project provided an enormous learning and personal development experience for everybody involved, including young people, the greater community of Tierradentro, the project■s organisers from Protierradentro and AIESEC-Andes, and AIESEC■s international students from countries such as Italy, Germany and Switzerland. "Young people" of Tierradentro learned not only how to set up small businesses and community projects but, as importantly, to value their own initiative and creativity. The project helped half a dozen micro-enterprises whose progress is being monitored by AIESEC students. The "local community" learned how to link their projects into national, regional, and international efforts of government and aid agencies, as well as basic skills such as application for funding and technical support. Community leaders learned effective techniques to integrate their work in local government and to press for their community■s needs through the local political system. "AIESEC trainees" gained experiences they can put to work in their home countries - bringing southern community knowledge to their northern social environments. Lessons Learned The project provided important experiences about the tremendous power that can be generated when people of different backgrounds (youth and indigenous people) co-operate with local government and international agencies. Among the partners of the latter type were the Universidad de los Andes, the National Coffee Farmers Association, the Mayor■s office of Inza, and the farmers■ co-operative NAZAQUIWI. Project Tierradentro clearly showed that youth initiatives can have lasting impact on community development of communities and on the development of the youth who participate in the process. The importance of a continuing and built-in evaluation process was recognised. On-going feedback from participating community leaders, NGOs and trainees helped to resolve problems and bottlenecks quickly. The partner indigenous youth association, Protierradentro, has been working on issues of community education before this project, but it found that co-operation with AIESEC and its global network and contacts made a significant difference. All in all, the project showed the importance to develop individuals as such and their communities in general. Personal leadership development and business creation went hand in hand with the development of local government involvement and the formulation of civil-society needs and pressures. -------------------------------------------------------------- For Further Information Contact Protierradentro Mr. Eliecer Morales Guanacas - Inza Tierradentro, Cauca Colombia South America Tel: +57-28-252546 AIESEC Andes - Mr. Carlos Sanchez Casas Cra 1E No 18A-10, Universidad de los Andes Santafe de Bogota', Colombia, South America Tel: +57-1-286 9211 Ext. 2228, Tel: +57-1-256 8015 Fax: +57-1-284 1890 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-Mail: email@example.com URL: wwwprof.uniandes.edu.co/~aiesec/home.html ----------------------------------------------------------------------- INDIGENOUS PEOPLE Agenda 21, Chapter 26 LEARNING TO VALUE TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE - Developing a Local Curriculum in Mae Wang, Thailand Introduction The "Inter Mountain Peoples Education and Culture in Thailand Association" (IMPECT) was founded with the intention of supporting, promoting and revitalising the traditional belief systems, agricultural systems and cultures of the hilltribes in Northern Thailand. At the heart of this aim is the need to educate the youth, the future of the tribe, in traditional knowledge. Therefore it was decided that IMPECT would become involved in the development and implementation of local curricula, to be taught alongside the Thai curricula already being taught in all village schools. Obviously these curricula are incredibly complex and completely different for each of the tribes concerned. They involve not only the language and beliefs of each tribe but the site-specific agricultural systems that have evolved within each community. Throughout Northern Thailand there is a serious threat to the "sustainability" of the hilltribes■ distinct cultures. This threat is posed by the influx of consumerism, lack of land security, large migrations to the cities, and to the formal schooling being used at present in these communities. This schooling has some very basic problems that must be addressed if the children are to get the education they need. Three main problems can be seen with formal schooling, (i) the teachers are not hilltribe persons and lack basic understanding of the traditions and way of life of the communities, (ii) the communities themselves have no input into the education given them, and (iii) the curriculum is biased towards industrialisation and has no provision for the retention of traditional knowledge. These problems with the existing curriculum have led to community children becoming alienated from the local wisdom and values. In some communities there are large gulfs between parents and their children in terms of what is held as valuable and what is considered unworthy. Such gulfs feed the "unsustainability" of the communities. Therefore it is necessary to link the school into the life of the community, to make it a valuable and relevant part of the community■s life. One way to ensure this was to institute a curriculum designed by members of the community that can address the real and distinct problems facing hilltribe youth as they try to become part of the Thai society while retaining the values and wisdom of their culture. In 1996 the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development at its Fourth Session, focusing on education in support of sustainable development, called for education programmes for indigenous peoples that valued traditional knowledge. The present project contributes to the implementation of that policy. Objectives The development and implementation of a locally based curriculum had seven main objectives, namely; - To provide the children with the educational opportunities as a basic right. - To make the children and youth proud of their culture and enable them to master local wisdom and help them adjust to the multi-cultural society of modern Thailand. - To create a situation in which the children can be happy, have hope and are proud of their locality. - To prepare the children for their future careers and help them make effective career decisions as they face the many choices now available. - To prepare children and youth for taking leading roles in the perpetuation of their cultural heritage and at the same time function effectively as a member of the society - To create a partnership between school and the community, making the school system a relevant and valuable part of the community. - To develop locally created curricula that best suits the local needs of the community and to start pushing for educational policy concerning these local curricula to be culturally relevant. For each of the hilltribes of Northern Thailand, and especially for the Pgakenyaw living in the villages where this project was implemented, the relationship between the traditional lifestyle and the conservation of their natural surrounding is integral. By supporting the retention of these agricultural systems in the locally developed curriculum, sustainable management of natural resources of the villages can be ensured. It is hoped that the curriculum will ensure that these farming practices are able to continue, by being supported by knowledge about the importance of maintaining the environment. Towards this end additional activities were held to educate the youth in environmental issues. Project Activities In the area of Mae Wang the idea of a local curriculum was new; therefore the initial emphasis for the project was on educating and strengthening the community organisations in the area. Once the support for the curriculum was in place there were two distinct stages to be carried out. Firstly the curriculum itself had to be developed, involving the development of the learning media itself and the training of the teachers who were to use it. The second stage was the actual implementation of the new curriculum. In this state, it was found necessary that the curriculum be used with not only the children still in school but also with young people who had left the school system. Details of Specific Activities towards the development and testing of the curriculum: - A series of meetings (six in total) were held with peoples' organisations in the five villages of the project - Data collection throughout the area and translation from the local dialect into Thai and production of the teaching materials. - A seminar with 100 youths from the five villages was held on environmental education and study visits were organised for 25 of these youths. - Consultative meetings were held with 24 officials from governmental institutions, NGOs, members of the academia and community leaders. - The developed local curriculum was tested in five schools, for a total of 12 periods. Results Achieved The process of implementing the curriculum is just beginning with the project advancing to its completion in May 2000. The results expected at the completion of the project will be far reaching with the knowledge gained by the children standing them in good stead for the difficult decisions that lie ahead. To analyse the results at this early stage, then, is perhaps a little presumptive. Nonetheless, it can be said that there is an increased feeling of the value of traditional knowledge among the children and youth in the target villages. Additionally, strengthening peoples' organisations in the Mae Wang district has resulted in a revitalisation of the traditional respect systems, such as the respect traditionally accorded to the elders of the villages as the chief educators of the young. Lessons Learned The process of formulating a local curriculum is long and difficult. Its success in Mae Wang district must be taken as an encouraging sign. However the very nature of "a local curriculum" means that there are no rules for easy transfer to other communities, peoples or areas, as each place different values on aspects of their cultures. Perhaps the most valuable lesson learned was the importance of information collected on which to base the curriculum. The community needs to see that the curriculum is truly reflecting their culture and their needs for it to foster a closer link between the schools and the communities. It is also necessary to spend some time to strengthen organisations already working in the areas, such as local peoples■ organisations and traditional leadership systems. It was clearly seen in the Mae Wang area that the local curriculum would succeed only if it had the support of the community. This is a lesson that is transferable to other communities. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- For Further Information Contact Prasert-Trakansuphakon (Director) Inter-Mountain People Education and Culture in Thailand Assosication (IMPECT) 252 Moo 2, Amphur Sansai, Tambol Sansainoi Chiang Mai 50210 THAILAND Tel. 66 53 398591 Fax. 66 53 398592 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- WE CAN DO IT! A Hope For Sustainable Development of Forest Resources in The Solomon Islands Introduction The indigenous peoples of the Solomon Islands are forest dwellers and depend heavily on their forests for survival. The forest provides them with food, shelter, medicine and clothing. Unlike most other countries where most of the land and forests are owned by the state, ownership by people is more than 80 per cent. Logging operations started in the 1960s, and by the 1980s it had become a major concern for both the government and the indigenous peoples of the Solomon Islands. Since then, despite many awareness campaigns on sustainable development, both the number of logging companies, and the unsustainable rate of harvesting of timber resources have been increasing. The local communities (resource owners) are determined that they can carry out sustainable logging and milling once proper training and financial assistance are made available. "Soltrust" is one of the major local indigenous non-government organisations in the Solomon Islands dedicated to promote sustainable forest management. Established in 1986, it has more than ten years of experience in outreach, extension, training and awareness programmes in eco-forestry. In 1990, Soltrust established an Integrated Eco-Forestry Programme (IEFP) to complement its awareness campaigns. Lack of investment capital to buy the equipment necessary to start sustainable milling projects was identified as a serious obstacle. In 1992, the Eco-Forestry programme was launched to give communities training on forest management, resulting in 17 projects being assisted. In 1995, a small revolving fund was established to assist resource owners. This has funded 9 community-based Eco-Forestry Model Projects (EMPs). This case is about Soltrust■s more recent effort involving the Rarade Community of the Isabel Province. Although this island province has been out of reach by loggers until recently, it is now threatened as logging companies look for new forest resources. Its growing concern led the Rarade Community to request Soltrust■s assistance. A partnership has been created as a model for future eco-forestry activities, not only in Isabel and in the Solomon Islands at large, but also for neighbouring countries facing similar situations. As part of its design, the partnership will also test the applicability of the timber certification programme, initiated by the Forest Stewardship Council in the Solomon Islands. The Smartwood Program of the Rainforest Alliance an international NGO based in the USA, conducted a preliminary certification assessment on this operation in December 1997. Timber certification is envisaged by 1998. Objectives - To conduct a training programme for Rarade Community Timber Milling Project. - To train members of the Rarade community on how to manage their forests properly. - To produce 40 cubic metres of timber, initially, to cover costs of machines and training - To make the people understand what and why certification is important. - To train the people in how to produce quality timber in an environmentally friendly and sustainable manner. - To have something concrete to prove to the people that there is a substitute and better alternative to large scale logging. Project Activity The planned training and activities were conducted. Their progress was covered in Soltrust■s newsletter, "Sol-Tree Nius", as well as being broadcast on the Solomon Islands Broadcasting Co-operation (SIBC) through the awareness and education programme "Can We Do It?" every Sunday at 8.30 - 9.00pm. Five Officers engaged in this operation were sub-divided into three groups, according to the three areas to be covered in the training (two persons for forest management training, two persons for timber milling/production and one person for chainsaw/equipment maintenance and servicing training). These five officers had to spend the period of three months (September - December 1997), training in all aspects of starting and continuing their milling operations. At the end of the three months, the community will be able to master the skills needed for managing the project themselves. Also, this period of time will give enough time to produce enough timber to meet the cost of machines and part of the training costs. Training sessions were held on: - Forest Management - land demarcation, forest inventory and selecting the trees to be felled. - Land Demarcation - setting up blocks using forester■s compass and linear tape measures. - Forest Inventory - taking stock of the demarcated blocks to find out the approximate volume of timbers that can be extracted from the area. - Tree Selection for Felling - assessing trees for felling with emphasis on standing volume, natural tree lean, topography and volume per hectare stock. - Timber Milling (Production) - how to fell a tree in a way that will cause less damage to the surrounding vegetation and how to obtain maximum and quality products out of trees. A production target of 40 cubic metres was targeted which was an order for Holland. Recording of timbers produced for timber certification purposes (chain of custody, etc) is also part of this training. - Chainsaw/Equipment - maintenance and servicing. Results Achieved - 28 m3 of timber was produced within the time specified. Of this 18 m3 was of export quality and sold to Germany. The remainder was sold locally. - Rarade community is now able to obtain milling equipment for their future operations. - Six resource owners from Rarade Community were able to master skills and techniques for sustainable milling operations, thus increasing their commitment to harvest their own timber resources. The six trainees are also able to identify among themselves which roles each of them will play in their operations. - Greater understanding by the people regarding sustainable development, as they are able to physically see a sustainable milling operation. - Resource owners able to see what quality control and eco-timber means, (good and high quality timbers harvested in an environmentally friendly manner, meaning better and competitive prices). Rarade community is able to understand better what forest certification is and why it is important. Lessons Learned As a result of this case study, a lot has been learned as important areas to be considered for sustainable small scale milling projects. These areas were identified during general discussions with members of the Rarade Community in the course of training. - "Training" is key in this type of operation. Such developments are new to the people, and their operations as well as the success of their projects depend on the training given. Follow-up training also has to be organised and arranged according to need. - "Monitoring and Evaluation" of the project on a regular basis is essential to ensure that operations are in line with sustainable standards and also to identify training needs. - "Transportation" will become an issue as the project expands inland, because a.bulldozer would be needed to construct road access (though not to use in the management area). Such an operation would require planning and training to minimise damage. Financial and technical expertise would also be needed. - "Financial & technical" assistance is an area of need by forest resource owners of the Solomon Islands. The resource owners have the natural resources but are unable to harvest them due to the lack of investment capital to purchase the required equipment for their operations. The resource owners are more than willing to harvest their own timber resources in a sustainable manner. Thus it is not a question of their willingness or commitment but lack of understanding among the donors about the situation facing the indigenous people. Soltrust believes that the approach it has developed is the only effective means, if the forest resources of the Solomon Islands are to be sustained for future generations. This will enable indigenous peoples to take control over their own forest resources. With this kind of approach, we can effectively work as partners with the people to achieve sustainable management of their forest resources. Thus, training and education will be incomplete without such support and assistance. The export of the eco-timber provides the indigenous resource owners and the country with better economic returns compared to income earned from logging. Finally, Soltrust concludes that experience including that of the Rarade Community has shown that awareness programmes can only be effectively carried out if attached to the financial and technical sources required for actual establishment of indigenous peoples■ projects. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Contacts for Further Information Solomon Islands Contact Soltrust, P.O.Box 748 Honiara Solomon Islands Phone: +677 30947/48 Fax: +677 30468 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org London Contact Ian Aujare International Alliance of Indigenous Peoples of the Tropical Forests Phone: +44 171 587 3737 Fax: +44 171 793 8686 E-mail: email@example.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------ A UNIVERSITY OF THE ARCTIC - Indigenous Peoples Participate in the Creation of a Higher Education Institution in Support of Sustainable Development Introduction The "Circumpolar Universities Association" (CUA) aims at encouraging co- operation and promoting higher education and research in the northern circumpolar region of the world. CUA was established in the late 1980s, when the universities and colleges in the circumpolar north started recognising that, in addition to their own scholarly work, co-operation with other northern institutions would considerably enhance their northern knowledge and ability to serve their regions. CUA, with a current membership of well over 50 institutions from all over the Circumpolar world, focuses its activities around the biannual multidisciplinary Circumpolar Co-operation Conferences. The conferences provide significant opportunities for higher education institutions and researchers to seek information on and partners for institutional development and co-operation. Between conferences, the Association, through a Secretariat at the University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland, acts as a communication link for both member and non-member universities, research institutes and individuals seeking contacts with each other on issues relating to circumpolar education, research and institutional development. The initial proposal for the establishment of a University of the Arctic came as one branch of the "Rovaniemi process".The concept of a University of the Arctic so clearly matches the aims and objectives of the Circumpolar Universities Association, that its General Meeting decided to be actively involved with the development process of the concept. Further, it determined that its membership should be committed to conducting a feasibility study on the initiative. As a result of this, CUA, representing the academic community in the circumpolar north, was formally approached by the Government of Canada to conduct a Feasibility Study. This would be undertaken in conjunction with the Permanent Participant Indigenous Peoples Organisations of the Arctic Council during 1998. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 1992, held in Rio de Janeiro (Rio) provided a renewed impetus for the proposals. Agenda 21, one of Rio■s major outcomes, devotes a chapter to the concern for strengthening the role of indigenous peoples and their communities. This identifies the need for the provision of capacity building, education and research to enable indigenous peoples to contribute fully to sustainable development practices. It was clearly seen that the project was not only fully in accord with these, but was actively seeking to implement them. Accordingly, we were encouraged to redouble our efforts to bring our proposals to fruition. We felt that the immediacy of the Arctic environment when combined with its strong influence on the livelihoods of Arctic indigenous peoples and the character of their political efforts made the need for sustainable development even more obvious than it might otherwise be. As a result, it was acclaimed as the guiding vision for the University of the Arctic. Objectives The long-term objective is to create a University of the Arctic that serves the needs of people living in the northernmost regions of the "Arctic Eight" countries (Canada, Denmark/Greenland, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and United States). The University should, as far as possible, be for the benefit of, and exist through, the efforts of people living in the Arctic. Since many indigenous peoples not only inhabit the Arctic, but often constitute the majority population of these regions, a concept of a University of the Arctic is inconceivable without the central engagement of indigenous peoples■ representatives. The clear need for such a university can be found first of all in the characteristics of the Arctic itself. By usual standards, everything about the Arctic is extreme - the weather, climate, the long distances and remoteness, the low population density, the richness of the natural resources, the cultural diversity, to name only a few factors. As a consequence, its inhabitants often experience a lack of attention from the economic and power centres of their respective countries. Differences in standard of living, provision of services and degree of infrastructure are some of the main categories of inequality that Arctic communities must cope with when attempting to develop education systems that prepare them for the challenges and expectations of life in a globalizing world. And in the Arctic at least as much as anywhere else, it is clear that this situation is even more acute for its indigenous peoples. At the same time, a number of new autonomy arrangements - land claims agreements, home rule governments and new territories - are calling for the creation of entire public services from amongst the indigenous peoples. The short-term objective has therefore been to ensure the full partnership of indigenous peoples of the Arctic from as early a stage as possible in the process of envisioning and creating a University of the Arctic. This objective has been challenged by the fact that the Circumpolar Universities Association is a non-governmental transnational organisation whose members are already-existing institutions of higher education and research, without any specific indigenous peoples■ participation, apart from various roles in some of those same institutions. Thus, the objective has been re-stated as a question: how can the Circumpolar Universities Association achieve the full partnership of indigenous peoples of the Arctic in creating a new kind of university, a University of the Arctic? This objective has been broken down into several steps, or sub- objectives, in order to cope with the complexity of the long-term goal. The present case study concerns a clearly defined crucial step, which has now been concluded, in this process. Project Activity Project Title: "Indigenous Peoples and the Formation of a Representative Working Group for a University of the Arctic" The long-term objective of creating a University of the Arctic has been envisioned as requiring a number of clearly defined projects. These should all contribute concrete results that strengthen the viability of the overarching objective. Some of these have already been completed, others remain to be developed and some are on-going. The most significant project to date has been to secure appropriate and interested representation, from the wide range of constituencies and communities in the circumpolar north, on the Working Group that will conduct the feasibility study of the University of the Arctic. This representation will determine the essence of the Working Group, and in turn, will determine the success or failure of this process. A circumpolar university that did not represent the aspirations, contributions and participation of indigenous peoples would be a failure, as was indicated above. On the other hand, a feasibility study performed by a Working Group composed of individuals who not only represent their constituencies, but who are also strong academics committed to the educational goals of indigenous peoples, has a much increased chance of receiving support from funding agencies interested in creating a new and different kind of university. Although this understanding made our objectives clear, the key question remained; to recapitulate, how could we be confident that the membership on the Working Group was anchored not only with Arctic indigenous peoples, but amongst indigenous people who were involved in matters of higher education? For guidance in assuring such a specific category of representation, we followed the pattern of the circumpolar Arctic Council■s composition. In addition to the eight member countries, the Arctic Council also has three Permanent Participant Indigenous Peoples Organisations, (PPIPOs). This is widely felt to be appropriate representation at the circumpolar level. These organisations are the Association of Minority Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation (RAIPON), the Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC), and the Sami Council. The task appeared simple: we simply needed to contact the three PPIPOs and they would nominate their representatives to the Working Group. Since we felt that the University of the Arctic proposal was so transparently and obviously in the best interest of indigenous peoples, everything should go smoothly. Results Achieved Although we were in the end successful in being joined by three wonderfully qualified and capable academic representatives of each the three indigenous peoples' organisations, the process of getting to this point demanded that the preparations for the beginning of the Working Group's activities have been radically altered. The situation with communications was eventually solved. Although in one instance, a representative was informed late in the afternoon that a Working Group meeting had been called for the next day he braved a 600 km drive over icy roads across Lapland and arrived intrepid if slightly late. Accounts of difficulties faced by other delegates could also be related. R In spite of the difficulties and the resultant worry and expense, the Working Group of the Circumpolar Universities Association is now formed and has the strong commitment and engagement of the three largest and most important indigenous peoples' organisations in the Arctic. It is truly circumpolar. The representatives are highly qualified academics and their organisations are feeling that they, too, own the process, and the rest of us feel that we now have true partners in this endeavour. Lessons Learned The first round of contact was different from the experience of the Circumpolar Universities Association. While the CUA is an organisation of academics representing their institutions, indigenous peoples■ organisations represent a vastly broader spectrum of interests and concerns. Thus we noted that the usual forms of academic and educational contacts were insufficient. This was also part of the reason behind the communications problem. It was eventually explained that our attempts at contact were not duly recognised because they had not been preceded by interpersonal, real- time, live communication. In other words, using meetings or telephone calls rather than our approach of using written materials such as fax, regular mail, and e-mail. Although the latter had their value for us as records, and as formal, well-considered and serious statements of intent, we eventually found that there was a need to personally convince key individuals, often through intermediaries, about the merits of the proposal on the University of the Arctic. Once convinced in this fashion, the commitment was total. Another issue is language. It is today very common in academia to rely on English as a universal medium, but as we were to discover, this was not the case especially for the Russian-based indigenous peoples■ organisation. Even if that body appears to want to participate in transnational discourse, it is a fact that its representatives■ skills in English, as they themselves have expressed it to us, are almost completely insufficient for what they would like to achieve. We have been attempting to translate all of our materials into Russian. This effort seems to have made a great difference in establishing our credibility with our new-found partners in proceeding down the path to an eventual University of the Arctic. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Contact for Further Information Dr. Richard Langlais, Research Project Director, or Ms. Outi Snellman, Secretary-General Secretariat Circumpolar Universities Association University of Lapland P.O.Box 122 FIN-96101 Rovaniemi Finland Tel.: +358-16-324-767 Fax: +358-16-324-777 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com Web: http://www.urova.fi/home/cua ----------------------------------------------------------------------- NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS Agenda 21, Chapter 27 THE ETHICAL TRADING INITIATIVE - An NGO Helps Companies to Learn in Partnership to Improve Supply Chain Ethics Introduction The "New Economics Foundation" (NEF) is a UK based NGO which for over a decade has worked to identify, design and encourage the take-up of socially just and environmentally sustainable approaches to economics and business. It has been a leader in the development of the "Ethical Trading Initiative", which it is currently chairing. The Ethical Trading Initiative was developed in response to a growing concern among consumers that the goods they buy should be produced in conditions that are safe and decent, and that enable working people to maintain their dignity and a reasonable standard of living. Consumers, citizens' groups, non-governmental organisations and trades unions have in recent years put pressure on companies to ensure that acceptable working conditions are guaranteed in the production and distribution of goods, including those of their contractors and subcontractors. Many companies have drawn up codes of conduct that cover these basic standards. For example, in the USA up to 85 per cent of large companies now have codes of conduct. In the UK, seven out of ten of the top supermarkets have adopted ethical sourcing policies. This is a positive step. However, these written commitments need to be backed up by action - monitoring working conditions and working with suppliers to improve them - if they are going to improve the lives of workers. For many, this is a new process. Companies accustomed to monitoring the quality of products in their supply chain are beginning to think about how they can monitor issues such as child labour and workers■ rights. Campaigning groups and NGOs accustomed to attacking companies through the media are beginning to think how they can play a part in making this monitoring effective. There is much to learn and much to be gained from working together. Thus, the Ethical Trading Initiative is based on a number of educational elements: training, raising awareness, capacity building, and developing resources. Essentially, the initiative is focused on "learning" about ethical trading. It serves as a focus for mutual learning from the varied experiences of its wide-ranging membership, as well as from other stakeholders active in this area and from parallel initiatives. Objectives The Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) aims to improve labour standards down the supply chains of the retailers supplying into the UK market. It is a unique "civil initiative" that brings organisations to the table that have traditionally fought each other, whether over ethics or market share. Participants include many of the largest retail companies trading in Britain, the international trade union movement, major development and human rights non-profit organisations, and the UK government. ETI serves as a forum for experimentation, learning, dialogue, and negotiation aimed at reaching agreement on how best to improve the situation of workers in supply chains through the adoption of codes and associated monitoring and verification processes. Project Activities ETI emerged from the work of an alliance of NGOs which formed in 1996 under the umbrella of the Monitoring and Verification Working Group. This group's initial work culminated in the report, Open Trading: Effective Options for Monitoring, published last year by The New Economics Foundation, in association with the Catholic Institute for International Relations. Following this, a series of consultations involving companies, trade unions, and government, was brokered by this group, in the main chaired by the New Economics Foundation and organised jointly with the Fairtrade Foundation. Finally, after over a year of hard work, ETI was born, greatly accelerated by the interest in labour standards generated by the campaigns of Christian Aid, Oxfam, and the World Development Movement, and also the support of the UK Government through the Department for International Development. ETI was formed as a response to the danger that, in the international flurry of activity around codes of conduct, creative energy would be unnecessarily dispersed and wasted through a fragmentation of efforts and outputs. ETI was therefore set up as a forum in which companies, NGOs and trades unions could: - dialogue with key stakeholders internationally - try different approaches to monitoring codes of conduct - learn from these experiences and also from the experiences of others working in this and related fields - link this learning into the development of local institutions which would have the capacity to deliver monitoring - develop a practical tool-kit of meaningful labour standards, monitoring and independent verification procedures and training processes which can be widely used by companies to improve working conditions within their supply chains; and - develop a common framework of quality for monitoring and verification Results Achieved The Ethical Trading Initiative has developed and secured funding for a three year program of work including pilot monitoring, regional seminars and an international conference, publications and regular briefings and training development. At the time of writing it is only two months into this program of work so the final results are some way from being realised. However, the collaborative development of this work plan reflects the exchange of ideas and understanding within the diverse group of organisations involved in the Initiative. The potential for ETI to support real changes to people's lives is underlined by the breadth of participation even at this early stage. For example, the companies involved in the Ethical Trading Initiative extend across the food, textiles and household goods, and telecommunications, sectors. Each participating company deals with hundreds or thousands of direct suppliers, many of which in turn buy from other companies further down the supply chain. Taken together, the current businesses participating in ETI purchase from upwards of 5 million factories, farms and plantations in 50 countries. These therefore affect the lives of tens of millions of workers, their families, and the communities in which they live. Lessons Learnt The last decade has seen the emergence of a renewed and direct, dialogue between business and civil institutions. The term, "dialogue", should of course be used advisedly since it evokes a sense of calm interaction. Often dialogue has been far from that. The business community is, however, responding to civil pressure; the move towards adopting codes of conduct and independent monitoring is just one example of how it is doing this. Others include companies such as British Telecom. This has announced that it will move towards measurement and public disclosure of its social performance, following the path of innovators in this field such as The Body Shop in the UK, Sbn Bank in Denmark, and Tata in India. There is an emerging pattern in the manner in which companies and civil actors work through their differences and move towards a common programme of action. There is an increasingly typical cycle of public awareness raising, civil action, corporate response, dialogue, remedial programmes, and shifts in corporate performance. New structures and forms of institution are evolving that are neither voluntary nor statutory. They enable and help to stabilise what are otherwise volatile situations. The Ethical Trading Initiative is one example of this type of institution. The Ethical Trading Initiative offers an example of companies commencing and maintaining a dialogue, and working together in partnership with other sections of civil society. Partnerships are not made up of like- minded people or similar institutions. Complementary differences, together with understanding and respect for such differences, are more important in building effective partnerships than mere sameness. Those who are struggling against each other often have the most to learn from each other and to gain from working in partnership. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Contact for Further Information Maya Forstater The New Economics Foundation Tel: +44 (0) 171 377 5696, Fax: +44 (0) 171 377 5720 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ------------------------------------------------------------------------ A CURRICULUM FOR GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP - An NGO Contribution to Education for Sustainable Development Introduction "Oxfam" is a non-governmental development organisation (NGDO) with over 50 years experience in the field of poverty reduction and the alleviation of suffering. It is based in Great Britain and has programmes in over 70 countries, working with the poorest people. Oxfam also works with policy makers at a national and international level in order to promote the interests of the poor. In Great Britain, it also has a strong campaigning and education programme. This seeks to raise awareness about the nature, causes and effects of poverty. Oxfam has over 21 years experience of running a development education programme which for the last 15 years has worked specifically with educators in the formal sector to bring about curriculum change. This programme is delivered through Oxfam■s own staff based in London, Cardiff, Glasgow and Oxford, and by working with Development Education Centres (DECs) and other like minded organisations and partners, on a range of publication projects, lobbying and advocacy work. Agenda 21 represented an acknowledgement by all the countries of the world that poverty and environmental degradation are inextricably linked and that sustainable development for all is not achievable without the eradication of poverty. In the light of these concerns about poverty, global equity and environmental destruction, Oxfam is seeking, by means a "Curriculum for Global Citizenship", to show how education can contribute to building a more equitable and sustainable world. Oxfam sees the Global Citizen as someone who: - is aware of the wider world and has a sense of his or her own role as world citizen, - respects and values diversity, - has an understanding of how the world works economically, politically, socially, culturally, technologically and environmentally, - is outraged by social injustice, - participates and contributes to the community at a range of levels from the local to the global, - is willing to act to make the world a more equitable and sustainable place, - takes responsibility for personal actions. Few of us will feel that we yet measure up to this description of a Global Citizen but most of us will wish to encourage this for the next generation. We also wish to emphasise that this is a local Great Britain (GB) response, although we hope that it will also have resonance and relevance for other countries. We recognise that many people in the South may already be good Global Citizens, both through the contribution they make to their local communities and by the fact that they are making only a minute global footprint. But, at a time when most governments are emphasising the importance of literacy and numeracy programmes, we also feel that it is important to ask "What is the purpose of our current education curricula?" An increase in basic skills will not, on its own, bring about the change required to ensure a safer and more sustainable future for us all. Most education systems in the world have been designed for the needs of the past, not of the future, and we believe that they need to be looked at again with the needs of the 21st century in mind, and re-orientated towards sustainable development for all. A curriculum for Global Citizenship should, therefore, be based on: - The importance of re-affirming or developing a sense of identity and self-esteem - Valuing all pupils and addressing inequality within the school and the wider world - The importance of relevant values, attitudes and personal and social education - Learning from the experiences of others around the world - Relevance to young peoples■ interests and needs - Supporting and increasing young peoples■ motivation to effect change and a belief that anything is possible - A holistic approach to the curriculum and the general ethos of the school Objectives of the Project To incorporate global citizenship into the GB formal education curriculum by: - Producing and publishing a rationale and outline for a curriculum for global citizenship, - Setting up projects to demonstrate examples of good practice, - Lobbying curriculum bodies, - Organising a series of seminars for educationalists, - Working in partnership with other development education and environmental education practitioners to ensure wide dissemination of the curriculum for global citizenship, - Contributing to the work of development and environmental education networks, such as the Education for Sustainability Forum (ESF) and the UNED-UK/ESF Education Task Group, - Producing and publishing relevant materials for teachers. Project Activity The first thing we had to do was develop a vision of a curriculum for Global Citizenship. In order to do this, Oxfam education staff relied on wide consultation with a range of key players in the field of education in Great Britain. Inputs included comments from practitioners (teachers and lecturers) as well as feedback from QCA (the Qualifications and Curriculum Association) which is the lead body overseeing the curriculum in England. We were able to proceed to set up a range of projects to explore the potential of Global Citizenship for the curriculum, and to develop examples of good practice on which to build further support. Partners include Local Education Authorities, Development Education centres, Local Agenda 21 offices, and Initial Teacher Training colleges. These projects build on Oxfam■s previous experience of working with teachers and other educators. For most of the projects, teachers■ groups are brought together with training provided around the issues of Agenda 21. Following this, projects are being set up in the relevant schools. Once the projects have been successfully tested and evaluated, further partnerships are planned. In order to encourage acceptance and implementation of these policies Oxfam has been active in a number of ways as detailed below. - We are holding a series of seminars in different regions of Great Britain to which educators at all levels are invited. The aim will be to encourage them to become advocates for the Global Citizenship curriculum and to explore the potential for further collaboration. - A formal response to the review process of the national curriculum in England and Wales has been made to the Advisory Group on Citizenship. The Global Citizenship document has also been sent to the Scottish and Welsh Curriculum bodies. - Lists of development education resource materials are being produced to support teachers who are interested in global citizenship. All new Oxfam Education publications will support the Global Citizenship curriculum. - It is intended to try to encourage exam boards to take on some aspects of the curriculum for global citizenship. For example, work has been carried out with the Welsh exam board to place sustainable development at the heart of the compulsory modules for geography in the A level syllabus. Results Achieved Our work in developing a vision resulted in a publication entitled "A Curriculum for Global Citizenship". This includes a rationale for global citizenship and an outline curriculum for pre-school to post 16. The curriculum demonstrated progression of the key skills, knowledge and values that are essential for global citizenship. The publication has been widely disseminated to educators throughout Great Britain and Europe. Our curriculum projects are steadily getting off the ground. A brief account of the progress made in three of them follows. "The Basic Rights Project" was based on a partnership with Sheffield Development Education Centre in the area of personal and social education. Working with a group of teachers, this has resulted in a publication for secondary schools looking at the issues of basic rights for all. It included case studies from the UK and from the South on, for example, bullying and violence against children. One example encouraged children in the UK to look at the common causes behind such violence and to learn about conflict resolution. They learned from the experience of street children in Brazil who had worked together to claim their rights and establish legislation to protect them. "The Global Footprint of Schools" is a partnership project being undertaken by the Tower Hamlets Development Education Centre, Tower Hamlets Local Agenda 21 Office and Oxfam Education. It aims to encourage local schools to identify and then to reduce the environmental and social impact that they are making both locally and globally by assessing their Global Footprint. It is seeking to take the idea of the ecological footprint one step further in order to include issues of social justice and equity as well as the environmental perspective. It is a groundbreaking project in that it aims to bring together the environment and development agendas in a way that is accessible to teachers and children and to develop activities for use in schools. "The Global Citizenship in Croydon and Sutton Project" is being developed in partnership with the relevant local authorities. The project seeks to ensure that global citizenship becomes embedded in the curriculum and in school policy. This work is building on previous collaboration when a series of training courses on education for sustainability was run in these boroughs by Oxfam Education staff in conjunction with Local Agenda 21 officers and Local Education Authority Advisers. We have achieved results over a whole range of activities undertaken. Examples of these are given below. - A formal response by Oxfam to the national curriculum review has been made and to the Advisory Group on Citizenship. To the latter we have been asked to provide case studies of good practice. - A training session on the GC curriculum was held with school inspectors. - Formal meetings have been held with the Qualifications and Curriculum Association and the Department for International Development when the document was very well received. - The national geography advisers and inspectors group have discussed and promoted the GC document. - Oxfam has worked with the Geography Association Primary Group to promote the GC curriculum document in an article for their journal. - A paper was presented on the GC curriculum at the UNESCO / Government of Greece conference in Thessalonika, Greece. Lessons Learned We learned a great deal about negotiating with competing agendas. Local authorities have many priorities and education for global citizenship is not at the top of their list. We have also learned that careful strategies need to be put in place to bring them on board. For example, linking with their Local Agenda 21 initiatives, and demonstrating how global citizenship can help deliver other priorities in education, such as literacy and numeracy. Similar lessons apply to national government. Despite signing up to Agenda 21 the UK government, like so may others, has many other priorities for education. It has, therefore, been important to play a part in all new debates and curriculum initiatives at a national level. This has helped us to identify a niche for the GC curriculum within the ongoing debates about citizenship and values. Achievements and success need to be seen as incremental, building up over a period of time. Whether at local authority or at national level, it is important to identify key players and influentials and to bring them on board. For example, key advisers and inspectors who are willing to support the GC curriculum can make a huge difference to the success of the project. The project has also reinforced our ideas about partnerships and networking. Oxfam does not have the resources to make sufficient impact on its own so working with a range of partners is essential. These need to be relationships built up over a period of time, which can be tried and tested. Partnerships need to be collaborative and flexible so that we can learn from each other. Excellent communication is essential. An inclusive agenda that does not seek to vaunt one NGO over another is essential. This is not always easy as NGOs have their own internal agendas too and there may be an element of competition between them. Some of the difficulties in combining the development and environment agendas have become very apparent as a result of the project. For example, in the case of "trade": how do we make choices about products on environmental and social grounds? In some cases this is fairly straightforward as in Fair-traded tea or coffee, which is produced by small communities with a view to developing sustainable lifestyles that do not destroy the environment. However, with other products, such as "mange tout" peas from Zimbabwe, the choices are less obvious. Do we buy the peas and accept the environmental damage caused by intensive agriculture and aviation transport, or do we refuse to buy and put the community in Zimbabwe in jeopardy? There is little doubting that with an increasingly globalised and interdependent world, such choices are going to become more complex not easier. This underlines the need for environmental and development practitioners to work together to find common ground and mutual agendas. Our final conclusion is that until governments are really prepared to prioritise education for global citizenship within their education agendas, it will always be an uphill struggle to achieve our long term objective, of making this curriculum for global citizenship an entitlement for every child in Great Britain. While there are numerous directives on numeracy and literacy, the debate about citizenship and values education goes on largely unheeded. Global citizenship needs to be seen as an integral part of the curriculum with resources and training to match. If we are to achieve the objectives of Agenda 21, this is no longer an optional extra, it is an imperative. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Contact for further information Ros Wade or Mary Young Oxfam Education 4th floor 4 Bridge Place London SW1V 1XY Tel: +44 171 931 7660 E-mail: email@example.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------- LOCAL AUTHORITIES Agenda 21, Chapter 28 VISION 2020 - Community Education and Awareness are Essential Components in Planning for a Sustainable Future by a Canadian Regional Municipality Introduction Located at the western end of Lake Ontario, "the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth" lies in the middle of Canada's manufacturing heartland. The Region, which covers an area of 111,300 hectares, is home to almost 469,000 people (1996). Regional functions and responsibilities include waterworks, sewage, social services, public health, police services, roadways, drainage systems, and transit systems. The Region is also the central planning authority for the purposes of physical, social, and economic planning and development. Like most municipalities in Canada, Hamilton-Wentworth has a long history of community participation in decision making and community involvement in addressing local issues of concern. This commitment to community participation is evident in the Region's involvement in the "Local Agenda 21 (LA 21) Model Communities Programme" (MCP), co-ordinated by the "International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives" (ICLEI). ICLEI is an association of approximately 300 local governments dedicated to the prevention and solution of local, regional, and global environmental problems through local action. The LA 21 Initiative was launched by ICLEI at the United Nations "Earth Summit" in 1992. To support the process of developing LA 21s at the municipal level, ICLEI launched a world-wide action research project, the MCP, in early 1994. Fourteen communities, including the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth, from countries around the world participated in the MCP. ICLEI has worked with these local governments to develop, test, and implement sustainable development planning processes. "VISION 2020", Hamilton-Wentworth's sustainable development planning initiative, evolved from a new approach to decision making used by the Region for the Hamilton Harbour Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The RAP initiative started in 1986 and involved a multi-stakeholder round-table approach to the development of the plan. The success of this initiative, which continues today, showed that organizations with divergent views and opinions could work together to address community concerns. After the success of the RAP, the Region organized the Chair's Task Force on Affordable Housing. This initiative, which met with mixed success, was the Region's first effort in opening up the decision-making process to greater community involvement. The lessons learned from this project and the RAP provided the framework within which the Sustainable Community Initiative, which developed into VISION 2020, was started. In June 1990, Regional Council created the Chair's Task Force on Sustainable Development. Following the model of the Hamilton Harbor RAP, the task force was set up as a multi-stakeholder roundtable. There were originally eighteen members of the task force, each representing various key sectors in the community - agriculture, business, community organizations, education, health services, labour, natural environment, social services, and urban development. Its mandate was integrated into the decision-making process of the Regional Council. Objectives The terms of reference for the Chairman's Task Force on Sustainable Development required, as one of its six purposes, the establishment of a public outreach program to increase public awareness of the concept of sustainable development and to act as a vehicle for feedback on potential goals, objectives, and policies for the Region. The nine goals of the public outreach program fell into three general categories - education, citizen input, and quality. The goals specific to education were: - to inform the general population of the basic principles of sustainable development and of the purpose and mandate of the task force; - to inform citizens of the range of regional government activities, such as public expenditures and investments, the Regional Official Plan, and the Economic Strategy; and - to communicate information generated by citizens back to the public. These goals, which were developed by the task force at the early stages of their mandate, were integrated into all subsequent phases of the sustainable development planning process. This included partnership formation; community consultation for issue identification and priority setting; issue assessment and analysis; action planning; and implementation, monitoring, reporting, and evaluation. Project Activity From 1990 through the present, Hamilton-Wentworth has incorporated a public education component in all phases of defining and implementing its sustainable development planning process. Specific avenues of action to increase community awareness included a media campaign, individual feedback opportunities, community workshops, focus groups, and community forums. A broad media campaign that included the use of local print, radio, and television media, the development and delivery of information booths in local shopping malls and other locations, and the preparation and distribution of 150,000 copies of the first "Task Force Newsletter", was initiated in late 1990. The campaign informed the community about the purpose of the Task Force and the upcoming opportunities available to people to become involved in the work of the Task Force. The major activity held at the time was the convening of seven community workshops or Town Hall Meetings. Approximately 160 people participated in these meetings, which included a brief overview of sustainable development followed by brainstorming sessions designed to identify which issues needed to be addressed and which values should guide the work of the Task Force. Citizens' responses to specific questions about their community and the values that should guide decision making were recorded. The results of each Town Hall Meeting were summarized into a report provided to each member of the Task Force and made available upon request to the public. People who did not wish to participate in the Town Hall Meetings were provided with the opportunity to contribute their ideas by submitting written comments or phoning the Ideas Telephone Line. Almost 1,200 citizens from all walks of life were eventually involved directly or indirectly in the community consultation work of the Chair's Task Force on Sustainable Development, which also served as a vehicle for educating the public. The resulting vision statement, VISION 2020, describes a concept for sustainable development in Hamilton-Wentworth by the year 2020. It has been adopted as the basis for regional decision-making in Hamilton- Wentworth, including such policy documents as the Hamilton-Wentworth Official Plan, the Regional Economic Strategy, and the capital budget process. Since 1993, the Region has annually held a VISION 2020 Sustainable Community Day to bring the community together to examine the progress made in relation to the goals of VISION 2020 and continue to educate the public as to the importance of the environment and sustainable development. Over the years, the event has turned into a month long festival involving tours, workshops, a Children's Sustainability Fair (attended by thousands of children), and various other special programs. Another program, Young Citizens for a Sustainable Future, has been developed in partnership with community organizations and is geared to towards educating the youth of Hamilton-Wentworth on sustainable development. Efforts are made to have exhibits at major community festivals and staff are available to make presentations to interested community groups. Other activities include special events such as the Crazy Commute Challenge, which educates the public about transportation issues and encourages them to leave their motor vehicle at home for the day. O Results Achieved Over 10,000 copies of VISION 2020 have been printed and distributed throughout the community, leading to an increase in community awareness about sustainable development initiatives. Within the community there is a heightened awareness about environmental protection and the need to find a balance between economic and environmental concerns. This is influencing the community and the types of decisions and actions being taken. Although implementation of VISION 2020 has been a bit sporadic, events and activities sponsored by the Region have received excellent support from the community and corporate sponsorship. For example, the Sustainable Community Day and Children's Sustainability Fair held in 1996 cost around $60,000 to develop and deliver. Almost 70% of those costs were covered by in-kind and financial contributions from the community. In addition, over 150 local organizations and businesses became involved in those events. Unfortunately VISION 2020 is still seen as an initiative to guide the decision making of Regional Council as opposed to the decision making of everyone in the community. The community led review process that has been proposed for 1998 and is being developed by Regional Staff will try to address the issue of creating stronger community ownership. Lessons Learned Despite these efforts, the Region identified lack of community awareness and understanding as probably the most significant barrier to the VISION 2020 Initiative, and one that the Region perhaps should have spent more time on at the outset When the initiative started awareness was extremely low. The efforts of the last seven years have increased the proportion of people in the community who are aware of sustainable development to between 10 and 15 per cent. In addition to addressing the lack of initial community awareness, the Region made a list of other recommendations for communities considering a similar undertaking. Among these recommendations, Hamilton-Wentworth identified the following key issues related to the public education component: - "Empowerment" - There must be a clear willingness on the part of municipal staff and Council to allow the community to become directly involved in the decision-making process. The process must include components where the community is allowed to take direct responsibility for initiating and implementing projects. - "Patience" - Within the community, there is a wide range of abilities and knowledge. Time is required to bring everyone's understanding to a common level. Also, at many times it has been difficult for the "experts" to not take control for the process and direct it in a manner that they feel is appropriate. If community responsibility and ownership are to be developed, it is imperative that the members of the community investigate and develop their own solutions. development of other initiatives. For example, the Region has, with the direct input of the community, developed a series of sustainable development indicators. These indicators, which are monitored on an annual basis and presented in "report card" format during the Sustainable Community event, serve as an ongoing evaluation of the Region's progress towards the goals in VISION 2020. Looking to the future, the Regional Council has developed a Web page to provide current information on these and related activities. Strategically, the Council has established the "VISION 2020 Progress team" to renew the policies and processes, whilst perhaps more tangibly, the Council has created a "Sustainable Community Recognition Awards Programme" to mark significant achievements. Through all the education and awareness processes described in this case- study together with other ongoing public education, the Region hopes to make the decision making process of government, especially as it relates to sustainable development, more open and understandable to people in the community. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Contact for Further Information Norman Ragetlie Policy Analyst, Strategic Planning Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth Environment Department 35 King St. East, Main Floor Hamilton, Ontario L8N 4A9 Canada Tel: +1-905/546-2153 Fax: +1-905/546-4473 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Sheilagh Henry Local Agenda 21 Administrator International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives World Secretariat City Hall, East Tower, 8th Floor 100 Queen St. West Toronto, Ontario M5H 2N2 Canada Tel: +1-416/392-1462 Fax: +1-416/392-1478 Email: email@example.com Website: http://www.iclei.org ----------------------------------------------------------------------- EDUCATION INTO SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN PIMPRI CHINCHWAD, INDIA - A Municipal Corporation Works in Partnership with NGOs Introduction Pimpri Chinchwad, located 150 kilometres west of Mumbai in the state of Maharashtra, is one of the leading industrial cities in India with over 2,000 engineering, chemical, rubber, pharmaceutical, and automobile factories. Many of the workers at these factories are recent migrants into the city, and as a result, approximately 100,000 of the city's population of 600,000 live in illegal slum settlements without basic amenities such as safe drinking water and sewage systems. Although the "Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation" (PCMC) and local non-government organizations (NGOs) have put considerable effort into improving these conditions, the lack of conscious environmental education and awareness has hampered their initiatives. For its part, the PCMC has addressed the conditions through its involvement in the Local Agenda 21 (LA 21) Model Communities Programme (MCP), co-ordinated by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). ICLEI is an association of approximately 300 local governments dedicated to the prevention and solution of local, regional, and global environmental problems through local action. The LA 21 Initiative was launched by ICLEI at the United Nations "Earth Summit" in 1992. To support the process of developing LA 21s at the municipal level, ICLEI launched a world-wide action research project, the MCP, in early 1994. Fourteen communities, including the PCMC, from countries around the world participated in the MCP. ICLEI has worked with these local governments to develop, test, and implement sustainable development planning processes. As part of its involvement with the MCP, PCMC consulted with 12,500 citizens to identify and prioritise the issues the community faces. NGOs such as the "Centre for Environment Education" (CEE), "Regional Cell for Central India", and the "World Wide Fund for Nature" - India (WWF-I), have long recognized the need for environmental consciousness, especially among those living without adequate housing or amenities. However, with adult members of these households employed in different sectors, it has traditionally proven difficult to develop effective, targeted, strategies for environmental education and consciousness. Children are the next logical target group for environmental consciousness raising, in the hope that they will carry the message home. Thus to address the issues facing the community, the CEE and the WWF-I undertook an environmental education initiative in 90 municipal schools in Pimpri Chinchwad. The PCMC was selected to participate in the pilot phase of this initiative due to its involvement with the MCP. Objectives Recent trends in this region have shown a growing recognition by governments of the importance of environmental education. Although there have been significant efforts to infuse environmental education into curricula, the results have not been very positive because of a lack of community-specific environmental education resources, networking among government and NGOs, overburdened teachers, and lack of funding. This situation is far worse in schools catering for the needs of students whose parents' incomes are below the poverty line. Thus the two main objectives of the pilot phase of the environmental education curriculum program were: - to develop ways to overcome the obstacles mentioned above; - to infuse environmental education into school curricula. Project Activity The pilot project, which received financial assistance from the Education Department of the PCMC, began in July 1997. It was divided into the three phases outlined below. Phase 1: Production of Teachers Activity Handbooks A series of handbooks was developed to provide teachers with a bank of activities and reference materials in Marathi, the local language. The CEE had already developed an activity handbook series, The Joy of Learning, which outlined activities for students in standards 3 to 8. The activities in the handbook series were developed in view of the meagre resources available to most Indian schools; they had been tested by several hundred teachers across the country, and therefore made an ideal starting point. However, since this material was written in English, a team of 25 primary, middle, and secondary school teachers and other environmental resource people was assembled to oversee the translation and adaptation of the handbook series for Pimpri Chinchwad. Three handbooks were developed: Joy of Learning - Environmental Studies (standards 3 to 5); Joy of Learning - Science (standards 6 to 8); and Joy of Learning - various subjects (standards 3 to 8). Phase 2: Dissemination A series of ten workshops for teachers was organized through August and the beginning of September. Each of the first nine workshops had between 25 and 30 participants from primary schools; the last had 12 participants from the PCMC's secondary schools. The aim of the workshops was to expose the participants to the need for environmental education, distribute and discuss the handbooks, present various approaches to environmental education, and encourage the use of what they had learned during the school year. A field trip on the second day of each workshop helped the teachers get an idea of how to use the outdoors for creating environmental sensitivity among their students. At the end of each workshop, the teachers were asked to select at lease five or six activities, along with one long-term activity, to be conducted in the upcoming year. Phase 3: Trials and Feedback Based on the activities the teachers outlined during the workshops, the WWF-I/CEE team visited schools to discuss the project with the teachers and maintain support for integrating environmental education considerations in to these schools. A more formal evaluation was undertaken later in the year to gather information for further activities. Results Achieved In its pilot phase, the environmental education initiative achieved its goals and led to areas for expansion of the project in the future. An interesting aspect of the project was the working relationship of CEE, WWF-I, PCMC, and the schools for a common cause. Because of diverse experiences of each organisation, each one was able to play its role to a fuller extent. Such strategic alliances are very important if sustainable development is to be achieved. The initiative also led to the development of Nature Clubs in each school, and the beginning of an environmental education resource centre and project newsletter, "Shrishti" (Creation). These activities will continue to add support to environmental education in the schools, and encourage the dissemination and sharing of knowledge between students, teachers, the PCMC, and the larger community. Exhibitions, presentations, and other activities by the students are planned for times when working parents will be able to attend in order to further foster the environmental message outside of the schools. The nature clubs and the newsletter played a crucial role as a catalyst for sustaining the program. It also helped in networking among the ninety schools of the PCMC, which earlier were devoid of any channels of communication. Lessons Learned Although the teachers were sceptical at the start of the project, they started showing a keen interest on the importance of infusing environmental education into the curriculum, once they became involved. In their feedback, all stressed the need for a massive teacher training initiative. They also identified the critical importance of having specific environmental education resources for their communities and in their first language. Given the activities planned for the coming years, there are plans to further develop these suggestions. The importance of communicating what is going on in the schools to the parents was also realised during the pilot phase of the project. Unlike in other areas, there are no Parent-Teacher Associations in the schools where the pilot project was conducted. Parents are only available to come to the schools during holidays when the factories are closed. Exhibitions, presentations, and activities related to what students are experiencing have been planned for these days, so that the parents can understand the process. In the long run, environmental awareness must move from the classroom to the community, if the overall goal of increasing environmental education in the community is to be achieved. C ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Contacts for Further Information Mr. Rohddas B. Konde Deputy Municipal Commissioner Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation Pimpri Chinchwad, Pune India 411018 Tel: +91-212/772970 Fax: +91-212/779999 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Mr. Rahul Barkataky Programme Associate Centre for Environment Education Regional Cell for Central India 18 Green Park Aundh, Pune India 411007 Tel/Fax: +91-212/385875 Email: email@example.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------- A fuller account of this case can be found in " Teachers in Charge: Environmentalizing the School Curriuculum" by Rahul Barkatay, Sanskriti Menon and Ajit JagtapSheilagh Henry Local Agenda 21 Administrator International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives World Secretariat City Hall, East Tower, 8th Floor 100 Queen St. West Toronto, Ontario M5H 2N2 Canada Tel: +1-416/392-1462 Fax: +1-416/392-1478 EEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.iclei.org ------------------------------------------------------------------------- WORKERS & TRADE UNIONS Agenda 21, Chapter 29 THE TCO 6E CHALLENGE - Learning to Change Attitudes and Create a Sustainable Workplace Introduction The "TCO 6E" is a working model for the development of the "sustainable workplace", which embodies all of the major elements of the trade union approach to environmental education designed for the workplace. It is designed, produced and marketed by the "Development Unit of the Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees" (TCO), and is the latest and most all-encompassing in a series of successful projects undertaken by the unit. The 6 Es of the title are: Ergonomics, Economy, Ecology, Emissions, Efficiency and Energy. The "challenge" is to implement high standards in the 6 Es in the workplace. It accomplishes this through a step-by-step method, which builds competence in the environment and 6E through the phases of preparation, training, implementation, and evaluation. Competence is built up progressively, through the process of carrying out the 6E environmental work programme (compatible with ISO 14 001). Theory is proved by practical application. What is unique about the 6E is that everyone participates in establishing and reaching the environmental goals of the company. All participants receive some form of environmental education ranging from two to five days, depending on their specific role in the programme. This is a new approach for many companies, but as work progresses, they see that joint ambition and high involvement are necessary ingredients to success. Objectives The 6E aims to lead the whole organisation, and the workplaces that are a part of it, to a consensus on a common set of values and respect for the environment. This is accomplished by imbuing everyone at the workplace with the idea that personal development, a good working environment, and a sociable working climate are integral components of their environmental work. More specifically, it aims to: - eliminate unhealthy or environmentally incompatible equipment and practices from offices and other workplaces. - combine environmental practice with sound economics - provide a practical guide for integrating considerations relating to ecology and the work environment into everyday decision-making and setting standards for all decisions, from the purchasing of products and services, to the work process and environment; and - corporate basic principles of environmental practice into the workplace. The last-mentioned objective, incorporating basic principles of environmental practice into the workplace, is generic. It is composed of the elements identified below: - "The Recycling Principle" - moving away from a "linear material flow" to "a recycling loop" for all materials. - "The Precautionary Principle" - that lack of scientific proof is not to be used as a reason for delaying measures to prevent damage to the external and working environments. - "The Substitution Principle" - that materials or processes are to be replaced by less harmful ones in routines and purchasing; and - "The Integration Principle" - that all influences of humans on the environment are taken into account, and environmental considerations are integrated into operational business strategy, and long-term development plans. Project Activities Each 6E-project begins by engaging a "study circle" of Environmental Co- ordinators from each company in a series of training seminars. They report every second week on their company's progress to a Project Manager, with copies to the TCO. These reports provide information about improvements made to the work and the external environments, as well as any new ideas and contacts taken with other organisations. It begins with a vision of a better workplace and a better environment built on an analysis of the working environment. It develops an overview how operations inflow, resource use and outflow patterns impact on Nature. Environmental competence is then developed in every individual, to ensure that they are capable of identifying, understanding and solving problems that arise in the course of continual environmental improvement. This increased understanding and commitment are pre-requisites for successful environmental work. Training is carried through to active participation; an "investigative working procedure" is employed in an influential working procedure. This process occurs through working groups led by a group co-ordinator and a project leader who manages the integration task, and reports to management meetings. Participating enterprises are provided with the following material to guide and assist them at each stage of a systematic adaptation of the organisation■s operations towards the vision. These include: The Way to 6E: a manual describing the 6E, its aims and implementation; - A Project Binder: to guide the project and group leaders through the model; - An Environment Binder: with instructional materials and articles on 6E Elements. - Private Binders: for all participant to collect material and use Checklists and Calculation Sheets, as well as notes, reminders, contacts, and educational material. - Checklists: to help map out both the internal and external work environments, and support routines and working procedures for sustaining integration. - Calculation Sheets: to account for quantities and costs of materials and other inputs. - Computer Support: software to permit mapping and analysis,including computerized checklists, calculation sheets, and legal search tools. - A 6E Library: containing documents and booklets on the environmental world. Results Achieved The Project began in August 1997, and as many as 32 Swedish enterprises are already working with the TCO 6E-model. Most notably, a group of 24 companies (SMEs) in the furnishing business has subscribed to the Project. All are noticing a growing interest from competitors, customers and governments. The TCO is working with the "ECIC - European Continuous Improvement Circle" (European Union Directorate General XIII - Innovation programme), and is also one of the partners in an EC-project that aims to improve the competitiveness of SMEs and SMOs in Europe. Companies and organisations choosing to adopt the 6E concept can apply for 6E-approval, which means acknowledgement of achieving several requirements regarding the way that they have integrated a long-term approach to natural and work environment questions in their operations. The first companies are going to apply for the 6E-approval in the second part of 1999. Lessons Learned The lessons to be gained from this Project are summarized in the 6E logo, a symbol of "Responsible Practice■ that signifies total environmental integration of the external and internal workplace environment. When 6E Approval is given to a complete operation, or to just one part of it, it shows that it has passed an important milestone in changing the way business is done for the benefit of both humanity and the environment. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Contacts for further information Bodil Ekstrom, 6E Project Co-ordinator, or Per Erik Boivie, TCO Development Manager The TCO Development Unit, Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees (TCO), Linnegatan 14, S-114 94 Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46 8 782 91 00 Fax: +46 8 782 92 07 Eemail@example.com -------------------------------------------------------------------- A MORE SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT THROUGH EDUCATION AND TRAINING A Czech Trades Union Project to Improve Working and Living Conditions Introduction "The Czech Mine, Geology and Oil Industry Workers Union" (OSPHGN) has 95,000 members in 207 employers■ organisations in mining, construction, engineering, transport and other industries that have a direct impact on the environment. It is affiliated to the Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade Unions (CMCTU) which links 34 trade unions with a membership of almost 2,000,000, as well as with the International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers Union and the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. After the political transition in November 1989, newly created trade unions identified the environment as a top priority, and vowed to participate in a process for better working conditions and environmental action. Objectives The overall objective of this joint project was to improve the working and community environment among the membership of the Union of Oil, Mine and Geology Industry Workers by increasing environmental consciousness of members and their relatives. The Project would eventually affect about 450,000 people in the Czech Republic, about 4 per cent of the population. In addition, it would put pressure on the State and other institutions in this area. Specific objectives included: - showing how negative effects on the work and community environment are caused by action of individual employees at their jobs and in their private lives; - identifying and correcting technical deficiencies through the implementation of an eco-audit process involving workers; - improving the ecological consciousness of workers' families and community members by means of training and participation in environmental activities; and - making its members aware that their responsibility for improvements to working conditions extends to environmental conditions in the communities where they live. Project Activity Training activities commenced at the same time as detailed eco-audits of the participating enterprises were conducted. External experts provided initial training to members in safety. During 8 hours of regular safety training, 2 hours were dedicated to problems of the environment. This training started with specialists and activists, and expanded to the other members and finally to the public. The aim was to reach 6,500 voluntary labour safety inspectors, who could then train members and other employees in a short time. This method would reach approximately 120,000 employees, who could influence family members, eventually improving the ecological behaviour of some 400,000 citizens. The already existent structure of work safety inspectors was utilised as follows: - Project and regional co-ordinators were trained at Prague Technical University, with additional training at Cornell University. - All work safety inspectors at other levels were trained in regular inspectors training courses. - All employees received training during regular courses given by work safety inspectors to improve environmental consciousness. - Work safety inspectors carried out eco-audits to evaluate the effects of work processes on the environment. A system of self-controls was implemented. - Once every six months, an overall assessment of these activities is carried out by all levels of the union structure. Members of staff from the School of Industrial and Labour Relations at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York were key partners in this Project. They provided advice, training and other assistance through such manuals as "Trade Unions and Audits of Living Environment", a recipe for trade unions wishing to implement eco-audits and measures. Results Achieved Safety specialists are now in the first phase of eco-audits to evaluate conditions in 12 companies with 30,000 employees, after which they will conduct audits in other companies. The first audits have clearly indicated a direction for education of the members, as well as the problems that should be addressed in collective agreements, publication activities and through the mass-media. Eco-audits have resulted in a greater appreciation of the living environment. While perhaps not at the same standard as those provided by a specialized firm, they proved sufficient for the purpose of identifying problems. These activities led to pressure on employers through collective agreements and media publicity to improve the working and living environment, and illustrated the need for co-operation by employers. Individual OSHGN unions and the OSHGN headquarters are exerting increased pressure on lawmakers, the government, regional and local authorities, management and environmental activists in order to improve work and community environment globally. This can influence legislation and the nature of technological change. It has led to activities designed to promote eco-auditing and review eco-audits in already privatized companies on the basis of their privatization projects. The results are being published continuously in the media. Lessons Learned This Project is showing the feasibility of implementing a system of environmental education and monitoring of work and community environment as a part of education on safety at the work-site, making use of existent organisation of work safety inspectors and their monitoring, lecturing and prevention capacities. It also shows that union members will not accept that environmental protection or health and safety at work must be sacrificed or compromised. Quite the contrary; they have a strong commitment to the goals of sustainable development, especially the double dividend of sustainable employment and a cleaner working and living environment. They are impatient with solutions imposed from the top, as they have a shared commitment to change and the creation of a new society. In numerous enterprises, they have shown that they can promote realistic programmes to clean up production without huge investment costs; e.g., saving energy, changing working practices, reducing waste by recycling, etc. In the changing political economy of Central and Eastern Europe, enterprises that capture the knowledge and experience of workers have a much better chance of survival. This is the focus of the Environmental Action Programme. In October 1995, "Environment for Europe" the Sophia Conference of Environment Ministers invited an EAP Task Force to draw up a work programme, "to promote the implementation of cleaner production programmes in all CEE countries by 1998 and to foster co-operation and networking among all the stakeholders involved ..." The overall objective of the EAP is to promote continuous improvement in environmental performance and economic savings in industry in CEECs, by means of the following: - raising awareness among workers and their associations about benefits deriving from Cleaner Production (CP) programmes and investments; - multiplying the positive results of CP programmes by engaging workers and trade unions in their design and implementation; and - supporting a process to develop effective mechanisms for dialogue and co- operation between national governments, managers and trade unions. Although there are many examples of union-led initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe, "there is a desperate need for more support". Assistance at this stage constitutes a good investment in the global environment, as it would lead to a more effective use of the knowledge, experience, commitment and clear self-interest of workers and their unions. They are still a virtually untapped resource. To this point, most of the costs have been borne by OSPHGN. Projects require extensive funding, especially at the beginning, when work safety inspectors have to be trained on environmental issues. OSPHGN welcomes participation of sponsors and non-government organizations in at least part of the cost of training at Prague Technical University and Cornell University. OSPHGN will make use of all available resources to secure lecturing on this project including co-operation with CMKOS and the FIM.. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Contacts for further information: Vlastimil Altner, Executive Secretary, Czech Mine, Geology and Oil Industry Workers Union (OSPHGN), W. Churchilla 2 DOS, 113 59 Prague 3. Tel: 0042-2-24462689 Fax: 0042-2-24226397 Linda Gasser, Executive Director, Central Europe Human Resource Education Initiative, Rm. 158 Ives Hall, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 -3901 Tel: 607-255-1228 Fax: 607-255-7774 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUSINESS & INDUSTRY Agenda 21, Chapter 30 SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS CHALLENGE - Youth in Partnership with Business and Industry for Sustainable Development Introduction A case of successful partnerships between major groups towards a sustainable future is the Sustainable Business Challenge (SBC) - an Internet-based examination for business school students (accessible at http://www.wbcsd.ch/foundation). SBC is a co-operative initiative of the "World Business Council for Sustainable Development" (WBCSD) and "the International Association of Students in Economics and Management" (AIESEC) in the promotion of WBCSD. AIESEC has been working on responsible management of companies for several years and aims to develop future business leaders through an international traineeship exchange program and locally run projects in this field. The SBC was launched by AIESEC at its Global Theme Conference (Basel, Switzerland May 1997), using the presence of 300 youth leaders from over 70 countries. The "Sustainable Business Challenge" fits well with AIESEC■s efforts to raise awareness for global and environmental issues among future business leaders. The fact that the exam is Internet-based makes it both available for a large range of events that are developed by local AIESEC chapters and adaptable to specific local needs. The SBC underlines the strong interest of WBCSD■s 122 international member companies in including "sustainable development" into the education of their future employees. WBCSD■s members recruit several thousands of young people every year. Passing SBC will be a first step for students at the beginning of their professional careers to demonstrate that they take an interest in the environmentally sound management of the organisations for which they intend to work. At the same time WBCSD provides a valuable piece of education material with the SBC, drawing from the field experience of its member corporations. Objectives The main objectives of SBC are to promote the development of: - education towards Sustainable Development in Business Schools, and - enabling partnership between Industry and Youth. Project Activities The exam tests a student■s knowledge and practical skills in the field of environmentally sustainable management and company decision making. General environmental and societal issues are addressed as well, making sure the student understands the background environmental issues that corporations face today. Upon successfully passing SBC, the student receives (by surface mail) a certificate issued by the WBCSD. AIESEC and the WBCSD plan to bring the SBC on a tour around Europe in the spring of 1998 and host events related to Sustainable Development and Responsible Entrepreneurship in 30 universities and business schools. The tour will encompass an intensive week in Switzerland in April on the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility with speakers and workshop facilitators from the WBCSD membership. Similar events in Scandinavia and the Netherlands will take place, this time mostly integrated into the respective career-days and job-fairs of the AIESEC local chapters, thus underlining the decisive role environmental business skills will play today and in the near future. The SBC is also being integrated into AIESEC■s student internship exchange programs as more and more AIESEC affiliates expect students to take the SBNC before starting a traineeship, working for a company, or working with an NGO in a country other than their own. Results Achieved Since its launch, SBC has been taken more than 4000 times! Of these, around 30 per cent have passed the exam and have received their certificate. The number of certificates awarded spreads equally around the world. Any difficulties in accessing the exam due to insufficient Internet access in some countries (such as in Africa and some parts of Asia) are now compensated for with the paperback version of the SBC Brief - an info package that serves as a basis for the exam. Designed as a virtual corporate board meeting in the year 2017, the brief is now being integrated by interested AIESEC groups or university professors into local curricula and student activities. The six most successful students from Canada, Kenya, India, New Zealand, Italy and Sweden who took the SBC exam attended the annual WBCSD Council meeting in Prague in the fall of 1997. At this high- level meeting of WBCSD, the future business leaders presented to the CEOs their views of a sustainable future and the role for business towards a better world. The successful co-operation of AIESEC and WBCSD in the course of the SBC has laid the groundwork for future joint activities. These two organizations who rally two important major groups of Agenda 21 (youth and business) on a global scale, have demonstrated the ability to bring global co-operation down to the local level. The dialogue between the two organizations will continue with AIESEC students contributing to WBCSD Commissions and WBCSD experts and speakers helping AIESEC with local projects. Lessons Learned - The Internet based exam demonstrated two important features that underline the success of the SBC: (i) the project is international, accessible from any computer linked to the Internet anywhere in the world, and (ii) by taking the form of a virtual board room meeting in 2017, the exam is interactive and hands-on which attracts the interest of students. - The SBC enjoys a great credibility among business students due to the sponsorship of WBCSD and AIESEC. The issue of Sustainable Development is often poorly understood and many business students refuse to become aware of the issue if it is brought before them by environmental groups at their campuses. The SBC allows a first introduction to the concept and the importance of Sustainable Development to a community of young people who are likely to shape the future through decisions they make in their later business lives. - The SBC demonstrated the growing need for management of knowledge related to the environment and to the concept of sustainable development in general. The integration of sustainable development into university curricula will stay on the agenda of AIESEC and WBCSD as students and businesses take an interest in a sustainable future and in the environmentally relevant education of future employees. - The fact that AIESEC is present at over 600 universities and business schools around the world, coupled with the equally global presence of WBCSD■s 122 member companies, provides the basis for locally implemented projects with a global vision. The SBC has served as a first case study of the synergism that can be fostered by such partnership. Stand by for more co-operation in the future! --------------------------------------------------------------------- Contacts For Further Information AIESEC International Mr. Johnni Kjelsgaard Teilingerstraat 110 - 128 NL-3032 AW Rotterdam, The Netherlands Tel: +31-10-243-0603 Fax: +31-10-265-1386 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.aiesec.org Foundation for Business and Sustainable Development Mr. Hans Christian Lillehagen Postbox 301, N-1324 Lysaker, Norway Tel: +47 220.127.116.11 Fax:+ 47-18.104.22.168 E-Mail: email@example.com Web: http://www.wbcsd.ch/foundation ------------------------------------------------------------------------ SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS NETWORK - An On-line Vehicle to Facilitate a Green Economy R Introduction "The Sustainable Business Network" (SBN) is a focal point for the sustainable business community on the Internet. The people behind SBN believe that change occurs through the slow accumulation of thousands of individual and group actions, and then suddenly accelerates in a great leap(s), when the pressure builds to a critical point. Our goal is to fuel momentum toward a green economy by using a resource only available through the Internet: the ability to broadcast information across the world instantaneously. We then to invite those same people to feed back their needs and interact with each other through SBN. It is our hope that by building SBN to support a huge web of interaction, we will contribute to the sustainable transformation we believe is underway. We use education and information for several purposes. First, when we provide high quality information we attract sophisticated thinkers from many disciplines who form the basis for the "sparks" of connection we wish to foster. Second, we offer succinct, compelling information that ties the field of sustainable business together. People are overloaded with information these days and are hard-pressed to keep up with activity beyond their small niche. Yet we believe a wider perspective fosters connections and new ways of thinking. An example is the potential that exists between the Natural Foods and Green Building sectors. Natural food stores are expanding and adding multiple stores; a perfect customer for green buildings. The natural food industry customer base is among the most environmentally aware, and appreciates green buildings, materials, water conservation, indoor air quality and so on. To stay apprised of developments in the field, people in the natural food industry would need to subscribe to green building publications and vice versa; an unlikely prospect. The same is true for people involved in social investing, renewable energy, the recycling industry and other green business sectors. Third, we believe people are inspired and rejuvenated through positive information. Unfortunately, the overwhelming negative information available creates feelings of depression and helplessness rather than mobilising constructive energy. At present our programme consists of "The SBN Journal", "The SBN Library", "Sustainable Business Opportunities" and "Green Dream Jobs": - "The SBN Journal" is a monthly, on-line snapshot of thinking and activity in the sustainable business community. Known for its "can- do", high energy approach, it covers the gamut of green business sectors from recycling to green building, from renewable energy to organic products, from social investing to certified forestry. - "Business Opportunities" supports the growth of sustainable businesses by encouraging people to find investors/partners, distributors/licensees, and capital through solicitations. - "Green Dream Jobs" is the first job and internship listing to help people with business skills find employment with sustainable organisations. This case study examines the viability of an on-line network focused on the wide-flung field of sustainable business. We will discuss the strategy behind its evolution, its successes, and barriers it is working to overcome. Objectives The Sustainable Business Network aims to: - Inspire - rejuvenate - educate: people involved in or interested in sustainable business around the world. - Cross-fertilise - connect: people across the various sectors of sustainable business. - Create opportunity: for sustainable businesses to grow and increase green employment. Project Activities The vehicle we chose for education and information is "The SBN Journal". It is a free, on-line-only monthly publication. It unifies the field by culling the most compelling news and articles from a wide variety of leading trade publications in sustainable business. The accent is on the positive, so that while people who are deeply involved in their sector know the problems they face, they will also sense the field as a whole moving forward. The information is high level and sophisticated without being technical. It is comprehensible to everyone from students to researchers to business people. We developed our visitor base through the quality of this journal. When the numbers of visitors were high enough to sustain interaction between them, we developed sections to further partnerships and links. The listings in "Business Opportunities" come from our visitors. We identified the need based on our visitor feedback and requests they made in their letters to us. The section was immediately successful with many very high quality listings sent in from people around the world. We also received many letters asking how to find a job with a green company or organisation. Until recently, unless you were an engineer or a forester, environmental jobs were not available. A very positive indication of green economic growth is that enough sustainable business jobs now exist to create a viable listing service. Green Dream Jobs is a clearinghouse of job and internship listings to help people with business skills find employment consistent with their values, thus creating a better life for themselves and the earth. Lastly, the SBN Library is a thorough collection of resources on sustainable business. It includes organisations, government agencies, publications, databases, mailing lists, funding sources, and university programs. Results Achieved After only a year of operation, SBN attracts over 400,000 visitors per month. This was greatly aided by our immediate access to a very large visitor base. SBN is part of The EnviroLink Network, which receives over 6 million hits per month. Being on EnviroLink's Home Page gives us visibility that would be otherwise difficult to achieve. SBN's consistent, subtle public relations effort is paying off. Thousands of people have elected to be on our e-mail mailing list and the editor sends them a letter updating the site each month. Through concentrated effort replying to visitor mail, informing people when they have been written up on the site, creating links with other websites, and making all sorts of connections, the word continues to spread. We have developed a loyal following. SBN visitors return again and again. Judging from the mail received, visitors include high level people from environmental agencies, non-profit organisations, businesses, and universities around the world. We have a file full of letters lauding us on the quality of our work. The SBN Journal "hums" along, the "Business Opportunities" and "Green Dream Jobs" sections are full of listings and up-to-date. One of SBN's greatest achievements is that much of its content comes from its visitors. Many people have been contacted through Business Opportunities posts and the Jobs section is very actively used. Lessons Learned It is indeed possible to start something from scratch, and quickly develop an extensive network using the Internet. This project would have taken much, much longer using traditional means (and, of course, many more natural resources). It was possible for us to create (maintain, and grow) this extensive service with few resources in terms of staff and money. For a small staff, the most difficult aspect of our work relates to mainstream public relations. The press is slow to pick up on our work and we do not have the time to properly reach out to them on an on- going basis. To keep our interactive areas working, we need to attract many more people, especially investors interested in the businesses listed in Business Opportunities. Our income depends on corporate sponsors and they also, have been slow in signing on. Those of us in this field know that advertisers do not jump onto environmental business sites. We believe as our field grows, people who benefit from SBN will reciprocate and support us. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Contact For Further Information: Rona Fried, Ph.D. Executive Editor Tel: +516-423-3277 Fax: +516-423-4725 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.envirolink.org/sbn ---------------------------------------------------------------------- SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY Agenda 21, Chapter 31 COASTWATCH EUROPE - A Europe-wide Educational Contribution to Sustainable Development by the Scientific Community Introduction "Coastwatch Europe" is an initiative currently involving around 20 countries: Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and the Ukraine. It was established in 1988 by the Dublin Bay Environment Group with core funding from the European Commission through Directorate General XI. It is essentially a large-scale, science-based "education through participation" project that involves the general public, educational establishments and scientific communities in coastal management. The Europe-wide aspects are managed by a co- ordinating group of scientists drawn from each of the participating countries. The participation of an educated and aware public is a key element for successful sustainable coastal zone management, and is of direct relevance to Agenda 21. It is clear from Agenda 21 that governments cannot do everything required to implement the objectives it contains; public participation at the local level is vital for success. A major strength of activities linked to Agenda 21 is that they allow people to be involved in local action to realise that they are part of a much wider effort with a global impact. This helps to motivate them to take their own responsibility in environmental improvement seriously. Coastal management is an area of environmental action in which the public can play an important part. In particular the public can be an essential part of beach litter management and control. It is an issue that requires specific management given its potential impacts for sustainable recreation and tourism. Objectives The project was initiated with the following aims in mind: - to gather a large amount of baseline data in a form that is comparable throughout Europe, - to identify problems that threaten the sustainability of the coastal zone of Europe, - to raise public awareness throughout Europe, - to aid formal and informal environmental education throughout Europe, The project gathers a large amount of information concerning the quality of the European coastal zone. Many of these data can be used as "indicators" for: - sustainable recreation, - sustainable tourism development, - maintenance of sustainable coastal zone ecosystems. Project Activity - Europe "Coastwatch Europe" organisation receives core funding from the European Commission but individual countries are required to raise national funds to organise their own survey. In the UK funding was received from a commercial sponsor between 1989 and 1994. Since 1994 regional funding has been obtained through a consortium of local authorities and through funding from the education sector. Funding is the major constraint for the project expansion. Creating links with schools is an important aim for many of the participating countries. In several countries, such as Denmark, Belgium, Iceland and Spain, over 80 per cent of the groups involved are from schools (in the UK it is around 50 per cent). In addition, a number of higher education establishments participate in the project along with local and national environmental and interest groups. Involvement of such groups, who are experienced in survey work, ensures that volunteers are under strict supervision and well organised. Each participating country has a national co-ordinator who has a scientific background. They are based at a variety of institutions, primarily universities and non-governmental organisations. Project Activity - UK The specific content of this case study relates to the activities of "Coastwatch UK", which is co-ordinated from the Robens Centre for Public and Environmental Health, University of Surrey, where the national co-ordinator is based. National co-ordinating scientists meet twice a year to refine the questionnaire and to discuss national variations in the survey. The survey is carried out annually over a two-week period between the end of September and beginning of October in each country. Surveyors are recruited by a variety of methods. Increasingly, a network of core surveyors has been established who are familiar with the format of the survey and their site. Currently, between 60 and 70 per cent of groups have participated in at least one Coastwatch UK survey before. Where possible, the same sites are allocated as a priority each year. Each group of participants is designated a 5 Km block of coastline in the location of their choice. On allocation, the volunteers receive written notification of the name of the block, a six-figure map reference of the start and finish of the block, the block code and county code. All details of the block together with the contact name, address and telephone number of the surveyor group are recorded in a database. Training is important. Surveyors are provided with guidance to ensure that, so far as possible, the questionnaires are completed with the same degree of accuracy by each group. Where possible, regional training events are held. However, due to staffing constraints these are limited. All materials required to complete the survey are mailed to volunteers approximately three weeks before the start date. Telephone instructions are issued where appropriate. In addition, surveyors are provided with the contact number of a regional co- ordinator whom they can contact during the survey period in case of difficulties. All participating European countries are issued with identical core questionnaires translated as necessary. Detailed instructions on how to complete the questionnaires are issued by each country to ensure consistency in methodology. In the UK this takes the form of a ■resource file■ containing all the materials required for completion of the survey and support materials. The instruction sheets are updated as necessary and each volunteer group receives additional educational information in the form of fact sheets on marine issues and ideas for follow-up activities. The fact sheets provide background information on the issues covered by the questionnaires and with completion of the survey. Follow-up activities encourage surveyors to investigate the issues further and to continue their involvement in related activities throughout the year. The activities are designed to be adapted to suit various age ranges and, where appropriate, the materials are referenced to the UK National Curriculum to aid formal education and cover a range of cross-curricular subjects. In addition, training guides for environmental health officers have been provided. Following completion of the survey, volunteers return the questionnaires to the Coastwatch UK national co-ordinating office where they are checked and analysed. A report is written and distributed to all volunteer groups, central Government and all local authorities with coastal responsibilities. The data is also made available to other interested parties. The report of the survey is made available within three months of completion of the fieldwork, providing an accessible source of information on marine pollution. Feedback to surveyors helps maintain the network. This is further assisted by the extensive attention of the media in the release of the results. In raising the profile of the issues surrounding the project, this extends public awareness to a greater proportion of people than would otherwise have been the case. Results Achieved Coastwatch Europe network has promoted educational exchanges between schools in a variety of countries. For example, St Cyrus School, Penarth, South Wales has travelled to both Russia and Sweden for educational summer camps, undertaking environmental fieldwork and exchanging cultural viewpoints. Environmental information is a key element in achieving a good level of public involvement and participation in the process of sustainable development. To extend this beyond the annual Coastwatch event, a number of groups have adopted a section of coastline and monitor it on a regular basis. Results are recorded and used to monitor changes in pollution levels. Groups are encouraged to submit these results to their local authority, to the Environment Agency, or to other appropriate bodies for action. The large amount of media publicity that the project attracts has also had a positive outcome in promoting action. Following publication of the results several local authorities undertook beach cleanings in problem areas. The network organised a number of national and international conferences extending the educational value to the project. In the UK these have discussed such issues as public participation in coastal zone management and pollution in the Solent; in Spain a conference was organised concerning coastal zone management; and in Ireland dune management is amongst the numerous seminars arranged. In addition, the data collected through the project has been presented at a number of national and international conferences, the most recent being the Third International Conference on the Mediterranean Environment (November 1997). Coastwatch UK has recently been asked by the World Health Organisation to help produce a balanced overview of recreational water use and health in Europe. The results will be presented at the forthcoming London Conference in 1999. In summary, Coastwatch UK has provided an opportunity for thousands of volunteers to participate in coastal management issues. By involving as many people of varying ages, occupations and interests as possible it has raised public awareness about coastline conditions. The volunteers have no political, economic or personal motives for influencing the data, which is therefore completely impartial, and very influential. The establishment of local monitoring and evaluation programmes using volunteers has been supported by a number of local authorities and the Environment Agency in the UK. The practical involvement of school and college groups, which are large and well organised, promotes education for sustainable development in the public sector. Lessons Learned The project generates a huge amount of enthusiasm from volunteers throughout Europe and the data gathered is requested by numerous organisations and regulatory bodies. However, despite the obvious value of the project for education and sustainable development the future of the project depends on securing adequate funding. The project has grown to its limit with the current staffing capacity. There is the potential to expand the project considerably both in terms of the data-gathering exercise and its associated educational activities. However, currently further activities are constrained financially. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Contact for Further Information Coastwatch UK Dr Kathy Pond, Robens Centre for Public and Environmental Health, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH Fax: +44 1483 259971 Email: email@example.com --------------------------------------------------------------------- INFORMATION AND AWARENESS SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Scientists and Technologists Educate for Effective Management of Intellectual Property Introduction "Intellectual Property Management Capability" is an essential pre- requisite for developing countries to attain sustainable economic development. In recognition of this, the "Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries" (COSTED) has identified Intellectual Property Management as one of its major thrust areas for intensive activities in developing countries. COSTED, a special interdisciplinary scientific organisation, was established by the Paris based "International Council of Scientific Unions" (ICSU) in 1966. COSTED is a non-government and non-profit organisation, co-sponsored by UNESCO. The primary mandate of this organisation is to promote science and technology in developing countries by serving as the conscience of ICSU in ensuring the interests of these countries are represented. COSTED acts as an advisory group to ICSU and UNESCO on the range of their activities in science and technology for developing countries, on their potential applications to social and economical development, and how both relate to other international development efforts. The uniqueness and strength of COSTED lie in its ability to foster both North-South and South-South Co-operation in science and technology. Its affiliation to ICSU and its access to ICSU's repository of intellectual expertise of the highest order internationally enables COSTED to make this available to the science and technology communities in the developing world. In the same spirit, COSTED's outreach in the developing world enables it to reflect the needs, priorities and problems as perceived by the communities to the international efforts of ICSU and other international bodies. The present case study is typical of activities that are now high on the COSTED agenda. These support sustainable development by exploiting science and technology to satisfy local and regional needs. In an era characterised by the advent of new generic technologies, and unprecedented dynamism in the field of international economic activity, developing countries will have to overcome many difficulties if their development agendas are not to be compromised. Many of the developing countries as signatories to the recently concluded GATT agreement are grappling with the challenges now posed, some of which offer tremendous opportunities. One such opportunity is the new "Intellectual Property Regime" (IPR). Under IPR, intellectual property now represents, a major national resource for developing countries. Properly managed, intellectual property can make a major contribution to sustainable economic growth. Yet, currently it is not valued as it should be, and its potential will only be realised if countries build capacity for its effective management It is clear then that management of IPR will only be effective if this is supported by a programme of education that disseminates information, creates awareness, trains key people, sensitises policy makers, and changes attitudes. Likewise, in the longer term, it is vitally important that knowledge of IPR reaches students at universities and schools. This aspect receives strong emphasis in Costed■s work-plan. Objectives - To create/enhance awareness of the recent IPR related developments and the implications that these have for developing countries. - To understand the linkages between IPR, scientific and technological endeavours, and natural resources. - To identify steps for institutional preparedness to meet the IPR challenges for 2005 including human resource and legislative development. - To study the relevance of IPR to the scientific and technological communities, and to decision makers in developing countries. - To encourage the percolation of awareness of IPR into university and school curricula. - Finally, to provide a service that gives information and advice to developing countries on request. Project Activity This is an on-going programme that commenced in September 1996. The activity comprises the following elements: - Round Tables on IPR - Regional Conferences/Workshops - Information and Advisory Service Round Tables on IPR Four Round Tables were organised in India during I996-97, essentially to provide a forum for free exchange of views and issues. Each Round Table focused on a specific industrial sector namely Chemicals and Agro-products, Pharmaceuticals, Electronics and Electrical industry and Biological Resources and Natural products. These meetings helped to "raise awareness" on the complex and urgent issues relating to intellectual property management. They also highlighted the need for capacity building, creation of IP professionals, reforms in the educational and legal systems and above all sensitisation of politicians and decision makers. The primary targets for these meetings were the science and technology communities, members of which are considered to be the principal generators of intellectual property. Mechanisms to stimulate innovation and creativity by this community were also discussed. COSTED participated in a national IPR meeting in Sri Lanka, in February 1998 and assisted in the sensitisation efforts and national plan of action. Regional Conferences/Workshops Two regional meetings have been successfully organised on this subject to pave the way for regional co-operation in addition to raising awareness and preparedness of the participating countries in the region. A regional workshop for Asian countries was organised in October 1997 in Chiang Mai, Thailand in conjunction with the Council Meeting of the Federation of Asian Scientific Association and Societies. This workshop focused on the issues of priority to the Asian region. Very recently, a conference focusing on the Arab region was jointly organised by COSTED with TWAS and the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, in February 1998. The conference culminated in a number of important recommendations at the regional and international levels. A Task Force in which the Egyptian Academy is playing a lead role for the Arab region was set-up to look into the implementation of these recommendations. Three such meetings covering the African, Latin American and the Caribbean regions are being planned for 1998-99. These are essentially preliminary, sensitisation and capability building initiatives in the developing regions wherein COSTED plays a catalytic and co-ordinating role by stimulating local and regional initiatives. If these initiatives crystallise into action programmes, COSTED will play a supporting and advisory role. Information and advisory service Preparations are underway to set up an information and advisory service for developing countries on Intellectual Property Management. This will include information on the latest developments in the international arena, state-of-art on the subject in other countries, case-studies and advisory support for patent preparation, and other related assistance. This service will function at the Central Secretariat of COSTED in Chennai, India and will be operational by mid 1998. Results Achieved and Lessons Learned The programme is still at a comparatively early stage, and the tangible benefits that will accrue will appear mainly in the longer term. To attempt an objective assessment at this stage would therefore be premature; quantification will only be possible in a further 2-3 years. Nonetheless, a great deal has already been learned:Developing countries are in varying degrees of preparedness in managing intellectual property. This is an area that has wide-ranging and far- reaching implications for a variety of sectors of national and economic relevance. Developing countries have enormous resources in their natural biodiversity and traditional knowledge systems that have the potential to be harnessed for sustainable economic development. Effective management of these resources calls for a change in the attitudes of scientists and technologists in order to identify, assess and record these resources.An appropriate legislative frame-work, within which IPR management can thrive is essential.Scientists and technologists, as generators of and stakeholders in intellectual property, are the key human resource. Efforts to stimulate and sustain the creativity and innovative capability of this resource are vital to reap the benefits of the new IP regime. COSTED's efforts so far have been comparatively modest and represent the first few steps on a long path. COSTED seeks the co-operation and partnership of like-minded international organisations in order to make a significant and substantial impact in enabling developing countries to strengthen their capabilities in Intellectual Property Management. : --------------------------------------------------------------------- Contacts for Further Information Dr.G.Thyagarajan Scientific Secretary or Dr.Veena Ravichandran Senior Scientific Officer,COSTED Secretariat,24 Gandhi Mandapam Road, Chennai 600 025 India Tel: 91 44 4901367/419466/443028 Fax: 91 44 4914543/4911589/944444 Email:firstname.lastname@example.org --------------------------------------------------------------------- FARMERS Agenda 21, Chapter 32 FARMER EDUCATION IN KENYA - Education for Small-Scale Farmers Helps to Build Sustainable Development Introduction The case study describes a pilot project, carried out by the "International Federation of Agricultural Producers" (IFAP) and the "Kenya National Farmers' Union" (KNFU), at the Mahiga Location in Nyeri District in Kenya, during the years 1995-1997. The "pilot project" involved the KNFU Farmers' Study Groups at the Mahiga Location in Nyeri District in Kenya. KNFU Study Groups are grassroots farmers' groups specialising "in participatory adult educationand extension", where farmers regularly meet to read and discuss agricultural topics of their own choosing. During the pilot project, farmers identified soil conservation as their minimum research need. They wanted to reduce their fertiliser use to sustainable levels but they did not have access to soil sampling services. While local research centres can analyse soils, samples need to be taken to the research centres. During the pilot project, farmers learned about soil sampling through their Study Groups, and were able to get their soils tested. They also were able to "learn about" adjusting their fertiliser use and adjust their agricultural production methods to suit their soils.This project is a direct response to Agenda 21, Chapter 32 on the Role of Farmers, especially with reference to paragraphs 32.5 and 32.7. These are concerned with the promotion of a greater participation of local and village-organizations in agricultural research, and the transfer of sustainable agricultural methods through farmers' adult education schemes at village level. "Implementing Organizations" The International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP), founded in 1946, is the world organisation of farmers. It groups together nationally representative general farmers' organizations. The Federation represents virtually all the agricultural producers in the industrialised countries and several hundred million farmers in the developing countries. The one link that is common to the vast majority of IFAP's members, large or small, is their attachment to the family farm. IFAP has Category 1 consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. It is financed and governed by its member organizations. The Kenya National Farmers' Union (KNFU) is a direct membership union of farmers. Apart from individual farmers, it groups together 28 national organizations, regional co-operative societies and commercial agriculture related organizations. Small-scale farmers, women and men, comprise a largemajority of KNFU membership. KNFU regularly analyses farm policy and makes representation to government. It also runs a number of services for farmers, including information services, "education and extension", life insurance and savings schemes. Objectives KNFU Study Groups are grassroots farmers' groups specialising in participatory adult education and extension. Under the Kenya National Farmers' Union Study Group Scheme, farmers regularly meet to read and discuss agricultural topics chosen by themselves. Appropriately written booklets and some training and guidance is put at their disposal by KNFU for this purpose. As a general rule, farmers' study groups consist of eight to ten farmers, who study a self-chosen subject on an egalitarian basis. Farmers also receive certificates on the completion of each subject matter. Study group schemes were originally developed jointly between Swedish Co-operative Centre and KNFU in the 1980s, and have since spread to Zimbabwean and Zambian small farming sectors, through IFAP member organizations in those countries.The Kenyan pilot project aimed to develop this tried-and- tested scheme further by implementing the following agenda: Farmers form their study group and discuss their actual research needs; Farmers contact agricultural research and extension services for answers and collaboration;To the extent that answers were available from agricultural research and extension, new study materials are prepared in the form of booklets for farmers discussion groups, as well as physical material and services; Farmers continue their cycle of identification of needs, participatory preparation of their study programme in consultation with research and extension, application of what they have learned, and participatory evaluation. In specific terms, the project objectives were to bring about: successful transfer of at least one "sustainable" agricultural method to small-scale farmers on a demand-driven basis; andestablishment of a dialogue and consultation mechanism among farmers' study groups, agricultural research and extension bodies at the local level. Project Activities The pilot project was formulated through joint discussions between the KNFU local and national farm leaders, local and village level meetings. Project formulation mission was carried out by an IFAP- appointed consultant from the Dutch farmers' organizations and a KNFU senior staff member. A Steering Committee composed of Kenya National Farmers■ Union (KNFU), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Extension was established to facilitate and monitor project activities.The draft project was further discussed at the "National Workshop on Linkages Between Farmers' Organizations, Agricultural Research and Extension", held in January 1995, in Nairobi, Kenya. Briefing and planning meetings were held in the five areas of Mahiga Locality with the participation of 830 farmers. Priorities for project activities were set by follow-up meetings and Farmers' Study Groups were formed. Farmers identified soil conservation as their main research need. They wanted to reduce their fertiliser use to sustainable levels.Farmer priorities were communicated to research and extension at local level through direct contact as well as through farmer tours organised to the regional research station in Embu, where farmers discussed their priorities with researchers. A total of 120 farmers visited the regional research station and held talks with researchers. While local research centres can easily carry out soil analysis, samples need to be taken from individual farmers' fields and brought to the research centres. Farmers learned about soil sampling through their Study Groups, and were able to get their soils tested. They also were able to learn about fertiliser and pesticide use and were able to adjust their production methods to suit their soils. By the end of the pilot project, twenty study groups were successfully formed and trained in Mahiga locality. Demonstration plots were also used by study groups as an activity. Results achieved As a result of the pilot project, small-scale farmers were able to get their soils tested and adjust their production methods to suit their land. Lessons Learned Education should be an on-going and participatory process for farmers, Farmers should identify their educational needs themselves, formulate their own educational programmes in consultation with technically competent authorities in an egalitarian mannerA strong negotiating capacity by representative farmers' organizations, structured at local, national and international levels, is essential for ensuring the participatory nature of farmers' education. In other words, strong farmers' organizations are guarantors of farmers' participation and empowerment. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Contacts for Further Information Rashid Pertev, International Federation of Agricultural Producers, 60 rue St. Lazare, 75009 Paris, France. Tel: 01 45 26 05 53 Fax: 01 48 74 72 12/ 01 45 26 67 98 e-mail: email@example.com Philip Kiriro, Kenya National Farmers Union, P.O. Box 43148, Adamali House,Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: 25 42 28 89 4/5 Telegr. FARSUN KUF Fax: 25 42 33 99 05 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ EDUCATING FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD AND FARMING SYSTEMS Developing Farmer-Community Partnerships for a New Vision of Agriculture and Food Security Introduction Established and inaugurated at a ceremony at the United Nations in 1991, the "World Sustainable Agriculture Association" (WSAA) has served as an educational, research, advocacy, and service organisation that promotes agricultural sustainability. The goal of WSAA is to encourage the regeneration of soil and society, and ultimately the well-being of planet Earth and of all people, through food and farming systems that are in harmony with Nature. With effect from April 1998, WSAA will change its focus towards developing a demonstration prototype of nature farming in Hawaii, USA under the auspices of the Mokichi Okada Association (MOA). The other aspects of the work described here will continue in a new entity. As food security emerges to be an increasingly central environment and development issue, we have chosen to refocus our efforts to achieving food security through sustainable food and farming systemsWSAA has been active at the United Nations including the Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD). It helped establish the Farmer-NGO Sustainable Agriculture/Food Systems (SAFS) Caucus. Since 1993, farmers and sustainable agriculture leaders have participated in the work of the CSD, ensuring that their views are included in discussions and progress reports on the implementation of Agenda 21. The Caucus helped co-ordinate the first Farmer/Government Dialogue at the CSD (1997), featuring the participation of farmers from several developing and developed countries. For the first time, a farmer■s voice was heard at the UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) at Earth Summit II, when Ms. Denise O'Brien of Iowa, fruit and dairy producer from Iowa.USA, spoke to them about the needs and concerns of small scale farmers. If our generation fails to make agriculture "sustainable", humanity and Earth will suffer unspeakable consequences. It follows then that sustainable agriculture is not to be viewed as if it were an alternative to conventional agriculture; viewed from any humanitarian and ecological perspective, there is no acceptable alternative to sustainable agriculture..Attending the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development at Rio in 1992, over 400 farmers and NGO representatives asserted: "Sustainable agriculture is a model of social and economic organisation based on an equitable and participatory vision of development which recognises the environment and natural resources as the foundation of economic activity. Agriculture is sustainable when it is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just, culturally appropriate, and based on a holistic scientific approach." If we are to achieve this goal, "education" directed towards "sustainable agriculture" is essential. Objectives WSAA aims to promote agricultural and food system sustainability through:Disseminating Information (an essential component of any educational activity) on Exemplary Models, Projects, and PoliciesFacilitating Sustainable Agricultural DevelopmentShaping Public Policies on Sustainable AgricultureObjectives for these three areas of activity include:highlighting (through "education and awareness" activities) the efforts of small scale grassroots initiatives at the local level to achieve sustainable agriculture under diverse conditions;contributing to the ongoing, dynamic process of moving away from the philosophy of dominating nature toward working in harmony with nature to produce food, by helping define and articulate a systematic approach to sustainable agriculture;demonstrating models which illustrate the principle that ecological, biologically intensive farm management systems can become profitable for peasant producers and local family farmers,developing "education and awareness" by means of direct communication between producers and consumers (such as farmers■ markets, community-supported agriculture, subscription farming, and local food policy councils, etc.)developing partnerships among farmers (women and men), consumers, research scientists, non-governmental organisations and local authorities to plan and develop ecologically, socially and economically sound food and farming systems;raising issues of major importance to food and farming in policy forums, and creating opportunities for educating the public and policy-makers through dialogue about broader visions and solutions. Project Activities "Disseminating Information and Creating Awareness" Through publications, special events, and staff and guest presentations, WSAA has publicised exemplary sustainable agriculture projects, programs, and policies developed and demonstrated by organisations, agencies, and institutions throughout the world, for example by the WSAA book, "For ALL Generations - Making World Agriculture More Sustainable". This book describes the challenges of sustainable agriculture and profiles 61 organisations world-wide that are contributing to the goals of sustainable agriculture. The premise of the book is that a world-wide transition to sustainable agriculture is both necessary and attainable. Sustainable agriculture is not only a possibility, but a determined effort often evolving through small scale efforts, mostly at the grassroots level. The mission of the book is to encourage efforts at all levels from the grassroots to the seats of power in government and in corporations to make the world's agriculture more sustainable, thereby contributing to the establishment of a more sustainable, humane, and just society.Numerous farm and community- based groups are active in disseminating information on exemplary farms and gardens, local food projects and policies. They change the way agriculture is practised, work in partnership to build local food systems providing nutritious food, contribute to a vibrant rural economy, and sustain adequate livelihoods for producers living on the land. Profiles documented and published by WSAA include: "Cameroon, West Africa": The Group of Common Initiative of the Women Farmers of Bogso (GICPAB), a grassroots organisation of women farmers focusing on cassava production, preservation, marketing, and crop storage to combat poverty and hunger. In efforts to encourage the consumption of local foods such as cassava, GICPAB has undertaken two important research projects: the first concerns local technologies to preserve foods, and the second is to compile local recipes and different ways to eat cassava.The principal activity in Bogso is subsistence agriculture. The peculiarity of the GICPAB resides in its efforts to use the cultivation of cassava as a tool for the development of its rural community. Elsewhere people discuss sufficient food supplies and sending children to school. In Bogso they say: "Let us create a library for the village." The cultivation of cassava, as they say in Bogso, feeds the village, but that is not all. -We must think about the future." Thus, a small processing unit was built to obtain cassava flour, which is easier to preserve. As a consequence of excess production resulting from enlarging the individual fields of women farmers, GICPAB just received the authorisation to open a periodic market. This market will allow the little village of Bogso to welcome sellers, buyers, and intermediaries from the two big metropolises of Cameroon (Douala and Yaounde), generating intense commercial activity and creating new jobs adapted to the new activities of the village.Clearly, learning new knowledge, skills and attitudes have been integral parts of the project. "New York State, USA": The Genesee Valley Organic Community Supported Agriculture (GVOCSA) offers a practical alternative to participation in the global food marketplace. It provides the urban shareholders with a way to keep a local, organic family farm in business, while satisfying their own needs for nutritious, ecologically produced food, and for contact with the earth on which it is grown. Direct sales from the farm to the CSA eliminate the middlemen: the farm gets a better price than by selling on the wholesale market, and the family shareholders get fresh, organic food more cheaply than in a health food store or a supermarket. The GVOCSA is a farmer-eater co-operative linking 170 families in Rochester, New York, with Rose Valley Farm, a certified organic vegetable farm, located 40 miles away. Disseminating information and creating awareness is essential to GVOCSA■s activities "Facilitating Sustainable Agricultural Development" Numerous local efforts of groups working in partnership with a broad cross-section of community members, have been active in facilitating sustainable agricultural development and creating prototypal models of sustainable food systems:In India, WSAA has worked to adapt MOA Nature Farming methods to the soil, climate, and culture of the Bangalore area of Karnataka State in India, for the purpose of regenerating the soil and enhancing the health and well-being of the people. In 1995, farmers and supporters established a Nature Farming demonstration site at Raj Bhavan, the residence of the Governor of Karnataka State. In an educational programme for sustainable agriculture, seminars on Nature Farming are conducted with and for farmers, with instruction and hand- on experience in soil building, compost making and application, natural (non-chemical) pest control, and other essential subjects. Plant diseases and pest attacks are decreasing as the health of the soil is improved year after year. Yields are increasing, and are now almost equal to those obtained using conventional methods. WSAA Japan has encouraged and facilitated the local adoption and development of sustainable approaches to agriculture in rural and urban communities of Japan. Farmer co-operatives working with consumers, researchers and local officials have very successfully established and supported chapters in various prefectures of Japan in educational activities that facilitate exchanges of locally available information on sustainable agriculture and related issues such as environment, food, and health. They have identified and disseminated information regarding exemplary cases of farmers and communities successfully practising sustainable agriculture; organised symposiums and seminars to disseminate international, national, and local information needed to promote the local adoption and development of sustainable agriculture. "Shaping Public Policies on Sustainable Agriculture" Advocates of sustainable food and farming systems are actively working in every region of the world to educate the public and policy-makers about the kind of agriculture we need and its role in achieving the goals of Agenda 21. The Washington Office of WSAA, working in conjunction with the NGO Sustainable Agriculture/Food Systems (SAFS) Caucus of the CSD, has focused its efforts on shaping public policies through increased farmer and NGO leader participation at the United Nations.WSAA, in co-operation with other like-minded NGOs and farm groups, monitors the implementation of the sustainable agriculture commitments made by national governments during the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. This monitoring effort includes active participation in the SAFS Caucus during the annual meetings of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. During the 1996 CSD meeting in New York, SAFS co-sponsored a luncheon program showcasing exemplary sustainable agriculture projects. WSAA helped co-ordinate input from farmer and NGO groups into the FAO Task Manager's report to the CSD on implementation of Chapter 14 of Agenda 21. Results Achieved The publication, "For ALL Generations - Making World Agriculture More Sustainable", has sparked the interest of civil society, government and institutional agencies who have learned of the extensive efforts of 61 predominately grassroots organisations involved in reversing unsustainable agriculture practices and replacing them with ecologically sound farming systems. This acknowledgement of the value and significance of grassroots efforts has contributed to our understanding of the needs, constraints on and resources available to farmers and farming communities, and has enhanced public interest in sustainable agriculture and development. We have identified and highlighted examples that link agro-ecological and nature-friendly farming with comprehensive and integrated approaches to health and quality of life. We have done this in site-specific ways that are compatible with local cultures and communities (India, Japan, Thailand, Russia, Cameroon, Kenya, Taiwan, USA, Moldova, Bolivia, Venezuela, Chile, among many others). Lessons Learned As a result of the activities described above, at WSAA we have learned that:Partnerships are essential for educational and other activities. It takes a broad effort at the community level - farmers, consumers, scientists, consumers, NGOs and local authorities - to make progress. Neither government nor any one Major Group can do it alone. Examples of partnerships can be found in every corner of the globe. The support of the United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS) and CSD Secretariat Major Groups program has been, and will continue to be, essential in helping to bridge partnerships with governments and international institutions.There is a great deal of activity (including educational activity) by farmers, consumers, NGOs, scientists and local authorities that needs to be recognised and supported. Resources for implementation of projects to achieve sustainable agriculture have been limited. Much more recognition and support, for small scale efforts in particular, are needed.Education and in-depth discussion about problems and solutions are essential. Real dialogue is needed on the agricultural and societal issues we are facing in the world today, yet very often views of small-scale farmers and local community members are not included in the discussion. When local authorities, farmers and other community members are brought together to meaningfully participate and to learn and adopt significant roles in reshaping their food systems toward sustainable patterns and relationships, they can agree on solutions and work together. --------------------------------------------------------------------- CONTACT FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Linda Elswick Sustainable Agriculture Public Policy Directorate c/o EarthVoiceWashington DC 20037 USATel +202 778 6145 Fax +202 778 6134 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org --------------------------------------------------------------------- * This case study draws heavily on excerpts from the book: "For ALL Generations - Making World Agriculture More Sustainable", (1997) A WSAA Publication, Edited by J. Patrick Madden and Scott G Chaplowe. OM Publishing, PO Box 4186 Glendale, California, 091222 0186
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Date last posted: 8 December 1999 15:15:30