United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


                  African Regional Workshop on Technology Needs Assessment
              in Support of the Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies
                          and International Technology Cooperation.

                                   Report of the Workshop

                                        INTRODUCTION

1. At its third session in 1995, the Commission on Sustainable Development
(CSD) adopted a  Programme of Work on "Transfer of environmentally sound
technologies (ESTs), cooperation and capacity-building" and urged countries
and international organizations to report on its implementation at the
Commission's sessions in 1996 and 1997.  In response to the request of the
CSD, the African Regional Centre for Technology (ARCT) in Dakar,
Senegal, the United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
Development (DPCSD) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
(ECA) co-organized an African Regional Workshop on Technology Needs Assessment
in Support of the Transfer of ESTs and International Technology Cooperation. 
The workshop was organized in consultation and with the help of the office of
the UNDP Resident Representative in Dakar.

2. The workshop was held in Dakar, Senegal, from 17-19 January 1996. It
focussed on the assessment of technological needs of particular sectors of
countries of the African region.  The overall objective was to advance the
understanding of the role of technology needs assessments as a supportive tool
in the transfer and management of ESTs and for the improvement of
international cooperation regarding ESTs, under the conditions and needs of
African countries.

3. Workshop participants decided to make the report of the workshop available
to the fourth session of the CSD, New York, 18 April-3 May 1996.
 
4. The workshop was organized around three working sessions and held over a
three-day period.  It was attended by 31 experts from 15 African countries and
6 representatives from international organizations. 

5. The workshop was chaired by Dr. Ousmane Kane, Acting Executive Director of
ARCT.  A moderator was appointed for each of the three working sessions: Dr.
Isaac Amuah from South Africa (working session I), Ms. Abigail Andah from
Ghana (working session II), and Mr. Lowell Flanders from DPCSD (working
session III).  

6. Dr. Ousmane Kane gave the opening address. Her Excellency Dr. Marie-Louise
Correa, Honorable Minister for Scientific Research and Technology of the
Republic of Senegal gave the welcoming address on behalf on the Government of
Senegal. Statements were also made by Ms. Odile Sorgho-Moulinier, UNDP
Resident Representative in Senegal and Mr. Lowell Flanders, Assistant
Director, Division for Sustainable Development, Department for
Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development.

7. Keynote presentations introducing the respective working sessions, were
given by Dr. Ousmane Kane, ARCT as well as by Dr. John Skinner, United Nations
Environment Programme, Industry and Environment Office in Paris (working
session I); Dr. Klaas Jan Moning, Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and
Environment of the Netherlands as well as Dr. David Mbah, Ministry of
Scientific and Technical Research of Cameroon (working session II). 
Mr. Flanders summarized the keynote presentations prepared by the ECA (for
working session II) and Dr. John Mugabe, African Centre for Technology Studies
in Kenya (for working session III).

8. The keynote presentations were followed by a discussion that included a
number of brief presentations by other participating experts highlighting
practical experiences and results.  Each working session concluded with a
summary of key issues addressed during the respective sessions, and provided
main conclusions and recommendations for incorporation into the report of the
workshop.

9. With a view to facilitate the task of the session moderators, the Chairman
suggested that the discussion should address areas such as:

       -     What are the linkages between technology needs assessment and
       technology assessment?

       -      Are there specific cases in Africa where technology needs
       assessment was part of technology transfer or acquisition
       activities/arrangements?  How was technology needs assessment applied
in
       these cases and with what results?

       -      What experiences exist in developing methodologies for
technology
       needs assessment in support of the transfer of ESTs that have proven to
       be useful under the conditions and needs of countries in the African
       region?

       -      What are the experiences of public and private sector managers
       with regards to the usefulness of technology needs assessment as a
       supporting tool for identifying actual technology needs, developing
       sector-specific technology strategies, and facilitating technology
       acquisition/transfer?

       -      What is the extent of actual consultation/cooperation between
       institutions of science and technology, business and industry, and
       national/local governments in African countries in undertaking
       technology needs assessments, and using their recommendations for
       decision-making regarding technology generation, acquisition/transfer
       and diffusion?

       -      What capacities and capabilities have to be developed at both
       national/local government and company levels in order to undertake
       technology needs assessment as a basis for successfully
       acquiring/transferring ESTs?  What specific measures have to be taken
to
       develop the required capacities and capabilities?  Are there specific
       capacity/capability-building functions which could be performed best by
       technology centres or their equivalent networks or mechanisms?

       -      What would be promising ways and means for improving the
exchange
       of experiences and results among countries in the African region
       regarding the use and usefulness of technology needs assessment as a
       supporting tool for identifying actual technology needs, developing
       sector-specific technology strategies, and facilitating successful
       technology acquisition and transfer operations under the conditions and
       needs of countries in the African region?
       
10. The report of the workshop was discussed and adopted by the participants
of the meeting.

       WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS

       A.     Presentations of the First Working Session

11. The session was opened by the Acting Executive Director of the African
Regional Centre for Technology (ARCT), Dr. Ousmane Kane who gave an overview
of the work of ARCT, relating to various political decisions such as the Lagos
Plan of Action, the Common African Position, and the various ECA meetings of
Environment Ministers. He outlined the results of needs assessment surveys
undertaken in five African countries focused on the rural sector of the
respective countries. Questionnaires, open-ended interviews and relevant
documents were the main instruments for information and data gathering. The
needs assessment surveys confirmed the medium and long term potential of rural
technologies, including new and renewable energy sources as well as water
supply and food technologies.

12. The study and the presentation illustrated the intrinsic relationship
between development, environment and technology and stressed that technology
needs assessment (TNA) can be an important instrument for the identification
of technology needs, the development of sector specific technology strategies
and facilitator of sound technology acquisition and transfer. It was argued
that technology and development processes have to be organically linked into a
technology development plan backed by policy declarations with operational
value. There is need for the creation of national capacities for the conduct
of technology needs assessment, technology assessment and technology
forecasting. Without such capacity, transfer of environmentally sound
technology will be difficult.

13. The Senior Advisor of the UNEP Industry and Environment Office in Paris
made the link between technology needs assessment and three programmes being
carried out by UNEP, namely the Ozone Action Programme, related to the
Montreal Protocol, the Cleaner Production Programme and the Environmental
Technology Assessment (EnTA) programme. He also mentioned the survey of
information systems on ESTs that UNEP is conducting on behalf of the
Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). It was noted that UNEP had
surveyed 240 organizations and identified some 51 different information
systems related to ESTs.

14. The representative of the UNEP International Environmental Technology
Centre (IETC) in Osaka, Japan made a brief presentation of IETC's role as a
catalyst in facilitating the transfer of ESTs to developing countries and
countries with economies in transition. The Centre focuses on "soft" and
"hard" technologies to address, in particular, urban environmental problems
and sustainable management of fresh water resources. The IETC strategy is
focused on three main issues: (a) building individual and institutional
capacities; (b) fostering technology cooperation, partnerships and transfer;
and (c) improving access to information on ESTs. Although located in Japan,
the IETC is actively working to assist African countries. In all three areas
of activity mentioned above, the IETC has already identified technology needs
in its fields of expertise.

15. The Director of the Ghana Food Research Institute made a presentation on
the "Development and Extension of Sustainable Technologies for the Processing
and Preservation of Fish and Cassava. Her presentation summarized the
experience gained by FRI in the development and transfer of sustainable
technologies for small scale processing and preservation of fish and cassava.
Technology needs assessment was identified as an essential element in the
overall approach to the generation and diffusion of cleaner technologies,
although initially such assessment were done on and informal basis through
observation and discussion with the participating groups. FRI has found that
in addition to technical efficiency, the social, economic, cultural and
political context in which the technology is applied is even more important.
The techniques employed for needs assessment included direct observation, 
interviews of individuals, groups, and key informants among the target
beneficiaries and study of secondary data. To select a suitable technological
option, alternative technological designs were assessed taking into
consideration the target groups socio-economic and biophysical environment.
FRI technologies have proven socially, economically and technically viable in
more than 100 towns and villages of Ghana.

       B.     Presentations of the Second Working Session

16. The second session of the Workshop was focused on approaches and
methodologies for the planning, execution and implementation of technology
needs assessment with specific reference to the conditions of African
countries.

17. A paper was presented on behalf of the Economic Commission for Africa
(ECA) on methodologies for conducting technology needs assessment for transfer
of environmentally sound technologies in Africa. The  paper dealt with
technology assessment and technology needs assessment, both of which are  seen
as essential to determine what the technology needs of African countries are
and to assess the impact of such technology. In the past, technology transfer
has generally not contributed to an improvement in overall welfare, because
only the economic impact of such transfers was taken into account. The
methodology for technology assessment should include an integrated approach
involving multi-disciplinary expertise. Such approach requires data bases,
expertise in statistical manipulation, techniques for formulating alternative
scenarios and models of possible outcomes. Supporting techniques include: (a)
cost benefit analysis; (b) multiple network analysis; (c) cross-impact
analysis; (d) operations research; (e) questionnaires; 
(f) sequential polling and review by interacting expert teams; (g) mitre
methodology; and (h) scenario building.  A multi-stakeholder approach was also
emphasized.

18. The representative of the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and
Environment of the Netherlands discussed methodologies for national needs
assessment based on case studies and the experiences of Costa Rica, Pakistan,
Switzerland and the Netherlands. An international workshop is planned on this
subject by the Netherlands and Switzerland in February 1996. He emphasized
that national needs assessment aims at establishing a national policy
framework for the application and management of ESTs.  The objective of the
NNA is to identify the capacity-building needs for a country.  These
capacities have to be realized in order to remove the bottlenecks for EST
application.  This EST application serves for reaching the socio-economic and
environmental goals set by the country in order to reach sustainable
development.  Once the capacities are realized, they will facilitate the
private sector to adopt technologically sustainable solutions.  The various
stages of the NNA process include the preparation, the assessment and the
follow-up phases.

19. The Director of Valorization and Development Support at the Cameroon
Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research recounted his experience with
technology needs assessment for livestock production in two regions of
Cameroon. The assessment was based on a multi- disciplinary questionnaire with
the involvement of various stakeholders. Farmers were the key informants. The
results of the survey were analyzed in a logical framework using the concept
of  "problem tree" with the problems organized in a hierarchy with the most
general at the top and contributing factors listed below. This helped the
researchers and other stakeholders to develop a corresponding "solution" tree
or ways to address the various problems identified. Efforts were then made to
identify the types of technologies that could best address the problems.
Technology solutions were then assessed for their potential environmental
impacts, also taking into account socio-cultural issues. The exercise of
technology needs assessment gave more confidence to the stakeholders and
strengthened the government's position with potential donors who might wish to
assist with further livestock development.

20. The Chief Research Officer of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and
Marine Research made a presentation of the relevance of solar technology for
food preservation in sub-Saharan Africa. The presentation stressed the
opportunities for increased food production with the use of natural and home-
grown resources in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular the use of photothermal
solar energy was highlighted in contrast to other forms of energy which are
less environmentally benign, less adapted to African conditions and more
costly to own and operate. The research experience of NIOMR was discussed. It
was recommended that design studies be commissioned in interested countries
for the use of solar technology for preservation of selected agricultural
commodities with enormous potential for increased production.

       C.     Presentations of the Third Working Session

21. Presentations in the third session of the Workshop centered around
assessment of national needs for technological capacities of particular
sectors of countries of the African region.

22. A brief introduction was made of the paper prepared by the Executive
Director of the African Centre for Technology Studies in Nairobi, Kenya who
could not be present for the meeting. His paper examined the experiences of
African countries in technology development, focusing on whether and how a
number of  African countries (and/or firms in these countries) have been
undertaking technology needs assessment before engaging in technology
development arrangements. The premise of the paper is that while a wide range
of technology development and transfer projects have been established in most
African countries there is little evidence that these have resulted in local
technological learning and development. In order to integrate environmental
considerations in their development, African countries need to create the
capacities to undertake technology needs assessment and technology assessment
of specific technologies that are environmentally sound and of relevance to
their socio-economic situations. The creation of capacities in technology
assessment policy, the creation of national arrangements to conduct technology
needs assessment and ensuring access to relevant information was advocated.

23. The Head, Industry Department of the Ethiopian Science and Technology
Commission presented the case of Ethiopia. Although there is no formal
national needs assessment made to date certain sectors have been identified as
having particular technological needs. These sectors include agriculture,
industry, housing and energy. in order to promote the flow of technology in
the country, the government has liberalized the economy, shifting to a market
economy. This has been achieved through the enactment of new laws such as the
investment (promotion and protection) act of 1992 and the amendment of some of
the older laws. to encourage foreign investment. The government has
established the Investment Office to facilitate the processing of investment
applications and to grant fiscal and other incentives. These are all aimed at
attracting investments which will in turn bring in new technologies. The
government has also developed a new science and technology policy in order to
build up the country's science and technology capability, to coordinate
related activities and to enhance their contribution to national economic
development.

24. The Director of the South African Foundation for Research Development made
a presentation on assessing technological capabilities and needs in South
Africa focusing on a framework and the role of Technology Assessment. In South
Africa, the responsibility for determining technological capabilities and
needs to support economic and environmental objectives falls within the
purview of the Foundation for Research Development which advises the Minister
of Science and Technology.  The framework they have developed for  determining
national capabilities and needs involves the following steps: 
(a) evaluation of national technological capabilities, through the national
research and technology audit; (b) derivation of relevant technological areas;
(c) classification of relevant technologies; (d) determination of specific,
generic and clusters of technologies needed; (e) classification and time
phasing of technology needs by domain; and (f) review and adjustment. In this
context, technology assessment has three main purposes: (1) Evaluation of
appropriateness of technology for transfer and adaptation; (2) selection of
technologies for development; and (3) control of inappropriate technologies to
protect the environment. The process of technology assessment makes use of
certain quantative and qualitative tools and techniques such as cost-benefit
analysis, risk assessment and technology forecasting.

25. The representative of the Development Directorate of the Organization for
Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) made a presentation on the OECD's
work in the field of cleaner production and technologies in the developing
countries.  He noted that the OECD and its member countries have been paying
increasing attention to technology cooperation and technological capacity
development this area.  Drawing on the conclusions of the Hanover Workshop on
Development Assistance and Technology Cooperation for Cleaner Industrial
Production in Developing Countries, held in 1994, he emphasized that the
private sector is the major source of technological innovation and the main
agent of technology diffusion and implementation. it would be therefore
necessary, both for aid agencies and recipient countries, to involve business
in their respective policies, programmes and projects to the greatest extent
possible. At the same time, developing country governments' must take a
leadership role in creating a policy framework conducive to increasing the
demand for cleaner and more environmentally sound technologies. The West
African Enterprise Network, supported by the OECD's Club du Sahel and a number
of bilateral donors,  was cited as an illustrative regional institution
enabling the private sector of African countries to become agents of
technological change.  Finally, he stated that one potentially important
aspect of a comprehensive national technological needs assessment is that it
could serve as a tool for donor management, with a view to increasing co-
ordination between the various activities of different donor.  

       CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

       A.     Conclusions

       (1)  Compared to some other regions, Africa is late in starting the
technological development process and it is necessary to establish what the
technology needs are in specific countries and under specific circumstances. 
A country's identification of its own technology needs is the first step not
only to technology transfer, but to developing its own technology base.

       (2)  A number of experiences in conducting technology needs assessment
exist in African countries,  particularly, at the micro level (household,
community and institutional levels).  They were conducted by national or
regional research or technology institutions which have developed the capacity
to undertake sector-specific technology needs assessments.  These institutions
can also play an important role in meeting the identified technological needs,
mainly through training programmes designed for specific target groups.  In
this context, it was noted that women are a key target group at household and
community levels. 

       (3)  Although experiences in conducting TNA mainly exist at the micro
level, it was noted that the assessment of technological needs is also
necessary at the macro level, in particular in the context of  developing
national sustainable development strategies, including technology innovation
strategies.  

       (4)  Technology needs assessment involves an analytical process which 
is necessary for countries and institutions to go through in terms of
establishing national priorities for technological development.  Technology
needs assessment should be a prerequiste for the formulation of strategies for
technological development.

       (5)  It is essential to involve all national key constituencies in the
TNA exercise in order to better ensure their commitment in the implementation
of identified technological capacity-building needs.

       (6)  There is a need for developing the capacities of policy makers at
the municipal, provincial and national governmental levels to support the use
of technology needs assessment in the private sector, in particular in SMEs,
as a useful tool for the improved acquisition and management of ESTs.         

           

       (7)  Technology needs assessment is a useful tool for technology
recipient and donor countries/ organizations because it can support technology
recipients in identifying actual needs in the development of technological
capacities, help donors in determining their aid priorities through their
involvement in technology needs assessment at the national level, and provide
national negotiators of technology agreements, whether in the public or
private sector, with the technical basis for asking the right questions and
understanding fully the implications of technology agreements.

       (8)    Participants recognized the importance of a tri-angular
cooperation between donors, international organizations and African
institutions for carrying-out technology needs assessments, and for follow-up
activities in technology transfer and capacity-building, in the African
region.

       (9)  Existing national technology centres or other equivalent
mechanisms
have an important role to play in developing, monitoring and disseminating
existing methodologies and techniques, as well as to support in adapting them
to specific users needs and conditions.

       (10)  In accomplishing the task of monitoring and disseminating
methodologies and techniques, gradual networking of these national technology
centres or equivalent mechanisms is essential.  Regional institutions may be
an appropriate way to guide the networking process.

       (11)  The usefulness of developing guidelines for undertaking and
implementing TNAs specified to the needs and conditions of countries of the
African region was expressed.  Such guidelines could include the elements of
technology assessment and environmental impact assessment.

       (12)  Participants recognized the need to integrate environmental
concerns in the establishment of methodologies for TNA. Tthe assessment of
technological and capacity-building needs must be, first and foremost,
targeted towards meeting urgent socio-economic and environmental objectives
related to food production, energy supply and water resources management.

       (13)  Considering the important role that social and cultural factors
often play in deciding on the use of technologies, in particular in rural
areas, it was stressed that raising the level of awareness and education is
important to gradually improve the level of acceptability of ESTs.

       (14)   Advanced means of communication such as INTERNET should be
promoted in the African region, as an important tool for information exchange
about technology needs assessment, technology assessment and the transfer of
ESTs.

       B.     Recommendations

       (1)  There is a critical need for African countries to develop a sound
policy framework for scientific and technological development, particularly in
relation to the development and transfer of environmentally sound technology.

       (2)  The policy framework should recognize the importance of the
private
sector as an influential force for environmentally sound industrial
development in Africa and appropriate policy measures should encourage private
sector development.

       (3)  Donor agencies should also assist technology needs assessment in
the context of their aid programmes.

       (4)  Donor agencies should, at the same time, promote and support
South-
South cooperation through triangular arrangements for the transfer of
appropriate and environmentally sound technologies.

       (5)  African Institutes and technology centres should develop closer
linkages, better networking capabilities and should be integrated in an
advisory capacity with the procurement decision-making structures of African
countries.

       (6)  Rather than the establishment of new national centres for
technology needs assessment, the experts recommended that countries should
make much greater use of existing centres by better networking between centres
and strengthening the capacity of existing centres. Technology centres that
now exist can serve to coordinate the actions of other national institutions
concerned with technology transfer and dissemination.

       (7)  A variety of African institutions have mandates for various
aspects
of science and technology development and it is recommended to try to
harmonize the work and efforts of these institutions. Organizations such as
the ECA and OAU could play an important role, at the policy level, in
harmonizing the work of different African institutions related to technology.
Also better coordination and harmonization between donor countries and between
international aid organizations could also be helpful.

       (8)  Guidelines and methodologies for technology needs assessment
should
be prepared and more widely disseminated  by the African Regional Centre for
Technology (ARCT) in cooperation with other regional institutions such as the
ECA, the African Academy of Sciences,  the African Centre for Technology
Studies or other comparable regional institutions with the support of
international and bilateral organizations, as appropriate.

       (9)  Comprehensive information on relevant methodologies for technology
needs assessment that have proved effective should be compiled by regional
technology and other appropriate centers in the form of training manuals and
other training tools to facilitate dissemination of such information through
seminars, workshops and meetings with stakeholders and policymakers.

       (10)  Technology needs assessment must be linked to the social,
cultural, economic and environmental objectives and values of the country
concerned.

       (11)  Government and donor agencies should use national environmental
action plans or sustainable development strategies, where existing, as a basis
for identifying sectoral technology needs.

       (12)  Where the market system is not well established, it is
recommended
that governments take action to adopt policies and enact laws which encourage
private sector investment and initiatives in technology development and
transfer and provide overall incentives to the development of private
enterprise. 

       (13)  Since the private sector is an important source of technological
innovation and the main agent of technology diffusion and implementation, it
is recommended that aid agencies and recipient countries, involve the business
community in policy formulation and programme and project implementation. 

       (14)  For markets to work well, better information is required on
technology choices and options. In this context, it is recommended that
government organizations and donor agencies provide support to facilitate
wider access on the African continent to the Internet and other electronic
information systems.

       (15)  All stakeholders in society, business, industry associations,
academia, the research community, NGOs and the civil society at large, should
participate in the process that leads to policy formulation and
implementation, particularly as it relates to technology needs assessment and
technology diffusion. 

                                                                              

    Annex I

                                African Regional Workshop on
                        Technology Needs Assessment in Support of the
                    Transfer of Envionmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs)
                          and International Technology Cooperation

                                       Dakar, Senegal
                                     17-19 January 1996

                                   Agenda of the Workshop

Tuesday, 16 January

16:00 - 18:00           REGISTRATION

Wednesday, 17 January

08:30 - 12:00           REGISTRATION

09:00 - 10:15           OPENING SESSION

              -      Opening address by the Chairman of the workshop, Dr.
Ousmane
                     Kane, Deputy Executive Director and Acting Executive
                     Director of the African Regional Centre for Technology
                     (ARCT), Dakar, Senegal 

              -      Introductory remarks by Mr. Lowell L. Flanders, Assistant
                     Director, United Nations Department for Policy
Coordination
                     and Sustainable Development (DPCSD), New York, United
States
                     of America 

              -      Welcome address by Mme. Odile Sorgho-Moulinier, UNDP
                     Resident Representative in Senegal

              -      Welcome address by Her Excellency Dr. Marie-Luise Correa,
                     Honourable Minister for Scientific Research and
Technology
                     of the Republic of Senegal

10:15 - 10:20      Break

10:20 - 10:25               Election of the Workshop's Bureau (Chairman,
                            Moderators of the three Substantive Sessions,
Chief
                            Rapporteur and Session Rapporteurs)


10:25 - 17:00           I.  FUNCTION OF TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT AS A
                            SUPPORTIVE TOOL FOR THE EFFECTIVE DEPLOYMENT OF
ESTs
                            AND FOR IMPROVING EST TRANSFER AND COOPERATION 

10:25 - 11:10      Keynote Presentations 

              -      "Technology needs assessment in Africa" by Dr. Ousmane
Kane,
                     Acting Executive Director, ARCT 

              -      "Environmental technology assessment as a tool for
selecting
                     ESTs" by Dr. John Skinner, Senior Advisor, UNEP Industry
and
                     Environment, Paris, France 

11:10 - 11:30           Break

11:30 - 12:30           Discussion

12:30 - 14:00           Lunch break

14:00 - 15:00           Brief presentations by other participating experts

15:00 - 15:30           Continuation of discussion

15:30 - 15:50           Break

15:50 - 16:30           Continuation of discussion

16:30 - 17:00           Conclusions and recommendations

Thursday, 18 January

09:00 - 12:30           II.        COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF APPROACHES AND
                                   METHODOLOGIES FOR THE PLANNING, EXECUTION
AND
                                   IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGY NEEDS
ASSESSMENTS,
                                   WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO THE CONDITIONS
OF
                                   COUNTRIES OF THE AFRICAN REGION 

09:00 - 09:45           Keynote Presentations

              -      Experiences of the United Nations Economic Commission for
                     Africa (ECA) regarding methodologies for technology needs
                     assessment, presented by Lowell L. Flanders, Assistant
                     Director, DPCSD

              -      "Some ideas on a framework for national technology needs
                     assessment" by Dr. Klaas Jan Moning, Head, Department of
                     Clean Technology, Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning
and
                     Environment, The Hague, the Netherlands

09:45 - 10:15           Discussion

10:15 - 10:35           Break

10:35 - 11:15           Brief presentations by other participating experts

11:15 - 12:00           Continuation of discussion

12:00 - 12:30           Conclusions and recommendations 

12:30 - 14:00           Lunch break

14:00 - 17:30      III.     ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL NEEDS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL
                            CAPACITIES IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES, WITH REFERENCE TO
                            SECTORAL APPLICATIONS

14:00 - 14:20           Keynote Presentation

              -      Building the policy and institutional capacities for
                     technology needs assessment in Africa, prepared by Dr.
John
                     Mugabe, Executive Director, African Centre for Technology
                     Studies (ACTS), Nairobi, Kenya, (presented by Mr. Lowell
L.
                     Flanders, Assistant Director, DPCSD)

14:20 - 14:40           Discussion

14:40 - 15:10           Brief presentations by other participating experts 

15:10 - 15:30           Break

15:30 - 16:30           Continuation of discussion

16:30 - 17:00           Conclusions and recommendations 

Friday, 19 January 

10:00 - 12:30           CLOSING SESSION

              -      Submission of the draft of the workshop report to the
                     participants

              -      Discussion on the draft report

              -      Adoption of the Workshop Report and discussion of
follow-up
                     activities

              -      Closing remarks by the Chairman of the workshop

12:30 -          Lunch


                                                                              

   Annex II

                  African Regional Workshop on Technology Needs Assessment
              in Support of the Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies
                          and International Technology Cooperation

                                       Dakar, Senegal
                                     17-19 January 1996

                                    List of Participants


              Mr. Evasiste Nayire Poda
              CNRST
              B.P. 7047
              Ouagadougo, Burkina Faso
              phone:        (226) 332 394 or 5
              fax:   (226) 315 003

              Ms. Abigail Andah
              Director, Food Research Institute
              P.O. Box M.20
              Accra, Ghana
              phone:        (233 21) 777 330 or 777 647
              fax:   (233 21) 772 023

              Dr. O. H. Oladosu
              Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research
              P.M.B. 12729, Victoria Island
              Lagos, Nigeria
              phone:        (234 1) 617 530 or 617 535
              fax:   (234 1) 619 517

              Mr. Shumu Tefera
              Senior Expert, Industry, Transport and Comm. Dept.
              ESTC, P.O. Box 2490
              Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
              phone:        (251 1) 155 498
              fax:   (251 1) 518 829

              Dr. David Mbah
              Director, Valorization and Development Support
              Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research
              P. O. Box 1457, Yaounde, Cameroon
              phone:        (237) 236 043
              fax:   (237) 235 467





              Mr. Daniel Koumba Koumba
              Le Commissaire General CENAREST
              B.P. 842
              Libreville, Gabon
              phone/fax:  (241) 732 578

              Mr. Isaac Amuah
              Foundation for Research Development
              P. O. Box 2600
              Pretoria 0001, South Africa
              phone:        (2712) 841 4076
              fax:   (2712) 804 2679

              Mr. C. W. Guta
              General Manager
              Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Centre
              P.O. Box 357, Blantyre, Malawi
              phone:        (265) 623 805
              fax:   (265) 623 831

              Mr. Patrice Meliho
              Ministere de l'Industrie et des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises
              B.P. 363, Cotonou, Benin
              phone:        (229) 301 385
              fax:   (229) 331 530

              Mme. Victorine Ouandaogo
              Siege Social Ouagadougou
              01 B.P. 1638
              Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso
              phone/fax:  (226) 348 155

              Dr. Ousmane Kane
              Acting Executive Director
              African Regional Centre for Technology
              P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal
              phone:        (221) 23 7711
              fax:   (221) 23 7713

              Dr. J. J. Kojo Asiedu
              African Regional Centre for Technology
              P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal
              phone:        (221) 23 7711
              fax:   (221) 23 7713

              Mr. Michael Nageri
              African Regional Centre for Technology
              P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal
              phone:        (221) 23 7711
              fax:   (221) 23 7713

              Mme. Mame Binta Gaye
              African Regional Centre for Technology
              P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal
              phone:        (221) 23 7711
              fax:   (221) 23 7713

              Mme. Fatou Diallo
              Workshop Secretary
              African Regional Centre for Technology
              P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal
              phone:        (221) 23 7711
              fax:   (221) 23 7713

              Mr. Oumar Balde
              Delegation aux Affaires Scientifiques
                 et Ministere de la Recherche Scientifique
              B.P. 218 RP
              Dakar, Senegal
              phone:        (221) 213 260
              fax:   (221) 224 563

              Mme. Mame Coumba Diop  and  Mr. Ernest Gibson
              USAID Office
              B.P. 49
              Dakar, Senegal

              Mr. Mansour Sarr  and  Mr. Idrissa Mbengue
              SONEPI/Senegal
              B.P. 100
              Dakar, Senegal
              phone:        (221) 255 180
              fax:   (221) 246 565

              Mr. B. Hans Siebert
              Project Leader, Bureau for Technical Cooperation
                (and Adviser to the Ministry for Environment of Senegal)
              53111 Bonn, Germany
              phone:        (49 228) 985 7021
              fax:   (49 228) 985 7018

              Dr. Klaas Jan Moning
              Head, Department of Clean Technology
              Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en
              Milieubeheer
              Directoraat Generaal Milieubeheer
              P. O. Box 30945, 2500 GX The Hague, The Netherlands
              phone:        (31-70) 339 4861
              fax:   (31-70) 339 1304

              Mme. Ana Paula Nobre de Morais
              Centre de Gestion Scientifique
              Ecole des Mines de Paris
              62 Boulevard Saint Michel
              F-75172 Paris Cedex 06 France
              phone:        (331) 4051 9105
              fax:   (331) 4046 0301

              Mr. Tim I. B. Lund
              Environment and Social Policy Division
              Central Projects Department
              African Development Bank
              B.P. 1387, Abidjan 01, Ivory Coast
              phone:        (225) 204 444
              fax:   (225) 217 753

              Mr. Dirk von Felbert
              Economics and Environment Division, Development Directorate
              Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
              2, rue Andre Pascal
              75775 Paris Cedex 16, France
              phone:        (33-1) 4524 9691
              fax:   (33-1) 4524 1996

              Mr. Laba Toure
              UNDP Office
              Dakar, Senegal
              phone:  (221) 23 32 44 or 23 17 90
              fax:      (221) 23 55 00

              Dr. John Skinner
              Senior Adviser, Industry and Environment
              United Nations Environment Programme
              Tour Mirabeau, 39-43 Quai Andre Citroen
              75739 Paris Cedex 15, France
              phone:        (33 1) 4437 1450
              fax:   (33 1) 4437 1474

              Mr. Christian Holger Strohmann
              Programme Coordinator
              International Environmental Technology Centre
              UNEP - Osaka Office
              2-110 Ryokichi-koen, Tsurumi-ku
              Osaka 538, Japan
              phone:        (816) 915  4583/84
              fax:   (816) 915  0304

              Ms. Leslie Wade
              Office of the Special Coordinator for Africa and the Least
              Developed Countries
              Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
              United Nations
              One U.N. Plaza, Room DC1-1042
              New York, New York 10017, United States of America
              phone:        (1-212) 963 4420
              fax:   (1-212) 963 3892

              Mr. Lowell Flanders
              Assistant Director
              Division for Sustainable Development
              Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
              United Nations
              Two U.N. Plaza, DC2-2242
              New York, N.Y. 10017, United States of America
              phone:        (1-212) 963 8792
              fax:   (1-212) 963 1267

              Mr. Dirk Pilari
              Focal Point for Technology Transfer and Cooperation
              Division for Sustainable Development
              Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
              United Natios
              Two U.N. Plaza, DC2-2248
              New York, N.Y. 10017, United States of America
              phone:        (1-212) 963 6757
              fax:   (1-212) 963 1267

 


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Date last posted: 3 December 1999 10:27:35
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD