United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


Commission on Sustainable Development            Background Document No. 19
Sixth Session
20 April - 1 May 1998


        Report of the Consultative Meeting among Regional Institutions
                          4-6 February 1998, New York
                                       
                                I. Introduction

1.    The UN General Assembly Special Session to review and appraise
the implementation of Agenda 21, called upon the Commission on
Sustainable Development to: "promote increased regional implementation
of Agenda 21 in cooperation with relevant regional and subregional
organizations and the UN regional commissions, in accordance with the
results of their priority-setting efforts, with a view to enhancing
the role such bodies play in the achievement of sustainable
development objectives agreed at the international level."  It further
recommended that CSD, "take into account regional developments related
to the implementation of the outcomes of the UNCED.  It should provide
a forum for the exchange of experience on regional and subregional
initiatives and regional collaboration for sustainable development. 
This could include the promotion of the voluntary regional exchange of
national experience in the implementation of Agenda 21 and, inter
alia, the possible development of modalities for reviews within
regions by and among those countries that voluntarily agree to do so."

2.    In the furtherance of this decision, the Department for Economic
and Social Affairs convened the second consultative meeting among
regional institutions 1/ in New York in order to: (1) examine major
trends and innovative practices in regional cooperation; (2) review
regional priorities in relation to the CSD work programme for the
period 1998 to 2002; and (3) consider modalities for the proposed
exchange of national experience in the implementation of Agenda 21 and
the possible role of regional institutions in such exchanges.
 
3.    The consultative meeting met from 4 to 6 February and elected Mr.
Kazi Jalal, Chief, Office of Environment and Social Development, the
Asian Development Bank (ADB), as its Chairman. The meeting was opened
by Mr. Nitin Desai, Under-Secretary-General for Economic  and Social
Affairs. The Agenda, Work Programme and List of Participants are
attached as annexes to the present report. Also annexed to the report
are several matrices which reflect the goals, priorities and
programmes of most of the regional institutions participating in the
meeting.

4.    The meeting held two plenary sessions where the main topics of
the meeting were introduced and initially discussed. The second day
was devoted to small working group discussions organized on a regional
basis. The conclusions and recommendations of these individual
regional discussions are attached as an annex to the report. The final
plenary session was devoted to discussion and adoption of the report.

5.    While there are differences in regional priorities, approaches
and problems that are reflected in the individual regions, there are
broad areas of agreement which are reflected in the main conclusions
and recommendations outlined below. The main conclusions of the
discussion are organized according to the principal agenda items,
utilizing several of the sub-headings that emerged during the
discussion or were suggested as issues to be addressed.

      II. Major Trends and Innovative Practices in Regional/Sub-regional
Cooperation

        A. Difficulties in cooperation and coordination among regional
           institutions

6.    Problems identified include the complexity and different fora for
policy making and implementation at the regional level. For example,
some regional institutions are largely concerned with hemispheric or
continent-wide issues, while others have more specific mandates for
the implementation of policies and programmes or the allocation of
financial resources. Changes in the legislative framework in
countries, the differing constituencies of regional institutions and a
variety of multilateral environmental conventions were also cited as
factors that must be taken into account to achieve meaningful regional
cooperation.

7.    There is a need to better integrate at the national and regional
level, the economic, social and environmental strands of sustainable
development both in terms of information and analysis as well as
policy formulation.  In some regions, there are strong ministerial
mechanisms for the environment, but few comparable mechanisms for
sustainable development to focus on the cross-sectoral issues. Better
organized cross-sectoral and thematic dialogues at the regional level
would be beneficial as well as improved expert networks focused on
thematic issues.

8.    An increasing number of institutions, at all levels, are playing
a role and having positive impacts on the implementation of Agenda 21. 
At the same time, the proliferation of actors is making it
increasingly difficult to monitor the results and effectiveness of
these efforts. Joint programming and inter-agency coordination groups
at the regional and national level can help to streamline the
involvement of different agencies and to ensure the coherence of
efforts.

9.    Financial resources were mentioned frequently by regional
institutions as a constraining factor. Many regional institutions have
their own programmes of work and resources are allocated according to
regional priorities. It is often difficult to mobilize additional
resources to address sustainable development issues and priorities
identified at the international level if  these do not correspond to
regionally identified priorities.


         B. Special features of recent trends in regional/sub-regional
            cooperation

10.   The driving forces behind regional initiatives in sustainable
development and the implementation of Agenda 21 programmes include:
(1) the decisions of national governments and the higher national
priority given to sustainable development issues,(2) regional trading
partnerships and economic integration, (3)  the actions and activities
of NGO■s and major groups, (4) the fuller integration of environment
into economic and social policy planning and the (5) actions and
decisions of intergovernmental bodies, including the multilateral
convention COPs.
      
11.   Economic and social development was also mentioned by several
participants as the key driving force for the realization for
sustainable development emphasizing (1) integration of environmental
and social development policies into all sectors of the economy, (2)
development and implementation of integrated sectoral policies, (3)
population control or planning, (4) poverty reduction, (5) sustainable
use of natural resources, (6) sound economic pricing policy and 
(6) participation of all relevant stakeholders.

12.   Cross-sectoral linkages, shared natural resources and common
challenges to sustainable development  (e.g. water, biodiversity and
the particular vulnerability of small island states) as well as
innovations in trade and energy regimes have helped to stimulate new
forms of regional, subregional and inter-regional cooperation, greater
interaction among regional institutions and common action by national
governments.  Partnerships with NGOs and major groups have been
increasingly emphasized by many regional institutions, including the
regional development banks.

13.   Several participants mentioned the emergence and increasing
prevalence of regional electronic networks and information sources as
an instrument that can further improve the linkages among regional
institutions with organizations outside the region and the promotion
of joint activities and initiatives.

14.   The importance of adopting a thematic approach to regional
cooperation was frequently stressed in the discussion. By identifying
key themes and sub-themes, regional consultation becomes more focused,
making it easier to define and act on common initiatives.

              III. Regional Priorities and the CSD Work Programme       

                       A. Role of Regional Institutions

15.   Regional institutions, in most cases, play a catalytic role in
providing a means for inter-governmental, expert or
multistakesholders■ dialogues and consultations and for the
integration of environmental issues with social and economic ones both
at the regional and  national level.  In all the regions, the regional
institutions facilitate ministerial conferences where regional
priorities are identified, regional programmes reviewed, the state of
the environment in the region assessed.  In recent years, the
involvement of local authorities, business, NGOs and other civil
society representatives, in the regional consultative processes is
increasing.

16.   A key task of regional institutions is to link the global agenda
with regional priorities and to achieve integrated delivery of
programmes to add value  to  national efforts in implementing the Rio
accords.  The main focus there should be on those subjects or themes
pertaining to regional priorities already identified.  In this regard,
an important role for regional institutions is to further define and
identify concrete problems in the region in keeping with the thematic
areas of Agenda 21. This includes helping countries to focus on common
issues, needs and problems of a regional nature such as transboundary
pollution and regional dimensions of various multilateral
environmental agreements, UN global conferences and platforms for
action on sustainable development, information collection, sharing of
best practices.

17.   It was recognized that regional institutions carry out a wide
range of functions in promoting sustainable development in their
respective regions which include, for example, providing support to
capacity building, promotion of information exchanges, formulation of
programmes, catalysing networks and dialogues, stimulating cross-
sectoral initiatives, guideline formulation, project development,
reporting on and evaluating the effectiveness of national and regional
policies in achieving sustainable development objectives, facilitating
the development of negotiating positions, analysis of international
decisions and agreements in relation to regional priorities/positions, 
developing information management systems, promoting economic growth
under a set of new policy paradigms, providing direct funding and/or a
foundation to attract further investments.  In undertaking such
activities, regional institutions have differing, but complementary
roles to play.

18.   All regional institutions have adopted priorities related to the
implementation of Agenda 21, however not all of these priorities
correspond to nor are they on the same time sequence as the next five
year programme of work of the CSD. Certain regional priorities, such
as waste management issues, while covered under Agenda 21 are not
explicitly taken up in CSD■s new programme of work. In this regard, it
was suggested that the work of regional institutions on such issues
could provide an important input and source of supplementary
information under the main themes being discussed by CSD.  It was
recommended that the CSD Secretariat should continue its
identification, compilation and comparison of regional priorities in
close consultation with the relevant regional and sub-regional
organizations. 

19.   New and emerging environmental and/or economic problems, require
flexibility on the part of regional institutions to adjust their
priorities as required. For example, the smoke and haze problem which
has beset the ASEAN region has required new regional initiatives on
the part of several institutions. It is moreover the type of problem
that requires a regionally coordinated response because both the cause
and effects of the problem are regional in scope.

                       B. Enhancing Regional Cooperation

20.   The ways in which the present forms of cooperation can be
enhanced vary from region to region.  What seems to be common in some
regions is the need to strengthen the cooperation between the regional
UN entities, including UNDP, UNEP Regional Offices, Regional
Commissions, as well as regional operations of the World Bank■s on one
hand,  and non-UN regional bodies such as the Regional Development
Banks and regional intergovernmental organizations.  There are
parallel processes of regional policy making, priority-setting and
fund allocation, which while not necessarily conflicting are not
complementary either.  The regional institutions are also in a
position to bring civil society into the intergovernmental dialogues
through, for example, organizing cooperation between national and
regional Sustainable Development Councils.

                      C. Strengthening CSD/Regional Links

21.   Participants recognized the need to strengthen the links between
the CSD process and the regional and subregional processes.  One way
would be to contribute more directly to the work of the CSD through
participating in the consultative processes of drafting Secretary-
General reports.  Inputs could be solicited and comments on drafts
could be sought by the Task Managers through the CSD Secretariat,
perhaps using the informal network of regional and subregional
institutions represented by the current Meeting.

22.   Another way could be to organize timely regional meetings focused
on specific themes to be discussed at the forthcoming sessions of the
CSD where the particular regions might interact with the CSD Bureaux
and other CSD members, wherever possible.  Regional and subregional
institutions in addition to the Regional Commissions should be
encouraged to participate as observers in the CSD discussions, and
explore, through the CSD Secretariat, the possibility of organizing
regional interactive fora with CSD delegates or some other -window■
where regional experiences and innovative practices in implementing
Agenda 21 of relevance to specific issues under consideration, can be
shared.  Another way would be to provide a means for regional
expression of the CSD process, perhaps through involving regional
commissions and intergovernmental regional and subregional bodies in
the consultative process of CSD.

23.   Participants felt that CSD has an important role to play by
promoting a thematic focus, catalysing linkages between key
institutions at the national and regional level and responding to
thematic priorities through consultations with interested regional
organizations and agencies. Networking contacts and relations among
regional institutions to promote implementation of Agenda 21 was seen
as an important function to be performed by the CSD. It was
recommended that CSD undertake periodic consultations, electronic
conferencing, and other contacts as a way to promote regional and 
sub-regional cooperation.

24.   In some regions, the CSD process, including  the concept of
sustainable development, is not fully understood, not only at the
grassroots level but also at certain policy levels.  The regional
institutions  can play a larger role in promoting the understanding of
the concept of sustainable development and linking their respective
mandates and regional processes to CSD decisions.

                                D. Other Issues

25.         CSD should do more to mobilize financial resources for
regional cooperation.  Maximum use will be made of existing fora and
consultations based on regional thematic priorities thereby making the
best use of available resources.

     IV. Modalities for Exchanges of National Information and the Role of
Regional Institutions

                      A. The Objectives of Such Exchanges

26.   The participants generally agreed that the exchange of
information at the regional and sub-regional levels benefits
countries, regional and inter-regional institutions, and the CSD. 
Countries are assisted in formulating their policies and plans, in
building capacity, in learning from the exchange of good practices and
in developing national plans for the implementation of priority
actions related to Agenda 21.  

27.   Cooperation among regional and interregional institutions is
fostered through information exchange, and the institutions themselves
are better able to assist countries in the regions in policy
development, the establishment and implementation of regional plans of
action, capacity-building, and support for priority projects and
programmes.

28.   Adding value to national information through regional and
subregional analysis and exchange can also assist the work of the
Commission on Sustainable Development in monitoring implementation of
Agenda 21 and in evaluating the effectiveness of national and regional
policies in achieving sustainable development objectives.

                  B. The Kinds of Information to be Exchanged

29.   For several regional institutions, issues of data availability
and the development of  information management systems at the country
level are a major concern.  It was therefore felt that an important
prerequisite to any exchange of information, would be an assessment by
national governments and regional/sub-regional institution of the
availability of information and data bases on different disciplines
related to sustainable development.  In Africa, in particular, it was
suggested that a consolidated directory and roster of experts would be
the first step to establish what types of information could most
productively be exchanged.

30.   Overall, the information to be exchanged should be relevant both
to the agenda of the CSD and to regional priorities.  These could be
both sectoral and cross-sectoral, and they would likely vary to some
extent by region.  Consensus on regional priorities should involve, in
some regions, further consultations to actively engage finance
ministries and development banks.

31.   Sources of information would include, in addition to country-
specific data, national reports to the CSD, national and regional
State of the Environment reports, reviews of regional and sub-regional
work programmes, and, in the case of Europe, Environmental Performance
Reviews.  The possibility of sharing national information held by the
regional development banks should also be investigated.  No new or
additional reporting was suggested.

                             C. Lead Organizations

32.         In all cases, it was recommended that participation in
exchanges of information should broadly include all intergovernmental
regional and sub-regional organizations, United Nations organizations
active in the region, regional development banks, and civil society. 
Nevertheless, there was considerable variety of opinion about which
regional organizations might play a key role in helping to promote
national exchanges of information. Considerable emphasis was given to
the role of regional and sub-regional intergovernmental organization
in this regard, particularly those that have specific mandates for the
organization of data collection and information management systems. In
some cases, UNEP regional offices might take the lead while in other
circumstance, the UN Regional Commissions might be appropriate, given
their broader membership within their respective  regions.  UNDP■s
Sustainable Development Networks, such as the one in the Americas,
could also prove useful in this regard.  It was also suggested that
the lead organization or focal point for consultation could be chosen
on an ad hoc basis, depending on the specific issue.
      
                    D. Modalities for Information Exchange

33.   Information can be exchanged through a number of different
mechanisms, both  sequentially and in parallel, depending upon the
capacity of specific countries and regions. All participants agreed on
the importance of continuing to use workshops, technical meetings and
seminars for this purpose.

34.   These may take place at both regional and sub-regional levels and
should involve all stakeholders.  Considerable emphasis was placed on
developing electronic networks on issues related to Agenda 21, in
order to exchange best practices and other experience, to establish
rosters of experts and focal points, and to push for the further
organization of data bases at the national level.  Where applicable,
existing networks (e.g., NESDA in Africa) could be used and
strengthened for this purpose.

35.         It was agreed that the submission of national reports to the
CSD should continue to be a high priority means of exchanging national
information and is an important source of information for other
national governments, regional institutions and civil society as a
whole. In this regard, the African Development Bank expressed
willingness to consider means to assist those countries within its 
region  who have difficulty for financial or institutional reasons to
respond to the voluntary reporting procedures of the CSD in this
regard.

36.   Country peer reviews are currently undertaken mainly in the
European region.  While these are evaluations of -environmental
performance,■ participants from that region indicated that the scope
in which they take place is increasingly being related to broader
issues of sustainable development.  The region of Asia and the Pacific
suggested that country reviews could take place there as well, but not
on the basis of a peer review.  Rather, national experts could work
with their respective Governments to conduct such studies, and these
could then be reviewed at the regional level.  None of the other
regions proposed country reviews as a feasible modality in the
foreseeable future.  In this connection, the meeting was informed that
the Asian Development Bank has developed a methodology to measure
environmental performance of its developing member countries. 

37.         Participants endorsed a pilot project which ECE proposed to
undertake,  in cooperation with the other regional institutions of
Europe, including non-governmental organizations.  Through this
project,  the ECE would organize a regional workshop for the exchange
of national experiences. Other relevant organizations and
institutions, including NGOs, within the region, and the other
Regional Commissions would be invited to participate in this Workshop.

38.   The ECE would take responsibility for an ongoing process of
analysis which would:

      (a)   review all country and EU reports submitted to the CSD and
            other relevant document, as noted above;
      (b)   define an appropriate modality for a comparative analysis of
            the progress made by the countries;
      (c)   provide an inventory of best practices and, if appropriate,
            an assessment;
      (d)   review national priorities and provide analysis as to the
            extent that national priorities coincide with regional
            priorities and concur with priorities of the CSD.

39.   The Workshop, which should be organized in the fourth quarter of
1998, would discuss the background analysis and recommend actions to
be taken, with a particular emphasis on policy formulation and
capacity-building.  The Workshop would also assess the value of the
pilot project and suggest the next steps, including, for example, the
establishment of a mechanism to assure ongoing implementation and
periodicity of the review. 

40.   The results of the Workshop would be submitted to the seventh
session of the CSD, in 1999 and would be shared with other regional
institutions.  Governments and other donors are invited to support the
implementation of the pilot project.

                         V. Arrangements for Follow-Up

41.   Participants agreed on the importance and usefulness of holding
meetings among regional institutions at the global level on a periodic
basis, perhaps every two years or so,  with the aim of strengthening
global-regional linkages.  Meetings at the regional level among
regional and subregional institutions are encouraged to be held more
frequently,  once a year for example, back-to-back with planned
regional fora such as ministerial meetings, to the greatest extent
possible.  In parallel to such meetings, informal networking among the
participants of the current meeting should continue, through
electronic and other means.         


                                  ADDENDUM
                                       
                   REPORTS OF THE REGIONAL BREAK-OUT GROUPS

I.  AFRICA/WEST ASIA GROUP

                  Chairperson:            Ms. Paulina Makinwa-Adbusoye
                                          (ECA)
                  Rapporteur:             Mr. Yogesh Vyas (AfDB)
                  Participants:           Ms. Maria de Amorim(UNEP-ROA)
                                          Mr. Edward Clinton (OAU)
                                          Mr. Makram Gerges (UNEP-ROWA)
                                          Mr. B. Leleka (SADC)
                                          Mr. Ejeviome Eloho Otobo (ECA)
                                          Mr. Omar Touqan (ESCWA)
                                          Ms. Lowell Flanders (DESA/DSD)


Regional Priorities and the CSD Work Programme

Role of regional institutions

-     Help countries establish their local "Agenda 21" Plan of Actions;
-     Follow-up on their implementation including
      strengthening/capacity-building;
-     Assist with development of national information systems;
-     Help countries with their reporting obligations;
-     (However), to achieve above, funds will be needed by regional
      institutions.

Enhancing regional cooperation

-     By greater involvement of existing national focal points (OAU,
      ECA, ESCWA, UNEP-Ros, UNDP, etc.) to help countries with
      implementation of Agenda 21;
-     To help sub-regional organization elaboration of their action
      plan;
-     (However), the regional institutions would need to be financially
      supported and strengthened.

Strengthening CSD-regional links

-     CSD to promote better networking of regional/sub-regional
      institutions through periodic consultations, electronic
      conferencing and other means.

Other issues

-     CSD to do more in mobilising financial resources for regional
      cooperation.


Modalities for exchanges of national information (ref. Draft Report/rev.1)

1.    What are the most important objectives for exchanging national
information at the regional or subregional level?

a)    For Countries

      -     To assist countries in formulating their policies and plans;
      -     To assist countries in capacity-building;
      -     To exchange good practices and lessons learned; and
      -     To develop national plans for implementation of priority
            actions related to Agenda 21.

b)    For Regional Institutions

      -     To assist countries in formulating policies and plans;
      -     To follow-up implementation of regional plans of actions at
            the national levels;
      -     To identify individual country■s need for capacity-building;
      -     To identify strengths/weaknesses of a country related to
            sustainable development; and
      -     To identify (for regional banks) priority projects/programmes 
            to fund.
      -     To develop regional plans of actions

c)    For Inter-Regional Institutions

      -     To foster inter-regional cooperation      

d)    For CSD

      -     To monitor implementation of Agenda 21;
      -     To determine impact of Agenda 21 on country■s sustainable
            development objectives.

2.    In order to accomplish (1), what kind of information should be
exchanged?

      As a prerequisite, an assessment needs to be carried out by
national governments/regional and sub-regional organizations of the
availability of information and databases on different disciplines
related to sustainable development.  A consolidated directory and
roster of experts would be the first step to establish what types of
information to be exchanged.  Additionally, the Group felt that the
following types of information should be exchanged:

      -     State of environmental/sustainable development legislative
            framework  and associated decisions taken by
            intergovernmental bodies;

      -     Regional plans of actions related to Agenda 21 and
            implementation status;

      -     National institutions participating and human resources
            available;

      -     "Best practices" related to various sectors and sub-sectors;

      -     Harmonization of terminologies and standardization of data
            collection methodologies; and

      -     Lines and structures of reporting between national
            governments and regional institutions.

      The Group felt that the information exchange should be related to
regional priorities.

3.    What is the most effective modality to carry out information
exchange?

      -     Seminars, workshops, technical committee meetings, and
            advisory services by specialists was viewed as the most
            effective and politically accepted modality for information
            exchange;

      -     Regional institutions should facilitate the process,
            particularly networking, technology transfer and training of
            trainers (TOTS) should be promoted;

      -     Regional, sub-regional institutions such as NESDA (Network
            for Environmental and Sustainable Development in Africa), an
            international NGO housed at the African Development Bank
            (AfDB) can be used for networking, capacity building,
            database maintenance, etc.  SADC is another such institution
            which would facilitate the process for Southern African
            countries;

      -     Other institutions may need to be strengthened to offer
            similar services for other regions of Africa.

4.    Should these modalities be undertaken at the regional or sub-
regional level?  What would be the logistical implications in each
case?

      These modalities can be undertaken at both the regional or sub-
regional level.

      -     The group felt that annual regional/sub-regional
            consultation meetings can be organized by regional
            organizations to assist countries to prepare national
            reports.  It was, however, emphasized that the regional
            institution will need to receive funding for their
            assistance role.

      -     The ADB representative stated that the Bank can consider, at
            CSD■s request, to assist African countries to strengthen
            their capacity to meet CSD■s reporting requirements related
            to the implementation of Agenda 21.
  

                    II.  ASIA AND THE PACIFIC GROUP
                                       
                  Chairman:         Mr. Guangchang Shi (ESCAP)
                  Rapporteur:       Mr. Gerald Miles (SPREP)
                  Participants:     Mr. Apichai Sunchindah (ASEAN)
                                    Mr. Kazi Jalal (ADB)
                                    Ms. Lee Kimball
                                    Mr. Hussain Shihab (SACEP)
                                    Ms. Hiroko Morita-Lou (DESA/DSD)

Regional Priorities and the CSD Work Programme

Role of regional institutions

      The group discussed the wide range of roles for regional
institutions in relation to the work of the CSD. It was agreed that,
while the role in general was to assist/build the capacity of
countries to implement and participate in agreements adopted at the
international level, specific roles varied according to mandates. The
different roles could be summarised as follows:

Regional commission (ESCAP)
facilitate capacity building, promotion of information exchanges,
catalysing networks, stimulating cross-sectoral initiatives,
guidelines formulation, project development, reporting
formulation of policies and programmes, Ministerial Meetings

Regional/sub-regional intergovernmental bodies (SACEP, ASEAN, SPREP)
as above plus facilitating the development of negotiating
positions, analysis of international decisions and agreements in
relation to region positions/priorities

Regional development bank (ADB)
capacity building, promoting economic growth under a new set of
policy paradigm, promoting sector policies on sustainable
development, providing foundation to attract further investment.

Enhanced regional cooperation

      It was agreed that enhanced regional cooperation should be on the
basis of clear priorities, thematic or sectoral
consultations/cooperation and be based on the political and economic
realities or coordinating mechanisms of sub-groupings within the
region. In Asia and the Pacific an over-riding priority was the need
for economic development within a new policy paradigm. This paradigm
would include:

      - development of socially and environmentally sound sector
      policies
      - increased investment and technical assistance targeting
      economic growth and capacity building  for sustainable
      development
      - strengthening intra-, and where appropriate inter- (e.g. small
      islands), regional cooperation  focusing e.g. on transboundary
      pollution
      - integrated planning and management of land and water resources
      - reduction of poverty through targeted interventions (e.g.
      women)
      - participation of all stakeholders in policy development and
      implementation
      - enforcing environmental regulations

      There was a clear need to integrate different priorities, improve
links between different sectoral interests, in particular, increased
collaboration between finance, development planning, environment and
social development ministries in any priority setting process and in
the development of responses to international agreements.

Strengthening CSD-regional links

      To strengthen links between the CSD and the Asia Pacific a number
of suggestions were made. These included:

      - the identification of focal points, in particular in  non-UN
      institutions, for key thematic/sectoral    issues relevant to the
      region and CSD priorities;
      - reviewing the mandates and work programmes of the regional
      institutions and relating these to the CSD work programme as a
      basis for effective outreach and partnerships;
      - identifying the issues where the regional processes can add
      value to the CSD■s work;
      - informally institutionalize a network of key institutions/focal
      points, specifically non-UN institutions, to be used by task
      managers in the preparation of reports;
      - reporting on funding of regional priorities by regional
      institutions, in particular development  banks, to the CSD;
      - a regional forum of relevance to CSD could be convened on the
      basis of priorities/thematic issues identified at sub-regional
      levels.

Modalities for exchanges of national information

      As discussed above the most important objective in relation to
exchanges of national experiences is capacity building on a specific
thematic or sectoral basis. The kind of information that need to be
exchanged was both sectoral and cross-sectoral and based on regional
priorities that could be related to the CSD where possible. The
establishment of regional priorities required further consultation
that actively engage finance ministries and development banks.

      Effective modalities for the exchange of national experiences
included:

      - seminars and meetings of experts and senior officials that
      included all relevant stakeholders and    focused in particular
      at the sub-regional level
      - networks on a sector or cross-sectoral basis
      - clearinghouses based on databases of best practices
      - review of national policies the national experts or institutes
      and further exchange at regional/subregional level.

      These exchanges would be timed to coincide with relevant elements
of regional and sub-regional work programmes and also such that these
exchanges would facilitate country participation in the work of the
CSD. The organisations and secretariats involved would vary from sub-
region to region depending on the thematic/sectoral issue.  The
secretariats would include:

      Pacific - South Pacific Organisations Coordinating Committee
      (Forum Secretariat) (all issues)
      South Asia - South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme (SACEP)
      South East Asia - Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
      Asia-Pacific - Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
      Pacific (ESCAP)

Other issues

1)    Under the auspices of the ADB a new regional policy on freshwater
management is emerging through a process of intensive regional
consultations among all stakeholders (i.e. governments, the private
sector, NGOs, ESCAP., UNEP, UNDP, and the World Bank). There has been
agreement to seven principles for the sustainable management of
freshwater resources in Asia and the Pacific. These are:

      Principles for essential water sector functions:

1.    National water resources development and management should be
      undertaken in a holistic, determined, and sustained manner to meet
      national development goals and protect the environment.

2.    Planning, development, and management of specific water resources
      should be decentralized to an appropriate level responding to
      basin boundaries.

3.    Delivery of specific water services should be delegated to
      autonomous and accountable public, private, or cooperative
      agencies providing measured water services in a defined
      geographical area to their customers and/or members for an
      appropriate fee.

      Crosscutting principles for successful water sector activities:

4.    Water use in society should be sustainable - with incentives,
      regulatory controls, and public education promoting economic
      efficiency, conservation of water resources, and protection of
      the environment - within a transparent policy framework.

5.    Shared water resources within and between nations should be
      allocated efficiently for the mutual benefit of all riparian
      users.

6.    Water sector development activities should be participatory and
      consultative at each level, leading to commitment by stakeholders
      and action that is socially acceptable.

7.    Successful water sector development requires a commitment to
      sustained capacity building, monitoring, evaluation, research,
      and learning at all levels, to respond effectively to changing
      needs at the national, basin, project, service entity, and
      community level.

      In this regard, a document will be submitted to the forthcoming
session of the CSD.

2)    It is important to recognise that specific and unpredictable
catastrophes such as the Asian currency crisis have significant social
and environmental implications. These may include the delay in project
start-up, cancellation of projects,  project re-formulation and design
of new projects, as appropriate. The ADB is monitoring the situation
as it further develops.

Additional Remarks

      The group expressed that the presence of representatives for UNEP
and UNDP in the regional breakout discussions would have contributed
significantly to the conclusions of the meeting.


                       III.  EUROPE GROUP
                                       
                  Chairman:         Mr. Robert Hull (EC)
                  Rapporteur:       Mr. Kaj Barlund (ECE)
                  Participants:     Mr. David Dreiblatt (ECE)
                                    Ms. Mary Pat Silveira (DESA/DSD)          
                                       

Role of Regional Institutions

      In the area of sustainable development, the primary role of the
institutions in the European region is that of a catalyst,
particularly for integration of environmental issues with the social
and economic, through Ministerial meetings and other regional fora, as
well as at the national level.  Changes to the European treaties
should further strengthen commitment to sustainable development.

      The regional organizations are also in a position to bring civil
society into the intergovernmental dialogues, through, for example,
organizing cooperation between national and regional sustainable
development councils.

Enhancing regional cooperation

      In general, in Europe, there is considerable regional
cooperation, through the Environment for Europe process, through the
ECE Committee on Environment Policy, within the EU framework, and
through the ECE regional conventions, as well as on a bilateral basis. 
Possibilities for strengthening cooperation among United Nations
institutions working within the region should be pursued.  OECD and
UNEP activities on Sustainable Development facilitate regional
cooperation.

      Sub-regional cooperation is increasing and adopting an approach
that takes into account, and integrates, environmental, economic and
social issues. 

Strengthening CSD-regional links

      Many of the items on the agenda of the CSD are also issues of
priority for the European region.  Where the interests are in
parallel, there is a conscious effort to further preparations for the
CSD sessions, for example, current support of the EU to prepare for
the industry, freshwater and education segments of CSD VI, and of both
the ECE and the EU in the areas of capacity-building and transport.
 
      More efforts could be made to synchronize or set priorities in
the region consistent with the work programme of the CSD.

Modalities for exchanges of national information

      Objective:

      The most important objective for exchanging national information
at the regional level is to add value to the current CSD reporting
process, to provide feedback to countries on ways to move forward, and
to lay a foundation for further policy formulation and capacity-building. 

      Kind of Information

      Information to be exchanged would consist of a regional analysis
of the national information provided annually to the CSD, coupled with
an analysis of other relevant information in the region, such as the
Environmental Performance Reviews and the Pan European State of
Environment Report.  It would NOT involve additional national
reporting.

      Modality

      This is proposed as a pilot project not only for the European
region but also, if possible, for all of the regions.  The project
would entail the following:

      ECE, acting as lead organization in cooperation with the other
      regional organizations of Europe, including non-governmental
      organizations, would engage the services of a consultant to
      prepare a background paper for a regional workshop on the
      exchange of experiences.  In addition to the organizations within
      the region, all of the other Regional Commissions would be
      invited to participate in this Workshop.

      The ECE would take responsibility for an ongoing process of
      analysis.  The consultant would:

      (a)   review all country and EU reports submitted to the CSD and
            other relevant document, as noted above;
      (b)   define an appropriate modality for a comparative analysis of
            the progress made by the countries;
      (c)   provide an inventory of best practices and, if appropriate,
            an assessment;
      (d)   review national priorities and provide analysis as to the
            extent that national priorities coincide with regional
            priorities and concur with priorities of the CSD.

      The Workshop, which should be organized in the fourth quarter of
      1998, would discuss the background analysis and recommend actions
      to be taken, with a particular emphasis on policy formulation and
      capacity-building.  The Workshop would also assess the value of
      the pilot project and suggest the next steps, including, for
      example, the establishment of a mechanism to assure ongoing
      implementation and periodicity of the review.

      The results of the Workshop would be submitted to the seventh
session of the CSD, in 1999.


               IV.  LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN GROUP

                  Participants:     Ms. Alicia Barcena (UNDP)
                                    Ms. Beatrice Edwards (OAS)
                                    Ms. Helga Hoffmann (ECLAC)
                                    Ms. Len Ishmael (ECLAC-Caribbean)
                                    Mr. Arsenio Rodriguez Mercado 
                                    (UNEP-ROLAC)
                                    Mr. Kirk Rodgers (OAS)
                                    Ms. Karina Gerlach (DESA/DSD)

Role of regional institutions in furthering the implementation of
Agenda 21
Enhancing regional cooperation
Strengthening CSD-regional links

1.    The role of actors at the regional level is to:
      a.    link the global agenda with regional prioraties;.
      b.    to support  the various regional fora in further defining 
      the priorities set out in Agenda 21 and to operationalize them;
      c.    to achieve integrated delivery of programmes so as to
      provide more added value at the national level from the
      existing efforts.

2.    To enhance regional cooperation:
      a.    existing fora should be re-oriented and optimized rather
      than establishing any new ones;
      b.    the integration and connection of the economic and social
      aspects of sustainable development should be supported and
      improved;
      
3.    To strengthen the CSD-regional links the Commission should open a
space/"window" for reporting on regional and subregional cooperation. 
To facilitate this process, those issues of the Commission■s work
programme that coincide with regional and sub-regional innovative
approaches to the implementation of sustainable development should be
identified.  The organization in question could then be called upon to
report on behalf of its members.   

4.    A regional CSD forum could be convened by ECLAC; there is a need
to decentralize the CSD process. 

5.    It is suggested that before having another meeting of all
regional institutions; preliminary meetings be held in the regions (at
the Regional Commissions HQ) with a CSD presence. 

Modalities for exchanges of national information (ref: Draft Report/rev.1)

The ECA/ECE proposal was endorsed with ECLAC acting as a focal point
on the understanding that the timing and organizations to be involved
might differ from region to region. 


                               ANNEX I

       ILLUSTRATIVE OVERVIEW OF INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS 
                    FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


                        Asia and the Pacific

Policy-making bodies:

- Ministerial Conference on Env.& Dev. in Asia and the Pacific (every 5
years);
- ESCAP annual sessions at the Ministerial level;
- ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Environment;
- SACEP Governing Council, SouthPacific Forum-annual Head of Government
Meeting, SPC, SPREP, FFA, SOPAC, TCSP annual governing councils
-Ministerial Conference of Greater Mekong Subregion


Subregional cooperative schemes:

- Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN);
- South Asia Cooperative Env. Prog. (SACEP);
- South Pacific Reg. Env. Prog (SPREP);
- North-East Asian Sub-regional Prog. of Env. Cooperation;
- Mekong River Commission;
- South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
- Interstate Council for the Aral Sea;
- Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Working Group on Environment;
- Global Water Partnership-Southeast Asia Technical Advisory Committee;
- Coastal and Marine Resources Management in South China Sea


Action plans & strategies:

-ASEAN Cooperation Plan on Transboundary Pollution (ACPTP);
- Regional Haze Action Plan (RHAP);
- Regional Action Prog. For Env. Sound and Sust. Dev., 1996-2000;
- ASEAN Strategic Plan of Action on the Env. ('94);
- South Asian Seas Action Plan;
- Framework for North-East Asian Sub-regional Prog. Of Env. Cooperation
  (SACEP);
- 1997-2000 Action Plan for SPREP
- Pacific Regional Development Strategy for Forum Island Countries
- South Asian Action Plan on Faunal Biodiversity


Inter-agency committee:

- Inter-agency Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development in Asia
  and the Pacific;
- South Pacific Organisations Coordinating Committee


Regional financial institutions/schemes :

- Asian Development Bank
- South Asian Development Fund


Regional centres:
- ASEAN Regional Center for Biodiversity Conservation (ARCBC);
- ASEAN Specialised Meteorological Center (ASMC) - Asian and Pacific
  Dev. Centre (APDC);
- Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Tech. (APCTT);
- Centre for Integrated Rural Dev. for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP);
- Int■l Centre for Integrated Mountain Dev. (ICIMOD);
- UN Centre for Reg. Dev. (UNCRD); 
- Int■l Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM)
- SACEP Environment and Natural Resource Information Center (SENRIC);
-Asia-Pacific Center for Environmental Law (APCEL), Singapore;
-Center for the Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology, PRC


Regional networks:

- Asia Pacific Regional Environmental Network;
- Reg. Network of Research and Training Centres on Desertification
  Control in Asia and the Pacific (DESCONAP);
- Asia-Pacific Forum of Env. Journalists (AFEJ);
- Reg. Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements
  (CITYNET);
- Network for Industrial Env. Management (NIEM);
- South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA);
- Coordinating Body for Southeast Asian Seas (COBSEA);
- Pacific Sustainable Development Network Programme (PSDNP)


                            West Asia

Policy-making bodies:

- Council of Arab Ministers Responsible for the Environment (CAMRE);
- the Arab League;
- Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC);
- Arab Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development


Subregional cooperative schemes:

- Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment Programme


Action plans & strategies:

- Arab Programmes for Sustainable Development;
- Arab Declaration on Environment and Development and Future Projects (1991)
- Regional Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Global Programme
  of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based
  Activities


Joint committee:

- Joint Committee on Environment and Development in the Arab Region (JCEDAR)
-UN Interagency Meetings active in Western Asia
-Committee on Water resources
-Committee on Energy
-Committee on Social issues
-Committee on Transport
-Committee on Statistics


Regional financial institutions/schemes :

- Islamic Development Bank;
- Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development;
- Arab Monetary Fund;
- Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development


Regional centres:

- Centre for Environment and Development in the Arab Region and Europe
  (CEDARE);
- Arab Centre for the Study of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (ACSAD);


Regional networks:

- Arab Regional Environment Information Network (AREIN)
- ESCWA Regional Water Training Network


                                 Africa


Policy-making bodies:

- Organization of African Unity at the Heads of State level;
- African Ministerial Conference on Environment (AMCEN);
- African Economic Community


Subregional cooperative schemes:

- Southern African Development Community (SADC);
- Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);
- Economic Commission of Central African States (CEEAC);
- Permanent Inter-State Committee for Combating Desertification in
  the Sahel (CILSS);
- Common Market for Eastern and S. Africa (COMESA);
- Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)


Action plans & strategies:

- African Common Position for UNCED;
- African Strategies for the implementation of Agenda 21;
- African Common Perspectives and Position on the Convention on
  Biological Diversity;


Inter-institutional cooperation:

- Joint secretariat for AMCEN: UNEP, ECA and OAU;
- Annual meetings of the Chief Executives of OAU, ECA and ADB


Regional financial institutions/schemes :

- African Development Bank


Regional centres:

- African Regional Centre for Technology Transfer (ARCTT);
- Regional Coordinating Unit for the implementation and follow-up of the
  International Convention to Combat Desertification


Regional networks:

- Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa (NESDA);
- AMCEN Network on Environmental Education and Training ;
- African Network of Environmental Impact Assessment Experts


                   Latin America and the Caribbean


Policy-making bodies:

- Hemispheric Summit on Sustainable Development
- Meetings of Ministers of Environment of LA and the Caribbean
  (Forum of Ministers)
- Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CIDI)/Inter-American
  Committee for Sustainable Development


Subregional cooperative schemes:

- Central American Alliance for Sustainable Development;
- Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) based on the North
  American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation;
- Treaty for Amazonian Cooperation;


Action plans & strategies:

- Action for the Sustainable Development of the Americas
- Inter-American Program for Sustainable Development;
- Greater Amazonia Agenda 21


Inter-agency cooperation:

- Inter-Agency Task Force to Support Implementation of the Plan of Action
  of the Summit on Sustainable Development


Regional financial institutions/schemes :

- Inter-American Development Bank;
- Caribbean Development Bank;
- Andean Development Cooperation;
- Central American Bank for Economic Integration;
- Regional Fund for Agricultural Technology


Regional institutions:

- Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture


Regional networks:

- Hemispheric Network for Sustainable Development in the Americas


                                Europe


Policy-making bodies:

- Ministerial Conference on Pan European Environment;
- EU Council of Ministers

Advisory bodies:

- Committee on Environmental Policy of ECE;
- High-level Advisory Group on the Environment of OECD;
- Advisory Board to the ECE Committee on Human Settlements


Subregional cooperative schemes:

- Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development;
- Black Sea Environmental Program (BSEP);
- Baltic 21;
- Nordic Council of Ministers
- The Helsinki Commission for the Protectino of the Baltic Sea


Action plans & strategies:

- EU's Fifth Programme of Policy and Action in Relation to the Environment 
  and Sustainable Development;
- Environmental Programme for Europe (EPE)


Inter-agency cooperation:

- European Environmental and Health Committee;
- Task Force for Implementation of National Environmental Action Plans


Regional financial institutions/schemes:

- European Investment Bank;
- Nordic Investment Bank
- EU Structural Funds and Cohesion Programmes;
- European Bank for Reconstruction and Development


Regional institutions:

- European Commission (EC);
- European Environment Agency;
- Regional Environmental Center
 

Regional fora & networks:

- EU■s European Consultative Forum on the Environment and Sustainable
  Development;
- EU Sustainable Cities Network

            
                               Annex II

                         ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

           Priorities identified through different mechanisms


Regional Action Prog. adopted by the Ministerial Conference on Env. & Dev.


Objectives:

1) Pollution reduction, prevention and control, and enhancement of
environmental quality
2) Conservation and management of natural resources and ecosystems
3) Sustainable development policy improvement
4) Sustainable development indicators and assessment


Programme areas:

- Air quality
- Water quality
- Toxic chemicals & hazardous wastes
- Urban environmental issues
- Energy
- Forests
- Biodiversity
- Coastal and marine env.
- Desertification and land degradation
- Wetlands and lakes
- Integrated mountain dev.
- Imp. of  env. conventions
- Institutions and legislation
- Environmental standards
- Env. Impact and risk assess.
- Use of economic instruments
- Trade and env. policies
- Natural resource accounting
- Combating poverty 
- National strategies & action plans
- Environmental education, awareness & training
- SD indicators
- Environment & natural resource


ASEAN Strategic Plan of Action on Environment (1994-1998)

Objectives:

1) To respond to specific recommendations of Agenda 21 requiring priority 
   action in ASEAN
2) To introduce policy measures and promote institutional development that
   encourage the integration of environmental factors in all developmental
   processes both at the national and regional level;
3) To establish long-term goals on environmental quality and work towards
   harmonised environmental quality standards for the ASEAN region;
4) To harmonise policy directions and enhance operational and technical
   cooperation on environmental matters, and undertake joint actions to
   address common environmental problems;
5) To study the implications of AFTA on the environment and take steps to
   integrate sound trade policies with sound environmental policies.


Strategies:

1) Dev. of regional framework for integrating env. and dev. concerns in
   decision-making;
2) Promotion of gov-private sector interactions;
3) Strengthening knowledge and information data bases;
4) Strengthening of institutional and legal capacities for implementation;
5) Establishment of a regional framework on biodiversity conservation;
6) Promotion and management of coastal zones;
7) Development of environmentally sound technologies. 
8) Promotion of environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals and
   hazardous wastes, and control of transboundary movement of hazardous waste;
9) Promotion of regional activities that strengthen the role of major groups
   in sustainable development.
10)Strengthening of the coordinative mechanism for the implementation and
   management of regional environment programmes.


SACEP Programme Activities

Objectives:

1) To promote and support the protection, management and enhancement of the
environment, both natural and human, of the countries of South Asia,
individually, collectively, and cooperatively;
2) To make judicious use of the resources of the environment towards removal
of poverty, reduction of socio-economic disparity, improve the quality of
life, and prosperity on a containing basis;
3) To make the fullest use of the organizational arrangements and facilities
for cooperation under SACEP.


Broad priority areas:

1) Capacity building and awareness raising;
2) Systematic information exchange and intra-regional technology transfer;
3) Environmental management for training and institutional development for
training;
4) Regional cooperation in management plans for mountain ecosystems/watersheds
and coastal resources;
5) Wildlife and wildlife habitat conservation in the region.

Priority subject matter areas:

- Env. impact assess. & cost/benefit analysis
- Env. quality standards
- Technology for development of renewable and reusable resources
- Environmental legislation
- Conservation of montane ecosystems and watersheds
- Social forestry
- Regional cooperation in wildlife and genetic resources conservation
- Conservation of coral, mangroves, deltas, coastal areas
- Island ecosystems
- Tourism and environment
- Desertification
- Regional Seas Programme
- Energy and environment
- Education and training
- Training in wildlife management


1997-2000 Action Plan of SPREP

Objectives:

1) To build national capacities in environment and resource management
to improve and protect the environment;
2)To achieve rapid progress on economic reform and the sustainable
management of natural resources.


Focused areas:

-Conservation of biological diversity;
-Climate change and integrated coastal zone management;
-Waste management and pollution emergencies;
-Environmental management; planning and institutional strengthening;
- Environmental education, information and training.

Other priorities of the region:

-Protection of oceans and seas;
-Freshwater resources;
-Natural disaster reduction;
-Sustainable tourism;
-Renewable energy


North-East Asian sub-regional environmental cooperation

Objectives:

1) Energy and air pollution;
2) Ecosystem management, in particular deforestation and desertification
3) Capacity building


                               Annex III

                               WEST ASIA

            Priorities identified through different mechanisms


Arab Programmes for Sustainable Development

Objectives:

- To develop institutional and human resource capacities;
- To improve the level of development sustainability.


Programme areas:

- Combating desertification and increasing the Green area in the Arab region;
- Combating industrial pollution;
- Environmental education and awareness;
- Marine environment and coastal areas;
- Development and rational use of water resources;
- Sustainable development of nomadic areas;
- Human settlements;
- Institutional dev. and capacity building;
- Establishment of environmental information network;
- Human resources development and institutional support;
- Conservation of biodiversity;
- Development of environmentally sound technologies;
- Protection of historical monuments and cultural heritage.


Joint Committee on Environment and Development in the Arab Region (JCEDAR)

Objectives:

- Enhancing cooperation and achieving the highest degree of coordination
between the League of Arab States and its specialized organizations, the UN
and international organizations;
- Achieving the objectives set out in the Arab Declaration on Environment and
Development



Areas of joint activities:

- Desertification;
- Industrial pollution;
- Environmental education and awareness


                                   Annex IV

                       LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

              Priorities identified through different mechanisms


Plan of Action for the Sustainable Development of the Americas.

Aims:

1) Building partnerships among the countries of the Americas to address
pressing needs;
2) Investing in the natural capital to ensure healthy and steady economic
growth;
3) Building strong institutions to ensure competitiveness and enhance
efficiency;
4) Strengthening human assets by constantly creating and improving
opportunities to elevate the quality of life.

Areas for specific initiatives for action:

- Health and education
- Sustainable agriculture and forests
- Sustainable cities and communities
- Water resources and coastal areas
- Energy and Minerals
- Strengthening institutional arrangements and legal frameworks
- Financing 
- Science and technology transfer
- Public participation


Inter-American Program for Sustainable Development

Objectives:

- Serving as a hemispheric forum for promoting dialogue and coordinating
advances in the area of sustainable development;
- Supporting the exchange of information on matters relating to sustainable
development and facilitating the direct exchange of experiences among
countries, institutions, and organizations that are working in these areas;
- Acting as a partner in cooperation matters relating to sustainable
development in areas where it has comparative advantage.


Priority areas at the sectoral level:

- Health and education
- Sustainable agriculture and forests
- Sustainable cities and communities
- Water resources and coastal areas
- Energy and Mining

Implementation and follow-up mechanisms:
- Financing 
- Science and technology transfer
- Public participation


Greater Amazonia Agenda 21

 Objectives:

- To generate priority initiatives containing the changes in legislation and
regulations, and proposals of new plans, programs and projects, selected
by the relevant parties engaged in the process;
- To stimulate the building up of national Agendas 21 in the Amazonian
Cooperation Treaty countries, as well as local Agendas 21 in the Region.


Priority initiatives:

IN THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFICATION


Central American Alliance for Sustainable Development


General Objectives:

- To build a model of sustainable political, economic, social, cultural and
env. dev. within the framework of Agenda 21;
- To manage the territory in a sustainable and integrated manner to
ensure the conservation of the region■s biodiversity;
- To inform the int■l community of the Alliance and of the importance and
reciprocal benefits of supporting this sustainable Central American model;
- To foster conditions for capacity-building and participation of society in
improving the quality of life.


Environmental objectives:

- To harmonize and modernize env. parameters, legislation and pertinent
national institutions;
- To lower the levels of air, water and soil pollution;
- To save, study and use the biodiversity of the region and to promote dev. of
biological corridors and protected areas;
- To enhance capabilities for regulating, monitoring and enforcing env. norms
and for classifying env. violations; 
- To incorporate env. Issues into formal and informal education systems
for awareness-raising;
- To reduce deforestation and promote reforestation;
- To manage watersheds to protect the quality and supply of water resources;
- To foster regionwide discussion of common policies on env. sound products,
green stamps and env. Impact studies;
- To promote SD projects in border areas.


North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation


Aims:

- To complement the environmental provisions established in the North American
Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA);
- To address regional environmental concerns;
To help prevent potential trade and environmental conflicts;
- To promote the effective enforcement of environmental law.



                                Annex V

                                AFRICA

            Priorities identified through different mechanisms


African Ministerial Conference on Environment (AMCEN)

Objectives:

- To provide a continent-wide political leadership on environmental issues in
furtherance of the goals and objectives of the Treaty establishing the African
Economic Community by promoting the implementation of major sustainable
development initiatives;
- To play dynamic role and acting as a coordinating institution for
discussing, monitoring and reviewing national, subregional, regional and
international efforts relating to environment and sustainable development; and
- To provide policy impetus for addressing the environmental aspects of the
decisions of key African organizations such as the OAU and ECA and major
global bodies on the environment.


Priorities agreed in 1997 for addressing poverty and environmental
degradation:

- Capacity-building at national level;
- Environmentally sound management of terrestrial ecosystems and their
resources;
- Environmentally sound management of freshwater resources;
- Environmentally sound management of hazardous and all types of waste and
toxic chemicals;
- Environmentally sound management of marine and coastal areas, including
island ecosystems;
- Promoting human welfare, environment and development;
- Managing the environmental impacts of climate change and climate
variability;
- Securing greater energy efficiency and sufficiency;
- Monitoring and assessing the state of the African environment;
- Promotion of subregional and regional cooperation;
- Promoting the role of major groups in Africa■s environmental management;
- Mobilization of support for the implementation of Africa■s environment
programme at the national subregional and regional levels.


South African Development Community (SADC)

Objectives:

- Achieve development and economic growth, alleviate poverty, enhance the
standard and quality of life of the peoples of Southern Africa and support the
socially disadvantaged through regional integration;
- Achieve complementarity between national and regional strategies and
programmes;
- Achieve sustainable utilization of natural resources and effective
protection of the environment;
- Evolve common political values, systems and institutions;
- Promote self-sustaining development on the basis of collective
self-reliance, and the inter-dependence of member states;
- Promote and maximize productive employment and utilization of the resources
of the region;
- Strengthen and consolidate the long-standing historical, social and cultural
affinities and links among the peoples of the region;
- Promote and defend peace and security.


Priorities (each member state oversees an economic sector):

- Energy;
- Agricultural research, livestock production and animal disease control;
- Tourism, environment and land management;
- Inland fisheries, forestry and wildlife;
- Culture and information, transport and communications;
- Marine fisheries and resources;
- Finance and investment;
- Human resources development;
- Industry and trade;
- Mining, employment and labour;
- Food, agriculture and natural resources.


                                  Annex VI

                                  EUROPE

              Priorities identified through different mechanisms


Fifth EC Environmental Action Programme

Broad Objectives:

-Integration of environment into other policies;
-Focus on agents and activities which deplete natural resources and damage the
environment;
-Initiate changes in trends and practices detrimental to the environment;
-Achieve changes through optimum involvement of all sectors of society in
spirit of shared responsibility;
-Broaden range of instruments used to address problems

Based on long-term objectives, targets and time tables.


Required instruments:

-Legislation to set environmental standards;
-Economic instruments to encourage responsible use of natural resources,
avoidance of pollution and waste;
-Horizontal support measures (information, education, research);
-Financial support measures


Priority areas (1997-200)

-Improved integration of environment into other policies e.g. agriculture,
transport,energy, industry and tourism;
-Use of wider range of policy instruments like market-based instruments
or horizontal instruments;
-Increased implementation and enforcement measures by improved and
simplified legislation;
-Additional action in the field of communication and information to raise
the public awareness;
-Reinforcement of the Union■s role in international action.



Environmental Programme for Europe

Objectives:

-To act as a model of efficient, cooperating actions and integrated
approaches to the objectives of sustainable development;
-To raise awareness of the various social actors regarding the
sustainability issues at stake;
-To help catalyse progress towards the goals, objectives and targets
presented in the European Fifth Environmental Programme.


4 key modules of focus up to 1996:

AFR-agriculture, food, retail and solid waste;
SMAI-sustainability management and audit instruments;
TCU-private-public transport, communications, urban issues;
TLN-tourism, leisure, nature protection, agritourism


Current focus:

-Environmental management;
-European multi-stakeholder alliances.

Modules on:

-Environmental management;
-Transport;
-Tourism;
-Public procurement;
-Trade;
-Agri-food;
-Water;
-Building quality;
-Employment...


Agenda MED 21 of Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development

Objectives:

-To draw up a strategic assessment of the implementation of Agenda MED 21 by
the Contracting Parties over a four-year period. (1st assessment expected in
the year 2000)


Focus for 1997-1999:

-Sustainable management of coastal zones;
-Sustainable indicators;
Eco-tourism;
-Information;
-Promotion of awareness and involvement;
-Free trade and the environment;
-Industry and sustainable development;
-Water resource management;
-Management of urban and rural development;


Baltic 21


Mandates:

-To develop an Agenda 21, a common regional action programme for sustainable
development, for the Baltic Sea Region;
-To assist governments to develop a suitable framework for evolving
a Baltic 21, with a focus of seven main sectors emphasizing the environmental
and regional perspective


Aims for Action Programmes:

-Increased people-to-people cooperation and civic security;
-Economic co-ordination and co-operating;
-Strengthened environmental protection


Sectors of focus:

-Agriculture;
-Energy;
-Fisheries;
-Forestry;
-Industry;
-Tourism;
-Transports

Other sectors covered:

-Urban environment
-Coastal zones;
-Water;
-Health,etc.


                             Annex VII

                        LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 

Regional Commissions

1)    Ms. Paulina Makinwa-Adebusoye
      Chief, Food Security and Sustainable Development Div.
      ECA
      Africa Hall
      P.O. Box 3001
      Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
      Fax: (251 1) 514416/515832; Tel: (251 1) 51 04 06/ 517200-33437
      e-mail: Makinwa-Adebusoye@un.org

2)    Mr. Ita Ekanem
      Senior Economic Affairs Officer
      Food Security and Sustainable Development Division
      ECA
      Fax: (251 1) 514416; Tel: (251 1) 516230
      e-mail: Ita_Ekanem@un.org

3)    Mr. Kaj Barlund
      Director, Environment and Human Settlements Division
      ECE
      Palais des Nations
      1211 Geneva 10
      Switzerland
      Fax: (41 22) 917 0107; Tel: (4122) 9172370
      e-mail: barlund@unece

4)    Mr. David Dreiblatt
      Senior Economic Affairs Officer
      Environment and Human Settlements Division
      ECE
      Fax:(4122) 907 0107; Tel: (4122) 917 2359
      e-mail: dreiblatt@unece

5)    Dr. Len Ishmael
      Director
      ECLAC Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean
      63 Park Street
      P.O. Box 1113
      Port-of-Spain
      Trinidad and Tobago
      Fax: (868) 623 8485 / 627 8249; Tel: (868) 623 5595
      e-mail: ishmael@eclac.org

6)    Dr. Helga Hoffmann
      Chief, Environment and Development Div.
      ECLAC
      Casilla 179-D
      Santiago, Chile
      Fax: (562) 208 1946/8485; Tel: (562) 210 2291
      e-mail: hhoffmann@eclac.cl

7)    Mr. Omar Touqan
      Officer-in-Charge
      Energy, Natural Resources and Environment Division
      ESCWA
      P.O. Box No. 11-8575
      Beirut, Lebanon
      Fax: (961 1) 981510/11/12;    Tel: (961 1) 981301 /311 /401
      e-mail: touqan.escwa@un.org

8)    Mr. Guangchang Shi
      Director, Environment and Natural Resources Management Division
      ESCAP
      Rajdamnern Avenue
      Bangkok, Thailand
      Fax: (66 2) 288-1059/288-1000; Tel: (66 2) 2881510 / 2829617
      e-mail: shi.unescap@un.org

UNEP Regional Offices

9)    Ms. Joanne Fox-Przeworski
      Director
      UNEP Regional Office for North America (RONA)
      2 UN Plaza, Room DC2-0803
      New York, NY 10017
      Fax: (212) 963 4114/6/734; Tel: (212) 963-8138
      e-mail:3310) Mr. Makram Gerges
      Director and Regional Representative
      UNEP Regional Office for West Asia (ROWA)
      P.O. Box 10880
      Manama, State of Bahrain
      Fax: (973) 276 075;     Tel: (973) 276 072
      e-mail:mgunrowa@batelco.com.bh

11)   Mr. Arsenio Rodriguez Mercado
      Director and Regional Representative
      UNEP Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC)
      Blvd. De los Virreyes No. 155
      Lomas Virreyes 111000
      Mexico D.F.
      Fax: (52 5) 202 0950; Tel: (52 5) 202 6913
      e-mail: rolac@rolac.unep.mx

12)   Ms. Maria da braca de Amorim
      Director and Regional Representative
      UNEP Regional Office for Africa (ROA)
      P.O. Box 30552
      Nairobi, Kenya
      Fax: (254 2) 623 928 / 226 886; Tel: (254 2) 624283/4
      e-mail: maria.deamorim@unep.org

UNDP Regional Bureaux

13)   Mr. Gana Fofang
      Policy Adviser on Environmental Protection and Regeneration
      UNDP Africa
      1 UN Plaza 24 Fl., New York, NY   
      Fax: (212) 906-5423/5974;     Tel: (212) 906-5989
      e-mail:gana.fofang@undp.org

14)   Mr. Jerzy Szeremeta
      Chief, Division for Regional Programme, Policy Analysis and
Support
      UNDP Regional Bureau for Arab States
      One UN Plaza, Rm. DC1-2230, New York, NY 10017
      Fax: (212) 906-5487/6926;     Tel: (212) 906-5477
      e-mail: jerzy.szeremeta@undp.org

15)   Mr. Stephen Browne
      Head, Regional Programme and Policy division of the Asia and
      Pacific Bureau
      UNDP Asia Pacific
      1 UN Plaza, Rm. 2304, New York, NY   10017
      Fax: (212) 906-5825 / 5898; Tel: (212) 906-5849
      e-mail:stephen.browne@undp.org

16)   Ms. Josyane Chapelier
      Chief, Division for Eastern and Central Europe
      UNDP Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
      304 East 45th Street, 4th Fl., New York, NY
      Fax: (212) 906-6267 / 6595; Tel: (212) 906-5469
      e-mail: josyane.chapelier@undp.org

17)         Ms. Alicia Barcena
      Chief, Technical Adviser for the Regional Environment Programme
      for RBLAC
      UNDP Latin America and Caribbean
      Boulevard de Virreyes 155
      Lomas de Virreyes 11000
      Mexico D.F.
      Fax: (525) 2024841;     Tel: (525) 2020950
      e-mail:abarcena@ROLAC.UNEP.MX or alicia.BARCENA@UNDP.ORG.MX

18)   Ms. Karen Jorgensen
      Assistent Director, Sustainable Environment and Energy Division
      UNDP New York
      304 East 45 th Street, Rm FF-1010, New York
      Fax: (212) 906 6973; Tel: (212) 906-5008
      e-mail: karen.jorgensen@undp.org

19)   Mr. Sean Southey
      SEED/Capacity21
      UNDP New York
      Rm FF 1026
      Fax: (212) 906 6973
      e-mail:sean.southey@undp.org

World Bank

20)   Ms. Joan Martin-Brown
      Adviser, Office of the Vice President
      Environmentally Sustainable Development
      The World Bank
      Room S-7039, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.   20433
      Fax: (202) 473 3112; Tel: (202) 473-2310
      e-mail:jmartinbrown@worldbank.org

Regional Development Banks

21)   Mr. Gil Nolet
      Legal Specialist, Environment Division
      Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
      1300 New York Ave., Washington, D.C.   20577
      Fax: (202) 623 1708; Tel: (202) 623 1786

22)   Mr. Yogesh Vyas
      Principal Environmentalist
      African Development Bank
      01 B.P. 1387
      Abidjan 01, Cote d■Ivoire
      Fax: (225) 20 50 33;    Tel: (225) 20 48 26
      e-mail: y.vyas@afdb.org

23)   Dr . Kazi F. Jalal
      Chief, Office of Environment and Social Development
      Asian Development Bank
      P.O. Box 789
      0980 Manila, Philippines
      Fax: (63 2) 741-7961; Tel: (63-2) 632-5531/5533
      e-mail:

Regional IGOs

24)   Mr. Kirk Rodgers
      Director, Unit for Sustainable Development
      Organization of American States (OAS)
      Washington, D.C.
      Fax: (202) 458 3560; Tel:
      e-mail:K.Rodgers@OAS.ORG

25)   Dr. Beatrice Edwards
      Senior Specialist, Unit for Social Development and Education
      Organization of American States (OAS)
      Washington, D.C.
      Fax: (202) 458 3149; Tel: (202) 458-3301
      e-mail: BEdwards@oas.org

26)   Mr. Edward E. Clinton
      Head, Environment and the Conservation of Natural Resources
Division  
      Organization of African Unity (OAU)
      P.O. Box 3243
      Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
      Fax: (251-1)512622;     Tel: (251-1) 151587 / 517700 ext. 180
      e-mail:

27)   Mr. B. Leleka
      Environment and Land Management Sector Unit
      Southern African Development Community (SADC)
      Maseru100, Lesotho
      Fax: (266) 312158/311312;     Tel: (266) 310190
      e-mail:sadcelms@lesoff.co.za or elmsinfo@lesoff.co.za

28)   Mr. Apichai Sunchindah
      Environment  Functional Cooperation Bureau
      Assistant Director
      Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
      P.O. Box 2072
      Jakarta, Indonesia
      Fax: (62 21) 739 8234 / 724 3504;  
      Tel: (62 21) 726 2991 / 724 3372, ext. 339
      e-mail: apichai@asean.or.id

29)   Mr. Gerald Miles
      Head, Environmental Management and Planning
      South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)
      P.O. Box 240
      Apia, Western Samoa
      Fax: (685) 20231; Tel: (685) 21929
      e-mail:SPREP@samoa.net

30)   Mr. Hussain Shihab
      Director
      South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme (SACEP)
      10 Anderson Road, Off Dickmans Road
      Colombo 5, Sri Lanka
      Fax: (94 1) 589 369;    Tel: (94 1) 596 442
      e-mail: hs sacep@eureka.lk

31)   Mr. Robert Hull
      Head of Unit, Environment Policy Coordination, integration of
      environment into other policies, environmental action programmes
      European Commission
      Rue de la Loi 200 (BU-5)
      B-1049 Brussels
      Fax: 32-2-299-0895;     Tel: 32-2-299-2263
      e-mail:robert.hull@dg11.cec.be

32)   Ms. Lee A. Kimball 
      Consultant
      1517 P Street, NW #3
      Washington, D.C. 20005
      Fax: 202-234-0112;      Tel: 202-234-6264
      e-mail: lkimball@igc.apc.org

UN Secretariat

33)   Mr. Kenneth G. Ruffing, Officer-in-Charge
      Division for Sustainable Development, DESA
      United Nations, 2 UN Plaza, Rm. 2210
      New York, NY   10017
      Fax: (212) 963-4260; Tel: (212) 963-4669
      e-mail: ruffing@un.org

34)   Mr. Lowell Flanders, Assistant Director
      INIMG Br., Div. For Sustainable Development,DESA
      United Nations, 2 UN Plaza, Rm. 2242
      New York, NY 10017
      Fax: (212) 963-1267; Tel: (212) 963-8792
      e-mail: flanders@un.org

35)   Ms. Mary Pat Silveira, Chief
      National Information Analysis Unit
      DSS/DESA
      United Nations, 2 UN Plaza, Rm. 2234
      New York, NY   10017
      Fax: (212) 963-1267; Tel: (212) 963-8428
      e-mail: silveira@un.org

36)   Ms. Hiroko Morita-Lou, Sustainable Development Officer
      DSD/DESA
      United Nations, 2 UN Plaza, Rm. 2250
      New York, NY   10017
      Fax: (212) 963-1267; Tel: (212) 963-8813
      e-mail: morita-lou@un.org

37)   Ms. Karina Gerlach,     Environmental Affairs Officer
      DSD/DESA
      United Nations, 2 UN Plaza, Rm. 2236
      New York, NY   10017
      Fax: (212) 963-1267; Tel: (212) 963-5858



                                     Notes

1/    In the context of this meeting, -regional institutions included
regional, sub-regional organizations, both within and outside the UN system,
and other actors at the regional level.



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Date last posted: 8 December 1999 15:15:30
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD