United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


                   OECD Official Development Assistance Data


                              I.  INTRODUCTION


1.  At the second and third sessions of the Commission on Sustainable
Development (CSD), the Reporting Systems Division of the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), at the request of the Department
for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DPCSD) of the United
Nations, provided Official Development Assistance (ODA) and other relevant
data on the basis of specifications prepared by DPCSD. The purpose was to
present sectoral information that might assist in CSD's ongoing effort at
monitoring the implementation of Agenda 21.

2.  To continue to facilitate CSD's consideration of financial resources and
mechanisms, the OECD has updated the data through l993 for bilateral
commitments (data for l994 from two major donors have not been received yet)
and through l994 for multilateral commitments.  In an effort to improve
comparability with the categories used in Agenda 21, the OECD extracted data
on commitments corresponding to a new allocation of its purpose codes to the
chapters of Agenda 21 according to the scheme prepared by DPCSD and described
in Annex 1.  It should be noted that all official development finance
committed for development assistance is assumed for purposes of this exercise
to be for "sustainable development", the focus of the analysis being rather on
what changes in the allocation of financial assistance among the social,
economic and environmental components of sustainable development may have been
made in response to the challenges presented by Agenda 21.

3.  To ensure consistency and comparability, two time series have been
prepared for each of the headings selected:

  (a)  Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors' combined ODA bilateral
       commitments, 1980-1993;

  (b)  Multilateral institutions' combined commitments of ODA and loans on
       non-concessional terms, 1980-1993.

4.  As indicated in the introductions of previous years, the data for all
years exclude a significant volume of technical cooperation (TC). This
component is estimated to represent some 25 percent of the total commitments,
of which only a third to a quarter is reported in the Credit Reporting System
(CRS).  Since different sectors have different volumes of TC commitments,
caution is required in making cross-sectoral comparisons.  The higher the
input of TC, the greater the likelihood that the data understate the real
commitment level.

5.  In addition, trend analysis may be affected by gaps in some years for some
countries and changes in the assignment of codes. Furthermore, the data have
not been adjusted to allow for changes in the purchasing power of the dollar. 
With these caveats in mind, the tables attached are thought to reasonably
reflect overall trends.


         II.  TRENDS IN OFFICIAL FINANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

6.  Both categories of official development finance on a commitment basis at
current prices and exchange rates covered in this note exhibit declining
trends in overall levels since 1991 (Tables 1 and 2).  For a full discussion
of such developments in the context of the overall flow of financial resources
to developing countries, see the report of the Secretary-General, Financial
resources and mechanisms for sustainable development (E/CN.17/1996/4 and Add.
1).  There is, however, some evidence of changing allocations of financial
assistance among various subcategories of areas covered in Agenda 21 when the
period from 1990 to 1993 (bilateral) or 1990 to 1994 (multilateral) is
compared with previous years.

7.  Such changes can only have meaning when the subcategories in question
represent a substantial share of total commitment to begin with.  Such
subcategories are: manufacturing, alternative energy, energy distribution and
conservation, land transport, communications, human health, technology
transfer and capacity building, education and training, agriculture, and
protection of fresh water resources.  Environmental protection - which cuts
across Agenda 21 chapters - also accounts for a substantial share of total
commitments (Tables 3 and 4).  Financial resources (programme support), which
- in the case of bilateral assistance - include debt relief, also represent
large shares in both bilateral and multilateral assistance.  However, they
cannot be allocated among the different economic, social, environmental and
institutional categories used in Agenda 21.

8.  When the recent period, beginning in 1990 is compared with previous years,
only a small number of trends towards changing shares be observed (Tables 3
and 4).  In the case of both bilateral and multilateral commitments, there
appears to be a tendency for support to protection of freshwater resources to
increase and for support to agriculture to decline, for support to education
and training to increase, and for support to environmental protection as a
whole to increase.  Although small in absolute and relative terms, support to
integrating environment and development in decision-making and to information
for decision-making appears to have increased since 1990.

       Table 1: DAC Donors' Combined ODA Bilateral Commitments, 1980 - 1993 
                                (US$ millions)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        1980    1981    1982    1983    1984     1985     1986
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I. Social and
 Economic
 Dimensions             6217    5406    5742    5405    6065     5179    6291

 Accelerating
 sustainable
 development            5631    4813    5193    4885    5479     4435    5422

 a)  Manufacturing       738     800     654     671     598      607     837
 b)  Mining               45       2      15      22      10       26      15
 c)  Commerce             38       2      26      13      20       19      62
 d)  Traditional energy  237     284     448     492     624      367     317
 e)  Alternative energy  810     913     738     623    1131      568     663
 f)  Energy
     distribution/
     conservation        610     507     417     552     747      502     392
 g)  Sea transport       559     721     592     429     486      525     696
 h)  Land transport     1235     774    1165    1077     796      869    1017
 i)  Air transport       317      79     140     158     233      192     310
 j)  Communications      426     275     490     399     359      466     635
 k)  Miscellaneous       615     457     507     449     477      297     481

 Combating
 poverty                  60      29      34      27      26       50      59

 Demographic
 dynamics                 89      78     137     127     135      132     186

 Protecting &
 promoting
 human health            191     395     329     307     292      468     482

 Promoting
 sustainable
 human settlements       246      89      44      58     121       79     129

 Integrating
 environment and
 development in
 decision making           0       4       5       1      12       15      13


II. Conservation
 & Management
 of Resources           2305    2378    2177    2515    2802     2948    3029

 Protection of
 the atmosphere            0       0       0       0       0        0       0

 Land resources           31      40     102      75     136      130      47

 Combating
 deforestation             6      17      25      41      24       66      99

 Combating
 desertification           0       0       0       0       0        0       0

 Sustainable
 agriculture            1213    1216    1095    1106    1276     1346    1402

 Conservation
 of biological
 diversity                43     114      97      71     128       54      78

 Protection of
 oceans & seas           156     146     104      88     105       96     108

 Protection of
 freshwater
 resources               857     845     755    1134    1132     1255    1296

 Management of
 hazardous & solid
 wastes                    0       0       0       0       0        0       0

 Management of
 radioactive
 wastes                    0       0       0       0       0        0       0


III. Strengthening
 the Role of
 Major Groups              8      76      49      30      68      183     216

 Promoting women's role
 in sustainable
 development               1       6       4       5       5        9      45

 Strengthening the
 role of NGOs              7      70      45      25      64      174     171


IV. Means of
 Implementation         6769    6273    5806    5537    7305     7961    8901

 Financial resources
 & mechanisms           5892    5490    4822    4575    6141     6715    7568

 Technology transfer
 & capacity
 building                426     238     498     348     372      280     420

 Science for
 sustainable
 development             104      93     124     133     174      212     234

 Promoting education
 & training              335     437     340     473     591      713     671

 Information for
 decision-making          12      15      21       8      27       42       8
                       ------------------------------------------------------
 Sustainable
 Development,
 Total                 15305   14136   13779   13541   16241    16282   18458

 Emergency
 assistance              133     174     223     222     434      327     509
                      --------------------------------------------------------
Total ODA
 commitments           15991   14806   14629   14252   17437    17257   19787

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Memo item:
 environment
 protection                8       2       5      54       1       12      19


 Table 1 (cont'd): DAC Donors' Combined ODA Bilateral Commitments, 1980 - 1993
                                (US$ millions)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        1987    1988    1989    1990    1991     1992     1993
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I.  Social and
 Economic
 Dimensions             9726   12859   10037   10569   14007    11278   12293

 Accelerating
 sustainable
 development            8640   11571    8735    9069   12430     9501   10598

 a)  Manufacturing       874    1736    1235     841    1047     1241     992
 b)  Mining              108      80      46      19      70       14      11
 c)  Commerce             28     724      43      85      83      122     102
 d)  Traditional energy 1086     699     519     640     804     1313     751
 e)  Alternative energy 1086    1176    1037     736    2232      827     978
 f)  Energy distribution/
     conservation       1018    1544    1094    1156    1382      487    1718
 g)  Sea transport       806     856     855     461    1237      818     424
 h)  Land transport     1823    1878    1823    2495    2220     1795    2446
 i)  Air transport       191     259     216     260     482      216     370
 j)  Communications      594    1454     927    1224    1096     1364    1165
 k)  Miscellaneous      1026    1165     938    1153    1775     1303    1640

 Combating
 poverty                  76      62      59      48      68      136     106

 Demographic
 dynamics                178     151     140     192     165      237     261

 Protecting & promoting
 human health            646     877     832     807     781      882     909

 Promoting sustainable
 human settlements       182     189     253     120     203      171     200

 Integrating environment
 and development in
 decision making           4       9      23     335     360      352     220


II. Conservation &
 Management of
 Resources              3882    5268    4027    4793    4169     4215    4628

 Protection of the
 atmosphere                0       0       0     480       1        2       0

 Land resources          107     219     113      64     168       31      69

 Combating
 deforestation            67      61      49      73      47      153     174

 Combating
 desertification           0       0       2       1       2        9       8

 Sustainable
 agriculture            2130    2388    1870    2039    1371     1453    1351

 Conservation of
 biological diversity     68     265     132     117     304      289     130

 Protection of
 oceans & seas           173     220     177     121     235      182     225

 Protection of
 freshwater
 resources              1337    2116    1682    1885    2037     2056    2597

 Management of
 hazardous &
 solid wastes              0       0       2      14       3       39      74

 Management of
 radioactive wastes        0       0       0       0       0        0       0

III. Strengthening the Role
 of Major Groups         195     114     145     150     159      104     113

 Promoting women's
 role in sustainable
 develpopment             37      10      22      33      45       31      39

 Strengthening the
 role of NGOs            158     103     123     117     114       74      75

IV. Means of
 Implementation         9184   11069    9569   12127   17035    10565   10285

 Financial resources
 & mechanisms           7388    8872    6963   10315   14121     7762    8251

 Technology transfer
 & capacity
 building                534     928    1474     435    1059     1311     759

 Science for
 sustainable
 development             242     325     118     147     257      204     117

 Promoting education
 & training              998     898     943    1151    1532     1198    1050

 Information for
 decision-making          22      46      72      79      67       91     109
                        ------------------------------------------------------

Sustainable development,
 Total                 23002   29348   23881   28367   35694    26672   27978

Emergency
 assistance              555     502     414     574     568      648     508
                        ------------------------------------------------------

Total ODA
 commitments           24904   31116   25704   30082   37530    30321   29671
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Memo item:
 environment
 protection               15      39      98     733     327      515     663
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Source: Credit Reporting System, OECD


     Table 2:  Multilateral Institutions' Combined Commitments of ODA and
                        Loans at Non-Concessional Terms
                           1980-1994 (US$ millions)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        1980    1981    1982    1983    1984     1985     1986
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I. Social and
 Economic
 Dimensions             7249    7218    9867    8671    8880    10059    10056

 Accelerating
 sustainable
 development            6780    6457    9286    7456    8105     8584     7947

 a)  Manufacturing      1118    1139     816     710     739      677     1255
 b)  Mining                8      75     379      27     350        0      108
 c)  Commerce             17      46       9     809     410      437      180
 d)  Traditional energy 1508     863    1153     863     849     1120      335
 e)  Alternative energy 1123     895    1433    1544    1762     1626     1938
 f)  Energy distribution
     /conservation      1250    1247    2429    1629     848     2198     1526
 g)  Sea transport       433     180     485     330     467      474      451
 h)  Land transport     1067    1457    1974    1200    1985     1857     1492
 i)  Air transport        45      70      30      30      20       14       23
 j)  Communications      144     365     420     107     240      121      358
 k)  Miscellaneous        69     120     158     207     434       59      280

 Combating
 poverty                   0       0      23     183       8        0        0

 Demographic
 dynamics                 35       0       0       3       0      139        0

 Protecting & promoting
 human health            119     166      83     164     213      240      246

 Promoting sustainable
 human settlements       315     595     463     814     539     1086     1613

 Integrating environment
 and development in
 decision-making           0       0      12      51      15       11      250


II. Conservation &
 Management of
 Resources              5084    5167    5260    5722    5125     5552     6488

 Protection of the
 atmosphere                0       0       0       0       0        0        0

 Land resources           51      56     163     151     265      388      479

 Combating
 deforestation            90       0      35      12       2      242       62

 Combating
 desertification           0       0       0       0       0        0        0

 Sustainable
 agriculture            2044    3108    2729    2906    2553     2686     3861

 Conservation of
 biological
 diversity                59      45     182     106     111      137       53

 Protection of
 oceans & seas           246     120     117     162     100       34      171

 Protection of
 freshwater
 resources              2594    1838    2036    2385    2094     2066     1863

 Management of
 hazardous &
 solid wastes              0       0       0       0       0        0        0

 Management of
 radioactive
 wastes                    0       0       0       0       0        0        0

III. Strengthening the
 Role of Major Groups     10       0       0      16       0      142        0

 Promoting women's role
 in sustainable
 development               0       0       0       0       0        0        0

 Strengthening the
 role of NGOs             10       0       0      16       0      142        0

IV.  Means of
 Implementation         2898    4295    4460    5728    4433     5191     4878

 Financial resources
 & mechanisms            712    1259    1513    2255    1319      843     1509

 Technology transfer &
 capacity building      1428    2052    2193    2311    1917     2897     2463

 Science for
 sustainable
 development             117     129      32     174      88      184      108

 Promoting education
 & training              635     856     722     939    1073     1137      799

 Information for
 decision-making           7       0       1      50      36      130        0
                        ------------------------------------------------------

Sustainable development,
 Total                 15300   16681   19647   20144   18444    20945    21447

Emergency
 assistance               27      21      66      95     215       46        0
                        ------------------------------------------------------

Total ODA
 commitments           16671   17546   20635   20795   20465    22161    23443
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Memo item: environment
 protection               58       0      60       7       5        0       25
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Table 2 (cont'd):  Multilateral Institutions' Combined Commitments of
                      ODA and Loans at Non-Concessional Terms
                             1986-1994 (US$ millions) 1/

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       1987    1988   1989   1990   1991   1992    1993   1994
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I.  Social and
 Economic
 Dimensions           12039   12546  12217  13230  15644  16798   11795  14556

 Accelerating
 sustainable
 development          10302    9651  10595   9320  11895  13973    9917  11703

 a)  Manufacturing     1692    1989   3471   1372   2432   1522     364   1667
 b)  Mining              12      31     44     77    205      0       0      0
 c)  Commerce          1056     465    557    100    300    346      40    623
 d)  Traditional
     energy             629     451    485    246    612    533     317    856
 e)  Alternative
     energy            1776    1429   1718   1171   1009   2433    1259   1108

 f)  Energy
     distribution/
     conservation      1825    2721    972   2985   1725   2515    1492   1380

 g)  Sea transport      302     253    592    359    354    425     591    195

 h)  Land transport    2145    2036   2372   1590   2174   2038    2878   4489

 i)  Air transport        6       8      2      8     98     16     232     11

 j)  Communications     551     180    268    946     70    670     996    368

 k)  Miscellaneous      307      89    115    467   2917   3475    1748   1006

 Combating
 poverty                  0      27     28     55    320    600      81    648

 Demographic
 dynamics                 0      87    125    132    279     33      19    131

 Protection & promoting
 human health           172     538    470   1064   1276    560    1261   1033

 Promoting sustainable
 human settlements     1167    2184    999   2308   1450   1167     451    967

 Integrating environment
 and development in
 decision-making        399      59      0    352    423    465      66     73


II.  Conservation &
 Management of
 Resources             6758    5016   5406   6969   5324   6774    3315   6891

 Protection of the
 atmosphere               0       0      0      0      0    220       0    143

 Land resources         862     538    185     57     33    230      66    434

 Combating
 deforestation            0      57     70    142      0      6       0    222

 Combating
 desertification          0       0      0      0      0      0       0      0

 Sustainable
 agriculture           2937    2342   2921   3880   1689   3186    1395   2732

 Conservation of
 biological
 diversity              293     367    109    419     86    816      28     53

 Protection of
 oceans & seas          183      41    148     62    129    153      58      1

 Protection of
 freshwater
 resources             2482    1670   1973   2410   3387   2148    1768   3282

 Management of
 hazardous &
 solid wastes             0       0      0      0      0     15       0     25

 Management of
 radioactive
 wastes                   0       0      0      0      0      0       0      0


III.  Strengthening the
 Role of Major Groups    31       0      0     10      8     18      10     55

 Promoting women's role
 in sustainable
 development              0       0      0     10      8     18      10      8

 Strengthening the
 role of NGOs            31       0      0      0      0      0       0     47


IV.  Means of
 Implementation        5362    6433   7799   7640   7896   5562    4563   4844

 Financial resources
 & mechanisms          2518    2664   2265   2292   1659   1650     869   1613

 Technology transfer
 & capacity
 building              2019    2537   4032   3265   2980   1550    1692    428

 Science for
 sustainable
 development             85      79     98    183    267     77      57    207

 Promoting education
 & training             741    1153   1404   1890   2749   2040    1924   2370

 Information for
 decision-making          0       0      0     12    242    245      21    227
                       -------------------------------------------------------
Sustainable development,
 Total                24240   23995  25589  28018  29445  30681   20300  27518

Emergency
 assistance              80       0      0      0    276    231     177    246
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total ODA
 commitments          26182   25339  27594  29278  34583  33603   24351  28627
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memo item:
 environment
 protection              50       0    167    168    573   1529     617   1181
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note:       1/  Provisional

Source: Credit Reporting System, OECD


      Table 3: DAC Donors' Combined ODA Bilateral Commitments, 1980 - 1993
                             (Percentage shares)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               1980   1981   1982   1983   1984    1985   1986
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I.  Social and
 Economic
 Dimension                   40.62  38.24  41.67  39.91  37.34   31.81  34.08 

 Accelerating sustainable
 development                 36.79  34.05  37.69  36.07  33.74   27.24  29.38 
 a)  Manufacturing            4.82   5.66   4.75   4.96   3.68    3.73   4.53 
 b)  Mining                   0.29   0.01   0.11   0.16   0.06    0.16   0.08 
 c)  Commerce                 0.25   0.01   0.19   0.09   0.12    0.11   0.33 
 d)  Traditional energy       1.55   2.01   3.25   3.63   3.84    2.25   1.72 
 e)  Alternative energy       5.29   6.46   5.36   4.60   6.96    3.49   3.59 
 f)  Energy distribution/
     conservation             3.99   3.59   3.03   4.07   4.60    3.08   2.12 
 g)  Sea transport            3.65   5.10   4.30   3.17   2.99    3.22   3.77 
 h)  Land transport           8.07   5.48   8.45   7.95   4.90    5.34   5.51 
 i)  Air transport            2.07   0.56   1.02   1.17   1.43    1.18   1.68 
 j)  Communications           2.78   1.95   3.56   2.95   2.21    2.86   3.44 
 k)  Miscellaneous            4.02   3.24   3.68   3.32   2.94    1.82   2.61 

 Combating poverty            0.39   0.20   0.25   0.20   0.16    0.31   0.32 

 Demographic dynamics         0.58   0.55   1.00   0.94   0.83    0.81   1.01 

 Protecting & promoting
 human health                 1.24   2.79   2.39   2.27   1.80    2.87   2.61 

 Promoting sustainable
 human settlements            1.60   0.63   0.32   0.43   0.75    0.48   0.70 

 Integrating environment
 and development in
 decision-making              0.00   0.03   0.03   0.01   0.07    0.09   0.07 


II. Conservation &
 Management of Resources     15.06  16.82  15.80  18.57  17.25   18.10  16.41 

 Protection of the
 atmosphere                   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00   0.00 

 Land resources               0.20   0.28   0.74   0.55   0.84    0.80   0.25 

 Combating
 deforestation                0.04   0.12   0.18   0.30   0.15    0.41   0.54 

 Combating
 desertification              0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00   0.00 

 Sustainable
 agriculture                  7.92   8.60   7.94   8.17   7.86    8.27   7.60 

 Conservation of
 biological diversity         0.28   0.81   0.70   0.53   0.79    0.33   0.42 

 Protection of
 oceans & seas                1.02   1.03   0.76   0.65   0.65    0.59   0.58 

 Protection of freshwater
 resources                    5.60   5.97   5.48   8.38   6.97    7.71   7.02 

 Management of hazardous
 & solid wastes               0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00   0.00 

 Management of
 radioactive wastes           0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00   0.00 

III. Strengthening the
 Role of Major Groups         0.05   0.54   0.36   0.22   0.42    1.12   1.17 

 Promoting women's role
 in sustainable
 development                  0.01   0.04   0.03   0.04   0.03    0.05   0.24 

 Strengthening the
 role of NGOs                 0.04   0.50   0.33   0.18   0.39    1.07   0.93 

IV.  Means of
 Implementation              44.22  44.37  42.13  40.89  44.98   48.89  48.22 

 Financial resources
 & mechanims                 38.50  38.84  35.00  33.78  37.81   41.24  41.00 

 Technology transfer &
 capacity building            2.78   1.68   3.61   2.57   2.29    1.72   2.28 

 Science for sustainable
 development                  0.68   0.66   0.90   0.98   1.07    1.30   1.27 

 Promoting education
 & training                   2.19   3.09   2.47   3.49   3.64    4.38   3.63 

 Information for
 decision-making              0.08   0.10   0.15   0.06   0.17    0.26   0.05 
                            --------------------------------------------------
Sustainable development,
 Total                      100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00  100.00 100.00 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memo item: environmental
 protection                    0.05   0.01   0.04   0.88   0.01    0.07   0.10
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Table 3 (cont'd): DAC Donors' Combined ODA Bilateral Commitments,
                      1980 - 1993 (Percentage shares)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               1987   1988   1989   1990   1991    1992   1993
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I.  Social and Economic
 Dimensions                  42.28  43.81  42.03  37.26  39.24   42.28   43.94

 Accelerating sustainable
 development                 37.56  39.43  36.58  31.97  34.82   35.62   37.88

 a)  Manufacturing            3.80   5.92   5.17   2.96   2.93    4.65    3.55
 b)  Mining                   0.47   0.27   0.19   0.07   0.20    0.05    0.04
 c)  Commerce                 0.12   2.47   0.18   0.30   0.23    0.46    0.36
 d)  Traditional energy       4.72   2.38   2.17   2.26   2.25    4.92    2.68
 e)  Alternative energy       4.72   4.01   4.34   2.59   6.25    3.10    3.50
 f)  Energy distribution/
     conservation             4.43   5.26   4.58   4.07   3.87    1.83    6.14
 g)  Sea transport            3.50   2.92   3.58   1.62   3.47    3.07    1.52
 h)  Land transport           7.93   6.40   7.63   8.79   6.22    6.73    8.74
 i)  Air transport            0.83   0.88   0.90   0.92   1.35    0.81    1.32
 j)  Communications           2.58   4.95   3.88   4.31   3.07    5.12    4.16
 k)  Miscellaneous            4.46   3.97   3.93   4.06   4.97    4.88    5.86

 Combating poverty            0.33   0.21   0.25   0.17   0.19    0.51    0.38

 Demographic dynamics         0.77   0.52   0.59   0.68   0.46    0.89    0.93

 Protecting & promoting
 human health                 2.81   2.99   3.49   2.84   2.19    3.31    3.25

 Promoting sustainable
 human settlements            0.79   0.64   1.06   0.42   0.57    0.64    0.71

 Integrating environment
 and development in
 decision-making              0.02   0.03   0.10   1.18   1.01    1.32    0.79

II.  Conservation and
 Management of Resources     16.88  17.95  16.86  16.90  11.68   15.80   16.54

 Protection of the
 atmosphere                   0.00   0.00   0.00   1.69   0.00    0.01    0.00

 Land resources               0.46   0.75   0.47   0.22   0.47    0.12    0.25

 Combating
 deforestation                0.29   0.21   0.21   0.26   0.13    0.57    0.62

 Combating
 desertification              0.00   0.00   0.01   0.00   0.00    0.03    0.03

 Sustainable
 agriculture                  9.26   8.14   7.83   7.19   3.84    5.45    4.83

 Conservation of
 biological diversity         0.29   0.90   0.55   0.41   0.85    1.08    0.46

 Protection of
 oceans & seas                0.75   0.75   0.74   0.43   0.66    0.68    0.80

 Protection of
 freshwater resources         5.81   7.21   7.04   6.65   5.71    7.71    9.28

 Management of hazardous
 & solid wastes               0.00   0.00   0.01   0.05   0.01    0.14    0.26

 Management of radioactive
 wastes                       0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00    0.00

III. Strengthening the
 Role of Major Groups         0.85   0.39   0.61   0.53   0.44    0.39    0.40

 Promoting women's role
 in sustainable
 development                  0.16   0.04   0.09   0.12   0.13    0.11    0.14

 Strengthening the
 role of NGOs                 0.69   0.35   0.52   0.41   0.32    0.28    0.27

IV.  Means of
 Implementation              39.93  37.72  40.07  42.75  47.72   39.61   36.76

 Financial resources
 & mechanisms                32.12  30.23  29.15  36.36  39.56   29.10   29.49

 Technology transfer
 & capacity building          2.32   3.16   6.17   1.53   2.97    4.91    2.71

 Science for sustainable
 development                  1.05   1.11   0.49   0.52   0.72    0.77    0.42

 Promoting education
 & training                   4.34   3.06   3.95   4.06   4.29    4.49    3.75

 Information for
 decision-making              0.10   0.16   0.30   0.28   0.19    0.34    0.39
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sustainable development,
 Total                      100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00   100.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memo item: environmental
 protection                    0.06   0.13   0.41   2.58   0.91    1.93   2.36
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Source: Credit Reporting System, OECD


     Table 4:  Multilateral Institutions' Combined Commitments of ODA and
                    Loans at Non-Concessional Terms
                   1980-1994 (Percentage shares)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               1980   1981   1982   1983   1984   1985   1986
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I.  Social and
 Economic Dimensions         47.38  43.27  50.22  43.04  48.15  48.03   46.89

 Accelerating sustainable
 development                 44.31  38.71  47.26  37.02  43.95  40.98   37.05

 a)  Manufacturing            7.31   6.83   4.15   3.52   4.01   3.23    5.85
 b)  Mining                   0.05   0.45   1.93   0.14   1.90   0.00    0.50
 c)  Commerce                 0.11   0.27   0.04   4.02   2.22   2.09    0.84
 d)  Traditional energy       9.86   5.18   5.87   4.29   4.60   5.35    1.56
 e)  Alternative energy       7.34   5.37   7.29   7.66   9.56   7.76    9.04
 f)  Energy distribution/
     conservation             8.17   7.47  12.36   8.09   4.60  10.50    7.12
 g)  Sea transport            2.83   1.08   2.47   1.64   2.53   2.26    2.10
 h)  Land transport           6.97   8.74  10.05   5.96  10.76   8.87    6.95
 i)  Air transport            0.29   0.42   0.15   0.15   0.11   0.07    0.11
 j)  Communications           0.94   2.19   2.14   0.53   1.30   0.58    1.67
 k)  Miscellaneous            0.45   0.72   0.81   1.03   2.35   0.28    1.31

 Combating poverty            0.00   0.00   0.12   0.91   0.04   0.00    0.00

 Demographic dynamics         0.23   0.00   0.00   0.01   0.00   0.66    0.00

 Protecting & promoting
 human health                 0.78   1.00   0.42   0.81   1.16   1.15    1.15

 Promoting sustainable
 human settlements            2.06   3.57   2.36   4.04   2.92   5.18    7.52

 Integrating environment
 and development in
 decision-making              0.00   0.00   0.06   0.25   0.08   0.05    1.17

II.  Conservation &
 Management of
 Resources                   33.23  30.98  26.77  28.40  27.79  26.51   30.25

 Protection of the
 atmosphere                   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00

 Land resources               0.33   0.34   0.83   0.75   1.44   1.85    2.23

 Combating
 deforestation                0.59   0.00   0.18   0.06   0.01   1.16    0.29

 Combating
 desertification              0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00

 Sustainable
 agriculture                 13.36  18.63  13.89  14.43  13.84  12.82   18.00

 Conservation of
 biological diversity         0.39   0.27   0.92   0.53   0.60   0.65    0.25

 Protection of
 oceans & seas                1.61   0.72   0.59   0.80   0.54   0.16    0.80

 Protection of
 freshwater resources        16.96  11.02  10.36  11.84  11.35   9.86    8.69

 Management of hazardous
 & solid wastes               0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00

 Management of
 radioactive wastes           0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00

III. Strengthening the
 Role of Major Groups         0.07   0.00   0.00   0.08   0.00   0.68    0.00

 Promoting women's role
 in sustainable
 development                  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00

 Strengthening the
 role of NGOs                 0.07   0.00   0.00   0.08   0.00   0.68    0.00

IV.  Means of
 Implementation              18.94  25.75  22.70  28.44  24.04  24.79   22.74

 Financial resources
 & mechanisms                 4.65   7.55   7.70  11.19   7.15   4.03    7.04

 Technology transfer
 & capacity building          9.33  12.30  11.16  11.47  10.40  13.83   11.48

 Science for sustainable
 development                  0.77   0.77   0.16   0.86   0.48   0.88    0.50

 Promoting education
 & training                   4.15   5.13   3.67   4.66   5.82   5.43    3.72

 Information for
 decision-making              0.04   0.00   0.00   0.25   0.20   0.62    0.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sustainable development,
 Total                      100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00  100.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memo item: environmental
 protection                    0.38    0.0   0.30   0.03   0.03    0.0   0.12
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Table 4 (cont'd):  Multilateral Institutions' Combined Commitments of
                   ODA and Loans at Non-Concessional Terms
                        1986-1994 (Percentage shares)

                        1987   1988   1989   1990   1991   1992   1993   1994
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I.  Social and
 Economic
 Dimensions           49.67  52.29  47.74  47.22  53.13  54.75  58.10   52.89

 Accelerating
 sustainable
 development          42.50  40.22  41.41  33.27  40.40  45.54  48.85   42.53

 a)  Manufacturing     6.98   8.29  13.56   4.90   8.26   4.96   1.79    6.06
 b)  Mining            0.05   0.13   0.17   0.28   0.70   0.00   0.00    0.00
 c)  Commerce          4.35   1.94   2.18   0.36   1.02   1.13   0.20    2.26
 d)  Traditional
     energy            2.60   1.88   1.89   0.88   2.08   1.74   1.56    3.11
 e)  Alternative
     energy            7.33   5.95   6.72   4.18   3.43   7.93   6.20    4.03
 f)  Energy
     distribution/
     conservation      7.53  11.34   3.80  10.65   5.86   8.20   7.35    5.02
 g)  Sea transport     1.24   1.06   2.32   1.28   1.20   1.39   2.91    0.71
 h)  Land transport    8.85   8.48   9.27   5.68   7.38   6.64  14.18   16.31
 i)  Air transport     0.02   0.03   0.01   0.03   0.33   0.05   1.14    0.04
 j)  Communications    2.27   0.75   1.05   3.38   0.24   2.18   4.90    1.34
 k)  Miscellaneous     1.27   0.37   0.45   1.67   9.90  11.32   8.61    3.65

 Combating poverty     0.00   0.11   0.11   0.20   1.09   1.95   0.40    2.35

 Demographic
 dynamics              0.00   0.36   0.49   0.47   0.95   0.11   0.09    0.48

 Protecting & promoting
 human health          0.71   2.24   1.84   3.80   4.33   1.83   6.21    3.75

 Promoting sustainable
 human settlements     4.81   9.10   3.90   8.24   4.92   3.80   2.22    3.52

 Integrating
 environment and
 development in
 decision-making       1.65   0.25   0.00   1.26   1.44   1.52   0.32    0.27

II. Conservation &
 Management of
 Resources            27.88  20.90  21.13  24.87  18.08  22.08  16.33   25.04

 Protection of
 the atmosphere        0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.72   0.00    0.52

 Land resources        3.56   2.24   0.72   0.20   0.11   0.75   0.33    1.58

 Combating
 deforestation         0.00   0.24   0.27   0.51   0.00   0.02   0.00    0.81

 Combating
 desertification       0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00

 Sustainable
 agriculture          12.11   9.76  11.41  13.85   5.73  10.38   6.87    9.93

 Conservation of
 biological
 diversity             1.21   1.53   0.43   1.49   0.29   2.66   0.14    0.19
 Protection of
 oceans & seas         0.76   0.17   0.58   0.22   0.44   0.50   0.29    0.00

 Protection of
 freshwater
 resources            10.24   6.96   7.71   8.60  11.50   7.00   8.71   11.92

 Management of
 hazardous &
 solid wastes          0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.05   0.00    0.09

 Management of
 radioactive
 wastes                0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00

III.  Strengthening
 the Role of
 Major Groups          0.13   0.00   0.00   0.04   0.03   0.06   0.05    0.20

 Promoting women's
 role in sustainable
 development           0.00   0.00   0.00   0.04   0.03   0.06   0.05    0.03

 Strengthening the
 role of NGOs          0.13   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00    0.17

IV.  Means of
 Implementation       22.12  26.81  30.48  27.27  26.82  18.13  22.48   17.60

 Financial resources
 & mechanisms         10.39  11.10   8.85   8.18   5.63   5.38   4.28    5.86

 Technology transfer
 & capacity
 building              8.33  10.57  15.76  11.65  10.12   5.05   8.33    1.56

 Science for
 sustainable
 development           0.35   0.33   0.38   0.65   0.91   0.25   0.28    0.75

 Promoting education
 & training            3.06   4.81   5.49   6.74   9.34   6.65   9.48    8.61

 Information for
 decision-making       0.00   0.00   0.00   0.04   0.82   0.80   0.10    0.82
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sustainable development,
 Total                100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memo item:
 environmental
 protection             0.21    0.0   0.65   0.60   1.95   4.98   3.04   4.29
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1/ Provisional

Source: Credit Reporting System, OECD

 


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Date last posted: 3 December 1999 10:27:35
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD