United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


          Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Identification
                 of Principles of International Law for
                         Sustainable Development
                Geneva, Switzerland, 26-28 September 1995


      Prepared by the Division for Sustainable Development for the
                  Commission on Sustainable Development
                             Fourth Session
                          18 April - 3 May 1996
                                New York



                                CONTENTS


                                                              Paragraph

I.    INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 -  10

II.   IDENTIFICATION OF PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF 
      INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. . . . . . 11 - 160

      A.   Principle of interrelationship and integration. . . 15 -  18

           (1)   Interrelationship and integration . . . . . . 15 -  18

      B.   Principles and concepts relating to environment and 
           development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 -  74

           (2)   Right to development. . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 -  25

           (3)   Right to a healthy environment. . . . . . . . 26 -  31

           (4)   Eradication of poverty. . . . . . . . . . . . 32 -  37

           (5)   Equity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 -  50

           (6)   Sovereignty over natural resources and
                 responsibility
                 not to cause damage to the environment of other 
                 States or to areas beyond national jurisdiction51 -  56

           (7)   Sustainable use of natural resources. . . . . 57 -  63

           (8)   Prevention of environmental harm. . . . . . ..64 -  69

           (9)   Precautionary principle . . . . . . . . . . . 70 -  74

      C.   Principles and concepts of international cooperation75 - 122

           (10)  Duty to cooperate in the spirit of global partnership75 - 102
                 a. Common concern of humankind. . . . . . . . 82 -  88
                 b. Common but differentiated responsibilities 89 -  92
                 c. Special treatment of developing countries, small
                    island developing States and countries with
                    economies in transition. . . . . . . . . . 93 - 102

           (11)       Common heritage of humankind . . . . . .103 - 104

           (12)       Cooperation in a transboundary context .105 - 122
                 a. Equitable and reasonable use of transboundary 
                       natural resources . . . . . . . . . . .107 - 109
                 b. Notification to and consultations with neighboring
                 and potentially affected States . . . . . . .110 - 113
                 c. Environmental impact assessment in a transboundary 
                    context. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 - 116
                 d. Prior informed consent . . . . . . . . . .117 - 120
                 e. Cooperation to discourage or prevent the relocation
                 and transfer of activities and substances that cause
                 severe environmental degradation or are harmful to
                 human health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 - 122

      D.   Principles and concepts of participation, decision-making 
           and transparency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 - 139

           (13)       Public participation . . . . . . . . . .126 - 130

           (14)       Access to information. . . . . . . . . .131 - 133

           (15)       Environmental impact assessment and informed 
                 decision-making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 - 139

      E.   Principles and concepts of dispute avoidance and resolution 
           procedures, monitoring and compliance . . . . . . .140 - 160

           (16)  Peaceful settlement of disputes in the field of
                 environment 
                 and sustainable development . . . . . . . . .144 - 148

           (17)  Equal, expanded and effective access to judicial and 
                 administrative proceedings. . . . . . . . . .149 - 152

           (18)  National implementation of international commitments 153 -
154

           (19) Monitoring of compliance with international
                commitments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 - 160

III.  RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE COMMISSION ON 
      SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 - 166

      ANNEX:  List of Participants                              Page 39

      ENDNOTES                                                  Page 44


I.    INTRODUCTION

1.    The Expert Group on Identification of Principles of International
Law for Sustainable Development was convened in Geneva, from 26 to 28
September 1995, by the secretariat of the United Nations Commission on
Sustainable Development, which is the Division for Sustainable
Development in the United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable Development (DPCSD). The mandate of the Expert Group is
rooted both in the concern of Agenda 21 that the "feasibility of
elaborating general rights and obligations of States, as appropriate, in
the field of sustainable development, ..." be examined (para 39.5) and
in the request of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable
Development (CSD), at its second session, that further study be made of
the concept, requirements and implications of sustainable development and
international law. 1/

2.    The experts who participated in the meeting are listed in the
Annex. It is important to stress that each attended in a personal
capacity and that any views expressed during the meeting and reflected
in this Report were made in a personal capacity. The Report is based on
the deliberations and conclusions of the Expert Group. It represents a
broad consensus but may not in every case represent the views of all
participants.

3.    The objective of the Expert Group meeting was to identify basic
principles and concepts of international law for sustainable development,
consider possible classifications of such principles and concepts, and
assess their potential practical implications in a legal context,
including their role in the interpretation and application of existing
international law in the field. The principles and concepts considered
were not limited to traditional public international law relations, but
were also relevant to private international law (conflict of laws with
regard to transnational relations between individuals and various kinds
of organizations, whether incorporated or not) and international
administrative law (with regard to relations between individuals or
organizations and public authorities). 

4.    In carrying out its tasks the Expert Group worked within the
framework established by the Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development and Agenda 21. It was agreed that these instruments provided
the essential basis for identifying and assessing principles and concepts
of international law for sustainable development, and that the delicately
crafted packages they represent should not be unravelled.  Nevertheless,
it was clear from the practice of States and other members of the
international community since the 1992 United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED), that certain principles and concepts
set forth in those instruments had acquired a particular relevance in
their international legal consequences. The Expert Group considered it
appropriate to take into account that practice, as reflected in the
activities of States and other members of the international community
before international legislative fora, international courts, tribunals
and other dispute settlement fora, and in developments in national law
which sought to implement the Rio principles.

5.    Apart from the Rio instruments, the Expert Group also based its
deliberations on prior work carried out in the period after UNCED.
Reference was made to several documents, including the report of a
Consultation on Sustainable Development: the Challenge to International
Law, convened by the Foundation for International Environmental Law and
Development (FIELD); 2/ the report of the Austrian Government's
Symposium on Sustainable Development and International Law; 3/ the
report of the Committee on Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development of
the International Law Association; 4/ the Draft International Covenant
on Environment and Development prepared by the Commission on
Environmental Law of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) in cooperation
with the International Council of Environmental Law; 5/ and the Earth
Charter Initiative. 6/  The Division for Sustainable Development of the
DPCSD prepared a Discussion Paper for the meeting of the Expert Group,
which served as a point of reference throughout the meeting. 7/

6.    By way of introduction, the Expert Group recognized that the legal
status of each of the principles it considered varies considerably; some
of the principles identified are more firmly established in international
law, while others are only in the process of gaining relevance in
international law. The Expert Group agreed that the discussion and
formulation of principles, and their identification and listing in this
Report, is without prejudice to the question of whether these are part
of customary international law. The experts would like to stress this
Report is not aimed at presenting an attempt at codification. Further,
the listing of principles in the Report does not represent any
hierarchical order. 

7.    It was acknowledged that some principles appear in global or
regional binding international legal instruments, while others can only
be identified in soft-law instruments. In the absence of judicial
authority and given the conflicting interpretations under State practice
it is frequently difficult to establish the parameters or the precise
international legal status of each principle. The legal consequences of
each principle linked to a particular activity or incident would have to
be considered in relation to the facts and circumstances of each case,
taking account of various factors, including: its sources; textual
context; its language; the particular activity at issue; and the
particular circumstances in which it occurs, including the actors and the
geographic region. The Expert Group recognized that many of the
principles and concepts are stated in differing forms and has not
attempted to make a choice as between the varying expressions. Finally,
it is the understanding of the Expert Group that each principle or
concept is to be interpreted in the light of other relevant principles.

8.    The Expert Group sought to focus, in particular, on the practical
consequences that principles might play in international law. The Group
noted that principles may perform a variety of functions in the
international legal process, and welcomed the fact that in various fora,
including judicial fora, principles were being relied upon to support
substantive legal arguments. The role played by principles included the
following:

      -    to assist in the development of new legal instruments;
      -    to assist in the interpretation and application of treaty and
           other obligations; 
      -    to establish norms of a substantive nature, such as Principle
           21 of the Stockholm Declaration 8/ and Principle 2 of the Rio
           Declaration;
      -    to establish obligations of a procedural nature, such as the
           principle of informed decision-making, the principle of public
           participation; and
      -    to assist in the elaboration of detailed obligations (relating
           to e.g. levels of     emissions of pollutants, time frames for
           compliance etc.), such as the principle of common but
           differentiated responsibility.

9.    The Expert Group noted that the rules of international law
governing the interpretation of treaties and other sources of
international obligation, provided in Articles 31-33 of the Vienna
Convention on the Law of Treaties, pointed a way towards applying an
integrated approach to sustainable development. Article 31, which is to
be taken in its entirety, provides in paragraph 3(c) that "any relevant
rules of international law applicable in the relations between the
parties" shall be taken into account. In this regard, the Expert Group
noted that the extent to which one or more principles of international
law related to sustainable development might be brought within the scope
of Article 31(3), if at all, will depend on two factors, namely whether
they are rules of international law, and whether these rules are
applicable between the parties to the treaty that is the object of
interpretation. 9/

10.   Part II of this Report identifies nineteen principles and concepts
of international law for sustainable development in the context of the
Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, international treaties and additional legal
instruments. The principles are organized in five clusters, as follows:
(A) one fundamental principle of interrelationship and integration; (B)
eight principles and concepts related to the environment and development;
(C) three related to international cooperation; (D) three related to
participation, decision-making and transparency; and (E) four related to
dispute avoidance, resolution procedures, monitoring and compliance. An
additional eight sub-principles are also discussed. Part III contains the
recommendations of the Expert Group to the Commission on Sustainable
Development, which focus primarily on two major issues. The first
concerns preparations for the 1997 Special Session of the United Nations
General Assembly to review the implementation of Agenda 21. The second
suggests means for periodic review of the evolution of the interpretation
and application of these principles.


II.   IDENTIFICATION OF PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR
      SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

11.   The Expert Group considered, in particular, the principles agreed
to in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and in Agenda
21, as well as the legal instruments that have been negotiated or entered
into force since 1992. On this basis, the Expert Group identified the
principles and concepts contained in this report as those which could be
considered as constituting the principles and concepts of international
law for sustainable development. The order in which the principles appear
do not in any way reflect a judgment as to their value or ranking.

12.   Principle 1 of the Rio Declaration states that "Human beings are at
the center of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to
a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature." This principle
reflects the fundamental human right to a life with dignity. The Expert
Group considers that all the principles described in this report should
be construed so as to give effect to this principle.

13.   Sustainable development will be enhanced if competing legal rules
strive as a first step towards compatibility and as a second step towards
mutual support. Conflicts between rules should be avoided and/or settled
in accordance with relevant provisions such as those contained in the
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Thus, the principle of
interrelationship and integration, as discussed in paragraphs 15-18,
concerns the consistency of rules and balanced outcomes, which take into
account all relevant forces of society. Interrelationship as a principle
contributing to the achievement of sustainable development depends on the
respect of each legal domain for the scope and content of adjacent bodies
of law.

14.   The concept of interrelationship and integration also has to do
with procedures and with the composition of those bodies mandated to
settle conflicts between different laws when the conflict is relevant to
sustainable development. In considering specific cases, these bodies
should, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions, terms of
references and charters, take into consideration rules related to
sustainable development. This would suggest that these bodies have the
appropriate legitimacy and expertise, e.g., by incorporating experts from
applicable areas of law related to sustainable development law. Another
possibility would be some kind of overarching jurisdiction including
experts from all relevant fields.


A.    PRINCIPLE OF INTERRELATIONSHIP AND INTEGRATION

(1)   Interrelationship and integration

15.   The Expert Group considered that the principle of interrelationship
and integration forms the backbone of sustainable development.
Integration is the underlying theme of the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21.
Principles 3 and 4 of the Rio Declaration integrate not only the concepts
of environment and development, but also the needs of generations, both
present and future. Principle 25 states that peace, development and
environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible. The
principle of interrelationship and integration is addressed explicitly
in chapter 8 of Agenda 21. Interrelationship and integration reflect the
interdependence of social, economic, environmental and human rights
aspects of life that define sustainable development, and could lead to
the development of general rules of international law in which these
separate fields retain their distinct characters but are subject to an
interconnected approach. However, it is understood that this approach
does not subsume the distinct fields of international law into
international law for sustainable development.

16.   Principle 13 of the Stockholm Declaration urges States to "adopt an
integrated and coordinated approach to their development planning so as
to ensure that development is compatible with the need to protect and
improve environment for the benefit of their population". The UNGA World
Charter for Nature calls for an integrated approach for social, economic
and conservation-related activities. 10/

17.   The principle of interrelationship and integration is also
addressed in treaties relevant to sustainable development. For example,
the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, in its third
preambular paragraph, states, "...the problems of ocean space are closely
interrelated and need to be considered as a whole." 11/ The United
Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries
Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in
Africa stresses the importance of an integrated approach. 12/

18.   International law, as well as national law, contribute to
sustainable development to the extent that the respective rules are
applied in a comprehensive and holistic way. Law-making and
interpretation of laws at the domestic and international levels requires
coordination among all relevant actors and interests.


B.    PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS RELATING TO ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

(2)   Right to development

19.   Article 55 of the Charter of the United Nations 13/ includes the
pursuance of "development" amongst the goals of international economic
and social co-operation. Through Article 56 States pledge themselves to
contribute, individually and jointly with the Organization, to promote
development and respect for human rights. 

20.   The right to development relates to the basic right of every human
person to life as well as the right to develop his/her potential so as
to live in dignity. Similarly, it relates to the right  of peoples to
existence and to develop themselves. In 1986, the United Nations General
Assembly (UNGA) adopted the Declaration on the Right to Development
14/ which provides that "the right to development is an inalienable human
right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled
to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural
and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental
freedoms can be fully realized."

21.    Basic elements of a right to development flow from the 1948
Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1966 International Human
Rights Covenants and include, among other things, the rights to an
adequate living, education, housing, work and food. Hence, the right to
development is often perceived as the synthesis of existing human rights.


22.   Some governments have opposed the existence of a right to
development as a human right or principle of international law, while
others considered it as of primordial importance. However, in recent
years this divergence of opinion seems to be diminishing. 15/
References to the right to development are included in, inter alia, the
Rio Declaration, whose Principle 3 states: "The right to development must
be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental
needs of present and future generations", the Vienna Human Rights
Declaration and the Copenhagen Social Summit Declaration. In the latter
Declaration, Governments agreed to establish a framework for action to,
inter alia, "promote universal respect for, and observance and protection
of, all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, including the
right to development." 16/ Similarly, the Beijing Platform of Action,
adopted by the Fourth World Conference of Women, contains various
references to the right of development. 17/

23.   The right to development as such is also included in some
international conventions. An example is the African Charter on Human and
Peoples' Rights: "1. All peoples shall have the right to their economic,
social and cultural development with due regard to their freedom and
identity and in equal enjoyment of the common heritage of mankind; 2.
States shall have the duty, individually and collectively, to ensure the
exercise of the right to development." 18/

24.   The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) at
its third session urged governments to reaffirm, promote and strive to
ensure the realization of rights contained in relevant international
instruments and declarations, including the Declaration on the Right to
Development, as well as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 19/

25.   Reference could also be made to developments outside the United
Nations.  The Declaration on the Progressive Development of Principles
of Public International Law Relating to a New International Economic
Order (1986), 20/ identified the right to development as one of the
principles of public international law in general and of human rights law
in particular. The Draft IUCN Covenant also contains a provision on the
right to development. Its Article 8 reads: "The exercise of the right to
development entails the obligation to meet the developmental and
environmental needs of humanity in a sustainable and equitable manner."
The article seeks to connote a balance between efforts aimed at
development and environmental protection in the sense that "sustainable"
brings environmental concepts into the development process, while
"equitable" inserts developmental matters into international
environmental protection efforts. 21/

(3)   Right to a healthy environment

26.   Respect for life is the fundamental premise of the Universal
Declaration 22/ and Covenants 23/ of Human Rights, and of the UNGA
World Charter for Nature. 24/ 

27.   Principle 1 of the Rio Declaration expresses that human beings are
at the center of concerns for sustainable development and are "entitled
to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature." Chapter 6 of
Agenda 21, on protecting and promoting human health, states in its
para.1: "Health and development are intimately interconnected. Both
insufficient development leading to poverty and inappropriate development
resulting in over-consumption, coupled with expanding world population,
can result in severe environmental health problems ... Agenda 21 must
address the primary health needs of the world's population, since they
are integral to the achievement of the goals of sustainable development
and primary environmental care."  25/

28.    The Stockholm Declaration provides, "Man has the fundamental right
to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, in an environment
of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being, and he bears
a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for
present and future generations." 26/ 

29.   Since, as the Stockholm Declaration noted, both the natural and the
human-made environment are essential "to the enjoyment of basic human
rights - even the right to life itself", 27/ protection of human life
concurrently with nature is an integral component of the right to a
healthy environment. Indeed, the Convention on Biological Diversity
recognizes in its Preamble the "intrinsic value of biological diversity",
its values and its components. 28/ The interdependence of the right to
a healthy environment and other human rights also has been repeatedly
acknowledged. 29/

30.   The right to a healthy environment has been frequently referred
to, 30/ though often in non-legally binding instruments. In treaty law
the principle has been recognized with reference to specific sectors,
such as labour, 31/ migrant workers and their families, 32/
trade, 33/ indigenous peoples, 34/ time of armed conflict, 35/
hazardous wastes, 36/ and public health. 37/ The UN Commission on
Human Rights has identified sixty-one national constitutions that include
reference to the right to a healthy environment. 38/

31.   The right to a healthy environment provides a focus to guide the
integration of environment and development. Development is sustainable
where it advances or realizes the right to a healthy environment.

(4)   Eradication of poverty

32.    All individuals should be provided with the possibility of earning
a living in a sustainable way, in just and decent conditions. Principle
5 of the Rio Declaration encourages all States and people to cooperate
in the essential task of eradicating poverty and clearly links this
effort with the achievement of sustainable development. Eradication of
poverty is a principle that applies to the majority of the people of the
world, with special emphasis on developing countries. Chapter 3 of Agenda
21 is devoted entirely to the issue of combating poverty.

33.   A number of legally-binding international legal instruments refer
to eradication of poverty. These include the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change, 39/ the Convention on Biological
Diversity, 40/ and the Desertification Convention. 41/ The
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights includes
the right to an adequate standard of living. 42/

34.   Other instruments support the goal of the eradication of poverty as
well. These include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 43/ the
Declaration on the Right to Development, 44/ and the Stockholm
Declaration. 45/ The World Commission on Environment and Development
(WCED) recognized poverty as a major cause and effect of global
environmental problems, and therefore considers it futile to attempt to
deal with environmental problems without a broader perspective that
encompasses the factors underlying world poverty and international
inequality. 46/ The Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of
Principles For a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and
Sustainable Development of all Types of Forests 47/ also identified
economic and social development and poverty eradication as the first and
overriding priorities of developing countries and essential to meeting
sustainability objectives.

35.   The sustainable eradication of poverty requires developing the
potential of children through education and protection of their health
and individual development. The principle thus calls for active measures
to protect children. 48/ It also includes the right to work and the
pursuit by governments of a policy of full, productive and freely-chosen
employment,  49/ as well as the right for individuals to enjoy free
participation in economic activity without discrimination on the basis
of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extractions
or social origin; and the need to recognize the aspirations of tribal and
indigenous peoples in respect of economic development. 50/

36.    The importance of the principle of eradication of poverty and of
the role of international organizations, particularly the multilateral
financing institutions, have been reaffirmed at the Copenhagen Social
Summit.  51/

37.   The CSD, at its third session, noted that "in all the major United
Nations conferences held since 1990, including the World Summit for
Children, the International Conference on Nutrition, the World Conference
on Human Rights, the International Conference on Population and
Development and the World Summit for Social Development, there has been
a recognition of the need to launch a global attack on poverty and
commitments made in recognition of that need". The Commission is also
"deeply convinced that economic development, social development and
environmental protection are interdependent and mutually reinforcing
components of sustainable development". 52/

(5)   Equity

38.   Under general international law, equity allows the international
community to take into account considerations of justice and fairness in
the establishment, operation and application of international law. Equity
has been invoked as a principle of international law. The application of
equity in international environmental affairs long predates UNCED. Apart
from its association with the rights of future generations, it has been
related to the principle of common but differentiated responsibility 
53/, and the allocation of shared natural resources, 54/ including
shared fisheries stocks and freshwater resources. Equity is also invoked
in relation to the participation of States in international environmental
instruments and institutions, 55/ financial and other contributions
to activities, 56/ and the distribution of the benefits of
development. 57/

39.   The International Court of Justice (ICJ) described equity as being
a "direct emanation of the idea of justice" and a "general principle
directly applicable as law" which should be applied as part of
international law "to balance up the various considerations which it
regards as relevant in order to produce an equitable result." 58/ The
ICJ went on to hold there were no rigid rules as to the exact weight to
be attached to each element in a case, but that equity was not an
exercise of discretion or conciliation or the operation of distributive
justice. 59/ The Court has also linked equity with principles of
acquiescence and estoppel, 60/ and with delimitating maritime
areas. 61/ It has applied equity to the conservation of fishery
resources to achieve an "equitable solution derived from the applicable
law." 62/ Equity can therefore operate as a part of international law
to inform the application of a particular rule.

40.   In the environmental field, many treaties refer to or incorporate
equity or equitable principles. Equity provides a conveniently flexible
means of leaving the extent of rights and obligations open to
interpretation, to be decided at a subsequent date by international
courts or other decision-making bodies. At UNCED, equitable principles
were frequently used, and they played a central role in how to allocate
future responsibilities for environmental protection between States which
are at different levels of economic development, which have contributed
in different degrees to particular problems, and which have different
environmental and developmental needs and priorities. 

41.   Equity includes both intergenerational equity (relating to the
rights of future generations and our obligations to them) and
intragenerational equity (relating to members of generations existing
today).

42.   The principle of intergenerational equity reflects the view that as
"members of the present generation, we hold the earth in trust for future
generations," while "at the same time we are beneficiaries entitled to
use it." 63/ All generations form a partnership that extends across
time in relation to their human environment. The principle includes three
components: quality, options, and access to the environment. These must
be comparable across generations. 

43.   The first, equitable quality, requires each generation to maintain
the quality of the planet so that it is passed on in no worse condition
than received. It assumes that economic development will take place,
consistent with the element of the access. Hence it does not mean the
environment should remain unchanged; rather it recognizes that trade-offs
are to be expected and that a framework must be developed in which
balancing of interests can take place consistent with maintaining a
robust environment.

44.   The element of options requires conserving the diversity of the
natural and cultural resource base so that it does not unduly restrict
the options available to future generations in solving their problems and
satisfying their own values. It also entitles each generation to
diversity comparable to that enjoyed by previous generations.

45.   Access requires that each generation provide its members with
equitable access to the legacy of the past and to the natural
environment. It means that members of the present generation have a right
of access without discrimination to use the planet's resources to improve
their own economic and social well-being provided they do not
unreasonably interfere with access of other members to do so.

46.   Intergenerational equity is well-known to international law.  Early
environmental treaties, including the International Whaling Convention
64/ and the World Heritage Convention, 65/ refer to safeguarding the
resources for future generations. Increasingly treaties seek to preserve
particular natural resources and other environmental assets for the
benefit of present and future generations. These include the African
Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 66/
wild flora and fauna; 67/ the marine environment; 68/ essential
renewable natural resources; 69/ the environment generally; 70/
the resources of the earth; 71/ natural heritage; 72/ natural
resources; 73/ water resources; 74/ biological diversity; 75/
and the climate system. 76/ The agreement to protect the high-level
ozone layer 77/ is inherently intergenerational.  The UN Stockholm
Declaration on the Human Environment in principle 1 noted a "solemn
responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and
future generations." Intergenerational equity is often referred to as an
important aspect of the concept of sustainable development. 78/  
47.   The principle of intergenerational equity has been increasingly
recognized in international and domestic courts and in administrative
bodies.  In the 1995 New Zealand v. France case before the International
Court of Justice, Judge Weeramantry noted that the "principle of
intergenerational equity" is "an important and rapidly developing
principle of contemporary environmental law ... which must inevitably be
a concern of this Court." 79/ The practical implementation of the
principle of intergenerational equity is also reflected, for example, in
the legal standing of members of the present generation to enhance their
locus standi to bring environmental claims in domestic or international
courts. 80/

48.   The obligation to use natural resources equitably refers to the
obligation to take into account the needs of other users, and can be
referred to as "intragenerational equity." This aspect of equity is also
contained in the UNCED instruments, which reflect efforts to apply equity
to particular issues. Intragenerational equity does not indicate how the
burdens and fruits are to be borne by members of the present generation.
But if it is assumed that there is no basis for discriminating in favor
of one generation at the expense of another and that all generations form
a partnership, it can be concluded that intragenerational equity requires
a nondiscriminatory bearing of environmental burdens and comparable
access to environmental benefits.

49.   Examples abound of States committing themselves to the equitable
use of, and contributions towards the preservation of, natural resources.
The Preamble to the Montreal Protocol reflects the aim of controlling
"equitably total global emissions of substances that deplete the ozone
layer." 81/ Under the Climate Change Convention all the Parties
undertake to be guided on "the basis of equity" in their actions to
achieve the objective of the Convention, and Annex I Parties agree to
take into account the need for "equitable and appropriate contributions"
by each of them to the global effort regarding the achievement of the
objective of the Convention. 82/ The objectives of the Convention on
Biological Diversity include the "fair and equitable" sharing of the
benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources. 83/ And Principle
3 of the Rio Declaration refers to the "right to development" as a means
of "equitably" meeting the developmental and environmental needs of
present and future generations. Apart from the jurisprudence of the ICJ
on fisheries conservation, practical implementation of the obligation to
use natural resources equitably is reflected in bilateral and
multilateral agreements to share rights of access in relation to, for
example, fisheries and freshwater resources. Also UNCLOS contains a
number of references to equitable utilization of resources and equitable
sharing of benefits. 84/

50.   The principle of equity also includes the rights of all groups to
participate in productive activity. It specifically includes the right
of workers to organize in order to protect their own interests, and the
role of employers and enterprises in social and economic development.
85/ Freedom to exercise these rights can be viewed as an aspect of human
dignity, and is needed to ensure that overall development planning takes
account of the views of those interested, and that conditions of the work
and employment which are the basis of productive activity are fair,
informed, realistic and applicable. 

(6)   Sovereignty over natural resources and responsibility not to cause
      damage to the environment of other States or to areas beyond
      national jurisdiction

51.   It is a well-established practice, accepted as law, that ■within
the limits stipulated by international law■ every State is free to manage
and utilize the natural resources within its jurisdiction and to formu-
late and pursue its own environmental and developmental policies. 86/
However, States have to conserve and utilize their natural wealth and
resources for the well-being of their peoples, as provided in the Declar-
ation on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources 87/ and common
Article 1 of the Human Rights Covenants, and they have the responsibility
not to cause damage to the environment of other States or to areas beyond
national jurisdiction.  88/

52.   Sovereignty over natural resources as a principle of international
law has evolved since World War Two in response to claims of colonial
peoples and developing countries to enjoy the benefits of resource
exploitation. As such it reflects two main concerns of the United
Nations: (1) the economic development of developing countries; and (2)
self-determination of colonial peoples.

53.   Initially, the principle of sovereignty over natural resources
served as a source for claims to a series of resource- and foreign
investment-related rights which were also said to emanate from other
international law principles such as territorial sovereignty and national
economic jurisdiction. These rights included the right of a State to
possess and determine freely the use of natural resources, the right to
regulate foreign investment, and the right to manage and conserve natural
wealth and resources pursuant to its own developmental and environmental
policies. In later years, an increasing number of duties has been
identified as incumbent on States in the exercise of their sovereignty
over natural resources as well. 89/ These include the duty to exercise
resource-related rights in the interest of national development and the
well-being of the people, the duty to have due care for the environment
and the duty to recognize the correlative rights of other States in
transboundary resources.

54.   While the exact scope and contents of this principle have given
rise to controversy over the years, particularly in relation to oil
resources and their nationalization, the Declaration on Permanent
Sovereignty over Natural Resources still serves as a basic instrument on
this matter. Further, the Stockholm Declaration was among the first
documents which stipulated that sovereignty over natural resources must
be exercised in an environmentally responsible way. Especially its
Principle 21 calls for the prevention of extraterritorial effects causing
environmental damage in other countries or in areas outside national
jurisdiction. 90/ It may not be easy to determine the exact scope of
this obligation and its implications. Certainly not all instances of
transboundary damage resulting from activities within a State's territory
can be prevented or are unlawful. Important criteria for determining what
is permissible and what is prohibited might include: (a) the likelihood
of significant harmful effects on the environment and on potential or
current activities in another State; (b) the ratio between prevention
costs and any damage; (c) the impact on other States' capacity to use
their natural wealth and resources in a similar way; and (d) the health
of the population of another State. 91/

55.   The principle of sovereignty over natural resources and the
corollary responsibility not to cause transboundary damage is included
in legally-binding instruments, inter alia, UNCLOS, 92/ the Climate
Change Convention, 93/ the Convention on Biological Diversity, 94/ the
European Energy Charter Treaty 95/ as well as many other global and
regional conservation treaties.

56.    It is also reflected in the 1978 Shared Natural Resources
Principles and Principle 2 of the Rio Declaration. The Draft IUCN
Covenant incorporates it in its Article 11.1. 96/ The Seoul Declaration
of the International Law Association also contains a provision on
permanent sovereignty over natural resources. 97/ 

(7)   Sustainable use of natural resources

57.   The principle of sustainable use of natural resources requires
States and peoples to pay due care to the environment and to make
rational use of the natural wealth and resources of the areas within
their jurisdiction.

58.   In 1962, before the preservation of the environment per se was
perceived as an important international concern, the UNGA adopted two
resolutions with early provisions relating to rational use of natural
resources. First, paragraph 1 of the Declaration on Permanent Sovereignty
over Natural Resources 98/ can be interpreted as an injunction to make
a prudent, long-term use of natural resources. Second, the General
Assembly adopted by consensus a resolution on the relationship between
economic development and environmental protection, "Economic Development
and the Conservation of Nature". 99/ The resolution reflects
recognition of the extent to which economic development may jeopardize
natural resources, including fauna and flora, and formulates for the
first time the objective that natural resources should not be wasted. It
endorses an initiative from UNESCO to recommend action and to introduce
effective domestic legislation towards, inter alia, the preservation and
rational use of natural resources. 

59.   The Stockholm Declaration points out that careful planning and
management are required for safeguarding the natural resources of the
earth for the benefit of present and future generations: "The protection
and improvement of the human environment is a major issue which affects
the well-being of peoples and economic development throughout the world;
it is the urgent desire of the peoples of the whole world and the duty
of all Governments." 100/  Principle 13 provides that: "In order to
achieve a more rational management of resources and thus to improve the
environment, States should adopt an integrated and coordinated approach
to their development planning so as to ensure that development is
compatible with the need to protect and improve the human environment for
the benefit of their population."

60.   Ever since the Stockholm Conference, UN resolutions have gradually
elaborated standards for nature conservation and utilization of natural
resources. For example, reference can be made to the Charter of Economic
Rights and Duties of States, 101/ and the World Charter for
Nature. 102/ 

61.   The Rio Declaration indicates at various places 103/ that
environmental preservation and the promotion of development are
interrelated and that an integrated approach is called for. The principle
of sustainable use of natural resources is amply reflected in
international conventions. Reference can be made to: regional co-
operation treaties; 104/ global conservation treaties; 105/ and
other resource-related multilateral treaties. 106/

62.   International jurisprudence and arbitral awards have so far focused
mainly on the obligation of a State to prevent significant damage to the
environment of other States. There are certain relevant awards such as
those in the Trail Smelter and Lac Lanoux cases as well as the ICJ
Nuclear Tests Cases. 107/

63.   In conclusion, legal development has focused on State obligations
with respect to the environment of other, mostly neighboring States, as
is clearly reflected in Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration.
However, a distinct tendency can be discerned from UN resolutions and
treaty law to impose duties on States with respect to the management of
their natural wealth and resources so as to ensure sustainable production
and consumption, in the interest of the peoples of their own and other
States and of humankind including future generations. These obligations
respond to environmental problems of international if not global concern,
both to present and future generations. Gradually, it has become
recognized under international law that natural resource management
should no longer fall within the exclusive domestic jurisdiction of
individual States. 

(8)   Prevention of environmental harm 

64.   The principle of prevention of environmental harm is a major
cornerstone of international environmental law. It is based on the idea
that protection of the environment is best achieved through anticipatory
measures to prevent harm rather than through post-hoc efforts to repair
or provide compensation for it. It may in fact be impossible to repair
environmental harm once it has occurred. Furthermore, compensation is a
poor substitute for clean air or water and cannot make up for the loss
of flora, fauna, other resources or entire species. In addition, it is
usually more expensive to repair environmental harm than to prevent it.

65.   Preventive measures are most effective and efficient when they
eliminate the source of environmental harm rather than attempting to
manage harmful effects. For example, a change in the production process
to eliminate an environmentally harmful substance is preferable to
installing a pollution-control device at the end of the process to catch
as much of the substance as possible. It is also important that care be
taken to prevent the transfer of environmental harm or danger from one
area to another and to prevent the transformation of one kind of
environmental harm into another. 108/

66.   On the national level, the principle of prevention of environmental
harm envisages that States will enact and implement effective
environmental legislation. 109/ While environmental standards and
natural resource protection strategies should reflect the environmental
and developmental context to which they apply, 110/ the prevention
of environmental harm means that all States should enact preventive
measures (including regulations and economic incentives) that apply to
public and private activities subject to their jurisdiction or control
that are potentially harmful to the environment. 111/ The principle
of prevention also implies that proposed activities be evaluated before
they are authorized to determine whether they may cause harm to the
environment. This is most effectively accomplished through an
environmental impact assessment process, 112/ in which full
participation by the members of the public concerned is permitted. 113/ 
(Reference is also made to environmental impact assessment in a
transboundary context, paras 113-115.)

67.   On the international level the principle of prevention of
transfrontier environmental harm is now generally accepted. 114/ The
well-known language from both the Stockholm and Rio Declarations relating
to this principle provides that "States have ... the responsibility to
ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause
damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits
of national jurisdiction." 115/ While the word "ensure" might suggest
otherwise, this is generally thought to be an obligation of due diligence
to prevent transfrontier environmental harm. 116/ As is true on the
national level, prevention of environmental harm in the transfrontier
context is best achieved by evaluating proposed activities before they
are authorized to determine what impacts they may have beyond the limits
of national jurisdiction. 117/ If such an environmental impact
assessment indicates the possibility of transfrontier harm, the principle
of prevention calls for the State in whose territory the proposed
activity would be situated to notify potentially affected States of the
plans, provide them with sufficient information to enable them to conduct
their own evaluation, and consult with them at an early stage and in good
faith. 118/ States are, in any event, responsible for making
reparation for any transfrontier environmental harm that they do not
prevent. 119/

68.   Related to the principle of prevention of environmental harm is the
question whether States potentially affected by transboundary harm have
any rights to defend themselves against imminent and significant threats
to their environment. Whereas the right of individual or collective self-
defence has so far been restricted to armed attacks in the case of non-
action by the Security Council 120/, it should be noted that States
are entitled to take measures for the protection of their environment
against harm caused by certain goods or services by means of specific
trade bans. 121/ Any defensive action would have to respect the
sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country of origin of such
threats or potential harm. The World Commission on Environment and
Development (WCED) Draft entitled States to "prevent or abate any
transboundary environmental interference or a significant risk
thereof," 122/ a statement which would justify defensive action
coming from the potentially affected States. 

69.   There is a connection between the principle of prevention of
environmental harm and the polluter-pays principle. According to the
polluter-pays principle it is important that the environmental costs of
economic activities, including costs of prevention of potential harm, be
internalized rather than imposed upon society at large. It was developed
by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in
1974 123/ as a principle to ensure that firms paid the full costs of
controlling pollution and were not subsidized by the State. It was meant
to be a principle that applies within a State, and not between States. 
Principle 2 of the Rio Declaration brings the polluter-pays approach
outside of a strictly developed country context.  It calls upon national
authorities to "endeavour to promote the internalization of environmental
costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the
approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of
pollution...."  The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
reiterated this principle at its third session.  124/

(9)   Precautionary principle

70.   The precautionary principle indicates that lack of scientific
certainty is no reason to postpone action to avoid potentially serious
or irreversible harm to the environment. The principle provides guidance
for the development and application of international environmental law. 
Depending upon the formulation of the principle in international legal
instruments, there may also be a requirement that measures taken in
application of the principle should be cost-effective.

71.   The core of the precautionary principle is reflected in Principle
15 of the Rio Declaration, which states: "In order to protect the
environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States
according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or
irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used
as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent
environmental degradation." Central to the principle is the element of
anticipation, reflecting a requirement that effective environmental
measures need to be based upon actions which take a longer-term approach
and which might anticipate changes in the basis of our scientific
knowledge.  At a general level the principle is understood to mean that
States should act carefully and with foresight when taking decisions
which concern activities that may have an adverse impact on the
environment. 

72.   A more focused interpretation of the precautionary principle could
require activities and substances which may be harmful to the environment
to be regulated, and possibly prohibited, even if no conclusive or
overwhelming evidence is available as to the harm or likely harm those
activities may cause to the environment. An even more fundamental
interpretation shifts the burden of proof in decision-making to require
a person who wishes to carry out an activity to prove that it will not
cause harm to the environment.

73.   Whereas the preventive principle can be traced back to
international environmental treaties and international acts since at
least the 1930s, the precautionary principle, which is still evolving,
only began to appear in international legal instruments in the mid-1980s,
drawing from developments in domestic legal systems, most notably that
of West Germany. 125/ The first treaty which reflects the
precautionary principle was the Vienna Convention for the Protection of
the Ozone Layer, 126/ followed in 1987 by the Montreal Protocol.
127/ 

74.   The principle has been expressed in at least seven international
agreements since 1989, although its precise formulation is not identical
in each instrument. Two of these are of global application on
environmental matters of broad concern and apply to almost all human
activities. 128/ The Fish Stocks Agreement has adopted the
"precautionary approach". 129/ A specific set of guidelines are also
annexed to the Agreement for the application of "precautionary reference
points" in conservation and management of the stocks concerned. Of
particular note are its further application to the marine
environment 130/ and in the context of the European Union. 131/
There are a limited but increasing number of other cases where the
precautionary principle is being applied in practice; noteworthy examples
are the Directive of the Council of the European Communities on urban
waste water, 132/ and the Convention for the Protection of the
Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. 133/ New Zealand
invoked the precautionary principle in support of its application to the
International Court of Justice to review France's decision to recommence
nuclear tests. 134/ 


C.    PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION  

(10)  Duty to cooperate in the spirit of global partnership

75.   The duty of States to cooperate is well-established, as exemplified
by Chapter IX of the UN Charter and the Declaration on Principles of
International Law. 135/ It applies on the global, regional and
bilateral levels and often requires prior information, consultation and
negotiation. The principle of global partnership can be seen as a more
recent reformulation of the obligation to cooperate.

76.   The duty to cooperate in the context of global partnership is
becoming increasingly important. Both the Stockholm and Rio Declarations
reflect and signify this trend. The Stockholm Declaration states: "A
growing class of environmental problems ... will require extensive co-
operation among nations ..."; 136/ Principle 7 of the Rio
Declaration proclaims that, "States shall cooperate in a spirit of global
partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of
the Earth's ecosystem...", and its Preamble refers to the goal of
establishing a new and equitable global partnership through the creation
of new levels of cooperation among States, key sectors of societies and
people.

77.   The obligation of States to cooperate forms the subject of chapter
2 of Agenda 21 entitled "International cooperation to accelerate
sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic
policies" and can be viewed as one of the cornerstones of the whole of
Agenda 21 and the concept of sustainable development. It is further
embodied in the 27th and last principle of the Rio Declaration: "States
and people shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of partnership
in the fulfillment of the principles embodied in this Declaration and in
the further development of international law in the field of sustainable
development".

78.   A number of international agreements provide for a duty of
industrialized countries to contribute to developing countries' efforts
to pursue sustainable development and to assist developing countries in
protecting the global environment. 137/ Such assistance may entail,
apart from consultation and negotiation, financial aid, transfer of
environmentally-sound technology and cooperation through international
organizations.

79.   The establishment of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), a joint
project of the World Bank, UNEP and UNDP, which entered its Phase II
(1994-97), can be seen as the first major step in carrying out this idea.
Transfer of technology provisions are most notably included in the
Montreal Protocol to the Ozone Layer Convention, the Climate Change
Convention and the Convention on Biological Diversity.

80.   The principle of cooperation in the spirit of global partnership
not only refers to cooperation among States, but should also be extended
to non-State entities, ranging from business associations through non-
governmental organizations to the academic world. 138/

81.   The principle of the duty to cooperate in the spirit of global
partnership can be subdivided into three major components: (a) common
concern of humankind; (b) common but differentiated responsibilities; and
(c) special treatment of developing countries, including small island
developing States and countries with economies in transition. 

      a. Common concern of humankind

82.   The notion of common concern on the part of the international
community, and of States as its principal actors, has traditional roots.
It found its original expression in various forms, like common interest
and international concern, in fields such as the protection of human
rights and self-determination of peoples. The foundation of the concept
is the recognition of a legitimate interest of the international
community to concern itself with certain issues and values which, by
their nature, affect the community as a whole. The scientifically-based
reality of ecological interdependence, and the concomitant recognition
of the global nature of environmental problems, made it only a logical
step to apply the concept of common concern to the environment of the
planet, or elements thereof.

83.   The concept of the common concern of humankind might signal that
the protection of the global environment can no longer be considered to
be solely within the competence of individual sovereign nations. The
concept could imply the right and duty of the international community,
and thus of each State, to act in a manner which reflects this concern. 



84.   "Humankind" establishes a link between present and future
generations, underlining a long-term temporal dimension, while at the
same time not confining responsibilities to States, thus suggesting the
necessary involvement of all sectors of society. "Concern" implies a
focus on both causes and responses; it also marks a departure from the
concept of "common heritage of mankind" which, primarily because of its
proprietary connotations, made it less applicable in the environmental
context. "Common" connotes solidarity in protecting the global
environment, and thus implies the sharing of burdens in achieving the
pursued goals in a manner which reflects equity. This in turn may imply,
in particular circumstances, the acceptance of differentiated treatment
in burden sharing, reflecting differentiated responsibilities between the
various actors, in particular developed and developing States. "Common"
also connotes a spatial dimension in matters of importance to the
biosphere as a whole, as well as a superiority of such concerns over
those which are not so shared.

85.   The Stockholm Declaration already referred to the "common good of
mankind", and was followed by a number of internationally agreed
instruments which in various terms stressed the responsibility of all
States with respect to the protection of the environment.

86.   UNGA Resolution 43/53 is the first major document which
specifically refers to the concept of common concern of mankind, albeit
only in relation to climate change. 139/ It was followed by the
Langkawi Declaration of the Commonwealth Heads of Government. 140/
The principle appeared in a series of governmental statements which
followed the Noordwijk Declaration resulting from the Ministerial
Conference on Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change. 141/ The
UNGA in its Resolution 44/207 (1989) recalled that climate change had
been recognized as the common concern of mankind and stated in its
Declaration on International Economic Co-operation of its 1990 Special
Session that, "The current threat to the environment is the common
concern of all". 142/

87.   This resulted in the inclusion of the concept in the preambles of
the Climate Change Convention and in the Convention on Biological
Diversity, both opened for signature during UNCED. 143/ These major
international instruments go beyond acknowledging the "common concern of
humankind" as such in their respective preambles. Their substantive
elements embody obligations, related inter alia to burden-sharing,
financing, transfer of technology and concerted strategies, which gives
the principle concrete application in treaty law. The Draft IUCN Covenant
proposes making the principle one of its proposed fundamental principles,
applicable to the global environment as a whole. 144/

88.   The concept of common concern of humankind interlinks with a number
of others relating to global environmental and resources issues. Most
prominent among them are the fundamental right to an environment
conducive to a life in dignity, and the principle of inter-generational
equity. It can, however, also be viewed as a specific manifestation of
the overarching duty to cooperate, which constitutes the very anchor of
international law.




      b. Common but differentiated responsibilities 

89.   As expressed in Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration, this principle
recognizes that States have common but differentiated responsibilities
in the context of the different contributions to global environmental
degradation.  States whose societies impose a disproportionate pressure
on the global environment and which command high levels of technological
and financial resources, bear a proportionally higher degree of
responsibility in the international pursuit of sustainable development. 
145/ 

90.     In practical terms, the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities is translated into the explicit recognition that
different standards, delayed compliance time tables or less stringent
commitments may be appropriate for different groups of countries.

91.   The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is
given concrete expression in the 1987 Montreal Protocol to the Ozone
Layer Convention, which establishes a time-table for the reduction of
controlled substances that deplete the ozone layer. 146/ Developing
countries are granted delays in meeting the compliance timetables, and
parties undertake to facilitate access to environmentally safe
alternative substances and technologies, and to facilitate the provision
of financial support.

92.   The principle also frames international cooperation under more
recent international treaties as the Climate Change Convention, 147/
where the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is
stated as the first principle under Article 3. This Convention recognizes
the special circumstances and needs of developing countries, and then
structures the duties and obligations to be undertaken by States
accordingly. 148/ The Convention on Biological Diversity 149/
has made the implementation of obligations undertaken by developing
countries dependent on the effective implementation by developed
countries of their commitments to provide new and additional financial
resources, as well as to provide access to and transfer of technology on
fair and most favorable terms.

      c. Special treatment of developing countries, small island
      developing States and countries with economies in transition

93.   Principle 6 of the Rio Declaration states that priority shall be
given to the special situation and needs of developing countries, in
particular the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable.
The principle of the special treatment of developing countries finds its
elaboration in the principle of global partnership and in the recognition
of the differentiated responsibilities among countries.

94.   The principle is acknowledged in a wide variety of binding
international legal instruments, such as the Climate Change
Convention, 150/ UNCLOS, 151/ the Lome' IV Convention, 152/
the Desertification Convention, 153/ the Convention on Biological
Diversity, 154/ and the Convention on the Prevention of Marine
Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. 155/ 

95.   The 1995 Implementing Agreement on Fish Stocks devotes one part
(Part VII) to the special requirements of developing States in relation
to the conservation and management of the fish stocks concerned, and
elaborates upon the purposes of cooperation, and the forms it shall take,
such as the provision of financial assistance and the transfer of
technology, including through joint venture arrangements.  Priority areas
for assistance are also specified.  Moreover, the Agreement envisages the
establishment of special funds to assist developing States in its
implementation. 156/

96.   The special situation of developing countries necessitates the
transfer of technology and of financial resources to them, and the
strengthening of capacity-building within them. This has been recognized
by several conventions. For example, the entire Part XIV of UNCLOS is
devoted to the promotion of the development and transfer of marine
technology, including the responsibilities of the International Seabed
Authority in that regard (see article 274). 157/ 

97.   The special situation of developing countries is reflected in the
Montreal Protocol (see para 91 infra), in a number of UNGA Resolutions,
inter alia, 44/209 on Protection of Global Climate Change for present and
future generations of humankind; 44/228 on UNCED and 44/229 on
International Cooperation in the Field of the Environment. The principle
is also frequently mentioned in Agenda 21, and has been included in the
Forest Principles 158/ and in Preamble of the Draft IUCN Covenant.
Further, the Washington Declaration on Protection of the Marine
Environment from Land-based Activities refers to "countries in need of
assistance". 159/

98.   Under Chapter 17, section G of Agenda 21, small island developing
States and islands supporting small communities are recognized as a
special case for both environment and development, because they are
ecologically fragile and vulnerable and their small size, limited
resources, geographic dispersion and isolation from markets all place
them at a disadvantage economically and prevent economies of scale.

99.   The Climate Change Convention specifically refers to developing
country parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects
of climate change, which are, inter alia, low-lying and other small
island countries. 160/ 

100.  The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small
Island Developing States (1994) 161/ adopted the Declaration of
Barbados and a Programme of Action for the sustainable development, aimed
at implementing Agenda 21. It is stated that the small size of the
islands means that development and environment are closely interrelated
and interdependent. 162/ The High Level Segment of the Global
Conference focussed its debate on the theme "Forging partnerships for
sustainable development". It was agreed that human resource development
is fundamental to the sustainable development of small island developing
States, and expressly highlighted the need to form partnerships at
national, regional and international levels, to deal with the problems
and challenges facing small island developing States in their achievement
for sustainable development.

101.  The category of States with economies in transition emerged on the
international agenda after the reorganization of the former Soviet Union
at the end of the 1980s, at which time the preparatory work for UNCED had
already started. However, UNCED recognized their specific environmental
and economic problems, including high levels of industrialization,
outdated technologies, inefficient and wasteful production patterns,
extreme pollution levels in heavily industrialized areas, and widespread
public health problems. This led to a special provision in the Climate
Change Convention providing "a certain degree of flexibility" in
"implementing" particular commitments under the Convention. 163/

102.  It can be argued that the principle of special treatment of
countries with economies in transition is not well defined and does not
imply substantial rights for preferential treatment.  The "competitive
advantage" of economies in transition appears to be not so much
preferential legal rights as a significant potential for investment
opportunities to achieve environmental improvements. 164/

(11)  Common heritage of humankind

103.  In addition to the principle of common concern of humankind (supra,
paras. 82-88) there is the principle of common heritage of humankind. The
principle takes root in the concern that the resources of certain areas
beyond national sovereignty or jurisdiction should not be exploited
solely by those few States whose commercial enterprises are able to do
so, but rather constitute the common heritage of humankind, to be
utilized for the benefit of all States. The application of the principle
to particular areas, and its substantive content, is elaborated in treaty
law. 

104.   Art. 136 of UNCLOS declares the international seabed area as "the
common heritage of mankind." The principle is applicable to the natural
resources of the deep sea-bed beyond national jurisdiction and the
natural resources of the moon and other celestial bodies including orbits
leading to and around them. 165/ The status of this principle
received renewed emphasis through the entry into force of UNCLOS in
November 1994, together with the 1994 Agreement Relating to the
Implementation of Part XI of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea of
10 December 1982. This Agreement was designed to respond to political and
economic changes in the 12 years since 1982, in particular "a growing
reliance on market principles" and "the growing concern for the global
environment". 166/ The common heritage of humankind principle
implies, among other things, regulated access to resources, non-
alienation, sharing of benefits, reservation for peaceful purposes and
due regard to the interests of future generations.

(12)  Cooperation in a transboundary context

105.  Cooperation in solving international problems of an economic,
social, cultural or humanitarian character is one of the purposes of the
United Nations. 167/ The entire Chapter IX of the UN Charter is
devoted to "International Economic and Social Cooperation", which should
at present also include environmental cooperation. All Member States
pledge themselves to take joint and separate action for achieving
solutions of international economic, social, health and related
problems. 168/ This cooperation is not only a duty on a global scale
but also a fortiori a duty in the narrower regional and neighborhood
context. In the latter the "general principle of good
neighborliness" 169/ has to be respected. A general obligation to
cooperate in good faith in environmental matters was recognized in
Article 8 of the WCED principles, 170/ which again is based on the
"duty of States to cooperate" as recognized by the above-mentioned UN
Declaration on Principles of International Law. 171/ From a
historical perspective, concern for transboundary cooperation in
environmental matters preceded the concern for cooperation in favor of
the global commons. 172/  (Also of relevance to this discussion are
paras. 75-102 on the duty to cooperate in the spirit of global
partnership, paras 75-102.)

106. The principle of cooperation in a transboundary context includes
five main components: a) equitable and reasonable use of transboundary
natural resources; b) notification to and consultations with neighboring
and potentially affected States; c) environmental impact assessment in
a transboundary context; d) prior informed consent; and e) cooperation
to discourage or prevent the relocation and transfer of activities and
substances that cause severe environmental degradation or harmful to
human health.

      a. Equitable and reasonable use of transboundary natural resources

107.  Transboundary natural resources must be used by States in an
equitable and reasonable manner. 173/ The concept of "equitable and
reasonable use" includes a number of elements. First, it implies that
States using transboundary natural resources will afford them a level of
protection that is adequate to sustain resources other than those that
are non-renewable. 174/ Second, it requires that States participate
in the use and protection of transboundary natural resources in an
equitable and reasonable manner, including through affirmative measures
when necessary. 175/ Third, it requires close cooperation by the
concerned States. Such cooperation includes such procedures as
environmental impact assessment prior to engaging in activities that may
adversely affect transboundary natural resources; prior notification and
consultation concerning such activities; regular exchange of data and
information concerning transboundary natural resources; and immediate
notification of emergency situations concerning those resources.
176/ And fourth, the principle of equitable and reasonable use of
transboundary natural resources requires that States use such resources
in a way that avoids causing harm to other States or to areas beyond the
limits of national jurisdiction. 177/

108.  Equitable and reasonable use of transboundary natural resources is
often implemented most effectively through joint institutions established
by the States sharing the resources in question. 178/ Close
cooperation, through such joint institutions where appropriate, will
become increasingly necessary as the supply of transboundary natural
resources such as fresh water becomes more and more scarce. Joint
institutions can facilitate the allocation and development of
transboundary natural resources on an equitable basis, the setting of
standards concerning those resources and the avoidance or settlement of
any disputes that may arise with regard to them. The UNEP regional seas
programme as well as different bilateral commissions provide good models
for international cooperation. As part of this approach, financial and
technology transfers as well as capacity building efforts may serve as
important enabling mechanisms for equitable and reasonable use.

109.  The principle of equitable and reasonable utilization of
transboundary natural resources has been most closely associated
historically with international rivers and lakes. But the principle is
also applicable to transboundary groundwater and other transboundary
natural resources, such as airsheds, fish and other forms of wildlife,
and other living resources.

      b. Notification to and consultations with neighboring and
      potentially affected States

110.  States should provide prior notification and relevant information
to neighboring and potentially affected States regarding activities that
may have a significant adverse transboundary environmental effect.
179/ Notification is an integral part of other implementation and dispute
resolution mechanisms, including environmental impact assessments in a
transboundary context,  consultations between neighboring States, and
obtaining prior informed consent.
  
111.  States should also provide immediate notification to other States
of any environmental disasters or similar emergencies that are likely to
produce sudden harmful effects on the environment of those States.
180/ Emergency notification allows affected parties the greatest possible
opportunity to prepare for, and mitigate, potential damage. Emergency
notification provisions are critical components of international
approaches to oil spills, 181/ industrial accidents, 182/ and
nuclear accidents. Examples of this last area are to be found in the
Convention on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents 183/ and the
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or
Radiological Emergency. 184/

112.  States planning to conduct activities that may harm the environment
or natural resources of another State should enter into good faith
consultations over a reasonable time in an effort to minimize the
transboundary environmental impacts. 185/ An example of a treaty
that calls for consultation when the activities of one State are likely
to affect the environment is the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary
Air Pollution. 186/ Consultation implies at least an opportunity to
review and discuss a planned activity that may potentially cause damage.
The obligation to consult is closely related to environmental impact
assessment in a transboundary context, as well as to notification and
prior informed consent. Increasingly, consultation is being
institutionalized at the international level, either through existing
international bodies as, for example, the Nordic Council, the European
Council and the UN system, or through new institutions created in the
framework of specific environmental conventions. 187/ Such
institutions are critical for building confidence over the long-term and
for providing a mechanism for discussing and resolving potential disputes
in the field of sustainable development.

113.  The principle of notification to and consultations with neighboring
and potentially affected States is to be found in Principle 19 of the Rio
Declaration, which reflects what many States have recognised as required
practice in terms which reflect an obligation of customary international
law: 188/ "States shall provide prior and timely notification and
relevant information to potentially affected States on activities that
may have a significant adverse transboundary environmental effect and
shall consult with those States at an early stage and in good faith". 


      c. Environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

114.  Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a methodological tool for
decision-making. It helps to establish a process that is both
participatory and integrative to assess the potential impact of an
activity on the environment and, increasingly, on the socio-cultural life
of a community as well. It exists largely at the project level, but, as
recommended in chapter 8 of Agenda 21, it should be used in policy and
programme analysis as well (para. 8.4). In the context of this principle,
EIA refers specifically to assessment of activities which might have
significant transboundary effects on the environment of another State,
and it is directly related to the exercise of sovereignty over natural
resources and the responsibility not to cause damage to the environment
of other States or to areas beyond national jurisdiction, as well as to
the principle on prevention of environmental harm.

115.  Various regional conventions reflect the obligation to undertake
transboundary environmental impact assessment. 189/ The UN Economic
Commission for Europe (UN ECE) Convention on Environmental Impact
Assessment in a Transboundary Context, 190/ (the "Espoo
Convention"), illustrates the substantive duty and the procedures for its
implementation. It specifies the duties of Parties with regard to
transboundary impacts of proposed activities, and it provides procedures,
in a transboundary context, for the consideration of environmental
impacts in decision-making procedures. The Espoo Convention specifically
is recognized in, for example, the Final Declaration of the Ministerial
Meeting of the Oslo and Paris Commissions (September 1992), the
Ministerial Declaration on Cooperation in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region
(January 1993) and the Nuuk Declaration on Environment and Development
in the Arctic (September 1993), and others. 191/

116.  Elements of environmental impact assessment are also found in other
international instruments. These include the UN/ECE Convention on the
Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents, 192/ the Convention
on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International
Lakes, 193/ and the Convention on the Marine Environment of the
Baltic Sea Area. 194/ 

      d. Prior informed consent

117.  Prior informed consent is emerging as a principle in specific
contexts. According to this principle, international shipment of a
chemical, pesticide or hazardous wastes that is banned or severely
restricted to protect human health or the environment should not proceed
without the agreement or contrary to the wishes of the designated
national authority in the importing country. 195/

118.  The concept of prior informed consent finds expression in the
International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides
of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the
London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information of Chemicals in
International Trade of UNEP, and the Basel Convention on the Control of
Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. 

119.  The Basel Convention sets up a strict regime for the control of
transboundary movements of hazardous wastes. This regime is mainly based
on the principle of prior written notification by the exporting State,
as well as prior written consent by the importing State. 196/ This
same rule applies to the transit State Party to the Basel Convention. In
the case of transit, however, the transit State Party can at any time
decide not to require prior written consent and so inform other Parties. 
The requirement of written notification by the exporting State remains
and constitutes an obligation which cannot be removed. 197/ 

120.  Attempts are being made for the development of a convention that
would make Prior Informed Consent compulsory for all parties. The UNEP
Governing Council, at its eighteenth session, authorized the Executive
Director to prepare for and convene, together with the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and in consultation with
Governments and other relevant international organizations, an
intergovernmental negotiating committee, with a mandate to prepare an
international legally binding instrument for the application of the prior
informed consent procedure for certain hazardous chemicals in
international trade.

      e. Cooperation to discourage or prevent the relocation and transfer
      of activities and substances that cause severe environmental
      degradation or are harmful to human health

   There may be an emerging principle of discouraging or preventing
the relocation and transfer to other States of harmful activities and
substances, as set forth in Principle 14 of the Rio Declaration.  This
principle addresses the danger that substances and activities with
potential to harm human health and the environment may be transferred or
relocated to another State. In a context where it is thought that
economic incentives favor relocation or transference to States without
adequate protection, the principle establishes a norm of international
cooperation to discourage or to prevent such relocation or transference
and to ensure that any relocation or transference be environmentally safe
and done with prior informed consent.  At a minimum, the principle
requires prior informed consent upon the importing state or state of
relocation and imposes a duty on the originating state to ensure that the
state to which the hazardous activity or substance is to be transferred
has the appropriate capacity to minimize the risks. As a principle of
cooperation, it further requires that if a State chooses to ban or
restrict the importation of hazardous substances or the translocation of
hazardous activities, the ban or restriction be respected by other
States.

122.  The principle of non-transference of hazardous activities is stated
in its most general form as Principle 14 of the Rio Declaration. It also,
however, underlies both the Basel Convention and the Bamako
Convention, 198/ which regulate the trade in hazardous wastes.
Further, the principle is implied in the FAO Code of Conduct on the
Distribution and Use of Pesticides and the London Guidelines for the
Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade.



D.    PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF PARTICIPATION, DECISION-MAKING AND
      TRANSPARENCY

123.  Sustainable development cannot be achieved without the widespread
adoption of good governance principles that ensure broader participation
in development decisions and an open and transparent decision-making
processes. 199/

124.  As stated in paragraph 14, legal institutions mandated to settle
conflicts of law when considering specific cases should take into
consideration rules of environmental, social, economic, human rights and
other sustainable development law applicable to the parties to the
dispute, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions, terms of
references and charters. In order for these interpretative bodies to take
into consideration international law in all fields, it is necessary to
ensure cross-fertilization and participation by, inter alia, competent
international organizations, relevant major groups and experts.

125.  It can be noted that related to principles and concepts of
participation, decision-making and transparency is the problem of abuse
of public office for personal gain. Corruption can be related to the
depletion or degradation of resources and therefore threatens sustainable
development. To combat corruption, developed and developing countries
should adopt measures to ensure that public and private actors conduct
business in a transparent and accountable manner.

(13)  Public participation

126.  According to Agenda 21, one of the fundamental prerequisites for
the achievement of sustainable development is broad public participation
in decision-making. 200/ The Rio Declaration, too, confirms that
"environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all
concerned citizens, at the relevant level" and that each individual shall
have "the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes."
201/
     
127.  Both Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration emphasize the importance of
the participation of all major groups, including women, children and
youth, indigenous people and their communities, non-governmental
organizations, local authorities, workers, business and industry, farmers
and the scientific and technological community. Special emphasis has
recently been given, including in legally binding international
instruments, to ensuring the participation of those major groups that are
considered to be politically disadvantaged, such as indigenous
peoples 202/ and women 203/ in decision-making. The Fish Stocks
Agreement requires States to provide for transparency in the decision-
making process and other activities of regional fisheries
organizations, 204/ and to afford the opportunity for international
organizations and NGOs to participate in meetings of regional fisheries
organizations. 205/

128.  Public participation also implies freedom of association for
workers and employers and democratization towards their full involvement
in decision-making on social and development issues. 206/ This ap-
proach to labour and social issues is described in the ILO Constitution
and numerous ILO Conventions. More generally, the independence of NGOs
has also been recognized as a "precondition" of real participation.
207/

129.  The principle of public participation is closely linked to public
access to information, environmental impact assessment processes, and
access to remedial procedures. 208/

130.  International institutions must also implement open and transparent
decision-making procedures that are fully available to public
participation. Examples of this include the newly established World Bank
Inspection Panel, which provides citizens affected by World Bank projects
the opportunity to request an independent inspection into alleged
violations of Bank policies and procedures. The petitioning process under
the North American Free Trade Agreement also provides significant new
rights for citizens to participate in monitoring domestic enforcement of
environmental laws. Non-governmental organizations should be provided at
least observer status in international institutions and treaties and
should be relied upon for expertise, information and other purposes.
209/

(14)  Access to Information

131.  The right of access to environmental information has been
increasingly recognized as a critical precondition to public
participation in environment and development decisions. 210/
Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration states that "... [a]t the national
level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information
concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, including
information on hazardous materials and activities in their
communities..."

132.  In part, access to environmental information is provided through
adequate implementation of environmental impact assessment processes.
National pollutant release and transfer registries have also become more
important in a number of OECD countries, and the OECD is currently
developing a guidance-for-government document that outlines the policy
choices underlying implementation of a pollutant registry. Pollutant
registries can be a critical mechanism for achieving a number of
information gathering, reporting and dissemination purposes. Substantial
work is needed in building the capacity to develop, analyze and
distribute timely information to governmental and non-governmental users
in a form that is useful. 211/

133.  Efforts to improve public access to international institutions are
also critical. The World Bank and the regional development banks have
made some progress in issuing policies and directives on access to
information, environmental impact assessment, and consultation. Other
intergovernmental economic and financial institutions should make similar
progress.

(15)  Environmental impact assessment and informed decision-making

134.  There is now a broad recognition that environmental impact
assessment is important not only in a transboundary context (paragraphs
114-116), but also on the national level. The EIA process helps to ensure
informed decision-making and should provide for participation and access
to information by the public. 

135.  The Rio Declaration declares that "[e]nvironmental impact
assessment, as a national instrument, shall be undertaken for proposed
activities that are likely to have a significant adverse effect on the
environment and are subject to a decision of competent national
authority." 212/  Preventive measures are mandated in international
legal instruments in such sectors as stratospheric ozone protection,
213/ climate modification 214/ and biological diversity. 215/
The Fish Stocks Agreement contains a provision regarding assessment of
the impact of new or exploratory fisheries on the long-term
sustainability of the stocks. 216/ Many regional conventions also
reflect the obligation to undertake environmental impact assessment.
217/

136.  Over a hundred jurisdictions have established procedures for EIA in
their national legislation 218/ and State practice recognizes this
principle. EIA procedures serve both to inform decision-makers of the
consequences of their actions for sustainable development, and to
integrate environmental considerations into all other spheres of
decision-making including economic aspects. The results of an EIA have
to be taken into account in the decision-making process, and ensures an
informed decision-making procedure. The anticipatory elements reflected
in the precautionary approach should also be considered in EIA
procedures. 
 
137.  The Espoo Convention provides useful guidance as to the scope of
the duty to assess possible impacts before taking or authorizing action.
The concept of "impact" under that agreement covers "any effect caused
by a proposed activity on the environment including public health and
safety, flora, fauna, soil, air, water, climate, landscape and historical
monuments or other physical structures or the interaction among these
factors; it also includes effects on cultural heritage or socio-economic
conditions resulting from alterations to those factors." 219/

138.  The principle that EIA be undertaken is basic to the integration of
environment and development that is necessary for sustainable
development.

139.  The principle of informed decision-making finds expression in a
number of agreements. For example, Arts. 61(2), 119(1) and 234 of UNCLOS
refer to "the best scientific evidence available" in the context of
decision-making. Arts. 5(6), 6(3)(a) and (7), 10(f) and 16(1) of the 1995
Implementation Agreement also refer to "the best scientific evidence
(information) available." The Fish Stocks Agreement has an elaborate
annex setting out "standard requirements" for data collection and
sharing, which are considered fundamental to the effective conservation
and management measures.


E.    PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF DISPUTE AVOIDANCE AND RESOLUTION PROCE-
      DURES, MONITORING AND COMPLIANCE

140.  In many cases of non-compliance by a State, duties result from the
basic obligation "to perform binding treaties in good faith" 220/
and from the UN Charter, which contains the principle that "All Members
... shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in
accordance with the Charter". 221/

141.  Dispute avoidance plays an important role in the field of
sustainable development because environmental harm is often irreversible
and therefore cannot be compensated, or the original situation cannot be
reestablished. Furthermore, environmental protection is in most instances
about prevention; this basic consideration of avoiding harm instead of
repairing it should also prevail in relations among States. Procedures
of reporting, monitoring, fact-finding, provision of information and
consultation are helpful means of dispute avoidance.

142.  Dispute settlement has to be resorted to, if avoidance mechanisms
have failed or were never applied. That States shall settle their
disputes by peaceful means is a basic obligation already stipulated in
Art. 2, para. 3 of the UN Charter. But dispute settlement remains for
international law in the field of sustainable development only a second
best solution. Among the peaceful means to be used are in particular
those mentioned in Art. 33 of the UN Charter: negotiation, enquiry,
mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, and resort to
regional agencies or arrangements. 

143.  Improving compliance has become one of the most important issues in
the post-UNCED process. Compliance, which is dealt with below, has become
especially crucial because of two factors: the growing complexity of
implementing treaties related to sustainable development, and the
increasing availability of highly concrete and sometimes quantified
parameters, which permit precise measurement of the relevant degree of
compliance. Non-State actors may be important in monitoring and
compliance oversight at the local, national and international levels.
Compliance and monitoring mechanisms include national reporting
requirements, transparency of reports and monitored data, capacity
building aimed at improving compliance, verification procedures, on site
monitoring, inspection, and sanctions.

(16)  Peaceful settlement of disputes in the fields of environment and
      sustainable development

144.  The general principle of peaceful settlement of disputes is, as
stated in para. 143, one of the fundamental Principles enshrined in the
UN Charter. Regarding dispute settlement in the field of environment and
development, a number of significant developments have taken place,
including the decision in 1993 of the International Court of Justice to
create a Chamber for Environmental Matters. 222/

145.  Since UNCED, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Climate
Change Convention and UNCLOS have come into force, among others
223/. Art. 279 of UNCLOS embodies the obligation to settle disputes by
peaceful means. The whole of Part XV of UNCLOS is devoted to the
settlement of disputes, including the establishment of the International
Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and of the Special Arbitration procedure
in the fields of fisheries and protection and preservation of the marine
environment. The Fish Stocks Agreement has incorporated the UNCLOS
dispute settlement procedures. 224/

146.  The Climate Change Convention provides: "In the event of a dispute
between any two or more Parties concerning the interpretation or
application of the Convention, the Parties concerned shall seek
settlement of the dispute through negotiation or any other peaceful means
of their own choice." 225/ The Convention on Biological Diversity
states that in the event of a dispute, the parties concerned "shall seek
solution by negotiation." 226/ Indeed, most environmental treaties
stipulate that the parties involved should first aim to resolve disputes
through negotiation. If this is unsuccessful, many treaties provide for
further arrangements which may involve the assistance of third parties.
For example, Article 11 of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of
the Ozone Layer provides for mediation and conciliation. Article 19 of
the 1991 Madrid Protocol on Environmental Protection to the 1959
Antarctic Treaty includes the possibility of having resort to either an
arbitral tribunal or the ICJ. Other treaties provide that the dispute
will be submitted to either arbitration or the ICJ if negotiations have
proved unsuccessful. 227/ However, in many of these cases, the
dispute settlement clauses are optional. 228/

147.  Principle 26 of the Rio Declaration calls upon States to resolve
their environmental disputes peacefully. Chapter 39 of Agenda 21 has as
one of its objectives to study and consider broadening and strengthening
the capacity of mechanisms to facilitate the identification, avoidance
and settlement of international disputes in the field of sustainable
development. 229/ States are also called upon to "further study and
consider methods to broaden and make more effective the range of
techniques available at present ... for dispute avoidance and settlement.
This may include mechanisms and procedures ... for effective peaceful
means of dispute settlement ... and their inclusion in treaties relating
to sustainable development". 230/

148.  During UNCED, consideration was given to the concept of dispute
prevention as distinguished from that of dispute settlement. Differences
of opinion about the implications of the two concepts led to the adoption
of the concept of dispute avoidance in chapter 39 of Agenda 21. 231/
In literature it has been noted that it would be useful to identify and
elaborate a comprehensive list of possible mechanisms that could have a
preventive effect, thus implementing, inter alia, chapter 39. 232/
The draft articles on international watercourses adopted by the
International Law Commission contain a number of provisions relating to
dispute avoidance. These include articles on prior notification,
consultation, negotiation, and fact-finding. 233/

(17)  Equal, expanded and effective access to judicial and administrative
proceedings

149.  The principle of equal, expanded and effective access to judicial
and administrative proceedings consists of two elements: 1) the
obligation to provide effective access to judicial and administrative
proceedings including redress and remedy; and 2) the obligation to
provide access to any person affected or to be affected by transboundary
harm to judicial and administrative proceedings equal to that afforded
to nationals or residents of the State wherefrom such harm originates.

150.  The first of these elements, whose origins may be traced back to
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 234/ and the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 235/ is  contained in
Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration and is also reflected in Agenda 21,
paragraph 8.18. Principle 10, although drafted in a comprehensive way,
does not necessarily exclude foreigners, but it focusses on domestic
proceedings, because the opening sentence refers to the "participation
of all concerned citizens." As regards the participation of NGOs in such
proceedings, Agenda 21 recommends in paragraph 8.18 that governments
should provide access "to individuals, groups and organizations with a
recognized legal interest." As for civil remedies, attention should also
be drawn to Article 52 of the Draft IUCN Covenant and to the civil
responsibility provisions contained in various environmental
treaties. 236/

151.  The second element relates to the transboundary context. Those in
other States, be they potential or actual victims of transboundary harm,
should not be discriminated against, i.e., they should have the same
standing in these proceedings as nationals or residents of the State of
origin of the harm. This principle has emerged in, inter alia, the Nordic
Convention for the Protection of the Environment 237/ and in soft-
law, as the OECD Principles on Transfrontier Pollution, D5. It is also
contained in Article 32 of the ILC's draft articles on watercourses
238/ and Article 53 of the Draft IUCN Covenant and Article 20 of the
WCED-Draft. This element has an important role to play as it also
concerns claims presented by States on behalf of their nationals against
other States in the exercise of their right of diplomatic protection.
Because no full consensus exists in respect of the need to exhaust all
domestic remedies before State-to-State action is undertaken, the full
application of the above principle is likely to render such actions
superfluous.

152.  Both elements have an ex-ante and ex-post dimension. Prior to the
approval of dangerous installations and hazardous activities by public
authorities the potential victims should be able to exercise a certain
"droit de regard," either in the context of administrative proceedings
or by introducing court actions. Once harm has occurred, in spite of all
precautions ("due diligence") taken by the operators, the victims should
have appropriate standing in proceedings concerning  reinstatement,
compensation, etc.

(18)  National implementation of international commitments

153.  The principle of national implementation of international
commitments in the field of sustainable development underscores the fact
that, while international treaties are needed to address problems of
global magnitude, to achieve their objectives, action must take place at
the national level. The principle thus emphasizes the duty of States to
implement at the national level  the international obligations in the
field of sustainable development which they undertake.

154.  This principle is implicated in Principle 27 of the Rio
Declaration. It is also a central element in Agenda 21, chapters 38 and
39. 239/ Principle 11 of the Rio Declaration refers to "enacting
effective environmental legislation" by States. Principle 11 is also
reflected in the Preamble of the Climate Change Convention, and in
UNCLOS. 240/ In most cases, such national legislation must be no
less effective than the international rules and standards.



(19)  Monitoring of compliance with international commitments

155.  Based on the general principle of pacta sunt servanda and the duty
of States to cooperate in good faith, a large number of international
regimes for natural resource management and environmental protection have
elaborated a further obligation for participating States to accept
collective supervision of their compliance with agreed norms. This
obligation 241/ can take the form of specific duties to disclose and
communicate information; to tolerate verification and in some instances
inspection; and generally to cooperate in multilateral monitoring
procedures involving the participation of other States and, in a growing
number of cases, of non-State actors. Sometimes phrased in terms of
"accountability", the duty to accept external compliance controls is
considered as extending also to intergovernmental organizations, as
illustrated by the newly established World Bank Inspection Panel. As
already noted, the Panel reflects an opportunity for affected groups to
request an inspection into allegations that the World Bank has violated
its policies and procedures.

156.  Compliance is a dynamic process involving both governments and non-
State actors and individuals. Compliance covers not only the enactment
and application of national laws for the purpose of treaty
implementation, but also relates to the application of laws which are
enacted and to the changes in behaviour requested of the targeted actors.
At the international level, compliance may require national reporting or
on site monitoring as well as monitoring through international
institutions, on the basis of a scientific consensus achieved through a
continuous process of information exchange. The outcome of this process
may be either the provision of assistance, if non-compliance results from
a lack of capacity, or the imposition of sanctions, or other measures,
if non-compliance results from ill will.

157.  The need "to ensure the effective, full and prompt implementation
of legally binding instruments" and to establish and strengthen reporting
requirements for this purpose was affirmed by Agenda 21 242/ and
reiterated by the Draft IUCN Covenant. 243/ In respect of the
domestic level, Agenda 21 states that "it is equally critical to develop
workable programmes to review and enforce compliance with laws".
244/ As regards existing international agreements Agenda 21 signalled
"problems of compliance" and the need for "improved national
implementation". 245/ Chapter 39 of Agenda 21 recognizes that the
capacity to comply with international law for sustainable development
depends on the economic circumstances of States, and must be addressed
through international efforts for capacity-building, under the principle
of global partnership.

158.  Following well-established practice in the field of international
labour conventions 246/ and international instruments on human
rights and disarmament, periodic reports on implementation by member
States have become a standard feature of multilateral environmental
agreements. Reporting requirements enforce transparency in multilateral
treaty regimes. The reports may cover legal and administrative measures,
on the effectiveness of such measures, and on problems encountered in
implementation. 247/ However, there is concern that parties not be
overwhelmed by the growing number of reports that countries are requested
to file.Verification procedures, such as mutual inspection, have also
been introduced, following earlier precedents in international marine
resource agreements in particular. 248/ Furthermore, especially in
the context of treaties aimed at detecting and curtailing infringements
by individuals rather than States, participation in national and
international monitoring activities by qualified non-governmental
organizations is now widely accepted in practice. 249/

159.  Regarding the implementation practice after UNCED, a distinction
needs to be drawn between monitoring and data exchange for the purpose
of improving the level of information needed to meet overall treaty
objectives, and "compliance monitoring" for the purpose of supervising
national implementation of specific treaty commitments. 250/ While
some monitoring systems established by environmental agreements serve
both purposes, such as the EMEP network 251/ under the Convention on
Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, other monitoring procedures,
e.g., as set up in 1990 under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of
International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, are not
designed to detect treaty infractions but to identify sites most in need
of conservation. The implementation procedures developed since 1990 under
the Montreal Protocol, which provides for an Implementation Committee,
and more recently under the Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur
Emissions 252/ are expressly distinguished as non-confrontational
from classical mechanisms of dispute resolution. Mechanisms to foster
compliance have also been introduced in the Basel Convention 253/
and the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the
North-East Atlantic.

160.   Compliance controls and implementation procedures also help to
prevent conflicts, and hence need close coordination with treaty
provisions on dispute settlement. 


III.  RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

161.  The Expert Group notes the centrality of the foregoing principles
of international law for sustainable development, in particular the
principle of integration and interrelationship. It calls to the attention
of the Commission on Sustainable Development the importance of taking an
integrated approach to developing international law related to
sustainable development, including the formulation of new treaties, and
to applying international law related to any aspect of sustainable
development.

162.  The Expert Group recalls para 39.5 of Agenda 21 which suggests that
"legal experts, designated by Governments could meet at suitable
intervals... with a broader environmental and developmental perspective"
to "review and assess both the past performance and effectiveness of
existing international agreements or instruments as well as the
priorities for future law-making on sustainable development," including
"an examination of the feasibility of elaborating general rights and
obligations of States, as appropriate, in the field of sustainable
development, as provided by General Assembly resolution 44/228". In this
context the Expert Group proposed that the Commission on Sustainable
Development convene periodically an ad hoc Advisory Group of Legal
Experts to meet to study and further identify the elements and practical
consequences of these principles as they evolve, and invite appropriate
expert organizations to cooperate by undertaking to organize these
meetings in partnership, with due consideration to representation of
developing countries.

163.  The Expert Group recommends the establishment of a Monitoring
Network among expert organizations and secretariats, both within and
outside of the United Nations system, to monitor the development and
application of principles of international law for sustainable
development. This would require identifying principles to monitor, which
could include those in the process of formation.  Baseline data should
cover the use of the principles in legal instruments (both binding and,
in some cases, non-binding) and known implementation of them by parties
to the instruments, particularly in national courts. The data to be
monitored on the principles could include: new uses, refinements and/or
changes in content, national applications and implementation, and
incorporation in transnational private sector accords. A small working
group should meet to develop the network details. National international
law societies or international expert bodies could provide data on
application and implementation of the principles within countries. To
minimize costs of maintaining the data base, it would be useful to
identify a host(s) that could work in  collaboration with the United
Nations.

164.  Broadening the mandate to include compiling and monitoring of
international legal instruments could be explored. Many of these
instruments are now already available through the Internet.  An effort
should be made to ensure that the information is comprehensive and that
access is made as universal as possible.  This would facilitate
monitoring the textual incorporation of principles.

165.  The Expert Group further proposes that the Commission on
Sustainable Development, in its preparations for the 1997 Special Session
of the General Assembly to review the implementation of Agenda 21:

      (a)  invite relevant organizations, universities, non-governmental
           organizations and other specialized groups to report on legal
           developments relevant to these principles; 

      (b)  request States, and in particular their governmental and non-
           governmental legal authorities, to provide information on
           methods whereby these principles are being or have been
           recognized and implemented by national or subnational
           jurisdictions;

      (c)  consider how to use the 1997 review of Agenda 21 to further
           develop consensus on the definition of principles and the
           means for their practical application;

      (d)  consider any further measures needed to strengthen the
           definition or use of principles for sustainable development,
           including the possibility of a codifying instrument of general
           application.



166.  The Expert Group notes that from among the participants there were
experts from eleven organizations in the United Nations system,
multilateral financing institutions and from secretariats of conventions
related to sustainable development participated in their expert capacity
in the meeting.  The Group requests the Secretariat of the Commission on
Sustainable Development to continue its consultations with other relevant
bodies as to their views regarding principles of international law for
sustainable development.



                                  ANNEX

                          LIST OF PARTICIPANTS


      Mr. J. Berney
      Deputy Secretary-General
      United Nations Environment Programme/CITES Secretariat
      Geneva, Switzerland
      
      Ms. Susan Bragdon
      Legal Adviser
      Secretariat for the Convention on Biological Diversity
      United Nations Environment Programme
      Geneva, Switzerland
      (Secretariat has now moved to Montreal, Quebec, Canada)
      
      Dr. Edith Brown Weiss (CHAIR of the Expert Group Meeting)
      Professor of Law
      Georgetown University Law Center
      Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

      Ms. Franc'oise Burhenne-Guilmin
      Head
      IUCN Environmental Law Centre
      Bonn, Germany
           
      Mr. Charles di Leva
      Senior Counsel
      Legal Department
      The World Bank
      Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A.

      Mr. Ste`phane Doumbe'-Bille' 
      Professor of Law
      University of Littoral
      Limoges, France
      
      Mr. Moritaka Hayashi
      Director
      Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea
      Office of Legal Affairs
      United Nations
      New York, NY,  U.S.A.
      Mr. Kamal Hossain 
      Chairman
      International Committee on Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development
      International Law Association
      Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh

      Mr. David Hunter 
      Senior Staff Attorney
      Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL)
      Washington, D.C. , U.S.A.
      
      Mr. Olivier Jalbert
      Legal Advisor
      Interim Secretariat of the
         Convention to Combat Desertification
      Geneva Executive Centre
      Geneva, Switzerland
      
      Professor Winfried Lang, (Vice-Chair of the Expert Group Meeting) 
      Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Austria to the 
        Government of Belgium
      Brussels, Belgium
      
      Dr. Socrates Litsios
      Secretary
      Task Group on Environment and Sustainable Development
      World Health Organization 
      Geneva, Switzerland
      
      Mr. Stephen C. McCaffrey 
      Professor of Law
      McGeorge School of Law
      University of the Pacific
      Sacramento, California, U.S.A. 
      
      Mr. Boldizsa'r Nagy
      Associate Professor
      International Law Department
      Eo"tvo"s Lora'nd University
      Budapest,  Hungary
      
      Mr. Steven Oates
      International Labour Organization
      Geneva, Switzerland
      Mr. Seth Osafo
      Senior Legal Officer
      Secretariat
      United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
      United Nations
      Bonn, Germany
      
      Judge R.S. Pathak
      Former Chief Justice of India
      Former Judge, International
        Court of Justice (The Hague)
      New Dehli, India

      Mr. E. U. Petersmann
      World Trade Organization/GATT
      Centre William Rappard
      Geneve, Switzerland
      
      Ms. Ileana Porras
      Associate Professor
      University of Utah
      College of Law
      Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A.

      Mr. Donald P. Reynolds
      Professor of Law and Director
      Center for Intellectual Property Law
      The John Marshall Law School
      ChicagoIll., U.S.A.

      Mr. Nicholas Robinson
      Professor of Law
      Pace University School of Law
      Center for Environmental Legal Studies
      White Plains, NY, U.S.A.

      Ms. Barbara M.G.S. Ruis 
      Associate Expert (Legal)
      Human Development, Institutions and Technology Branch
      Division for Sustainable Development
      Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
      United Nations
      New York, N.Y., U.S.A.

      Dr. Iwona Rummel-Bulska 
      Coordinator
      Basel Convention on the Control of the Transboundary Movements
         of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes and their Disposal
      United Nations Environment Programme
      Geneva, Switzerland
      
      Mr. Peter Sand 
      Institute of International Law
      University of Munich
      Munich, Germany

      Mr. Philippe J. Sands
      Lecturer in Law and Legal Director
      Foundation for International Environmental Law
         and Development (FIELD)
      SOAS, University of London
      London, United Kingdom

      Ms. Alke Schmidt 
      Environmental Specialist
      European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
      London, United Kingdom

      Mr. Wiek Schrage
      Legal Officer
      Environment and Human Settlements Division
      Economic Commission for Europe
      Geneva, Switzerland
      
      Mr. Nico Schrijver 
      Senior Lecturer and General Rapporteur of the ILA Committee
        on Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development
      Institute of Social Studies      
      The Hague, The Netherlands 

      Ms. Mary Pat Williams Silveira
      Senior Officer
      Division for Sustainable Development
      Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
      United Nations
      New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
                 

      Mr. Sun Lin 
      Director
      Environmental Law and Institutions Programme Activity Center
      United Nations Environment Programme
      Nairobi, Kenya
      


                                  Notes

1/         E/1994/33. On international law in the field of sustainable
development and the legal output of UNCED, see generally E. Brown Weiss,
ed., Environmental Change and International Law (1992); A. Kiss and S.
Doumbe-Bille, "La Conférence des Nations Unies sur l'environnement et de
développement", Annuaire francais de droit international, 38 (1992), p.
823; W. Lang (ed.), Sustainable Development and International Law (1995);
W. Lang, "The United Nations and International Environmental Law,"
International Geneva Yearbook, Vol. IX (1995); P.H. Sand, "UNCED and the
development of international environmental law", 3 Yearbook of
International Environmental Law (1992), p. 3; P. Sands, "International
Law in the Field of Sustainable Development", British Yearbook of
International Law (1994), p. 303; Foundation for International
Environmental Law and Development, "Report of a Consultation on
Sustainable Development: The Challenge to International Law", 3 Review
of European Community and International Environmental Law (1994), p. 1;
"Lessons Learned from UNCED", Proceedings of the American Society of
International Law (1993), p. 508; United Nations Environment Programme,
UNEP's New Way Forward:  Environmental Law and Sustainable Development
(1995); M.P. Williams Silveira, "International Legal Instruments and
Sustainable Development:  Principles, Requirements and Restructuring,"
Willamette Law Review, Volume 3, No. 2 (Spring 1995); and M.P. Williams
Silveira and B.M.G.S. Ruis, "International Law for Sustainable
Development:  An Attempt at Definition," NAFTA :  Law and Business Review
of the Americas (forthcoming).  

      In addition, the text of many of the legal instruments cited in
this paper are contained in the following publications:  P. W. Birnie and
A. Boyle, eds., Basic Documents on International Law and the Environment
(1995); E. Brown Weiss, D. Magraw and P. Szasz, International
Environmental Law: Basic Instruments and References (1992; and P. Sands,
R. Tarasofsky and M. Weiss, eds., Documents in International
Environmental Law (volumes (IIA and IIB) (1994).

2/         Report of a Consultation on Sustainable Development:  The
Challenge to International Law, convened by the Foundation for
International Environmental Law and Development (FIELD), with the support
of the Ford Foundation, held at St. George's House, Windsor Castle,
England, 27-29 April 1993.

3/         Submitted to the second session of the CSD, Doc.
E/CN.17/1994/16.

4/         See Report of the 62nd Conference of the International Law
Association, Buenos Aires, 1994, pp. 111-136.

5/         1995, hereafter referred to as the Draft IUCN Covenant. 

6/         See, for example, the draft Summary and Survey:  Principles of
Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development, prepared for the
Earth Charter Project by Steven C. Rockefeller (revision of 5 December
1995); Report of the Meeting in The Hague of the Earth Charter
Initiative, a joint initiative of the Earth Council and Green Cross
International, 16 April 1994; and the draft report of the Workshop in The
Hague, 31 May 1995.

7/         Subsequent to the meeting in September of this Expert Group,
the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) initiated a complementary
process to identify the principles and concepts of international
environmental law aiming at sustainable development.  An Expert Group
Workshop on this topic was organized by UNEP in Washington, D.C., 13-15
November 1995. 

8/         Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment, June 1972,
hereafter referred to as the Stockholm Declaration.

9/         Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (Vienna, 23 May
1969), 1155 United Nations Treaty Series (UNTS) 331.

10/        UNGA Resolution 37/7 (1982), the World Charter for Nature,
para.7.

11/        United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Montego Bay,
10 December 1982), UN Doc. A/CONF.62/122 and corr. 1 to 11, 21
International Legal Materials (ILM) 1261, hereafter referred to as
UNCLOS, third preambular paragraph.

12/        Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries
Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in
Africa (Paris, 17 June 1994), Doc. A/AC.241/15/Rev.3, 33 ILM 1332,
hereafter referred to as the Desertification Convention, Preamble,
paragraph 9 and 22; Article 2.2.

13/        Charter of the United Nations (San Francisco, 26 June 1945),
hereafter referred to as the UN Charter.

14/        Declaration on the Right to Development, UNGA Res. 41/128, 4
December 1986.

15/        See the various contributions in S.R. Chowdhury, E.M.G.
Denters and P.J.I.M. de Waart (eds) The Right to Development in
International Law, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 1992; J. Crawford (ed.)
The Rights of Peoples, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1988.

16/        Paragraph 26 (j), Report of the World Summit for Social
Development, Copenhagen, 6-12 March 1995, Doc. A/CONF.166/9.

17/        See Report of the Fourth World Conference of Women, Annex II,
Platform for Action, Doc. A/CONF.177/20, 17 October 1995, paras 42, 216
and 231.

18/        African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (Banjul, 26 June
1981), 21 ILM 59, Article 22.

19/        CSD in its decision on combating poverty at its third session,
E/1995/32, para.77.

20/        International Law Association Declaration on the Progressive
Development of Principles of Public International Law Relating to a New
International Economic Order, adopted by consensus by the 62nd Conference
of the International Law Association (Seoul, 1986) upon intensive
preparatory work involving many international lawyers from both
industrialized and developing countries. See Report of the 62nd
Conference of the International Law Association, hereafter referred to
as ILA, London, 1987, p. 2.  

21/        See Commentary on Article 8, Draft IUCN Covenant, p. 42.

22/        Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UNGA Res. 217A(III) of
10 December 1948, Articles 3, 22, 24, 25, 28.

23/        International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
(New York, 16 December 1966), 993 UNTS 3,  Arts. 1, 7, 11, 12 and 15.

24/        Supra, note 10. Preamble: "Every form of life is unique,
warranting respect regardless of its worth to man,.."; see also Principle
1. 

25/        See also para.40 of Chapter 6: "The overall objective is to
minimize hazards and maintain the environment to a degree that human
health and safety is not impaired or endangered and yet encourage
development to proceed".

26/        Stockholm Declaration, Principle 1 (see also Preamble).

27/        Stockholm Declaration, preambular para.1.

28/         Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 5 June
1992), Doc. UNEP/Bio.Div/N7-INC.5/4, 31 ILM 818, first preambular
paragraph.

29/        UNGA Res. 3281 "Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of
States" (1974); UNGA Res. 42/186 "Environmental Perspective to the Year
2000 and Beyond" (1987). See also the International Covenant on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights (1976), Article 12.1: "The States Parties to
the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of
the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health".

30/        "All individuals are entitled to live in an environment
adequate for their health and well-being." UNGA Res. 45/94 (1990).
Declaration of The Hague on the Protection of the Atmosphere, 11 March
1989, Doc. A/44/340; E/1989/120. 

31/        Convention Concerning Protection of Workers Against
Occupational Hazards in the Working Environment Due to Air Pollution,
Noise and Vibration (Geneva, 20 June 1977), UK Command Papers (Cmnd)
7901; Convention Concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the
Working Environment (Geneva, 22 June 1981), Cmnd 8773; Convention on
Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work (Geneva, 25 June 1990), Cmnd 1562;
Occupational Cancer Convention (Geneva, 24 June 1974), Cmnd 6236.

32/        International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of
All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (New York, 18 December
1990), Doc. A/Res/45/158, 30 ILM 1521.

33/        The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 55 UNTS
187, Article XX.

34/        ILO Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in
Independent Countries (27 June 1989), No. 169, 28 ILM 1382, Articles 4,
7, 13, 15 and 19.

35/        Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August
1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed
Conflicts (Protocol I) (Geneva, 8 June 1977), 16 ILM 1391, Articles 35
and 55.

36/        "Illicit dumping of toxic and dangerous substances and wastes
potentially constitutes a serious threat to the human rights to life and
health of everyone."  Para. 11, Vienna Declaration, World Conference on
Human Rights, 1973, Doc. A/CONF.157/24, Part I; see also the Basel
Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
and Their Disposal (Basel, 22 March 1989), Doc. UNEP/WG.190/4, 28 ILM
657, hereafter referred to as the Basel Convention.

37/        The World Health Organization, task manager on health,
"Health, the Environment and Sustainable Development" (March 1994).

38/        "Human Rights and the Environment", Annex I, Final Report of
the Special Rapporteur, Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination
and Protection of Minorities, ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights, Doc.
E/CN.4/Sub.2/1994/9 (6 July 1994).

39/        United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New
York, 9 May 1992), Doc. A/AC.237/18 (Part 11)/Add.1 and Corr.1, 31 ILM
848, hereafter referred to as the Climate Change Convention, Preamble,
Article 4(7).

40/        Convention on Biological Diversity, preambular paragraph 19.

41/        Desertification Convention, preambular paragraph 8. 

42/        Article 11.

43/        UNGA Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Paris, 10 December
1948.

44/        Supra, note 10.

45/        Part I, para.4.

46/        World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common
Future, 1987, p.3.

47/        Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles For
a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable
Development of all Types of Forests, hereafter referred to as the Forest
Principles, Principle 7.

48/        Convention on the Rights of the Child (New York, 20 November
1989), Doc. A/RES/44/25, 28 ILM 1448; ILO Conventions on forced labour
and child labour and minimum age for employment, including the Minimum
Age Convention (Geneva, 26 June 1973) No. 138, Cmnd 5829.

49/        E.g. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights, Article 6; ILO Employment Policy Convention (Geneva, 9 July 1964)
No. 122, 569 UNTS 65. Other ILO Conventions describe the measures to be
taken by States in order to promote the full employment goal; these
relate, for example, to human resources development, employment services,
adequate labour administration, equal opportunities and protection
against unfair dismissal (ILO Conventions Nos. 142, 88, 150, 111, 158).

50/        E.g. ILO Forced Labour Conventions (Nos. 29 & 105);
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (Geneva, 25 June
1958) No. 111, 362 UNTS 31; Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal
Peoples in Independent Countries (Geneva, 27 June 1989) No. 169, 28 ILM
1382.  

51/        The Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development encompasses
Commitment 2: "We commit ourselves to the goal of eradicating poverty in
the world, through decisive national actions and international
cooperation, as an ethical, social, political and economic imperative of
humankind", and under para (g) the heads of State and Government will,
at the international level, "Strive to ensure that the international
community and international organizations, particularly the multilateral
financing institutions, assist developing countries in need in their
efforts to achieve our overall goal of eradicating poverty and ensuring
basic social protection". See also, e.g., World Bank Operational
Directive 4.15 "Poverty Reduction", December 1991.

52/        Doc. E/1995/32, Commission on Sustainable Development, Report
on the Third Session (1995), at page 16. 

53/        Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Principle 7.

54/        See e.g. the UNEP Draft Principles of Conduct in the Field of
the Environment for the Guidance of States in the Conservation and
Harmonious Utilization of Natural Resources Shared by Two or More States
(1978), hereafter referred to as the 1978 Shared Natural Resources
Principles, Principle 1.

55/        See e.g., International Convention on the Establishment of an
International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution (Brussels, 18
December 1971), Cmnd 7383, Art. 22(2)(a) on equitable geographic
distribution of membership on Executive Committee; Convention for the
Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (Paris, 16 November
1972), 1972 UNJYB 89, hereafter referred to as the World Heritage
Convention, Art. 892 on `equitable representation of the different
regions and cultures of the world' on the World Heritage Committee;
UNCLOS, Art. 161(1)(e) on equitable geographic distribution of membership
of the Council of the International Seabed Authority.

56/        See e.g. Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living
Resources in the Baltic Sea and the Belts (Gdansk, 13 September 1973),
12 ILM 1291, Art. I.

57/        See e.g. Treaty for Amazonian Co-operation (Brasilia, 3 July
1978), 17 ILM 1047, Preamble.

58/        Continental Shelf Case, I.C.J. Rep 1982, 18.  See also the
individual opinion of Judge Hudson in the "Diversion of the Waters from
the Meuse Case", recognizing equity as "a part of international law",
PCIJ Rep., Ser. A/B, No. 70, pp. 76-77 (1937).

59/        Continental Shelf Case, ICJ Rep 1982.

60/        Gulf of Maine Case, ICJ Rep 1984, 246 at 305.

61/        Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf case ICJ Rep. 1982, 18.  

62/        Fisheries Jurisdiction Cases, ICJ Rep 1974, p. 3 at 33.  Also,
equity may be applied by the ICJ to decide a case ex aequo et bono, if
the parties to a dispute agree, in application of Article 38(2) of the
Statute of the ICJ, although no such judgment has yet been given by the
Court.

63/        E. Brown Weiss, "Our Rights and Obligations to Future
Generations for the Environment", 84 A.J.I.L. 198, 199 (1990); E. Brown
Weiss, In Fairness to Future Generations: International Law, Common
Patrimony and Intergenerational Equity, United Nations University and
Transnational, 1989.

64/        International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling
(Washington, 2 December 1946), 161 UNTS 72. The Preamble recognizes the
"interest of the nations of the world in safeguarding for future
generations the great natural resources represented by the whale stocks".

65/         Under Article 4 of the World Heritage Convention parties
agree to protect, conserve, present and transmit cultural and natural
heritage to "future generations".

66/        African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (Algiers, 15 September 1968), 1001 UNTS 3, hereafter referred
to as the African Conservation Convention.  The Preamble provides that
natural resources should be conserved, utilized and developed "by
establishing and maintaining their rational utilization for the present
and future welfare of mankind."

67/        Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora (Washington, 3 March 1973), 12 ILM 1085, hereafter
referred to as CITES, Preamble.

68/        Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection
of the Marine Environment from Pollution (Kuwait, 24 April 1978), 17 ILM
511, Preamble; Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Oil Spills
in the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena de Indias, 24 March 1983), 22
ILM 221, Preamble; Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red
Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment (Jeddah, 14 February 1982), 9 Journal
of Environmental Policy and Law (EPL) 56, Art. 1(1).

69/        Convention on Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific
(Apia, 12 June 1976), 976 International Environmental Legal Materials and
Treaties (IELMT) 45, hereafter referred to as the Apia Convention,
Preamble.

70/        Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile
Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (New York, 10 December
1976), 1108 UNTS 907, Preamble.

71/        Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild
Animals (Bonn, 23 June 1979), 19 ILM 15, Preamble.

72/        Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of
the Marine and Coastal Environment of the East African Region (Nairobi,
21 June 1985), UNEP Selected Multilateral Treaties in the Field of the
Environment, Vol. 2, Grotius Publications Ltd., Cambridge, 1981, p. 324,
Preamble.

73/        Association of South East Asian Nations Agreement on the
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (Kuala Lumpur, 9 July 1985),
15 EPL 64, hereafter referred to as the ASEAN Agreement, Preamble.

74/        Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary
Watercourses and International Lakes (Helsinki, 17 March 1992), 31 ILM
1312, Art. 2(5)(c).

75/        Convention on Biological Diversity, Preamble.

76/        Climate Change Convention, Art. 3(1).

77/        Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer,
16 September 1987, 26 ILM 1550 (1987).

78/        See Stockholm Declaration, Principle 1; UNGA Res. 35/8 (1980);
Rio Declaration, Principle 4.

79/        Request for an Examination of the Situation in Accordance with
paragraph 63 of the Court's Judgment of 20 December 1974 in the Nuclear
Tests Case (New Zealand v. France), I.C.J. Rep 1995, Judge Weeramantry
diss. op. at 17.

80/        See e.g., Supreme Court of the Philippines, "Minors Oposa v.
Secretary of Department of Environment and Natural Resources", 30 July
1993; 33 ILM 173.

81/        Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal,
16 September 1987).

82/        Arts. 3(1) and 4(2)(a).

83/        Arts. 1 and 15(7).

84/        These include: the fourth preambular paragraph refers to
UNCLOS as being a legal order which will promote the equitable
utilization of marine resources; the fifth preambular paragraph refers
to a "just and equitable international economic order"; Articles 69 and
70 refer to "equitable arrangements" and equitable "participation" for
(developing) land-locked States in the exploitation of the living
resources in the exclusive economic zones of neighboring States; Art. 82
provides for an "equitable sharing" of payments or contributions to be
made by coastal States with respect to the resources on the continental
shelf beyond 200 miles; and Part XI (Arts. 140, 160, etc.) provides for
an equitable sharing of benefits derived from the resources in the
international seabed area.

85/        These are premised in ILO Conventions on freedom of
association, f.e. the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right
to Organise Convention (Geneva, 8 July 1948), 68 UNTS 17; see also Agenda
21, chapters 29 and 30.

86/        See Stockholm Declaration, Principle 21; Rio Declaration,
Principle 2; and Convention on Biological Diversity, Article 3.

87/        Declaration on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources,
UNGA Res. 1803 (XVII) (1962), para.1: "The right of peoples and nations
to permanent sovereignty over natural resources must be exercised in the
interest of their national development and the well-being of the people
of the State concerned."

88/        See, for example, the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of
States, UNGA Res. 3281, 12 December 1974, 14 ILM 251 (hereafter referred
to as CERDS), Article 30; the Stockholm and Rio Declarations.

89/        See Nico J. Schrijver, "Sovereignty over Natural Resources:
Balancing rights and duties", forthcoming with Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge.

90/        In doing so, it built on the well-known findings of the Ad Hoc
Tribunal in the Trail Smelter Arbitration (1938, 1941) and of the
International Court of Justice in the Corfu Channel Case (1949), as well
as on other international law principles such as sic utere tuo ut alienum
non laedas, good neighbourliness and due diligence and care.

91/        See Principle 3 of the 1978 Shared Natural Resources
Principles and Principles 10■12 of the Principles Concerning
Transboundary Natural Resources and Environmental Interferences as
adopted by the WCED Expert Group on Environmental Law.

92/        Articles 193 and 194.2.

93/        See the 8th preambular paragraph of the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change.

94/        Article 3.

95/        European Energy Charter Treaty (Lisbon, 17 December 1994), 34
ILM 360, Art. 18.

96/        See the commentary at pp. 47-48 of the Draft IUCN Covenant.

97/        See Section 5 of the Declaration on the Progressive
Development of Principles of Public International Law Relating to a New
International Economic Order, supra note 20.

98/        Supra, note 85.

99/        UNGA Res. 1831 (XVII), (1962).

100/       Preambular para. 2.  In general terms, Principle 2 of the
Stockholm Declaration states: "The natural resources of the earth,
including the air, water, land, flora and fauna and especially
representative samples of natural ecosystems must be safeguarded for the
benefit of present and future generations through careful planning or
management, as appropriate." 

101/       Article 30, entitled `Common responsibilities towards the
international community'.

102/       UNGA Res. 37/7 annexing the World Charter for Nature (1982). 
It stipulates in para. 10 that natural resources must not be wasted, but
used with restraint in accordance with the following rules: a. Living
resources shall not be utilized in excess of their natural capacity for
regeneration; b. The productivity of soils shall be maintained or
enhanced through measures which safeguard their long-term fertility and
the process of organic decomposition, and prevent erosion and all other
forms of degradation; c. Resources, including water, which are not
consumed as they are used shall be reused or recycled; and d. Non-
renewable resources which are consumed as they are used shall be
exploited with restraint, taking into account their abundance, the
rational possibilities of converting them for consumption, and the
compatibility of their exploitation with the functioning of natural
systems.

103/       See principles 4 to 8.

104/       The following regional co-operation treaties can be mentioned:
1) the Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the
Western Hemisphere, (Washington, 12 October 1940), 161 UNTS 229, which
represents an early and visionary example of an effort to protect all
species in their natural habitat in order to prevent extinction and to
preserve extraordinary beauty and striking geological formations, mainly
through the establishment of national parks and wilderness reserves. It
was concluded under the auspices of the Pan American Union, now called
the Organization of American States. See S. Lyster, "International
Wildlife Law: an analysis of international treaties", Grotius
Publications: Cambridge (1985), Chapter 6; b) the African Conservation
Convention; c) the Apia Convention; d) the Treaty for Amazonian Co-
operation; e) the ASEAN Agreement; f) a series of regional conventions
concluded in the context of UNEP including, for example, the Convention
for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South
Pacific Region (Noumea, 25 November 1986), 26 ILM 38; and g) European
Union law: the original constitutions of the European institutions did
not deal with environmental concerns, but the Single European Act
(Luxembourg, 17 February 1986 and The Hague, 28 February 1986), 25 ILM
504, and the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht, 7 February 1992), 31
ILM 247, inserted several environmentally-relevant provisions into EU
law. One of the new objectives of the EU is "to promote through the
Community a harmonious and balanced development of economic activities,
[and] sustainable and non-inflationary growth respecting the
environment".

105/       They include a) the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of
International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar, 2
February 1971), 11 ILM 963; b) the World Heritage Convention; c) CITES;
d) the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild
Animals; e) the Convention on Biological Diversity; f) the Climate Change
Convention and g) the Desertification Convention. In the Convention on
Biological Diversity, for example, sustainable use is defined as "the use
of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does
not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby
maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present
and future generations".

106/       Examples are a) UNCLOS, of which Arts. 61(3) and 119(1)
provide that conservation and management measures should aim at
maintaining fish populations at levels which can produce the "maximum
sustainable yield, as qualified by relevant environmental and economic
factors"; b) the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of
the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982
Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and
Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (New York, 4 December 1995), Doc.
A/CONF.164/22/Rev.1, hereafter referred to as the Fish Stocks Agreement,
which defines its very objective as "to ensure the long-term conservation
and sustainable use" of fish stocks concerned (Art.2), and in which the
principle of sustainable use naturally appears throughout the Agreement;
c) the International Tropical Timber Agreement (18 November 1983, revised
26 January 1994), Basic Documents on International Law and the
Environment, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995, p. 556; d) the Sixth
International Tin Agreement (Geneva, 26 June 1981), 1282 UNTS 205.
Furthermore, e) African, Caribbean and Pacific States-European Economic
Community: Fourth Lomé Convention (Lomé, 15 December 1989), 29 ILM 783,
hereafter referred to as the Lomé IV Convention, Article 4: "a
sustainable balance between its economic objectives, the rational
management of the environment and the enhancement of natural ...
resources". Also, its environment chapter (Title I, Part Two) includes
provisions concerning the protection and enhancement of the environment,
the halting of the deterioration of land and forests, the restoration of
ecological balances and the preservation of natural resources and their
rational exploitation; f) the North America Free Trade Agreement and the
European Energy Charter Treaty, which also contain  environment
provisions. The latter one makes reference to the concept of sustainable
development and calls on each State to minimize in an economically
efficient manner harmful environmental impacts, occurring either within
or outside its territory, as a result of activities in the energy sector.


107/       Australia/New Zealand v. France (1974) and New Zealand v.
France (1995). While in the latter case the Court found that it had no
jurisdiction to deal with New Zealand's request for an examination of the
situation resulting from the resumption of nuclear testing by France, the
Court pronounced that its Order was "without prejudice to the obligations
of States to respect and protect the natural environment, obligations to
which both New Zealand and France have in the present instance reaffirmed
their commitment", ICJ Order of 22 September 1995, in ICJ Reports 1995,
p. 306, para. 64.

108/       Draft IUCN Covenant, Art. 14. Further, Arts. 145, 194(1) and
207-212 of UNCLOS provide for the prevention of pollution; Art. 195
obliges States to act so as not to transfer damage or hazards from one
area to another, or transform one type of pollution into another.

109/       Rio Declaration, Principle 11.

110/       Rio Declaration, Principle 11.

111/       Draft IUCN Covenant Article 6, commentary para. 2.

112/       Rio Declaration, Principle 17.

113/       Rio Declaration, Principle 10.

114/       Stockholm Declaration Principle 21; Rio Declaration Principle
2; Trail Smelter Arbitration.  See also Corfu Channel and Lake Lanoux
cases. 

115/       Stockholm Declaration Principle 21; Rio Declaration Principle
2.

116/       Draft IUCN Covenant Article 6, para.2 of Commentary; compare
Article 7, para.1, of the International Law Commission's Draft Articles
on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses,
adopted on second reading in 1994, 1994 ILC Rep. p. 236 ("Watercourse
States shall exercise due diligence to utilize an international
watercourse in such a way as not to cause significant harm to other
watercourse States." "Due diligence" is a flexible standard that takes
into account both the gravity of the potential harm and the capability
of the State exercising it. See the Geneva Arbitration (The Alabama
case), J.B. Moore, History and Digest of the International Arbitrations
to which the United States has been a Party, Vol. I (1898), pp. 572-573
and 612.

117/       Rio Declaration Principle 17; Convention on Environmental
Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo, 25 February 1991),
30 ILM 802, hereafter referred to as the Espoo Convention.

118/       Rio Declaration Principle 19; Espoo Convention Arts. 2-5; ILC
Draft Articles on Watercourses, Arts. 12 and 17.

119/       Trail Smelter Arbitration. 

120/       UN Charter, Article 51.

121/       GATT Art. XX b and Art. XIVb: "to protect human, animal or
plant life or health". 

122/       Article 10.  The legal principles for environmental protection
and sustainable development identified by the World Commission on
Environment and Development (hereafter referred to as WCED) formed part
of the its report adopted by UNGA Res. 42/187 of 11 December 1987.

123/       Council Recommendation on the Implementation of the Polluter
Pays Principle, 14 November 1974, 14 ILM 234.

124/       This is the "polluter-pays principle" in its original sense,
which is probably more accurately entitled the "originator-pays
principle". Art. 130(r) of the EU Treaty; OECD Council Recommendations
C(72)128 (1972) and C(74)223 (1974); Draft IUCN Covenant, Art. 11(6). At
its third session, in addressing the issue of changing production and
consumption patterns, the CSD reiterated that "National authorities
should endeavor to promote the internalization of environmental costs and
the use of economic instruments, as appropriate, taking into account the
polluter-pays principle".

125/       K. von Moltke, "The Vorsorgeprinzip in West German
Environmental Policy", in Twelfth Report, Royal Commission on
Environmental Pollution (1988), at 57.

126/       Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
(Vienna, 22 March 1985), 26 ILM 1529, hereafter referred to as Ozone
Layer Convention, Preamble: "Mindful also of the precautionary measures
for the protection of the ozone layer which have already been taken .."

127/       Preamble.

128/       Convention on Biological Diversity, Preamble: "Noting also
that where there is a threat of significant reduction or loss of
biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not be
used as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize such a
threat"; Climate Change Convention, Art. 3(3): "The Parties should take
precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of
climate change and mitigate its adverse effects. Where there are threats
of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty
should not be used as a reason to postpone such measures, ...". See P.
Sands, Principles of International Environmental Law, Manchester
University Press, 1995, 210-212.

129/       Arts. 5 and 6.

130/       See e.g. Preamble to the Ministerial Declaration of the
International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea (Bremen, 1
November 1984); Ministerial Declaration of the Second North Sea
Conference (London, 25 November 1987); also PARCOM Recommendation 89/1
(1989) -PARCOM administers the Convention for the Prevention of Marine
Pollution from Land-Based Sources (Paris, 4 June 1974)- supporting the
"principle of precautionary action"; Third North Sea Conference, (The
Hague, 8 March 1990); UNEP Governing Council Decision 15/27 (1989).

131/       See Article 130r (2) of the EEC Treaty as amended by the 1992
Maastricht Treaty.

132/       EC Directive 91/271/EEC, (30 May 1991), Art. 6(2). The
Directive allows certain urban waste water discharges to be subjected to
less stringent treatment than that generally required by the Directive
providing that "comprehensive studies indicate that such discharges will
not adversely affect the environment."

133/       Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the
North-East Atlantic (Paris, 22 September 1992), 32 ILM 1069, hereafter
referred to as the OSPAR Convention. Those Parties (France and the United
Kingdom) wishing to retain the option of dumping low and intermediate
level radioactive wastes at sea will be required to report to the OSPAR
Commission on "the results of scientific studies which show that any
potential dumping operations would not result in hazards to human health,
harm to living resources or marine ecosystems, damage to amenities or
interference with other legitimate uses of the sea.", Annex II, Art.
3(3)(c).

134/       Nuclear Tests Case (New Zealand v. France), Request by New
Zealand for an Examination of the Situation, 21 August 1995, at paras.
105-108. France replied that the legal status of the principle was
"uncertain." ICJ, Verbatim Record, CR 95/20, 12 September 1995, p. 71.

135/       Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning
Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the
Charter of the United Nations, UNGA Res. 2625 (XXV) (1970).

136/       Part I, para.7.

137/       See, for example, the Ozone Layer Convention; the 1987
Montreal Protocol and the 1990 London and 1992 Copenhagen amendments to
this Protocol. See also the Climate Change Convention and Convention on
Biological Diversity.

138/       The practice of recent UN Conferences such as those in Rio de
Janeiro, Vienna, Copenhagen and Beijing as well as the practice of the
CSD show an increasing awareness of the relevance of consultation with
non-State entities. 

139/       UNGA Res. 43/53 (1988), first operative paragraph: "climate
change is a common concern of mankind since climate is an essential
condition which sustains life on earth".

140/       October 1989, UNGAOR 44th Sess., Agenda item 82(f), at annex,
Doc. A/44/673. 

141/       The Conference was attended by representatives of 66 States in
November 1989.  

142/       Declaration on International Economic Co-operation, in
particular the Revitalization of Economic Growth and Development of the
Developing Countries, Doc. A/RES/S-18/3, 1 May 1990, para. 29.

143/       See Climate Change Convention, Preamble: "Acknowledging that
change in the Earth's climate and its adverse effects are a common
concern of humankind"; Convention on Biological Diversity, Preamble:
"Affirming that the conservation of biological diversity is a common
concern of humankind."

144/       Article 3: "The global environment is a common concern of
humanity."

145/       Common but differentiated responsibilities is also referred to
in the implementation of Agenda 21. For example, the CSD, at its third
session in April 1995, referred to this principle when noting the special
responsibility born by developed countries in the field of changing
production and consumption patterns that are detrimental to sustainable
development; Doc. E/1995/32, para. 31.

146/       The time-table is based on 1986 levels of production and
consumption of these substances. Special provisions, however, apply to
States with very low levels of production and consumption in 1986 [Art.
2(5)]. Furthermore, the Montreal Protocol recognizes the special
situation of developing countries in its Art. 5.

147/       In the Preamble it is noted that the largest share of
historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has
originated in developed countries, and they are urged to take the lead
in combating climate change and its adverse effects.

148/       Article 4.1.

149/       Art. 20 paras. 2, 4.

150/       The Climate Change Convention recognizes the specific needs
and special circumstances of developing country parties. See, inter alia,
Arts. 3(2), 4.4, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6 and 4.9.

151/       The Preamble of UNCLOS states, "... a just and equitable
international economic order which takes into account the interests and
needs of mankind as a whole, and, in particular, the special interests
and needs of developing countries..." See also Art. 207.4.

152/       See Title IV of Part Three (The Instruments of ACP-EEC
Cooperation) of the Lomé IV Convention.

153/       The Desertification Convention emphasizes throughout the
special situation of developing countries, given the high concentration
of developing countries, notably the least developed countries, among
those experiencing serious drought and/or desertification. See, in
particular, the Preamble and Arts. 5-6. 

154/       Preamble.

155/       Art. II.

156/       Article 26.

157/       The International Seabed Authority is the organization through
which States Parties shall organize and control activities in the
International Seabed Area, particularly with a view to administering the
resources of the Area, UNCLOS Art. 157(1). On technology transfer see Y.
Lee, Transfer of Technology for Deep Sea-bed mining: the 1982 Law of the
Sea Convention and Beyond, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 1994.

158/       Principle 9(a).

159/       Washington Declaration on Protection of the Marine Environment
from Land-based Activities, adopted on 1 November 1995, Doc.
UNEP(OCA)/LBA/IG.2/L.4, paragraph 4.

160/       Nineteenth preambular paragraph; Art. 3 para.2.

161/       The Conference was held in Bridgetown, Barbados, 26 April-6
May 1994. Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development
of Small Island Developing States, Doc. A/CONF.167/9.

162/       Preambular para.5 to the Programme of Action.

163/       See Article IV (6) of the Climate Change Convention.  It may
also be noted that the 1987 Montreal Protocol, Art. 2, para 6, has a more
lenient provision that was drafted to meet the needs of the then Soviet
Union and central and eastern European countries (now the economies in
transition) and to apply only to them.  The Protocol does not label it
as that though.

164/       This competitive advantage does not, however, exist in the
biodiversity context.

165/       Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and
Other Celestial Bodies (New York, 5 December 1979), 1363 UNTS 3, states
in its Article 11 that the moon and its natural resources are the common
heritage of humankind.  A similar, though not identical, regime, while
not employing the term common heritage of mankind, has been employed by
the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the
Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies (London, Moscow, Washington, 27 January 1967), 610 UNTS
205. 

166/       See UN Doc. A/RES/48/263, 28 July 1994, annexing the
Agreement. Text also in 33 ILM (1994), p. 1309.

167/       UN Charter, Arts.1-3.

168/       Arts. 55 and 56.

169/       Quoted in Art. 74 of the UN Charter.

170/       Supra, note 114.

171/       UNGA Res. 2625 (XXV).

172/       See also Stockholm Declaration, Principle 24.

173/       1978 Shared Natural Resources Principles; ILC, Draft Articles
on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses
(1994), hereafter referred to as 1994 Draft International Watercourses
Articles, Art. 5; ILA, Helsinki Rules on the Uses of the Waters of
International Rivers (1966).

174/       1978 Shared Natural Resources Principles, Principle 1; Draft
International Watercourses Articles, Art. 5(1).  

175/       1994 Draft International Watercourses Articles, Art. 5(2).

176/       1978 Shared Natural Resources Principles, Principles 4-9; 1994
Draft International Watercourses Articles, Arts. 8 and 9, 11-19, 24 and
28.

177/       1978 Shared Natural Resources Principles, Principle 3(1); 1994
Draft International Watercourses Articles, Art. 7.

178/       1994 Draft International Watercourses Articles, Art. 24.

179/       See, e.g., OECD Council Recommendation on Principles
Concerning Transfrontier Pollution, 14 November 1974, C(74)224, Annex
(1974), hereafter referred to as 1974 OECD Principles on Transfrontier
Pollution; UNEP London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on
Chemicals in International Trade, Doc. UNEP GC/DEC/15/30, 25 May 1989,
hereafter referred to as 1989 London Chemical Information Guidelines,
Article 11; Draft IUCN Covenant, Art. 33(B).

180/       Rio Declaration, Principles 18, 19; see also, e.g. Montreal
Rules of International Law Applicable to Transfrontier Pollution, 4
September 1982, Report of the Sixtieth Conference of the ILC 1-3 (1982),
hereafter referred to as Montreal Rules for Transfrontier Pollution; 1978
Shared Natural Resources Principles, Principle 6; UNCLOS, Article 206;
Article 198 of UNCLOS contains obligation to notify imminent danger or
damage by pollution to potentially affected States.

181/       International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From
Ships (London, 2 November 1973), 1973 UNJYB 91, as modified by the
Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, 17 February 1978, Cmnd 8277, hereafter
referred to as Marpol Convention; UN Economic Commission for Europe,
Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents
(Helsinki, 17 March 1992), 31 ILM 1330, hereafter referred to as UN/ECE
Convention on Industrial Accidents, Arts. 10, 17.

182/       See e.g., European Community Directive on the Major Accident
Hazards of Certain Industrial Activities, Council Directive 82/501,
Article 5, 1982 O.J. (I.230) I.

183/       Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident
(Vienna, 26 September 1986), 25 ILM 1369.

184/       Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or
Radiological Emergency (Vienna, 26 September 1986), 25 ILM 1377.

185/       Montreal Rules for Transfrontier Pollution, Article 8; see
also, e.g., 1978 Shared Natural Resources Principles, Principles 6-7;
1974 OECD Principles on Transfrontier Pollution, at Annex, Principle 7;
Convention on the Protection of the Environment Between Denmark, Finland,
Norway and Sweden (Stockholm, 19 February 1974), 13 ILM 591, hereafter
referred to as Nordic Convention for Protecting the Environment.

186/       Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Geneva,
13 November 1979), 18 ILM 1442, Article 5: "Consultations shall be held,
upon request, at an early stage between, on the one hand, Contracting
Parties which are actually affected by or exposed to a significant risk
of long-range transboundary air pollution and, on the other hand,
Contracting Parties within which and subject to whose jurisdiction a
significant contribution to long-range transboundary air pollution
originates, or could originate, in connection with activities carried on
or contemplated therein.".

187/       See, e.g., Climate Change Convention, Articles 7-10, which
outline the consulting and decision-making authority of the Conference
of the Parties and establishing various subsidiary bodies with advisory
functions.

188/       Ph. Sands, Principles of international environmental law,
Vol.I, 1995, p.606.

189/       For a global scale, see Art. 206 of UNCLOS: "When States have
reasonable grounds for believing that planned activities under their
jurisdiction or control may cause substantial pollution of or significant
and harmful changes to the marine environment, they shall, as far as
practicable, assess the potential effects of such activities on the
marine environment and shall communicate reports of the results of such
assessments.."   

190/       Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a
Transboundary Context.    

191/       In their Resolution on Environmental Impact Assessment in a
Transboundary Context (ECE/ENVWA/19), the Signatories to the Espoo
Convention decided to strive for its entry into force as soon as possible
and to seek to implement it to the maximum extent possible pending its
entry into force. ECE member countries are already implementing the
Convention at the subregional level, in particular through bilateral and
multilateral agreements. For example, in Hungary, bilateral agreements
on transboundary waters with neighboring countries relate to activities
which might have an adverse impact on the quality and quantity of these
waters, and include provisions for the submission of information on such
impact. The bilateral agreement between Hungary and Ukraine on
environmental cooperation provides for cooperation in the field of EIA
in relation to proposed activities which may have an adverse
environmental transboundary impact. Also, new agreements are being
elaborated for this purpose and other cooperative arrangements are being
made. For instance, in the Netherlands, initiatives were taken to start
bilateral discussions with Belgium and Germany. Examples of specific
experiences with transboundary EIA include the application of the
Convention between Croatia and Hungary, Hungary and Slovakia and the
Netherlands and Germany. ECE member countries are increasingly applying
the provisions of the Espoo Convention pending its entry into force in
cases where significant transboundary impacts are likely. New regulations
have been introduced or existing regulations modified at the national
level in order to arrange for the EIA process, in particular in a
transboundary context. A number of countries have decided to amend
existing EIA legislation by inserting the relevant provisions of the
Convention, while in other countries specific legislation related to EIA
in a transboundary context is being elaborated.

192/       UN/ECE Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial
Accidents.

193/       Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary
Watercourses and International Lakes (Helsinki, 17 March 1992), 31 ILM
1312. 

194/       Convention on the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area
(Helsinki, 9 April 1992), 22 Law of the Sea Bulletin 54, Article 7. 

195/       Toolba, M. Osama, A. 1992. The World Environment, 1972-1992,
Chapman and Hall, London.

196/       Art. 6, para. 1 to 3.

197/       Art. 6, para. 4.

198/       Convention on the Ban of Import into Africa and the Control of
Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa
(Bamako, 30 January 1991), 30 ILM 773 (Agreement) and 31 ILM 163
(Annexes).

199/       See K. Ginther, E.M.G. Denters and P.J.I.M. de Waart (eds)
Sustainable Development and Good Governance, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht,
1995.

200/       Agenda 21, para. 23.2.

201/       Rio Declaration, Principle 10; see also Convention on
Biological Diversity, Article 14.1.(a), which allows for public
participation in environmental impact assessment procedures; Climate
Change Convention, Article 4.1(i): "... encourage the widest
participation in this process including that of non-governmental
organizations"; Lomé Convention, Final Act; ASEAN Agreement, Article 16;
OECD Council Recommendation Concerning the Provision of Information to
the Public and Public Participation in Decision-Making Processes Related
to the Prevention of, and Responses to, Accidents Involving Hazardous
Substances, 8 July 1982, C(88)85 (Final) (1988); World Charter for
Nature, Arts. 23-24; ILO Convention No. 141 (1975), Rural Workers'
Organization Convention, Article 4.

202/       ILO Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in
Independent Countries (Geneva, 27 June 1989), 28 ILM 1382, Convention no.
169, Articles 6-7; Convention on Biological Diversity, Preamble; Agenda
21, chapter 26.

203/        Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women (New York, 18 December 1979), 1249 UNTS 13, Art. 7(b), the
right to participate in formulating government policy, Art. 14.2(a), the
right to participate in development planning; Convention on Biological
Diversity, Preamble; Agenda 21, chapter 24; UNGA Res. 34/180 (1979);

204/       Art. 12(1). 

205/       Art. 12(2).

206/       See Agenda 21, chapter 29 "Strengthening the role of workers
and their trade unions".

207/       Agenda 21, para.27.1.

208/       See Rio Declaration, Principle 10: "... At the national level,
each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning
the environment that is held by public authorities, ... and the
opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. States shall
facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making
information widely available. Effective access to judicial and
administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be
provided."

209/       On the status of non-governmental organizations under various
conventions, see CITES, Art. IX.7(b); UNCLOS, Art. 169; Montreal
Protocol, Art. 11(3); Basel Convention, Art. 15(6); Convention on
Biological Diversity Convention, Art. 23(5); Climate Change Convention,
Arts. 7.2.(1), 7.6; International Tropical Timber Agreement, Art. 15;
Desertification Convention, Art. 22(7).

210/       See Rio Declaration, Principle 10; Agenda 21, paras. 27.9(g):
"The United Nations system...and all intergovernmental organizations and
forums should, in consultation with non-governmental organizations take
measures to provide access for non-governmental organizations to accurate
and timely data and information...", 27.10(f): Governments should take
measures to make available and accessible to non-governmental
organizations the data and information necessary for their effective
contribution to research and to the design, implementation and evaluation
of programmes"; European Council Directive on Freedom of Access to
Environmental Information, Council Directive 90/313 (7 June 1990); Draft
IUCN Covenant, Art. 44.

211/       Agenda 21, chapter 40 describes activities for expanding
information availability.

212/       Principle 17.

213/       Vienna Convention, with Montreal Protocol and amendments of
London and Copenhagen.

214/       Climate Change Convention, Article 4(1)(F).

215/       Convention on Biological Diversity, Article 14(1)(a).

216/       Art. 6(b)O.

217/       Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection
of the Marine Environment from Pollution (Kuwait, 24 April 1978), 17 ILM
511, Article I; Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and
Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central
African Region (Abidjan, 23 March 1981), 20 ILM 746, Article 13;
Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and Coastal Area
of the South-East Pacific (Lima, 12 November 1981), Doc.
UNEP/CPPS/IG/32/4, Article 10; ASEAN Agreement, Article 14.

218/       See N.A. Robinson, "EIA Abroad: The Comparative and
Transnational Experience" in Environmental Analysis: The NEPA Experience,
CRC Press, Florida.

219/       Espoo Convention, Article I(vii).

220/       Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 26.

221/       UN Charter, Art. 2, para. 2. 

222/       The seven-member Chamber for Environmental Matters was
established under Art. 26(1) of the Statute of the International Court
of Justice, which allows the Court to form chambers for dealing with
particular categories of cases.

223/       The principle of peaceful settlement of disputes is also
included in the non-legally binding instruments as the Draft IUCN
Covenant, Art. 62.1; WCED Principles, Principle 22.

224/       Art. 30.

225/       Art. 14.1.

226/       Art. 27.1. Para. 2 of the same article creates the possibility
for parties, in case of non-agreement by negotiation,  to request
mediation, or seek the good offices, of a third party.

227/       Examples include Art. 20 of the Basel Convention; Art. 14 of
the Climate Change Convention; and Art. 27 of the Convention on
Biological Diversity.

228/       An exception is Part XV of UNCLOS.

229/       Para. 39.3(h).

230/       Para. 39.10.

231/       See: Andronico O. Adede, International Environmental Law
Digest, 1993, p. 208, and references.  

232/       Gerhard Loibl, Comment on the paper by Andronico Adede, in
Sustainable development and international law, Winfried Lang, editor,
(Graham and Trotman/Martinus Nijhoff, 1995) p. 129: "One useful and
necessary task for the international community is to draw the attention
of states to the various aspects of dispute prevention. It has to be made
clear that, like dispute settlement, the prevention of disputes over
different resources will require different mechanisms."  

233/       1994 ILC Report, pp. 259-280, 322.

234/       Arts. 8, 10.

235/       Art. 14.

236/       See also Art. 187 in conjunction with Art. 153.2(b) of UNCLOS,
which enables certain natural or juridical persons to have access to the
Sea-bed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the
Sea in their disputes with the Authority.

237/       Art. 3.

238/       1994 ILC Report, p. 319.

239/       On, respectively, International institutional arrangements and
International legal instruments and mechanisms.

240/       Arts. 207, 208 and 210-212 of UNCLOS obligate States to adopt
laws and regulations on the basis of initially agreed rules and
standards. 

241/       For example, Art. 19 of the Fish Stocks Agreement requires a
State to ensure compliance by its flag vessels with regional conservation
and management measures. Art. 21 of the Agreement permits a State Party
which is member of a regional organization to take certain enforcement
actions against fishing vessels flying the flag of another State Party,
even if the latter State is not a member of the regional organization.

242/       Paras. 39.3(e) and 39.8.

243/       Art. 61.

244/       Para. 8.14.

245/       Para. 8.15.

246/       Within the ILO, the elements of the system for compliance
monitoring of international labour standards include: (a) a spirit of
dialogue and cooperation rather than conflict and confrontation; (b) a
procedural obligation on governments to submit regular reports in an
approved form on legal and practical measures taken to implement
substantive international obligations; (c) legal requirements for the
involvement of relevant non-governmental organizations by communication
to them of copies of government reports and according them the right to
make their own observation; (d) examination of government reports in the
first place by an independent expert body, serviced by an adequate
secretariat; (e) examination of expert body report by representatives of
governments and the relevant non-governmental organizations, such
examination leading to the publication of a report; (e) a complaints
procedure to deal with specific allegations of breach of substantive
obligations; (f) informal advisory services and technical cooperation and
information activities to assist in the fulfillment of obligations.

247/       See e.g., Art. 12 of the Climate Change Convention, Art. 26 of
the Convention on Biological Diversity, and Art. 20 of the Convention for
the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution (Barcelona, 16
February 1976), 15 ILM 285, as amended in 1995.

248/       See e.g., the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the
Antarctic Treaty, (Madrid, 4 October 1991), 30 ILM 1461, Arts. 19-23.

249/       See e.g., CITES.

250/       See, for example, also the compliance policy of the European
Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD): Compliance with
applicable international or regional standards and guidelines is
typically incorporated into the legal agreement with the borrower by
means of loan conditionality, covenants or through inclusion into a
comprehensive Environmental Action Plan for the project. Typical tools
for monitoring compliance with environmental provisions are requirements
for regular performance reports and/or  periodic audits by independent
experts, coupled with the obligation  to address any problems identified
in a way that is satisfactory to the EBRD. In addition, financial
mechanisms may be used to ensure the implementation of environmental
requirements, or to provide additional incentives for clients to do so.
In practice, the EBRD may thus be enforcing compliance by private
companies with international environmental law even in the absence of
implementing legislation at the national level.

251/       EMEP stands for "Co-operative programme for the monitoring and
evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe".

252/       Protocol to the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (Oslo, 14 June 1994),
Doc. EB.AIR/R.84, 33 ILM 1542. 

253/       Art. 5 of the Basel Convention requires Parties to establish
Competent Authorities and Focal Points; Article 13 requires the Parties
to submit annual reports to the Conference of the Parties; Article 16
requests the Secretariat to perform a number of functions related to
monitoring of implementation and compliance; and Art. 19 requests any
Party which has reason to believe that another Party is acting or has
acted in breach of its obligations under the Convention, may inform the
Secretariat and the Party against whom the allegations are made. In
addition, at the Third Meeting of the Conference of the Parties
(September 1995), a standing body was established to perform compliance
functions, called "Compliance Committee". The cases of non-compliance to
be undertaken by this Compliance Committee could be initiated by a Party,
the Secretariat, or the Open-ended Ad Hoc Committee which undertakes the
review of information provided to it by the Parties.

 


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Date last posted: 3 December 1999 10:27:35
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