BACKGROUND PAPER Role of Major Groups 1/ Commission on Sustainable Development Fourth Session, 18 April - 3 May 1996 Table of Contents I. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 II General Overview of Progress A. Experiences of major groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 (i) Information collection process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 (ii) Overview of the inputs received. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 (iii) Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 (iv) Obstacles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 B. Experiences of Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 (i) Developing Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 (ii) Countries in transition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 (iii) Developed country experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 C. Experiences of inter-governmental bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 (i) Agencies and other bodies of the United Nations . . . . . . . . . 21 (ii) Non-UN Inter-governmental organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 (iii) Partnerships for Special Events at the CSD. . . . . . . . . . . 26 D. Issues related to financial and capacity building partnerships . . . 28 III. Conclusions and Recommendations A. Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..28 B. Recommendations for future action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..30 (i) Information dissemination and collection. . . . . . . . . . . . ..30 (ii) Participatory arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..31 (iii) Programme support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..33 Annexes Annex I: Summaries of Major Group inputs to CSD96. . . . . . . . . . . . ..35 Annex II: Major Groups inputs grouped by geographical location.. . . . . ..54 Annex III: Summaries of responses to the national information guidelines for 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 I Introduction This background paper is prepared in response to the requests of the first, second and third sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) for annual reports on the role and contribution of major groups in the implementation of Agenda 21 and monitoring the progress achieved at national, regional and international levels. The primary basis for this paper is the Multi-year Thematic Programme of Work of the CSD, adopted at the first substantive session (E/CN.17/1993/3/Add.1). This work programme established the practice of annual reports on progress achieved in implementing the activities in Agenda 21, including those related to participation of civil society. Subsequent sessions of the CSD further elaborated on the content of the annual major groups report. At its second session, the CSD identified the main types of information that the annual report on major groups should contain. The following four types of information were suggested: the extent of major group involvement in sustainable development activities at all levels; innovative methods that have increased the quality and quantity of consultations with major group representatives and organizations; identification of obstacles and difficulties related to major group participation and steps taken to overcome them; and, indicators of major group involvement, including financial and resource allocations made to them, as well as their own involvement in the provision of technical assistance and other types of support for Agenda 21 activities. These four points guided the preparation of the 1995 reporting on major groups (E/CN.17/1995/9) and continue to be the criteria with which information about, from, and on major groups is collected and analyzed to prepare the annual reports. The third session of the CSD took decisions that requested the secretariat to continue with special events that highlight the role of specific major groups. The first of such events, the Day of Local Authorities, was prepared in response to a request of the second session of the CSD. The third session of CSD suggested the organization of a special event to be called the Day of the Workplace. This special event would highlight the role of two major groups; namely, business and industry (including small and medium sized enterprises), and workers and trade unions. This report reviews the role of major groups in Agenda 21 and summarizes the actions taken in response to the CSD■s requests for special events. The analysis utilizes information received from major groups organizations, as well as information made available by governments and international inter-governmental organizations. The report also utilizes publications and other materials that are made available from governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental institutions or located through research. Two additional sets of background materials on major groups are also available to the fourth session of the CSD. One is a set of 14 case studies on sustainable development initiatives of business and industry and workers and trade unions. These case-studies are one of the outcomes of the Day of the Workplace process. The other is a set of materials generated through the first Youth Inter-sessional. Further detail on the processes and partnerships that enabled the production of these additional materials is available in the body of the text below. II General Overview of Progress A. Experiences of major groups The analysis in this section is based on inputs received from 100 major groups 2/ organizations and networks, as well as observations made through contacts with major group actors throughout the year and (on- line and literature) research. Summaries of all the inputs received form major groups are in Annex I. A brief description of the information collection process is provided below. (i) Information collection process Several methods were used to collect inputs from major groups during the 1995-1996 period. These included distribution of the Guidelines for Major Group Inputs for CSD96 and the Survey on Major Groups (both sent to 1100 major group organizations by mail and made available electronically on the Internet). They also included calls for input through the CSD Update, regular correspondence, the Internet, the NGO networks, at inter-sessional meetings and personal contacts; and, research through on-line and other sources. (ii) Overview of the inputs received At the time of drafting this report, the secretariat had received inputs from 100 major group organizations many of which submitted several reports on sectoral and cross-sectoral issues that are on the CSD96 agenda. Of this total, 79 organizations also responded to the Survey 3/. This response rate is less than 10 per cent of the total number of organizations that received the Survey by mail. Since this is not a sufficiently representative sample for valid statistical analysis, it was decided to continue distributing the Survey during the rest of the year and submit an analysis of the results to the fifth session of the CSD in 1997. The overall input rate in the 1995-1996 period was more than twice that of the 1994-1995 period. (See Table 1 below) The organizations that provided contributions constituted a broad range in geographical scope, thematic orientation, and major group categories. Responses and inputs were received from local, national, regional and international organizations whose membership often spanned the full range of major groups. As was the case in previous years, a higher number of responses and inputs were received from organizations that are located in developed countries. However, unlike the year before, about the same number of inputs were received from international and national organizations. See Annex II for a summary of inputs by location of their source. Table 1: Comparison of inputs received from major groups to CSD95 and CSD96 grouped by the geographical scope of the submitting organization. Inputs International Regional National Provincial Local Totals CSD96 39 3 40 4 14 100 CSD95 18 2 13 0 8 41 While these numbers are far from reflecting the full involvement of major groups in sustainable development efforts around the world, they show that more major groups organizations are becoming directly involved in the CSD reporting process. The increase in numbers is, in part, due to (i) the increased outreach efforts of the CSD Secretariat through its regular newsletter, the Guidelines for Major Groups (now an annual service to major groups) and the Survey on Major Groups; as well as through a more aggressive use of the electronic media, (ii) support of the UN-NGLS with outreach, and (iii) efforts of international, regional and national networks of major groups organizations including the CSD NGO Steering Committee. (iii) Main trends The base-line of major group interest in and support for the CSD process is sustained and has been gradually increasing since the first session of the Commission. Inputs show numerous cases of positive involvement by major groups at the local, national, regional, sub-regional and international levels. Other main trends that were identified in the previous two reviews of the role of major groups in Agenda 21 follow up, continue to be true as well. That is, major group organizations continue to participate in the CSD and other international processes that are related to Agenda 21 implementation and monitoring; create partnerships and establish (or facilitate the creation of) networks among each other as well as with governmental and inter-governmental bodies; develop internal and external frameworks and guidelines for sustainable development activities, and, share their knowledge with others so far as the sharing is welcome, invited and encouraged. Some trends and illustrative examples for them are below: Major group interest in Agenda 21 follow up is sustained and continues to increase gradually. Overall, major group organizations at all levels demonstrate a sustained commitment to Agenda 21 related issues, through continued implementation, research, training, monitoring, lobbying, advocacy and information dissemination efforts. An indicator for this trend is initiatives derived from Agenda 21 that continue to emerge. Among these are: Education 21 -- an initiative of UK-based major groups led by the NGO network United Nations Environment and Development- United Kingdom (UNED-UK) Pact 21 -- a project of the Centre de Recherche et d■Information pour le Developpement (CRID) in support of on-going Local Agenda 21 initiative Ocean 21 -- initiated by International Centre for Coastal and Ocean Policy Studies (ICCOPS) to involve young scientists in ocean and marine management issues, and Cooperative Agenda 21 -- an initiative of the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) to integrate sustainable development into the activities of cooperatives around the world An early example of such initiatives was Local Agenda 21 launched by local authorities through the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) at UNCED. This process has been highly successful in generating local interest and commitment to Agenda 21. Many of the existing Local Agenda 21 programmes are based on consultative and participatory involvement of all major groups from the community. ICLEI is currently planning a detailed survey of these efforts. The results of this survey will be presented to Habitat II and a revised version will be a contribution of local authorities to the 1997 review of Agenda 21. Agenda 21-driven initiatives have several characteristics that make them successful. They are sector or issue specific and therefore focus the efforts of a particular constituency better. The process of formulating them is often an education and training programme in itself. To formulate an Agenda 21 derived programme, the major groups involved need to study the agenda carefully and devise ways to apply its objectives to their own specific needs, priorities and capacities. They also are useful as implementation frameworks as they pool resources of the major groups involved whether it is the inhabitants of a city or members of a professional society. Major groups continue to build networks and create opportunities for dialogue among all sectors of civil society. Many of the organizations that submitted inputs to CSD96 and provide networking services to their members, constituents and affiliates as well as to other interested parties. Networking has traditionally been an essential tool for the non- governmental community. However, there appears to be growing focus on this area as new international and national sustainable development processes emerge and need to be monitored. A particularly useful type of networking is that which occurs at the national level led by a facilitating national NGO. A case in point is the work of UNED-UK. This organization has been organizing national level meetings linked thematically to the Multi-year Thematic Work Programme of the CSD. The meetings, using a roundtable format, bring together national and local organizations representing all major group categories to enable dialogue between local and national major groups and national governmental authorities. Some meetings also include experts and representatives from various UN Agencies. The relatively higher quantity and quality of inputs from UK-based major groups is in part due to this networking and facilitating effort. Major groups continue to collect, analyze, and disseminate information about sustainable development activities and share their thematic expertise, knowledge and monitoring capacity across countries. Almost all of the organizations that provided input to CSD96 conduct various levels of research, information collection, and information dissemination projects. Most organizations, including the small community-based groups have regular newsletters or bulletins as a vehicle for information sharing. There are also efforts by national major group organizations to conduct monitoring and information collection/dissemination efforts across two or more regions and in cooperation with other major groups that are connected by thematic focus rather than by geographical proximity. For example, the Citizens Air Pollution Survey (CAPS) of the Citizens Alliance for Saving the Atmosphere (CASA, Japan) involves multiple countries in two separate regions. The CAPS project links citizens of East and South Asia with those of Central and Eastern Europe and aims to help them learn to monitor the local atmospheric pollution levels, share their findings and help each other to improve their capacity in this area. ---------- Box 1: Selected results from the Survey on Local Agenda 21 (LA21) by Local Government Management Board of the UK. Over 71% of local authorities are committed and actively involved in LA21 ■ Most indicated they have made institutional changes to their administration: 79 % added to responsibilities of existing staff, 10 % appointed new staff ■ Nearly 49% undertook an internal environmental audit ■ Land use planning, green housekeeping and transport policies were the most frequent areas that involved integration of sustainable development principles. ■ Only 27 % used public consultation procedures ■ Nearly 6% established links with developing country counter-parts as part of their efforts ■ About 29% developed their own sustainable development indicators, 45% considered using indicators developed by others instead. --------- Another trend in this area relates to efforts by international, regional and national networks and organizations to ■map■ the NGO and major group activities in sustainable development. For example, the Environment Liaison Center International (ELCI) is currently undertaking a survey of African NGOs to systematize knowledge of their activities, views, scope and capacity as well as the manner in which they would like to shape their relationships with international organizations. 4/ A national level mapping exercise is the survey of local authorities in the United Kingdom, conducted by the Local Government Management Board. Some results of this survey are in Box 1. Although surveys tend to be seen as time consuming and unproductive by some NGOs and major groups, many others take it as an invitation to express their views, and respond positively. The welcoming aspect of surveys needs to be emphasized: many local or community-based groups feel they can not participate in a national or international process, even when they are aware of it, unless they are invited to participate and contribute. This appears to be a factor for both southern and northern major groups although less so in the case of the latter. Surveys and similar mapping exercises also help create or maintain systematic data on activities, views, focus and capacity of major group organizations. This type of systematic information is useful to organizations that provide referral services which link the needs of one group with the capacity or resources of another across continents and major group sectors. In addition, reaching out to organizations to conduct surveys is a way to inform and increase their awareness of a particular national, regional or international process by asking their opinions about them. Major groups continue to participate in large numbers in major international conferences where they take the lead in introducing and forwarding sustainable development proposals. Most major groups that are active in the CSD process continue to feel that sustainable development is an appropriate umbrella framework to deal with other global issues in the social, economic and political arenas. Hence, their participation and contribution in other related fora, particularly in the post-UNCED international conferences, is often linked to Agenda 21 objectives. Both the Copenhagen and the Beijing Conference in 1995 involved thousands of non-governmental participants. 5/ Beijing Conference currently holds the ■title■ for the largest non-governmental participation in an international conference and for the largest gathering of organizations of and for women. The Copenhagen Conference, on the other hand was an excellent opportunity for environment and development organizations to forge alliances with others that focus on human rights, economic welfare and other issues that affect the marginalized and the poor. Many NGOs and major groups that are active in the CSD attended these meetings where they lobbied to ensure that the results of these conferences not only reflect Agenda 21 objectives but also build upon them. Similarly, the preparatory process of Habitat II is already showing a great deal of non-governmental interest. Environment and development NGOs, with the support of the Conference Secretariat, are linking Agenda 21 objectives with the Habitat II documentation, including the adoption of the ■major groups■ concept. Currently the Habitat II preparatory process has nearly 800 accredited NGOs and other major groups, and the Conference Secretariat expects that the numbers will continue to grow as the June 1996 event in Istanbul approaches. Major Groups participate in the on-going and newly created international institutions and negotiating processes. Major Groups are monitoring and taking part in the meetings of the Conference of the Parties for the Conventions on Climate Change, Biological Diversity and Desertification, as well as in the work of the Inter-governmental Panel on Forests, among other post-UNCED institutional developments. The first meeting of IPF, in September 1995, involved 31 major group representatives including 16 from developing countries. These participants have since agreed to be part of an informal information dissemination network to enable a broader level of awareness among their networks, partners and other interested parties. The system of dissemination and sharing involves a small e-mail group to which the secretariat sends IPF related information as soon as it is available, and the members on the e-mail list further disseminate it through their networks. Major groups collaborate across sectors to develop sector-specific standards or guidelines. Collaborative projects and networking among and between major group sectors have always been a part of the work of the non-governmental entities. A recent development in this area is related to joint efforts to develop standards that link environmental and social responsibility. This effort involved the Social Venture Network (SVN) and the New Economics Foundation (NEF) as well as a number of academic research centers. SVN is a business-based network whose members include such companies known about their social, environmental and ethical commitments as the Body Shop and Ben and Jerry■s. NEF is an NGO focused on researching economics of sustainable development, including such areas as sustainable development indicators and eco-audits. On-going collaboration between these organizations has led to the idea of establishing an International Association of Social and Ethical Assessment. This Association involves a consortium of research organizations and corporations, and aims to focus on maintaining standards and promote best-practices in social and ethical assessments in the corporate community and in other sectors. Major groups continue to carry out Agenda 21 technical assistance projects. Local, national and international major group organizations are spear-heading implementation projects for Agenda 21. In some cases, such as the Grupo Tecnologia Alternativa (GTA, Mexico) and Sajju Institute and Research Foundation (SIRF, Nigeria), efforts focus on developing, demonstrating and disseminating environmentally sound technologies or practices. GTA has developed dry and wet waste management systems using indigenous knowledge. The technology is already implemented in several states in Mexico with highly successful results including significant improvements in the health and economic welfare of the communities. Similarly, SIRF is promoting the use of local resources and traditional technologies, including demonstrations and dissemination of rain-water harvesting techniques and saw-dust ovens to local communities in Nigeria. In addition to being environmentally sound, these technologies are easily implemented, useable throughout Africa and are low-cost. SIRF■s efforts show that local communities need to develop greater awareness of such technologies and learn that indigenous technologies are not necessarily inferior to their high-tech alternatives. Yet other organizations are involved in implementation by providing resources to efforts of communities in this direction. Rotary International and Community Aid Abroad are two organizations that are involved in hundreds of assistance projects. The report of Rotary International mentions dozens of projects carried out by local Rotarians and supported by the Rotary Foundation. For example, the 3-H (Health Hunger and Humanity) Project of this Foundation is helping indigenous communities in Brazil to harvest brazil nuts. This project helps raise the welfare of the communities and preserve the rainforest. The Rotary Foundation provided a US$ 100,000 grant to the project, while the Rotary Club in Sao Paulo donated 50,000 seedlings. Other local Rotarian help monitor the project. Community Aid Abroad, located in Australia, acts as both a resource provider and an educational service for Australian volunteers who want to make a personal contribution to the welfare of global citizenry. The organization funds projects around the world through local and community groups, which CAA feels are key to successful efforts. Projects are of all sizes and types but all are based on need. One project in Vanuatu involved a US$ 80.00 grant to purchase a typewriter for the National Community Development Fund for this organization to run its community resource management workshops more efficiently. Another project, in New Caledonia, involved a grant of US$ 7,000.00 to cover the cost of training for workers to attend a Diplomacy Training Course designed to train indigenous people in how to access the UN and other international bodies. A third project involved US$ 552, 976.00 to assist with re-establishing basic health care services through training an support of community health workers in southern Sudan. Major groups take direct roles as partners in organizing special events for the CSD. Since the presentation of the Day of Local Authorities for CSD95, it has become regular practice to organize special events that focus on show-casing the contributions of a specific major group sector to sustainable development. Preparations for these events involved partnerships with major groups and UN Agencies, with the major groups carrying out the main management responsibilities. Further detail on the UN agencies involved in these events is in Section II.3 on International Experiences. A few examples of results of one of these events, the Youth Inter-sessional, are below. The preparations for the Youth Inter-sessional (YI) involved three major group partners, Earth Council, Rescue Mission (Peace Child International) and the Youth Working Group for the CSD. These major group partners not only designed the project but each organization took the managerial responsibility for one of its three modules. The major group partners decided the content of the project and engaged in consultations with many young people around the world through their networks in order to make sure that their decisions reflected the priorities of young people in general. ------ Box 2: examples from the menu of SDIs for Youth Kit Human World Consumption -- ■Chill Out!■ how much energy is used in your home/school/local council offices? (state indicator) - what are the sources of energy used in your area? (state) - how is eco-friendly industry supported? (response) - are sources of renewable energy developed? (response) Making it Happen Role of Governments-- ■Who is the Boss?■ does a national Agenda 21 exist? (state) - existence of green taxes, environmental accounting (state) Role of Young People-- ■Our right to be heard■ extent of implementation of children■s rights (state) - existence of children■s councils, school council (state) ---------- The YI produced several tools for young people. One was the Sustainable Development Indicators for Youth Kit prepared under the leadership of Rescue Mission. The Kit took the list of indicators that CSD95 had discussed and presented them in more youth-friendly language and format. (See Box 2 for examples). The Kit has been translated and distributed to hundreds of youth organizations around the world. The young people are requested to use the Kit to make their assessments of Agenda 21 implementation. The findings will be presented to the CSD at a Youth Panel during the High Level segment of the fourth session, as well as in the Youth and Agenda 21 exhibition prepared for the CSD96. This exhibition was also conceived and designed entirely by young people. Another tool that the YI produced was the Youth Information Packet, a process led by the Earth Council. This packet includes information on the history of environment and development from 1992 to present, and examples of actions that youth have taken or can take for sustainable development as well as useful contacts for further action. The Packet has been distributed through the networks of the YI major group partners and copies are also available for CSD96. A third focus of the YI project was a Youth Workshop, led by q2000 (a member of the Youth NGO Working Group for the CSD), on the two days preceding the fourth session of the Commission. The workshop is designed to assist up to 50 young people, mostly from developing countries, to prepare themselves for effective participation in the fourth session of the Commission. An important aspect of partnerships under special events was that the major groups involved participated as the leading actors rather than observers or mere implementing arms for a project designed and conceived elsewhere. According to the feedback received from the major group partners in these events, the process was empowering and motivating them to take on further activities in the context of the 1997 review of Agenda 21. (iv) Main obstacles The above trends and examples, as well as the summary of inputs in Annex I show the continued major group commitment to Agenda 21 follow up in a manner that links various processes, a broad range of civil society actors and thematic issues. This evidence, however, needs to be seen in the context of continuing obstacles. The more challenging part of major group involvement in Agenda 21 follow up is just starting, particularly given that the first five-year review of Agenda 21 implementation is a year away. The obstacles and problems that major groups had expressed before also appear to continue to be valid. The most frequently raised obstacles in the inputs this year, in the order of frequency, were: lack (or unreliable availability) of funding and other resources for their activities and efforts; lack of resources for training and capacity building for their staff as well as for the constituency that they serve; and, more clear guidelines, processes and frameworks for their participation at the national, regional and international levels. NGOs and major groups report that they often have to halt or cancel essential projects because funding that was previously available is no longer so. Part of this problem is due to changing economic circumstances of governmental donors, and reductions in budgets of inter-governmental bodies. However, an emerging positive trend in this area is the growing preference of a number of bilateral donors to channel their project funding through NGOs. 6/ The obstacle related to lack of resources for training could be a function of insufficient information rather than lack of such opportunities. Many UN Agencies, governmental institutions as well as major group organizations provide training services as well as resources for such activities. However, information on their availability is not always widely accessible. This area may require additional and coordinated efforts from those that provide training related services and from those who have benefited from them in the past. Lack of clear and harmonized methods, guidelines and other frameworks that facilitate and guarantee participation of major groups at all levels is a growing obstacle. Proponents of this view feel there is a discrepancy in the overall access to and participation in the UN and in regional multi-lateral processes. They also mention lack of guarantees for participation at the national level and point to Agenda 21 where action and participation at the national level is repeatedly emphasized as being essential to achieving global sustainable development objectives. It should be noted that the proponents of this view include both large international NGOs that have been involved in numerous international, regional or national sustainable development decision making processes and smaller local organizations which have never participated in them. Many organizations, local and international, in fact, indicate that they have been pushing to gain greater access to decision making processes, that they have established promising new avenues of dialogue, and that they will continue their efforts in this direction. However, they also feel that a critical point has now been reached in Agenda 21 follow up where more formal recognition of their contributions must take place and transparent methods must be formulated to allow their full participation and impact without unnecessary frustration or confusion. The kind of participation that major groups increasingly require goes beyond being present in meetings or receiving reports/documents in a timely manner. Although these are found useful on their own, and should continue, major group organizations appear to be looking for more effective participation that would enable them to make a direct impact on decision-making. This growing demand may be a function of the Agenda 21 implementation and monitoring process itself. The work of the CSD and other bodies working on sustainable development issues are increasingly moving away from generalities to the more specific aspects of sustainability. In many cases institutional structures and work programmes are being created under specialized topics such as forests, consumption patterns, indicators for sustainable development or transfer of environmentally sound technologies. Major group organizations feel they need to be equal partners in the creation and in the work of the institutional structures as well as in the formulation of the work programmes. The argument in favor of such participation is that major group experiences and know-how, often derive from field level efforts and through direct links with communities. Proposals in this directions revolve around, among other things, expert groups and advisory bodies where representatives from major group sectors interact with governmental and inter-governmental representatives as equals. Major groups-based advisory or expert groups already exist independently. The emerging desire is that such groups are formally linked with the CSD and other relevant bodies. Other proposals are based on precedents set in the recent past, including the instances where non-governmental actors were part of negotiations in a working group or even chaired the session. This was the case, among other instances, at the meeting of the Conference of Parties for the Convention on Biodiversity and in the International Conference on Population and Development. At the latter meeting, the NGOs involved were a part of their national delegation but made their contributions as non-governmental participants. Similar participatory demands are also made in the context of the national level. Although there are numerous governmental and non- governmental efforts to increase dialogue at the national level, there appears to be growing demand for national participation with more impact. These demands are made in a cooperative, rather than critical, spirit. For example, NGOs from a number of developed countries express their appreciation for being invited to make comments on their national reports to the CSD, yet they feel they could have been involved in its drafting as well. Positive NGO/major group experiences regarding their involvement in the preparations of national reports may need to be shared with others to enable transfer of knowledge in this area. For major groups organizations, an important aspect of participation is knowing what kind of participation is possible and how to get into the process. Inputs of some national and local NGOs and major groups indicate that they are not aware that a national sustainable development coordination mechanism exists or that these mechanisms involve participation of representatives from national major group organizations. This is a counter-point to the governmental views that national NGOs and major groups are not interested, motivated or enthusiastic about participating in the coordination mechanisms. These views may be pointing to the need for a more concerted effort on the part of all actors to take the responsibility ownership of informing each other and enabling opportunities for greater dialogue between the governmental and non- governmental sectors. B. Experiences of Governments A set of questions in Part I of the 1996 National Information guidelines were on the role of major groups (questions 2a through 2j). By mid-January of 1996, the CSD Secretariat received 21 national inputs (20 from member states, 1 from the European Union). Of this total, the following countries responded to the major group related questions of the National Guidelines: Germany, Iceland, the Netherlands, Peru, Sweden, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom. Hungary and the European Union did not respond to the questions but submitted written reports that included information on the role of major groups. Annex III provides tabular summaries of all national responses to the questions on major groups in the 1996 national guidelines. A brief analysis of national responses is below. (i) Developing Countries Major group participation in the national coordination mechanism. Further detail in the report of Peru showed that its National Council for Sustainable Development has three members representing local authorities and the private sector. The report of Uganda listed one local authority representative as a full member and four NGOs as advisory members. The Peruvian NCSD is integrated with other national councils that are coordinating the implementation of related processes such as the Conventions on Desertification, Biodiversity and Climate Change. A representative from each of these three councils sits in the NCSD. The report of Peru indicates that the other related national councils also include major group representatives. The national efforts to establish coordination mechanisms that include major groups need to be further encouraged by the international community. Participation of major groups in NCSDs is an essential step to ensure that national and local major group organizations not only focus on local and national level implementation and monitoring efforts but also make contributions to activities at the level where they are most useful and needed. Major group participation in local, national projects, policies and their implementation. The response of Uganda showed there is more participation in implementation and design of national sustainable development projects than in national and local environmental impact assessment projects. For Peru the participation under all categories is ■occasional■. Turkey indicated that major groups participate in national and local environmental impact assessment projects but not in national project design or implementation. Including major group representatives in national delegations to the CSD. Developing countries continue to believe that including major groups in their delegation to the CSD is useful but lack the funding to make it a reality. The reports of Uganda in both 1995 and 1996 consistently expressed its openness to the idea but that it would need to secure funding for this purpose. In the past CSD sessions, a number of developing countries, such as Pakistan and the Philippines, were able to include major groups in their delegations to the CSD. The idea is rapidly gaining ground as a useful method among both governmental and non-governmental actors. Many major groups feel their contribution to the national Agenda 21 follow up process would be more significant if they could have greater access to their government delegations at the CSD and greater dialogue with their governments at home. Many developing country governments are also acknowledging that working in partnership with local and national organizations increases the overall success of programmes and policies for Agenda 21 follow up efforts. The support of the international community in this area must continue including exploration of modalities to make funding available. A special fund specifically created to cover the cost of including major groups in national delegations to the CSD and other relevant meetings is one idea that has been proposed in the past by various actors. Short of such a development, other options, such as bilateral funding support for this purpose between developed and developing countries as well as between developing country governments and international organizations or large international NGOs could also be explored and encouraged. Efforts in this direction are particularly important in the context of the upcoming review of Agenda 21 by a Special Session of the General Assembly in 1997. International or bilateral assistance received to support the role of major groups at the national level. Country reports provide some supporting evidence for the fact that many international agencies, from within and outside the UN family, are working on sustainable development goals in numerous developing countries and that these projects involve participation of major groups. For example, the Uganda report mentions UNIFEM and this organization■s support for the African Women Act on Agenda 21 programme. However, lack of national information on this issue as well as comprehensive information on the same from international bodies does not enable further analysis of trends in this area. Collaboration with international NGOs and other international organizations of major groups. The report of Peru indicated that an obstacle in this area is that the country does not yet have a central authority for environmental issues that would help improve collaboration with international NGOs and other major groups. The report of Uganda indicates there is such collaboration without further detail. Insufficient information under this issue clouds the potential that exists given the growing role of large international NGOs as project funding sources. However, some supporting evidence in this direction does exist from inputs made by major groups. Several examples in this direction were reported in the background paper on major groups prepared for the third session of the CSD. New or innovative methods. The report of Peru said there are no new and innovative methods developed by this government for the same reason mentioned earlier -- that is, lack of a central identifiable government body that can lead such a process. Uganda mentioned positively the greater role that local authorities play as a result of the on-going national effort on decentralization of environment and natural resource management efforts. Rating of local, national, regional and international major group organizations. Peru rated the role of all four categories of major groups as ■quite useful■. Uganda rated the role of local and national major groups higher (■essential■) than that of regional and international major groups (■constructive and helpful■). Further responses to this question is likely to provide useful feedback to major groups working at local, national, regional and international levels. Suggestions on enhancing and strengthening major group contributions. The report of Peru mentioned timely and accessible information as well as centralizing and simplifying national environmental efforts. The suggestion should be observed in the context of this country■s expressed obstacle to greater collaboration with major groups -- lack of a central national authority. Contrary to this view, Uganda suggested that major groups should recognize the need for decentralization and thus delegation of a greater role to the level of implementation. These two responses provide support for the view that sustainable development strategies, including those related to participation of major groups, are by their nature different and dependent on the individual needs of countries. Further information in this area would help both major groups and international agencies to target their contributions more effectively according to real needs and priorities of each country. (ii) Countries in transition Hungary and the Ukraine submitted inputs to the 1996 CSD. Hungary did not respond to the National Information Guidelines but submitted instead a written report that included sections on the role and state of women, youth, local authorities, business and the scientific communities. Because of the difference in the formats, information from Hungary is difficult to compare with information received from other countries. However, some of the information provided may be useful to summarize. Hungary stated that the rapid political and economic changes in the country are affecting major groups and their participation in ways that are not always desirable. For example, the report mentioned that women in Hungary continue to have the legal rights and social expectations to play a role in politics, economics and culture as has been the case before. However, various support services that enabled greater participation of Hungarian women have ceased to exist or become unaffordable to many in the transition process to a market economy. Thus, the numbers of women in politics, business, and other areas have been dropping as women find they need to return to being the care-givers at home. The report of Hungary also included information on the results of a year-long initiative of national NGOs to formulate an alternative programme for sustainable development in Hungary. These efforts have led to recommendations for structural and functional changes in society, including such areas as education, institutions, health, industry, trade, and agriculture. Among other things, the NGOs recommended that economic transition should aim for a eco- social market economy rather than a pure market economy; develop a new view of resources; and, adopt a set of economic tools that internalize externalities and establish various types of taxes on resource use. Ukraine■s response to the national information guidelines for CSD96 indicated major groups participate at the national level and occasionally participate at the local level. Ukraine did not include major group representatives in its national delegation to the previous CSD meetings and does not plan to do so for CSD96 or CSD97. This country also reported that it has not received special assistance from international and bilateral donors in sustainable development but it does collaborate with international NGOs such as IUCN and Friends of the Earth International. Ukraine felt that contribution of local major groups is ■quite helpful■, national major groups ■constructive and helpful■, and international major groups ■not very useful■. (iii)Developed country experience Major group participation in the national coordination mechanism. All responding developed countries indicated that major groups are represented in their national coordination mechanism. The reports of Germany and the Netherlands also mentioned coordinating bodies that primarily involve non- governmental actors. In the case of Germany, the German NGO Forum on Environment and Development, in existence since the beginning of the UNCED process, monitors and promotes implementation of Agenda 21 as well as the Conventions on climate change, biodiversity and desertification at the national and international levels. The Forum received financial support from the Government. In the Netherlands, the national Platform for Sustainable Development, involving 50 NGOs and other major groups, plays a significant role in national sustainable development efforts by stimulating public debate, conducting reviews of implementation of Agenda 21 and organizing series of events that enhance dialogue between experts, major groups and governmental institutions. Major group participation in local, national projects, policies and their implementation. The responding developed countries appear to tend towards greater participation of major groups in policy, programme design, and national/local environmental impact assessments than on implementation of national sustainable development projects. Including major group representatives in national delegations to the CSD. Iceland reported that it has not included major groups in the national delegation to the past CSD meetings and is not planning to do so in the future. This country explains that the major groups have various ways to take part in Agenda 21 follow up at the national level. Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States have included major group representatives in their delegations to the CSD in the past and, except for Germany, they plan to do so in 1996 and 1997. In addition, Sweden and the Netherlands are planning to do the same in the context of Habitat II and Sweden is planning to include major groups in its delegation to the Special Session of the General Assembly in 1997. Collaboration with international NGOs and other international organizations of major groups. Iceland reported that such collaboration takes place indirectly, through informal consultations. The Netherlands and Sweden collaborate with international NGOs and provided several examples. For example, the Netherlands has collaborated with Friends of the Earth International, the Earth Council, Centre for Our Common Future, and the Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern European countries. Similarly, Sweden reported its collaboration with Greenpeace International, WWF, IUCN, and the Stockholm Environment Institute. Bilateral or multilateral initiatives of the government in this area. The Netherlands and Sweden provided examples of their initiatives. The Netherlands listed its support to the Sustainable Europe Study carried out by Friends of the Earth International and the Earth Charter Project currently being promoted by the Earth Council. Sweden indicated that it has provided bilateral support to a global Water Survey conducted by the Stockholm Environment Institute and for consultations on toxic chemicals to Greenpeace. New or innovative methods. In this area Iceland mentioned the positive results of national sectoral working groups that involve major groups. The Netherlands■ report mentioned several bilateral sustainable development treaties with the Governments of Bhutan, Benin and Costa Rica. These projects involve NGOs and other major groups in their implementation. Sweden mentioned the benefit of consultation processes on sustainable development issues with representatives from all major groups. Rating of local, national, regional and international major group organizations. In this area Sweden placed a higher rating for the role of local major groups than (■essential■ rating) Iceland and the Netherlands (■constructive and helpful■ rating). On the role of national major groups both Sweden and the Netherlands rated the role of national major groups as ■essential■ while Iceland rated it as ■constructive and useful■. Regional and international major groups received lower ratings than the first two categories by all three countries. Suggestions on enhancing and strengthening major group contributions. The Netherlands and Sweden made several suggestions. Both mentioned including major groups in national delegations as a useful approach. The Netherlands also mentioned involving major groups in meetings that prepare national delegations sent to sustainable development related meetings. Sweden also added transparency and open decision making processes and financial support as ways that enhance and strengthen major group participation. Although they are more anecdotal than clearly discernible trends, the examples of collaboration, cooperation and participation of major groups in national mechanisms, projects and programmes are promising. However promising is not a big step towards achieving the objectives of Agenda 21. The latter is a task that requires a lot more than a handful of promising examples in a small number of countries. The task ahead is to enable a stronger global participatory trend as befitting to the requirements of Agenda 21 with respect to true and effective collaboration, cooperation and partnership. This requires, among other things, a more concerted and consistent awareness raising and information dissemination campaign to empower major groups towards taking action. A second essential layer of action is to create technical and financial support systems that enable more effective use of the capacity and potential of major groups. C. Experiences of inter-governmental bodies For the CSD96 reporting process, the following UN agencies and other inter- governmental bodies submitted reports: the European Community, FAO, IAEA, UNESCO, UNICEF, and WFP. Information related to major groups was also extracted from the inputs of ESCWA, Habitat, UNDP, UNEP, and UNSO/UNDP to other sectoral and cross-sectoral topics of Agenda 21. Publications and Internet sites of international organizations were also searched for further materials. The latter provided information on major groups related work of the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the Commonwealth. In addition, information from the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing (1995), the preparatory process of Habitat II conference (Istanbul, June 1996) and lessons learned from the World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen, 1995) were also utilized. Inputs from the UN agencies and other inter-governmental organizations on the extent, quality and quantity of their work with and for major group organizations were fewer in this cycle of the monitoring exercise compared to the previous two cycles (1994 and 1995). However, fewer reports does not imply that interaction or collaboration between major groups and inter-governmental bodies on Agenda 21 related issues is decreasing. On the contrary, UN agencies and other inter-governmental bodies not only continue to work with a range of issues related to major groups and their role in achieving a sustainable future, but also show a growing interest in and more focus on understanding, supporting and encouraging the role of major groups in both Agenda 21 follow up and other international processes. There is a growing awareness and acknowledgment among all UN bodies about the rapid expansion of the non-governmental sectors and its impact on the UN-NGO relationship. There have been several recent developments in the UN Secretariat regarding this issue. For example, an Open-ended Working Group of the Committee on NGOs is in the process of reviewing ECOSOC Resolution 1296, to determine whether and what kind of revisions it would need. This resolution outlines the arrangements for NGO participation in ECOSOC and its subsidiary bodies. The last meeting of the Open-ended Working Group, in January 1996, has reached consensus on a number of issues. One area of agreement was to broaden the type of NGOs that can be in consultative relationship with the ECOSOC to include international as well as national, sub-regional and regional NGOs. Another development in the area of UN-NGO relationships in general was the creation of an Inter-departmental Working Group on relations with NGOs, chaired by an Assistant Secretary-General who is also designated as the Focal Point in the Secretary-General■s office on all matters pertaining to NGOs. The Working Group will focus on innovative ways and mechanisms as well as a concerted strategy to benefit from relations with the NGO community and make appropriate proposals to the UN Secretary-General. The announcement establishing the Inter-departmental Working Group emphasized that the group would aim at improving the Organization■s knowledge of the increasingly complex universe of non-governmental organizations and developing common approaches to collaborative relations between them and the United Nations. Other parts of the UN Secretariat are also gearing up to better coordinate their activities related to NGOs and other major groups. For example, the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development has recently formalized a Departmental NGO task force that has met several times during 1994-1995 on an ad hoc basis. The DPCSD NGO Task Force will be a coordinating group involving all NGO/major group focal points in the Department, and will facilitate sharing of experiences and coordinating activities among the NGO/major group focal points of the Department. The Task Force will also work on developing a common Departmental data-base on NGOs to increase the efficiency of their links with non-governmental communities. (i) Agencies and other bodies of the United Nations A number of cases selected from the available information may help illustrate the diverse ways in which inter-governmental bodies contribute to enhancing the role of major groups in sustainable development. These cases are selected for illustrative purposes only.-- they do not depict the full extent of the work of UN Agencies or other inter-governmental bodies involving major groups. National Agenda 21 implementation support: cases from UNDP. The United Nations Development Programme is a leading agency in assisting Agenda 21 implementation at the national level. UNDP provides this support through several programmes including Capacity 21, Africa 2000 and the GEF Small Grants Programme. The information from UNDP lists numerous examples on country action programmes for Agenda 21. These programmes often involve major groups as implementing partners or as target groups. For example, an environmental awareness programme in Viet Nam is implemented by the national Youth Union and almost all project staff are women. In Lesotho, workshops were organized targeting business (to raise awareness on this group■s role in promoting sound environmental management) and the media. In Mongolia, the national action plan will involve women, youth and other major groups at the local level and sub- district action plans will be developed through community participation. Institutional changes to better respond to the sustainable development challenge: a case of FAO. The Food and Agriculture Organization created a new Unit to facilitate FAO■s cooperation with NGOs. This Unit is located in the Technical Cooperation Department of FAO. In addition, the new Sustainable Development Department, through its People■s Participation Service, will continue to address participation of farmers, indigenous peoples, trade unions and other rural people■s associations. Setting priority target groups for programme support: a case from UNESCO. The report of the United Nations Education Science and Culture Organization to CSD96 explains that its 28th General Conference (October-November 1995) ■designated women and young people ... as priority target groups for its action during the six-year period of its new Medium Term Strategy 1996-2001■■. The decision will lead UNESCO to devote a substantial proportion of its efforts and resources to the target groups ■to make a significant contribution in its fields of competence to improving the conditions of those groups■. Providing financial and technical support: a case from UNSO/UNDP. The United Nations Office to Combat Desertification and Drought (UNSO) is promoting and strengthening the role of major groups in recipient countries by, providing technical support to the development of conceptual frameworks for effective participation in the National Action Programme process, and financial and technical assistance to the NGO Network on Desertification (known as RIOD) as well as to member organizations within this network. The latter includes a US$ 36,750 grant to African NGOs working on combating desertification under National Action Programmes. Assisting major groups with articulating their views and being heard by decision makers: cases from UNEP and UNICEF. The United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Children■s Fund have each organized programmes to help children and youth express their views, expectations and demands from decision makers. ------------ Box 3: Excerpts from the list of 26 Challenges made by participants of the Eastbourne International Children■s Conference on Environment We challenge all governments of the world to spend a fair proportion of fuel tax on cycle lanes and cheaper means of transport ■We challenge the governments to use money from tourism to take care of wildlife areas and endangered species ■We challenge the governments of the world to ban import of endangered species and put some of their money and power into saving their habitats ■We challenge the governments of each and every country to learn how to be friendly to the environment and put their findings into actions by being environmentally friendly in every possible way ■We challenge the governments of the world to promote environmentally friendly alternative technology like geo-thermal power. By doing this jobs are created which is good for economies everywhere ■We challenge the UN to compel the governments to accept our challenges (This conference was Organized by UNEP with support of the Eastbourne Borough Council and British Airways.) ------------- UNEP organized the first International Children■s Conference on the Environment. This meeting brought together 800 children from 83 countries in Eastbourne, United Kingdom. The conference proceedings included dozens of presentations, workshops, and excursions as well as a collection of challenges by children made to Governments as well as to the media and the private sector. (See Box 3 for excerpts) UNICEF has conducted a similar exercise on the electronic networks (the Internet). The Voices of Youth project, organized in the context of the World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen, 1995), was a World Wide Web site through which young people sent messages to leaders of the world on a range of issues from environment to poverty. During the six weeks preceding the Summit over 3,000 messages were received from young people in 81 countries. The project grasped the attention of many leaders from governments, NGOs and inter-governmental organizations some of whom sent responses to the young people (See Box 4 for examples). This site is not receiving new messages at present but is still available as an information source. UNICEF plans to publish the youth messages in book format. --------- Box 4: Examples from Voices of Youth project I wish people would not pollute because the world is not a junkyard. I wish people would not throw things around like in the streets or the lakes, ponds, rivers and oceans because it stinks and it is bad for people. Egypt, Age 8 I think to take better care of the environment we should cut down on waste and stop dumping things in the ocean because it poisons fish and when people eat the fish they could become ill. We should also have a world clean up day like Australia has a clean up day. Yours faithfully. Australia, age 11 We can take better care of the environment by passing a law to stop cutting of trees. Severe penalties should be imposed on the offender. There should be a rule to plant four trees for every one cut. Because of our carelessness plant and animal life is dying out. Animals are shot down for money. Our world is becoming polluted and cruel. This should be stopped. I have voiced my opinion and would be grateful if some notice is taken. India, age 10 ---------- Training and capacity building: a case from IAEA. The International Atomic Energy Agency reports that it is providing training to ■ensure expansion of a resource base of women scientists and technologists■. According to the Agency, the number of women in its training programmes has been increasing as well as the number of women nominated by their national authorities as project counter-parts. Raising awareness and research: cases from ESCWA, World Bank. The Economic And Social Commission for Western Asia reported a number of research projects that compliment its technical assistance projects in this part of the world. The Commission produced case-studies and other research on the condition of women in specific industrial sectors in the countries of this region. The World Bank continues to produce studies that focus on the participation and role of a range of major groups as part of its Participation Series. Among other titles, the series include studies on Participation and Indigenous People, Designing Community Based Development, Participation in Education and Participation in Forest and Conservation Management. The studies are products of the Bank■s internal Participation Learning Group. These studies provide useful information for international and national organizations that are involved in project design and implementation. For example, the study on Indigenous People and Participation identifies several key elements that project managers should keep in mind when designing or implementing a project whose primary beneficiary is a group of indigenous people. Some of the elements listed include legal and policy framework, rights to land and national resources, culturally appropriate communication, and building on traditional rights. Catalyzing dialogue and commitment: a case from UNEP. In late 1995, the United Nations Environment Programme, finalized a series of discussions it initiated with the banking industry. The discussions focused on the role of banks in sustainable development and resulted with a Statement signed by 82 banks (as of September 95) based in developed and developing countries as well as in countries in transition. Some of the signatories were banks with operations around the world. The Statement included several agreed general principles of sustainable development, as well as commitments for environmental management practices in the banks■ operations and for public awareness and communication. (See Box 5 for examples) ------- Box 5: Excerpts from the Statement by Banks on the Environment and Sustainable Development We regard sustainable development as a fundamental aspect of sound business management. Principle 1.2 We subscribe to the precautionary approach to environmental management which strives to anticipate and prevent potential environmental degradation. Principle 2.1 We will, in our domestic and international operations, endeavor to apply the same standards of environmental risk assessment. Principle 2.4 We will foster openness and dialogue relating to environmental management with all relevant audiences, including governments, clients, employees, shareholders and the public. Principle 3.2 ---------- Developing strategies and frameworks for better partnerships with major groups: case from the World Bank. The World Bank has made significant efforts to increase the Bank■s transparency and openness to participation of non- governmental actors. As part of these efforts, the Bank has drafted a strategy on improving the Bank■s linkages with NGOs. The strategy paper has been finalized and is available. Among other things, the strategy paper provides a brief analysis of the type of roles NGOs play in development (mainly operational and advocacy roles), outlines why partnerships and dialogue with NGOs are important for the Bank (such as their expertise, scale, links with donors), and describes the evolution of NGO activities in the overall development process during the last two decades as well as the opportunities and challenges that these developments have posed to the Bank. A strategy aiming to increase partnerships, encourage a more enabling environment for NGOs at the grassroots level in donor countries and more active engagement between the Bank is mapped out. The Bank has also organized a workshop on the same issue in January 1996. Formulating strategies and frameworks on relationships with NGOs and other major groups has been an effort for many intergovernmental and international organizations. These efforts reflect the growing role of non-governmental communities around the world as project partners, sources of expertise and resources, and as effective ways to link local concerns with global processes. (ii) Non-UN Inter-governmental organizations Developing strategies and frameworks to improve collaboration with major groups: the cases of the Commonwealth and the ADB. The growing focus by international organization on how to improve their relationships with the non- governmental sectors was also a part of the work of the Commonwealth and the Asian Development Bank. The Second Commonwealth NGO Forum (in June 1995) endorsed a document titled Non-governmental Organizations: Guidelines for Good Policy and Practice. This document describes what NGOs are accomplishing in the Commonwealth countries and around the world and sets out guidelines to improve their impact and effectiveness. The Guidelines are presented against the background of tangible facts and figures about NGO role in the Commonwealth countries. This background information includes such facts as numbers of NGOs, local and community groups in the Commonwealth countries, their membership and project reach, and the growing financial turn over rates. The Guidelines were a result of a two-year process of consultations and discussions involving NGOs, governments and other institutions of the Commonwealth countries, coordinated by the Commonwealth Foundation. In a similar vein the Asian Development Bank has published a paper on ADB and NGOs: Growing Together which outlines the new direction in the development thinking of the Bank due to the recent participatory trends in the region. The Bank aims to establish a closer cooperation with NGOs through information sharing, project level practical assistance and co-financing. It will also continue holding consultations with NGOs and organize various country level meetings and conferences to promote greater cooperation with non-governmental actors. This paper is part of ADB■s overall efforts to increase its cooperation with non-governmental actors, starting with its policy framework for cooperating with NGOs adopted in 1987. This paper also provides numerous examples on how NGOs make a positive difference at the grassroots, in communities and with marginalized and disadvantaged groups of people. Enabling dialogue: the case of the European Union. The report of the European Union to CSD96 listed a number of opportunities that this inter-governmental body provided for greater dialogue with NGOs and other major groups of the region. For example, in 1995 the Commission organized roundtable discussions with environmental NGOs as part of the review process of the Fifth Programme. In addition, the Commission■s dialogue with business and industry as well as with local and regional authorities in Europe was intensified. The latter dialogue has led to the adoption of the Alborg Charter signed by 135 European cities as well as to the Valencia Charter signed by European Regional authorities. Both these instruments reflect the signatories and the European Union■s commitment to sustainable development. (iii)Partnerships for Special Events at the CSD A number of UN agencies took part in the preparation of special events for the annual CSD sessions. These events included the Day of Local Authorities for CSD95, the Day of the Workplace for CSD96, and the Youth Inter-sessional process for CSD96 and beyond. See Table 2 for a summary of the partnerships developed under these special events, including governmental support when applicable. ---------- Table 2: Summary of partners in the special events organized for the CSD (1995-1996) Special Event: Day of Local Authorities (CSD95) Major Group partners : ICLEI (with UTA). UN Agency partners: DPCSD, UNCHS/Habitat Government Support: Japan, UK Special Event: Day of the Workplace (CSD96) Major Group partners: ICC-- USCIB, ICFTU, INEM UN Agency partners: ILO, UNEP Government support: -- Special Event: Youth Inter-sessional (CSD96) Major Group partners: Earth Council, Rescue Mission, q2000 (on behalf of the Youth WG for CSD) UN Agency partners: UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF Government support: Finland, Sweden, Switzerland ----------- The Day of Local Authorities was the first of these special events and involved the collaboration of a major group partner representing the local authorities (International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives), a UN agency (the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements) and the CSD Secretariat. This small scale format was expanded in the preparations for the Day of the Workplace and the Youth Inter-sessional coordination. The latter two events were led by a Planning Group and a Steering Committee respectively. The Steering Committee of the Youth Inter-sessional involved representatives from 5 UN agencies (UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNFPA, and UNICEF), three major group partners (Earth Council, Peace Child International and the Youth NGO Working Group for the CSD) as well as the Division for Social Development of DPCSD and the CSD Secretariat. Similarly, the Planning Group of the Day of the Workplace included partners from business (International Chambers of Commerce, International Network for Environmental Management and the US Council for International Business) from workers (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions), and 2 UN agencies (the International Labour Organization and UNEP Industry and Environment Office) as well as the CSD Secretariat. These special events focus on bringing case studies of major group initiatives that contributed to the implementation of Agenda 21 to the attention of the CSD. A particular effort is on helping bring information from the sources, such as presentations made by municipal leaders in the Day of Local Authorities, or by young people themselves in the Youth Panel. The UN Agency partners in these processes not only collaborated by sharing their expertise but also by making their networks and contacts available to the preparation processes. In some cases they also contributed financial and other resources. For example, UNEP, UNESCO, UNICEF as well as the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, provided financial support to the Youth Inter-sessional process. UNEP also provided other resources to help with the regional youth meetings organized in Africa. Similarly, ILO provided financial and other resources to the preparation of case-studies on the contributions and initiatives of labor unions to sustainable development. The processes for the special events were excellent instances in which major group partners led the process in terms of setting the content and managing the preparations while the UN agency partners shared expertise and provided advisory services. All decisions in preparing these events were by consensus. The process also mobilized many networks both existing and new, among major groups and with the UN agencies involved. In addition to providing the CSD meetings with information from the source, these efforts also catalyzed and mobilized major groups to take on longer-term plans such as setting in motion processes that would help produce comprehensive inputs on their sector contributions to Agenda 21 for the five- year review by a special session of the General Assembly in 1997. The support of UN agencies involved in these special events appear to have been an added incentive for the major group partners to take on more ambitious goals than they would have without the experience of working together to organize the special events. D. Issues related to financial and capacity building partnerships Germany, Iceland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Uganda responded to this question. Germany reported that it provided over DM 2 million in 1995 to support activities of environment and development NGOs. Various awareness raising programmes through school and non-school projects are also supported. This country also reported that it has raised additional revenues for environmental protection projects through sales of special postage stamps by the German Post Office. These sales raised a total of DM 3.7 million in 1994 and 1995. Iceland, consistent with its report last year, indicated that major groups in this country maintain their financial independence but they receive some government support ■one way or another■. The Netherlands reported that its has provided US$ 9 million to NGO for projects and as structural subsidies; US$ 135 million to research and development (going through the scientific and technological communities); US$ 60 million to local authorities; US$ 3 million to Youth and related environmental education projects; US$ 75 million to business and industry, and US$ 280,000 to women■s organizations and issues. Sweden reported that it annually provides US$ 1 million to local authorities and youth. Uganda reported that it supports district environment offices, and by extension the local authorities, under the capacity building for environmental management program. Inputs from UN Agencies did not provide detail in this area. However, there appears to be efforts to channel development assistance funds through NGOs and major groups as well as efforts to increase direct participation of major groups in project implementation. Financial and technical capacity continues to be a problem for most major groups, particularly those that are small, local or community-based organizations that do not always have access to multilateral or bilateral funding sources. There are instances of funding through private sources for such organizations, such as the work of Community Aid Abroad of Australia, described briefly earlier in this paper. However, it appears that there is need for further efforts to increase funding for major group activities in sustainable development. This need is particularly salient for direct funding for projects, training and institutional infrastructure building. III. Conclusions and Recommendations A. Conclusions Major groups continue to show a sustained commitment to the goals of Agenda 21 at the local, national, sub-regional, regional and international levels. The inputs received as of 31 January 1996 (from 100 organizations) were more than twice those received for CSD95 (from 41 organizations). These inputs indicated that major groups continue to open new avenues for dialogue, collaboration and cooperation through participation in Agenda 21 monitoring and implementation activities wherever possible. Major groups continue to be active in the CSD itself, including its inter-sessional meetings. The special major group related events prepared for the Commission■s meetings appear to have a positive effect regarding a more direct involvement by selected actors from among a major group sector. Country reports indicate there is continuing efforts to increase major group participation in national decision making processes, and the national coordination mechanisms. Most countries find the contributions from local, national, regional and international major groups useful to their national efforts. There are also indications that some countries are planning to include major groups in their national delegations to the CSD. International organizations appear to focus more closely on the role of non- governmental actors in their activities in general. Inputs and exchange with international organizations show various levels of efforts to develop NGO/major group strategies, frameworks and guidelines as a way to increase overall cooperation and collaboration. Several obstacles continue to exist. Finance (for projects as well as for training and institutional capacity building) remains an obstacle. Current participatory arrangements are found to be lacking in the face of growing need to share ideas, collaborate on projects, and increase overall commitment of all actors at all levels. Demands for more predictable, somewhat formalized, reliable and equal partnership opportunities in international and national decision making bodies are gaining the support of major group organizations of all sizes and geographical locations. These demands appear to be a healthy outcome of the Agenda 21 implementation process itself. At present, Agenda 21 implementation and monitoring efforts focus less on general sustainable development issues and more on their specific aspects. Major group actors feel they can make significant contributions with greater impact on the increasingly specialized discussions if they could participate under more predictable, tangible and somewhat formalized modalities. Further action to enhance national level participation is desirable given that Agenda 21 objectives require concerted implementation effort at the international, regional, national and local levels. The catalytic role of large international NGOs, as well as regional and international multilateral actors appear to become increasingly important in brokering strategic partnerships between the governments and major groups. At the international level, there appears to be further need to increase the overall transparency and direct participation opportunities for major groups. A particular area in this context, is the growing demands from major group organizations for greater openness, transparency and participation in the ■Bretton Woods institutions■. While many major group organizations recognize the recent efforts made by such bodies as the World Bank to increase participation of the non-governmental sectors in its project design and implementation processes, they also call for further efforts along these lines by other multi-lateral financial and trade organizations. B. Recommendations for future action Major groups related recommendations that may be adopted by the fourth session of the CSD have a particular significance given the upcoming first five-year review of Agenda 21 follow up by a special session of the General Assembly, in June 1997. The analysis of inputs on major groups indicate at least three areas in which further work needs to be done to encourage, enhance and enable the type of participation that Agenda 21 envisions. These areas include: information collection and dissemination, participatory arrangements, and programming support. (i) Information dissemination and collection Information is essential to effective participation. Collection of useful information and its dissemination in a timely, and accessible manner increases transparency and the element of trust in an international effort. In the 1990s, the most important aspect of information is not its quantity but rather its quality, or how useful and relevant it is to the user. Some areas of work that can increase information collection and dissemination include: Further development of simple and accessible information collection tools that assist local people to take a more active role in assessing local environmental conditions. Major group organizations, particularly those at the local levels, have less access to various information data-bases and methods, including monitoring tools. Capacity in these areas helps a community to (i) develop a base-line for its local environmental problems and development needs, and establish its priorities and strategies accordingly, and (ii) share its local monitoring results with others around the world to assess overall progress. Thus, developing simplified information collection methods and tools and disseminating them widely among local major groups will help both the local decisions and those at the national, regional and international levels. There is a significant role in this area for international organizations, including UN agencies and large NGOs, that have developed tools and kits for monitoring local conditions, and have the network through which these tools/kits can be more widely disseminated. More comprehensive reporting on Agenda 21 to the CSD. The overall monitoring of Agenda 21 will produce more substantial results as reporting moves closer to achieving comprehensiveness. This is not only relevant to reporting by countries and inter-governmental bodies but equally to information provided by major group actors. Although some special programming efforts, such as the Day of the Workplace or the Day of Local Authorities have increased knowledge of the respective major group sectors■ activities, the existing knowledge is far from giving a comprehensive picture. The reporting process could particularly benefit from more information made available by business and industry, indigenous people, women and farmers. Data-base development. Many major group organizations as well as other governmental and inter-governmental actors in Agenda 21 follow up are increasingly requesting information on the role and participation of major groups. Although a preliminary data-base in this direction has been created, as requested by the CSD in 1995, further efforts need to be made. A potential exists in reviewing current data-bases particularly among the major group communities and explore how they can be linked. Some NGOs have an interest in collaborating on this issue especially if the efforts aim to make the data- base electronically available for all concerned parties. This initiative could also be useful in collecting information on alternative approaches and methods developed by major groups on sustainable development and make this set of data available to all others to benefit and build upon. Such a review could include collecting and assessing the usefulness of alternatives in changing consumption and production patterns, human settlements, sustainable agriculture and conservation of biodiversity. (ii) Participatory arrangements As the work of the CSD progresses, there is increasing focus by major groups on specific issues through institutional mechanisms, such as the Inter- governmental Panel on Forests, or through formulation of work programmes, such as those on transfer of technology or on sustainable development indicators. As the sustainable development discussions get deeper into specific areas, major group actors will need better participatory arrangements to allow for their optimal inputs. The efforts of countries to include major group representatives in their national delegation are positive and need to continue. Particularly in the context of the 1997 review process. Further initiatives to include major groups in national delegations need to be emphasized. A number of other suggestions in this context include the following: Establishing predictable, transparent and open participation structures at the national level. Global objectives need the fertile ground of local and national commitment to flourish. This is stressed in Agenda 21, which puts local and national efforts at the core of the follow up process. The existing examples of national efforts to include major groups in national sustainable development discussions as well as in related project design and implementation are positive steps. Similarly, the efforts of major groups, particularly those of local authorities, to involve local communities and organizations in sustainable development decision making are welcome developments. However, many of these efforts remain as stand-alone examples of best-practice rather than a globally shared strategy that stresses consensus building and dialogue with all the relevant actors. Further and sustained efforts in this area are essential. Several tangible steps could be discerned. One area that may deserve attention is partnerships between national governments and local authorities. Such partnerships could explore how broad-based consultative mechanisms at the local and national levels could further the common goals of sustainability. Another area of focus could be additional efforts to raise the awareness of the general population at the local and national levels about the existing sustainable development institutions and the rules for broad public participation in them. In many cases, major groups, particularly the local and grass-roots organizations, do not yet seem to know that national or local participatory mechanisms exist and that they can participate in these processes. Finding openings for exchange of views and consultative decision making needs to be a shared responsibility rather than a challenge that belongs to major group or governmental actors alone. There is an overall need to overcome established perceptions and prejudices by focusing on common objectives. Allowing for more direct and effective participation at the international level. A number of positive participatory precedents have been set in the CSD as well as other fora. These include allowing non-governmental participants to take a more active part in the negotiations, to include non-governmental actors in informal groups and to make room for non-governmental views in preparing proposals, reports and other documents. For example, during the last two years, some reporting exercises for the CSD involved more regular and direct contacts with NGOs and other major groups through informal e-mail lists or other methods. At the CSD, NGOs and major groups have been enjoying a relatively more open and transparent participatory process. Similarly, the discussions at the first Inter-governmental Panel on Forests allowed for non-governmental statements and inputs during the negotiations. Some working groups of the meeting of the COP II for the Convention on Biological Diversity were chaired by an NGO participant. The Prepcomms for Habitat II and the participation of local authorities and other relevant actors have illustrated the dynamism which partnerships bring to the Conference process. The rules of procedure for Habitat II, in particular Rule 61, provides a special status for the participation of local authorities in the Conference, its Main Committees, and, as appropriate, any other committee. Some of these precedents may need to be formalized, particularly given that these precedents appear to have increased the trust, collaboration and cooperation between non-governmental and governmental actors at the international level. It may be useful to collect more information on such precedents and explore, with the 1997 in mind, how these experiences can be put to use in the post-97 period of sustainable development efforts. Exploring ways to harmonize participation rules at the international level. The UN agencies and other regional and international inter-governmental bodies have taken steps to increase their collaboration and cooperation with major groups under the sustainable development issues within their fields of competence. While these efforts have been welcome by major groups, the diversity among the participation rules and requirements adopted by the various organizations continue to be confusing, and time consuming. NGOs and major groups are often oriented to themes rather than institutional processes. The latter usually have different participatory arrangements for non-governmental actors. Although the difference may make sense for institutional reasons, it creates unnecessary confusion and loss of time for the major groups, when they try to deal with the arrangements, or they create a barrier to sharing of thematic experiences between major groups and international organizations. An initiative in this context could be a review of arrangements for participation, including the various frameworks, guidelines and strategies developed by international bodies, in an informal committee composed of representatives from international bodies and major groups working on sustainable development issues. Such a committee could submit the results of its deliberations to the fifth session of the CSD. Preserving the baseline of non-governmental participation in the CSD itself and expanding the participatory basis. A total of 570 NGOs, from among the 1400 who participated in UNCED, were placed on the roster after the conference and are presently on ECOSOC■s Roster list as a result of ECOSOC decision E/1993/215 para 2(c). These NGOs have been a valuable part of the work of the Commission including its various inter-sessional activities and have been instrumental in maintaining sustainable development high on the local, national and international agendas. It is important to preserve this base-line of active non-governmental participants in the CSD. An action in this direction could be efforts to ensure that they are confirmed as having regular ECOSOC Roster Status. There are also a growing number of NGOs and other major group organizations that wish to become an active part of the CSD and related processes. Many, since the Earth Summit, have reformulated their priorities and programmes to increase their organizational capacity to make a contribution to the global sustainable development efforts. Enabling their participation in the international fora is an effective way to increase awareness of sustainable development and Agenda 21 around the world and gaining further momentum for the follow up process. Efforts that facilitate the entry of new organizations into the fold of active major groups in the CSD and other related international fora will be useful and should be considered. (iii)Programme support Inputs from major groups indicate the existence of a great deal of major group based programming to implement the activities of Agenda 21. Some examples, including various collaborative technical assistance programmes, are reported earlier in this paper as well as in other background papers on major group prepared for the previous CSD sessions. These on-going activities will flourish and multiply if they are consistently supported and encouraged. Some activities that could help this process include: Support for networking. Major group organizations are continuing their networking efforts in order to increase exchanges between major groups on thematic areas of Agenda 21 follow up. These networks create a fertile ground for consensus building at the national, regional and international levels as well as increase awareness of the UNCED follow up process among the non- governmental actors. The networking efforts need sustained support from governments and international organizations in order for the networks to continue with their valuable contributions to building consensus and setting common priorities. The type of support that the networks need range from basic equipment to finance and training. Supporting and catalyzing special major group events in the CSD. The contributions of the Day of Local Authorities, the Day of the Workplace and the Youth Inter-sessional have been very positive in terms of creating well- focused partnerships in the preparation processes and also in terms of increasing overall awareness about the initiatives generated by actors within specific major group sectors. The positive experience gained from these events were in part due to the equal partnerships catalyzed with the major group partners and their networks. These experiences and modalities of working with major groups may be useful to build on and disseminate in other arenas. Among other things, the experiences can be useful guidance for the special events that may be organized in the context of the 1997 review. Supporting and encouraging involvement of all major groups in the 1997 review. Major group actors have shown that they are fully committed to the goals of Agenda 21. The level of ownership so far demonstrated needs to be further encouraged and supported to enable a five-year review in which major group actors can contribute to its success as they did to the success of UNCED. Direct major group participation in the preparations for the 1997 review is even more salient as this is a review of implementation activities in which major groups have played a significant role. Some major groups have already developed preliminary plans to make a special contribution to the 1997 review. Among these are the global survey of Local Agenda 21 initiatives planned by local authorities and an expanded reporting on young people■s views on Agenda 21 implementation planned by a number of youth organizations. Similar initiatives from other major groups should be invited and encouraged. Among such special events for the 1997 review, it would be desirable to see programmes that focus on the role of indigenous people, farmers and women. Although individual organizations and actors from these groups have been active in the CSD process their coordinated and collective views and experiences, including best-practice or partnership examples, may need to be brought to the CSD and to the 1997 process. Notes 1/ Major groups refer to the nine civil society sectors that Agenda 21 recognizes in Section III (Chapters 23-32) in terms of their significant role in achieving its sustainable development goals. The nine groups include Women, Children and Youth, Indigenous People, NGOs, Local Authorities, Workers and Trade Unions, Business and Industry, Scientific and Technological Communities, and Farmers. 2/ The total number reflects inputs received as of 31 January 1996. As major group organizations continue submitting inputs up until the CSD meets as well as during the meeting, the final number of inputs is likely to be higher. 3/ The distribution of major group responses to the Survey was as follows: 29 from international organizations, 3 from regional organizations, 33 from national organizations, 4 from provincial organizations and 10 from local organizations of major groups. One response omitted to provide the name of the organization or its location, although the content of answers indicate this is a national organization in South America. 4/ ELCI has been requested to conduct this survey by the United Nations Environment Programme which is in the process of developing a new strategy for NGO participation in its work. 5/ The World Summit for Social Development accredited 1299 NGOs, of which 811 were represented by a total of 2,315 non-governmental participants. The Fourth World Conference on Women accredited 2607 organizations, and a total of 4,010 representatives from 1700 organizations participated in the conference itself. 6/ For example, at the World Summit for Social Development, in Copenhagen, the United States announced that it plans to channel up to 40 % of its official development assistance through national and international non-governmental organizations. 7/ UTA: United Towns Association; ICC: International Chamber of Commerce, USCIB: US Council for International Business, ICFTU: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions; INEM: International Network for Environmental Management Annex I Summaries of Major Group inputs to CSD96 (This table includes inputs received as of 31 January 1996. Additional inputs may have been received after this date. The table is in alphabetical order by Organization Name. Inputs in this context refer to reports prepared to express the views/activities of an organization on one or more issues that are on the agenda of CSD96, other information on the submitting group■s activities related to Agenda 21 implementation, or responses to the 1996 Survey on Major Groups. Location refers to the Country that appears in the mailing address of the organization. In the case of international organizations that have affiliates or offices in multiple countries, the notation ■[country name]- HQ■ was used.) (Information is organized as follows: Organization Name, Location, Scope of work, responded to the Survey --Yes/No--, Summaries of additional information) ACTION FOR DEVELOPMENT Mauritius Local/ National Yes Additional information was not submitted AKYEAPIM RURAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION Ghana Local No Information on activities -- the organization provides services such as training, consultation, emergency relief, national and international links and infrastructure development services to its community. Projects focus particularly on the marginalized and the disadvantaged. Financial and other support are obstacles to improving the existing services. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES GROUP (GTA) Mexico National No Information on alternative waste management technology applications - this organization has developed a low-cost and easy-to-install waste management technology (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Organicos-- SIRDO) based on indigenous knowledge from Mexico and China. The technology not only enables effective management of domestic waste and water resources, but also results in production of an organic fertilizer that is 8-10 times more effective than the in-organic brands. The installation and use of the SIRDOs involve full community participation. Projects initiated in seven states of Mexico have led to significant improvements in human and ecological health and have helped build local small businesses. The success of the projects have also attracted media attention. GTA has several new projects in the works in need of financial support. ASIAN FORUM OF PARLIAMENTARIANS ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT Thailand- HQ Regional Yes Additional information was not submitted ASSOCIATION D-ENTRAIDE MEDICO-SOCIALE Zaire National Yes Report on Combating Poverty -- the report asserts that poor people lack access to political, economic and cultural decision making processes, and calls on the CSD to take steps to assure access of all world citizens to education, employment, land, credit, food, shelter and health services to enable a life of self-sufficiency and dignity. Report on Population -- this report points to the lack of basic needs coverage in the region (nutrition, sanitation, education etc.) and calls on the region■s governments to give a higher priority to population programmes (particularly those that focus on educating and empowering women, young girls and other vulnerable social groups); and calls on the CSD to invite member States to grant reliable public participation structures and increase access to information to enable a diversity of opinions in the public discourse. ASSOCIATION DES BACHELIERS POUR L■EMPLOI ET LE DEVELOPPEMENT (ABACED) Senegal National Yes Additional information was not submitted BUND (FRIENDS OF THE EARTH GERMANY) Germany National Yes Additional information was not submitted CENTER FOR BUILT ENVIRONMENT India Internat■l Yes Information on projects -- projects focus on research studies, lecture series, training, international workshops and publications. Proposal to the CSD -- to organize an international workshop on sustainable cities and lifestyles in 1997. CENTER FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Netherlands National Yes Additional information was not submitted CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE DESIGN UK Regional Yes Brochures Report of the European Conference on Design for Environment (July 1995). CENTRE DE RECHERCHE ET D■INFORMATION POUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT France National Yes CRID Echos - newsletter of the organization; includes issues focusing on UNCED and the WSSD. Action guides for NGO campaigns UN Monde a Venir- L■avenir du Monde -- newsletter focusing on sustainable development and Agenda 21 follow up. Reports on two seminars organized by CRID (on population and on Rio follow-up) Information on activities -- activities include information services through publications and seminars; campaigns on a range of issues related to Agenda 21 follow up. A recent campaign of the CRID network (Pact 21 campaign) focuses on mobilizing local communities to establish Local Agenda 21 programmes, linking UNCED follow up with Habitat II preparations. CITIZENS ALLIANCE FOR SAVING THE ATMOSPHERE AND THE EARTH (CASA) Japan National Yes Input to CSD96 issues -- includes information on activities related to atmospheric pollution, collaboration with national/regional major groups, environmental education, as well as a set of recommendations. The main obstacles mentioned in the report are: (i) unstable financial resources; (ii) media indifference (compared to media attention that was available during the UNCED process); (iii) lack of guarantees for citizens■ participation at the national level; (iv) lack of access to information; and (v) the need to expand dialogue with governmental institutions (beyond the ministries of the environment) and with local authorities. CASA also calls on the international community to strengthen the legal instruments to prevent climate change, to recall CFC using/producing machinery, encourage people■s participation, and request UN bodies to develop and disseminate simplified environmental monitoring methods. This organization has been instrumental in the creation of the Atmosphere Action Network East Asia (AANEA) which includes NGOs from Korea, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Russia, Mongolia and Japan. Its Citizens Air Pollution Survey (CAPS) was also a collaborative project involving partnerships with 50 NGOs in South/East Asian and Central and Eastern European regions. The project, funded by the Japan Environment Cooperation, aims to promote participation of ■ordinary■ citizens in policy design and decision making processes by engaging them in pollution monitoring activities. CASA has also organized a series of lectures during 1995 on -Citizens University on Global Environment: Part 3 - For the Children■. The 1996 series will hold focus on prevention of climate change. COMMUNITY AID ABROAD Australia National Yes Annual report 1993-1994 -- the report provides hundreds of examples of this organization■s activities which focus on linking indigenous and developing country communities with those in Australia. Projects in 28 countries are carried out in partnerships with local NGOs and other groups. A theme for all projects is ■local capacity building and empowerment■. The organization disbursed over $10 million half of which were grants of more than $100,000, during 93-94 period. EARTH COUNCIL Costa Rica Internat■l Yes The Earth Council■s work focuses on facilitating and catalyzing major group involvement in Agenda 21 follow up. A main focus of activities in 1995 was to assist the national councils for sustainable development (NCSDs) to link at regional levels. The Council organized several regional meetings for this purpose including meetings of NCSDs in Asia and in the Americas. A data-base of NCSDs is maintained by the Council. Another area of recent work of the Earth Council relates to the Earth Charter which was proposed in UNCED but was not adopted. The Council plans to promote a revised charter in the context of the 1997 review of UNCED results at a special session of the General Assembly. The Earth Council has been active in the CSD and was one of the partners in organizing the Youth Intersesssional for CSD96. For the YI project, the EC has led the preparation of the Youth Information Packet as a tool to increase awareness of youth on the background and current work of the CSD. The Packet has been distributed to youth networks and is available for CSD96. ECOPEACE Israel Regional Yes Report on capacity building -- focus of activities in this area is on institution building including further institutional development of Ecopeace itself. A computerized data bank for exchange of information between the region■s NGOs and other major groups is among the first steps. Report of the Gulf of Aqaba Task Force -- this Task Force focuses on regional issues of oceans and seas, decision making and education. It aims to utilize Ecopeace affiliates to bring together other regional interest groups beyond those focusing on environment and development issues. Target groups include local authorities, tourism industry, and schools. Report on integrating environmental considerations into new development projects -- the activities focus on building an inventory of newly emerging regional development projects (under the accelerated development efforts in the region). The strategy is to integrate environment and development issues into the new projects early in their development to improve regional sustainable development decision- making. EDASO CONSULTANTS Jordan National Yes Proposals for projects on various environmentally sound technologies and processes for small and medium sized businesses in the country Appropriate Low-cost building system criteria -- article that outlines a set of criteria for low-cost housing including use of local materials, avoiding high-tech equipment, emphasis on durability, and appropriateness to local climatic conditions. EDISON ELECTRIC INSTITUTE USA National/ Regional Yes Additional information was not submitted ENERGY 21 France Internat■l Yes Additional information was not submitted ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES (ENDA) Zimbabwe National Yes Inputs included several information sheets on ENDA■s projects including: Sustainable Land Use (focuses on research, training, networking. lobbying and off-farm employment for the overall goal of sustainable land use. Specific target groups of the project are women, youth and local communities. About 20 local and national NGOs have committed to the project by forming a new network which is currently in the process to raise the funding needed.); Rusitu Hydro Power Station project (this is a joint venture of ENDA and the Zimbabwe Energy Corporation. It aims to invest in the hydropower station in order to increase local sustainable electricity production which in turn is helpful to the local agricultural communities. The project is near completion); Sustainable Agriculture project (on-going efforts to foster sustainable agriculture through farmer-centered demonstrations as well as research and information dissemination on soil fertility. The project has so far helped over 250 farmers to switch to more sustainable agricultural methods and technologies; Adaptive Strategies of the poor in arid and semi-arid regions project (focus is on finding out how local people adapt to climate cycles and promote successful adaptive mechanisms among communities. The project has produced as report, a field guide book and a policy paper. It has also influenced local policies in this area.); and, Urban Agriculture Project Phase II (aim is to improve livelihood of the disadvantaged people in urban locations through research on the extent of urban agriculture, its environmental effect and its impact on the urban households. The project, initiated early 1996, is expected to produce results in 1997) ENVIRONMENT LIAISON SERVICES INTERNATIONAL Kenya Internat■l No Publications Semi-annual Report to Donors and Partners -- the report indicates that, among other things, ELCI has conducted research on Indigenous Indicators in Dryland Management, established electronic conferences on women and environment issues in Africa, and launched a study on the role of African NGOs in Agenda 21 implementation ELCI works closely with NGOs and other groups from developing countries. It has been instrumental in coordinating and building capacity of developing country NGOs in a number of international processes including those on desertification, biodiversity and forests. This network NGO has been active in the CSD and a valuable partner of the CSD Secretariat in information dissemination and outreach. ENVIRONMENTAL BUSINESS INTERNATIONAL INC. USA Internat■l Yes Environmental Business Journal -- this journal provides information services to business and industry and other interested parties on trends in the private sectors related to sustainable development including environmental management initiatives, investment and related regulatory trends. ENVIRONMENTAL LAW INSTITUTE USA Internat■l Yes Blueprint for Sustainable Development of Virginia Information on projects during 1995 Research reports (Brazil■s Extractive Reserves, Rediscovering the National Environmental Policy Act). Activities focus on inter-disciplinary research, analysis and training on environmental law, as well as on related theory and institutions. Several dozen projects range from international to local in geographical focus. Some examples include: a searchable Regulatory Impact Analysis Database; Wetlands Protection Project (which involves several components such as National Wetlands Awards, Stewardship on Private Lands project, and a regular newsletter); and a Citizen■s Handbook on Environmental Assessment of Projects by Multilateral Funding Institutions. FRANCISCANS INTERNATIONAL USA Internat■l Yes Additional information was not submitted FRIENDS OF THE EARTH INTERNATIONAL Netherlands- HQ Internat■l Yes Right to Know and Public Participation -- this report highlights transparency and the public right-to-know as essential elements in Agenda 21 follow up. The participatory methods used by the Economic commission for Europe in developing the -Guidelines on Access to Environmental Information and Public Participation in Environmental Decision Making■ are proposed as a model that could be used by other international organizations. The FoEI demands detailed legislation and promotion of a culture of transparency and involvement in the UN system. Report on International trade and the environment -- this report provides examples of FoEI activities focusing on monitoring international organizations and agreements related to trade and environment issues. Among the concerns raised are lack of clarity about the relationship between the CSD and the WTO, and the lack of transparency in the work of the WTO. Report on Sustainable Societies: Environmental Space Concept Applied Globally -- this piece gives a summary of the organization■s activities under its Sustainable Societies programme which is based on the ■environmental space■ concept that FoEI developed. Some progress in adoption of and support for this concept is observed in the case of Denmark, the Netherlands and the European Community. The report recommends to the CSD to agree on a clear working definition of sustainable production and consumption patterns and to develop an international work programme on this issue. Report on Ozone Depletion -- this report raises two critical issues: improvements in the Multilateral Fund process under the Montreal Protocol and the phasing out of Methyl Bromide. Several technical and political recommendations are made under each. FRIENDS OF THE EARTH- AUSTRIA Austria National No Information on activities in 1995 -- activities include the development of Action Plan Sustainable Austria (which utilizes the ■environmental space■ concept developed by Friends of the Earth International and its affiliate organizations); a one-year training programme for sustainability multiplicators (which aims to help national NGOs and government officials to develop skills in disseminating the sustainable development principles); and production of regular information sources such as the Sustainable Austria magazine. The organization also takes part in Sustainable Europe, a regional project led by FoE International.. FUNDACION AMBIO Costa Rica National Yes Ambio -- a special of issue on forest certification of this regular newsletter of the organization. GERMAN NGO FORUM Germany National Yes Additional information was not submitted GREENPEACE Switzerland- HQ Internat■l No Input on Oceans■contains an overview of NGO contributions to the various international fora convened on oceans, seas and related issues. According to Greenpeace, these contributions range from providing expertise to international discussions to developing, supporting and even financing community based management programmes for coastal management. Among other things, the input proposes further improvements in NGO-UN collaboration in this area. GROUP FOR STUDY AND DEFENSE OF ECOSYSTEMS OF THE LOWER MIDDLE AMAZON REGION Brazil Local/ State Yes Additional information was not submitted INDIRA GHANDI INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH India National Yes Trade and Environment Linkages: A Case study of India - this study was done in collaboration with UNCTAD and UNDP. It concludes that developing countries advance technologically in areas where trade is strong but, in the long-term, further institutional arrangements particularly in terms of greater information availability on trade, technology and regulations are necessary; regionally grouped harmonization of product standards is desirable; and process standards need to be developed with sensitivity to the assimilative capacity of the exporting countries as well as the [employment] needs of the people. Energy and the Environment -- booklet that describes extensive research and analysis activities of IGIDR on the topic. A number of studies prepared between 1991-1993 were also included in the input IGIDR is also a project partner within the Capacity 21 programme of UNDP. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Taiwan National Yes Additional information was not submitted INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURE AND TRADE POLICY USA Internat■l Yes List of services and projects - the organization produces various information sources in the form of newsletters, studies bulletins/conferences on the Internet focusing on agriculture and trade issues including intellectual property and biodiversity, agricultural news on the regulatory environment (both US and international), monitoring relevant trade events and organic agricultural production methods. INSTITUTE FOR BIODYNAMIC SHELTER USA Local No Brochure -- on the Institute■s services which aim to design dwellings that are in harmony with their environment. The overall design concept emphasizes energy efficiency (using mostly solar energy), use of local resources and materials, and putting recycling and reuse principles in practical use. INSTITUTE FOR PLANETARY SYNTHESIS Switzerland Internat■l Yes Input on activities - these are related to changing consumption patterns through education and raising public awareness. IPS has been collecting and disseminating information on this general topic. The input makes several recommendations including: there is need to build trust to reduce barriers to change, the CSD should collect and disseminate information on alternative lifestyles that are effective as solutions to economic, social and political problems; and that the CSD should establish a UN Expert Group to advise governments and institutions on these topics. INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Australia National Yes Transportation and Greenhouse - this is a comparative study on the impact of various fuel sources used in transportation in cities in the US, Australia, Canada, Europe and Asia. The study finds that the cities with highest provision for public transportation and the lowest provision for the automobile have the lowest greenhouse gas levels. A conclusion is that transportation policies are less related to wealth but more to the infrastructure and land use priorities set at the community/local level, hence indicating an important potential for local authorities to change the transportation patterns. Sustainable Cities: concepts, indicators and plans - this article concludes that the sustainability agenda requires new approaches that will need to be worked out mostly by communities and through community good sense. INSTITUTE FOR TRANSPORTATION AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY USA Internat■l Yes Additional information was not submitted INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION ON WATER QUALITY France Local/ national Yes Additional information was not submitted INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR COASTAL AND OCEAN POLICY STUDIES Malta- HQ Internat■l Yes Report on Oceans and Seas - the report contains the following: Report on Cooperation with UNEP/MAP in the framework of Barcelona Convention and the Mediterranean Action Plan Phase II; Declaration on the Sustainable Development of the Mediterranean (Adopted at the International Workshop on Regional Seas, April 1995); and, Report to the North Meeting of the contracting parties to the Barcelona Convention Project Proposal on Interdisciplinary Cooperation for Regional Ocean Management. Activities of ICCOPS include workshops, research and information dissemination to encourage greater collaboration between the scientific community and the decision makers in sustainable development of the Mediterranean. ICCOPS has also initiated the Ocean 21 project which involves university students and young researchers and aims to increase information sharing and exchange among them. The Ocean 21 experience has so far been positive. ICCOPS proposes further collaboration and information sharing between its member networks and the various international organizations such as UN agencies whose work relate to ocean/sea management. INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE CITIES Canada Internat■l No Project profiles on ICSC projects in Katowice (Poland), Quidgdao (China), Changzhou (China) and Phuket (Thailand). The ICSC focuses on promoting sustainable development through demonstration projects. Each project has a technical focus based on the concerned city■s needs and priorities. For example, in Quingdao, the project focus was on managing waste, while the Changzhou project worked on introducing sustainable housing design. INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE France -HQ Internat■l No Report on sustainable development activities -- includes activities of the organization in two main areas: environmental management and cost- effective environmental policy partnership. Under environmental management, ICC reports that its Business Charter for Sustainable Development continues to gain support from business and industry around the world. The Charter currently has over 2100 company and business association supporters. Efforts to operationalize the Charter■s principles have led to an Environmental Management Systems Training Resource Kit developed jointly by ICC, UNEP and the International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC). Under partnership, ICC reports on its work related to environmental labeling, climate change, hazardous waste, biodiversity, prior informed consent, economics of environment and sustainable forest management. In all these areas ICC is working closely with the various Convention Secretariats as well as other relevant bodies. For example, the organization is acting as an umbrella group to draw industry responses to the proposed Industry Consultative Mechanism that is being discussed under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The ICC has been actively involved in the CSD and was one of the Planning Group members that organized the Day of the Workplace for CSD96. INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF FREE TRADE UNIONS Belgium -HQ Internat■l Yes Reports from the ICFTU Working Group on Occupational Health, Safety and the Environment - this group met in October 1995 to review ICFTU■s activities related to standards; eco-auditing campaign; the Day of the Workplace preparations for CSD96; harmonization of chemical classification; implementation of the environmental action programme in Central and Eastern Europe; women in health, safety and the environment; and on information and communication. From the Ashes: A Toy Factory Fire in Thailand - this is an expose of workplace accidents through a toy factory case. Report of the Second ICFTU World Conference on Trade Union Education (1994)■the package includes a set of education materials prepared in connection with various conferences and meetings including the Cairo 1994 and Copenhagen 1995. 1995 Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Unions Rights ICFTU has been active in the CSD process and was a member of the Planning Group that organized the Day of the Workplace for CSD96. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE ALLIANCE Switzerland- HQ Internat■l No Report of the ICA Centennial Congress (Manchester 1995) Report on Oceans - includes information on two seminars ICA has organized on sustainable fishing. The ICA Fisheries Committee is currently discussing a Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing with FAO. The report also includes ICA■s activities under poverty (the positive role of cooperatives in creating employment, protecting consumer interests, and relevant infrastructure issues), consumption patterns promoting, investing in and developing environmentally friendly products), and education (information dissemination through member organizations in 90 countries). ICA has developed and adopted the Cooperative Agenda 21 at its !995 Congress meeting and is currently in the process of implementing this programme through its member cooperatives and other grassroots partners. INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES Canada- HQ Internat■l No Initiatives -- ICLEI■s regular newsletter. Bulletins on Local Agenda 21 initiatives from San Francisco (CA) and Jacksonville (FL), United States. Publications from ICLEI■s affiliates/members Biennial Report of ICLEI■s activities Copies of bulletins prepared as a contribution to the Habitat II process. ICLEI has launched the Local Agenda 21 programme at UNCED and has been regularly mobilizing, coordinating, documenting and monitoring its implementation. Among other activities in 1995, ICLEI has launched Cities for Climate Protection campaign in Asia, devised a new five-year strategy to promote global sustainable development through local action, and organized numerous workshops and other meetings. One of these meetings, In Japan, brought together, for the first time, 14 municipalities involved in the Model Communities Programme, with support from the Government of Japan. Another meeting, Mediterranean Cities Call for Action, brought together 100 cities from the region in Italy. In addition to such international and regional events, ICLEI has also been active in mobilizing national seminars on Local Agenda 21. One such event took place in Germany and involved representatives from 35 German cities. ICLEI feels that its on-going work has helped to inspire hundreds of communities and municipal leaders to take local responsibility for the global environment, but that there is need to do more. In this context, ICLEI■s current strategic plan focuses on, among other things, measurable targets, use of sophisticated economic instruments, and strategic partnerships with the private sector. ICLEI is actively involved in Habitat II and has been active in the CSD process throughout the Commission■s work. This organization was the main partner in organizing the Day of Local Authorities for CSD95. A partnership between ICLEI and the CSD Secretariat is underway for a global survey of Local Agenda 21 initiatives to produce inputs to Habitat II and the 1997 review of Agenda 21 by a special session of the UN General Assembly. INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC UNIONS (ICSU) France-HQ Internat■l Yes Report on activities relevant to Agenda 21 - activities include partnerships with the UN system; Forum on Earth System Research; Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries; working groups on population, energy, Capacity building in science and Water research; International Geosphere-Biosphere programme; START network for information exchange and analysis; World Climate research programme, among other projects INTERNATIONAL NETWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES Germany- HQ Internat■l No Briefings on recent initiatives - INEM has launched the Business and Environment Twinning Initiative at the Third Ministerial Conference on Environment for Europe (October 1995, Sofia, Bulgaria). This initiative aims to link associations or companies of the Central and Eastern European region with those in other regions of the world to mobilize sharing of experiences and transfer of know-how. A first step in this direction involves a twinning arrangement between two INEM affiliates: the Swedish Association of Environmental Managers and the Latvia Pollution Prevention Center. A twinning data-base managed by INEM will facilitate further twinning arrangements which are open to all interested parties. INEM is active in numerous international fora, including the European Union, the OECD, AND UNIDO. INEM has been an active in the CSD process and was a member of the Planning Group that organized the Day of the Workplace for CSD96. INTERNATIONAL OCEAN INSTITUTE Malta Internat■l Yes Report on activities - includes information on activities related to decision making, role as an NGO, transfer of technology, capacity building and to oceans and seas. Activities concentrate on training programmes, research, conference organization, and advisory services. The report identifies lessons learned and makes a number of recommendations as follows: (i) International NGOs need to act through local institutions and in cooperation with regional systems in a decentralized manner, (ii) high quality and replicable training courses have a multiplier effect, (iii) demand for training programmes increase with increasing sensitization of decision-makers, (iv) coordination between national governmental agencies, NGOs and regional institutions is poor and need further networking, (v) NGOs working as part of an official delegation can have a significant impact on the outcome, (vi) training in project formulation is helpful for raising project funding, (vii) networks of local, national, regional and international institutions help link local initiatives with global needs and requirements, and (viii) NGOs need assistance to extend their outreach, INTERNATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION ASSOCIATION Netherlands Internat■l Yes Additional information was not submitted INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR MANGROVE ECOSYSTEMS Japan- HQ Internat■l Yes Pamphlet on the organization -- activities include, among other things, production and dissemination of information materials on mangrove forests; and training courses in mangrove ecosystem research and management for local people as well as for NGOs and government bodies. INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT WORKERS FEDERATION UK- HQ Internat■l Yes Report on transport and the environment - the report focuses on transport related aspects of Agenda 21 chapters on Oceans and on Atmosphere, and points out that both sea and land transport policies will directly affect transport workers who need to play a vital role in the related decision making and implementation actions. The Federation runs regular campaigns to increase awareness of sustainable development issues among transport workers. Several technical recommendations are made regarding internationalization of transport costs, better coordination of management of transport issues which are inter-disciplinary by nature, and governmental support for pilot/experimental efforts in this area. The report also requests the CSD to invite IMO to urgently address such issues as formulating measure that eliminate financial gains from non-compliance with internationally agreed standards on oceans and seas. With regards to the fisheries issues (under Oceans chapter), the report raises concerns regarding lack of transparency and participation of fishermen and their trade unions in relevant decision making processes. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ASSOCIATIONS UK- HQ Internat■l No Ethical Aspects of Law of the Atmosphere - this paper was submitted to the CSD by decision of the participating member associations of IUPPEPA at its 10th World Clean Air Congress (Finland 1995). The paper proposes, among other things, that a ■World authority■ (new or an existing body strengthened for this function) should establish maximum use of nitrogen containing fertilizers as well as similar measures on permissible emissions of methane. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF FORESTRY RESEARCH Austria Internat■l Yes Additional information was not submitted LINGKOD TAO- KALISTAN Philippines National Yes Booklet titled Towards Sustainable Development List of activities related to Agenda 21 (includes information dissemination to raise awareness on changing consumption patterns, organizing seminars and other meetings on marine resource management for local communities, part of ELCI Ecovolunteer program, participate in the PCSD consultations) LOCAL GOVERNMENT MANAGEMENT BOARD UK National Yes Report of the Local Agenda 21 Survey 1994-1995 - this survey covered local authorities in the UK. Some survey results include high commitment of UK local authorities to Local Agenda 21 process (71%); obstacles to getting involved in Local Agenda 21 projects is lack of enthusiasm and support, finance, and information; some have adopted pubic consultation procedures (27%); developed their own sustainable development indicators (29%)l used indicators developed by other organizations (45%); undertook an internal environmental audit (49%). Guidebooks/pamphlets - including those on Women and Sustainable Development, Community participation in LA21, North/South linking for sustainable development, Greening the local economy, Nature conservation and Local Agenda 21, Sustainable Management of Solid Wastes, Educating for a sustainable Local Authority, Green Purchasing, Planning Transport and Sustainability. Step by Step guide for LA21 - a guide prepared for use of local authorities Report on the LA21 Sustainability Indicators Project - this project aims to provide models and guidance to Local Authorities that wish to develop local sustainable development indicators. LONDON ENVIRONMENT CENTRE UK Internat■l Yes Brochures MAURITIUS COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE Mauritius National Yes Additional information was not submitted METRO MANILA COUNCIL OF WOMEN BALIKATAN MOVEMENT INC Philippines National Yes Note on activities - focus of activities is on local recycling and reuse that creates local jobs and involve local people in the process. MOVEMENT DEMOGRAPHIE-ECOLOGIE Belgium National Yes Article on Population and Consumption Copy of statement made to UNCED NEW ECONOMICS FOUNDATION UK National Yes Accounting for Change: Indicators for Sustainable Development -- this publication is a result of the NEF■s efforts on developing indicators for sustainable development. The report provides an overview on the need to develop a set of indicators that can respond to the sustainable development challenge, as well as examples from efforts of communities in this area. The report also proposes a practical agenda to move the on-going work further. The initial essential steps include regular national sustainability reporting from all countries, expanded local sustainability reporting to increase learning from local experiences, corporate sustainability reporting beyond voluntary initiatives in this area, and public programme reporting. Other actions that are recommended include bridging technical professionalism and participative competence; tracking international footprints, exploring southern perspectives building on sustainable business and building on local successful practices. The NEF has been active in the CSD process, particularly with regards to developing indicators. NEF has provided advice to youth groups involved in the 1996 Youth Inter-sessional on their Indicators for Youth kit. The report of the Youth Inter-sessional including the results of testing of the Indicators for Youth kit by young people will be presented to CSD96. NEWCASTLE, CITY OF Australia Local No Newcastle Environmental Management Plan -- this is the City of Newcastle■s Local Agenda 21 plan. It includes assessments of the state of air quality, energy use, waste management, biological diversity, land management and management of hazardous material in the city and outlines future strategies and time-tables for each topic. This plan was a result of broad-based participation involving municipal authorities, as well as local universities, environmental NGOs, utilities and other industries, and community groups. The City of Newcastle is currently in the five year implementation phase and will release annual status reports on progress. NORWEGIAN FORUM FOR ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT Norway National Yes Study on Sustainable Production and Consumption -- This study promotes the view that -equity within the available environmental space has to be accepted by everyone as the central principle for effecting and maintaining sustainability■. The report reviews the related roles of citizens, households, and governments. A set of specific action points are also included. Social Summit Seen from the South -- collection of articles written by NGO representatives from developing countries on topics related to the Copenhagen Social Summit process including human centered employment and military dimensions of debt. ORGANIZATION FOR INDUSTRIAL SPIRITUAL AND CULTURAL ADVANCEMENT (OISCA) Japan- HQ Internat■l Yes Planting Seeds for Earth Ethics -- report containing examples of OISCA International activities around the world. OISCA provides training services for trainees from 29 countries; and, technical assistance in agriculture, fishery, and forestry through volunteer experts. The organization coordinates its activities through its affiliates and offices in 25 countries. ORISSA STATE VOLUNTEERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS ASSOCIATION India Provinc■l Yes Report on activities - efforts focus on combating poverty, population, atmosphere, oceans, technology transfer, capacity building and information for decision making. The organization runs income generating programmes through training/production centers for women and young people, rural entrepreneurship training for rural and indigenous youth, produces documentaries on conservation of local eco- systems, demonstrates local technologies, and training grassroots NGOs for more effectiveness. Many activities are carried out in partnership with International organizations, national governmental institutions, and private sector parties, including the World Bank, various Departments of the Government of India, and the Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India. The organization has developed the independent Environmental Information Network (ENVINET) which disseminates information to researchers, policy makers, development agencies and NGOs. OSVCWA recommends that the CSD supports need-based, relevant and successful local and national activities. PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT New Zealand National No Input on Cross-sectoral issues -- this input focuses on all cross-sectoral issues in Agenda 21. The main argument made is that Agenda 21 over- stresses economic growth as the answer to sustainable development. In the view of the Institute, unrestrained market solutions will lead to further inequity which is the fundamental cause of unsustainable development. What is needed is a global resource manager that puts a premium on equity and long-term sustainable use of resources. PIRM recommends that (i) the CSD to recognize over-reliance on trade liberalization and economic growth will not meet sustainable development objectives, and (ii) the CSD should convene an international NGO-based Task Force mandated to explore alternative proposals on how to achieve sustainable human development. PEOPLE■S FORUM 2001 Japan National No Input on activities and views - this input contains sections on atmosphere and changing consumption patterns, primarily in the context of the policies of the Government of Japan. The report is critical of national energy policy including the existing energy taxes (that the current tax system increases fossil fuel consumption), and lack of sufficient focus on national education and public awareness. Under changing consumption patterns, PF2001 welcomes the Japanese Government■s effort to put this issue on the policy agenda. A number of citizens■ activities sponsored or supported by the PF2001 network are listed including partnership seminars organized in cooperation with the Japanese Environment Agency. PEOPLE AGAINST THE RIVER CROSSING UK Local Yes Report on the PARC campaign which focuses on local transportation policies and their effect on local ecology including forests. The inputs is a case-study of local issues, public-private dynamics, community involvement and education. PERM DEPARTMENT FOR SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL UNION Russia Local/ national Yes Report on local atmospheric pollution project - this project involves a survey of local citizens, pollution and carcinogen levels, health conditions. A preliminary computerized system is developed to analyze data. Further work is impeded by financial constraints. Report on the effect of a local electricity plant on community health -- study that focuses on the effect of switch from natural gas to oil by the local plant. PHILIPPINE RURAL RECONSTRUCTION MOVEMENT Philippines National Yes The Way to Power: Development in the Hands of People - booklet on civil society, state and markets in their relation to community participation in development decision making. Report on activities related to policy advocacy and building communities-- activities mainly focus on drawing upon existing community based organizations and indigenous social formations to improve on and link with national and global processes. Rebuilding communities is presented as a way to enable sustainable livelihoods PLAN INTERNATIONAL UK- HQ International Yes Additional information was not submitted PLATFORM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Netherlands National Yes Reports on climate and oceans ■ these summarize public debates in the Netherlands, on climate and oceans. The climate change discussion shows that there is skepticism on whether the international community is able to move closer to sustainable energy production methods. The CSD is seen as a useful forum to start discussions or processes that could lead to more tangible international agreement on such ideas as raising funds to support sustainable energy production/use through taxes on air tickets. The focus of the oceans discussion was on fisheries, fish stocks, and coastal management. The inputs calls on the CSD to avoid oceans-related decisions or proposals that are unenforceable. PROVINCE OF WEST FLANDERS Belgium Pronvic■l Yes Additional information was not submitted PROVTIST UNIVERSAL USA Internat■l Yes Additional information was not submitted PUBLIC SERVICES INTERNATIONAL France- HQ Internat■l Yes Report (published in 1994) covering such issues as climate change, energy, transportation, land degradation, water, waste, consumption and north-south issues. Content is based on a process that started with a 1990 conference on public sector unions and the environment. Q2000 Sweden National No q2000 was one of the partners of the Youth Inter-sessional project. In the YI process, q2000 led the organization of the two-day Youth Workshop, 16-17 April 1996. The workshop aimed to assist youth to become effective participants in the CSD process. Results from the workshop, such as youth position papers on a number of Agenda 21 topics selected by youth, are available to CSD96 and will be part of the presentations at the Youth Panel on 1 May 1996.. RADEV Ethiopia National Yes Additional information was not submitted RESCUE MISSION FOUNDATION UK -HQ Internat■l Yes Sustainable Development Indicators for Youth Kit -- this Kit was produced by Rescue Mission as part of the Youth Inter-sessional project. The Kit uses the list of indicators that was discussed by CSD95 to present it in accessible language and format for use by young people in their sustainable development monitoring efforts. The Kit has been distributed to over 300 youth organizations around the world and used as a basis evaluation tool at regional meetings of youth held in Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America. Results from these meetings are available to CSD96 by way of the Youth Panel as well as the exhibition on Youth and Agenda 21. The efforts in this area were the first testing of the indicators for sustainable development by a major group sector. Rescue Mission has also taken the primary responsibility in designing the Youth and Agenda 21 exhibition prepared for CSD96. This organizations is planning to engage in further activities, pending availability of funding, to prepare inputs from young people for the 1997 review of Agenda 21 by a special session of the General Assembly. Rescue Mission has been an active partner in the CSD process starting with the production of a children■s version of Agenda 21 shortly after UNCED and continued with the organization of a small Youth Round- table event for CSD94. This organization was one of the major group partners in the design, organization, coordination and execution of the Youth Inter-sessional project taken on for CSD96. The results from the above activities are available to CSD96 and will be part of the presentations at the Youth Panel on 1 May 1996. ROTARY INTERNATIONAL USA -HQ Internat■l Yes Preserve Planet Earth Handbook -- provides project models, ideas and information on how sustainable development promotes ecology. A feedback mechanism is also included; a short survey requests Rotarians to provide information on their local sustainable development projects. This Project aims to: (I) help local communities maximize their resources to reduce dependence on outside funding, (ii) enable local communities to manage sustainable development rather than depend on long-term external support, (iii) integrate skills and information in support of human development throughout the community, and (iv) strengthen community institutions for long-term sustainable development. Going Green: A guide to becoming an environmentally friendly business without going broke -- designed to provide ideas for things businesses can do within their day to day functions. The guide includes information on how ■going green■ could be good for businesses, provides to-do lists, and includes contact information for businesses that want to take a step towards a more sustainable development based management in their operations. The guide also provides a number of case-studies from the Seattle (US) region. RYAN FOUNDATION India Local/ National Yes Paper on water management and the role of multilateral institutions -- views on how funding from multilateral institutions is being wasted for studies rather than spent on activities that have a tangible and positive impact on the water problems of the region. A critique of national water policies Survival by Sea Water -- Information promoting sea water desalinization as a way to deal with global water problems. The Ryan Foundation conducts various local projects on issues ranging from income generation to rural environmentally sound technologies and promoting indigenous knowledge. Extensive information collection, dissemination, research and publications are also a part of the activities. The organization also disseminates publications from other sources at cost to local communities for awareness raising and building local capacity. SAJJU INSTITUTE AND RESEARCH FOUNDATION Nigeria Local/ national Yes Brochure on activities Report on Girl Child Development Project -- research project conducted in 14 Local Government Areas in India focusing on the girl child■s access to education, health care, and welfare. The survey found that most local communities place little premium on the girl child■s education or preparation for adult life, girl children themselves have low interest in competing with the boys. Results were submitted to local officials who provided their support to improve education of the girl children. Report on Rain Water Harvesting and Saw dust Ovens Project - this project uses local resources and proven traditional technologies. The project has shown that technology transfer is not only an international issue but a local one, and that traditional technologies are not necessarily inferior but require increasing awareness of communities about their availability and advantages. Report on Education and Public Awareness - focuses on SIRF■s campaign through Nigeria Voice of Children project. The main focus is educating and involving young people to better prepare them to be responsible adults. Report on Poverty Alleviation Programme - the project provides loans to local women and small businesses, such as manufacturers and vendors. Project has shown that the poor are appreciative of an opportunity that help improve their welfare, they are prompt in their payments of the loan and are therefore better financial risks than are usually assumed to be. SIRF input also makes a number of recommendations including: convening of a new UN Conference to highlight the condition of the girl child; support for NGO projects focusing on the girl children; grants/support to distribute the saw dust ovens in Africa; call for the CSD to recognize the use of rain water harvesting technologies in the Africa region; and the CSD to express support for local education campaigns. SAVE EARTH NIGERIA Nigeria National Yes Additional information was not submitted SCOPE (SOCIETY FOR CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT) Pakistan National Yes Report on combating desertification through participation -- contains a summary of local activities related to mining, dam construction, capacity building for participation, water management, and community organization to prevent water logging. The organization uses an approach that combines activism at the local/national level with that at the international level. SCOPE is a member of RIOD established in 1995 and has projects that focus on studies as well as field level implementation. SCOTTISH ACADEMIC NETWORK ON GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE UK Provinc■l Yes Additional information was not submitted SCOTTISH ENVIRONMENTAL FORUM UK Local No Review of Progress in Combating Atmospheric Pollution in Scotland -- this input was prepared through consultation with local authorities, businesses, the academia and community organizations. It is a case study of progress in achieving the national targets related to climate change and transboundary pollution in the context of Scotland. Among other findings, the report asserts that some of the national targets were achieved ■accidentally■ (due to a national industrial stagnation) and questions whether the existing targets could have been set more ambitiously. Recommendations include calls for phasing out nuclear energy production (to ensure safety); more vigorous policy to encourage renewable energy sources; greater community participation in local decision making; changes in transport policy (such as reductions in road building, greater spending for public transport), sulfur emission reduction targets; increasing air pollution monitoring capacity; and greater local authority powers to act on local air quality issues. SINDH RURAL WOMEN■S UPLIFT GROUP Pakistan Provinc■l Yes Report on Sustainable methods to raising fruit crops - the organization has been running a farm since 1965 raising fruit crops using sustainable methods including composting of farm yard waste, micro-nutrients rather than synthetic fertilizers and modified irrigation systems based on indigenous practices that date to four thousand years ago. Efforts emphasize employment of women in agriculture. SOCIEDAD PACHAMAMA Peru National Yes Additional information was not submitted SOLAR COOKERS INTERNATIONAL USA Internat■l Yes Solar Cooker Review (newsletter) Case study on dissemination of solar cooking in areas of acute fuel shortages SOUTH PACIFIC COMMISSION New Caledonia Internat■l Yes Annual Report of 1994 describing activities on community development, training programmes, information and networking services (Sustainable Development Network in collaboration with UNDP). SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND SELF HELP INFORMATION CENTER (SASH) Cameroon National No Description of activities -- SASH is an affiliate of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) and coordinates the parent organization■s activities in Western and Central Africa. SASH promotes environmentally sound farming practices through self-help projects that improve the welfare of local communities while protecting the local environment. Activities focus on education, training, technical assistance and networking. SASH efforts have helped establish community centres, create community forests and raise local capacity to engage in self-help initiatives. Obstacles that SASH identifies include: insufficient support staff, lack of office equipment, lack of international funding partners, lack of training opportunities for staff; and lack of adequate incentives for women and other groups to get involved in self- help programmes. SWISS PRIORITY PROGRAMME ENVIRONMENT Switzerland Local/ national Yes Abstracts of projects and publications (focusing on environmental awareness and activities, environmental economics, environmental technologies, biodiversity among other topics) Newsletters Description of the action plan for the Priority Programmne 96-99 TVE UK National Yes Report on activities - TVE provides support for film-makers in the South including a data-base of film makers and technicians in the developing world, and indigenous talent and skills, and outreach to audiences with less access to environment/development information and programming. It also produces health and environment information packs for NGOs and schools in developing countries. TVE initiated a half-hour television programme on Agenda 21 which is distributed through the Worldwide Television News. THIRD WORLD NETWORK Malaysia-HQ Internat■l No Information on activities at the second meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The materials described TWN■s lobbying efforts on biosafety including promotion of a Biosafety Protocol, and community rights in the context of access to genetic resources. An independent report on Biosafety was among the materials TWN distributed at the COP II for Biodiversity. UKRAINIAN SOCIETY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Ukraine National Yes Additional information was not submitted UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF USA USA National No UNA-USA initiated a series of round-tables during the 94-95 cycle each of which focus on a specific major group. During 95-96 the series focused on farmers and on local authorities. These meetings bring together representatives from the major group under focus, as well as from the US government and UN agencies. Each meeting produces a set of lessons. For example, the meeting on Farmers found that farmers are disconnected from the international process and few have the necessary resources or skills to build such linkages on their own. Although some network NGOs are providing useful services these are too fragile at present. Recommendations include: (I) broadening participation (particularly direct involvement of farmers and their organizations in international processes), (ii) strengthening the existing links between sustainable agriculture proponents in the US (farmers organizations, NGOs, academia and others) and the UN through capacity building and training efforts, and (iii) expanding resources including that from foundations, large NGOs and government grant sources. UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT -UK (UNED-UK) UK National Yes Report on Strengthening the role of the education community in support of sustainable development. This inputs focuses on the Education 21 initiative which involves a number of targets such as including representatives from the education community in the national sustainable development coordination mechanism by the end of 1996, and establishing national Education 21 working group groups by 1998. Three Years Since Rio Summit-- a review of the post-UNCED years. UNED-UK has been organizing multi-stakeholder round-tables on sectoral and cross-sectoral issues on the CSD■s agenda since 1994. These round-tables have helped UK based major groups to link their local activities and concerns with the national and international Agenda 21 follow up efforts. This organization has also led the preparation of an NGO Forum on Finance during the Ad Hoc Inter-sessional working group meeting on Finance and Consumption patterns (4-8 March 1996). WESTERN MONTANA MYCOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION USA Local Yes Brochure on Mushroom Culture in Riparian Areas Report on the Alternative (Sustainable) Resource Development project in Russia Brief on other activities related to Agenda 21 (trade, decision making, transfer of technology, education). The efforts of this organization emphasize long-term sustainable production, self-sufficiency for communities, developing domestic markets for locally produced goods, and linkages with local communities, scientists and business people. WOMEN■S ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION USA -HQ Internat'l Yes Recommendations to the CSD on the role of women, including a call for CSD to urge governments to initiate policies and programs that support women in their multiple roles as natural resource managers, workers, consumers and family caretakers. A first concrete step to enable full participation of women in sustainable development would be greater representation of women in delegations to the CSD Other inputs included a Report on monitoring the ICPD- A Year after Cairo and Excerpts from the Beijing Platform of Action. WORLD BUSINESS COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Switzerland- HQ Internat'l No Draft paper on Phase I of the Sustainable Production and Consumption programme -- work in this area aims to move the debate from one that focuses on barriers to one that sees sustainable production and consumption as an opportunity for commercial enterprises. Eco- efficiency is presented as the overarching strategy with sustainable production and consumption as the goal. Phase II of the programme will showcase contributions of the business community to sustainable consumption and production. Phase III will produce recommendations on the issue. The Council has organized several meetings on sustainable development during the 1995-1996 cycle. It has also been involved in the preparations of the Day of the Workplace, organized for CSD96. WORLD ENERGY COUNCIL UK -HQ Internat■l Yes Energy for our Common World- what will the future ask of us? -- booklet containing the conclusions and recommendations of the 16th WEC Congress held in Tokyo, in 1995. The conclusions identify a number of sustainable development challenges that are ahead, including the urgent need to assure access to energy for rural and urban populations in low- income countries; the need for economic development to provide for the needs of a rapidly growing world population. The recommendations include phasing out energy subsidies, enabling a full-cost pricing of energy, increasing public awareness of energy issues and dilemmas, mobilizing local financing and initiating institutional change, greater cooperation among countries on energy policy and planning, and accelerating the development of alternative energy technologies and sources. WORLD SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ASSOCIATION USA- HQ Internat■l No WSAA■s current focus is on the Global Assembly on Food Security, to take place in November 1996. The meeting is convened by FAO. This Summit is expected to formulate a Plan of Action on Universal Food Security. Preparations involve events organized by farmers associations, food security advocacy groups, fisher-folk, and organizations working on rural development among other actors. WORLD WILDLIFE FUND- CANADA Canada national (affiliate of Int■l NGO) No Report on Marine Pollution -- the report reviews the existing regional protocols on protection of the marine environment and the lessons learned from their to-date implementation. The Paris Convention for the Protection of the North East Atlantic is reviewed as a case-study. Recommendations include calls for the CSD to (I) assess current regulations related to discharges from offshore installations with a view to establish a global framework to regulate them, (ii) to promote regional actions in this area, and (iii) to promote relevant national actions especially in locations outside of an existing regional agreement. Report on Oceans and All Kind of Seas -- this report focuses on marine protected areas (MPAs) as a critical component of effective marine biodiversity conservation strategy. A number of MPA initiatives are highlighted including those involving the Philippines, the European Community and the Baltic Sea countries. Among the lessons, WWF- Canada forwards the need to establish such programmes systematically rather than ad hoc. Recommendations include calls for the CSD to (I) endorse principles and guidelines for MPAs, (ii) identify and establish a mechanism to evaluate potential MPA sites, and (iii) review actions taken on MPAs by the Second COP of Biodiversity Convention. YUVA India Local Yes Additional information was not submitted ZERO Zimbabwe National/ Regional Yes Additional information was not submitted Annex II Major Groups inputs grouped by geographical location. Organization located in Number of Organizations a Developing Country Brazil 1 Cameroon 1 Costa Rica 2 Ethiopia 1 Ghana 1 India 5 Israel 1* Jordan 1 Kenya 1 Malaysia 1* Malta 2* Mauritius 2 Mexico 1 New Caledonia 1 Nigeria 2 Pakistan 2 Peru 1 Philippines 3 Senegal 1 Taiwan 1 Thailand 1* Zaire 1 Zimbabwe 2 Total 35 an Economy in Transition Russia 1 Ukraine 1 Total 2 a Developed Country Australia 3 Austria 2 Belgium 3* Canada 3* France 6*** Germany 3* Japan 4** Netherlands 4* New Zealand 1 Norway 1 Switzerland 5*** UK 14***** USA 14*** Total 63 * Indicates the number of organizations that have their headquarters in this location Annex III Summaries of responses to the National Information Guidelines for 1996 Question 2a -- are major groups represented in the national sustainable development mechanisms? Countries Reported in 1996 Reported in 1995 Columbia yes Ecuador yes Finland yes France yes Germany Yes Iceland Yes yes Japan yes Malaysia yes Namibia yes Netherlands Yes Norway yes Peru Yes Philippines yes Sweden Yes Uganda Yes United Kingdom yes United States yes Total for developing countries 7 Total for developed countries 10 Question 2b -- do major groups participate in (i) national and local environmental impact assessment projects; (ii) the design of national sustainable development projects/policies, (iii) the implementation of national sustainable development projects? Country (i) (ii) (iii) National Local Germany Yes Yes occasionally yes Iceland Yes Yes yes occasionally Netherlands yes yes occasionally occasionally Peru occasionally occasionally occasionally occasionally Sweden yes yes yes yes Turkey yes yes no no Uganda occasionally occasionally yes yes United Kingdom yes yes yes yes Ukraine yes occasionally yes occasionally Question 2c -- were major groups included in the national delegation to CSD in the past; are there plans to include major groups in the national delegation to CSD96, CSD97 or other relevant meetings? Country CSD93, 94 or 95 CSD96 or CSD97 Other Meetings Germany yes not decided -- Iceland No No No Netherlands yes yes Habitat II Peru no -- One NGO was in delegation to Biodiversity COPII (covered the cost itself). There is political will to include major groups in delegation to GA-97 depending on funds. Sweden yes yes GA-97, Habitat II Turkey yes (in 95) yes Uganda no may be, if funds are secured -- United Kingdom yes yes considered on an ad hoc basis Ukraine no no (GA-97 stands for the General Assembly Special Session to review Agenda 21 in 1997) Question 2e -- has the government received special assistance from international or bilateral donors to support the ro le of major groups? Country Donor Germany not applicable Iceland not applicable Netherlands not applicable Peru No Sweden not applicable Turkey No Uganda UNIFEM --for African Women Act on Agenda 21 programme. United Kingdom not applicable Ukraine No Question 2f -- does the government collaborate with international NGOs or other major groups? Country Initiatives and partners involved Germany yes (examples) Iceland indirectly Netherlands yes (examples) Peru no (obstacle) Sweden yes (examples) Turkey -- Uganda yes United Kingdom yes Ukraine yes (examples) Question 2g -- does the government have bilateral or multilateral initiatives of in this area? Country Initiatives or collaboration Germany yes (examples) Iceland -- Netherlands yes (examples) Peru yes (examples) Sweden yes (examples) Turkey -- Uganda -- United Kingdom yes Ukraine -- Question 2h -- has the government developed or used new/innovative methods in this area? Country METHOD Germany support for local agenda 21 initiatives Iceland Sectoral Working Groups that involve major groups Netherlands Bilateral sustainable development treaties that involve major groups in their implementation (examples) Peru None (obstacle) Sweden broad-based consultation with major groups Turkey --- Uganda Decentralization of environment/natural resource management efforts that placed local authorities at the forefront United Kingdom programmes that encourage collaboration of business and industry (Waste Minimization Clubs among firms, Environment Technology Best Practice Programme), young people (Eco-schools project of the Going for Green programme) Ukraine -- Question 2I -- how does the government rate the contribution of local, national, regional and international major groups? Country Local MGs National MGs Regional MGs International MGs Germany 5 5 5 5 Iceland 4 4 4 4 Netherlands 4 5 3 4 Peru 3 3 3 3 Sweden 5 5 3 4 Turkey - - - - Uganda 5 5 4 4 United Kingdom 5 5 5 5 Ukraine 3 4 1 2 (Numbers are assigned only for readability. 5= essential, 4= constructive and helpful, 3= quite helpful, 2= not very useful, and 1= has not participated. MG is for ■major groups■) Question 2j --suggestions on how major group contributions can be enhanced/strengthened Country Suggestion Germany application of the co-operation principle which aims for optimum level of participation by social groups in the formulation and implementation of environmental goals and measures. Iceland -- Netherlands Involving major groups in preparatory meetings .... governmental instructions and include them in the national delegation to the CSD Peru Timely and accessible information; simplifying and centralizing environmental efforts Sweden Transparency and open decision making process; financial support; including major groups in the national delegation to CSD Turkey -- Uganda MGs should recognize the need for decentralization at the level of implementation. United Kingdom Support for local government initiatives such as Local Agenda 21 programmes. Encouragement of business to use environmental management principles Ukraine --
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Date last posted: 3 December 1999 10:27:35