African Regional Workshop on Technology Needs Assessment in Support of the Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies and International Technology Cooperation. Report of the Workshop INTRODUCTION 1. At its third session in 1995, the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) adopted a Programme of Work on "Transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs), cooperation and capacity-building" and urged countries and international organizations to report on its implementation at the Commission's sessions in 1996 and 1997. In response to the request of the CSD, the African Regional Centre for Technology (ARCT) in Dakar, Senegal, the United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DPCSD) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) co-organized an African Regional Workshop on Technology Needs Assessment in Support of the Transfer of ESTs and International Technology Cooperation. The workshop was organized in consultation and with the help of the office of the UNDP Resident Representative in Dakar. 2. The workshop was held in Dakar, Senegal, from 17-19 January 1996. It focussed on the assessment of technological needs of particular sectors of countries of the African region. The overall objective was to advance the understanding of the role of technology needs assessments as a supportive tool in the transfer and management of ESTs and for the improvement of international cooperation regarding ESTs, under the conditions and needs of African countries. 3. Workshop participants decided to make the report of the workshop available to the fourth session of the CSD, New York, 18 April-3 May 1996. 4. The workshop was organized around three working sessions and held over a three-day period. It was attended by 31 experts from 15 African countries and 6 representatives from international organizations. 5. The workshop was chaired by Dr. Ousmane Kane, Acting Executive Director of ARCT. A moderator was appointed for each of the three working sessions: Dr. Isaac Amuah from South Africa (working session I), Ms. Abigail Andah from Ghana (working session II), and Mr. Lowell Flanders from DPCSD (working session III). 6. Dr. Ousmane Kane gave the opening address. Her Excellency Dr. Marie-Louise Correa, Honorable Minister for Scientific Research and Technology of the Republic of Senegal gave the welcoming address on behalf on the Government of Senegal. Statements were also made by Ms. Odile Sorgho-Moulinier, UNDP Resident Representative in Senegal and Mr. Lowell Flanders, Assistant Director, Division for Sustainable Development, Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development. 7. Keynote presentations introducing the respective working sessions, were given by Dr. Ousmane Kane, ARCT as well as by Dr. John Skinner, United Nations Environment Programme, Industry and Environment Office in Paris (working session I); Dr. Klaas Jan Moning, Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment of the Netherlands as well as Dr. David Mbah, Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research of Cameroon (working session II). Mr. Flanders summarized the keynote presentations prepared by the ECA (for working session II) and Dr. John Mugabe, African Centre for Technology Studies in Kenya (for working session III). 8. The keynote presentations were followed by a discussion that included a number of brief presentations by other participating experts highlighting practical experiences and results. Each working session concluded with a summary of key issues addressed during the respective sessions, and provided main conclusions and recommendations for incorporation into the report of the workshop. 9. With a view to facilitate the task of the session moderators, the Chairman suggested that the discussion should address areas such as: - What are the linkages between technology needs assessment and technology assessment? - Are there specific cases in Africa where technology needs assessment was part of technology transfer or acquisition activities/arrangements? How was technology needs assessment applied in these cases and with what results? - What experiences exist in developing methodologies for technology needs assessment in support of the transfer of ESTs that have proven to be useful under the conditions and needs of countries in the African region? - What are the experiences of public and private sector managers with regards to the usefulness of technology needs assessment as a supporting tool for identifying actual technology needs, developing sector-specific technology strategies, and facilitating technology acquisition/transfer? - What is the extent of actual consultation/cooperation between institutions of science and technology, business and industry, and national/local governments in African countries in undertaking technology needs assessments, and using their recommendations for decision-making regarding technology generation, acquisition/transfer and diffusion? - What capacities and capabilities have to be developed at both national/local government and company levels in order to undertake technology needs assessment as a basis for successfully acquiring/transferring ESTs? What specific measures have to be taken to develop the required capacities and capabilities? Are there specific capacity/capability-building functions which could be performed best by technology centres or their equivalent networks or mechanisms? - What would be promising ways and means for improving the exchange of experiences and results among countries in the African region regarding the use and usefulness of technology needs assessment as a supporting tool for identifying actual technology needs, developing sector-specific technology strategies, and facilitating successful technology acquisition and transfer operations under the conditions and needs of countries in the African region? 10. The report of the workshop was discussed and adopted by the participants of the meeting. WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS A. Presentations of the First Working Session 11. The session was opened by the Acting Executive Director of the African Regional Centre for Technology (ARCT), Dr. Ousmane Kane who gave an overview of the work of ARCT, relating to various political decisions such as the Lagos Plan of Action, the Common African Position, and the various ECA meetings of Environment Ministers. He outlined the results of needs assessment surveys undertaken in five African countries focused on the rural sector of the respective countries. Questionnaires, open-ended interviews and relevant documents were the main instruments for information and data gathering. The needs assessment surveys confirmed the medium and long term potential of rural technologies, including new and renewable energy sources as well as water supply and food technologies. 12. The study and the presentation illustrated the intrinsic relationship between development, environment and technology and stressed that technology needs assessment (TNA) can be an important instrument for the identification of technology needs, the development of sector specific technology strategies and facilitator of sound technology acquisition and transfer. It was argued that technology and development processes have to be organically linked into a technology development plan backed by policy declarations with operational value. There is need for the creation of national capacities for the conduct of technology needs assessment, technology assessment and technology forecasting. Without such capacity, transfer of environmentally sound technology will be difficult. 13. The Senior Advisor of the UNEP Industry and Environment Office in Paris made the link between technology needs assessment and three programmes being carried out by UNEP, namely the Ozone Action Programme, related to the Montreal Protocol, the Cleaner Production Programme and the Environmental Technology Assessment (EnTA) programme. He also mentioned the survey of information systems on ESTs that UNEP is conducting on behalf of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). It was noted that UNEP had surveyed 240 organizations and identified some 51 different information systems related to ESTs. 14. The representative of the UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) in Osaka, Japan made a brief presentation of IETC's role as a catalyst in facilitating the transfer of ESTs to developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The Centre focuses on "soft" and "hard" technologies to address, in particular, urban environmental problems and sustainable management of fresh water resources. The IETC strategy is focused on three main issues: (a) building individual and institutional capacities; (b) fostering technology cooperation, partnerships and transfer; and (c) improving access to information on ESTs. Although located in Japan, the IETC is actively working to assist African countries. In all three areas of activity mentioned above, the IETC has already identified technology needs in its fields of expertise. 15. The Director of the Ghana Food Research Institute made a presentation on the "Development and Extension of Sustainable Technologies for the Processing and Preservation of Fish and Cassava. Her presentation summarized the experience gained by FRI in the development and transfer of sustainable technologies for small scale processing and preservation of fish and cassava. Technology needs assessment was identified as an essential element in the overall approach to the generation and diffusion of cleaner technologies, although initially such assessment were done on and informal basis through observation and discussion with the participating groups. FRI has found that in addition to technical efficiency, the social, economic, cultural and political context in which the technology is applied is even more important. The techniques employed for needs assessment included direct observation, interviews of individuals, groups, and key informants among the target beneficiaries and study of secondary data. To select a suitable technological option, alternative technological designs were assessed taking into consideration the target groups socio-economic and biophysical environment. FRI technologies have proven socially, economically and technically viable in more than 100 towns and villages of Ghana. B. Presentations of the Second Working Session 16. The second session of the Workshop was focused on approaches and methodologies for the planning, execution and implementation of technology needs assessment with specific reference to the conditions of African countries. 17. A paper was presented on behalf of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) on methodologies for conducting technology needs assessment for transfer of environmentally sound technologies in Africa. The paper dealt with technology assessment and technology needs assessment, both of which are seen as essential to determine what the technology needs of African countries are and to assess the impact of such technology. In the past, technology transfer has generally not contributed to an improvement in overall welfare, because only the economic impact of such transfers was taken into account. The methodology for technology assessment should include an integrated approach involving multi-disciplinary expertise. Such approach requires data bases, expertise in statistical manipulation, techniques for formulating alternative scenarios and models of possible outcomes. Supporting techniques include: (a) cost benefit analysis; (b) multiple network analysis; (c) cross-impact analysis; (d) operations research; (e) questionnaires; (f) sequential polling and review by interacting expert teams; (g) mitre methodology; and (h) scenario building. A multi-stakeholder approach was also emphasized. 18. The representative of the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment of the Netherlands discussed methodologies for national needs assessment based on case studies and the experiences of Costa Rica, Pakistan, Switzerland and the Netherlands. An international workshop is planned on this subject by the Netherlands and Switzerland in February 1996. He emphasized that national needs assessment aims at establishing a national policy framework for the application and management of ESTs. The objective of the NNA is to identify the capacity-building needs for a country. These capacities have to be realized in order to remove the bottlenecks for EST application. This EST application serves for reaching the socio-economic and environmental goals set by the country in order to reach sustainable development. Once the capacities are realized, they will facilitate the private sector to adopt technologically sustainable solutions. The various stages of the NNA process include the preparation, the assessment and the follow-up phases. 19. The Director of Valorization and Development Support at the Cameroon Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research recounted his experience with technology needs assessment for livestock production in two regions of Cameroon. The assessment was based on a multi- disciplinary questionnaire with the involvement of various stakeholders. Farmers were the key informants. The results of the survey were analyzed in a logical framework using the concept of "problem tree" with the problems organized in a hierarchy with the most general at the top and contributing factors listed below. This helped the researchers and other stakeholders to develop a corresponding "solution" tree or ways to address the various problems identified. Efforts were then made to identify the types of technologies that could best address the problems. Technology solutions were then assessed for their potential environmental impacts, also taking into account socio-cultural issues. The exercise of technology needs assessment gave more confidence to the stakeholders and strengthened the government's position with potential donors who might wish to assist with further livestock development. 20. The Chief Research Officer of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research made a presentation of the relevance of solar technology for food preservation in sub-Saharan Africa. The presentation stressed the opportunities for increased food production with the use of natural and home- grown resources in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular the use of photothermal solar energy was highlighted in contrast to other forms of energy which are less environmentally benign, less adapted to African conditions and more costly to own and operate. The research experience of NIOMR was discussed. It was recommended that design studies be commissioned in interested countries for the use of solar technology for preservation of selected agricultural commodities with enormous potential for increased production. C. Presentations of the Third Working Session 21. Presentations in the third session of the Workshop centered around assessment of national needs for technological capacities of particular sectors of countries of the African region. 22. A brief introduction was made of the paper prepared by the Executive Director of the African Centre for Technology Studies in Nairobi, Kenya who could not be present for the meeting. His paper examined the experiences of African countries in technology development, focusing on whether and how a number of African countries (and/or firms in these countries) have been undertaking technology needs assessment before engaging in technology development arrangements. The premise of the paper is that while a wide range of technology development and transfer projects have been established in most African countries there is little evidence that these have resulted in local technological learning and development. In order to integrate environmental considerations in their development, African countries need to create the capacities to undertake technology needs assessment and technology assessment of specific technologies that are environmentally sound and of relevance to their socio-economic situations. The creation of capacities in technology assessment policy, the creation of national arrangements to conduct technology needs assessment and ensuring access to relevant information was advocated. 23. The Head, Industry Department of the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission presented the case of Ethiopia. Although there is no formal national needs assessment made to date certain sectors have been identified as having particular technological needs. These sectors include agriculture, industry, housing and energy. in order to promote the flow of technology in the country, the government has liberalized the economy, shifting to a market economy. This has been achieved through the enactment of new laws such as the investment (promotion and protection) act of 1992 and the amendment of some of the older laws. to encourage foreign investment. The government has established the Investment Office to facilitate the processing of investment applications and to grant fiscal and other incentives. These are all aimed at attracting investments which will in turn bring in new technologies. The government has also developed a new science and technology policy in order to build up the country's science and technology capability, to coordinate related activities and to enhance their contribution to national economic development. 24. The Director of the South African Foundation for Research Development made a presentation on assessing technological capabilities and needs in South Africa focusing on a framework and the role of Technology Assessment. In South Africa, the responsibility for determining technological capabilities and needs to support economic and environmental objectives falls within the purview of the Foundation for Research Development which advises the Minister of Science and Technology. The framework they have developed for determining national capabilities and needs involves the following steps: (a) evaluation of national technological capabilities, through the national research and technology audit; (b) derivation of relevant technological areas; (c) classification of relevant technologies; (d) determination of specific, generic and clusters of technologies needed; (e) classification and time phasing of technology needs by domain; and (f) review and adjustment. In this context, technology assessment has three main purposes: (1) Evaluation of appropriateness of technology for transfer and adaptation; (2) selection of technologies for development; and (3) control of inappropriate technologies to protect the environment. The process of technology assessment makes use of certain quantative and qualitative tools and techniques such as cost-benefit analysis, risk assessment and technology forecasting. 25. The representative of the Development Directorate of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) made a presentation on the OECD's work in the field of cleaner production and technologies in the developing countries. He noted that the OECD and its member countries have been paying increasing attention to technology cooperation and technological capacity development this area. Drawing on the conclusions of the Hanover Workshop on Development Assistance and Technology Cooperation for Cleaner Industrial Production in Developing Countries, held in 1994, he emphasized that the private sector is the major source of technological innovation and the main agent of technology diffusion and implementation. it would be therefore necessary, both for aid agencies and recipient countries, to involve business in their respective policies, programmes and projects to the greatest extent possible. At the same time, developing country governments' must take a leadership role in creating a policy framework conducive to increasing the demand for cleaner and more environmentally sound technologies. The West African Enterprise Network, supported by the OECD's Club du Sahel and a number of bilateral donors, was cited as an illustrative regional institution enabling the private sector of African countries to become agents of technological change. Finally, he stated that one potentially important aspect of a comprehensive national technological needs assessment is that it could serve as a tool for donor management, with a view to increasing co- ordination between the various activities of different donor. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. Conclusions (1) Compared to some other regions, Africa is late in starting the technological development process and it is necessary to establish what the technology needs are in specific countries and under specific circumstances. A country's identification of its own technology needs is the first step not only to technology transfer, but to developing its own technology base. (2) A number of experiences in conducting technology needs assessment exist in African countries, particularly, at the micro level (household, community and institutional levels). They were conducted by national or regional research or technology institutions which have developed the capacity to undertake sector-specific technology needs assessments. These institutions can also play an important role in meeting the identified technological needs, mainly through training programmes designed for specific target groups. In this context, it was noted that women are a key target group at household and community levels. (3) Although experiences in conducting TNA mainly exist at the micro level, it was noted that the assessment of technological needs is also necessary at the macro level, in particular in the context of developing national sustainable development strategies, including technology innovation strategies. (4) Technology needs assessment involves an analytical process which is necessary for countries and institutions to go through in terms of establishing national priorities for technological development. Technology needs assessment should be a prerequiste for the formulation of strategies for technological development. (5) It is essential to involve all national key constituencies in the TNA exercise in order to better ensure their commitment in the implementation of identified technological capacity-building needs. (6) There is a need for developing the capacities of policy makers at the municipal, provincial and national governmental levels to support the use of technology needs assessment in the private sector, in particular in SMEs, as a useful tool for the improved acquisition and management of ESTs. (7) Technology needs assessment is a useful tool for technology recipient and donor countries/ organizations because it can support technology recipients in identifying actual needs in the development of technological capacities, help donors in determining their aid priorities through their involvement in technology needs assessment at the national level, and provide national negotiators of technology agreements, whether in the public or private sector, with the technical basis for asking the right questions and understanding fully the implications of technology agreements. (8) Participants recognized the importance of a tri-angular cooperation between donors, international organizations and African institutions for carrying-out technology needs assessments, and for follow-up activities in technology transfer and capacity-building, in the African region. (9) Existing national technology centres or other equivalent mechanisms have an important role to play in developing, monitoring and disseminating existing methodologies and techniques, as well as to support in adapting them to specific users needs and conditions. (10) In accomplishing the task of monitoring and disseminating methodologies and techniques, gradual networking of these national technology centres or equivalent mechanisms is essential. Regional institutions may be an appropriate way to guide the networking process. (11) The usefulness of developing guidelines for undertaking and implementing TNAs specified to the needs and conditions of countries of the African region was expressed. Such guidelines could include the elements of technology assessment and environmental impact assessment. (12) Participants recognized the need to integrate environmental concerns in the establishment of methodologies for TNA. Tthe assessment of technological and capacity-building needs must be, first and foremost, targeted towards meeting urgent socio-economic and environmental objectives related to food production, energy supply and water resources management. (13) Considering the important role that social and cultural factors often play in deciding on the use of technologies, in particular in rural areas, it was stressed that raising the level of awareness and education is important to gradually improve the level of acceptability of ESTs. (14) Advanced means of communication such as INTERNET should be promoted in the African region, as an important tool for information exchange about technology needs assessment, technology assessment and the transfer of ESTs. B. Recommendations (1) There is a critical need for African countries to develop a sound policy framework for scientific and technological development, particularly in relation to the development and transfer of environmentally sound technology. (2) The policy framework should recognize the importance of the private sector as an influential force for environmentally sound industrial development in Africa and appropriate policy measures should encourage private sector development. (3) Donor agencies should also assist technology needs assessment in the context of their aid programmes. (4) Donor agencies should, at the same time, promote and support South- South cooperation through triangular arrangements for the transfer of appropriate and environmentally sound technologies. (5) African Institutes and technology centres should develop closer linkages, better networking capabilities and should be integrated in an advisory capacity with the procurement decision-making structures of African countries. (6) Rather than the establishment of new national centres for technology needs assessment, the experts recommended that countries should make much greater use of existing centres by better networking between centres and strengthening the capacity of existing centres. Technology centres that now exist can serve to coordinate the actions of other national institutions concerned with technology transfer and dissemination. (7) A variety of African institutions have mandates for various aspects of science and technology development and it is recommended to try to harmonize the work and efforts of these institutions. Organizations such as the ECA and OAU could play an important role, at the policy level, in harmonizing the work of different African institutions related to technology. Also better coordination and harmonization between donor countries and between international aid organizations could also be helpful. (8) Guidelines and methodologies for technology needs assessment should be prepared and more widely disseminated by the African Regional Centre for Technology (ARCT) in cooperation with other regional institutions such as the ECA, the African Academy of Sciences, the African Centre for Technology Studies or other comparable regional institutions with the support of international and bilateral organizations, as appropriate. (9) Comprehensive information on relevant methodologies for technology needs assessment that have proved effective should be compiled by regional technology and other appropriate centers in the form of training manuals and other training tools to facilitate dissemination of such information through seminars, workshops and meetings with stakeholders and policymakers. (10) Technology needs assessment must be linked to the social, cultural, economic and environmental objectives and values of the country concerned. (11) Government and donor agencies should use national environmental action plans or sustainable development strategies, where existing, as a basis for identifying sectoral technology needs. (12) Where the market system is not well established, it is recommended that governments take action to adopt policies and enact laws which encourage private sector investment and initiatives in technology development and transfer and provide overall incentives to the development of private enterprise. (13) Since the private sector is an important source of technological innovation and the main agent of technology diffusion and implementation, it is recommended that aid agencies and recipient countries, involve the business community in policy formulation and programme and project implementation. (14) For markets to work well, better information is required on technology choices and options. In this context, it is recommended that government organizations and donor agencies provide support to facilitate wider access on the African continent to the Internet and other electronic information systems. (15) All stakeholders in society, business, industry associations, academia, the research community, NGOs and the civil society at large, should participate in the process that leads to policy formulation and implementation, particularly as it relates to technology needs assessment and technology diffusion. Annex I African Regional Workshop on Technology Needs Assessment in Support of the Transfer of Envionmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) and International Technology Cooperation Dakar, Senegal 17-19 January 1996 Agenda of the Workshop Tuesday, 16 January 16:00 - 18:00 REGISTRATION Wednesday, 17 January 08:30 - 12:00 REGISTRATION 09:00 - 10:15 OPENING SESSION - Opening address by the Chairman of the workshop, Dr. Ousmane Kane, Deputy Executive Director and Acting Executive Director of the African Regional Centre for Technology (ARCT), Dakar, Senegal - Introductory remarks by Mr. Lowell L. Flanders, Assistant Director, United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DPCSD), New York, United States of America - Welcome address by Mme. Odile Sorgho-Moulinier, UNDP Resident Representative in Senegal - Welcome address by Her Excellency Dr. Marie-Luise Correa, Honourable Minister for Scientific Research and Technology of the Republic of Senegal 10:15 - 10:20 Break 10:20 - 10:25 Election of the Workshop's Bureau (Chairman, Moderators of the three Substantive Sessions, Chief Rapporteur and Session Rapporteurs) 10:25 - 17:00 I. FUNCTION OF TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT AS A SUPPORTIVE TOOL FOR THE EFFECTIVE DEPLOYMENT OF ESTs AND FOR IMPROVING EST TRANSFER AND COOPERATION 10:25 - 11:10 Keynote Presentations - "Technology needs assessment in Africa" by Dr. Ousmane Kane, Acting Executive Director, ARCT - "Environmental technology assessment as a tool for selecting ESTs" by Dr. John Skinner, Senior Advisor, UNEP Industry and Environment, Paris, France 11:10 - 11:30 Break 11:30 - 12:30 Discussion 12:30 - 14:00 Lunch break 14:00 - 15:00 Brief presentations by other participating experts 15:00 - 15:30 Continuation of discussion 15:30 - 15:50 Break 15:50 - 16:30 Continuation of discussion 16:30 - 17:00 Conclusions and recommendations Thursday, 18 January 09:00 - 12:30 II. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF APPROACHES AND METHODOLOGIES FOR THE PLANNING, EXECUTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENTS, WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO THE CONDITIONS OF COUNTRIES OF THE AFRICAN REGION 09:00 - 09:45 Keynote Presentations - Experiences of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) regarding methodologies for technology needs assessment, presented by Lowell L. Flanders, Assistant Director, DPCSD - "Some ideas on a framework for national technology needs assessment" by Dr. Klaas Jan Moning, Head, Department of Clean Technology, Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment, The Hague, the Netherlands 09:45 - 10:15 Discussion 10:15 - 10:35 Break 10:35 - 11:15 Brief presentations by other participating experts 11:15 - 12:00 Continuation of discussion 12:00 - 12:30 Conclusions and recommendations 12:30 - 14:00 Lunch break 14:00 - 17:30 III. ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL NEEDS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL CAPACITIES IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES, WITH REFERENCE TO SECTORAL APPLICATIONS 14:00 - 14:20 Keynote Presentation - Building the policy and institutional capacities for technology needs assessment in Africa, prepared by Dr. John Mugabe, Executive Director, African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), Nairobi, Kenya, (presented by Mr. Lowell L. Flanders, Assistant Director, DPCSD) 14:20 - 14:40 Discussion 14:40 - 15:10 Brief presentations by other participating experts 15:10 - 15:30 Break 15:30 - 16:30 Continuation of discussion 16:30 - 17:00 Conclusions and recommendations Friday, 19 January 10:00 - 12:30 CLOSING SESSION - Submission of the draft of the workshop report to the participants - Discussion on the draft report - Adoption of the Workshop Report and discussion of follow-up activities - Closing remarks by the Chairman of the workshop 12:30 - Lunch Annex II African Regional Workshop on Technology Needs Assessment in Support of the Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies and International Technology Cooperation Dakar, Senegal 17-19 January 1996 List of Participants Mr. Evasiste Nayire Poda CNRST B.P. 7047 Ouagadougo, Burkina Faso phone: (226) 332 394 or 5 fax: (226) 315 003 Ms. Abigail Andah Director, Food Research Institute P.O. Box M.20 Accra, Ghana phone: (233 21) 777 330 or 777 647 fax: (233 21) 772 023 Dr. O. H. Oladosu Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research P.M.B. 12729, Victoria Island Lagos, Nigeria phone: (234 1) 617 530 or 617 535 fax: (234 1) 619 517 Mr. Shumu Tefera Senior Expert, Industry, Transport and Comm. Dept. ESTC, P.O. Box 2490 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia phone: (251 1) 155 498 fax: (251 1) 518 829 Dr. David Mbah Director, Valorization and Development Support Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research P. O. Box 1457, Yaounde, Cameroon phone: (237) 236 043 fax: (237) 235 467 Mr. Daniel Koumba Koumba Le Commissaire General CENAREST B.P. 842 Libreville, Gabon phone/fax: (241) 732 578 Mr. Isaac Amuah Foundation for Research Development P. O. Box 2600 Pretoria 0001, South Africa phone: (2712) 841 4076 fax: (2712) 804 2679 Mr. C. W. Guta General Manager Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Centre P.O. Box 357, Blantyre, Malawi phone: (265) 623 805 fax: (265) 623 831 Mr. Patrice Meliho Ministere de l'Industrie et des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises B.P. 363, Cotonou, Benin phone: (229) 301 385 fax: (229) 331 530 Mme. Victorine Ouandaogo Siege Social Ouagadougou 01 B.P. 1638 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso phone/fax: (226) 348 155 Dr. Ousmane Kane Acting Executive Director African Regional Centre for Technology P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal phone: (221) 23 7711 fax: (221) 23 7713 Dr. J. J. Kojo Asiedu African Regional Centre for Technology P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal phone: (221) 23 7711 fax: (221) 23 7713 Mr. Michael Nageri African Regional Centre for Technology P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal phone: (221) 23 7711 fax: (221) 23 7713 Mme. Mame Binta Gaye African Regional Centre for Technology P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal phone: (221) 23 7711 fax: (221) 23 7713 Mme. Fatou Diallo Workshop Secretary African Regional Centre for Technology P.O. Box 2435, Dakar, Senegal phone: (221) 23 7711 fax: (221) 23 7713 Mr. Oumar Balde Delegation aux Affaires Scientifiques et Ministere de la Recherche Scientifique B.P. 218 RP Dakar, Senegal phone: (221) 213 260 fax: (221) 224 563 Mme. Mame Coumba Diop and Mr. Ernest Gibson USAID Office B.P. 49 Dakar, Senegal Mr. Mansour Sarr and Mr. Idrissa Mbengue SONEPI/Senegal B.P. 100 Dakar, Senegal phone: (221) 255 180 fax: (221) 246 565 Mr. B. Hans Siebert Project Leader, Bureau for Technical Cooperation (and Adviser to the Ministry for Environment of Senegal) 53111 Bonn, Germany phone: (49 228) 985 7021 fax: (49 228) 985 7018 Dr. Klaas Jan Moning Head, Department of Clean Technology Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer Directoraat Generaal Milieubeheer P. O. Box 30945, 2500 GX The Hague, The Netherlands phone: (31-70) 339 4861 fax: (31-70) 339 1304 Mme. Ana Paula Nobre de Morais Centre de Gestion Scientifique Ecole des Mines de Paris 62 Boulevard Saint Michel F-75172 Paris Cedex 06 France phone: (331) 4051 9105 fax: (331) 4046 0301 Mr. Tim I. B. Lund Environment and Social Policy Division Central Projects Department African Development Bank B.P. 1387, Abidjan 01, Ivory Coast phone: (225) 204 444 fax: (225) 217 753 Mr. Dirk von Felbert Economics and Environment Division, Development Directorate Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 2, rue Andre Pascal 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France phone: (33-1) 4524 9691 fax: (33-1) 4524 1996 Mr. Laba Toure UNDP Office Dakar, Senegal phone: (221) 23 32 44 or 23 17 90 fax: (221) 23 55 00 Dr. John Skinner Senior Adviser, Industry and Environment United Nations Environment Programme Tour Mirabeau, 39-43 Quai Andre Citroen 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France phone: (33 1) 4437 1450 fax: (33 1) 4437 1474 Mr. Christian Holger Strohmann Programme Coordinator International Environmental Technology Centre UNEP - Osaka Office 2-110 Ryokichi-koen, Tsurumi-ku Osaka 538, Japan phone: (816) 915 4583/84 fax: (816) 915 0304 Ms. Leslie Wade Office of the Special Coordinator for Africa and the Least Developed Countries Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development United Nations One U.N. Plaza, Room DC1-1042 New York, New York 10017, United States of America phone: (1-212) 963 4420 fax: (1-212) 963 3892 Mr. Lowell Flanders Assistant Director Division for Sustainable Development Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development United Nations Two U.N. Plaza, DC2-2242 New York, N.Y. 10017, United States of America phone: (1-212) 963 8792 fax: (1-212) 963 1267 Mr. Dirk Pilari Focal Point for Technology Transfer and Cooperation Division for Sustainable Development Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development United Natios Two U.N. Plaza, DC2-2248 New York, N.Y. 10017, United States of America phone: (1-212) 963 6757 fax: (1-212) 963 1267
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