United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper

                             SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

                  Assessment of the International Institutional
                            Arrangements to Follow Up 
                        the United Nations Conference on 
                           Environment and Development

                                   (Chapter 38)

                               BACKGROUND PAPER #4

            Prepared by the Division for Sustainable Development 
                                      New York

                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS


  I.  Introduction...................................................    2

 II.  Developments within Individual Organizations of the United
      Nations System.................................................    4    

      A.  Policy Development.........................................    6

      B.  Data, Information and Expertise............................    7

      C.  Delivery of Technical and Financial Support ...............    8

      D.  Organizational Arrangements................................    9

III.  System-wide Coordination.......................................   12

      A.  At the Global Level........................................   14

      B.  At the Regional Level......................................   15

      C.  At the Country Level.......................................   18

 IV.  Linking the Decisions of Governing Bodies .....................   20

  V.  Funding Arrangements...........................................   23

 VI.  Conclusions....................................................   25

      A.  Individual Organizations...................................   25
      B.  System-wide Coordination and Linking the Decisions of
          Governing Bodies ..........................................   26

      C.  Funding Arrangements.......................................   32

Endnotes.............................................................   33

                          I.  INTRODUCTION

1.           The Commission on Sustainable Development at its fourth session
reviewed the report of the Secretary-General on post-UNCED
institutional arrangements during its deliberations on Chapter 38 of
Agenda 21. The report presents a factual overview of arrangements
within the United Nations system, at the regional level, and in
relation to global and regional financial organizations. 1/ The
Commission had before it also a background report of a meeting of
regional institutions organized by the Department for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development (DPCSD). 2/  Further discussions
and assessments have focused on (a) individual organizations of the
United Nations system, (b) inter-agency mechanisms, and ■ country
level coordination of international programmes. 3/  These documents and
discussions provide the basis for the analytical assessment of post-
UNCED institutional arrangements presented in this report. A separate
review of the functioning and effectiveness of the Inter-Agency
Committee on Sustainable Development (IACSD) has been undertaken under
the auspices of the ACC. Its results and recommendations are contained
in the ACC statement to the 1997 special session.  4/

2.           It is important to place the assessment of post-UNCED
international institutional arrangements in context. Agenda 21 and the
other agreements associated with UNCED are far-reaching in their
recognition that the social, economic, cultural and environmental
dimensions of development must be treated in an integrated and
balanced way. They affirm that individual sectors of human activity
can no longer be dealt with in isolation. New and stronger
relationships are encouraged among the institutions of the United
Nations system, international financial institutions, other
intergovernmental bodies outside the United Nations system, including
regional organizations, and major groups. These interactions pose
particular challenges for the institutional arrangements put in place
after UNCED. They require multidisciplinary approaches among
specialists and inter-sectoral coordination at local, national,
regional, and global levels. Provision for effective participation by
affected groups is vital. 

3.           These challenges arise in a dynamic, evolving institutional

             (a)  The decisions adopted in Rio de Janeiro set in motion new
initiatives with consequential institutional requirements, including
the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, particularly
in Africa; the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States; the Agreement for the Implementation
of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the
Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of
Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks; and the
Global Programme of Action on Protection of the Marine Environment
from Land-Based Activities. 

             (b)   The Commission on Sustainable Development has initiated
further institutional developments, notably the ad hoc open-ended
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF). It has also reaffirmed
arrangements directly relevant to its mandate, such as the
Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS), established in 1994
to develop and review strategies for implementing chapter 19 of Agenda
21. 5/

             (c) The growing number of conventions in environmental and socio-
economic fields calls for increased awareness of linkages between the
intergovernmental and support arrangements of the United Nations
system and those of other organizations. 

             (d)         International financial and technical support for the
conventions has resulted in overall cooperation and new institutional
arrangements between the United Nations system and international
financial institutions. 

             (e) The institutional landscape of organized major groups is
particularly dynamic, and they increasingly interact directly with
intergovernmental institutions, including convention processes. Non-
governmental organizations (NGOs) have been active partners in
promoting sustainable development, and without the support of business
and industry, investments in sustainable development will remain
inadequate. The scientific and technological communities play a vital
role in diagnosing problems and developing response options. Their
contributions to the analytical frameworks and approaches used to
reach agreement at all levels are fundamental. Local authorities, by
virtue of their responsibility for a significant number of activities
which affect sustainable development, are an increasingly important
component in the consultative process regarding problems and

             (f)  The General Assembly Special Session discussions on post-
UNCED institutional arrangements take place against the backdrop of
ongoing efforts to strengthen the United Nations system and
restructure and revitalize the United Nations in economic, social and
related fields. 6/  In this respect, the Commission on Sustainable
Development (CSD) and the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable
Development (IACSD) operate as subsidiary bodies of the United Nations
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the Administrative Committee
on Coordination (ACC), respectively. At both levels, there is concern
to ensure that follow-up to major United Nations conferences is
coordinated. 7/  The results of the International Conference on
Population and Development, the World Summit for Social Development,
the Fourth World Conference on Women, and HABITAT II are all
integrally related to the results of UNCED. Sustainable development is
seen by many as a unifying umbrella concept under which a broad
spectrum of United Nations activities in the economic, social and
environment/natural resources fields can be related to a common,
overarching goal. 

4.           The financial crisis affecting the United Nations and many of its
specialized agencies and programmes leaves little room for expanded
initiatives by individual agencies or throughout the system. The
expectations raised by UNCED of an increase in available resources
have not been met, while demands for assistance have expanded
considerably. The agencies are therefore hard-pressed to carry out
both their original mandates and those stemming from UNCED. At the
same time, as changes in programmes and procedures yield appreciable
improvements, they offer new opportunities and invite further
commitments on the part of governments and major groups. 

5.           This report considers what has worked and not worked in the post-
UNCED institutional arrangements and what remains to be done. Section
II assesses the way individual organizations have responded to the
outcomes of UNCED, including their achievements, the constraints they
have encountered, and areas where additional effort is needed. Section
III turns to several aspects of system-wide coordination at global,
regional, and national levels. It touches on linkages with major
groups, in particular the private sector, and it addresses
interactions with environmental conventions. Section IV addresses the
question of linking the decisions of different governing bodies, and
funding arrangements are reviewed in Section IV. The final section
summarizes promising changes, unfulfilled expectations, and emerging

6.           It should be acknowledged that a number of promising changes were
already emerging before UNCED and in the preparatory process leading
up to UNCED. One of the purposes of this report is to consider how
UNCED and its follow-up have influenced the scope of programmes
related to sustainable development and helped to identify a division
of labour among different UN system organizations.  Another is to
consider how post-UNCED institutional arrangements have contributed to
the more systematic dissemination of knowledge about international
institutional developments in order to accelerate positive

                          OF THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

7.           The response of individual organizations of the United Nations
system to UNCED's sustainable development agenda is assessed in terms
of the three basic functions of intergovernmental organizations:  (a)
policy development, (b) the collection, synthesis, analysis and
dissemination of data and information to inform action at all levels,
and (c) the delivery of technical and financial support to strengthen
human and institutional capabilities at national and regional levels.
Developments in these functional areas are reflected in, and
influenced by, changes in each body's organizational arrangements and
the resources, both human and financial, at its disposal.

8.           It is important to bear in mind each organization's specialized
functions and substantive perspective in evaluating the institutional
response. Not every organization carries out all three functions.
Some, like UNEP, concentrate on policy and information functions.
Others, like UNDP,  focus on programme implementation at the country
level. A few organs specialize in data and analysis and related
capacity-building, such as the UN Department of Economic and Social
Information and Policy Analysis (DESIPA), UNESCO's Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission (IOC), or the World Meteorological
Organization (WMO). From the perspective of substantive mandates,
industrial development (UNIDO) necessarily differs from human health
(WHO) or from sustainable food security through agriculture, forest
and fishery development (FAO). 

9.           The distinction between the responsibilities of an
intergovernmental body and its secretariat must also be borne in mind
in assessing individual organizations. The governing body approves
policy and strategy documents for the agency as well as the general
programme activities of the secretariat and a budget to support them.
The secretariat determines how to carry out the programme effectively.
The role of the intergovernmental bodies in approving policy documents
is critical. These establish a focus for agency programme and project
activities, and they identify policy considerations which may then be
tailored to country-specific needs. 

                   Illustrative new programmes

ILO: a special Interdepartmental Programme on Environment and the World of
Work (1994-95).

Habitat: the Urban Forum, a broad-based forum for policy dialogue on
environment and development issues of mutual concern.

ECE: two regional programmes were launched: "Chemical industry - sustainable
Economic and ecological Development" and "Metallurgy and Ecology".

10.   The influences on policy and programme modifications within each
organization have been both internal and external. Shifting national
priorities have revised the demands on each organization for policy and
programme services. As a result, intergovernmental bodies have collectively
adopted new policies supporting sustainable development and pledged to
keep them under review. Strong, high-level leadership within the secretariat
has been essential in supporting new approaches and ensuring that internal
arrangements are conducive to their agency-wide application. National
commitments made in the context of international convention processes help
focus objectives for international programme outputs and the delivery of
services at the country level, leveraged by the prospect of additional funding
from multilateral and bilateral sources. At the national level, the adoption
of sustainable development strategies and policies has enabled international
agencies to reorient their programmes to conform with defined objectives. In
addition, as international institutions interact with a broader range of
partners, they have become more accessible to major groups and more
knowledgable of and responsive to their concerns. In some cases, strong
pressures were exerted before an organizational response took hold. 

          Increased share of environment-related projects

UNIDO conducted annual reviews of the extent to which environmental
considerations are built into the design of its technical cooperation
projects.  It shows that the share of environment-related projects has
steadily increased: 34% in 1992, to 44% in 1993 to 50% in 1994.

11.          Another critical influence on changed policies and programmes has
been the accruing evidence of unsustainable use of resources and adverse
impacts on human health and well-being. New policies and programmes for
sustainable development remain fundamentally dependent on sound and adequate
information and well-founded analyses. 

DESIPA/UNDP/UNEP/World Bank continue to work together in the area of
integrated environmental and economic accounting.

The IMF staff have expanded their efforts in analyzing alternative policy
instruments for mobilizing resources for financing sustainable development. 
Moreover, the IMF, in cooperation with the World Bank, has initiated country
specific work to help make countries aware of the feasibility of integrating
macroeconomics and the environment.  Habitat has developed a common policy
framework to problems of sustainable urban development and shelter.  World
Bank developed a note on best practices for Social Assessment in 1994.

12.          On the whole, intergovernmental bodies, individual governments,
and major groups have viewed positively the initial direction of policy,
programme and structural changes in international organizations, while
expressing the desire to see further change.  In future, it would be useful to
articulate more clearly criteria and standards for assessing the relevance and
impact of these changes; for example, criteria which address not only
the integration of environmental concerns into a development agenda but also
the integration of developmental concerns into an environmental agenda.

A.  Policy Development

13.          Virtually every United Nations organization has approved new
policies and strategies to promote the objectives of UNCED and Agenda 21.  As
sustainability becomes a guiding principle, this has ramifications
throughout the agency.  It calls for procedures which incorporate
sustainability objectives, as well as environmental, social, economic and
cultural analysis into programme activities, and which has heightened the
need for planning and  programme development in one sector to take account of
interactions with other sectors.  Internal procedures send a signal to staff
at headquarters and field levels that sustainable development is a
priority to be reflected in daily programme activities. Ideally, this should
result in mainstreaming the sustainable development dimension rather than
segregating it from predominant activities of an organization. 

                       Reformulated policy on environment

UNHCR: four main principles of the new policy are: integration of
environmental concerns into major activities; prevention; cost-effectiveness;
participation of refugees and local population in environmental

UNDP has revised environmental management guidelines and established an
environmental overview process to ensure that environmental dimensions are
considered in all activities.

UNICEF is developing environmental impact assessment guidelines and revising
its programming manual to take into account, inter alia, the primary
environmental care approach adopted by its Executive Board in 1993. 
This calls for integrating environmental considerations into existing country
programmes, rather than creating new and separate projects.

IFAD adopted formal Administrative Procedures for Environmental Assessment in

14.          For some organizations, the new policies and strategies have led
to reformulation and reorientation of the entire programme and budget. In a
few cases, existing policies and priorities were sufficient, but UNCED
provided new impetus to address environment and social development linkages
and refine an integrated approach.  

                        Guidelines formulated

A number of organizations at regional and global levels are engaged in
building consensus on voluntary environmental and social guidelines, such as
the World Bank/UNIDO/UNEP Industrial Pollution Prevention and Abatement
Handbook.  The WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality and Air
Quality have been updated recently and are expected to be reviewed on a
regular basis.  DDSMS has been involved in formulating International
Guidelines on Mining and Environment.  IFAD has developed Operational
Guidelines for Sustainable Agriculture.  ESCAP has  formulated Guidelines on
Sustainable Development of Coastal Tourism as well as Guidelines for the
Development of a Legal and Institutional Framework to prevent
Illegal Traffic in Toxic and Dangerous Products and Water.  UNHCR published
environmental guidelines in 1996, and is undertaking a number of projects to
translate these principles into practice in field operations.

15.          Many of the agencies have revised internal procedures and
directives to better integrate environmental and developmental concerns. There
have been substantial improvements in procedures and guidelines for
environmental analysis of proposed programme and project activities.
Procedures for incorporating social, economic, and cultural aspects in program
and project analysis are less well along. Further efforts are needed to
sensitize staff in some organizations to the potential long-term
cost-effectiveness of including environmental, social and cultural concerns in
economic development projects, in spite of short-term incremental costs. There
are several promising recent developments. 

16.          National policies and plans establish a basic focus for all
development activities at country level, whether implemented by the
government, NGOs, multilateral or bilateral agencies. They provide a unifying
context for various individual projects of a sectoral nature. The
intergovernmental bodies of the UN system provide fora for governments to
identify and agree on norms, programmes and practices which advance
sustainable development. This is most evident in international convention
processes, but also true of guidelines and practices which may not be
legally-binding.  These set goals for national practice and may be used by
governments as a basis for harmonized action within a common framework. 

B.  Data, Information and Expertise

17.          International institutions have an important facilitating role to
play in improving data collection and reliability, data interpretation and
dissemination, and related national capabilities. The information resources of
the United Nations system fall into different categories. Their uses should be
carefully distinguished in any thorough assessment. They include data from
environmental monitoring and observation systems and data on resources
depletion, as well as information on response measures. In addition, they
cover accumulated knowledge of substances, products, technologies and
processes which pose -- or reduce -- risks to human health and the
environment.  Another body of information tracks the consumption of natural
resources, the generation and disposal of wastes, and related international
movements.  All of these must reflect socio-economic aspects
as well.  The report on Chapter 40 (Information for Decision-Making)
elaborates on inter-agency information-related initiatives.

18.          The environmental conventions supported and coordinated by UNEP,
increasingly serve as an important link between international information
resources and needs at the national level. Their focus on more immediate
management objectives helps shape information initiatives to meet these needs
in a practical manner.  At the same time, the conventions both inspire and
draw on longer-term research and assessment programmes developed through
intergovernmental and non-governmental bodies. 

19.          The United Nations and its agencies and programs have established
numerous expert advisory bodies on a permanent or ad hoc basis. In addition,
individual organizations of the United Nations system have developed
strong collaborative associations with specialized scientific and technical
bodies outside the system, such as the International Council of Scientific
Unions (ICSU), the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), and the
World Conservation Union (IUCN). A number of these relationships have grown
stronger as a result of UNCED.

20.          The High-Level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development was
established by the Secretary-General in 1993, as recommended in chapter 38 of
Agenda 21, to provide advice from eminent persons knowledgeable
about environment and development. It serves also as a link with the views and
concerns of major constituencies and groups, and as a means to strengthen
partnerships with them and deepen their knowledge and understanding
of activities  within the United Nations system. Members are appointed in
their personal capacity by the Secretary-General to advise him, and through
him, the CSD, ECOSOC, and the ACC. 8/

21.          It would be useful to explore further how specialized bodies
outside the United Nations system could contribute most effectively to the
information and advisory needs of international organizations and convention
processes, bearing in mind their importance as a source of peer review and
quality control for methodological approaches and data products. 

C.  Delivery of Technical and Financial Support

22.          Since UNCED, there has been rapid growth in requests from
developing countries and countries in transition for financial and technical
support of initiatives related to implementing the objectives of Agenda 21.
This creates pressure for activities and projects leading to concrete results.
As a result, there has been increased support for model projects which help
test and refine best practices. The criteria used for selecting these
projects include:  (a) response to a real need in the country; (b)
demonstration of significant economic, social or environmental benefits for
the end-user; and ■ demonstration of governmental commitment and the
infrastructure necessary for the project to have enduring results. 

23.           There is also clear emphasis among the organizations engaged
in technical cooperation on strengthening national capacities to
incorporate environmental, social and economic dimensions into
national development initiatives. The United Nations system, through
the IACSD and under the leadership of UNDP, has therefore sought to
promote an integrated approach to national strategies for sustainable
development as a vehicle, inter alia, for relating capacity-building
needs in different disciplines and sectors. UNDP's Capacity 21
Programme is intended to promote capacity-building in relation to
developing and implementing national strategies.  However, this
exercise needs to be related to other exercises, such as that of the
Country Strategy Notes or that of the World Bank-IMF Country Policy
Frameworks, so that a single framework is used for all country level
activities and sustainable development is mainstreamed therein.  As
considered in Section III.C, further work is needed to advance
national strategies and strengthen system-wide capacity building.

D.  Organizational Arrangements

24.          Most of the United Nations organizations have created some kind
of focal entity in response to UNCED and Agenda 21. These have taken
the form of a distinctive department or division for sustainable
development, a task force or coordinating body within the agency, or
an advisory organ. In some cases, new organizational units and other
structural changes were driven by the adoption of new policies
supporting an integrated approach to environment and development
issues. In agencies where existing policies and priorities were
adequate, new structures were generally considered unnecessary. The
establishment of in-house expert networks has helped some agencies
improve communications among departments and divisions and with
outside experts. Some agencies have established new offices or
reinforced existing capabilities to strengthen the regional delivery
of their programmes.  

                             Case of UNEP

             UNEP's post-UNCED restructuring has been designed to equip the
organization to focus and deliver results, in an integrated manner, on the
priority areas entrusted to UNEP by Agenda 21.  The role and priorities
of UNEP, as reflected in its organizational structure and its successive
biennial work programmes since UNCED, indicate a fundamental shift, largely in
reaction to Agenda 21 and based on a clear assessment of needs, from a
sectoral approach of the environment to a fully integrated strategy, which is
responsive to the agenda for sustainable development.  UNEP■s work programme
for the biennium 1996-97 emphasizes relationships between socio-economic
driving forces, environmental changes and impacts on human health and
well-being.  Broader sustainable development considerations are thus
fundamental to all four major environmental challenges addressed in the
programme of work; i.e.: (I) the sustainable management and use of
natural resources; (ii) sustainable production and consumption; (iii) a better
environment for human health and well-being; and (iv) globalization trends and
the environment.

25.    These new structures, often headed by high-level staff, have played a
catalytic and supportive role in identifying sustainable development issues of
relevance to the organization and formulating integrated, agency-wide
approaches in policy and programme activities. In view of the varying
functions and mandates of the organizations of the United Nations system,
there is no single blueprint for organizational arrangements that promote an
integrated approach. 

26.          There is some concern that structural adjustments could
compartmentalize sustainable development within an agency if they establish
rigid demarcations which are not conducive to inter-departmental and
interdisciplinary interactions. The Task Manager system created by the IACSD,
although generally effective in triggering in-house as well as inter-agency
cooperation, has in some cases had the effect of relegating sustainable
development to the responsible officer/unit without adequate input and
feedback from other parts of the organization. This defeats the goal of having
the concept permeate the entire organization and invoke a collective response.
It may also mean that reporting to the CSD/IACSD does not adequately reflect
activities throughout the organization. 

                       Examples of new structures

UNDP: has created a Sustainable Energy and Environment Division (SEED) to
consolidate its environment and natural resource management programs, in order
to heighten the profile of sustainable development issues.

World Bank: established the central Vice Presidency for Environmentally
Sustainable Development, who is to work with the Bank■s Regional Vice
Presidencies to advance the incorporation of Operational Policies, Bank
Procedure and Good Practice which support the integration of environmentally
and socially sustainable development into Bank projects.

FAO: created a Sustainable Development Department headed by an Assistant
Director-General.  It provides a focal point for UNCED follow-up through a
multidisciplinary programme of research and action incorporating
various sustainable development dimensions into FAO's programme structure.

IAEA: set up the Inter-Departmental Coordination Group on Agenda 21 to ensure
in-house coordination among many different Secretariat departments
involved in sustainable development.  The Group is chaired by the Special
Assistant to the Director General.

WHO: established a Task Force on Environment and Sustainable Development.  It
enabled a broad dialogue on how major programme can contribute to linking
health and environment components to achieve sustainable development.

UNESCO: created a Bureau for Coordination of Environmental Programmes
responsible for promoting and coordinating UNCED follow-up across all
programmes and set up a small advisory committee on UNCED follow-up.

IFAD: created an inter-departmental task force to ensure optimal
complementarity between IFAD■s lending operation and the provisions of the
Desertification Convention.  

27.          Relatedly, inadequate internal communications may impede
coordinated activities on the part of the agency at the country level.
Barriers between departments may result in country-level initiatives which do
not build on relevant knowledge, experience, and contacts throughout the
agency. Or communications between headquarters and regional or national
offices may be difficult, although each agency's Task Manager normally
involves the agency's regional offices.

28.          In all cases, strong political support at the highest levels of
the organization was considered essential for achieving an organization-wide
response. This extends not just to agency policies and operational
programmes but also to such matters as procurement guidelines. And no matter
what the choice of structural arrangements, coordination and cooperation
throughout the organization will continue to be necessary. 

29.          The management of knowledge within an organization, and the
organization's ability to draw on outside sources, are important elements in
the organizational response. Breaking down the barriers among departments
and divisions helps promote a free flow of information and expertise, which in
turn broadens the understanding and perspective of individual staff members.
In some organizations, regular training seminars have helped to
strengthen knowledge and approaches that support sustainable development, in
both policy and technical staff and at headquarters and field levels. This has
been prompted and reinforced through consultations and partnerships with other
organizations, both within and outside the United Nations system, and with
major groups, including the private sector. Although there are no definitive,
quantitative analyses of enhanced expertise relevant to sustainable
development within the United Nations agencies, there is anecdotal evidence of
stronger staff engagement with these issues. Nevertheless, further efforts are
necessary to improve training and reward structures for interdisciplinary and
collaborative initiatives. 

             UNCTAD's role in trade, environment and development

   At the intergovernmental level, activities under this theme is monitored by
the Commission on Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities.  In the UNCTAD
secretariat, the Trade, Environment and Development Section in the Division on
International Trade and Commodities undertakes activities related to policy
analysis and debate, conceptual work, the building of consensus among member
States on the interaction between environment and trade policies, the
dissemination of information to policy-makers and the encouragement and
provision of technical assistance in capacity building in this field.

30.          The consultative mechanisms for dialogue with NGOs regarding the
conceptualization and delivery of programmes at the country level has expanded
-- in United Nations bodies, in the regional development banks, and in the
GEF. 9/  As more experience is gained with these procedures, it would be
useful to revisit them and consider further refinements. Improvements are
needed in procedures for NGO participation in the Bretton Woods institutions.

31.          There are potential advantages for the secondment of national
experts, JPOs and associate expert systems to United Nations organizations
from different fields of expertise and sectoral perspectives.  Opportunities
for qualified professionals to contribute to and participate in these
programmes facilitate exchange of information and awareness-raising on complex
issues related to sustainable development.  On the other hand, concerns have
been expressed by several intergovernmental bodies that dependence on
extra-budgetary staffing has a tendency towards geographical imbalance in
secretariat staffing patterns.  Adherence to the mandates and programmes
adopted by the GA, ECOSOC and CSD ( and/or other governing body) could reduce
the risks of taking an unbalanced approach.

32.          It is critical that structural arrangements and the expansion and
integration of expertise related to sustainable development be reinforced by
corresponding financial arrangements within the organization. If budget
allocations concentrate on sectoral or departmental outputs without providing
for interdisciplinary input and coordinating arrangements, the best policies
and procedures will not be matched by results. 

                        III.  SYSTEM-WIDE COORDINATION

33.          The United Nations system has struggled with system-wide
coordination since its founding, and there are no easy answers. The elements
which promote coordination are similar to those which influence policy and
programme modifications within each organization, considered in the previous
section. These include intergovernmental commitment and oversight within the
United Nations bodies responsible for system-wide coordination; commitment by
governments to reinforce coordinated approaches in the individual governing
bodies of the organizations in which they are members (global, regional,
conventions); high-level secretariat support within each agency and reflected
in inter-agency arrangements; support from major groups and NGOs, reinforced
through their own programme activities; and coordinated strategies and
policies at the national level to which international agencies must respond.
These issues are considered in more detail below. 

34.          While some limitations remain, the Task Manager system adopted by
IACSD has proven to be an effective means of inter-agency cooperation and
joint action.  It provides a network of focal points throughout the system for
the exchange of information and the preparation of CSD documentation.  More
detailed assessment of the functioning of the IACSD is found in the ACC
statement mentioned above, which is also being made available to
the Commission on Sustainable Development at its fifth session.

35.          UNEP performs its coordination role at the policy level through
the Inter-Agency Environment Coordination Group (IAEG), of which all relevant
UN agencies and programmes are members.  An important initiative currently
taking place within the IAEG is the development of a "UN System Wide Strategy
in the field of Environment".

36.          The global and regional conventions are equally important. In the
first instance, they embody commitments on the part of governments which shape
national actions and thus the country-level activities of international
agencies in contracting parties. Second, convention work programmes express
agreed priorities. The international agencies often collaborate in developing
and executing these programmes, so their short-term activities and
expenditures are influenced by them. More broadly, the conventions, by
defining both general and detailed objectives, provide an organizing framework
for focusing policy development, programme delivery, and needs for research,
data, and analysis. System-wide coordination among agencies and conventions at
all levels helps bring to bear specialized skills and resources to achieve
defined goals which have been agreed among the contracting parties involved. 

37.          On the other hand, not all UN system activities related to
sustainable development require system-wide involvement.  Some tasks such as
in the area of harmonized data collection, statistical information and
country-level planning/policy framework lend themselves more readily to
system-wide exercises.  Other tasks require specialized, technical knowledge
of fisheries, toxic chemicals, human health, plant genetic resources, to
create intersectoral synergies.  It is important that inter-agency cooperative
arrangements be tailored to the task they are meant to accomplish.

38.          Understanding the relationships among different agency and
convention processes has grown more difficult as initiatives related to
sustainable development have proliferated. Secretariats are in a position to
assist governments. Through consultations, they can identify activities which
may work at cross purposes early on, suggest where initiatives in one forum
have relevance elsewhere, and recommend where a joint approach might meet
several objectives and make better use of available resources. This background
would help inform governments' decisions to approve policies and programmes in
individual decision-making fora. In turn, as intergovernmental decision-
making takes account of related activities in different fora, it facilitates
coordination in preparation and execution by secretariats. 

                     Examples of joint programmes

UNIDO/UNEP programme for establishing National Cleaner Production Centres,
aimed at incorporating cleaner industrial production techniques into
industrial efforts to reduce pollution.

UNEP/UNESCO/UNDP/UNICEF jointly conducted a project in 1993 to develop a
children■s version of Agenda 21.

39.          At all levels, the partners in cooperative arrangements among
United Nations organizations have grown in number. Collaboration in knowledge
generation now includes a wider range of organizations from the developing
as well as the developed world, such as the centres of excellence in tropical
science promoted by UNESCO and the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS).
Individual governments increasingly take the initiative to convene and
support specialized meetings, often in collaboration with intergovernmental or
non-governmental organizations, which contribute to items before the CSD or
other initiatives related to Agenda 21 objectives. These flexible
arrangements expedite discussions. A more systematic approach to needs and
preparations could produce even more meaningful results. As collaborative
ventures grow more focused and specific, there are additional opportunities to
engage major groups in consultative processes on both policy and programme
matters; for example, the development of sector-specific indicators or best
practices, or programme planning in a particular region.

40.          In addition to coordination (a) among disciplines and sectors,
(b) at global, regional, and national levels, (c) at intergovernmental and
secretariat levels, and (d) between United Nations organization and
conventions, non-UN bodies, and other partners, there is another facet of
coordinating international institutional arrangements. This has
to do with the links among functional responsibilities for information
resources, policy development and operational programmes:  the contributions
of new knowledge to policy development and programme planning; the application
in operational programmes of policies and practices which promote sustainable
development; the results of operational experience as a source of feedback for
revising policies and information resources.  Work on these linkages requires
further development, although two inter-agency mechanisms and individual
organizations are working on monitoring and evaluation modalities to address

A.  At the Global Level

41.          In the context of restructuring and revitalizing the United
Nations in economic, social, and related fields, the General Assembly has
directed ECOSOC to strengthen its role as the central mechanism for
coordination of the activities of the United Nations system and to promote
coordinated follow-up to the outcome of major international
conferences. 10/ Agenda 21 is perceived as a dynamic and adaptable framework
for action by the international community and for coordination of relevant
activities of international organizations. 11/  In its capacity of
reviewing progress in implementing Agenda 21 at all levels, the CSD receives
reports, inter alia, from intergovernmental organizations (global and
regional) and information made available by international environmental
conventions through their respective secretariats.

42.          In some cases, Task Managers have found themselves virtually
alone to deal with an issue for which they have lead responsibility, with
little input or feedback from cooperating or associated agencies. Governments
have also raised questions about integrating the many small, dedicated trust
funds in UN agencies and international financial institutions into more
coherent programming arrangements (e.g., for sustainable forestry or
integrated coastal zone management).

        Example of interlinking follow-ups of major conferences

   An expert group meeting on "Women, population and sustainable development:
the road from Rio, Cairo and Beijing" was held in Santo Domingo in November
1996 and organized jointly by DPCSD/DAW, DPCSD/DSD and UNFPA.

43.          With respect to participation by major groups in United Nations
intergovernmental fora, the procedures adopted for the CSD in 1993 modified
earlier United Nations practice by extending observer participation to a
broader range of national and international organizations, based on the
organizations accredited to UNCED. A similar approach has been taken for the
major UN conferences taking place since UNCED. Within the CSD,
both formal and informal arrangements have permitted greater dialogue and
interaction among representatives of governments, international agencies and
NGOs, and facilities for information distribution by accredited NGOs
are now more varied. 

44.          In the wake of UNCED, ECOSOC launched a review of arrangements
for consultation with NGOs. As a result, modified arrangements were adopted in
1996, which promote greater involvement by NGOs of international, regional,
subregional, and national standing. They encourage balanced participation by
NGOs from all regions and areas of the world and linkages with organizations
upon whose special expertise or experience ECOSOC may wish to draw. The
General Assembly decided to examine the question of participation
by NGOs in all areas of the work of the United Nations, in light of the
experience gained in ECOSOC. 

45.          At the secretariat level, some Task Managers have involved major
groups more widely than others in consultations regarding the preparation of
reports for the CSD. This has been appreciated by both sides. It has
occurred within agencies individually and at the level of inter-agency
meetings, where experts from major groups have in some cases been invited to

B.  At the Regional Level

46.          Follow-up to UNCED at the regional level cannot be considered in
isolation from broader efforts in the United Nations system to revitalize and
restructure economic and social sectors. The report to ECOSOC
expected in 1997 is to review the UN regional commissions with a view to
strengthening their effectiveness in both policy- and action-oriented roles.
The report is to address better coordination with the entire United
Nations system, including the specialized agencies, the Bretton Woods
institutions and the regional development banks, and more active participation
by the regional commissions in implementing the results of major
United Nations conferences at the regional level. 12/

47.          Agenda 21 refers to regional and subregional cooperation and
implementation. The UN regional commissions, unlike most of the specialized
agencies and programs of the United Nations, are multisectoral in
their responsibilities. In this respect, they offer a means, at the regional
level, to coordinate multisectoral initiatives drawing on specialized
contributions.  The Regional Commissions can contribute to systems which
provide regional organizations and entities with integrated regional
data/information, thereby strengthening regional capacity for informed
multisectoral decision-making.   As for specialized technical and sectoral
areas, regional offices of specialized UN bodies can facilitate access to
specialized information resources. 

The UNEP Governing Council in 1993 and 1995 endorsed strengthened regional
approaches, and UNEP's five regional offices are now increasingly involved in
the design and delivery of a coordinated UNEP programme responsive to the
needs of each region, in expanding regional networks for advice and feedback,
and in strengthening partnerships in the region.  The regional seas
arrangements present additional opportunities for integrating regional

48.   Beyond the UN system, regional bodies of all types are in a position to
tailor global initiatives -- whether of a policy, data and information, or
operational character -- to regional environmental and socio-economic
circumstances and the priorities of countries in the region. They also allow
countries in the region to agree on shared goals and concerns for action at
the regional level or as input to global fora.  

49.          Where ECOSOC is concentrating on the UN regional commissions and
regional activities by United Nations system organizations, the follow-up to
UNCED contemplates interaction and partnerships with a wider range of
regional bodies outside the United Nations system. The CSD, at the high-level
segment of its fourth session, stressed the importance of devolving
implementation actions related to Agenda 21 from the global to the regional
level. Thought might be given to instituting a system analogous to the IACSD
Task Manager system at the regional level with modalities for participation of
organizations outside the UN system.  Such a system is already being tried in
the ESCAP region towards the implementation of programme areas of the Regional
Action Programme adopted by the Ministerial Conference on Environment and
Development in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok in November 1995.

50.          A number of regional intergovernmental meetings have taken place,
often at a high level, to adopt political statements and action plans
regarding sustainable development priorities in the region. They have been
convened in association with both UN regional commissions and other regional
organizations like the Organization of American States, the Organization of
African Unity (OAU), The South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme
(SPREP) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). As these
meetings have moved from an emphasis on resources conservation to sustainable
use, they have attracted participation from ministries additional
to the environmental ministry. High profile ministerial conferences have
played an important agenda-setting role and raise public and political
awareness. To date they have concentrated on issues of national concern and
preparations for global fora. 

    Asian Development Bank, UNEP, ESCAP and IUCN are cooperating with the
National University of Singapore to establish the Asia-Pacific Centre for
Environmental Law (APCEL) to promote regional education in environmental law
and the establishment of a regional APCEL database.
    A regional coordinating unit to promote implementation in Africa of the
Convention on Desertification and its Annex on Africa is being hosted by
African Development Bank.

51.   Convention processes have been the forum of choice for working out
common policies and harmonized approaches to specialized regional or
transboundary concerns. These include the regional seas agreements, agreements
on other shared waterbodies, and the side agreements to regional trade
agreements. Regional initiatives are playing a growing role in implementing
certain global conventions, notably the Basel Convention, the Montreal
Protocol, and the Ramsar Convention; and a regional focus is expressly
contemplated under the annexes to the Convention on Desertification.

52.   When it comes to fostering concrete programmes for agency initiatives
which address regional issues and priorities in support of Agenda 21
objectives, technical committees composed of senior officials of member
governments have played a significant role in some regions. The regional banks
have increased funding for sustainable development, primarily in response to
requests from national governments. Where regional action plans
define regional priorities, implementation efforts have been more focused. In
some cases, the major issues and priorities at the regional level have not yet
been adequately defined or require a major effort in capacity building. 

53.          In some regions, regional state of the environment reports are
produced. In one case, this is produced by an organization outside the United
Nations system. A number of regional institutions have indicated that there is
a need for a new approach to systematic data collection by all countries in
the respective regions.  1/ 

1/  See Background paper No.11, Report of the Meeting of Regional Institutions
(New York, 6-7 December 1995).

                         Regional structures

ECA:    Conference of African Ministers responsible for Sustainable
        Development and the Environment, established in 1993, and became 
        operational in 1995.

ECLAC:  a new Environment and Development Division established in 1995.

ESCAP:  the Inter-Agency Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development
        in Asia and the Pacific, established in 1990 as part of UNCED
        preparatory process.  

ESCWA:  the Environment Coordination Unit of the newly formed Energy, Natural
        Resources and Environment Division; Joint Committee on Environment and
        Development in the Arab Region created in 1993.

ECE:    a Task Force involving all substantive divisions to coordinate
        activities related to sustainable development; an Environmental
        Performance Review Unit under the Environment and Human
        Settlements Division.

54.          New forms of inter-agency cooperation have emerged at the
regional level. This includes cooperation between the UN regional commissions
and representatives of the global UN agencies and programmes at the
regional level. Regional organizations outside the United Nations system have
taken an active role in some regions in preparing regional plans and
programmes to follow up on United Nations conferences, other international
programme activities, and convention implementation. The South Pacific
Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), for example, has also played a role in
coordinating regional views expressed in global fora. The regional banks have
collaborated with the UN regional commissions and the regional offices of UN
organs as well as with non-governmental bodies.

55.          The growing number of regional organizations calls for enhanced
cooperation among intergovernmental bodies at the regional level, and
supporting secretariats, to promote harmonized approaches in policy and
programme matters. This should include all regional intergovernmental entities
within and outside the United Nations system, including regional development
banks, regional conventions and regional trade organizations. Where strong
regional support has been expressed for the overarching goal of sustainable
development, governments may wish to review the individual strengths of
different regional organizations, both within and outside the UN system, and
determine which organization(s) can most effectively promote an
integrated approach to (a) shared policy concerns and priorities, (b) data and
information resources of common use, and (c) coordinated programming of
operational support at the regional level. 

C.  At the Country Level

56.          The High-Level Advisory Board has stressed the importance of
specifying national policy frameworks as a means of attracting donors and
private foreign investors. 13/ This aspect of national strategies is relevant
also for the support role of international institutions. Adequate policy
frameworks can lay the groundwork for greater collaboration between
international institutions and other sources of technical and financial
cooperation, building from public to private investment.

57.          Further efforts are required to promote cooperation for
sustainable development at the country level among the institutions of the
United Nations system. At the policy level, UNDP is leading the IACSD effort
to harmonize various action plans within national sustainable development
strategies. While the appreciation of inter-sectoral issues in managing
natural resources such as land and water is growing, more needs to be done to
incorporate industrial activities and human health implications into
environmental/natural resources management.

   The UNESCO Executive Board in 1996 reiterated its invitation to Member
States "to ensure the involvement of the national focal points of UNESCO's
intergovernmental scientific programmes in national action aimed at UNCED
follow-up, as well as appropriate inter-institutional and cross-sectoral 
co-ordination and co-operation at the national level, which are considered
indispensable for the effective implementation of Agenda 21.

   UNDP established the Capacity 21 Unit under a new Sustainable Energy and
Environment Division.  It has a Management Committee and works closely with
the Regional Bureaux and UNDP country offices.  41 Sustainable Development
Advisors (SDA) have been designated so far to foster linkages between the
central programme and the implementation at the country level.  There are now
over 300 environment and social specialists at the Bank.

58.          Capacity building for sustainable development should be
demand-driven.  National sustainable development strategies are an important
mechanism for linking national capacity-building objectives, which in turn
encourages cooperation and partnership among international institutions at the
country level. These should be linked to other initiatives in this direction
including Country Strategy Notes (CSN) and country policy frameworks of the
World Bank and IMF.  Whatever the mechanism used, it must be country-specific;
the same mechanism should be used by all actors concerned, and the government
must have ownership.  

59.          The Bretton Woods Institutions and UNDP need to work together in
capacity building on sustainable development strategies and their
implementation.  The work of the IACSD Task Force on Sustainable Development
strategies needs to be intensified.  Support to UNDP■s Capacity 21 Programme
should be complemented with support both at the national and regional levels. 
While funding for the Capacity 21 Programme is still a limiting
factor, there is a need for the broader involvement of other UN organizations
in the further development and implementation of the Programme.  The scope of
the Programme must address all elements of sustainable development.  Capacity
building efforts should not stop after SD strategies have been formulated,
since the implementation and updating of such strategies requires continuous
support and motivation at all levels.

60.          Related to national planning, the UN system has attempted to
reduce inconsistencies and duplication in the requirements placed on national
governments for reporting. This initiative encompasses reporting to both
United Nations bodies and conventions. At this stage, the country profiles
prepared for the CSD will establish a framework of general institutional and
macroeconomic information, with cross-references/linkages to more specialized
agency and convention databases. Ultimately, as each country is able to update
and expand an integrated national profile, this will serve as a vital resource
for national plans and strategies. As with the use of indicators at the
national level in formulating and modifying national policies, it is important
that reporting requirements first and foremost address national concerns. 

61.          In the area of information resources, there is a need to utilize
project documentation and project review/evaluation to build up an integrated
national database on natural resources/environmental baselines,
conditions and trends, and  impacts on them. This would assist each country in
future planning and impact analysis, expedite project approval, and contribute
to international understanding and support measures. The relationship
between reporting, indicators, and the broader information requirements for
sustainable development should be taken up at a future stage.

62.          For most countries, it does not appear that existing procedures
are adequate for exchanging information on project planning and development so
that synergies and potential conflicts may be identified early on. The
international agencies should explore additional means of bringing these
issues to the attention of finance and planning ministries as well as the
sectoral agencies involved, through contacts with client agencies.

63.          The UNDP Resident Representative/UN Resident Coordinator has, in
some cases, organized selected sectoral or thematic coordination fora with the
participation of UN organizations and bilateral donor agencies.  In
other cases, the World Bank has played a role in coordinating donor meetings. 
It is, however, recognized that the responsibility for coordinating external
assistance, from multi-lateral, bilateral or other international
organizations, rests first and foremost with the government concerned. 
Governments are increasingly focusing on developing or strengthening their own
capacity to coordinate the collaboration with external partners. 

64.          The importance of local authorities and local decision-making
processes in sustainable development is becoming more and more apparent. It is
highlighted, for example, in relation to sustainable cities and in relation
to local jurisdiction regarding water and air pollution or coastal zone
management. There are opportunities for international agencies to strengthen
support for local entities in building up systematic approaches to
information, policy, and programme planning and implementation. 

The action programme adopted at HABITAT II serves as an organizing framework
for actions at the local level to further Agenda 21.  UNCHS plans further
reorganization to facilitate implementation and coordination with UN
agencies and other partners at that level.


65.          The governing structures of the United Nations bodies addressed
in this report differ. While programmes, funds and specialized agencies have
their own governing bodies and statutory authority, the departments of the
United Nations are governed by ECOSOC and the General Assembly. The governing
bodies of UN programmes and funds are subsidiary to either ECOSOC or the
General Assembly and subject to the UN Charter, whereas the specialized
agencies have their own constituent instruments and thus a more independent
status. ECOSOC may make recommendations to the General Assembly and to the
specialized agencies. Through consultations and recommendations, it may
coordinate the agencies' activities, as well as through recommendations to the
General Assembly and Member Nations. 

66.    The UNCED agreements modified the frame of reference for governments
and international agencies toward a more integrated, anticipatory, and
stakeholder-oriented approach to development aspirations and concerns. This
has placed new demands on individual international institutions and requires a
more cohesive and coordinated response among them to specific policy and
programme priorities. 

67.    One of the tasks assigned to the CSD in Agenda 21 was to rationalize
the intergovernmental decision-making capacity for the integration of
environment and development issues.  As a functional commission of
ECOSOC, the CSD's ability to effect linkages among different governing bodies
is governed by the principles noted above. Its decisions have no binding
effect on other intergovernmental processes. However, as the only UN
intergovernmental body with an in-depth overview of progress in the
implementation of Agenda 21, CSD decisions carry moral weight. Moreover, the
scope of its overview extends outside the UN system to other intergovernmental
bodies. The impact of CSD decisions is heightened to the extent that they are
based on government positions which take all the concerned ministries into
account. It is sometimes also heightened by the adoption of clear, follow-up
decisions in other governing bodies.

68.          The implications of the UNCED agreements and subsequent follow-up
decisions taken in the CSD for individual agencies have often been reaffirmed
in their individual governing bodies. In some cases, the CSD decisions and
work programme have been particularly influential in reinforcing subsequent
policy and work programme/budget decisions in other bodies. Conversely,
decisions taken in other bodies have been reaffirmed and reinforced through
the CSD and, subsequently, through ECOSOC and the UNGA. At the same time,
initiatives which have grown out of the more specialized focus of other
agencies and programmes have had an impact in shaping the CSD vision of
sustainable development. 

                          UNEP Governing Council

UNEP's 1996-97 programme of work approved by the Governing Council, is an
attempt to provide the right framework for an integrated response to the
concerns of CSD.  Decision 18/7 of the Governing Council: a) stressed the need
for UNEP to focus on those system-wide activities of the UN system for which
it has been assigned a special responsibility by Agenda 21 and the major
policy issues and challenges in the field of the environment, as determined by
the Governing Council; and b) emphasized the need for UNEP in accordance
with its mandate and in implementation of Agenda 21, to continue to provide
effective support to the work of the CSD through, inter alia, the provision of
scientific, technical and policy information and advice on the environment.

69.          The CSD's full ability to encourage governments to pursue
follow-up action in other governing bodies was first exercised fully in
Decision 4/15 regarding institutional arrangements for the implementation of
the Global Programme of Action on Protection of the Marine Environment from
Land-Based Activities. This decision calls on governments to take 
70.action for the formal endorsement by each competent organization of those
parts of the Global Programme which are relevant to the organization's mandate
and to accord appropriate priority to implementation in the work programme of
each organization.

70.          As a whole, sustainable development issues have continued to
receive a high level of political attention in the respective governing
bodies. Decisions taken in the CSD and decisions taken in individual governing
bodies have helped make the best use of specialized competencies and helped
focus and integrate work programmes so that they are complementary. In some
cases, technical committees of the governing bodies have reviewed draft
reports on chapters of Agenda 21 before they were submitted to the CSD.  This
has enabled governments to coordinate better their positions which may cut
across the work of several ministries, and which may appear on the agenda of
more than one intergovernmental body.

71.          For the most part, the decisions of relevant governing bodies
have been beneficial in reinforcing policy and program directions and
orientations. Where expert committees in fields related to sustainable
development support ECOSOC or other bodies, their deliberations and products
have increasingly been coordinated with the needs and requests of the CSD. An
active effort has been made by the governing bodies of various UN
organizations to be informed of the work of the CSD, and vice versa, through
their secretariats and government members. This has improved awareness and
understanding of each others' priorities, mandates and perspectives. It has
also produced results -- in the ability of individual agencies to
identify and monitor activities related to UNCED and Agenda 21, in relation to
formulating decisions taken in the CSD, and in decisions and priorities
adopted by each agency in its respective field which are consistent with
and are contributing to the overall process of UNCED follow-up.

72.          As the CSD has attracted ministers from a broad range of
ministries, including those of finance and development cooperation, in
addition to that of the environment, it has more firmly established itself as
an intergovernmental forum where multi-sectoral aspects of the integration of
environment and development issues can be discussed. Nevertheless, the concept
of sustainable development is still not well understood in some governing
bodies where sectoral issues are the main focus. There is a tendency to
associate it only with environmental concerns without recognizing its social
and economic dimensions. This has led to some difficulties in coordination
among governing bodies. The problem is due, in part, to the lack of
inter-ministerial linkage at the country level, particularly between
ministries of environment, on the one hand, and sectoral ministries, on the

73.          The keys to linking the decisions of governing bodies are
two-fold. The first step is to ensure that intergovernmental bodies and
secretariats are aware of related developments in other fora. Secretariats can
help draw these issues to the attention of intergovernmental bodies. The more
specific the articulation of these related developments, the more helpful it
is to governments. The second stage is that governments must take consistent
and coherent decisions on policy and programme matters in the various
intergovernmental bodies of the UN system where they are members. 

74.          The CSD's political role lends itself to agenda-setting in
relation to critical and emerging issues, drawing on its mandate to monitor
progress in meeting the objectives of Agenda 21. Its mandate to monitor
progress in respect of the support available to promote sustainable
development gives the CSD an interest in cost-effective use of existing and
new resources. Thus, system-wide coordination and joint programming are
important objectives. ECOSOC will consider further streamlining and
adjustments in relation to certain of its subsidiary intergovernmental and
expert bodies in 1997. Adjustments to better integrate the results of major UN
conferences into the policies and programmes of the UN system may also be
considered. It is important that their implications for sustainable
development be considered systematically in the deliberations of the CSD. 

                          V.  FUNDING ARRANGEMENTS

75.    The post-UNCED period has been characterized by zero growth, if not
reductions in regular budgets of most UN system organizations,
which have not matched the increased demand and expectations for results in
the field of sustainable development.  While sustainable development concerns
have been integrated into existing programmes of work and budget and
priorities adjusted, with a corresponding reallocation of resources, new
demands stemming from UNCED cannot be fully accommodated within existing
resources.  Nor, for most organizations, has the level of extrabudgetary funds
for Agenda 21-related activities increased, despite greater efforts in this
area. In meeting demands from existing resources, the organizations
have been called upon to shift priorities and reallocate resources.  

                   Illustrative funding arrangements

Habitat: Investment for UNCHS activities in supporting sustainable development
in rural and urban settlements by working with local and national partners, is
highly leveraged and comes primarily from the private sector, regional
development banks and the World Bank.

UNHCR: Field offices are encouraged to specifically budget environmental
activities within the existing operational projects, either under Special
Programme or annual Programme funding.

ICAO: introduced a funding mechanism to which Contracting States and funding
institutions could contribute for the financing of technical co-operation
projects aimed at the sustainable development of civil aviation facilities and
human resources in developing countries in accordance with ICAO■s Standards
and Recommended Practices.

World Bank: Joint programming between Environmentally Sustainable Development
(ESD) Vice Presidency and the regions operates within a budget provided
through ■cross support■ whereby the regions provide budget resources
for such joint programming initiatives.

IFAD: established a technical assistance grants programme for environmental
assessment and another to assist countries in implementing the Desertification

76.          Agencies have therefore been hard pressed to carry out both their
mandated responsibilities and the new responsibilities stemming from UNCED. 
The constraints affect individual agency initiatives as well as the
development and undertaking of joint efforts. The shortage of funds for
existing agency programs is aggravated by the need to spread available
resources over a number of new bodies and activities related to the
environment and sustainable development. 
77.          While the financial crisis throughout the United Nations system
has been a major obstacle, there is evidence from agency planning and
budgeting exercises that programmes on environment and sustainable development
were given priority and therefore benefitted in the reallocation of funds, or
were at least spared the cutbacks suffered by other programme elements. In
some cases, integrated programmes in environment and development have existed
since the early 1980s, and these have long attracted extrabudgetary resources.
In other cases, by integrating environmental considerations more fully into
existing programmes, the agency sought to address UNCED goals and
at the same time avoid establishing new programmes which might be subject to
future cutbacks. A number of agencies found they were more successful in
attracting funding for specific projects when the projects were identified
as particularly relevant to UNCED follow-up or specific aspects of Agenda 21. 

                 Global Environmental Facility (GEF)

   The GEF was restructured by Participating States in 1994, with 2 billion
dollars pledged to its Trust Fund. It operates on the basis of collaboration
and partnership among its Implementing Agencies (UNDP, UNEP and the
World Bank), as a mechanism for international cooperation for the purpose of
providing new and additional grant and concessional funding to meet agreed
incremental costs of measures to achieve global environmental
benefits in the areas of biodiversity, climate change, international waters,
ozone layer depletion, and possibly land degradation as it relates to the
other four areas. The Instrument for the Establishment of the Restructured
GEF was agreed by the States participating in the GEF in March 1994, and
subsequently adopted by each of its three Implementing Agencies.  Project
activities of the GEF are managed by one of the Implementing Agencies,
which meet regularly with the GEF Secretariat to contribute to joint work
programmes and to reach agreement on operational procedures.  The three
Implementing Agencies are accountable to the GEF Council for their
GEF-financed activities, and for the implementation of the operational
policies, strategies and decisions of the Council in their project activities.
The GEF Assembly, which will hold its first meeting in 1998, will review
the operations and general policies of the Facility.

78.   There has been some growth in extrabudgetary
resources for sustainable development initiatives. Since donors usually
earmark these funds for programmes of interest to them, the result is often
disproportionate funding for certain countries and regions, for certain
substantive areas, and in relation to particular functional activities. 

79.          Within the UNDP system, there has been a general reduction in the
level of the Indicative Planning Figure (IPF), which has been a major source
of funds for technical cooperation involving the organizations of
the United Nations system. The hope that UNDP's Capacity 21 programme would
become a funding source for system-wide capacity-building initiatives has so
far not fully materialized, due mainly to the shortfall in funding
for the programme. 

80.          In some instances, cooperation between UN organizations and the
World Bank has grown substantially, for example in such areas as health,
freshwater and food security. The GEF is another example of improving
cooperation between UN agencies and the World Bank for the purpose of
providing financing to achieve global environmental benefits in the areas of
biodiversity, climate change, international waters and ozone layer
depletion.  These arrangements generally are country-driven and often based on
national priorities designed to support sustainable development. 

81.          The Chairman/CEO of the GEF meets at least annually with the
Heads of the Implementing Agencies to review strategic operational issues.  At
a meeting in June 1996, it was noted that the quality of GEF projects
has risen appreciably over time and that the ability to commit resources to
projects is proceeding satisfactorily.  It was noted, however, that the
disbursement of funds continues to be a challenge for the agencies, and all
three Heads of Agencies committed their staff to exploring opportunities for
further speeding up the processing and disbursement of GEF-project financing
within their agencies.  The GEF Council has approved in the last year a
number of expedited procedures to enhance project approval and implementation.
Also needed to be addressed in the future is the genuine concern of other
agencies for their low level involvement, particularly in GEF-funded technical
assistance and investment projects.

82.          The international funding sources for the implementation of
Agenda 21 include multilateral and bilateral funding arrangements as well as
private foreign flows. While there was a decline in official bilateral and
multilateral development assistance (ODA), private flows increased.  But the
latter is restricted in geographic allocation. 

83.          Another problem is that resources, without an adequate enabling
environment, will not automatically lead to a shift toward sustainable
activities, as considered in Section III.C.

84.          The CSD is charged with monitoring resource flows for support of
Agenda 21 objectives and reporting thereon. There is room for improving its
role in promoting the mobilization of new and additional resources. 
The United Nations and other agencies should leverage their resources through
closer cooperation with the private sector, for example, in areas such as
specialized education and capacity building.  Greater involvement
of local authorities in sustainable development may offer new funding sources.

                            VI.  CONCLUSIONS

                Promising Changes, Unfulfilled Expectations,
                             and Emerging Priorities

85.          The international institutional arrangements put in place
following UNCED could be considered a work in progress, moving in right
direction. Their role should be construed as enabling sustainable development
at the national level. The individual and cumulative support provided by
international agencies, global and regional, should continue to develop in
response to national concerns. 

86.          International institutions support national initiatives by
facilitating access to specialized information and analyses, technical
expertise and financial resources. They serve as a forum to promote
international agreement on methods, policies and practices which advance
sustainable development at the country level and shape country-level programme

A.  Individual Organizations

87.          With respect to the individual organizations of the United
Nations system, the feedback from intergovernmental bodies, individual
governments, and major groups indicates that policy and programme
changes in support of sustainable development are largely positive. This
includes internal agency policies as well as the policies and practices
adopted by intergovernmental bodies as guidance for national action. In all
cases, strong political support at the highest levels of the organization was
considered essential for achieving an organization-wide response. Following
UNCED, sustainable development received substantial attention in the
governing bodies of various organizations and was less subject to budget cuts.
Lately, however, there are signs that this trend is changing. 

88.          In view of the varying functions and mandates of the
organizations of the United Nations system, there is no single blueprint for
organizational arrangements that promote an integrated approach. No matter
what the choice of structural arrangements, coordination and cooperation
throughout the organization will continue to be necessary. Efforts are needed
to improve training and reward structures for interdisciplinary and
collaborative initiatives. 

89.          It is critical that structural arrangements and the expansion and
integration of expertise related to sustainable development be reinforced by
corresponding financial arrangements both inside and outside the
organization. If budget allocations concentrate on sectoral or departmental
outputs without providing for interdisciplinary input and coordinating
arrangements, the best policies and procedures will not be matched by

90.          To assist in future institutional reviews, it would be useful to
articulate clear criteria and standards for assessing the relevance and impact
of these changes.

91.          It would be useful to examine how the potential of specialized
bodies outside the United Nations system could contribute most effectively to
the information and advisory needs of international organizations and
convention processes, bearing in mind the importance of professional
organizations as a source of peer review and quality control for
methodological approaches and data products. 

B.  System-Wide Coordination and Linking the Decisions of Governing Bodies

92.          The overarching goal of sustainable development requires an
unprecedented degree of multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral coordination. The
challenges for institutional arrangements at all levels are daunting. The
IACSD Task Manager system has made some important inroads, but greater efforts
are needed on the part of both intergovernmental and secretariat arrangements.
The need for feedback among the different functions of intergovernmental
bodies -- in data and information resources, the formulation of policies and
practices, and operational programmes -- has only begun to be addressed. 

93.          If international institutions are to respond to national
sustainable development concerns, it must be helpful if the latter are
integrated into a single national framework for country-level action. As these
are lacking in many countries, effective international support cannot be
optimally programmed. Nevertheless, by sharing lessons learned and improving
system-wide coordination at the country level, international organizations can
help country efforts to integrate sustainable development concerns into a
country-specific framework for action and subsequently into programmes and
projects. More efforts are needed to ensure that a country-driven balance
is reflected in national strategies among economic (e.g. agriculture and
industry), social (e.g. health and education) and natural resource (e.g.
environmental protection/conservation) development. 

94.          National concerns and priorities are also reflected in the
decisions of regional and global bodies. The work programmes of the
conventions express more immediate priorities of a transboundary, regional or
global nature. In this respect, they help focus programme support. More
efforts are needed to coordinate these immediate, focused concerns with the
broader objectives and initiatives of international institutions.

95.          At the global level, the Commission on Sustainable Development,
in delivering its functions outlined in GA resolution 47/191 in the future,
should focus on those areas where it has comparative strength.  It could
continue to provide a forum for periodic review of the overall progress in the
implementation of Agenda 21; for policy debate and consensus building on
sustainable development issues; for strengthening partnerships for
sustainable development, including with major groups.  In other areas, such as
coordination of implementation at the national level or sectoral assessments,
the Commission could limit itself to maintaining and strengthening
communication/interaction with other actors involved in Agenda 21
implementation.  The aim would be to advise ECOSOC and the General Assembly on
the promotion of coherent actions and provide general policy guidance. 

96.          The mandate of the CSD, as the intergovernmental forum to monitor
overall follow-up to UNCED, including implementation of Agenda 21,
contemplates linkages beyond the United Nations system to include
conventions and intergovernmental bodies outside the system. It permits an
overview of these arrangements and their cumulative effects in relation to the
UNCED objectives. The decisions taken in the CSD have reinforced
decisions taken in other bodies, but the full potential of the CSD to
rationalize intergovernmental decision-making capacity for the integration of
environment and development issues has not been realized. There is a
need for governments to ensure that the views they express on policy and
programme matters in different intergovernmental bodies are generally
consistent and coherent.  

97.          For the most part, the decisions of the CSD and the decisions of
other governing bodies have been mutually supportive. The respective
secretariats have kept their governing bodies informed of related
developments.  UNEP■s Governing Council, for example, maintains a close
relationship with the CSD through the UNEP Secretariat.  Relevant CSD
decisions are brought to the attention of the Governing Council at its
regular sessions, in order that they are taken fully into account in the
execution of its role to direct and prioritize the work of the Programme.  The
Governing Council at its 18th session, re-emphasized the need for
UNEP, in accordance with its mandate and in implementation of Agenda 21, to
continue to provide effective support to the work of the CSD.  The decision
18/7 of the UNEP■s Governing Council clarifies the mandates and practices of
the Governing Council and its Secretariat in relation to the mandate and
practice of CSD and the IACSD.

98.          With regard to other bodies, programmes and organizations of the
United Nations system, including financial institutions, their future role in
the implementation of Agenda 21 seems two-fold:

 a) the main focus of their activities should be the coordinated
implementation of specific programmes and activities emanating from Agenda 21,
conventions relevant to sustainable development, and the decisions taken after
UNCED by the CSD and other bodies and conferences.  Priority here should be
given to achieving synergy, promoting joint programming and supporting
implementation at national level.

b) they should continue to support sustainable development debate in the CSD
by providing the Commission with expert advice and policy proposals on
specific aspects of sustainable development.  Such advice would be provided
through their governing and policy-making bodies as well as through
their secretariats.

99.         The IACSD and its Task Manager system has been effective in
pulling together theme-oriented reports which summarize the agencies'
activities. Questions about the respective roles and mandates of different
organizations have been addressed at the inter-agency level through the
IACSD■s Task Manager system which established a division of labour with regard
to Agenda 21.  At the intergovernmental level, the CSD provides an
overview of UNCED follow-up, which can enable more consistent and coherent
decision-making by governments. 

100.         Affirmation of the economic, social, environmental and cultural
principles inherent in the concept of sustainable development would be
enhanced by more systematic consideration of the follow-up to UNCED and
related major United Nations conferences. The means for intergovernmental and
inter-agency follow-up need to be further elaborated. The results of major UN
conferences related to sustainable development should be treated in an
integrated manner in the deliberations of the CSD, which should consider
also how to improve support for integrated follow-up at regional and national
levels. Further streamlining and adjustments may be appropriate to
avoid duplication of functions within the structure of ECOSOC.

101.         As the number of decision-making fora has multiplied,
particularly through the conventions, it has become increasingly difficult for
governments, agencies and others to discern the relationships among many
related policy and programme mandates.  A collaborative process among
secretariats can highlight specific policy and programme relationships as
initiatives are developed in international institutions and convention
processes, global and regional.  Secretariats should assist intergovernmental
decision-making by ensuring that intergovernmental decision-making takes into
account any issues of consistency. The information may be useful
at the national level in preparing for international fora and in forging
integrated responses to the conventions and policy documents adopted by United
Nations institutions and major conferences. To help governments and
others have a coherent overview, it may be useful for the cooperating
secretariats to develop reporting formats which clearly indicate
intergovernmental guidance given by governing bodies, as well as interactions
and synergies among agency (and convention) initiatives in relation to data
and information, policy formulation, and operational programmes.  Regional and
sectoral implications could also be summarized. 

102.         In order to fulfill the role envisaged for the Task Manager
system by the IACSD, it should evolve at the global level from
report-preparing mechanism to a mechanism which promotes inter-agency
cooperation on multisectoral issues. Further means should be explored to
promote forms of joint programming among UN system organizations and
convention secretariats.  The participation of representatives of convention
secretariats in inter-agency arrangements would be useful, depending on the
agenda of the fora.  Existing mechanisms at regional and country level could
use this same modality. The need for inter-sectoral cooperation in sustainable
development and scarcer resources, favour greater use of joint-programming
modalities, which may or may not necessarily be system-wide.  IACSD at the
inter-agency level and the CSD at the intergovernmental level need
to reflect on how they can promote, including through the use of incentives,
these types of cooperative arrangements.  Such arrangements could include
normative work at the global and regional levels, as well as technical
assistance at country level.

103.         A significant challenge for the IACSD will be how to make its
multisectoral system-wide initiatives and more focused, inter-sectoral
arrangements more mutually reinforcing and supportive of national and regional
level activities. Further consideration of Task Manager roles may be necessary
if its mandated functions are to be performed optimally.  In particular,
clarification is needed on what task managers can and cannot do to
strengthen programme delivery at country and regional levels, given that IACSD
was originally conceived to be a global-level mechanism and that mechanisms
for cooperation at the national and regional levels already exist. 

104.         There is a need for better understanding of the costs involved in
an effective Task Manager system in terms of staff time in preparing
discussion papers and reports and face to face interaction among
representatives of different institutions at global and regional levels. These
costs may grow as joint programming expands but may be off-set where there are
possibilities to pool human and financial resources.

105.         The CSD has a special role to play in reaching out to build new
alliances and partnerships and promote contributions and interactions with
major groups. Task Managers should ensure consultations with major groups
in preparing reports and joint programmes, both at individual and inter-agency
levels.  Representativity and selectivity of major groups are becoming issues
as their numbers expand.  Modalities and criteria are needed and the IACSD, or
some other inter-agency mechanisms, may wish to pursue these issues.  The
experience of the organizations with NGO consultative mechanisms to improve
programme design and delivery should be studied as a basis for refinements. 
Improvements are needed in procedures for NGO participation in the Bretton
Woods Institutions.

106.         At the regional level, there is a need to use intergovernmental
and inter-agency processes more effectively in order to address issues which
are regional in nature and require a regional response. The multidisciplinary
and cross-sectoral mandates of the United Nations regional commissions and of
certain regional bodies outside the United Nations system are conducive to
broad-based discussions of these issues at both policy and technical levels. 
The background material suggested above on relationships among the policies
and programmes of international institutions and convention processes could
help inform these discussions and relate them to priorities consistently
expressed at the regional level. 

107.         The role of regional convention processes in defining and shaping
specialized initiatives warrants further attention. There is growing emphasis
on regional agreements and more detailed regional implementing instruments, as
well as on regional implementation. Convention secretariats and international
agency staff are increasingly called upon to assist governments at the
regional level in preparing for convention fora and implementing the results.
These activities range from awareness-raising and interpretation to the types
of policies, laws, institutions, information, and technical measures called
for. Advice on the relationships among a growing array of conventions is
increasingly the subject of requests for assistance. 

108.         When it comes to programme delivery and implementation,
improvements are needed to ensure that the policy and programme initiatives of
United Nations institutions, consistent with their mandates, respond to needs
and priorities identified in the region. Institutional arrangements should
ensure effective consultations and coordination between the headquarters and
regional organs of the system, both at regional and country levels.
Enhanced cooperation at regional and national levels is needed also among all
institutions represented at the regional level, whether within or outside the
United Nations system.

109.         Consideration should be given to whether a Task Manager type of
approach could enhance cooperation among intergovernmental bodies and their
secretariats represented at the regional level. In the first instance, this
would involve organizations of the United Nations system. More consideration
needs to be given to coordination and cooperation with regional
intergovernmental bodies and their secretariats outside the system, including
the conventions. The growing number of regional organizations requires a clear
division of labour and a better use of existing regional cooperation
mechanisms.  This would help strengthen the roles, responsibilities, and
capabilities of actors in the region. Where regional arrangements can
cost-effectively support and reinforce national action, they should be

110.         Institutional arrangements also need to be strengthened to ensure
effective consultation and coordination between the headquarters and regional
organs of the system, both at regional and country levels.  Such
arrangements help devolve implementation actions related to Agenda 21 from the
global to the regional level, as stressed by CSD at its fourth session.  The
follow-up to UNCED calls for interaction and partnerships among a wide range
of regional entities within and outside the UN system, as part of such
arrangements.  This should include closer cooperation and coherence between
the work of different regional intergovernmental bodies and their

111.         These issues should be reviewed by the IACSD and/or through
existing inter-agency mechanisms at the regional level, and by governments in
each region, bearing in mind the ECOSOC review of regional arrangements in

112.         At the national level, a more effective and mutually supportive
link must be developed between global policy discussion, national needs and
realities, and UN system support to implementation at the national and
regional levels.  It is essential to ensure that policy decisions and
recommendations on sustainable development adopted at the global level are
translated into specific programmes and projects carried out in relevant
sectors/areas by agencies and organizations, and into concrete actions at the
field level.  At the same time, policy discussions on sustainable development
could benefit from practical experiences gained through international
cooperation at the country and regional levels, as well as in specific
sectoral programmes.

113.         Capacity building for sustainable development, in turn, should
respond to country-specific needs articulated in the country framework
document, wherein capacity building needs in the different disciplines and
sectors could be related. National sustainable development strategies are an
important mechanism for relating capacity-building needs in different
disciplines and sectors, while providing an actual/potential framework for
country-level action in sustainable development. It is important that the
Bretton Woods Institutions -- World Bank and IMF -- work together with UNDP to
strengthen capacities for developing and implementing these strategies,
keeping in mind country-specific nature and government ownership of the

114.         The work of the IACSD Task Force on Sustainable Development
Strategies needs to be intensified and harmonized with parallel processes with
Country Strategy Notes, Country Policy Frameworks and aid coordination. While
funding for UNDP's Capacity 21 Programme is a limiting factor, there is also a
need for the broader involvement of other UN organizations in its refinement
and implementation. The scope of the Programme must address all elements of
sustainability, including social and economic aspects. Moreover, capacity
building should not stop once general national sustainable development
strategies have been formulated. A national strategy is a dynamic instrument
which requires ongoing attention and specialized expertise in relation to
particular sectors. Support and motivation at the regional level can be
important in furthering these objectives at the national level. New mechanisms
for consultation and cooperation at the regional level, considered above,
could improve international support for capacity-building.

115.         There is not yet a well consolidated means of coordinating
country-level programming among the organizations of the United Nations
system, let alone other the wider range of bilateral and multilateral support
programs. Further work is needed among the agencies to bring issues of
coordination and integration to the attention of finance and planning
ministries as well as sectoral agencies, and there is a need to examine how
information resources identified and developed in the course of projects can
contribute to integrated national databases in support of national sustainable
development. The relationship between reporting, indicators, and the
broader information requirements for sustainable development should be taken
up at a future stage.

116.         The growing importance of local decision-making with regard to
Agenda 21 objectives calls for greater attention to local level Agenda 21s and
partnerships with local authorities.

117.         At all levels, it is important to reinforce the post-UNCED trend
emphasizing cooperation among United Nations bodies and conventions as well as
alliances with new partners, including non-United Nations bodies and
conventions, bilateral donors, regional development banks, and major groups.

C.  Funding Arrangements

118.         The decline in ODA and the ongoing financial crisis of the United
Nations system have placed serious constraints on funding for the objectives
of UNCED. The UN organizations have faced years of zero or negative growth in
their regular budgets, while programme demands have increased steadily. UNCED
follow-up activities have placed substantial additional demands on the system,
and extrabudgetary resources were necessary to meet these needs. As a result,
the ratio of extrabudgetary funding to regular budget resources has increased.

119.         Discrepancies increasingly exist between programme priorities
identified by governing bodies and the funds made available in regular
budgets. While donors may make extrabudgetary funds available to supplement
the regular budget, they usually earmark them for a special part of the
approved programme of interest to the donor. This may reduce the
organization's flexibility in meeting broad programme objectives. Donor
governments providing extrabudgetary support are urged to take into account
priorities set by the governing bodies of the organizations concerned. Other
governments are urged to join the few countries which presently provide
extrabudgetary support for UNCED follow-up activities, through both
regular and extrabudgetary resources. 

120.         While some economies may have resulted from reallocating existing
budgets to better reflect sustainable development goals, the expanded demands
for technical and financial assistance to implement them has far surpassed
funds available from the generally reduced budgets of the committed
organizations. Core funding is needed to maintain and strengthen in-house
expertise in the relevant disciplines and sectors and to ensure effective
inter-agency coordination at all levels. 

121.         The level of funding available to support international
initiatives related to UNCED goals, for example through the GEF and Capacity
21, has not met original expectations. Drastically reduced contributions to
the International Development Association (IDA) undermine the ability of the
poorest nations to move toward sustainable development. Support to UNDP's
Capacity 21 Programme should be complemented with support at the national and
regional levels. 

122.         In 1997 a replenishment of the financial resources of the GEF
will be negotiated.  A successful replenishment will be of critical importance
for the achievement of the GEF mission of integrating global environmental
concerns into the sustainable development process and for realizing the goals
of the global environmental conventions negotiated during the Rio process, as
well as for the continued financial viability of the Climate Change and
Biodiversity Conventions.

123.         The level of funding and its sources remains a critical issue,
but equally important is the way in which funds are used. Without an adequate
enabling environment for sustainable activities, funding alone will not
suffice. International and national sectoral agencies should improve their
dialogue with national economic and financial authorities in order to mobilize
resources and , helping to forge an integrated programme for sustainable
development. This approach should be reinforced by the international financial
institutions which interact primarily with economic and financial authorities.

124.         Funding strategies at both local and global levels should aim at
developing sources of funding for sustainable development and for exploring
innovative fund-raising schemes. To foster public-private partnerships, for
example, programmes should be more effectively formulated. 

125.         The CSD can play a very useful role in promoting diversified and
innovative funding arrangements with its full range of partners.


1)  E/CN.17/1996/16, 28 February 1996; and Background Paper No.1

2) Background paper No. 11, Report of the Meeting of Regional Institutions
(New York, 6-7 December, 1995).

3) An Inter-Agency Expert Group Meeting on Post-UNCED Institutional
Arrangements was convened by DPCSD in New York, 31 October - 1 November 1996,
to assess progress in individual organizations of the United Nations system
and with respect to several aspects of system-wide coordination.

4) ACC statement to the special session (E/CN.17/1997/13).

5) Terms of Reference for the IFCS, Annex I to the Resolution on the
establishment of an IFCS, Doc. IPCS/IFCS/94.Res.1, 19 April 1994, as contained
in UN Doc. E/CN.17/1994/19, 12 May 1994.  The conference establishing the IFCS
was convened by the executive heads of ILO, WHO, UNEP and held in
Stockholm at the invitation of the Government of Sweden.

6) Of particular relevance are discussions on funding the operational
activities for development of the United Nations system; review of the
mandates, composition, functions and working methods of ECOSOC functional
commissions and expert groups and bodies; review of the regional commissions;
inter-agency coordination; and the relationship between the United Nations and
international finance and trade institutions.  A/RES/50/227, 1 July 1996.

7) The ACC has established three inter-agency task forces for this purpose,
concerned with (a)  an enabling environment for social and economic
development, (b) employment and sustainable livelihoods, and (c) basic
social services for all.  These are seen as complementing the work of the
IACSD task managers.  Report of the Seventh Meeting of the IACSD, ACC/1991/1,
6 March 1996. 

8) E/1993/15, 1 February 1993 and Press Release SG/A/548, ENV/DEV/211, 1 July

9) Working with NGOs: Operational Activities for Development of the UN System
with NGOs and Governments at the Grassroots and National Levels, prepared by
F. Mezzalama and S. Schumm, Joint Inspection Unit (Geneva 1993); and
Participation by NGOs in the GEF, GEF/PA.93/2, 30 November 1993.

10) A/RES/50/227, 1 July 1996, Annex I, para. 36.

11) Report of UNCED: Institutional Arrangements, Report of the
Secretary-General, A/47/598, 29 October 1992.

12) A/RES/50/227, 1 July 1996, Annex I, para. 74.

13) Report of the High Level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development at its
fourth session(New York, 30 May - 1 June 1995).


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Date last posted: 10 December 1999 17:25:35
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD