Commission on Sustainable Development Background Paper No. 15 Sixth Session 20 April - 1 May 1998 INDUSTRY AND FRESHWATER TECHNOLOGY AND WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, NEXT STEPS Non-Governmental Organization Steering Committee INDUSTRY AND WATER, Technology and Water Resource Management, NEXT STEPS, examines the impact of industry within the watershed context. Industry's role regarding the health of water resources within the watershed is discussed. Selected industry water resource pollution problems and solutions are reviewed. Included are sample model approaches of next steps needed to protect water resources. Table of Contents I. Industry In The Watershed A. Prevention and Remediation B. Science and Technology II. Industry And Water Resource Protection A. So Little Water, So Many Demands B. Minimum Stream Flow and Well Yield C. Nonpoint Source Pollution D. Setting Priorities III. The Critical Component: Education And Participation Of People At The Local Level A. Rural Clean Water Programs IV. Industry And Wastewater Management A. Industry and Innovative Examples I. INDUSTRY IN THE WATERSHED 1. Industry does not function in a vacuum. It is part of a global infrastructure and natural environment. The manner in which industry functions within those two communities has a tremendous impact on the communities and on industry's well being. 2. Most industry, traditionally, has not focussed on its role within the watershed community. With increased population growth and decreased environmental well being, some industry leaders have become aware that continued growth and prosperity is critically linked to becoming an essential water resource protection partner with the watershed community and government. 3. The United Nations Commission On Sustainable Development and the Special Session of the General Assembly, June 1997, both recognized the critical need to address water resource protection and both endorsed using the integrated watershed management approach. 4. What is a watershed? A watershed is the land that water flows across (surface water) or under (groundwater) on its way to a stream, river, lake, or wetland. Watersheds are formed in many different shapes and sizes. It is a somewhat concave or bowl-shaped catchment basin where precipitation follows the contour of the land to the lower elevations. Most of the water soaks into the soil and becomes ground water. Watershed shapes and sizes differ, some have hills or mountains, some are nearly flat, or marshy with diverse trees, plants and wildlife. 5. Since all industry is located within in a watershed, the actions of industries, in urban and rural settings, impact all the inhabitants of that immediate watershed as well as the larger watershed downstream. Industrial activity also impacts the soil, water, air, plants, and animals, which make up the natural resources in a watershed, and over time, effects the well being of the industry itself. 6. Watersheds, because they are defined by their physical land features, are the mechanisms necessary to address many of the interrelationships between industry's use of water, impact on the ecosystems and availability of water for human needs. If the quality and quantity of the water decreases, it will have a negative impact on the immediate manmade and natural environment, and that will have a negative impact on the industry located within that particular watershed. The long term availability of usable water for industrial purposes and the impact of that use on the watershed, will determine the long range well being of the area and the industry. Water resource protection is critical for industry. 7. What does industry need to do to ensure there is a healthy environment for industry to conduct business in? Address the impact of industry on the ecosystem, implement the use of a variety of best practices, work with knowledgeable local men and women regarding what resources need protecting, and learn what negative impacts have already occurred. For industry to function effectively in a specific location, it needs to be assured there is access to potable water for people, both within the industry itself and in the surrounding local areas. Industry cannot sustain itself in a sick or rapidly declining environment. 8. Politics, people and water resource protection, how does it impact industry? An industry in a unstable political environment is not going to be as cost effective as one that operates in a stable political environment. Industry needs to be involved with, and supportive of appropriate transnational agreements, national and subnational regulations and programs having business implications, at the local level. Industry is the third leg in the tripod of citizens, government and industry. Working within a partnership which represents a variety of interests, will benefit industry as the environment stabilizes. 9. Some of the most important environmental management innovations in the next decade, will take place at the watershed level. Industry's role will be critical. Industry that can partner in these new decision making arenas will benefit most. Industry can be at the table as decisions are made or can react to regulations after they are decided. A balance between responsible voluntary initiatives and necessary uniform regulations will best be achieved by industry working with government and civil society while recognizing its impact in the watershed. 10. What is best for business? To be part of a collaborative planning approach that brings people with diverse backgrounds, interests, responsibilities and perspectives together to develop agreement on water resource protection priorities and actions. Ensuring there is a quality environment long term is essential for people, the environment and industry as well. Industry will not be able to function effectively long term in declining environments where illness is increasing. 11. Initially, a collaborative, partnership approach is more cumbersome and time consuming, but with all the partners represented at the table, there is less likelihood that agreed upon efforts will be undermined, thus resulting in an increased opportunity for beneficial results long term. 12. Using the watershed approach, a nation or subnational area, divides or subdivides its territory using a hydrologic unit-basis into river basins or groundwater systems. Watershed health can be determined by prioritizing watersheds within each basin, by use, rate of water quality decline, feasibility of restoration, vulnerability of resource, public value, and economic value. Industry can make a valuable contribution to this process as a user of water resources. How much, what quality, what impact, and what process does industry use water for? Industry needs to be accountable for its impact on water resources. 13. What negative impacts could occur to prevent industry from having the type of quality water it needs? What new processes within the industry water use cycle could be implemented to ensure long term supply? As water becomes less available and more costly, it will be critical to utilize water resources in the most efficient and cost effective manner. 14. What would be the impact of decreased water availability on industry? Successful Industries for the next century are beginning to plan, recognizing the need to make adjustments in previous thinking, about long term availability of quality water supplies. 15. Be part of the solution. To ensure long term water availability, the most efficient practice is to reduce/eliminate pollutants causing water quality impairments at the industry source. 16. Develop programs, utilizing low technology and as needed, high technology to decrease the amount of pollutants that are poured into the water, the same water that industry will need to obtain quality water for long term use. Make available to the public information regarding types of pollutants entering water resources and their potential impacts. Once pollutants have reached the streams and brooks, the impact is much greater and the clean up costs much higher. The option of industry doing nothing, and leaving the process to nature or the government and civil society, is fast becoming an obsolete solution. The burden on nature, and government and civil society, is too great without the partnership with industry. A. Prevention and Remediation 17. What needs to be done by industry? Plan ahead. It is important to develop a model that includes water resource standards that protect existing quality resources, as well as improve priority substandard resources. As industries grow, expand and sell more products and services, so will the populations utilizing them. Water is a finite resource, that needs to be shared between industry, the people who keep industry moving and the environment that sustains the whole process. 18. Prevention is less costly and more effective. When siting industrial facilities, the quality of the water resources to be impacted for industrial use, needs to be addressed. Traditionally, water resource management efforts focused primarily on planning for basins or watersheds where problems existed. Now with decreasing numbers of pristine resources it is essential to be proactive and recognize the importance of also maintaining existing healthier water resource areas. Proactive water resource planning is more efficient than addressing problems associated with previously made, difficult or impossible to reverse, land use/water resource decisions. 19. Initially, attention needs to be directed at these two opposite situations: areas where problems/pollutants have the most negative impact; and areas where protection/maintenance of high quality water resources has the greatest impact. Adding to the complexity of water resource protection, are transnational watersheds. Industry is often in a key position to help address delicate issues that governments must officially address regarding shared national water resources. In areas of strife or potential disagreement, it is beneficial to industry to be a catalyst for action to maintain quality water/improve substandard resources. B. Science and Technology 20. Industry has expertise. Investing in a partnership with government and civil society, regarding data collection and technology transfer has long term gains for industry. 21. There is always the case to be made for collecting more water resource and ecosystem data in a watershed, but this water quality data needs to be balanced with the capacity to gather, interpret and act on it. At the watershed or subwatershed level, general agreement, among diverse participants, about what type of water quality information needs to be gathered is critical, especially since the entities involved have different interests and reasons for prioritizing collection of some information and not others. Agreement regarding what information will actually be collected will make the collected data more credible. Data collection that impacts peoples' health, quality and quantity of the water resource, and the environment is essential. 22. There is almost always some uncertainty associated with watershed decisions. There are usually some who would prefer no action be taken. Representatives of such interests could make the case for no action based on too little information. When is enough information sufficient to take action? Industry, government and civil society, especially at the local resource need to weigh these issues. Civil society needs to have a voice with sufficient weight that health impacts are known and addressed. 23. In water resource management, if decision makers wait until there is no uncertainty, little or no action is ever taken. Without action, there is little opportunity to test ideas or to verify the reliability of the information that does exist. Decision makers need to be able to act on sound, if incomplete, information, making adjustments as more information becomes available. Credible Industries, can be instrumental in moving the process forward. 24. Communication with and access to understandable information by the public, that explains what the basics and implications of watershed or water resource protection science means to civil society regarding health, environment, potable water, and food production is essential for resource improvement to be sustained. 25. How will the science and technology component be funded? Industry may have a long term presence in a region, even if government representatives change. Industry could assist in establishing a mechanism to ensure that gathered information remains available even if funding does not. 26. How can information gathered by different entities, for different purposes, using different methods, be coordinated? Once industry, government and civil society have developed a clear picture of the overall watershed conditions, planning for appropriate economic, civic and environmental needs can occur. 27. Caution needs to be taken. As Industry, itself, becomes more cost efficient it can share this knowledge with other water resource partners. Excessive amounts of time and money on coordination alone, result in a decrease in actual needed water resource protection. A determination needs to be made, as to how much coordination is enough, to maximize water resource protection efforts. Program and data collection will vary depending on the actual size of the watershed or subwatershed. II. INDUSTRY AND WATER RESOURCE PROTECTION 28. Conflicts are increasing among water uses as populations grow and the need for water increases while availability of new sources decreases. A. So Little Water, So Many Demands 29. What impact will this have on Industry? Industrial water issues differ depending on location. When locating in a particular area, industry needs to consider: land use development patterns are not necessarily determined by water suppliers; the locations where water is needed versus the location of available water; the implication of water resources crossing national and subnational boundaries; the lack of allocation systems; inequities between water use; conservation standards, rural vs. urban areas; regional nature of water supply; impact of water use throughout the industrial use cycle; acceptable standards for in-stream flows; waste disposal; the social and economic consequences; and the cost and impact of water utilization. As populations expand in marginally or already stressed water areas, conflicts will arise over the need for the use of new/increased supplies. Mechanisms to adequately resolve water conflicts are needed. B. Minimum Stream Flow and Well Yield 30. What happens when there is not enough water? Industry needs to be part of the solution to balance demands between industry's water use and the impact on stream flow, water quality, wells and surrounding wetlands, and fisheries. 31. Why? Mismanagement will result in not enough water for industry, people and the environment. Coordination of the time, amount of draw down from wells, impacts on stream flow and wetlands need to be developed and implemented along with water conservation methods. Implementation of national and subnational regulatory standards for such issues as: stream flows needed for critical habitat functions, coupled with scientific, tools such as biological fisheries assessments and aquifer models, to define seasonal aquifer impacts on stream performance measurements need to be utilized. Standards need to be established that address when the impact of water withdrawal is too great on a particular water resource. C. Nonpoint Source Pollution 32. What is industry's responsibility? Industry is often identified with point pollution, that which comes from a specific place or pipe, such as discharge into a river or stream. Point pollution that is emitted into the air, eventually settles back to the ground, and is then carried as nonpoint source pollution (NPS) across the landscape or into rivers, lakes or wetlands. Eventually wind or rain carries pollutants from the land into rivers and streams and some seeps into groundwater through the soils. 33. Although more progress has been made regarding point pollution into waterways, nonpoint pollution is a major problem which is more difficult to control and needs assistance from industry. NPS can also occur independently of point source pollution, for example, pollution results from spreading chemicals on the land for specific crops, from industrial byproducts that may be inadvertently spread across the landscape, land development patterns, impervious surfaces, and drainage systems. Mechanisms are needed to address these negative impacts. 34. What to do about Industrial NPS? Since NPS pollution does not come from one identifiable spot or point such as a pipe, it is much more difficult to address. The targeting approach to pollution prevention efforts, involves identifying the predominant pollutant sources, prioritizing those sources and treating those critical areas first, that contribute the most to the pollution of the water resource. The amount of and source of pollutant, the severity of the existing problem, the potential for resource degradation and the estimated magnitude and distribution of pollutants, and type of water resource, all need to be considered when evaluating the problem. 35. The initial objective, while factoring in this information, is to obtain visible improvements in a specified limited area. This targeted approach differs from the more traditional approach of providing resources to qualifying participants on an equal basis throughout a nation or at a subnational level. Targeting identifies priority water resources and treats the major sources of pollution that impair those resources. The process involves ranking resources according to specific criteria which are indicators of a high probability of NPS project success. This approach may be more efficient for industry, when the primary goal is to address pollution related to specific industry activities. Best management practices can significantly mitigate pollution sources with direct financial benefits or with only minimal increases in capital and operating costs to industry. 36. Success is important for building public support and increasing knowledge regarding pollution control efforts. Variability in hydrological systems can complicate the targeting procedure therefore flexibility is needed, as is involvement of the local watershed community. 37. Although the more traditional approach may achieve a great deal of NPS pollution control, its potential for producing any detectable change in a water resource within a twenty five year period is quite low. The targeted approach, by concentrating pollution control efforts and applying project resources to clearly specified goals and objectives can produce results in a reasonably short period, such as five to ten years. (Maas, 1987) 38. Industry can help treat NPS pollution to protect high priority water resources. This is advantageous to industry, to ensure that sufficient quantity and quality water is available and maintained. It is advantageous to government and the local area both for public health and the economy. Industry can also strongly urge for national and community actions to prevent impacts to critically stressed waters, such as avoiding nutrient overloading that overwhelms the ability of aquatic ecosystems to assimilate pollutants. 39. National regulations are necessary, in connection with specialized subnational programs, to manage nonpoint sources of pollution unique to subnational areas. Water quality criteria and standards can help gauge protection efforts at the watershed level. Industry, with appropriate expertise, could offer valuable assistance to the government and the local area in developing effective and workable pollution protection mechanisms. 40. Such mechanisms could include: the development of subnational assessment reports of NPS problems and a five year management program, including the role of industry in the plan. Realistic program goals need to be established, that result in visible improvements in water quality for priority water resources. Attainable time sensitive goals need to be set based on available or realistic additional financial and staff resources and appropriate regulations. 41. Water quality standards can evolve and be added to for all pollutants, in surface and ground water within an iterative planning framework as technical understanding increases and knowledge of specific water bodies improves. (Gannon,1996) 42. What is the availability of industrial financial/technical resources to address specific industry related NPS pollution issues? What are the benefits for industry to be part of the solution? What are the gains regarding a healthy environment and work force? What are immediate and long term advantages for locating or maintaining a site specific industry in a healthy environment? 43. Does Industry, as an influential member of the larger watershed community recognize the gains for itself and the larger community, by being a partner in pllution control efforts? D. Setting Priorities 44. At the watershed level: (a) Define who is responsible. (b) Determine how much and what type of NPS reduction will be necessary to restore designated uses of the resource. (c) Develop a watershed profile that will serve as a project data base, including an inventory of nonpoint sources and point sources. (d) Establish water quality goals and objectives for each phase of the project. Establish goals that are measurable with flexibility. Determine pollutant reduction needed to achieve water quality goals. Identify groundwater recharge areas needing a high level of protection from nonpoint and other pollutant sources. Develop wellhead protection programs that protect areas around wells supplying public drinking water systems from contamination that could have harmful public health implications. Determine incentives for land user/owner participation and regulatory measures. (d) Assess methods for obtaining land user/owner participation and implement those methods which are appropriate for the local area. (f) Selection process criteria: a. type and severity of water resource impairment, b. type of pollutant, c. source magnitude considerations, d. transport considerations, and e. project specific criteria. (g) Implement "Best Practice" management tools and water quality monitoring programs; document impacts of treatment on water quality initially and throughout the program. (h) Develop public educational/communication programs regarding the targeting approach. The public will become more aware and more supportive of NPS control programs as visible water quality improvements occur. Public knowledge regarding water quality benefits and new/enhanced skills are the primary ingredients for increased and lasting water resource protection. (i) National or transnational priority water resource concerns shared by government entities, should be addressed as a subnational level begins to target its nonpoint source problems. Coordination among these entities is essential to achieve water quality improvements in shared water resources. (j) Consideration needs to be given to the impact of treating one resource and the impact on another resource. Initial decisions, need to weigh the benefit of targeting surface water versus groundwater, streams versus downstream, lakes or reservoirs, or upstream lakes or reservoirs versus estuaries. (k). The importance of identifying the pollutant source properly, is critical to ensure efficient use of project resources. 45. Once the priority water bodies have been identified, it is necessary to determine if the availability of resources are sufficient to implement enough pollution control to achieve the water quality objectives. If resources are not sufficient, the prioritizing procedure can be repeated to target subwatersheds with definable water quality problems that can be solved. The estimated amount of funds required to implement a project should be compared to the estimated benefits. Attention should also be given to the distribution of these benefits among all participants, including local residents. 46. Since water quality problems attributable to specific point sources often have a NPS component, some water resources require treatment of both point and nonpoint sources to meet the desired level of water quality improvements. The targeting approach, designed to treat the major sources first, can substantially expedite the achievement of water quality goals. (Maas, 1987) III. THE CRITICAL COMPONENT: EDUCATION AND PARTICIPATION OF PEOPLE AT THE LOCAL RESOURCE 47. Industry, a community partner? An integrated approach to land use and water resource protection recognizes the essential leadership role of local citizens. 48. Water resource protection education/information, especially among men and women identified as formal or informal local community leaders are better able to effectively address local water resource protection issues, and therefore are key to the success of improved water quality. Involvement of women is especially critical because of their key role in many regions regarding the distribution, management and protection of water resources. Women worldwide must to be equally represented at all levels of decision-making with regard to water resource management. 49. Does industry see itself as part of the watershed community? The reality of water resource protection will only be achieved if the people closest to the source have some understanding and belief in the mission to protect/improve water resources. The approach differs, depending how people view the connection between water and land. Industry could be a community partner, helping to address this. It is important to create favorable conditions for sustainable development. 50. In some parts of the world, in order for local people to be meaningfully involved with water resource protection, a link must be established with the struggle for land equity. The approach that links improved water quality, with land equity differs from the traditional approach, which is generally more concerned with primarily creating physical changes to the environment. 51. Where land equity is an issue, the key is to focus on the conditions that are favorable for the development of a sense of community, "a tangible expression of shared sentiments, values and identities where land is understood not only as a component of wealth, but as a common place invested with symbolic meaning." This fundamental principle is based on insuring respect for the inherent identity of the community. (Perriara, 1997) 52. Dams: Hydroelectric dam operators need to factor in the environmental costs of current and proposed projects, including land conservation, and water management practices such as fishways. Construction and dam maintenance plans need to include: the impact on rivers and watersheds; alternatives to construction; and dam removals. 53. Regarding water supply issues, an alternative to huge dam construction, is the construction of many small ponds and dams designed to rechannel surplus water back to a main water source or into storage tanks for later use or to send to neighboring water scarce areas. Fish cultivation in these ponds and lakes help purify the water and provide food for birds. However, area farmers need to use organic fertilizers and minimal chemical fertilizers to prevent nonsource point pollution from contaminating the water. (Hammer, 1997) A. Rural Clean Water Programs 54. Best practices to address identified water quality problems are most effective when developed with local farmers and technical personnel based on indigenous knowledge of the agricultural systems. 55. As previously discussed, priorities should be focused in the areas of the watershed that are most critical to the water pollution problem. Farmer to farmer information and education should be used to help farmers learn new concepts and techniques. Finally, inducements such as credit, tool availability, and land tenure reform can be powerful incentives that move farmers toward agriculture practices that are more sustainable in the long run, more profitable in the short run, and lead to real improvements in water quality. (Osmond, 1995) 56. Since all land/water users may not understand the critical relationship between land activities, pollution and water quality, it is essential that rural water pollution efforts have a strong information and education component coupled with decision-making. 57. The success of local citizens being invested in solving water quality problems, will be based in part, on the increased understanding men and women have regarding the need for water resource protection efforts. To ensure local participation, it is essential that the community recognizes and agrees on the existence and the source of the water quality problems and necessary actions. Key Components In Successful Watershed Planning 58. Industry has many skills to bring to water resource protection efforts, similar to a successful business plan, a watershed plan needs to have: clear visions, goals, and action items; good leaders; coordination at the watershed level; recognition that environmental, economic, and social values are compatible; plans can only succeed if implemented; partnerships encourage meaningful participation; good tools are essential; education and involvement drive action; projects need to measure, communicate, and account for progress; and build on small successes. (Top 10 Lessons Learned, 1997) IV. INDUSTRY AND WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT 59. What is the cost? Industrial wastewater from urban and rural areas must be returned to the land or water. The complex question of which contaminants in wastewater should be removed to protect the environment, to what extent, and where they should be placed must be answered to address local conditions, environmental risks, and economic feasibility. 60. The cost, who pays and what types of wastewater treatment systems are utilized are critical. Types of wastewater treatment to consider include such options as: 1) optimization of primary stages of treatment; 2) innovation in biological treatment processes; 3) natural wastewater treatment system; 4) water reclamation and reuse as an alternative to discharge to receiving waters; and 5)innovations that offer flexibility and/or special capabilities. (Murcott, 1993) 61. Industry can develop new products and new markets for water management techniques and technologies which address water quality and quantity issues. One of the major factors for industry to advance the watershed management approach will be the huge market for water conservation and remediation. A. Industry and Innovative Examples 62. Abbott Laboratories at the plant in Barceloneta Puerto Rico, has managed its multi-media wastes in house. Also engaged in an important partnership with the local sewage agency. Abbott has achieved a near zero discharge of pollutants to the Sewer Authority, which it helped to construct. The amount of pollutants discharged is tiny, as a result of an aggressive approach to Total Environmental Management, now called Environmental Management Systems. Abbott has developed a comprehensive stormwater management plan to isolate non-contaminated stormwater from their wastewater treatment facilities. (Gonzalez, 1996) 63. Electroplating facility in Indonesia, could save more than $93,000 per year by heeding pollution prevention recommendations, according to an Environmental Pollution Prevention Project (EP3) inspection team assessment of the plant. EP3 assessments focus on low-or-no cost management practices and operational improvements and on medium-level capital equipment and process modifications with projected cost savings and environmental benefits. (Kratch, 1996) 64. Waialua Sugar Company, Hawaii, where reclaimed water has been blended with mountain stream water and utilized for irrigation of sugar cane and diversified agriculture since 1928. Virtually all of the reclaimed water consumers in Hawaii view the use of reclaimed water as an appropriate use of valuable water resource and as an environmentally sensitive way to dispose of wastewater effluent. (Parabicoli, 1997) 65. Ben & Jerry's, Vermont, addresses the high-fat dairy waste byproduct from making ice cream, at the Company's oldest plant, through a series of lagoons where microorganisms break down milk solids before they enter the local wastewater treatment plant. (Judge, 1997) 66. Wastewater in the valley of Mexico and its reuse: The city of Mexico and incorporated areas produce about 48 m3/s of sewage, which is used downstream to irrigate approximately 90,000 hectares (estimate 37,000 acres) of alfalfa, corn, wheat crops, and a number of vegetables for raw consumption. The agricultural zone presents an incidence of gastro-intestinal illnesses that is 16 times higher than the national average. At the present time, attempts are being made to treat the entire amount of wastewater produced by the City. Among possible processes to be used is the Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) combined with filtration and disinfection, since this method complies with Mexican regulations for water reuse. (Jimenez, 1997) 67. Who is being recognized? According to the Monsanto Company, for improvements Monsanto has achieved so far, it was the only chemical company, and one of 15 recipients nationwide, to be recently honored by the U.S. President's Council for Sustainable Development. In 1996, E. Beaver from Monsanto Company stated in "Industrial Transition To Sustainable Development" that: "natural resources have been declining as population and consumption levels increase. Inevitably these lines will soon intersect and then it may be too late to act. This gap represents a window of opportunity. If the world acts now, we may be able to stabilize the trends or even reverse them to widen this gap." Beaver further adds: "These issues are very relevant because most companies depend on natural resources, biological productivity and healthy global markets to survive and thrive. It is in our best interest to invest in a healthy planet." Beaver adds: " ... the next evolution which we are just beginning to enter is sustainability ... We must recognize the full cost of using finite supplies of these materials as well as the full environmental cost of disposal of the waste, both of which are very undervalued in our current economic structure. We must recognize any waste as an indicator of inefficiency." REFERENCES Beaver, E. 1996. "Industrial Transition To Sustainable Development" - Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA Elder, D. 1997. Four Corners Watershed Innovators Initiative, Florida Meeting Report. River Network, Portland OR. Gannon, R. and all. 1996. "Goal-Oriented Agricultural Water Quality Legislation, Journal of The American Water Resource Association, vol. 32, No. 3, June 1996. Beardsley, E. 1997. "So Little Water, So Many Demands" - Camp Dresser & McKee Inc., Providence, R.I. Reed, D. 1997. "Minimum Stream Flows vs. Well Yields: Appropriate Resolution In Water Supply Permitting" - Woodard & Curran, Dedham, MA Maas, R. and all. 1987. "Setting Priorities: The Key to Nonpoint Source Control" - EPA Office of Water, Washington D.C. Ashby, M. 1997. Campaign for the Earth International. Perrira, S. 1997. "Land Equity for the Urban Poor" - Landlines, Lincoln Land Institute, Cambridge MA. Hammer, B. Proutist Universal Global Office, Platanvej, Denmark. Osmond, D. and all. 1995. "The Rural Clean Water Program: A Voluntary, Experimental Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Program and its Relevance to Developing Nations" - North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. Top 10 Watershed Lessons Learned, 1997. No. EPA840-F-97-001, EPA, Washington D.C. Himlan, E. 1997. Massachusetts Watershed Coalition, Leominster, MA Murcott, S. 1993. "Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas" - Susan Murcott, Gloucester,MA. Small Flows, 1997. "Alternative Sewers: Cost Effective Options for Many Small Communities", Vol. 11, No. 4, Fall 1997. Gonzalez, L. and all. 1996. "Waste Not, Want Not: Abbott Laboratories Achieves Near Zero Discharge," - Puerto Rico. Kratch, K. 1996. "Electroplating Facility Learns Transferable Pollution Prevention Lessons" - Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA. Judge, P. 1997. "Its not easy being green", Business Week, 11/24/97. Parabicoli, S. 1997. "Water Reuse in Hawaii: An Overview" - County of Maui, Wastewater Reclamation Division, Hawaii. Jimenez, B. and all. 1997. "Wastewater In The Valley of Mexico And Its Reuse." Instituto de Ingenieria. Grupo: Tratamiento y reuso. UNAM Mexico. Beaver, E. 1996. "Industrial Transition To Sustainable Development" - Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA. Barber, J. 1998. Integrative Stategies Forum, Washington DC. Women's Environment and Development Organization(WEDO), 1998. For additional information contact: UN CSD Freshwater Caucus Facilitator: Lyn Billman-Golemme, American Planning Association (UN CSD Rep) Billman-Golemme Associates 114 Ruggles Street Westborough, MA 01581 USA email Billman-Golemme@worldnet.att.net Alternate: Miguel Soto Cruz Arbofilia, P.O. Box 512 - tibar - 1100 Costa Rica Fax 506-240-7145
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Date last posted: 8 December 1999 15:15:30