United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


      Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development


                 Compilation of information on initiatives
               of countries and international organizations
                      to implement the objectives of
                          Chapter 34 of Agenda 21


                            BACKGROUND PAPER # 6


                             Prepared for the

 FIFTH SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


                                  by the


                   Division for Sustainable Development
           Human Development, Institutions and Technology Branch


A. INTRODUCTION                                                           1

B. ACTIVITIES

   1.  INFORMATION SYSTEMS                                                2

       a.  Analysis Sheet                                                 2
       b.  Information Sheets on Various Initiatives:
           1. International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse
              (ICPIC)                                                     4
           2. Ozone Action Information Clearinghouse (OAIC)               4
           3. Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology
              (ISAT)                                                      5
           4. JICST On-Line Information System (JOIS)                     5
           5. Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE)   6
           6. Indian Center for Promotion of Cleaner Technology (ICPCT)   6

   2.  TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT                                        7

       a.  Analysis Sheet                                                 7
       b.  Information Sheets on Various Initiatives:
           1. Needs Assessment for Clean Technologies in Costa Rica 
              (NACTCR)                                                    9
           2. Technology Transfer for Sustainable Industrial Development
              (TTSID)
              - Pakistan                                                  9
           3. Black Sea Environmental Program (BSEP) - Black Sea         10
           4. Series of Projects which can be considered as a "National 
              Needs Assessment for Appropriate Energy Technologies - 
              South Africa                                               10
           5. General NNA for a Sustainable Agricultural Development 
              (SISAD) - Swaziland                                        11
           6. Specific NNA for Environmentally Sound Agricultural 
              Technologies (HARVEST) - Swaziland                         11
           7. Strategic Technology Assessment for the State of Kansas
              - Kansas, United States of America                         12

   3.  CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRES                                        13

       a.  Analysis Sheet                                                13
       b.  Information Sheets on Various Initiatives:
           1. Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT)14
           2. African Regional Centre for Technology (ARCT)              15
           3. Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Centres 
              (CETACs)                                                   15
           4. International Transfer Centre for Environmental Technology
              (ITUT)                                                     16
           5. Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania                      16
           6. Australian Centre for Cleaner Production (ACCP)            17
           7. Slovak Cleaner Production Centre                           17
           8. Hong Kong Productivity Council                             18
           9. Latvian Pollution Prevention Center (LPPC)                 18
           10.Czech Cleaner Production Center (CPC)                      19
           11.Pollution Prevention Center (PPC)                          19
           12.National Industry Association (ANDI)                       20
           13.Polish Cleaner Production Center                           21
           14.National Center for Cleaner Production - Taiwan, Province 
              of China                                                   22
           15.Cleaner Production Centre - Malta                          22
           16.Cleaner Production Center - Ireland                        23
           17.China's National Cleaner Production Centre (CNCPC)         23
           18.Textile, Finishing and Apparel Clean Technologies 
              Institute (TFACTI) - Turkey                                24
           19.National Cleaner Production Centre - India                 24
           20.Environmental Technology Best Practice Programme (ETBPP)   25
           21.Environmental Pollution Prevention Project (EP3 - USAID)   25
           22.International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer
              (ICETT)                                                    26
           23.UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre 
              (IETC/UNEP)                                                26
           24.Indo-German Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project26
              - (IG-IEEIP)                                               27

   4.  TECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIPS                                           28

       a.  Analysis Sheet                                                28
       b.  Information Sheets on Various Initiatives:
           1. Commonwealth Partnership for Technology Management (CPTM)  30
           2. US-Asia Environmental Partnership (US-AEP)                 31
           3. Initiative for Environmental Technology (IET)              32
           4. Joint Environmental Markets Unit (JEMU)                    32
           5. Technology Partnership Initiative (TPI)                    33
           6. Trade in Environmental Services and Technologies (TEST)    33
           7. International Transfer Centre for Environmental Technology
              (ITUT)                                                     34
           7. International Network for Environmental Management (INEM)  34
           8. Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI)          35
           9. Sustainable Project Management (SPM)                       36
           10.Zero Emissions Research Initiative (ZERI)                  36
           11.IVAM Environmental Research                                37
           12.Enhancement of Research Capacity in Developing Countries
              (ENRECA)                                                   37

   4.1 JOINT IMPLEMENTATION                                              38

       a.  Analysis Sheet                                                38
       b.  Information Sheets on Various Initiatives:
           1. United States Joint Implementation Initiative (USIJI)      40
           2. AIJ Japan Program                                          40
           3. Pilot South Pacific JI Program (Global 21C)                41
           4. Netherlands Pilot Phase Program (PPP)                      41
           5. Canadian JI Initiative (CJII)                              42

   5.  FINANCING SOURCES AND RELATED ACTIVITIES                          43

       a.  Analysis Sheet                                                43
       b.  Information Sheets on Various Initiatives:
           1. Environmental Experts Program, Export-Import Bank of the US44
           2. Integrated Financing System of Environmental Protection
              (IFSEP)                                                    45
           3. Environmental Enterprises Assistance Fund (EEAF)           45
           4. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)    46
           5. Asian Development Bank (ADB)                               46
           6. The Inter-American Investment Corporation (IIC)            47
           7. The Green Protocol - Brazil                                47
           8. German Investment and Development Company (DEG)            48
           9. The International Finance Corporation (IFC)                48

                                                                              
                   Abbreviations for Type of Initiative
                                                                              
              AREA OF ACTIVITY:

                  Information Systems                  IN
                  Technology Needs Assessment          NA
                  Cleaner Production Centres           CPC
                  Technology Partnerships              PPP
                  Joint Implementation                 JI
                  Financing Sources                    FI


              GEOGRAPHIC AREAS:

                  Africa                               AF
                  Asia                                 AS
                  Eastern Europe                       EE
                  Europe                               EU
                  Latin America                        LA
                  Middle East                          ME
                  North America                        NA
                  Pacific                              PA
                  United Nations Organization          UN


Introduction

   The "Compilation of information on initiatives of countries and
international organizations to implement the objectives of Chapter 34 of
Agenda 21" was prepared by the Division for Sustainable Development of the
United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
(DPCSD) and submitted as a background document to the Commission on
Sustainable Development at its fifth session, New York, 7-25 April 1997.

   The purpose of the Compilation is to provide, based on available
information, an overview of programmes and projects being initiated or
implemented at national, regional and international levels, to promote the
transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs).  In presenting the
information, the Programme of Work on the Transfer of ESTs adopted by the CSD
at its third session in 1995 was taken into account, as well as the objectives
stated in Chapter 34 of Agenda 21.

   The data presented in the Compilation is the result of extensive
communication with governmental agencies, intergovernmental organizations,
financial institutions, the private sector, and other interested parties. 
National actors were chosen as the main target group for providing
information.  In most of the cases, the information was provided by the person
in charge of the respective programme and project.  The response rate has been
about 60 per cent.

   The information presented in the Compilation relates to  the following five
types of activities:  (1) Establishing information systems, (2) Technology
needs assessment, (3) Cleaner production centers and other national
institutional set-ups to promote ESTs, (4) Technology partnerships and other
technology-related collaborative arrangements, and (5) Sources of technology-
related finance.  These types of activity were introduced through an analysis
sheet stating the relevance of each type of activity for the implementation of
the objectives set out in Chapter 34 of Agenda 21,  highlighting major issues
in the process of implementation, summarizing main results, and providing a
few lessons learned.

   The Compilation is descriptive in nature and does not engage in the
analysis or evaluation of the material provided therein.  It describes the
programmes and projects in terms of their objectives, the content of
activities and institutional set-ups, and provides contact information.  It is
the intention for the Compilation to become a useful long-term source of
information for decision-makers.  Thus, the Compilation needs to be maintained
and regularly updated, and it should be made easily accessible to interested
parties.


ANALYSIS SHEET

TYPE OF ACTIVITY:    Information systems for the dissemination of information
                     information on environmentally sound technologies (ESTs)

OVERALL CONTEXT

   Agenda 21 suggest two courses of action in order to satisfy the need for
information on ESTs: (1) "The development of national, subregional and
international information systems and the creation of regional
"clearinghouses" to link them in covering broad-based sectors of the economy",
and (2) "That an inventory of existing clearinghouses or information systems
be undertaken by the relevant United Nations bodies".

   There is, in general, no lack of information on ESTs or of systems and
sources that provide such information.  Over the past years, there has been a
proliferation of databases, information systems and clearinghouse functions -
public and private, national and international - dealing with particular types
of ESTs or providing technological information more generally.  Problems that
exist in information access and dissemination are related to:  (i) the ability
of technology suppliers, users of ESTs and intermediaries to know about and to
be able to access information systems and sources, and (ii) the level of
cooperation and compatibility among these information systems and sources.

PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION

   In response to the needs expressed in Agenda 21, the Government of the
Republic of Korea organized, in December 1994, a workshop on the "Promotion of
Access to and Dissemination of Information on Environmentally Sound
Technologies".  Participants of the workshop adopted the "Seoul Plan of Action
on Information Systems Related to ESTs" and suggested to incorporate the
recommendations of the action plan in the work programme of the CSD on Chapter
34 of Agenda 21.  Following this recommendation, the Commission on Sustainable
Development (CSD) identified the area of information access and dissemination
as one of the three key areas in technology transfer for which countries and
international organizations should undertake action.

   In response to the request of the CSD, the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), in consultation with other relevant agencies, prepared a
"Survey of information systems and sources related to ESTs".  The survey
identified over 50 such information systems and characterized them with
respect to the technologies covered, information provided, as well as cost and
availability of the information.  It provided useful insights on the modes of
operation of these systems and sources, their interaction with the relevant
institutional infrastructures, and the services they provide.  The survey
emphasized the need for concrete measures to increase compatibility and
cooperation among information systems and sources related to ESTs, including
the usefulness of a consultative mechanism to improve communication between
information providers and users.  UNEP's 1996-1997 Programme of Work provided
for the establishment of such a consultative mechanism which would take the
form of a loose network of institutions that provide and use information on
ESTs.  Its specific function is to improve the dissemination of information on
ESTs to industry and national and local authorities, and to enhance the
abilities of users and decision-makers for assessing the social, economic and
environmental performances of available technological options.

   This consultative mechanism is built around three UNEP offices: Industry
and environment (Paris), the International Environmental Technology Centre
(Japan) and the International Environmental Information System (INFOTERRA), as
well as their collaborative and sectoral partners.  It is a network of
institutions that use or supply information on ESTs and promotes a
"decentralized" approach based on a "multiplicity of access points" in order
to share experiences, knowledge and expertise.

   In addition to the survey, UNEP has carried out nine case studies of
selected EST information systems.  Six of these case studies are summarized in
the information sheets: International Cleaner Production Information
Clearinghouse (ICPIC), OzonAction Information Clearinghouse (OAIC),
Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT), JICST
On-line Information System (JOIS), Greenhouse Gas Technology Information
Exchange (GREENTIE), and the Indian Center for Promotion of Cleaner Technology
(ICPCT).

MAIN RESULTS

   A large number of the information systems (75 percent) are on-line through
the Internet or otherwise.  This represents a significant increase since the
first report and shows an increasing trend towards use of this dissemination
method.

   Over 50 percent of the systems disseminate information in printed form.
This dissemination method is still very important to those who do not have
access to on-line services.  Query response service by phone, fax or mail, is
also important to such users and is provided by 21 percent of the systems.

   About 82 percent of the systems do not restrict access to information and
would provide information to virtually anyone. More than half of the systems
charged for information either through subscription, purchase or usage fees.

LESSONS LEARNED

   As stated above, resource management is a major theme in technology
information. The former pure information and knowledge management does not
meet the needs of every user and cannot cover every technological question. 
Institutional networking offers the possibility of multiple access points to
various information networks.  Therefore, it is important that every
intermediary knows "who is doing what and where" in order to provide various
links to other information sources.  These know-how resources can be
individuals, resource centres or organizations and institutions.

   Although modern communication serves demand for know-how on a global level,
regional or national networking offers the advantage to meet demand locally,
more quickly and without language barriers.  These networks can include
indigenous knowledge and link national experts and institutions in order to
achieve a broader impact.

   Customer-oriented service is of growing importance. This means not only
increasing user-support by friendly-user design but also the possibility of
individual advice on specific questions or complex problems.  A successful
example is the question-and-answer system run by the German Appropriate
Technology Exchange (GATE).  Around 2,000 - 3,000 users annually use the QAS,
and these include individuals, institutions, as well as organizations.

   Additionally , there is a requirement for information systems to address
the need for information on specific technologies and on performing
assessments of the environmental performance inherent to existing and planned
technologies.  In this respect, there exist planned activities through the
Environmental Technology Assessment Programme (EnTA) of UNEP and in the
Technology Data Sheets of the Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement
Centres (CETACs).


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                           IN/UN/100 - 10/8
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Activity

INTERNATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE (ICPIC)

UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME - INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT OFFICE

Contact:
Ms. Garrette Clark and
Mr. Ahn Tuan Vu
Cleaner Production Programme
UNEP Industry and Environment Office, Paris, France
Tel: 331-44-37-1450/1459
Fax: 331-44-37-1474
Email:icpic@unep.fr

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

Established as one component of the UNEP Cleaner Production Programme, it aims
to provide up-to-date information on cleaner production methods in different
sectors via an online-electronic information system.

PRIORITIES:

- ICPIC contains: (1) 277 case-studies contributed from 30 countries as well
  as other institutions, (2) 584 publication abstracts from 30 countries, (3)
  a collection of 116 organizations with cleaner production expertise, (4) a
  section on relevant information related to the UNEP Cleaner Production
  Programme and other activities of the UNEP Industry and Environment Office.

- The information covers leather tanning, textile, metal finishing, pulp and
  paper, biotechnology, education, policy strategy and instruments and
  sustainable product development.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- An on-line medium is not suitable for all users, it needs to be supplemented
  with information transmitted in both diskette and paper form and by a query
  response service to help answer specific questions using the database.

- Frequent maintenance and up-dating are crucial.

PLANS:

www-site planned.
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                               IN/UN/101 - 10/8
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Activity

OZONACTION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE (OAIC)

UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP)
UNEP IE's Ozone Action Programme

Contact:
Mr. Rajendra Shende and
Ms. Shaila Damji
UNEP Ozone Action Programme
Paris, France
Tel: 33-1-44-37-1450
Fax: 33-1-44-37-1474
E-mail: ozonaction@unep.fr

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

It is set up as an information clearinghouse under the auspices of the
Multilateral Fund established by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on
Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer.  It's major role is to facilitate and
encourage transfer of "ozone-friendly" ESTs to developing countries through
information exchange, training activities and regional networking.  Its
function is to provide technical, policy and scientific information on a wide
range of ozone depleting substances phase-out issues.

PRIORITIES:

- Its well-defined target groups (e.g. National Ozone Units and select
  industry associations) and very specific issues to be addressed are crucial
  for the success of a clearing-house.

- While the clearinghouse does not engage in actual technology transfer, it
  does provide technical or policy information/contacts necessary to stimulate
  action on the part of companies and governments.

- Assessment of technologies and users' needs are essential to the success of
  the clearinghouse.
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                          IN/LA/102 - 10/8
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Activity

INFORMATION AND ADVISORY SERVICE ON APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY (ISAT)

GERMAN AGENCY FOR TECHNICAL COOPERATION (GTZ)

Financed by the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development

GERMANY

Contact:
Dr. Dirk Franken and
Dr. Reinherd Woytek
GTZ
Eschborn, Germany
Tel: 49 6196 79 3185
Fax: 49 6196 79 7352
E-mail: GATE-ISAT@OLN.COMLINK.APC.ORG
WWW: http:/www.gtz.de/gate
http:/www.gtz.de/gate/isat

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To promote the increased use of appropriate technology in developing countries
by improving access to EST information for organizations in the South. 

PRIORITIES:

- ISAT activities cover 5 main areas:  (1) Appropriate building technology;
  (2) Micro-Hydro powered and other forms of renewable technologies; 
  (3) Locally appropriate land use and resource management; (4) Smallholder
  and artisanal processing of food and farm products; and (5) Anaerobic
  treatment of organic waste and sewage.

- South-South links (regional networks e.g. SIATA, RISE-AT) to mobilize
  existing abilities and skills and to promote self-help activities by NGOs.
 
GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Clear focus and established set of users;

- Variety of medium for information dissemination;

- Free of charge services.

Improve access to information through:

- Local networking with links to international sources of information;

- Improved information technology infrastructure in developing countries;

- Establishment of decentralized or regional information brokers or
  clearinghouses.

CURRENT STATUS:

3000 inquiries every year by Question-and-Answer Service (QAS).
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                           IN/AS/103 - 10/8
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Activity

JICST ON-LINE INFORMATION SYSTEM (JOIS)

JAPAN INFORMATION CENTRE FOR INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY (JICST)

DATABASE PROVIDER

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To promote the increased use of appropriate technology in developing
countries.

PRIORITIES:

Access to a range of Databases covering subjects from general science and
technology, physics, chemistry and medicine through to construction and
pollution.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Too concentrated on serving the domestic information market.  Lack of
  immediately accessible source material and Japanese environmental technology
  in English.

- It is not a primary EST information system because many files do not refer
  to ESTs.

CURRENT STATUS:

Strategic links with institutions in Europe and North America through Science
Technology Network (STN).

PLANS:

Export information from Japan.
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                               IN/EU/104 - 10/8
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Activity

GREENHOUSE GAS TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION EXCHANGE (GREENTIE)

Initiative of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Organization for
Economic Coordination and Development (OECD).
Operated and developed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment
(NOVEM).

Contact:
Dr. Dirk Kalverkamp
GREENTIE
Sittar, The Netherlands
Tel: 31 46 459 5203
Fax: 31 46 451 0389
E-mail: ninovbasmmail.com
www.greentie.org

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To transfer knowledge on technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

PRIORITIES:

- Information is made available through a query and response service, a
  printed directory, CD-ROM and a database accessible via the Internet.

- It is essentially a "yellow pages" of expertise on ESTs for greenhouse gas
  emission reduction.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Greentie aims to promote collaboration between IEA member and non-member
  countries.

- Provision of extensive information services to non-IEA countries is
  difficult because of the current agreements (restrictions due to its legal
  status).

- Few contacts with developing countries.

PLANS:

- Full database will be available on-line.

- At the present time, there are not many documents in the www hypertext
  format.
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                                IN/AS/105 - 10/8
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Activity

INDIAN CENTER FOR PROMOTION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGY (ICPCT)

NATIONAL INFORMATION CENTRE FOR CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES (NICCT) established
within the NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NEERI).

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To provide on-line information available about technologies for cleaner
industrial production and pollution control.

PRIORITIES:

Database contain:

- 510 case studies within 14 industrial sectors (waste minimisation, resource
  recovery, waste utilization).

- National and international environmental management policies and laws.

- Listings of equipment suppliers and experts for environmental management.

CURRENT STATUS:

Not yet fully implemented.
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ANALYSIS SHEET

TYPE OF ACTIVITY:    Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) as a tool to promote
                     transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs)

OVERALL CONTEXT

  Agenda 21, in dealing with the issue of technology needs assessment (TNA),
suggests that "the international community, in particular United Nations
Agencies, international organizations, and other appropriate and private
organizations, should help exchange experiences and develop capacity for TNA,
in particular in developing countries, to enable them to make choices based on
environmentally sound technologies".  Activities in the TNA area have evolved
from the previously conceived stand-alone assessments to TNAs performed as an
integral part of national development strategies.

  Technology needs assessment can be a useful tool for the government or other
constituencies of a particular country to identify a portfolio of technology
transfer projects and capacity-building activities to be undertaken to
facilitate, and possibly accelerate, the development, adoption and diffusion
of ESTs in particular sectors of the national economy.

PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION

  A number of countries and organizations gained experience in the use of
technology needs assessment for identifying technology transfer and capacity-
building activities either at the national level or in the context of
development cooperation.  A recently completed national technology needs
assessment (NTNA) carried out jointly by Costa Rica and the Netherlands
identified a number of projects to develop, adopt, and acquire cleaner
technologies in Costa Rica, in the following sectors:  infrastructure,
agriculture, agro-industry, energy supply sector, and urban solid wastes. 
Pakistan and Switzerland carried out an NTNA for Pakistan which identified
some projects in the paper and textile industries.   Multilateral
organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP) and the European Union (EU) have conducted technology needs assessments
on a regular basis in connection with their development cooperation or
technical assistance activities.

  Technology needs assessments are also carried out in a number of African
countries, however, at the household or community level.  They were conducted
by national or regional research institutions that have developed a capacity
to undertake sector specific TNAs such as the Ghana Food Research Institute,
the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, the South African
Foundation for Research and Development, and the African Regional Centre for
Technology.

  The African Regional Centre for Technology ( ARCT), with the support of the
Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DPCSD) of the
United Nation's Secretariat, and with the cooperation of the United Nations
Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), co-organized an African Regional
Workshop on Technology Needs Assessment in Support of the Transfer of ESTs and
International Technology Cooperation (Dakar, Senegal, 17-19 January 1996). 
The workshop demonstrated the critical role that NTNAs can play in promoting
the transfer of environmentally sound technologies, particularly on how such
technologies can be applied to solve local and community level problems.

  At the international level, there has been an emerging interest in sharing
experiences gained by a number of countries and international organizations in
conducting and implementing TNAs.  In response to this growing interest, the
Governments of the Netherlands and Switzerland organized an international
workshop of experts, with the objective to elaborate guidelines on strategy
and methodology for national technology needs assessments.  The meeting agreed
on a set of conclusions and recommendations regarding TNAs which was made
available by the Governments of the Netherlands and Switzerland to the 1996
CSD in the form of a "Guidance document for technology needs assessment".

  A different approach has been used in the Strategic Technology Assessment
carried out by the State of Kansas.  The goal of the assessment was to
identify areas in science and technology in which Kansas should focus its
resources to achieve the best results and to gain comparative advantages in a
global competition.  The survey assessed the global opportunities and the
strengths of 27 technology sectors in Kansas.

MAIN RESULTS

  A national technology needs assessment can be the first step in a long-term
cooperation between two countries, as exemplified in the cooperation between
the Netherlands and Costa Rica, as well as Pakistan and Switzerland.  It has
resulted in the formulation of concrete projects for the promotion of cleaner
technology and related capacity-building activities.  The follow-up of the
project entails efforts to match institutions of the host and the donor
countries.

  If carried out as a part of development cooperation between developed and
developing countries, technology needs assessments can also be considered as a
part of export promotion programs jointly designed by the participating
countries.

  The State of Kansas, with a socio-economic situation not unlike that of many
developing countries - economy mostly based on agricultural activities,
dispersed population centers, limited financial resources - has so far been
successful in its efforts to achieve substantial and sustainable growth for
the Kansas economy through the advancement of technology by using more
efficiently the limited resources available and by looking inwards and
assessing its strengths and weaknesses.

LESSONS LEARNED

  Practical experiences gained by some countries and international agencies in
carrying out TNAs yielded concrete results in different ways.  They presented
an opportunity to emphasize the demand-driven approach.  Each of the
approaches illustrated in these examples represent improvements in the
assessment of technological needs of a specific sector of society at a local
or national level.  But, while the benefits of these exercises are obvious,
some do show limitations, given their intended limited scope and unforseen
follow-up.

  Identified technology transfer and capacity-building projects were tailored
to the actual needs of the local beneficiaries in the developing countries
concerned, and helped coordinate follow-up activities at the national level. 
They are also offering opportunities for the collaboration of donors in
financing and implementing the identified projects.  As many providers and
recipients of ESTs are private enterprises, a determined and early effort is
needed to harness their potential technology and financial capacities.  It was
also useful for a local institution to carry out the TNA.

  If undertaken on the basis of an integrated and participatory approach -
with the governments as the formulators and enforcers of economic and legal
policies, and the NGOs and the scientific community as environmental agencies
which know the most about the resilience and carrying capacity of the Earth,
and the private sector as the prime mover for technological development,
transfer and diffusion - TNAs can contribute to policy integration by making
both public and private decision-makers more aware of the environmental
consequences of their actions.

  It was emphasized that, if sustainable development is the goal, the
potential environmental impacts of a particular technology must be identified
before a decision to acquire that technology is made.  It is, therefore,
important to integrate environmental technology assessment (EnTA) to
technology needs assessment, as an important tool to evaluate potential ESTs
and the organizational, managerial and human resource systems related to the
proper use of these technologies.

  The example provided by the State of Kansas underlines that a strategic
technology assessment can identify where to deploy limited resources for
capacity-building.  Its focus is directed towards competitive advantages and
economic benefits and it is not limited to ESTs, like a NNA, nor does it use a
demand-driven approach.  But it can be part of an NNA (as an Environmental
Technology Assessment) in order to consider the criteria for economies and
competitiveness to achieve a certain return of investment of ecological
investments.  A more economic approach could avoid the danger to, e.g., invest
in projects having little or no return on investments, which then could be
used for further projects.


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                              NA/LA/200 - 10/30
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Activity

NEEDS ASSESSMENT FOR CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES IN COSTA RICA (NACTCR)

Duration: 4 months (phase 1)
Initiator:  Ministry of Science and Technology (MICIT, Costa Rica)
Financing: Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment

COSTA RICA -  THE NETHERLANDS

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

- Evaluation of the needs for clean technologies in Costa Rica.

- Design of cooperation programs in the area of clean technologies on the
  basis of comparison between the detected demand in Costa Rica and the
  available supply in The Netherlands.

- To propose activities to create and to strengthen local capacities in order
  to develop comprehensive coverage of all environmental concerns.

PRIORITIES:

Adoption of ESTs in following sectors:  agriculture, agro-industry and energy
and urban sectors (solid waste treatment).

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- R&D community very interested.

- Participating industries generally positive while others are not aware.

CURRENT STATUS:
Project profiles for solution of specific environmental problems and
improvement of general technological infrastructure.

PLANS:

Preparation of technology co-operation projects.
Phase 2 entails efforts to match Dutch and Costa-Rican institutions to prepare
6 bilateral capacity building projects.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            NA/AS/201 - 10/30
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Activity

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT (TTSID)

Duration: 18 months (phase 1)
Initiator: Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI)
Financing: Swiss Federal Office for Foreign Economic Affairs (FOFEA)

PAKISTAN - SWITZERLAND

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To develop and collect baseline data and to design strategies to transfer ESTs
and to forge industrial partnerships between Swiss and Pakistani firms.

PRIORITIES:

Adoption of ESTs in manufacturing industry, in particular paper and textile
industries.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

R&D community not interested in project; no industrial application focus in
the R&D community.

CURRENT STATUS:

Assessment of barriers to transfer of ESTs to the manufacturing industry. 
Proposals for technology transfer strategies.  Plan drafted to put National
Conservation Strategy in action.

PLANS:

Preparation of technology co-operation projects.
Inventories of EST-opportunities still to be converted into concrete
technology projects.

- Trial implementation of proposed technology transfer strategies in 5
  industry sectors.

- Support for establishment of industrial partnerships between Swiss and
  Pakistani firms.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            NA/AS/202 - 10/30
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Activity

Black Sea Environmental Programme (BSEP)

Duration: 3-years (started in 1993)
Initiator: The gremium in the framework of the Bucharest Convention
Financing: Global Environmental Facility

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To create and strengthen national and regional capacities to manage and
protect quality and biodiversity of the ecosystem of the Black Sea.

PRIORITIES:

- Treatment facilities for the most important coastal discharges.

- Environmental monitoring.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Complex socio-economic circumstances.

- Industry not involved nor aware of possible implications in process.

- Extension of programme will be crucial for overall success.

CURRENT STATUS:

- Technological upgrading: investments made in treatment facilities for the
  most important discharges and in standardization of equipment and procedures
  for environmental monitoring in research institutes in all riparian
  countries.

- Assessment of capacity building needs in 6 selected areas.

PLANS:

Preparation of technology co-operation projects:

- Priority investment in treatment and monitoring facilities are being
  implemented.

- It is anticipated that the continuation of the programme will result in new
  projects to install particular technologies.
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                           NA/AS/203 - 10/30
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

SERIES OF PROJECTS WHICH CAN BE CONSIDERED AS A "NATIONAL NEEDS ASSESSMENT FOR
APPROPRIATE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES"

Duration: 3 years
Initiator: Government of South Africa and an environmental forum of South
African NGOs
Financing: Government of South Africa

SOUTH AFRICA

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To provide energy for the underprivileged segment of the society, through
application of ESTs, whenever feasible.

PRIORITIES:

Utilization of ESTs to provide electricity throughout South Africa.

CURRENT STATUS:

- Development Business Plan for Energy.

- Programme for provision of electricity throughout South Africa.

PLANS:

Preparation of technology co-operation projects:

- Pilot project started to introduce solar home systems.

- Electrification of 2,000 health clinics and 15,000 schools by PV systems.

- Demonstration projects regarding PV pump technologies.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            NA/EU/204 - 10/30
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Activity

GENERAL NNA FOR A SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT (SISAD)

Duration: 3 years
Initiator: Government of Swaziland
Financing: UNDP

SWAZILAND

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To design appropriate agricultural development strategies.

PRIORITIES:

To use ESTs for agricultural development and innovation.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

No involvement of farmers.

CURRENT STATUS:

Formulation of agricultural strategies to accommodate to anticipated socio-
economic changes (SISAD).

PLANS:

- Preparation of technology co-operation projects (still pending).

- National Development Strategy for agricultural techniques.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             NA/EU/205 - 10/30
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

SPECIFIC NNA FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES (HARVEST)

Duration: 3 years
Initiator: Women's Resource Centre and the
US Peace Corps, Swaziland
Financing: USAID

SWAZILAND

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To identify and promote environmentally sound agricultural techniques and
practices.

PRIORITIES:

To use ESTs for agricultural development and innovation.

CURRENT STATUS:

- Preliminary assessment of existing farming technologies and an
  organizational framework for the execution of the more detailed and
  comprehensive NNA.

PLANS:

- Preparation of technology co-operation projects (still pending).

- Adaptation and diffusion of environmentally sound agricultural techniques
  and practices.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              NA/NA/206 - 10/21
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT FOR THE STATE OF KANSAS

KANSAS (USA)

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To assess technologies in which Kansas should focus its attention for related
economic development, and to establish a framework for conceptualizing the
forces that shape technologies opportunities, and the components of internal
capacity, which are the basis of the State's strategic or comparative
advantages.

PRIORITIES:

This overview assessment relates to opportunities within specific technologies
to the internal capacity of business, government and research universities in
Kansas for capitalizing on these projects.  Elements of "opportunity" for each
technology considered in this report include:

- Industry sponsored research and development - current levels and growth
  rates.

- Federal cooperative technology programs and their application to each
  specific technology.

- National trends in venture capital funding.

- National trends in university research and university patent awards.

- The composition of university-industry research centres at the national
  level.

"Capacity" elements examined to assess Kansas' internal strengths include:

- Sectoral strengths in the employment base.

- University research strengths.

- Composition of State-sponsored Centres of Excellence.

- Kansas' private sector performance in SBIR awards and in the KTEC-sponsored
  Applied Research Matching Funds programme.

- Composition of patent awards in Kansas.

- Composition of venture capital investments in Kansas.

The review was structured around the twenty-seven technologies outlined in the
1995 federal "National Critical Technologies Report" in the area of: 
(1) Energy; (2) Environmental Quality; (3) Information and Communication;
(4) Living Systems; (5) Manufacturing; (6) Material Sciences; 
(7) Transportation.

CURRENT STATUS:

This overview assessment of technology opportunities in the State of Kansas
has been used as a stepping stone for a number of successful programs in
advancing the technological capacity and competitiveness of the State.  Some
of these programmes are described in other sections of this compendium.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


ANALYSIS SHEET

TYPE OF ACTIVITY:    Cleaner production centres as facilitators in
                     technology transfer and technological transformation

OVERALL CONTEXT

  Chapter 34 of Agenda 21, Transfer of environmentally sound technologies,
refers to the need to develop "national capacities to assess, develop, manage
and apply new technologies.  This will require strengthening existing
institutions, training and personnel at all levels, and education of the end-
user of the technology".
   
  Initiatives by countries, international organizations, and  the secretariats
of international conventions on global environmental issues have resulted in
the establishment of a variety of centres to promote the transfer of ESTs and
technological transformation.  In this context, national cleaner production
centres have gained some prominence.  

PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION

  National cleaner production centres (NCPCs) were established as the result
of country initiatives as well as, in a number of developing countries and
economies in transition, with the support of donors or international
organizations, including in the framework of multilateral and bilateral
cooperation projects.  

  Under the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)/UNEP
National Cleaner Production Centre Programme (NCPCP), NCPCs were established
or supported in the following countries:  Brazil, China, Czech Republic,
India, Slovak Republic, Mexico, Tanzania, Tunisia, Zimbabwe.  In order to
improve communication and consultation among these NCPC, counterparts,
sector-specific working groups, and other supporters, UNEP has set up an
e-mail based conference network (NCPC-NETWORK listserver).  This e-mail
network is intended for circulation of information and news on programme
events.  It also provides an easy mechanism for self-help among subscribers to
obtain quick answers on various questions that may come up during centre
operations.

MAIN RESULTS

  NCPCs have begun to play a major role in developing a "culture" for cleaner
production in local communities and country-wide by coordinating cleaner
production programmes, acting as an interface among industry, government,
universities and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and building the human
capacities required to acquire and manage cleaner technologies.  

  According to OECD experience gained in working on specific environmental
issues in Central and Eastern Europe, cleaner production centres are very
useful in coordinating and running cleaner production programmes, with the
support of, among others, professional engineers' associations, technical
institutes, or industry associations. 

  The Secretariat of the Basel Convention reported that Regional/Sub-Regional
Centres for Training and Technology Transfer being operated under the
Convention have become important vehicles for the promotion of the transfer of
ESTs related to hazardous wastes.

  According the information submitted by NCPCs to the CSD, three major fields
of activity can be identified that all of these centres focus on: (a) 
education and training of domestic professional staff (e.g., engineers and
cleaner production experts), (b)  consultancy and technical assistance
(especially through case studies and demonstration projects), and 
(c)  collection and dissemination of information including technical and
management knowledge.

LESSONS LEARNED

  The main incentive for local companies to engage in cleaner production
efforts is the expectation of enhanced competitiveness and more cost-
effectiveness.  NCPCs need, therefore, to focus on the economic benefits by
providing detailed information about the cost-benefit ratio and the pay-back
periods of successfully implemented cleaner production programmes. 

  Demonstration projects which display "technology in action" are essential to
enhance confidence of entrepreneurs that invest in ESTs not only makes their
operations environmentally more sustainable but is good business sense as
well.  Consultation and information exchange, including through the use of
interactive electronic networks, among existing national cleaner production
centres and with other parts of the local or national EST support structure is
important (e.g., information systems and sources related to ESTs, technical
advisory and consultation services, marketing support and legal advice
services, and institutions of research and development).


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            CPC/AS/300 - 10/30
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

ASIAN AND PACIFIC CENTRE FOR TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY (APCTT)

A UN regional institution.

APCTT works under the overall policy guidance of the United Nations Economic
and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

APCTT's aim is to see that technology reaches where it is most needed. APCTT
extends support to associate and member countries of ESCAP by assisting them
in their efforts to develop, transfer, adapt and apply technologies. In doing
so APCTT lays special emphasis on environment friendly technologies.

PRIORITIES:

APCTT sphere of activities is mainly targeted to the Asia-Pacific countries.
APCTT activities are centered in the following areas:

- Provides techno-economic details on technologies available for transfer.

- Initiates quick follow-up action, bringing together buyers and sellers of
  technology. Holds technology exhibitions, missions, expositions and
  demonstration programmes at national, regional levels, to disseminate
  information and market technologies.

- Helps assess technologies through training courses and workshops.

- Strengthens technology transfer mechanisms by promoting contacts with
  important sources and users of technology.

- Implements regional and inter-regional projects related to technology
  transfer.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

APCTT realizes the importance of SME's in national economies and pays
particular attention to this sector. APCTT Publications include: (1) Asia-
Pacific Tech Monitor, a bi-monthly publication which features worldwide
opportunities to buy or sell technologies; (2) VATIS, a periodical which
focuses on specific sectors such as Biotechnology, Non-conventional Energy
Sources, Waste Technology, Food Processing and Ozone Layer Protection; (3)
APCTT also brings out a wide range of technology related books and a 15 volume
quarterly catalogue of International Technologies and Business Opportunities.

CURRENT STATUS:

APCTT is also currently involved in the following projects:

- Women in Development: APCTT envisions to strengthen institutions which
  encourage women to take up entrepreneurship in selected industrial sectors.

- Through UNDP's "Mechanism for Exchange of Technology Information", APCTT has
  established a METI sub-network called the International Network for Transfer
  of Environment Friendly Technologies (INTET).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            CPC/AF/301 - 10/30
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

THE AFRICAN REGIONAL CENTRE FOR TECHNOLOGY (ARTC)

Operational since 1980.
Located in Dakar, Senegal.

Contact:
Dr. Ousmane Kane
Executive Director a.i.
Tel: 221 237 712
Fax: 221 237 713

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

The Centre aims to become an efficient instrument for the promotion,
coordination, integration and management of the technological potential of its
Member States, so as to meet the global development objectives such as food
security and satisfaction of energy needs.

PRIORITIES:

Operational work programs of the ARTC are directed towards the priority
sectors of food, energy and capital goods. The ARTC has placed special
emphasis on promoting technological innovation in the African Region as a tool
to addressing these problems.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

ARTC programmes cover: (a) Technological needs assessments and surveys; 
(b) Scientific and technical information and documentation; (c) Research and
Development; (d) Technological extension and demonstration; 
(e) Techno-Enterprises Incubation for SMEs; (f) Technical consultancy and
advisory services; and (g) Training and human resource development.

CURRENT STATUS:

The ARTC, through its work programmes, is embarked in the promotion of
technology innovation, particularly by the acquisition and use of
Environmentally Sound Technologies. By doing so, the Centre is willing to
strengthen its cooperation and partnership with all national, regional and
international institutions involved in the technological development process
of Africa.  The Centre counts with a current membership of 31 Member States.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            CPC/NA/302 - 10/08
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENT CENTRES (CETACs)

Private sector; not-for-profit organizations. Supported by the Federal
Government in partnership with provincial governments, environmental industry
associations and the private sector.
Project financing: 1/3 federal, 2/3 private sector and provincial governments.
Total amount of federal contribution is $12 million over four years.

CANADA

Contact:
Mr. Philippe Morel
Enviro-Access, Inc.
Tel: 819 823 2230
Fax: 819 823-6632
www.enviroaccess.ca

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To provide support to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) companies in
the development of environmental technologies and in the commercialization of
ESTs.

PRIORITIES:

Focus on international technologies information: (a) Technical services
including technology assessment assistance and matching services (for
strategic alliances and joint ventures); (b) Regulatory assistance; (c)
Financial assistance and advice; (d) Providing access to investment capital;
(e) Business counselling; (f) Market analysis; and (g) Export support.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Policy of the Canadian Government: One of the important priorities of Canada
is the promotion of environmental industries and technologies. Another
important component is the development and commercialization of innovative
environmental technologies.

CURRENT STATUS:

The Federal Government supported the creation of three CETACs: (1) Enviro-
Access Inc. located in Sherbrooke, Quebec; (2) The Ontario Centre for
Environmental Technology Advancement (OCETA) Inc. main office located in
Toronto; (3) The Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Centre - West
(CETAC - WEST) with offices in each of the four Western provinces.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          CPC/NA/303 - 11/12
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

INTERNATIONAL TRANSFER CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY (ITUT)

Established in 1996 by the Government of Germany, and composed of Federations
of German business, trade and industry (DIHT).

GERMANY

Contact:
Dr. Huthmacher
Umweltministerium Bonn
Referat GI2
Tel: 49 228 305 2264
Fax: 49 228 305 3524

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To offer the necessary assistance for promoting the transfer of tailor-made
environmental technology and to serve as a platform from which state, science
and companies can work together with the appropriate institutions in the
partner countries in order to make concrete contributions to worldwide
sustainable development processes.

PRIORITIES:

The Transfer Centre is divided into two different institutions:

- Non-profit association: promotion of global environmental protection.
  Centre acts as an information and communication center.

- Limited company: supporting the export of German environmental technology 
  (for SMEs in particular).

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

The Transfer Centre is part of an initiative by industry, research
organizations and the Federal Government to improve the transfer of technology
to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, Asia and Latin America and to
re-enforce and consolidate technical, scientific and political cooperation in
environmental protection between Germany and partner countries.

CURRENT STATUS:

ITUT's activity has been met with great interest by SMEs, who often lack
information on concrete market opportunities on the overseas markets and
sufficient information on the political and legal framework conditions in the
partner countries and comprise the main pillar of the German environmental
technology sector.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            CPC/AF/304 - 11/08
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRE OF TANZANIA

Established October 1995.
Member of the UNEP/UNIDO National Cleaner Production Centres Project.

TANZANIA

Contact:
Prof. C.L.C. Migiro
Director
Tel: 255 51 668105/8979
Fax: 255 51 668147
E-mail: cmigiro@unidar.gn.apc.org

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To play a coordinating and catalytic role for CP activities and to act as the
core of a network of institutions and individuals.

PRIORITIES:

- Policy advice on environmental management;

- Demonstration projects of CP techniques and technologies;

- Training industry and government officials;

- Source of information on CP activities.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Main obstacles: (a) Building capacity for company self-assessment is generally
ok, but the low average level of education of employees poses a potential
barrier; (b) Lack of environmental legislation and regulations; and (c)
Information dissemination to industries, stakeholders and the public in
general is very important in raising awareness.
Success stories: (a) Savings have been obtained as a result of good
housekeeping options in demonstration projects, and (b) Increased awareness of
concepts by industry, stakeholders and public in general.

CURRENT STATUS:

Demonstration projects in 16 companies have been initiated from all sectors of
society.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            CPC/PA/305 - 10/8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

AUSTRALIAN CENTRE FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION (ACCP)

Non-profit company jointly developed by a number of major companies, two
universities and three governments.

AUSTRALIA

Contact:
Mr.Allen Morley
Tel: 61 3 9407 6060
Fax: 61 3 9407 6061

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To achieve the widespread adoption of internationally competitive cleaner
production philosophies and practices in industry, government and academic
institutions in accordance with the principles of SD.

PRIORITIES:

3 principal areas of work:

- Commercial consultation in the areas of cleaner production and waste
  minimisation;

- Education and training in cleaner production (training packages, tri-annual
  newsletter);

- Technology transfer in all aspects of cleaner production (especially via
  UNEP/UNIDO national cleaner production centre program).

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- 45 case study reports will be available during the last quarter of 1996;

- Grant assistance for installation of environmental management systems;

- Cleaner production grants are intended to catalyse business investment in
  innovative technology, systems and processes that reduce waste; 10 year
  interest-free loans of up to 50% of the capital cost of installing low or 
  no-waste technology are available for companies adopting CP by installing
  new technology or who apply other innovative means of reducing industrial
  waste generation;

- Voluntary waste reduction agreements with the Environment Protection
  Authority will be extended across the waste spectrum.

CURRENT STATUS:

- Managing an Australian program of diagnostic studies in China (in
  collaboration with the CNCPC) and Thailand (with the TEI);

- Cleaner Production Partnership Program: Linking the experience of major
  companies with downstream smaller companies (placement of experienced
  managers for a short period).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             CPC/EE/306 - 10/8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

SLOVAK CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRE

Established December 1994 in the framework of the Slovak-Norwegian Cleaner
Production Project; and since 1995 in the UNIDO/UNEP network.

SLOVAK REPUBLIC - NORWAY

Contact:
Mr. Anton Blazej
Tel: 42 7 259 015
Fax: 42 7 259 015

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To help the government to develop long-term sustainable industrial development
and to assist industry and services to formulate CP programmes.

PRIORITIES:

- Case studies;

- Demonstration projects;

- Capacity building.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- 47 case study projects (economic effects from good housekeeping measures
  annually 25-30 millions Slovak crowns; low cost measures are from 16 to 20
  millions);

- Demonstration projects;

- Capacity building (115 national experts educated).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            CPC/AS/307 - 10/8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

HONG KONG PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL (HKPC)

Established by statute.

HONG KONG, Province of China

Contact:
Mr. C.M. Lin
HRPC - Environmental Division
Tel: 852 2788-5618
Fax: 852 2788-5608

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To promote increased productivity in Hong Kong, Province of China.

PRIORITIES:

To offer comprehensive consultancy services to manufacturing and business
disciplines, covering industrial technology, product design and development,
production management, electronic data processing and environmental
management.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Development of Clean Technologies for surface finishing applications and for
  bleaching & dyeing industries (approach: extensive search for information on
  clean technologies in other countries and to adapt them for application in
  Hong Kong, Province of China; prime task is to undertake an extensive
  information dissemination and to make the technology known to all possible
  users; identified technologies have short pay-back periods);

- Demonstration factory/farm project (project has proven that improving
  environmental performance and increasing productivity can be achieved
  simultaneously);

- 3 ISO 14000 Pilot Programmes (11 large organizations, 8 non-manufacturing
  SMEs, and another 13 manufacturing SMEs).

CURRENT STATUS:

Four successful programmes related to transfer of ESTs: (a) Development of
Clean Technologies for Surface Finishing Applications; (b) Development of
Clean Technologies for Bleaching and Dyeing Industries; (c) Demonstration
Factory/Farm Project; and (d) ISO 14000 EMS Pilot Programmes for a total of 32
manufacturing and non-manufacturing enterprises in Hong Kong, Province of
China.

PLANS:

To develop a cleaner production centre in Hong Kong, Province of China.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                CPC/EE/308 - 10/8
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

LATVIAN POLLUTION PREVENTION CENTER (LPPC)

Established in 1994 by the World Environment Center (WEC).

LATVIA - DENMARK

Contact: 
Mrs. Natalia Ladutko
Tel: 371 78 28 250
Fax: 371 78 28 251

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To promote sustainable development of Latvian industries, to ensure
considerable economic and environmental benefits by pursuing waste
minimisation activities.

PRIORITIES:

These include:  (a) Technical assistance; (b) Consulting services; 
(c) Training in waste management techniques; (d) Collection and dissemination
of technical information; and (e) Publications, seminars and conferences.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- 11 enterprises representing five industrial sectors have participated in
  waste minimization projects of the WEC;

- 88% of projects implemented had pay-back periods of less than one year;

- Total savings exceeded $1.02 million dollars per year;

- Half of the total capital investment was contributed by enterprises.

CURRENT STATUS:

Successful implementation of waste management and cleaner production processes
requires strong motivation for companies, stable economic conditions, well
trained technical experts, governmental support.

PLANS:

- To develop special training programs for universities, colleges and business
  schools on waste minimization;

- To cooperate with European counterpart agencies in the implementation of CP
  and EMS;

- To find partners and sponsors for local WM/CP consultants training
  programmes and other projects.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                CPC/EE/309 - 10/8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

CZECH CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTER (CPC)

Established in 1994 at end of the Czech-Norwegian CP Project; and since 1995
included in the UNIDO/UNEP network.

CZECH REPUBLIC

Contact:
Mr. Vladimir Dobes
Tel: 42 2 260 620
Fax: 42 2 260 639

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To improve the environmental performance and the competitive advantage of
industry through CP.

PRIORITIES:

Since 1995 implementing:

- Long-term capacity training including 7 demonstration projects;

- 3 local authority CP projects including training and 23 demonstration
  projects;

- Developing of Czech training modules;

- Operation of information system.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Domestic professional capacities are crucial for promotion of CP (training
  partly financed by money recovered from the benefitting enterprises);

- Benefits of Czech-Norwegian project: 80 million CZK per year (big part of
  benefits can be achieved by simple good housekeeping measures);

- Massive reduction of waste water, industrial waste, and emissions;

- Increase of efficiency in the process is the major contributor to the
  economic savings.

CURRENT STATUS:

Results for regional projects will be available by the end of 1996.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              CPC/EE/310 - 10/8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

POLLUTION PREVENTION CENTER (PPC)

Founded in cooperation with WEC in April 1994 as an independent, non-advocacy,
non-profit organization at the INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (APINI),
a non-profit organization.

Established in 1991 as an independent interdisciplinary research institute
affiliated with Kaunas University of Technology.
APINI is a non-profit organization

LITHUANIA

Contact:
Prof. Dr. hab. Jurgis Stanişkis
Tel: 370 7 22 46 55
Fax: 370 7 20 93 72

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To promote SD, CP, pollution prevention, waste minimisation in Lithuanian
industry.

PRIORITIES:

With a focus on the following sectors: food processing, textiles, furniture
manufacturing, and tannery:

- Waste minimisation assessment;

- Assists enterprises in preparing and introducing low-cost waste and
  pollution minimisation measures;

- Provides technical assistance;

- Promotes development and spreading of environmental management and serves as
  a information source in this field;

- Provides information and consultations on international and national
  environmental laws, agreements and standards (EMS, eco-labelling, etc.).

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

2 success stories:

- Waste water recirculation at tannery (investment US$50,000; savings
  US$100,000/year);

- Waste reduction in cement production (investment US$55,000; savings
  US$155,000/year).

CURRENT STATUS:

International projects:

- The Norwegian Cleaner Production Training Programme (1995-1996); 
  15 companies participate; success stories end 1996;
 
- Implementation of CP in Lithuanian Tanneries (1996-1997; Chemcontrol AS
  (Denmark), UAB "Ecobalt").

PLANS:

To develop database on ESTs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              CPC/LA/311 - 10/8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

NATIONAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (ANDI)

COLOMBIA

Contact:
Manuel F. Olivera A.
Manager of International Affairs
Asociacion Nacional (ANDI)
Medellin, Colombia
Tel: 251-4444
Fax: 251-8830

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

ANDI has as part of its mission and institutional purposes environmental
responsibilities and activities.

PRIORITIES:

ANDI supports its members in harmonizing industrial development with the
environment and society by promoting environmental management systems and
processes and drives its members to become leaders and promoters of
sustainable development.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

ANDI fostered in Colombia the application of the Montreal Protocol (MP).  In
1995 this programme is now under the auspices of a UNEP-MP supported office of
the new Ministry of the Environment.  ANDI co-hosted with two other business
organizations a Responsible Care initiative or "Responsabilidad Integral"
(RI). RI is open to all industrial sectors.  ANDI led in mid-1995 the
signature of a voluntary agreement for sectoral and regional covenants for
cleaner production between 24 industry associations and the Colombian Ministry
of the environment.  ANDI will serve as national coordinator of the first
Colombia Cleaner Production and Environmental Technology Center supported by
the Ministry of the Environment and the Swiss Government to start operation in
February 1997.  ANDI represents all the Colombian manufacturing industry in
the Technical Advisory Committee of the Ministry of the Environment.

CURRENT STATUS:

MP implementation - more than USD $8 million from the MP Executive Committee
will be allocated to turn Colombia into the first article 5 country with
around 85% of ODS eliminated from the market - Far before the set MP
schedules.  RI - 51 industries are part of the initiative, 13 requests for
acceptance, and 2 other industry association considering membership.  The RI
initiative in association with the WEC have successfully implemented 3 waste
minimization projects and around 20 more are planned for implementation in
1997.  CP initiative- two regional covenants are being signed, two sectoral
with the sugar cane and slaughter house industries, 5 more are under
negotiations.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 CPC/EE/312 - 10/8
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

POLISH CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTER

Member of the NIF-NOT CP Program.
Sponsored by the Government of Norway, the Norwegian Federation of Chartered
Engineers (NIF) and the Polish Federation of Engineering Societies (NOT).
Additional Technical and Financial Support in CP from the Governments of: 
USA, Denmark, the Netherlands.

POLAND

Contact:
Mr. Zygfryd Nowak
Tel/Fax: 48 32 156 55 07

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

The main objective of the programme is to reach the capacity level for cleaner
production and introduce an environmental management system similar to the
European Union EMAS and preparing for ISO 14000 series certifications.

PRIORITIES:

To fully establish the Polish Environmemtal Management System throughout
Polish industries and to formalize this system within the Polish Government
structures to ensure the continuation of the CP systems within companies and
ensure proper audit and follow up by the authorities.
By achieving both activities (The NIF-NOT CP Programme and the Polish CP EMS)
the Polish CP Movement is being directed through the Polish Federation of
Engineers. 
CP Programme Areas (by country):

1. Norway: broad CP capacity building approach (total annual saving is about
   30 to 40 million USD), "Train the Trainer and Designer Approach";

2. USA/WEC: programme concentrated in the chemical industry (great saving
   potential with low investment and very good payback periods);

3. Denmark: "Commercial Cleaner Technology Transfer" program (one example: 0.9
   million DKK increased contribution margin per year with investments of 2.5
   million DKK; fat and oil emissions down by 88%), based on Danish
   technologies;

4. Netherlands: "Knowledge Transfer" approach, leading role played by the
   University of Amsterdam.  Completed several individual contracts related to
   the Transfer of Cleaner technology to Polish companies based on Dutch
   expertise and financing.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

The introduction and development of incentives and proper financing mechanisms
has been the challenge for CP and the programme in Poland has not been the
exception.  The lack of understanding of the "troipple effect" of CP (reduces
enviro-load, improves technology-product-service and achieves new economic
benefits) is still the main constraint for the widespread adoption of CP
strategies in developing countries.

CURRENT STATUS:

The Centre is now carrying out both cycles of training and implementation of
CP and working with companies who apply for CP certification.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          CPC/AS/313 - 11/06
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

NATIONAL CENTER FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION TAIWAN, Province of China

Established in 1995

TAIWAN, Province of China

Contact:
Mr.George Shin-Ru Tang
NCCP
Taiwan, Province of China
Tel: 886 35 732663
Fax: 886 35 725524
E-mail: 810635@UCL.ITRI.ORG.TW

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

Part of a three prong programme aiming to play a coordinating and catalyzing
role for Cleaner Production and to promote the development and use
of cleaner technologies and international exchanges.

PRIORITIES:

3 programmes:

- Cleaner Production related demonstration projects (economic benefits of
  US$28.0 million annually);

- Waste Exchange Information Center (WEIC) - from July 1987 to December 1995
  WEIC has facilitated 178 successful cases of waste exchange;

- Center for Cleaner Production Resource Center for CP:

  -  policy advice on Environmental Management,
  -  demonstration projects of Cleaner Production technologies,
  -  training industrial and government professionals.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           CPC/EU/314 - 10/27
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRE - MALTA

Malta University Services, LTD.

MALTA

Contact:
Mr. Anton Pizzuto
Tel: 343572, 331754
Fax: 344879

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

The programme planned by the Cleaner Technology Centre is based primarily on:

- Awareness raising on CP through seminars;

- Limited consultancy service on waste minimization and waste disposal
  problems;

- To promote CP and the transfer CP technologies.

PRIORITIES:

The main objectives of the center are:

- To encourage industry to apply the least polluting technologies;

- To transfer know-how to industry about the implementation of cleaner
  technology;

- To offer assistance with the analyses of existing systems;

- To find feasible solutions with regard to pollution prevention;

- To become involved in any initiative likely to lead to cleaner technology
  being taken up by local industry.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Resistance of industry to implement CP processes if financial advantages are
not shown clearly.

CURRENT STATUS:

A series of seminars targeting specific sectors of industries have been
organized.

PLANS:

- To set up at least one pilot project to show economic and environmental
  advantages of CP;

- Agreement with Enemalta (the Energy corporation) to provide SMEs with free
  energy audits.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               CPC/EU/315 - 10/9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRE - IRELAND

Established in 1991 as an independent body based in Cork Regional Technical
College;
initial funding by client companies in the chemical/pharmaceutical industry;
and now with 14 business sponsors.

IRELAND

Contact:
Tadhg Coakley
Information Officer
Tel: 353 21 344864
Fax: 353 21 344865
e-mail: tadhg@cleanun.rtc-corkley
http://cleantechnology.rtc-cork.ie

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To advise and assist industry, public authorities and governments in the
adoption of waste minimization techniques, clean technologies and
cleaner production.

PRIORITIES:

Industrial services, such as: (a) Integrated pollution licensing; (b) Process
engineering consultancy; (c) Waste minimization assessment; (d) Training; 
(e) Environmental legislation and EMS; (f) High level research.
Information Office provides information on CT - Training in environmental
management.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

National and international projects for close to 30 companies and
organizations.

CURRENT STATUS:

Examples of projects:

- Irish-Danish-French Co-Pilot project for CT in 20 SMEs (environmental audit
  and a CT assessment);

- EUROMANAGEMENT environment pilot project aims to assist 500 SMEs in Europe
  in establishing EMSs (1996-1997);

- Proposal to establish a centre for the promotion of environmentally friendly
  products and processes (primary mission: awareness-raising through
  information on role of international standards, benefits) business approach.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            CPC/EU/316 - 10/9
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

CHINA'S NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRE (CNCPC)

Part of CHINESE RESEARCH ACADEMY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE;
UNIDO/UNEP network;
B-4 project was a technical assistance project of the WB

CHINA

SOURCES:
UNEP REPORT on cleaner production in China, 1996, ISBN 92-807- 1613-1

Policies and Programmes   

COMMITMENTS:

Originally created as a research and consultation body to carry out the Action
Plan on CP of Agenda 21.

PRIORITIES:

- Technical support for industry, CP audit manual, sectoral guides, public
  information materials;

- Cleaner production assessment;

- Target sectors: food industry, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and
  metal-finishing industries.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Part of the B-4 project:  29 cleaner production audits in 27 enterprises
resulting in:

- Annual economic benefits of USD 2.9 million from the adoption of management
  or technology changes which required little or no investment;

- Pollution reductions averaging 30-40 per cent in the audited processes but
  reaching a maximum of 95 per cent;

- Identification of technology changes requiring larger investments that could
  save more than USD 215 million a year for an investment of USD 200 million;

- 63 per cent had a pay-back period of less than one year;

- The Chinese Cleaner Production Audit Manual for Enterprises was essential;

- Training was crucial (qualified nationals ensure "enthusiastic national
  participation").

PLANS:

- To introduce the CP approach to 3,000 companies over the next five years
  (including the top 100 polluters in China);

- To become financially independent within five years;

- To expand the clearinghouse activities and to provide technical assistance
  to other CP activities, including the establishment of two local CP
  sub-centres.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        CPC/ME/318 - 10/15
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

TEXTILE, FINISHING and APPAREL CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES INSTITUTE (TFACTI)

Founded in January 1996.

TURKEY

Contact:
Mr. Akin Geveci
Asst. Dir. E.E.I
TUBITAK-MRC
Tel: 90 262 641 230 018
Fax: 90 262 6412309

Policies and Programmes 

COMMITMENTS:

To create a focal point that can serve the textile industry and apparel
subsectors in the areas of environment friendly products and Clean
Technologies.

PRIORITIES:

These include: (a) Technology assessment and adaptation of existing Clean
Technologies; (b) Development of Clean Technologies in the sectors concerned;
(c) Demonstration projects to show the financial and technical benefits of
cleaner technologies; (d) Training; and (e) Source of information.

CURRENT STATUS:

TFACTI/TUBITAK-MRC has been appointed to be the National Focal Point to the
Regional Activity Centre for CP in the Mediterranean Region (RAC/CP).

PLANS:

- TFACTI is planned to be the seed of the CP Technology Institute (CPTI) which
  will give service to all sectors of industry especially to SMEs;

- The main objective of this project is to conduct R&D in order to help
  industry introduce CP technologies for the production of high quality
  textile products, to create awareness in industry of the importance of waste
  minimization and recycling programmes, to disseminate information
  on CP, to define and solve sector specific problems regarding environmental
  and other technical issues, and conducting preliminary search for
  opportunities to improve sector competitiveness in the world marketplace;

- Project to enable industry to start implementing CP and EMS in the beginning
  of 1998.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             CPC/AS/319 - 10/15
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

NATIONAL CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRE

Member of the UNEP/UNIDO Cleaner Production Centres Project.

INDIA

Contact:
Mr. S.P. Chandak
Director
Tel: 91 11 4611243
Fax: 91 11 4615002

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To encourage Cleaner Production in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
to ensure sustainable development.

PRIORITIES:

The main objectives of the Programmes being carried out by the NCPC are:
information dissemination, capacity building (training), demonstration and
policy level interventions in the field of Cleaner Production.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Major experiences gained included: (a) CP programmes can be built in all types
of industries; (b) The potential of CP is significant in SMEs; (c) CP offers
attractive, financial and environmental benefits particularly in SMEs,
convincing entrepreneurs of these benefits is the toughest challenge of a CP
programme; and (d) Developing countries need assistance and inputs to build up
the required capacity for promoting and practicing CP.

CURRENT STATUS:

- Demonstration projects in the textile (hosiery) sector have been completed;

- 2 intensive training programmes have been conducting training of 30 CP
  professionals;

- 16 awareness workshops have been conducted with direct reach of about 500
  persons;

- Intensive training programmes and demonstration projects have been conducted
  in Nepal and Sri Lanka.  Specialized assistance in CP in the Pulp and Paper
  Industry has been provided to Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand.

PLANS:

- Set up demonstration projects in Dye and Dye intermediate Sectors;

- Providing hands-on work experience to professionals trained by the Centre by
  joint demonstration projects;

- Bringing out a technical manual on the first demonstration sector.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                CPC/EU/320 - 10/8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY BEST PRACTICE PROGRAMME (ETBPP)

Launched and funded by the Department of Trade and Industry and the
Department of the Environment in June 1994.
Managed by AEA Technology plc through ETSU and the National Environmental
Technology Centre.

UNITED KINGDOM

SOURCE: Annual Report 1995/1996

Contact:
Mr. Gareth Martin
International Manager
ETSU
Tel: 44 1235 43 25 75
Fax: 44 1235 43 25 75
E-mail: gareth.martin@aeat.co.uk
www.etsu.com/ETBPP

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To coordinate and stimulate action in cleaner production and waste
minimisation.

PRIORITIES:

- ETBPP collects, disseminates and actively promotes information on cleaner
  production and waste minimisation throughout UK industry and commerce;

- 50 projects in first year.  Programme is targeted on priority sectors: 
  metal finishing, foundry industry;

- Free environmental helpline (200 calls each week in 1995, 300 in July 1996,
  and 160 SMEs used free environmental counselling service), guides 
  on current environmental practice, case studies of best practice in action,
  library, technical information for nine specific industry sectors.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Major initiative:  Attitudes and Barriers Survey carried out in 11 industry
  sectors and involving over 1100 companies;

- New Practice and Future Practice are promoting and supporting new and
  developing cleaner technologies;

- 4400 companies attended events organized by the Programme, 5200 requested
  Programme literature.

PLANS:

To expand coverage to include specific initiatives for the chemicals and food
& drink industries.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              CPC/NA/321 - 11/04
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION PREVENTION PROJECT (EP3)

U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID)

UNITED STATES

Contact:
Mr. Jim Gallup
Tel: 1 703 875 4518
Fax: 1 703 875 4639

Policies and Programmes   

COMMITMENTS:

To promote the adoption of cleaner production by industries in developing
countries.

PRIORITIES:

These include:  (a) Policy advice; (b) Capacity building (institutional
support, assistance and payment for local staff, training workshops); 
(c) Technical assistance to industry; (d) Technology demonstrations; (e)
Information exchange; and (f) Primarily assistance for SMEs.
Countries targeted:  Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Paraguay, and
Peru (in each country long-term relationship with a local NGO or industry
association, which serves as a center for pollution prevention information and
services in the country).
Particular sectors:  textiles, leather tanning, food processing, metal
finishing, printing, paper, and chemicals.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Assessments in 90 facilities worldwide;

- Battery sector (one-time investment: US$ 523,000; average annual savings:
  US$1,500,000).

PLANS:

- To focus greater attention on effecting changes in policies and regulations
  to facilitate the adoption of pollution prevention approaches by industry.

- To identify industry "spokespeople" and other leaders to help promote
  pollution prevention approaches to others.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           CPC/AS/322 - 10/30
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER (ICETT)

Non-profit organization.
SOURCES: Total funding of 6 billion yen from:
Mie Prefectural Government; 
Yokkaichi Municipal Government; and
Japanese Industry (more than 200 industries).

YOKKAICHI CITY, JAPAN

Contact:
Mr. Sumiyuki Yoshii
President
Tel: 593 29 3500
Fax: 593-29-8115

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

- To promote cooperation as one of Japan's international contributions to the
  conservation of global environment;

- To promote utilization of proven technologies and "know-how" developed in
  Japanese industry;

- To function as a centre of effective coordination among cooperative
  organizations (companies, industry organizations, local governments,
  research institutions, etc.);

- To provide long-term cooperation to solve environmental problems in
  developing countries and meet the needs of developing countries with
  appropriate technologies designed for their specific requirements.

PRIORITIES:

These include: (a) Human Resources Development (Training); (b) To perform
country studies; (c) Research and Development; and (d) Dissemination of
information, data, etc.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

The lack of effectiveness of the business-oriented approach to industrial
pollution problems in developing countries, thus, the need for a non-profit
basis approach until a more business-oriented approach becomes effective and
realistic.

PLANS:

To continue cooperation with industry in developing countries, making full use
of Japanese technologies, know-how and other related knowledge.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             CPC/AS/323 - 11/08
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

UNEP INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY CENTRE (IETC/UNEP)

OSAKA - JAPAN

Contact:
Mr. C.H. Strohmann
Tel: 81-6 915 4583 / 84
Fax: 81-6 915 0304
E-mail: cstrohma@unep.or.jp

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To promote cooperation in facilitating the transfer of Environmentally Sound
Technologies (ESTs) to developing countries and countries with economies
in transition. IETC pays specific attention to urban problems such as solid
waste, sewage, air pollution, noise, and to sustainable management of
freshwater lake and reservoir basins.

PRIORITIES:

The Centre's programme activities are based on three main pillars deriving
from the UNCED process: (1) improving access to information on ESTs; 
(2) fostering technology cooperation, partnerships and transfer of ESTs; and
(3) building Endogenous Capacity

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

The Centre has been successful in projects in its area of work. Some of these
projects include: (a) Survey on Environmentally Sound Information
Systems; (b) International Source Book on ESTs for Municipal Solid Waste
Management; (c) EST Database Development Project; (d) Assistance to
"Sustainable Shenyang" and "Sustainable Wuban" Demonstration Projects as well
as assistance to "Sustainable Katowice" Demonstration project; (e) Pilot
Training Programme on Adopting, Applying and Operating ESTs for Urban
and Freshwater Management; (f) Workshop on Environmental Technology Assessment
in Sub-Saharan Africa: A UNEP EnTA Leadership Programme; (g) Pilot
Workshop on Environmental Risk Assessment (EnRA) as Integral Part of The
Sustainable Cities Programme; (h) Participation in the UNEP ESTs Information
Systems Programme; and (i) UNEP IETC Training and Capacity Building Programme.

CURRENT STATUS:

The success of UNEP IETC shows the comparative advantage of the Centre in
enabling its target countries and clients to decide on how best to
select and implement technologies which are most suitable for their national
or local environment and how to establish long-term relationships
between those who produce ESTs and those who are in need of ESTs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                CPC/AS/324 - 10/9
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

INDO-GERMAN INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (IG-IEEIP)

Cooperation involving the Tata Energy Research Institute for the Government of
India, and GTZ for the Government of Germany.

June 1995 - December 1999

INDIA-GERMANY

Contact:
Mr. H.V. Dayal
TATA Energy Research Institute
New Delhi, India
Tel: 080 226 8296/1090
Fax: 080 225 5760

Policies and Programmes  

COMMITMENTS:

To create awareness for the need for energy efficiency and energy-saving
opportunities and to implement energy efficiency in selected industrial
sub-sectors.

PRIORITIES:

- Conducting in-depth energy/technology audits and studies in selected units
  which are committed to invest and implement viable energy efficiency
  improvement recommendations.

- Conducting in-depth studies in selected industries, to identify the extent
  of opportunities for substitution of conventional energy by
  renewable/non-conventional energy resources, and assist in implementation of
  viable schemes.

- Conducting industry specific training programmes/workshops/seminars on
  approach and methodology for identifying energy saving opportunities in
  industries.

- Setting up an "Energy Information and Advisory Service" Centre at TERI, with
  a comprehensive database on National and International energy related
  information.

- Provide a framework for sharing of information and experience involving
  other similar projects in India and in other developing countries.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Target sectors: Cement, Iron & Steel and Food Processing industries.

- Target area: Karnataka (India), but assistance for replication projects is
  available.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


ANALYSIS SHEET

TYPE OF ACTIVITY:    Technology partnerships and other
                     technology-related collaborative arrangements

OVERALL CONTEXT

  Chapter 34 of Agenda 21 addresses this issue by emphasizing that "long-term
collaborative arrangements should be promoted between enterprises of developed
and developing countries for the development of environmentally sound
technologies."

  In this regard, "Governments and international organizations should promote
and encourage the private sector to promote effective modalities for the
access and transfer, in particular to developing countries, of environmentally
sound technologies" and create "favourable conditions to encourage the private
and public sector to innovate, market and use ESTs."

PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION

  Collaborative arrangements as described in Agenda 21 have taken on a myriad
of names and characteristics, and are varied not only in the type of
participants but in modality.  A particular type of collaborative arrangement
that has emerged between actors of the public and private sectors has taken
the form of partnership.  The evolution process of these partnerships has
dealt largely with the roles and responsibilities that each of the partners
are to have in these arrangements.  National Governments and local authorities
continually have seen their role as implementors of technology transfer
diminished by a very positive and growing private sector participation in this
area.

  The role of government as promoter, facilitator and, in many ways,
intermediary, has been more and more accentuated as the need for specific
conditions for full private sector participation in these collaborative
arrangement has become more evident.  In this section, 4 different forms of
collaborative arrangements have been highlighted.

  1.   Partnerships or collaborative arrangements through export promotion
  programme:  Many governments of developed countries have built the basis for
  long-term collaboration with industry in developing countries for the
  transfer of ESTs through programmes geared towards promoting the export of
  their local ESTs.  Through these programmes, developed countries achieve
  what is the basis for long term partnerships, a "win-win" situation.  These
  export promotion programmes provide not only information on available
  technology but also, in many instances, provide technical and market
  advisory services and access to finance or guarantees.  In this manner,
  developed countries promote and improve their own technology exports while
  at the same time providing companies or projects in developing countries
  access to ESTs under better conditions than those otherwise available in the
  markets.  These export programs, in some cases, are managed through
  financial intermediaries or programme managers as in the case of the TEST
  programme of USAID.

    Activities undertaken under the national pilot programmes for Activities
  Implemented Jointly  (Joint Implementation) as prescribed by the Framework
  Convention on Climate Change, have been included in this category based on
  the roles being played in implementing these programmes by both private and
  public sectors.  Although a separate subsection has been assigned to these
  activities based on their status as pilot programmes, their potential for
  development and the participation of the FCCC, the role of governments and
  private industry active in these programmes, remain similar to those
  described above for other collaborative arrangements.  In the pilot
  programmes, governments and the public sector have again taken on the role
  of motivators and promoters by providing the necessary incentives and
  operational environment necessary for private sector participation in
  transactions on activities implemented jointly.  In these programmes,
  though, the governments must not only play the role of promoter but also of
  regulator and manager of their national commitments made under the FCCC when
  and if these programmes evolve past the pilot programme phase.

  2.   Partnerships or collaborative arrangements for promoting cleaner
  production in developing countries:  A second type of partnership is the
  development of multinational organization built around the promotion of
  cleaner production and environmental management with memberships including
  industry associations, individual companies and, in some cases, public
  organizations.  Such is the case of the CPTM, GEMI, INEM, and the WBCSD. 
  This type of organization has been very effective in ensuring access to ESTs
  for industries in developing countries through a hands-on approach and by
  convincing industry in these countries of the benefits inherent to cleaner
  production methods and environmental management.

  3.   Promoting eco-efficiency in developing countries:  Other examples of
  close collaboration such as that of SPM and UNDP have been very successful
  in developing programmes for the promotion of eco-efficient solutions with a
  view to improving not only environmental performance but also social
  problems present in the areas where projects are to be implemented.

  4.   The "technology triangle" concept defines a public-private partnership
  that functions on the basis of strategic interaction and collaboration among
  government agencies and institutions, the private sector and institutions of
  science and technology.  The technology triangle concept emphasizes the
  evolution of research institutions and the nature of the research itself,
  through their relationship with the other stakeholders, both private and
  public, in activities related to the development, market and use of
  environmentally sound technologies.

    In most instances this evolution has been moving towards more directed
  research as research and development (R&D) institutions begin to use their
  capabilities towards the production of marketable R&D results.  Local
  governments and research institutions are working together to reorient their
  research resources, technical capabilities and experiences to produce
  innovations that will meet the growing needs of the private sector markets
  for ESTs.

MAIN RESULTS

  Various forms of public-private partnerships are being implemented to design
and implement cost-effective and eco-efficient development projects.  In
general, collaborative arrangements or partnerships try to link the advantages
of private sector - access to finance and technology, managerial efficiency,
entrepreneurial experiences and engineering expertise - with the social
responsibility, environmental awareness, local knowledge, research and
development, and job generation functions of the public sector.

  Inherent components of many initiatives are community participation and
capacity-building needs.  Technologies acquired must be both affordable and
appropriate to the needs of the respective beneficiaries.  In implementing
public-private partnerships, a strategic interaction has been established, in
some cases, among government agencies, private sector entities and
institutions involved in scientific research and technological development.

  Collaborative arrangements at enterprise level have been set up for
innovation and technology-sharing.  Knowledge in the form of technology,
innovation and information has become a powerful engine of development, and
the diffusion of this knowledge has become a major factor for enterprise
cooperation.

LESSONS LEARNED

  The partnership concept builds upon a change in attitude by both governments
and the private sector towards solving problems through dialogue based upon
shared responsibilities, mutual interests and confidence-building.  This
partnership recognizes both the leading function of the private sector in the
move towards more sustainable production systems and processes and the
changing, but not less important, function of local or central governments to
create and sustain a policy environment that is conducive to the requirements
for cost effective, competitive and environmentally beneficial production and
market operations.

  A major task, in this respect, would be for governments to ensure alignment
of the national policy regime (environmental, science and technology, fiscal,
industrial and trade policies) to achieving environmentally sustainable
economic growth.  With regard to the private sector, cooperative
responsibility for the social and environmental consequences of their
production and market operations must become an essential element of company
policy, and the precautionary principle be practiced to avoid the transfer and
diffusion of technologies which could have negative impact on human health or
the environment.  The strategic interaction between private sector entities
and institutions of research and development (R&D) needs to be strengthened
and supported by local governments in order to meet the growing demand of
private sector companies, in particular SMEs, for cleaner, more efficient,
production technologies.  R&D institutions need to orient more towards the
production of marketable R&D results.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          PPP/EU/400 - 10/30
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

COMMONWEALTH PARTNERSHIP FOR TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (CPTM)

Private non-profit company established in June 1995; originally established by
blue chip private sector companies and all governments of the Commonwealth in
1989.

Contact:
Ms. Michaela Smith
Chief Executive
CPTM Executive Support Unit
London, UK
Tel: 44 171 747 6225/6226
Fax: 44 171 930 1543
E-mail: 100740.1652@COMPUSERVE.COM

Policies and Programmes 

COMMITMENTS:

To act as a catalyst and a clearinghouse for cooperative efforts between
member governments, the private sector and CPTM senior professional
managers.  Mission:  To enhance national capabilities for the creation of and
participation in global wealth, through sound management of technology, using
Public-Private Partnerships, and to become the leading agent of change in the
harnessing of technology for growth and wealth creation.

PRIORITIES:

- Promoting opportunities for profitable, collaborative ventures between
  private sector, public sector and individual members.

- Show possibilities for private sector participation in infrastructure
  development.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- New status as a private company has enhanced flexibility.

- Assisting in setting-up Scientific Industrial Research and Development
  Centres in Ghana and Zimbabwe.

CURRENT STATUS:

Among the highlights of the work of the CPTM are:

- Assisting Malta in its plan to become the telecommunications hub of the
  Mediterranean.

- Long-term strategic vision project for national development in Mauritius
  resulting in setting up the Mauritius Research Council.

- Advisory missions on quality management/competitiveness in the Caribbean.

- Assisting and setting-up Scientific Industrial Research and Development
  Centre in Ghana and Zimbabwe.

- Advising on a national development programme for Malawi and development of
  public/private sector partnership to spearhead it.

- Formation of the Malaysian Industry-Government Group for High Technology
  (MIGHT), a national public/private sector.

- Training in quality management processes for forestry research organizations
  in South East Asia.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  PPP/NA/401 - 10/8
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

US-ASIA ENVIRONMENTAL PARTNERSHIP (US-AEP)

USAID environmental programme; a public-private initiative established in
1992 for 10 years.
Financing: $100 million by the US government.

Target countries: offices in Hong Kong, Province of China, India, Indonesia,
Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Province of
China, and Thailand.
In total, U.S. goods and services worth more than $316 million are addressing
Asian environmental issues as a direct result of US-AEP.

Contact:
Mr. Jeff Seabright
Senior Fellow
Tel: 703 875 4465
Fax: 703 875 4053

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To foster technological transformation of the industrial system in Asia to
improve environmental quality. Works in 35 Asian and Pacific nations and
territories.

PRIORITIES:

US-AEP matches Asian environmental needs with U.S. environmental experience,
technology and practice. The programme works with 35 Asian and Pacific
nationals and territories. US-AEP has been organized in three major
components: Clean Technology and Environmental Management (CTEM);
Public Infrastructure in Urban Areas; and Policy and Constituency Framework to
sustain a clean revolution. A newly strengthened Environmental Exchange
Program (EEP) is designed to interweave itself with all three components.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Among the range of partners and activities that operate within these
components are:

- The National Association of State Development Agencies (NASDA) provides
  matching grants to the US. SMEs to demonstrate ESTs in Asia. Through
  this Technology Fund, approximately 300 US firms have been sent to Asia
  during the past two years, generating about $303 million in sales.

- Offices of Technology Cooperation in Hong Kong, Province of China, India,
  Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka,
  Taiwan, Province of China, and Thailand.

- An Environmental Exchange Programme that shares expertise through
  non-academic fellowships, business exchanges and specialized training.

- The Environmental Technology Network for Asia (ENTA) which disseminates
  trade leads from throughout Asia to over 2,500 US environmental firms.

- The Council of State Governments which provide matching grants to US States
  to deliver the environmental goods and services within the state that will
  meet the environmental needs of the Asian partner.

- A Clean Technology and Environmental Management (CTEM) component which
  builds environmental improvement into industrial growth in Asia.

- A Public Infrastructure Component which provides access for US environmental
  firms to participate in major infrastructure projects in Asia.

- Partnership Between Environmental Professionals in the US and their Asian
  counterparts.

- Incentive Grants to encourage Asian businesses and non-governmental
  organizations to collaborate in joint projects.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             PPP/NA/402 - 11/06
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Activity

INITIATIVE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY (IET)

Introduced in 1995.

USAID

Contact:
Mr. Jeff Seabright
Tel: 703 875 4465
Fax: 703 875 4053

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To enrich US private sector involvement in fostering environmentally sound
sustainable development with a primary focus on Latin America.

PRIORITIES:

- Promote clean energy technologies.

- Developing urban infrastructure.

- Industrial pollution prevention.

- Fostering use of renewable energy.

- Increasing energy efficiency.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

USAID is undertaking the IET with several partners:

- The Environmental Export Council (EEC) manages the Environmental Exchange
  Program which uses study tours and executive exchanges to bring together
  public and private sector officials from the US and developing nations to
  solve problems collaboratively.

- The National Association of State Development Association (NASDA) Latin
  American Fund for the Environment which will encourage US private sector
  investment in sectors of particular concern in Latin American countries.

- The Environmental Technology Network for the Americas (ETNA) is implemented
  by USAID's Center for Trade and Investment Services through the United
  Nations Development Program's DEVNET International and the Technology
  Information Promotion System (TIPS).

PLANS:

The US-Latin America Partnerships Program which pairs with the Kenyan
Institute of Private Enterprise of the University of North Carolina with
a Latin American partner to build firm-to-firm linkages between US and Latin
American companies.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 PPP/EU/403 - 10/8
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Activity

JOINT ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETS UNIT (JEMU)

Established in 1992.
Department of Trade and Industry
Department of Environment

UNITED KINGDOM

Contact:
JEMU Secretariat DTI
Tel: 44 171 215 1078

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To raise the profile of the UK environmental industry overseas and ensure that
the industry is fully responsive to the needs of overseas customers.

PRIORITIES:

- Major database of UK environmental companies.

- Enquiry service for UK companies.

- Market information.

- Guidance on sources of public sector support.

- Market opportunity briefs for selected overseas markets.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Around 750 UK companies offering appropriate technologies under the Greentie
programme have been identified so far.

CURRENT STATUS:

- Administers the work of the TPI.

- Runs the Greentie programme within the UK.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                PPP/EU/404 - 10/29
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

TECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIP INITIATIVE (TPI)

Government initiative established in 1993 following the Rio Summit.

UNITED KINGDOM

Contact:
TPI Secretariat DTI
London, UK
Tel: 44 171 215 1037
Fax: 44 171 215 1089

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To link companies and organizations in developing and rapidly industrializing
economies with UK companies and other organizations providing technologies and
services.

PRIORITIES:

Main elements:

- Technology Cooperation network of organizations (4000 members, including
  commercial sections in British Embassies and High Commissions, The
  Commonwealth Development Corporation, the British Council, Chambers of
  Commerce, and trade associations and organizations in the industrializing
  countries).

- "TPI Guide" to UK sources of ESTs.

- "TPI News", a quarterly bulletin on solutions to key industry environmental
  problems.

- Support for events in partnership with business people in TPI countries.

- Inquiry service to identify suppliers of environmental technology and
  expertise.

PROBLEM AREAS ENCOUNTERED AND SUCCESS STORIES:

TPI has contributed significantly to the formation of productive partnerships
between UK and non-UK organizations.

CURRENT STATUS:

This year marks the completion of the initial three year period of the
initiative. It has now been extended for a further three years (up to 1999)
and its remit has been broadened to include services to economies in
transition.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          PPP/AS/405 - 10/8
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

TRADE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES (TEST) 

US-based technical assistance by Sanders International and implemented in
India by the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Ltd.
Funded by USAID.

INDIA-US

Contacts:
In the United States:
Mr. Jeff Hallett, TEST
Project Manager,
Sanders International
Washington, D.C.
Tel: 202 939 3486
Fax: 202 939 3487
In India:
K. Harinathan
TEST Group Manager,
ICICI Limited
Bombay, India
Tel: 91 22 261 8251 / 266 1371
Fax: 91 22 262 5444

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To improve environmental protection in India while increasing the productivity
of Indian industry on a sustainable basis, and to encourage and facilitate
profitable business linkages between U.S. and Indian firms in the
environmental sectors.

PRIORITIES:

TEST supplements other US export and environmental trade promotion programmes
with a focused set of services and resources for Indian and US firms.
TEST provides the following services:

- Evaluation of a firm's environmental/pollution control product, technology
  or services against opportunities and needs in India.

- Assistance in locating and contacting interested, qualified and capable
  Indian companies with whom you can do business.

- Assistance in meeting with prospective Indian clients or partners,
  understanding the Indian markets, business practices and Indian
  environmental sector.

- Financial assistance in the form of advantageous loans or conditional grants
  to qualified projects.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

The TEST programme is implemented in India by the Industrial Credit and
Investment Corporation of India, Ltd. (ICICI) and in the US by Sanders
International of Washington DC. USAID has provided a grant of $25 million to
the programme.

CURRENT STATUS:

- 9 completed investment ventures (1/96).

- 16 distributor agreements and other business collaborations have also been
  completed.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 PPP/EU/406 - 11/12
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

INTERNATIONAL TRANSFER CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY (ITUT)

Established in 1996 by the Government of Germany, and composed of Federations
of German business, trade and industry (DIHT).

GERMANY

Contact:
Dr. Huthmacher
Umweltministerium Bonn
Referat GI2
Tel: 49 228 305 2264
Fax: 49 228 305 3524

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To offer the necessary assistance for promoting the transfer of tailor-made
environmental technology and to serve as a platform from which state,
science and companies can work together with the appropriate institutions in
the partner countries in order to make concrete contributions to worldwide
sustainable development processes.

PRIORITIES:

The Transfer Centre is divided into two different institutions:

- Non-profit association: promotion of global environmental protection.
  Centre acts as an information and communication center.

- Limited company: supporting the export of German environmental technology 
  (for SMEs in particular).

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

The Transfer Centre is part of an initiative by industry, research
organizations and the Federal Government to improve the transfer of technology
to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, Asia and Latin America and to
re-enforce and consolidate technical, scientific and political cooperation in
environmental protection between Germany and partner countries.

CURRENT STATUS:

ITUT's activity has been met with great interest by SMEs, who often lack
information on concrete market opportunities on the overseas markets and
sufficient information on the political and legal framework conditions in the
partner countries and comprise the main pillar of the German environmental
technology sector.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                PPP/EU/407 - 10/27
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

INTERNATIONAL NETWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (INEM)

Established in 1991.
Secretariat located in GERMANY.

Contact:
Mr. Troy Davis
Executive Director
INEM Secretariat
Wedel, Germany
Tel: 49 4103 84019
Fax: 49 4103 13699
Website: http://www.inem.org

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To minimize the environmental impacts of industrial, and to help business and
industry reconcile the imperatives of development and the environment. The
main tasks of INEM is the promotion, development, dissemination and
applications of principles and methods of environmental management, as well as
the creation and support of decentralized business associations for
environmental management worldwide.

PRIORITIES:

INEM places a special emphasis on SMEs, as well as the private sector in
developing countries and Central and Eastern Europe. Private partnerships
between business, local authorities and research institutions are also a
manner of interest.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Since the Earth Summit in 1992, INEM has developed a set of specific
programmes under the rubric of INDUSTRY 21 to implement Chapter 30 (Business
and Industry) of the United Nations' Agenda 21.

Additionally, INEM publishes case studies/success stories in environmental
management as well as  the INEM bulletin (4,000 copies) and provides a
database of key contacts (2,500 and case-studies).

CURRENT STATUS:

As of January 1997, there are 23 environmental associations, 9 cleaner
production centres and 8 association organizing committees affiliated to
INEM.  There are approximately 5,000 member companies of the INEM associations
in a total of 34 countries.

PLANS:

Website is under development.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          PPP/NA/408 - 10/8
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE (GEMI)

Established in 1990.

USA

Contact:
Ms. Tammy Marshall
Washington DC, USA
Tel: 202 296 7449
Fax: 202 296 7442
E-mail: GEMI@worldweb.net

Policies and Programmes  

COMMITMENTS:

Three fundamental goals are:  (a) To provide tools in order to improve the
Environmental, Health and Safety (EH&S) of business; (b) To create flexible,
market based, self-initiating environmental protection models that improve
performances and reduce regulatory burdens and costs; and (c) To advance the
assimilation of environmental health and safety excellence goals throughout
the business world.

PRIORITIES:

GEMI is committed to the application of forward-thinking management tools and
principles to environmental, health and safety issues and processes.
Membership is limited to profit-seeking enterprises working to improve their
own EH&S performance.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

GEMI's Work Groups are based on the three goals of the organization.

- The Tools Work Group encompasses several activities. The group's projects
  for 1996 are as follows: (1) Development of the "EMS/ISO 14001 
  Self-Assessment Checklist"; (2) Development of a primer aligning information
  management systems with business objectives and processes; (3) "Metrics
  Project" which will provide information and tools for companies to use in
  designing an EH&S performance measurement system or when enhancing an
  existing program.

- The Assimilation Group which is charged with advancing assimilation of EH&S
  goals throughout business. This group will develop an environmental business
  curriculum that will be packaged as a seminar. Its goal will be to educate
  EH&s professionals to better enable them to integrate EH&S requirements into
  business operations.

- IDEA 21: This group's objective is to explore and develop flexible
  market-based environmental protection models that motivate cost-effective
  and superior corporate environmental performance. Three projects will
  achieve this goal: (1) An inventory of positive and measurable change in
  business' attitude towards EH&S issues over the past decade; (2) An
  evaluation of new and existing positive, flexible, mandatory or voluntary
  business/government initiatives; (3) A report analyzing successful
  collaborative agreements among business, governments and the public in
  general.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              PPP/EU/409 - 11/11
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

SUSTAINABLE PROJECT MANAGEMENT (SPM)

NOT-FOR-PROFIT ENTERPRISE.
Established in 1994.
Works in close partnership with UNDP.
Offices in Geneva and Montreal.
Representation in the U.K, U.S, France, Australasia and India.

SWITZERLAND

Contact:
Mr. Nicholas Livingston
Financial Advisor
Geneva, Switzerland
Tel: 41 22 839 3180
Fax: 41 22 839 3181
E-mail: pgfnl@avignon.mm-soft.fr

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To develop and structure "eco-efficient" business projects which will
contribute to Sustainable Development.

PRIORITIES:

The most effective use of ODA or Multinational Organization Assistance funds
in any Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is to finance the early stages of
the project cycle which will in turn leverage private sector capital.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- SPM is currently working in close collaboration with UNDP in the program
  "Public-Private Partnerships for the Urban Environment" with 3 active
  projects. The aim is to promote PPP and eco-efficiency for the sustainable
  solution of urban problems in the developing world (US$750.000, 2-year
  technical assistance programme).

- SPM will manage the IBRD/UNDP funded - METAP III Regional Initiative:
  "Public-Private Partnership" with the objective to expand the partnership
  and collaboration of government, business, and community groups and NGOs in
  METAP (Mediterranean Basin) countries.

- INDIA MICRO ENTERPRISE FUND (IMEDF): Supported by SPM, IMEDF is planned to
  be a US$40 million fund (administered by an established investment house
  in India, a service company provides technical and management support).

- SPM in cooperation with two Canadian Enterprises (Interel and Pluralite)
  seeks to create sector specific capacity building centres. Examples of
  these projects include centres in Colombia and Vietnam.

- SPM works with project-specific consortia of international corporations to
  identify and structure PPPs to address environmental problems in urban
  services. Target projects range in the following categories: (1) Energy ;
  (2) Operating Companies for Urban Energy, Water, or Waste Management; 
  (3) Development of Capacity Building Centres for Environmental Management
  for Industry; (4) Industrial Estate Management Companies.

PLANS:

SPM is to become independent of donor financial support through the possible
introduction of a success fee.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                PPP/AS/410 - 11/11
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

ZERO EMISSIONS RESEARCH INITIATIVE (ZERI)

Established in 1994.

Funded by industry (90% Japanese).

UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY
www.zeri.org
www.chattanooga.net/zeri

Policies and Programmes 

COMMITMENTS:

To create a new paradigm of sustainable industry by targeting zero gaseous,
liquid and solid emissions and by making Zero Emissions a worldwide industry
standard.

PRIORITIES:

- Initiate international research (focused on two areas: "integrated
  biosystems" and "material separation technologies").

- Work with industry and government to implement pilot projects on the basis
  of the research results.

- Develop multidisciplinary centers of excellence.

- Collaborate with development institutions and funding agencies to stimulate
  local and regional initiatives across industrial sectors worldwide.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Political support from Japan, Sweden and Namibia.

- Demonstration project of integrated biosystems in Fiji and Namibia (revenues
  generated on one hectare is triple the amount obtained with traditional farm
  produce).

CURRENT STATUS:

- ZERI has succeeded in developing a theory outlining that targeting zero
  emissions is not only feasible, but also necessary.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             PPP/EU/411 - 10/8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

IVAM ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

Interdisciplinary Environmental Research,
Training and Consultancy Institute
of the University of Amsterdam.

THE NETHERLANDS

Contact:
Mr. Rene` van Berkel
Mr. Chris Westra
Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel: 31 20 525 5080
Fax: 31 20 525 5850
E-mail:
RVBERKEL@IVAMBV.UVA.NL or
CWESTRA@IVAMBV.UVA.NL
http://www.ivambv.uva.nl

Policies and Programmes 

COMMITMENTS:

To contribute to the implementation of practical solutions for various
stakeholders to abate environmental problems, both in industrially
developed as well as industrially developing and industrially redeveloping
countries.

PRIORITIES:

IVAM Environmental Research has been active in the design, implementation and
evaluation of technology transfer projects and capacity building actions as
well as in the development of methodologies and tools to facilitate, and
possibly accelerate, the application of ESTs.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

IVAM Environmental Research activities cover three separate, but
inter-related, programme areas:

- National (Technology) Needs Assessments. Projects include: (1) Comparative
  Evaluation of National Needs Assessments (NNAs) regarding ESTs; 
  (2) Climate-related Technology Information Needs Survey; (3) Application of
  Needs Assessments for Transfer of Climate-relevant Technologies.

- Cleaner (Industrial) Production. Projects include: (1) Project DESIRE
  (Demonstrations in Small Industries to Re-use Waste) in India; 
  (2) Improving Cleaner Production in China; (3) Implementing Waste
  Minimization Demonstration Projects in the Ukrainian Metal Finishing
  Industry; (4) PRIMA (Project for the Introduction of Environmentally Sound
  Assortments in Retail Trade).

- Renewable Energy Systems. IVAM Environmental Research has been actively
  involved in the identification, set up and implementation of solar energy
  projects in Africa.  Presently, projects are being implemented in Swaziland,
  South Africa, Zimbabwe and Benin. Projects preparations are being made for
  Senegal, Burkina Faso, Botswana and Mozambique.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            PPP/EU/412 - 10/8
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

ENHANCEMENT OF RESEARCH CAPACITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (ENRECA)

Established in 1988 by DANIDA.

DENMARK

Policies and Programmes 
                                                                              
COMMITMENTS:

To build research capacity in developing countries through provision of
training, equipment and by facilitating the participation of developing
country researchers in global research cooperation.

PRIORITIES:

Support by individual and long-term (10-15 years) cooperative research
projects ("twinning arrangements") through Danish research institutes.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Highly qualified project partners, effective communication and sharing of
responsibilities are the main success factors.

CURRENT STATUS:

40 projects mainly in African countries, for a total of approximately US$ 7.1
million.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


ANALYSIS SHEET

TYPE OF ACTIVITY:    Joint implementation as a means for the
                     transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs)

OVERALL CONTEXT

  Joint implementation (JI) or Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) is a
concept that represents a market-based approach to help countries meet their
obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(FCCC).  Under JI/AIJ projects, private industry, governmental entities, or
NGOs, jointly implement greenhouse gas reduction measures in a host country. 
The main objective is to lower the total costs of meeting the investor
country's quota under the FCCC.

  The concept of joint implementation under the Framework Convention has been
initially implemented through negotiations undertaken under the auspices of
bilateral agreements between host and investor countries.

  JI/AIJ projects promote the transfer of ESTs mainly by means of two
mechanisms:  (a) old technologies are replaced by new and, therefore, more
efficient ones, and (b) capacity building takes place in relation to the
transferred technology.

PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION

  As of September 1996, there were 28 ongoing projects which have been
accepted, approved and endorsed by the governments of the host and investing
countries. Several countries have launched new initiatives or are assessing
investments in official JI/AIJ pilot projects. 1/

  The sample programmes listed in this section illustrate the roles of each of
the participants in these transactions.  The existing pilot programs emphasize
the role of private industry as the actual partners in transactions, be it
with the host country's government or private industry.  Generally, under the
pilot programmes, the public sector of both the investor and the host country
serve as negotiators of the framework under which these transactions will be
undertaken, and as promoters of their own industry's participation in AIJ.

  Governments of both host and investor countries alike serve as managers of
their respective commitments within the Framework Convention.  While the
Convention establishes that the Secretariat be notified of such transfers of
pollution by each of the parties concerned, stating the terms of such
transfers and the period for which it is to apply, it does not define
"emission" as a tradeable commodity.  However, Article 4 of the FCCC states
that "developed" country parties may implement "...policies and measures
jointly with other parties in contributing to the achievement of the objective
of the Convention".

  This apparent "ambiguity" in dealing with tradeable emissions reflects the
status of these JI/AIJ programmes as pilot programmes which do not yet provide
reductions of emissions accredited under Convention commitments.

MAIN RESULTS

  So far, there are two main types of JI/AIJ projects which may involve
transfer of ESTs:  (1) Land use projects (forest preservation, reforestation
and sustainable forest management), and (2) Energy projects (fuel switching,
application of renewable energy, energy efficiency increases through changes
in energy production or demand side management).  If used in a responsible
manner, these programmes would improve not only global environmental
conditions but also promote foreign investment in developing countries.

  Specific advantages for both investor and host countries in implementing
JI/AIJ projects can be summarized as follows:

  A.   For the investor country:
    -  Cost effective emissions mitigation options.
    -  Costs for achieving emissions reduction vary among countries.  JI/AIJ
       allows an industrialized country to implement activities in a
       developing country at a lower cost than it could achieve within its own
       borders.
    -  A platform for business development activity, create new markets for
       technology maintenance, future upgrades and training.
    -  Direct involvement in policy making.
    -  Strong public relations value.

  B.   For the host country:
    -  Foreign capital.
    -  Transfer of modern, clean, efficient technologies.  JI projects
       frequently involve the transfer of technologies and offers the
       possibility for capacity building, particularly in knowledge and skills
       relating to clean technologies and sustainable forestry and
       agriculture.
    -  Creation of local environmental and social benefits.
    -  Export of greenhouse gas offsets which would not have been of much use
       otherwise.

LESSONS LEARNED

  The future and effectiveness of these programmes and their corresponding
bilateral agreements under the Framework Convention will most likely depend on
the creation of a clearinghouse mechanism for JI/AIJ projects.  This
institution would bring together "buyers" and "sellers" of greenhouse gas
abatement transactions negotiating under a "system of parallel accounting"
negotiated through the FCCC by all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects. 2/

  These developments may then essentially create a market for transfer of ESTs
based on tradeable carbon emission entitlements (TCEEs) under the auspices of
the FCCC.  The size of the market based on the number of projects possible
may, at the end, not be very extensive, as was the case with Debt-Conversion
transactions, but will nevertheless expand the scope of not only the transfer
of ESTs but also for reduction of emissions under the Framework Convention.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        JI/NA/500 - 10/29
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

UNITED STATES JOINT IMPLEMENTATION INITIATIVE (USIJI)

Launched in October 1993

Contact:
Ms. Judith Ikle'
Tel: 1 202 586 3244
Fax: 1 202 586 3485/3486
JI online:
http://www.ji.org
Fax-on-demand:
1 202 260 8677

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To encourage the rapid development and implementation of cooperative, mutually
voluntary, cost effective projects between U.S. and foreign partners aimed at
reducing or sequestering emissions of greenhouse gases.

PRIORITIES:

In particular, USIJI attempts to approve projects promoting technology
cooperation with and sustainable development in developing countries and
countries with economies in transition to market economies.  USIJI's primary
activities include:  (a) Facilitating partnership building, address
barriers, and assist countries worldwide in developing JI programs; 
(b) Providing technical support to existing and developing USIJI projects
through technical consultations, guidance, documents and training seminars;
(c) Establishing the USIJI Information Resource Center to support
improved information sharing; and (d) To promote increased public recognition
of USIJI efforts and those of participating project partners.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Example:  Aeroenergia Wind Facility Project in Costa Rica (a 6.4 megawatt
power facility consisting of 16 wind turbines; 3 US partners, 1 host partner
for maintenance, 1 Danish partner; total cost of US$8.85 million; benefits
included GHG reductions 9,800 metric tons of Carbon equivalent).

CURRENT STATUS:

As of April 1996, 15 projects have been accepted out of 51 proposals.  They
take place in six countries and include projects developing renewable
energy sources such as solar, biomass, and hydroelectric power, and land-use
projects.  A total of 18 proposals have been placed in development.  Estimated
cumulative net emission reductions as a result of these projects are expected
to be nearly 30 million metric tons of carbon (mt C) equivalent.

PLANS:

Increase number of accepted projects and expand to new sectors and
geographical regions.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                JI/AS/501 - 11/06
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

AIJ JAPAN PROGRAM

Under the FCCC.

Contact:
Naoki Matsuo
Institute of Energy Economics
Tokyo, Japan
Tel: 81 3 5401 4301
Fax: 81 3 5401 4320
E-mail: i90291@sinet.ad.jp

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To gain experiences for the future development of the international JI regime,
to establish an integrated method to evaluate GHGs emission reductions, and to
examine how to promote private sector participation through win-win type
projects.

PRIORITIES:

These include:  (a) Rural electrification; (b) Efficiency improvements; and
(c) 6 forestry projects.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- The Government of Japan organized committees with the full participation of
  the private sector and research institutions in order to reflect their
  opinions in programme development.

- At the moment, the absence of financial assistance for the private sector is
  an obstacle; for this purpose governmental installation of financial
  incentives is under examination.


CURRENT STATUS:

Approval of pilot projects for the first round has been completed.  11 out of
17 applications were recognized.  These are not yet official projects
under the FCCC framework.  As of December 1996, the participating entities and
the Government of Japan are still in negotiations with the host countries
to receive official AIJ approval for the projects.

PLANS:

- To establish financial incentives for companies.

- Second round of approvals will be in the near future.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  JI/AS/502 - 10/17
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

PILOT SOUTH PACIFIC JI PROGRAM (GLOBAL 21C)

October 1994

AUSTRALIA

SOURCE:  JIQ Fall'95

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To demonstrate that all developing countries, even those with low levels of
GHG emissions like the Pacific Island countries, can participate in and
profit from JI.

PRIORITIES:

Active participation of industry.

Preliminary proposals from companies:

- Demand side management initiative promoting the efficient use of energy
  through the introduction of compact fluorescent light globes.

- Use of renewable energy sources to power pumps.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               JI/EU/503 - 10/17
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

NETHERLANDS PILOT PHASE PROGRAM (PPP) 

THE NETHERLANDS

Contact:
Henk Merkus or Wim Iestra
Ministry of VROM
The Hague, The Netherlands
Tel: 31 70 339 4440
Fax: 31 70 339 1310
E-mail: Merkus@DLE.DGM.minvrom.nl

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

The Netherlands see JI as an important instrument for the realization of
future FCCC commitments, but the programme will not be used to modify the
present commitments of each party under the FCCC.  The main objectives of the
Netherlands' PPP is actually the same as the international objective
to experiment with a broad range of projects in different sectors.  All
greenhouse gases will be addressed and not only CO2s.

PRIORITIES:

- The JI pilot projects could involve various sectors of the economy and could
  be allocated in various countries in Central and Eastern Europe and less
  developed countries.

- Involvement of private sector is necessary for JI pilot projects.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

Incentives for the private sector include a system of bookkeeping in which
emission reductions by JI and by measures in the Netherlands will be
registered separately.  The emissions reductions realized by JI will be
certified. There are 8 projects currently being executed, and all
projects except those in the Russian Federation, were reported to the FCCC
Secretariat.

PLANS:

1997-1999: (co)-financing of JI pilot projects in Central and Eastern Europe. 
Additional incentives are being explored.  For example an accelerated
depreciation arrangement on environmental investment.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 JI/NA/504 - 11/07
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Activity 

CANADIAN JI INITIATIVE (CJII)

Established in June 1996
Part of Canada's National Action Program on Climate Change

Contact:
Mr. David McGrath
CJII
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Tel: 1 613 947 3317
Fax: 1 613 996 2682

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To encourage and support Canadian International projects which limit GHG
emissions, to gain experience in JI activities, and to promote JI as
a cost-effective way of reducing GHG emissions.

PRIORITIES:

- The CJII is in early stage of development.  The most promising opportunities
  for AIJ projects in Canada have come from local companies that are
  eager to apply technology developed in Canada to international business
  opportunities.

- CJII is to provide information on Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) and
  to provide clearinghouse services on opportunities related to AIJ.

- CJII will provide assistance to Canadian firms in securing host country
  approval, GHG emissions baselines, identification of funding.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

In July of 1996, the CJII published a Guidelines Booklet that explains Joint
Implementation and the Canadian initiative.  These guidelines were
developed in cooperation with stakeholders including private industry,
non-governmental organizations and provincial governments.

CURRENT STATUS:

The CJII is now working on almost 20 projects in 10 countries to develop them
to a stage where they can be registered and reported under the FCCC.

PLANS:

Statement of Intent on AIJ between China and Canada aiming at cooperating on
energy efficiency, renewable energy and AIJ is under negotiations.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 

ANALYSIS SHEET

TYPE OF ACTIVITY:    Financing Sources and Related Activities to promote
                     the transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs)

OVERALL CONTEXT

  Chapter 34 of Agenda 21 refers to the "provision of financial resources to
acquire environmentally sound technologies in order to enable particular
developing countries to implement measures to promote sustainable
development..."   

  Activities in this area have varied significantly from what may have been
originally intended in the language of Chapter 34, while still maintaining the
challenge to improve access to financial resources to promote the transfer of
ESTs. 

  Financial markets have changed greatly in recent years. The source of much
readily available funding is increasingly shifting from the hands of
governments and multinational organizations to the private sector. This
phenomenon is changing the dynamics of the way financial resources are sought
and allocated.

PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION

  Technology transfer is primarily a business-to-business transaction.  This
pattern is steadily reinforced as foreign direct investment (FDI) becomes
increasingly larger than Official Development Assistance (ODA).  
Multinational Financial Institutions and Regional Development Banks  as well
as National Governments  very active in providing not only financial resources
for the promotion of the transfer of ESTs but also in providing the proper
environment for the private sector to participate in this market. 

  In some cases, financial resources have been made available by governments
and demonstrably accelerated the transfer of ESTs.  An example has been
provided by the Multilateral Ozone Fund under the Montreal Protocol. 
According to UNEP, the Fund has made available, since 1991, US$0.5 billion to
developing countries for the transfer of ozone-friendly technologies.  The
financial mechanism under the Montreal Protocol to Protect the Ozone Layer is
the first international instrument to mobilise the resources required to
change over to ozone-friendly technologies and successfully implement large
scale technology transfer.  Each country which is a Party to the Montreal
Protocol has listed and estimated in its Country Programme the resources
required for the transfer of technologies.  A preliminary estimate totals to
US$3-7 billion.

MAIN RESULTS

  Some studies have indicated that there is no lack of financing, per se, for
the transfer of ESTs, that the issue is more on market development than
mobilisation of finance.  According to this argument, if the market for ESTs
is properly developed, particularly within developing countries, there will be
no lack of finance available on reasonable terms.  This view contends that, as
of now, there is no firm market for environmental technologies in many
developing countries, hence finance is not being attracted to such
technologies.  The first step, therefore, is to provide an appropriate context
for private sector investment to take place.

  The biggest challenge for access to financial resources exists with small-
and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).  SMEs make up the bulk of business
ventures around the world and their environmental implications and resource
demands are equally large.  In many countries, in particular developing
countries, the bulk of untreated industrial waste and pollution originate with
the SMEs, which frequently lack the resources and access to finance needed to
implement cleaner production.

LESSONS LEARNED

  Efforts must continue to be made in the process to improve access and
participation of financial institutions in the transfer of ESTs. While there
is much that governments and multinational financial institutions can do, it's
the creation of working partnerships between these entities and the private
sector that will generate the growth needed in the application of cleaner
production processes and transfer of ESTs.

  Financial markets and resources  will adjust to changing conditions and will
predictably be geared towards areas where these resources can be most
profitable. The challenge now lies with the public sector to harness these
resources and  increase the environmental content of private capital flows.   


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          FI/NA/600 - 10/08
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

"ENVIRONMENTAL EXPORTS PROGRAM", EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES 

United States of America

Contact:
Export-Import Bank of the United Sates
Washington, D.C.
Tel: 202 565 3200
Fax: 202 565 3210

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

To provide enhanced levels of support for a broad range of environmental
exports.

PRIORITIES:

The program demonstrates Ex-Im Bank's resolve to reach out to small and large
exporters of environmental products and services. Export products and services
considered eligible for support should be specifically used to aid in the
abatement, control or prevention of air, water and ground contamination or
pollution, or which provide protection in the handling of toxic substances. 

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

The major features of the programme include:

- A short term Environmental Export Insurance policy will provide enhanced
  short term multi-buyers and single-buyer insurance coverage for small
  business environmental exporters.

- Enhanced medium and long term support for environmental projects, products
  and services. These enhancements include: (1) local cost coverage equal to
  15% of the U.S. contract price; (2) capitalization of interest during
  construction; (3) maximum allowable repayment terms under OECD guidelines.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               FI/EU/601 - 10/30
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

INTEGRATED FINANCING SYSTEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (IFSEP)

POLAND

Contact:
National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
Warsaw, Poland
Tel: 48 22 49 0080
Fax: 48 22 40 2008

Policies and Programmes      

COMMITMENTS:

The system is the basic instrument of the National Environmental Policy
Implementation Programme of Poland through the year 2000, which provide
environmental expenditures of about USD 9,000 million. The establishment of
the System increased the share of environmental protection expenditures
in Poland's GNP from 0.7% in 1990 to 1.4% in 1994.

PRIORITIES:

The basic features of Poland's Integrated System of Environmental Protection
Financing include:  (a) Permanent, legally guaranteed source of funds for
environmental protection, the main source of which are environmental fees and
fines; (b) A dominant share (about 90%) of fund used are of non-budgetary
funds; (c) On-going improvement of the effectiveness of fund use through
application of market mechanisms in the process of resource allocation; 
(d) Strict subordination of the IFSEP to the objectives of National
Environmental Policy; and (e) The influence of local government and
environmental organization through their participation on the supervisory
boards of environmental protection funds.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

The IFSEP is composed of the following elements:

- Non-budgetary special purpose funds: (1) The National Fund for Environmental
  Protection and Water Management; (2) 49 Provincial Funds for Environmental
  Protection and Water Management; (3) 2,453 Municipal Funds for the same
  purpose. The National and Provincial Funds' resources are made up of
  revenues from environmental fees and fines.

- Bank Ochrony Srodowiska SA, the Bank's loan portfolio at the end of 1995,
  was about USD 170 million, of which 2/3 were for loans for environmental
  projects.

- The ECOFUND Foundation, with about USD 25 million at its disposal, from
  revenues tied to debt for equity swaps.

- Other environmental foundations administering mainly foreign funds from the
  EU, PHARE, the World Bank, and funds from bilateral cooperation agreements
  with 11 States.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 FI/NA/602 - 10/30
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity

ENVIRONMENTAL ENTERPRISES ASSISTANCE FUND (EEAF)

Private non-profit organization established in 1990, manages Corporacion
Financiera Ambiental, a $10 million environmental investment fund for
Central America.  Lead investors in the fund include the Multilateral Fund of
the IDB, the Government of Switzerland, Swedfund International and the
Stichting Hivos-Triodos Fonds of the Netherlands.

Contact:
JD Doliner, Vice-President
EEAF
Arlington, VA, USA
Tel: 703 522 5928
Fax: 703 522 6450
E-mail: eeaf@igc.apc.org

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

EEAF provides long term risk capital and management assistance to
environmentally beneficial business in developing countries, where and when
such capital is otherwise not available.

PRIORITIES:

Six areas of primary interest include: (1) Renewable Energy; (2) Energy
efficiency; (3) Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, and Mariculture;
(4) Nature Tourism; (5) Recycling; and (6) Pollution Abatement. EEAF finances
projects from $100,00 to $750,000 - depending on the country.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

EEAF supports only small and medium sized enterprises.  As of November 1996,
EEAF has made 21 investments totalling more than $2.7 million in 6 countries. 
Seven more projects are in final negotiations with commitments of 
$1.9 million.  EEAF only supports projects in developing countries.

CURRENT STATUS:

EEAF has offices in Arlington, VA, Costa Rica (for all Central America),
Indonesia, and the Philippines.  EEAF is launching operations in Mexico,
Brazil and India. 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------


----------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        FI/EU/603 - 11/30
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AN DEVELOPMENT  (EBRD)

LONDON, UK

Contact:
Mr. Darius Prasek
Tel: 44 171 338 6000
Fax: 44 171 338 6100

Policies and Programmes             

COMMITMENTS:

The EBRD requires environmental due diligence on all projects under
preparation. Environmental audits are required to determine the environmental
status of a facility, property, or operation and to identify regulatory
compliance status, past or present problems and potential environmental risks
and liabilities associated with the project.

PRIORITIES:

Currently, about one third of EBRD lending is done through financial
intermediaries (FIs) and geared toward SMEs. The EBRD, in carrying out
environmental due diligence in its programme of on-lending to FIs, is
responsible for a number of support activities including the provision of
training and technical advice both by the banking sector and to local
environmental consultants who work with FIs.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

The Bank's activities in the areas related to the environment are concentrated
in four fields:

- Energy Efficiency: where the overall objective is to assist countries to
  reorient sector development away from a narrow focus on supply expansion to
  a broader "least-cost" focus, where the principal consideration is the
  efficiency with which resources are used.

- Liability for Past Environmental Damage: active in this area since 1992, the
  Bank has co-sponsored conferences and is a member of the WBCSD's Working
  Group on Environmental Liability.

- Environmental Training: the Bank has developed a programme of environmental
  training activities in the countries where it operates, closely linked to
  its ongoing investment programme.

- Tools Development: the Bank has developed a number of tools specifically
  geared toward helping enterprises address environmental issues, i.e. a
  generic manufacturing industries audit protocol to cover environmental and
  occupational health and safety issues as well as other environmentally
  proactive approaches.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           FI/AS/604 - 10/30
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (ADB)

Manila, Philippines

Contact:
Mr. Prodipto Ghosh
Environment Specialist
Tel: 63 2 636 5531
Fax: 63 2 636 2195

Policies and Programmes 

COMMITMENTS:

In line with its environmental strategy and action programme, the Bank
continues to assist its developing member countries in their efforts to
use low or no-waste, water saving and energy efficient new technologies as
well as new techniques and equipment to minimize environmental pollution.

PRIORITIES:

The Bank assists in establishing credit lines to facilitate the procurement by
small and medium sized industries of pollution control and monitoring
equipment.  Pollution prevention technologies are also introduced into the
design of new projects to minimize or recycle industrial wastes while project
management appraisal is conducted of existing or old projects to identify
technology or potential modifications relevant to the pursuit of an efficient
and effective environment strategy.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

As of the end of 1995, the Bank's Environmental Assistance Project Portfolio
was worth more than $112,000 million dollars with projects in 30 countries.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 FI/NA/605 - 11/30
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

THE INTER-AMERICAN INVESTMENT CORPORATION (IIC)

Established in 1989, the IIC works directly with private enterprises and
financial institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean.  The IIC is
affiliated with the Inter-American Development Bank.

Contact:
Inter-American Investment Corporation
Washington DC, USA
Tel: 202 623 3900
Fax: 202 623 2360

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

The Board of Executive Directors of the IIC has adopted procedures for the
environmental review of projects based on those followed by the IDB. The
general objective of IIC's environmental review procedures is to ensure that
all projects include adequate provisions for actions necessary to prevent,
control, and mitigate negative impacts on the environment and to improve
environmental quality.

PRIORITIES:

The ICC has broken ground in fostering change in local attitudes and policy
making, to permit the development of smaller scale, more environmentally
acceptable solutions to pressing needs of the region regarding the rational
use of its natural resources. The corporation has also invested in
companies which have embarked on the modernization of their existing
operations, with an aim to reduce waste, improve water treatment, establish
recycling activities, and implement new technological solutions which add to
the value of substances that would otherwise be considered waste by-products.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- The IIC does not have any specific programmes to develop environmental
  projects.

- Environmental aspects of all projects reviewed by the IIC are carefully
  analyzed to ensure compliance with sound environmental practices,
  emissions limits, waste disposal practices, etc.  Furthermore, periodic
  reporting on emissions and affluents is required from those projects which
  have a sensitive impact on the surrounding environment.

- 90% of the projects with which the IIC works are small and medium sized
  enterprises.

- The main lessons learned are concentrated in the area of standardization of
  requirements. Due to the fact that the IIC operates in 24 countries,
  each of which has different environmental legislation, the application of
  environmental guidelines uniformly is not an easy task.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         FI/SA/606 - 10/30
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

"THE GREEN PROTOCOL"

On November 14, 1995, Brazilian President Fernando H. Cardoso signed the
"Green Protocol" Agreement.  This agreement is an initiative to prevent
loans by leading government-owned banks from causing adverse environmental
impacts.

BRAZIL

Contact:
Mr. Jacques Ribemboim
Special Advisor
Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Legal Amazon
Brazilia D.F., Brazil
Tel: 55 (0)61-3171358
Fax: 55 (0)61-3237934
E-mail: jar@mma.gov.br
htpp://www.mma.gov.br

Policies and Programmes    

COMMITMENTS:

Neither a decree nor a regulation, the "Green Protocol" is a document
containing recommendations and strategies by which "public" financial
institutions in Brazil commit themselves to taking environmental concerns in
their routines and procedures of financing the "productive sectors"(both
public and private). The "Green Protocol" is guideline document reflecting the
Government Strategy in using official credits and fiscal incentives in order
to promote environmentally sustainable development in a preventive approach.

PRIORITIES:

The "Green Protocol is a document that signalized what has been called the
"new Brazilian environmental policy" which tries to conciliate economic
activity with environmental protection by using a set of financial and
economic instruments.  In the Brazilian case, where public funds still
grant financing of a large share of investments, a financial and economic
system of incentives and disincentives will surely be a powerful tool in
inducing new environmentally sound technologies and practices.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

A major difficulty in negotiating with the banks for the adoption of the
"Protocol" was their allegation that, by involving environmental concerns in
their routines, they would incur extra internal costs. They had to be
convinced that by doing so, they would actually protect their loans.
The government had to show that the environment is increasingly being regarded
as a "commodity", i.e. having a positive price. A damage to the environment
would then correspond to a value to be paid, or a cost to the polluter (in
this case the bank's client) and with the adoption of the "Protocol", such
costs could be prevented by addressing environmental degradation before it
takes place. 

CURRENT STATUS:

Environmental units have been or are being created in all federal public
banks. State banks in six Brazilian States have adopted the "Protocol".
President Cardoso has created a Permanent Commission linked to and coordinated
by the Office of the Presidency to monitor implementation of the "Protocol".
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               FI/EU/607 - 10/30
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

GERMAN INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT COMPANY (DEG)

The DEG today only refinances around 20% of its financing commitments from
federal government funds paid into the subscribed capital of the company,
currently amounting to DM 60 million per year. It refinances 80% from
return flows and surpluses from the project business as well as from funds
obtained on the capital markets.

GERMANY

Contact:
DEG
Business Relations
Cologne, Germany
Tel: 49 221 498 6401
Fax: 49 221 498 6290

Policies and Programmes

COMMITMENTS:

The DEG is an instrument provided by the Federal Republic of Germany for the
purpose of promoting private industry in Third World countries. The DEG
promotes private companies indirectly by providing support to local financing
institutions and through them to local companies (mostly SMEs).

PRIORITIES:

In addition to promoting companies in developing countries by involving
foreign partners, the DEG offers its own commitments. Its financial support
includes the following services: (1) The purchase of an interest in business
start-ups or in existing companies; (2) The provision of long-term loans; 
(3) The assumption of guarantees.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION:

- Environmental impact assessments are now fully integrated in the DEG's
  project-appraisal procedures.

- In practice the DEG defines environmental acceptability standards in terms
  of the conditions given in each case.

- At the very least, the current environmental standards of the country being
  invested in must be complied with.

- The DEG makes particular emphasis in the use of "clean technology" as a
  tools to induce compliance with local environmental standards or
  to make up differences between local regulations or enforcement and the
  levels of environmental quality the DEG requires for each [project.

- In examining the question of environmental acceptability for each project,
  the DEG works together with independent environmental experts
  and with experts from other financial institutions such as the
  Kredistanstalt fu"r Wiederaufbau and the International Finance Corporation.

- The DEG requires sponsors and project companies to comply with the
  environmental standards defined for each project for the duration of its
  long-term commitment. Monitoring compliance with these obligations is among
  the functions of DEG project managers.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               FI/NA/608 - 10/30
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Activity 

THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION (IFC)

Contact:
Mr. Martyn J. Riddle
Manager
Environment Division
IFC
Washington DC, USA
Tel: 202 473 0661
Fax: 202 676 9495

Policies and Programmes 

COMMITMENTS:

The Technical and Environmental Department (TED) of the International Finance
Corporation (IFC) carries out the following programmes:  (a) Environmental due
diligence of IFC projects - the objectives are to ensure consistency with
World Bank environmental policies and projects requirements as outlined in the
Bank's Pollution and Abatement Handbook as well as a host of other
requirements. Expenditures for environmental improvements can be included in
project loans. IFC conducted environmental reviews of 264 projects in
1996;  (b) Environmental Capacity Building - IFC provides training in
environmental management for officers and staff of financial institutions, and
develops courses that address specific areas of concern. Since 1993, 250
financial institutions have participated in the IFC training programme on
Environmental Management for Financial Institutions;  (c) Environmental
Projects - IFC seeks opportunities to invest and mobilize capital projects
involving water supply, wastewater treatment, and solid and hazardous waste
management; and (d) Investments in the Environment - through its special
Projects Unit, the TED seeks to develop innovative approaches for investment
vehicles that will address global environmental issues.

PRIORITIES:

Projects specially geared for SMEs include:

- The Special Projects Unit has developed an SME Programme, which aims to
  develop a track record of GEF eligible projects by SMEs to leverage
  larger flows of private finance. This programme channels $4.3 million in GEF
  funds through five financial intermediaries for the pilot phase which will
  reach 25 projects.

- The proposed Biodiversity Fund for Latin America would invest in medium
  sized enterprises through equity or quasi-equity in sustainable forestry,
  tourism, and agriculture.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                    Notes

1/     Countries with (planned) official JI/AIJ (pilot) programs: Australia,
Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the Nordic countries
(Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), Norway and USA.  Source: Joint
Implementation Quarterly, Issue of  September 1996.

2/  Source: UNFCCC: Activities Implemented Jointly under the Pilot Phase. 
Views from the Parties on a framework for reporting.  Document number
FCCC/SBSTA/1996/MISC.1

 


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Date last posted: 10 December 1999 17:25:35
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD